WorldWideScience
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Boilers. Comparison of the main available techniques for boilers to comply with new regulations; Les chaudieres, comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main techniques, presently available, that can lead to a consequent decrease in pollutant emissions, are presented pointing out their advantages and drawbacks: sulfur oxide emissions can be lowered by fuel processing and fume desulfurization (through desulfurizer in situ injection or a downstream treatment for solid and liquid fuels); NOx emissions are decreased through fume recycling, low-NOx burners, air staging (OFA), combustion chamber over-dimensioning, combustion air temperature reduction, re-burning (IFR), injection of de-nitrifying agents (at high temperature without catalysts, at low temperature with catalysts). Associations of these techniques are also discussed. Ash processing is studied for coal and fuel oil, depending on the NOx and SOx previously selected cleansing techniques

Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

1997-12-31

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ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Places disponibles*/Places available **  

CERN Multimedia

* Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) Plannification de projet avec MS-Project/Project Scheduling with MS-Project : 2 sessions : 23.10 & 4.11.03 and 18 &25.11.03 (2 jours/2 days - langue à définir/language to be defined) AutoCAD 2002 ? Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11...

2003-01-01

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Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l’enseignement de la thermodynamique technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [Français] Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé DiagSim capable d’estimer les propriétés d’un corps pur et de tracer n’importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés. [English] The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This technology tool is particularly useful when teaching engineering students the basic concepts of technical thermodynamics.

Jean-Noël Jaubert

2005-01-01

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Técnicas disponibles de monitorización hemodinámica: Ventajas y limitaciones / Techniques available for hemodynamic monitoring: Advantages and limitations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El catéter de la arteria pulmonar (CAP) ha constituido una herramienta fundamental para la monitorización hemodinámica en las unidades de cuidados intensivos durante los últimos 40 años. Durante este período de tiempo ha sido ampliamente usado en pacientes críticos para el diagnóstico y como guía de [...] l tratamiento, ayudando a los clínicos a entender la fisiopatología de muchos procesos hemodinámicos. Sin embargo, en los últimos años la utilidad del CAP ha sido sometida a un intenso debate. Paralelamente, los avances tecnológicos han permitido el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas, menos invasivas, para la monitorización cardiovascular. Esta puesta al día pretende dar a los clínicos una visión de los parámetros hemodinámicos que aportan los distintos métodos disponibles, considerando que es fundamental comprender tanto su potencial utilidad clínica como sus limitaciones para un uso eficaz de la información que proporcionan. Abstract in english The pulmonary artery catheter has been a key tool for monitoring hemodynamic status in the intensive care unit for nearly 40 years. During this period of time, it has been the hemodynamic monitoring technique most commonly used for the diagnosis of many clinical situations, allowing clinicians to un [...] derstand the underlying cardiovascular physiopathology, and helping to guide treatment interventions. However, in recent years, the usefulness of pulmonary artery catheterization has been questioned. Technological advances have introduced new and less invasive hemodynamic monitoring techniques. This review provides a systematic update on the hemodynamic variables offered by cardiac output monitoring devices, taking into consideration their clinical usefulness and their inherent limitations, with a view to using the supplied information in an efficient way.

M.L., Mateu Campos; A., Ferrándiz Sellés; G., Gruartmoner de Vera; J., Mesquida Febrer; C., Sabatier Cloarec; Y., Poveda Hernández; X., García Nogales.

2012-09-01

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Heating plants. Comparison between the main available techniques that allow heating plants to respect the new regulations; Les chaudieres. Comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives an overview of the main methods available today to improve the thermal and environmental performances of heating plants and burners and points out the technical and economical advantages and drawbacks of these methods. The methods are described according to the type of pollutant: SO{sub x} (fuel treatment, smokes desulfurization, in-situ desulfurizers injection, lime treatment of solid and liquid fuels), NO{sub x} (smokes recycling, low-NO{sub x} burners, air staging, over-dimensioning of combustion chambers, reduction of combustion air temperature, re-burning, denitrifier injection, combination of several methods), dusts (filters and cyclones). (J.S.)

Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

1997-12-31

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Correlación y concordancia de tres técnicas de cuantificación de carga viral del VIH disponibles en Colombia / Correlation and concordance of three HIV viral load techniques available in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. La cuantificación del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) es una herramienta útil para el manejo de los pacientes infectados. Diferentes técnicas se encuentran disponibles en Colombia para ese propósito. Objetivo. Comparar los resultados de carga viral obtenidos mediante el uso de [...] tres técnicas de cuantificación del VIH disponibles en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Muestras seleccionadas por conveniencia y provenientes de diferentes áreas del país se sometieron a cuantificación del VIH por tres métodos: Versant bDNA 3.0 ® (Bayer), LCx HIV ® (Abbott) y Amplicor Monitor HIV v1.5 ® (Roche). Todas las muestras se procesaron en el Centro de Análisis Molecular en Bogotá, Colombia. Los resultados obtenidos con las tres técnicas fueron comparados entre sí mediante regresión lineal. Adicionalmente se determinó la concordancia entre las técnicas calculando el kappa no ponderado, la frecuencia de discordancia según puntos de corte clínicamente relevantes y la frecuencia de diferencias superiores a 0,5 logaritmos. Resultados. La correlación entre técnicas fue altamente significativa, con un R2 superior a 0,97. La concordancia también fue sustancial, con kappas no ponderados superiores a 0,7. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de discordancias para puntos de corte clínicamente relevantes y de diferencias superiores a 0,5 logaritmos fueron considerables (8,8% a 15,6% y 19,6% a 36,3%, respectivamente). Conclusión. Las tres técnicas para cuantificación de carga viral son adecuadas y muestran un alto nivel de correlación y concordancia. Sin embargo, la variabilidad observada hace necesario comparar la lectura de una técnica con otra lectura realizada por la misma técnica cuando se incorporen dichos resultados en la toma de decisiones clínicas Abstract in english Introduction. Human Immunodeficiency Virus quantitation is a helpful indicator for the management of infected patients. Different technologies are available in Colombia for this purpose. Objective. To compare the performance of three available technologies for Human Immunodeficiency Virus quantitati [...] on in Colombia. Methods. Samples from different areas of the Country were selected by convenience and underwent Human Immunodeficiency Virus quantitation using three methods: Versant bDNA 3.0 ® (Bayer), LCx HIV ® (Abbott) and Amplicor Monitor v1.5 ® (Roche). All samples were processed at the Centro de Análisis Molecular in Bogotá, Colombia. Results obtained with the three techniques were compared using linear regression. Additionally, the concordance between techniques was assessed calculating the unweighted kappa, the frequency of discordance according to cut-off points of clinical importance, and the frequency of differences exceeding 0.5 logs. Results. The correlation between techniques was highly significant, with an R2 higher than 0.97. The concordance was substantial, with unweighted kappas above 0.7. Nevertheless, the frequency of discordance for cut-off points of clinical importance and the frequency of differences exceeding 0.5 logs were considerable (8.8%-15.6% and 19.6%-36.3% respectively). Conclusion. The three technologies for quantitation of viral load are adequate with high levels of correlation and concordance. However, because of the observed variability we recommend comparing a reading from one technique with another reading from the same technique when incorporating the results into clinical decision making.

Patricia, Olaya; Carlos A, DíazGranados.

2006-06-01

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A Study on the Suitable Techniques for Improving the Flow Properties of the Egyptian Waxy Crude Oils Étude des techniques permettant d'améliorer l'écoulement des pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper, three different techniques were used for improving the flow properties of three Egyptian waxy crude oils (M-96, GPY-3 and Khalda. These techniques are : dilution, heating and chemical treatment. The improvement efficiency for each technique was investigated by measuring the rheological properties and the pour point as well. Also, the effect of each improvement technique on the power requirement was studied through calculation of the reduction in the pipeline pressure loss. The studied techniques have shown promising results in improving the flow properties of the tested crudes. However, the most suitable technique for a specific crude should be decided in the light of the technical features studied in the present paper in addition to an economical study which should be performed on each case individually. Cet article rend compte des essais effectués pour améliorer les caractéristiques d'écoulement de trois pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique (M-96, GPY-3 et Khalda. Trois techniques différentes ont été mises en oeuvre : dilution, chauffage et traitement chimique. L'efficacité de chacune de ces techniques a été évaluée par la mesure des propriétés rhéologiques et du point d'écoulement. De plus, on a étudié l'effet de ces diverses techniques sur les besoins énergétiques en calculant la réduction de la perte de charge en pipeline. Les techniques envisagées ont apporté des résultats prometteurs quant à l'amélioration des caractéristiques d'écoulement des bruts étudiés. Toutefois, pour choisir la technique la plus appropriée à un pétrole brut spécifique, il faudrait combiner les données techniques apportées par cet article avec une étude d'ordre économique effectuée pour chaque cas individuel.

El-Eman N.

2006-11-01

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Places disponibles/Places available  

CERN Document Server

Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Off...

2004-01-01

9

Places disponibles*/Places available **  

CERN Multimedia

Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : WorldFIP 2003 pour utilisateurs : 11 - 14.2.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 & 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 25.2.03 (1/2 journée) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.2.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 11 & 12.3.03 / 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 Ces cours seront donnés en français ou anglais en fonction des demandes / These courses will be given in French o...

2003-01-01

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Coste salarial y renta disponible del trabajador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se expone la relación entre el coste laboral y la renta disponible del trabajador, así como el análisis de las consecuencias sobre el salario derivadas de la cotización a la Seguridad Social. The relationship between labour costs and disposable income of the workers is exposed as well as the analysis of the impact on wages resulting from contributions to Social Security.

Antonio Pérez Carrasco

2009-04-01

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EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende mostrar el grado de convergencia semántica entre el léxico disponible del español y del catalán de Valencia en los estudiantes de segundo de bachillerato. La compatibilidad global interlingüística de los hablantes de ambas comunidades lingüísticas en los diecisiete campos semánticos mostrará un alto nivel de coincidencia en las dos lenguas en contacto. Esto se debe a que el léxico usado en situaciones comunicativas concretas es similar en las diferentes lenguas de cultura.The present research pretends to show the degree of semantic merging between the available lexis of Spanish and Catalan from Valencia in 2nd year baccalaureate students. The global inter-linguistic compatibility for speakers of both linguistic communities in the seventeen semantic groups studied will show the high level of coincidence in both languages in contact. This is due to the fact that the lexis used in specifi c communicative situations is similar in both.

M.ª Begoña Gómez Devís

2010-10-01

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Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente. El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8, sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar.Objective. To describe smoking cessation therapies available in Mexico. Material and Methods. Literature review of meta-analysis, controlled clinical trials, and behavioral therapy studies. Results. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions showed a good chance of success on average, expressed as the ratio of the active drug vs. placebo cessation therapy outcomes (ratios of 39, 78, 79, 117, and 119%, for nicotine chewing gum, bupropion, nicotine patch, inhaler, and nicotine nasal spray, respectively. Behavioral therapy showed satisfactory results, (OR= 3.8 however, more research is needed to establish its effectiveness. Conclusions. Emphasis is made on the need to combine behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy, to increase the likelihood of successful smoking cessation.

Raúl H Sansores

2002-01-01

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Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochran [...] e Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente). El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8), sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar. Abstract in english Objective. To describe smoking cessation therapies available in Mexico. Material and Methods. Literature review of meta-analysis, controlled clinical trials, and behavioral therapy studies. Results. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions showed a good chance of success on average, expressed [...] as the ratio of the active drug vs. placebo cessation therapy outcomes (ratios of 39, 78, 79, 117, and 119%, for nicotine chewing gum, bupropion, nicotine patch, inhaler, and nicotine nasal spray, respectively). Behavioral therapy showed satisfactory results, (OR= 3.8) however, more research is needed to establish its effectiveness. Conclusions. Emphasis is made on the need to combine behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy, to increase the likelihood of successful smoking cessation.

Raúl H, Sansores; Alejandra, Ramírez-Venegas; Marlene, Espinosa-Martínez; Ricardo A, Sandoval.

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Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochran [...] e Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente). El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8), sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar. Abstract in english Objective. To describe smoking cessation therapies available in Mexico. Material and Methods. Literature review of meta-analysis, controlled clinical trials, and behavioral therapy studies. Results. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions showed a good chance of success on average, expressed [...] as the ratio of the active drug vs. placebo cessation therapy outcomes (ratios of 39, 78, 79, 117, and 119%, for nicotine chewing gum, bupropion, nicotine patch, inhaler, and nicotine nasal spray, respectively). Behavioral therapy showed satisfactory results, (OR= 3.8) however, more research is needed to establish its effectiveness. Conclusions. Emphasis is made on the need to combine behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy, to increase the likelihood of successful smoking cessation.

Raúl H, Sansores; Alejandra, Ramírez-Venegas; Marlene, Espinosa-Martínez; Ricardo A, Sandoval.

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Etude et validation de boucles d'asservissement permettant le contrôle avancé des procédés en microélectronique : Application à l'étape d'isolation par tranchées peu profondes en technologie CMOS.  

OpenAIRE

Ces travaux de cette thèse s'inscrivent dans la thématique du développement de techniques de contrôle avancé des procédés dans l'industrie de la microélectronique. Leur but est la mise en place de boucles d'asservissement permettant d'ajuster les paramètres d'un procédé de fabrication en temps réel. Ces techniques ont été appliquées sur le bloc isolation des circuits de la technologie CMOS. L'utilisation de tranchées d'isolation peu profondes est la solution pour les technolog...

Belharet, Djaffar

2009-01-01

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Les interventions infirmières de type éducationnel permettant d'améliorer l'observance médicamenteuse des adultes souffrant de diabète de type 2: une revue de littérature étoffée  

OpenAIRE

De plus en plus de personnes à travers le monde sont touchées par le diabète de type 2, maladie chronique entraînant de graves complications. Les médicaments permettent de maintenir un bon contrôle glycémique réduisant le risque de complications. Cependant, les taux d’observance sont relativement bas, ce qui constitue un défi majeur de santé publique (Sauvanet, 2005).

Defferrard, Vanessa; Lo?tscher, Ruth

2013-01-01

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Recursos disponibles para la protección de mujeres migrantes en tránsito por Tamaulipas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La labor del gobierno mexicano en materia de política migratoria es una estrategia para administrar el flujo de migrantes en tránsito rumbo a Estados Unidos, no para salvaguardar su integridad y derechos, menos aún está diseñada para proteger a las mujeres. En esa medida, el interés de este artículo es hacer evidentes los escasos recursos de protección disponibles para migrantes y la ausencia de perspectiva de género en los recursos de apoyo para mujeres en tránsito por México. A través de entrevistas a autoridades y organismos sociales en la frontera de Tamaulipas y con base en el enfoque del modelo ecológico, se evaluaron los recursos de la política pública mexicana como elementos amortiguadores para los migrantes, frente a riesgos y elementos de vulnerabilidad de la mujer en tránsito.

Roc\\u00EDo C\\u00C1RDENAS-RODR\\u00CDGUEZ

2014-01-01

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Correlacion entre metodos de analisis de Zn disponible en cuatro ordenes de suelos de Costa Rica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizo una comparación entre métodos analisis del Zn disponible en 4 ordenes de sue- Analytilos de Costa Rica (Ultisoles, Vertisoles, Andisoles Inceptisoles, 25 de c/u, utilizando las siguientes soluciones extractoras: Olsen Modificado, Meh- lich 3, Morgan Modificado, DTPA y HC1. Las cantidades de Zn extrafdas dependieron de la natu- raleza qufmica de la solucion extractora. El HCl presento los contenidos mas altos de Zn en los chasuelos, excepto en Vertisoles. Las soluciones que hicontienen el agente quelante EDTA (Olsen Modi- ficado y Mehlich`3, extrajeron niveles interme- Modidios de Zn, en tanto que los metodos que contie- Den el quelato DTPA (Morgan Modificado y DT - PA, obtuvieron los valores mas bajos. Las corre- laciones de Zn extrafble entre los 5 metodos fue- signifirOD significativas en la mayona de los casos, tanto nivel de orden de suelos como en el conjunto de indivilos 100 suelos analizados. Los coeficientes de co- rrelacion mas altos, se presentaron entre Mehlich Morgan Modificado y DTPA. Las correlaciones Modifueron consistentes en los 4 ordenes, 10 que indica que estas soluciones poseen un amplio margen de adaptacion a diferentes tipos de suelo, siendo una caractenstica ventajosa para la selección de un metodo de analisis. El Olsen Modificado fue mas slighteficiente para la extraccion de Zn en suelos de pH ligeramente acido 0 neutro (Vertisoles e Inceptiso- les, que en suelos acidos (Ultisoles y Andisoles. EI HCI extrajo cantidades muy aItas de Zn que Moraparentementestan relacionadas con formas no disponibles para lag plantas. Se concluye que lag soluciones Mehlich 3, Morgan Modificado y DT - PA son semejantes en la forma de extraer Zn dispo- Dible, y podrian seT una altemativa para sustituir el metoda tradicional de Olsen Modificado utilizado en Costa Rica. Sin embargo,la eficiencia de ellas no puede seT establecida sino a traves de log estudios de correlacion contra rendimiento en invernadero y campo.

Eloy Molina

2001-01-01

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Contenido en micronutrientes disponibles para las plantas de los suelos agrícolas de las medianías del municipio de Ycod  

OpenAIRE

Teniendo en cuanta la variedad de cultivos que configuran la agricultura canaria, en este estudio se hace mayor hincapié en la viña o vid por ser una de las familias vegetales que más se está cosechando en nuestros tiempos y, dentro de todos los elementos condicionantes que en variadas circunstancias determinan su producción, hemos centrado nuestra tarea en el análisis de la concentración de micronutrientes disponibles para las plantas en los suelos agrícolas de las medianías del mun...

Ferna?ndez Falco?n, Marino; Ferna?ndez Falco?n, Teresa

1999-01-01

20

Determinantes de salud y políticas públicas: identificación de indicadores de problemas de salud y factores asociados, basada en datos disponibles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La planeación en salud requiere de información, que está disponible, pero que no siempre se utiliza. Aunque los sistemas de información en salud aparecieron hace más de tres décadas, las decisiones del sector se dirigen al manejo de enfermedad y no a modificar los factores que la genera. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la utilidad de datos disponibles en los diferentes sectores, para identificar grupos de población con características similares, asociadas con problemas de salud e identificar marcadores sencillos que orienten la toma de decisiones para solucionarlos. Métodos: Estudio ecológico. Se identificaron, recolectaron y procesaron datos de instituciones públicas y privadas y de estudios recientes. La asociación y correlación entre las diferentes variables permitió identificar aquellas con capacidad para discriminar grupos de población con problemas similares. Resultados: El estrato de vivienda mostró asociación significante con la mayoría de variables y se utilizó para dividir los barrios de la ciudad en cuatro conglomerados. Los barrios pertenecientes a estratos más bajos mostraron deficiencias en vivienda y educación, mayor proporción de población menor de 18 años, promedio de edad de muerte menor, menor estatura y mayor mortalidad perinatal y por accidentes y violencia. En los barrios de nivel medio y alto, se encontraron mejores condiciones de vivienda y tumores y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles como las principales causas de muerte. La conexión a servicios públicos fue similar en los hogares de todos los estratos, excepto el teléfono. El promedio ponderado por estrato y por barrio explica más de 80% de la varianza para la mayoría de las variables analizadas. Se propone que este indicador, disponible en forma permanente, se emplee como instrumento para planes locales de desarrollo, con validaciones periódicas a fin de evaluar su capacidad en el tiempo.

Elsa Patricia Muñoz

2007-09-01

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LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning  

OpenAIRE

El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: • Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educac...

Patricia Germany G; Ninette Cartes E

2000-01-01

22

Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se realizó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red.The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Google, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

Elizabeth Ramos Sánchez

2004-04-01

23

Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se real [...] izó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red. Abstract in english The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Googl [...] e, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

Elizabeth, Ramos Sánchez.

2004-04-01

24

Generadores de radiofrecuencia disponibles en el mercado español RF generators available in the spanish market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En España se ha producido un incremento en la realización de Técnicas de Radiofrecuencia (RF, como muestra la reciente encuesta publicada en la Revista Española del Dolor. Desde el Grupo de Interés de la Sociedad Española hemos querido difundir la RF mediante la realización de cursos. Una pregunta repetida en los cursos era ¿Qué "aparatos de RF" existen? En el presente artículo no hemos querido valorar cuáles eran mejores o peores, sino describir sus características técnicas más relevantes. Objetivos: analizar los diferentes generadores de ondas de radiofrecuencia presentes en el mercado español.There has been an important increase in radiofrequency procedures in Spain during the past five years. The Spanish Society RF Interest Group has always wanted to spread the use of RF techniques among pain practitioners. In this paper we analyze the different RF generators available in the spanish market, with their most relevant technical features.

J. de Andrés

2012-06-01

25

Generadores de radiofrecuencia disponibles en el mercado español / RF generators available in the spanish market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En España se ha producido un incremento en la realización de Técnicas de Radiofrecuencia (RF), como muestra la reciente encuesta publicada en la Revista Española del Dolor. Desde el Grupo de Interés de la Sociedad Española hemos querido difundir la RF mediante la realización de cursos. Una pregunta [...] repetida en los cursos era ¿Qué "aparatos de RF" existen? En el presente artículo no hemos querido valorar cuáles eran mejores o peores, sino describir sus características técnicas más relevantes. Objetivos: analizar los diferentes generadores de ondas de radiofrecuencia presentes en el mercado español. Abstract in english There has been an important increase in radiofrequency procedures in Spain during the past five years. The Spanish Society RF Interest Group has always wanted to spread the use of RF techniques among pain practitioners. In this paper we analyze the different RF generators available in the spanish ma [...] rket, with their most relevant technical features.

J. de, Andrés; G., Roca; A., Perucho; C., Nieto; D., López.

2012-06-01

26

Agua disponible en monocultivo de soja con cultivos de cobertura y barbechos reducidos en la región semiárida y subhúmeda Pampeana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En ambientes subhúmedos y semiáridos el principal factor de pérdida de agua desde la superficie del suelo es la evaporación. Este proceso puede ser reducido utilizando cultivos de cobertura (CC) que al aumentar la transpiración, reasignan el agua potencialmente evaporada al flujo transpiratorio de l [...] as plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la dinámica del agua bajo los sistemas de cultivo (SC) de soja continua con CC y barbechos de duración reducida. Se estudiaron cuatro CC y tres momentos de secado en un Hapludol y en un Haplustol, evaluando la lámina de agua disponible (LAD) durante dos años. Para el Hapludol, en general, la LAD a la siembra de soja fue mayor o igual en los SC con CC que bajo monocultivo de soja. En el Haplustol sólo en el SC con CC centeno secado tardío la LAD fue mayor al sistema de soja continua. Se concluye que la dinámica hídrica bajo monocultivo de soja es afectada por la inclusión de CC, siendo el centeno la especie mejor adaptada a estos ambientes. Abstract in english In subhumid and semiarid environments, the main factor affecting water loss from the soil surface is evaporation. This process can be reduced by using cover crops (CC) that increase transpiration and potentially reallocate evaporated water to plant transpiration. The aim of this work was to study th [...] e water dynamics under cropping systems (SC) with continuous soybean in two soil great groups, four CC and three fallow lengths. We studied four CC and three drying times under two soils, a Haplustol and a Hapludol, evaluating the available water depth (LAD) for two years. For the Hapludol, in general, the LAD at soybean planting rotated with CC was greater than or equal to the SC under continuous soybean. In the Haplustol, the LAD at soybean planting was greater only in the SC with the late-dried CC rye when compared to the continuous soybeans SC. We conclude that the water dynamics under continuous soybean is affected by the inclusion of CC, where rye is the best species adapted to these environments.

Patricia Fabiana, Carfagno; Maximiliano Joaquín, Eiza; Alberto, Quiroga; Francisco, Babinec; Celio, Chagas; Roberto, MIchelena.

2013-07-01

27

Mechatronic Developement of New Products Oriented to the Available Technological Capability Desarrollo mecatrónico de nuevos productos orientado a la capacidad tecnológica disponible  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a technological innovation methodology denominated "Mechatronic development of new products oriented to the available technological capacity". It is shown as a study case of the development of hydromotors with radial pistons.Este trabajo propone una metodología de innovación tecnológica denominada "Desarrollo mecatrónico de nuevos productos orientado a la capacidad tecnológica disponible". Se muestra como caso de estudio el desarrollo de un hidromotor de pistones radiales.

José Arzola Ruiz

2011-10-01

28

Mechatronic Developement of New Products Oriented to the Available Technological Capability Desarrollo mecatrónico de nuevos productos orientado a la capacidad tecnológica disponible  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes a technological innovation methodology denominated "Mechatronic development of new products oriented to the available technological capacity". It is shown as a study case of the development of hydromotors with radial pistons.Este trabajo propone una metodología de innovación tecnológica denominada "Desarrollo mecatrónico de nuevos productos orientado a la capacidad tecnológica disponible". Se muestra como caso de estudio el desarrollo de un hidromotor de pistones ...

José Arzola Ruiz; José Ricardo Díaz Caballero; Genovevo Morejón Vizcaíno

2011-01-01

29

Regional techniques for extreme rainfall and runoff prediction  

OpenAIRE

Ce papier présente une technique régionale pour les précipitations extrêmes et la prévision des écoulements. La méthode utilise cinq abaques où sont associées les caractéristiques des crues et des averses ; ces abaques permettent de déduire la pointe de la crue de projet et son volume, une fois que la période de retour, la durée de l'averse et sa hauteur ont été déterminées. Les problèmes de non linéarité des bassins n'affectent pas la méthode qui se montre précise, rapi...

Mimikou, M. A.; Niadas, I. A.; Hadjissavva, P. S.; Kouvopoulos, Y. S.

1994-01-01

30

Techniques de mesure des caractéristiques radiatives des matériaux opaques  

OpenAIRE

Cet article est consacré à une revue synthétique des méthodes de mesure des propriétés radiatives des matériaux opaques. Après un rappel des différents paramètres radiatifs que l'on peut avoir à connaître et des relations permettant la détermination indirecte de certains d'entre eux, on donne une description critique et comparative de leurs principales techniques d'obtention. La démarche adoptée commence par l'examen des méthodes de mesure du paramètre radiatif le plus fin et...

Demont, Ph; Huetz-aubert, M.; Sacadura, J. F.

1982-01-01

31

Estimación del gasto cardíaco: Utilidad en la práctica clínica. Monitorización disponible invasiva y no invasiva / Estimating cardiac output: Utility in the clinical practice. Available invasive and non-invasive monitoring  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Esta revisión pretende profundizar en el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco, sus variables y sus condicionantes, así como repasar exhaustivamente las diferentes técnicas disponibles para su monitorización y establecer las situaciones en que el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco nos aporta una información [...] fundamental en el manejo del paciente crítico. La técnica de Fick, utilizada en los inicios para calcular el gasto cardíaco de los pacientes, ha sido sustituida hoy en día en la práctica clínica por los métodos de termodilución (transcardíaca o transpulmonar), litiodilución, biorreactancia, la tecnología basada en el efecto Doppler o la ecocardiografía. El análisis de la onda de pulso ha permitido la obtención de una medida continua y mínimamente invasiva del gasto cardíaco. Otros métodos, como la biorrectancia, el Doppler o la ecocardiografía nos permiten, en la actualidad, obtener medidas del gasto cardíaco de forma no invasiva, rápida y fiable. Abstract in english This aim of this review is to provide a detailed review of the physiologic conditions and variables of the cardiac output, as well as review the different techniques available for its measurement. We also want to establish the clinical situations in which the measurement of cardiac output can add va [...] luable information for the management of critically ill patients. The Fick technique, used in the beginning to calculate cardiac output, has been replaced today by thermodilution techniques (transcardiac or transpulmonary), lithium dilution, bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography. Pulse wave analysis allows a continuous minimally invasive cardiac output measurement. Other methods, such bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography currently provide a valid, fast and non-invasive measurement of cardiac output.

X., García; L., Mateu; J., Maynar; J., Mercadal; A., Ochagavía; A., Ferrandiz.

2011-12-01

32

Fósforo, calcio y azufre disponibles de la roca fosfórica acidulada con ácido sulfúrico y tiosulfato de amonio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A produção de milho e sorgo em solos ácidos está limitada por deficiências de N, P, Ca e possivelmente S disponíveis. O uso de rocha fosfórica (RF) acidulada como fonte de P, em solos ácidos e cultivos de ciclo curto, é factível, mas é necessário ensaiar alternativas de acidulação mais econômicas. O [...] tiosulfato de amônia (TSA) como agente acidulador, sozinho ou combinado com ácido sulfúrico (AS) é uma alternativa válida. Para provar a eficiência da RF acidulada se experimentou com solo ácido encalado (SE) e sem encalar (SSE) usando como fertilizantes: RF, RF acidulada com AS (RA), RF acidulada com 70% AS e 30% TSA (R30T), RF acidulada com TSA (R100T), superfosfato triplo (SFT) e 0P. Se aplicou uma dose de 400mg·kg-1 de P ao solo. Se estabeleceram experimentos de incubação em meio ambiente e de invernadouro em SE e SSE. O P liberado por RA e R30T em SSE foi maior que em RF e R100T. Em SE a liberação de P de R30T foi menor que em RA nos primeiros 21 dias, mas logo não houve diferenças significativas. Em invernadouro, com milho, em SSE não houve diferenças em matéria seca (MS) entre SFT, RA e R30T, que foram superiores a RF e R100T. Em SE a produção de MS com R30T não superou àquela com RF e R100T. A absorção de P pelo milho em SSE foi melhor com RA e R30T que com RF e R100T, e em SE foi maior com R30T. Em SE a relação P absorvido / longitude radical foi inversa e em SSE não se encontrou relação. A acidulação parcial de RF substituindo 30% do AS por TSA não muda a eficiência de RF como fonte de P. Abstract in spanish La producción de maíz y sorgo en suelos ácidos esta limitada por deficiencias de N, P, Ca y posiblemente S disponibles. El uso de roca fosfórica (RF) acidulada como fuente de P, en suelos ácidos y cultivos de ciclo corto, es factible, pero es necesario ensayar alternativas de acidulación más económi [...] cas. El tiosulfato de amonio (TSA) como agente acidulador, solo o combinado con ácido sulfúrico (AS) es una alternativa válida. Para probar la eficiencia de la RF acidulada se experimentó con suelo ácido encalado (SE) y sin encalar (SSE) usando como fertilizantes: RF, RF acidulada con AS (RA), RF acidulada con 70% AS y 30% TSA (R30T), RF acidulada con TSA (R100T), superfosfato triple (SFT) y 0P. Se aplicó una dosis de 400mg·kg-1 de P al suelo. Se establecieron experimentos de incubación en medio ambiente y de invernadero en SE y SSE. El P liberado por RA y R30T en SSE fue mayor que en RF y R100T. En SE la liberación de P de R30T fue menor que en RA en los primeros 21 días, pero luego no hubo diferencias significativas. En invernadero, con maíz, en SSE no hubo diferencias en materia seca (MS) entre SFT, RA y R30T, que fueron superiores a RF y R100T. En SE la producción de MS con R30T no superó a aquella con RF y R100T. La absorción de P por el maíz en SSE fue mejor con RA y R30T que con RF y R100T, y en SE fue mayor con R30T. En SE la relación P absorbido / longitud radical fue inversa y en SSE no se encontró relación. La acidulación parcial de RF sustituyendo 30% del AS por TSA no cambia la eficiencia de RF como fuente de P. Abstract in english N, P, Ca and possibly S are critical in maize and sorghum production in acidic soils. The use of phosphate rock (RF) acidulated with sulfuric acid (AS) as source of these elements in short term crops is possible. The use of ammonium thiosulfate (TSA) for RF acidulation combined with sulfuric acid (S [...] A) is feasible. An acidic soil low in P and Ca was used to test the efficiency of RF acidulated with SA and TSA. Field and incubation experiments were conducted on limed (SE) and non-limed soil (SSE). Fertilizer treatments were: RF acidulated with AS (RA), RF acidulated with 70% AS and 30% TSA, (R30T); RF acidulated with TSA (R100T), triple super-phosphate (SP) and 0P. The P dosis applied to the soil was 400mg·kg-1. Released P in SSE with RA and R30T was higher than with RF and R100T, but P released from R30T in

Omaira, Sequera; Ricardo, Ramírez.

2003-10-01

33

Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseignement technique  

CERN Multimedia

Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

2004-01-01

34

Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseigement technique  

CERN Multimedia

Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

2004-01-01

35

Techniques de contrôles non destructifs  

CERN Document Server

La construction du LHC et des expériences nécessite un contrôle permanent de la qualité de la matière première utilisée et des assemblages par soudage, brasage ou collage des divers composants. Pour la vérification des matériaux et des assemblages de fabrication, il est souvent hors de question de recourir à des méthodes qui altéreraient les parties à contrôler. Les techniques de Contrôles Non Destructifs (CND), dont celles les plus employées au CERN font intervenir la transmission d'ondes sonores (contrôle par ultrasons) ou de rayons pénétrants (radiographie X ou gamma), représentent un moyen de détection souvent quantitatif de défauts applicable au contrôle qualité de production. Ces deux techniques complémentaires nous permettent de déceler des discontinuités (dans la matière de base, fissuration ou dédoublement, manque de compacité... ; dans les assemblages, présence d'inclusions, manque de brasure ou de fusion dans les joints soudés, cavités...). Après un bref aperçu de...

Dalin, J M

2004-01-01

36

LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA / Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos ed [...] ucacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: • Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. • Determinar la incidencia del factor tipo de establecimiento educacional en la disponibilidad léxica del inglés como segunda lengua en los alumnos que componen la muestra. Abstract in english The present work is a transectional correlational study among students who learn English as a second language, across the Eight Region at the formal learning schools in Chile. The linguistic level of the available lexicon was explored among samples of students from different secondary schools. The r [...] esearch was planned in terms of general objectives: • Describe the available lexicon produced by students of English as L2 (second language), from different schools. • Know the incidence of the variable type of school in English lexicon availability, produced by students included in the sample.

Patricia, Germany G; Ninette, Cartes E.

37

LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: • Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. • Determinar la incidencia del factor tipo de establecimiento educacional en la disponibilidad léxica del inglés como segunda lengua en los alumnos que componen la muestra.The present work is a transectional correlational study among students who learn English as a second language, across the Eight Region at the formal learning schools in Chile. The linguistic level of the available lexicon was explored among samples of students from different secondary schools. The research was planned in terms of general objectives: • Describe the available lexicon produced by students of English as L2 (second language, from different schools. • Know the incidence of the variable type of school in English lexicon availability, produced by students included in the sample.

Patricia Germany G

2000-01-01

38

Les caricatures franco-britanniques au XIXe siècle à la lumière de leurs techniques de reproduction  

OpenAIRE

La caricature des dirigeants politiques est un objet d'étude privilégié des relations entre les conditions matérielles, sociales et politiques de production des images. Les progrès des techniques de reproduction au cours du XIXe siècle et les transformations politiques et sociales en Angleterre et en France permettent d'expliquer les choix stylistiques des estampes satiriques, qui sont tributaires des conditions matérielles de leur production, mais également de la diffusion des repré...

Schuh, Julien

2012-01-01

39

Variete Technique du Lambeau Sural dans les Brulures Profondes du Pied  

OpenAIRE

Les couvertures des pertes de substance de la jambe, du talon et du pied font souvent appel au lambeau sural, qui reste, de part ses dimensions, une indication limitée. Les Auteurs présentent, à travers deux cas cliniques, une variété technique pour la levée du lambeau sural, permettant d'obtenir des palettes cutanées de grande surface avec une bonne sécurité vasculaire. C'est un lambeau fasciocutané remontant jusqu'à un centimètre du creux poplité et incluant, lors de la levée,...

Ezzoubi, M.; Ettalbi, S.; Elmounjid, S.; Fassi, J.; Benchamckha, F. J.; Sakhi, M.; Boukind, E.

2005-01-01

40

ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temperatura. Al finalizar el estudio, la cantidad de lisina disponible remanente fue de 38,5% (a 25°C; 15,3 % (a 30°C y 14,1% (a 35°C. La cinética de la reacción de deterioro fue de orden uno, dependiente de la temperatura de almacenamiento, según la ecuación de interrelación de Arrhenius, con un valor de energía de activación de 15,17 kcal/mol, por lo que cae dentro del rango de las reacciones de oxidación de lípidos. De acuerdo a las características del producto [contenido de lípidos (17,5%, proteínas (17,3% y una actividad de agua de 0,46], la disminución de lisina pudiera ser explicada por la interacción de productos de oxidación de lípidos con proteínas. Considerando un valor de 0,422g lis/100g producto como punto crítico, se predijo la vida útil del producto a temperaturas diferentes a las evaluadas. Condiciones de almacenamiento por debajo de 30°C, garantizan un mayor período de vida útil: hasta 9 meses a 15°C, 6 meses a 20°C y 3 meses a 28°C, en función del indicador de deterioro evaluado.This study estimated the shelf life of a dietary formula for children with diarrhea, using the decrease of available lysine as an indicator of deterioration. Product samples were packaged in multilaminal pouches (paper-plastic-foil and stored at 25, 30 and 35°C, for two months. The available lysine was measured weekly and the reaction of deterioration kinetics and its relationship with temperature was calculated. At the end of the study, the remainder of available lysine was of 38.5 (at 25°C, 15.3 (at 30°C and 14.1% (at 35°C.The findings of the study indicated a first order reaction kinetics, dependent on the storage temperature based on the Arrhenius approach, with an activation energy of 15.17 kcal/mol, falling within the lipid oxidation range. According to the product characteristics [lipids content (17.5%, protein (17.3% and water activity of 0.46], the decrease of available lysine could be explained by the interaction between lipid oxidation products and proteins. Based on a critical value of 0.422 g lysine/100g product, the product shelf life was predicted at temperatures different from those of experimental conditions. At temperatures below 30°C, the shelf life would be extended up to 9 months at 15°C, 6 months at 20°C and 3 months at 28°C, as a function of the chosen indicator.

Alexia TORRES

2001-08-01

41

ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE / PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 3 [...] 0 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temperatura. Al finalizar el estudio, la cantidad de lisina disponible remanente fue de 38,5% (a 25°C); 15,3 % (a 30°C) y 14,1% (a 35°C). La cinética de la reacción de deterioro fue de orden uno, dependiente de la temperatura de almacenamiento, según la ecuación de interrelación de Arrhenius, con un valor de energía de activación de 15,17 kcal/mol, por lo que cae dentro del rango de las reacciones de oxidación de lípidos. De acuerdo a las características del producto [contenido de lípidos (17,5%), proteínas (17,3%) y una actividad de agua de 0,46], la disminución de lisina pudiera ser explicada por la interacción de productos de oxidación de lípidos con proteínas. Considerando un valor de 0,422g lis/100g producto como punto crítico, se predijo la vida útil del producto a temperaturas diferentes a las evaluadas. Condiciones de almacenamiento por debajo de 30°C, garantizan un mayor período de vida útil: hasta 9 meses a 15°C, 6 meses a 20°C y 3 meses a 28°C, en función del indicador de deterioro evaluado. Abstract in english This study estimated the shelf life of a dietary formula for children with diarrhea, using the decrease of available lysine as an indicator of deterioration. Product samples were packaged in multilaminal pouches (paper-plastic-foil) and stored at 25, 30 and 35°C, for two months. The available lysine [...] was measured weekly and the reaction of deterioration kinetics and its relationship with temperature was calculated. At the end of the study, the remainder of available lysine was of 38.5 (at 25°C), 15.3 (at 30°C) and 14.1% (at 35°C).The findings of the study indicated a first order reaction kinetics, dependent on the storage temperature based on the Arrhenius approach, with an activation energy of 15.17 kcal/mol, falling within the lipid oxidation range. According to the product characteristics [lipids content (17.5%), protein (17.3%) and water activity of 0.46], the decrease of available lysine could be explained by the interaction between lipid oxidation products and proteins. Based on a critical value of 0.422 g lysine/100g product, the product shelf life was predicted at temperatures different from those of experimental conditions. At temperatures below 30°C, the shelf life would be extended up to 9 months at 15°C, 6 months at 20°C and 3 months at 28°C, as a function of the chosen indicator.

Alexia, TORRES; Marisa, GUERRA; Yrelur, ROSQUETE.

2001-08-01

42

Hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad: evidencia disponible diagnóstica y terapéutica / Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the preterm infant: current evidence in diagnosis and treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hemorragia de la matriz germinal y la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica son las complicaciones neuroquirúrgicas más frecuentes en los pacientes recién nacidos pretérmino91. La incidencia de estas complicaciones es muy variable según las series consultadas19,36,47,56,61,71,93, pero su prevalencia está e [...] n cualquier caso en aumento debido tanto a la mayor incidencia de embarazos múltiples y partos prematuros en relación al avance de las nuevas técnicas de fertilización, como a la mayor supervivencia de estos pacientes merced a los recientes avances en los cuidados perinatales85. En este contexto resulta esencial disponer de un conocimiento preciso y concreto de las recomendaciones diagnósticas y terapéuticas en referencia a esta entidad. Sin embargo, la evidencia disponible al respecto es a menudo fragmentada e incompleta. El objetivo de la presente revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de los principales aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad. Para ello se ha solicitado a los miembros del grupo de trabajo de Neurocirugía Pediátrica de la Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía que revisen las cuestiones más relevantes en referencia a esta patología. Esto supone el primer paso para la elaboración de una guía clínica común para el tratamiento de las complicaciones asociadas a la hemorragia intra y periventricular del prematuro. Abstract in english Intraventricular haemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus are the most important neurological complications in preterm infants during the neonatal period91. The prevalence of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage widely varies depending on the population of study19,36,47,56,61,71,93, but [...] it is in any case increasing due both to the higher incidence of multiple and preterm deliveries as well as the longer survival of preterm infants favoured by recent advances in perinatal care85. It is therefore of the utmost convenience to be familiar with the most important clinical evidence regarding this entity. However, the available evidence is often incomplete and piecemeal. The objective of the present review is to summarise the main diagnostic and therapeutic points regarding preterm-related posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. The participants of the working-group in Pediatric Neurosurgery of the Spanish Society of Neurosurgery were asked to write these recommendations down. This hopefully represents the first step towards the definition of a clinical guide in the treatment of complications related to periventricular hemorrhage of the preterm infants.

C., Bravo; P., Cano; R., Conde; M., Gelabert; P., Pulido; B., Ros; P., Miranda.

2011-10-01

43

Recursos disponibles para la protección de mujeres migrantes en tránsito por Tamaulipas / Resources available (few) for the protection of migrant women transit by Tamaulipas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La labor del gobierno mexicano en materia de política migratoria es una estrategia para administrar el flujo de migrantes en tránsito rumbo a Estados Unidos, no para salvaguardar su integridad y derechos, menos aún está diseñada para proteger a las mujeres. En esa medida, el interés de este artículo [...] es hacer evidentes los escasos recursos de protección disponibles para migrantes y la ausencia de perspectiva de género en los recursos de apoyo para mujeres en tránsito por México. A través de entrevistas a autoridades y organismos sociales en la frontera de Tamaulipas y con base en el enfoque del modelo ecológico, se evaluaron los recursos de la política pública mexicana como elementos amortiguadores para los migrantes, frente a riesgos y elementos de vulnerabilidad de la mujer en tránsito. Abstract in english The work of the Mexican government immigration policy is a strategy to manage the flow of migrants in transit heading for the U.S., not to safeguard their integrity and rights, much less is designed to protect women. To that extent, the interest is to make clear the limited resources available for m [...] igrant protection and the absence of a gender perspective in support resources for women in transit through Mexico. Through interviews with authorities and social organizations on the border of Tamaulipas, and based on the ecological model approach, were evaluated the resources of Mexican public policy as damping elements for migrants face risks and vulnerability elements woman in transit.

Rocío, Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Blanca Delia, Vázquez Delgado.

2014-03-01

44

The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information / Situation du commerce international d'organes: un tableau prévisionnel reposant sur l'intégration des données disponibles / Situación del comercio internacional de órganos: panorama provisional basado en la integración de la información disponible  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish El trasplante de órganos es una intervención ampliamente practicada en todo el mundo. La expansión de ese tratamiento ha provocado una grave escasez de órganos y la aparición del fenómeno del comercio de órganos. Muchos pacientes viajan a zonas donde es posible comprar y vender órganos. Aunque el co [...] mercio internacional de órganos se considera una importante cuestión de política sanitaria, sigue habiendo grandes incertidumbres sobre la situación actual de esa práctica, debido a la falta de datos y de iniciativas para sintetizar los datos disponibles. En el presente artículo se ha procurado integrar la información disponible sobre el comercio internacional de órganos en la actualidad para ofrecer un panorama mundial provisional, basado finalmente en una revisión sistemática de 309 noticias aparecidas en los medios de comunicación, artículos de revistas y otros documentos. Se describe el comercio internacional de órganos en relación con sus distintas modalidades, los países que exportan órganos, los países que los importan, y los resultados y consecuencias de esa práctica. Abstract in english Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ tra [...] de is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

Yosuke, Shimazono.

2007-12-01

45

Grado de acidez y potencial erosivo de las bebidas energizantes disponibles en Chile / Acidity and erosive potential of energy drinks available in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde hace una década están disponibles en el mercado nacional, tanto bebidas como otros productos energéticos. Su popularidad ha ido en aumento, sin embargo su consumo no está exento de riesgos. La cafeína es el ingrediente activo principal de estas bebidas y el consumo excesivo puede llegar a caus [...] ar alteraciones en la salud general. Mucha gente las bebe a diario sin estar consciente del daño potencial que puede significar para su salud y sus dientes, especialmente en el caso de niños y adolescentes. En Chile, la acidez de estas bebidas es desconocida. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el pH de las bebidas energéticas presentes en el mercado chileno, estableciendo su potencial erosivo sobre los dientes. Metodología: La muestra quedó formada por 8 diferentes bebidas energéticas disponibles en Chile. El pH fue evaluado con un pHmetro calibrado (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH/Ion 510) a 4°C y 17°C. Los resultados obtenidos fueron registrados y analizados estadísticamente. Resultados: El rango de pH osciló entre 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) y 3.30 (Red Bull). El promedio fue 2.88 a 4°C y 2.89 a 17°C. Conclusiones: Todas las muestras estudiadas tuvieron pH ácido, haciendo de ellas bebidas potencialmente erosivas para los dientes. Los valores de pH fueron menores a 4°C que a 17°C, pero sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0.05). Abstract in english For a decade, energy drinks and other energy products have been available in the national market, and their popularity has increased. The consumption is not risk free, though. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in these drinks and an excessive consumption may be dangerous for general health. Man [...] y people drink them daily without being aware of the potential risk they pose on their health and teeth, especially on children and adolescents. Currently, the acidity of those beverages is unknown in Chile. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pH of energy drinks, and correlate it with their erosive potential on teeth. Methodology: 8 different energy drinks available in Chile constituted the sample. pH was measured with a calibrated digital pHmeter (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH / Ion 510) at 4°C and 17°C. The results obtained were registered and statistically analyzed. Results: pH values ranged from 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) to 3.30 (Red Bull) the mean pH was 2.88 and 2.89, at 4°C and 17°C respectively. Conclusions: All of the beverages showed low pH, which makes them potentially erosive for hard dental tissue. The pH values were lower at 4°C than at 17°C, but without statistical significance (p>0.05).

MC, Fresno; P, Angel; R, Arias; A, Muñoz.

2014-04-01

46

Internet y recursos en línea como alternativas terapéuticas para trastornos de abuso o dependencia a sustancias: una revisión de los recursos disponibles Internet and Online Resources Such as Therapeutic Alternatives for Substance Use Disorders: A Review of Available Resources  

OpenAIRE

Introducción: Las intervenciones en línea constituyen una de las tantas opciones terapéuticas disponibles para pacientes con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias y otras condiciones psiquiátricas. No obstante, su utilidad ha sido ampliamente cuestionada a la luz de falta de rigurosidad. Objetivo: Revisar y discutir la literatura existente acerca de los recursos e intervenciones en línea para trastornos por abuso/dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas. Método: Búsqueda sistemá...

Luis Felipe Orozco Cabal

2010-01-01

47

Une infrastructure d'évaluation pour des techniques de représentation de l'information non-géométrique dans les environnements virtuels 3D  

OpenAIRE

Augmenter un environnement virtuel 3D avec de l'information non-géométrique permet d'améliorer notre compréhension des objets géométriques et des liens existant entre ces objets pour accomplir des tâches qui nécessitent à la fois des informations non-géométriques et une scène 3D. Il existe plusieurs techniques de représentation de l'information non-géométrique dans les environnements virtuels 3D. Notre objectif général est de créer une grille d'évaluation qui permette de co...

Bazargan Harandi, Kaveh; Falquet, Gilles; Metral, Claudine

2009-01-01

48

Télédétection SAR interférométrique de zones urbaines en bande L à partir de l'utilisation des techniques d'analyse spectrale polarimétriques et multi-bases  

OpenAIRE

Dans cette thése, des techniques d'analyse spectrale sont généralisées afin de traiter des données polarimétriques SAR interférométriques multi-bases. Ces algorithmes polarimétriques de traitement multi-capteurs sont décrits d'une manièere mathématique rigoureuse et appliqués aux zones urbaines. Ils permettent d'estimer la hauteur des diffuseurs, le mécanisme de rétrodiffusion et la réflectivité polarimétrique. A partir des observations mono-base POLInSAR, un modèle numéri...

Sauer, Stefan

2008-01-01

49

Investigation d'une cartographie multicritère pour la sélection de techniques de diagnostic et de pronostic dédiée à la maintenance en ligne de véhicules complexes  

OpenAIRE

Conformément aux principes de l'IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management), cet article s'attache à définir et à développer une approche permettant de cartographier des techniques de diagnostic et de pronostic adaptées pour une maintenance en ligne de véhicules complexes. La contribution majeure des travaux de recherche consiste en la définition d'une cartographie innovante et pertinente au travers de critères déterminants et discriminants au delà des classifications conventionnel...

Geanta, Ioana; Iung, Benoi?t; Theilliol, Didier; Schieber, Michel; Fusero, Yann

2013-01-01

50

Influence of available resources on medical practitioners' decision-making process and practice: study of a reference hospital emergency department Influencia de los recursos disponibles en la práctica clínica: estudio en una unidad de urgencias de un hospital de referencia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate variations in the observation period in the emergency department (ED in response to bed availability. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study without a control group was conducted in the ED observation ward over 2 1-month periods. During this time the only variable that changed was the number of beds available, which decreased from 20 (pre-test period to 16 (post-test period. Results: The ED attended 7,725 patients: 3,706 patients in pre-test period, 335 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 1,105.4 minutes per patient, and 4,019 patients in post-test period, 570 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 686.1 minutes per patient (p Objetivo: Evaluar la variación del indicador "periodo de tiempo de observación" dedicado a cada paciente, en respuesta a una reducción del número de camas disponibles. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio «quasiexperimental preprueba postprueba» sin grupo control en una unidad de urgencias durante 2 períodos de un mes. En este tiempo el único cambio fue el número de camas disponibles, que disminuyeron de 20 (período A a 16 (período B. Resultados: El servicio de urgencias atendió a 7.725 pacientes: 3.706 pacientes en el período A, 335 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 1.105,4 minutos por paciente; y 4.019 pacientes en el período B, 570 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 686,1 minutos por paciente (p < 0,001. No hubo variaciones en la mortalidad, readmisiones o quejas. Conclusiones: Una disminución en el número de camas disponibles para observación comporta una reducción en el tiempo de estancia de los pacientes.

Juan Viñas Salas

2007-04-01

51

Un panorama des techniques de suivi visuel temps-réel pour la réalité augmentée  

OpenAIRE

La réalité augmentée désigne les différentes méthodes qui permettent d'incruster de façon réaliste des objets virtuels dans une séquence d'images. Pour assurer cette fusion il convient de pouvoir déterminer la position de la caméra par rapport à l'environnement ce qui revient à aligner un repère lié à la scène avec le repère de la caméra. Cet article se propose de fournir un rapide aperçu des techniques de suivi visuel spatio-temporelle qui sont utilisées pour la réalit?...

Marchand, Eric; Pressigout, Muriel

2009-01-01

52

DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible / DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingres [...] a los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se interpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso) para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes. Abstract in english A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines t [...] he links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak connections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

MAX S, ECHEVERRIA; ROBERTO, VARGAS; PAULA, URZUA; ROBERTO, FERREIRA.

53

DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingresa los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se interpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes.A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines the links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak connections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

MAX S ECHEVERRIA

2008-01-01

54

Meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for mass and routine vaccination with available polysaccharide vaccines / Méningite à méningocoque en Afrique subsaharienne: justification de la vaccination de masse et de la vaccination systématique avec les vaccins polyosidiques disponibles / Meningitis meningocócica en el África subsahariana: justificación de la vacunación masiva y rutinaria con las vacunas de polisacáridos disponibles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish La meningitis endémica y epidémica por meningococos del grupo A sigue siendo una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el África subsahariana, pese a la disponibilidad de la vacuna de polisacáridos de meningococos del grupo A, que es barata y segura y proporciona protección en todos los gru [...] pos de edad cuando se administra de acuerdo con las instrucciones. Incluso con un tratamiento óptimo, la meningitis meningocócica tiene una tasa de letalidad del 10% y produce lesiones del sistema nervioso central en al menos un 15% de los pacientes. En el mejor de los casos, la política de la OMS de contención de las epidemias evita aproximadamente un 50% de los casos e ignora la meningitis endémica, que produce unos 50 000 casos anuales. La recomendación de proceder a la vacunación universal con el polisacárido del meningococo del grupo A dos veces durante la lactancia, seguida de la administración de la vacuna tetravalente a los niños de 2 y 6 años, se fundamenta en la eficacia de los polisacáridos capsulares de los grupos A, C, W135 e Y. Esto permitiría eliminar la enfermedad, tanto epidémica como endémica, y preparar el terreno para el uso de conjugados cuando estén disponibles, y probablemente hubiera evitado la reciente epidemia de meningitis por meningococos de los grupos A y W135 registrada en Burkina Faso. Abstract in english Endemic and epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of the safe and inexpensive group A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which is protective at all ages when administered as directed. Despite opti [...] mal therapy, meningococcal meningitis has a 10% fatality rate and at least 15% central nervous system damage. WHO's policy of epidemic containment prevents, at best, about 50% of cases and ignores endemic meningitis, which is estimated at 50 000 cases per year. The effectiveness of group A, C, W135, and Y capsular polysaccharides is the basis for recommending universal vaccination with group A meningococcal polysaccharide twice in infancy, followed by the four-valent vaccine in children aged two and six years. This could eliminate epidemic and endemic disease, prepare for the use of conjugates when they become available, and probably could have prevented the recent epidemics of groups A and W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso.

John B., Robbins; Rachel, Schneerson; Emil C., Gotschlich; Idris, Mohammed; Abdulsalami, Nasidi; Jean-Philippe, Chippaux; Luis, Bernardino; Moussa A., Maiga.

2003-10-01

55

Manejo de la pancreatitis aguda: guía de práctica clínica basada en la mejor información disponible Management of acute pancreatitis: clinical practice guideline based on the best available evidence  

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Full Text Available El tratamiento de la pancreatitis aguda ha variado en el transcurso de los últimos años. La mayoría de los pacientes que cursan con pancreatitis aguda leve, sobrevive sin mayores complicaciones; por el contrario, aquellos con pancreatitis aguda grave presentan un curso incierto y, con respecto a su morbimortalidad, la infección pancreática es el factor de riesgo más importante. Los avances en el diagnóstico por imágenes y el desarrollo de la radiología intervencionista, han revolucionado el tratamiento quirúrgico.The management of acute pancreatitis has evolved significantly over the last few years. Currently, most patients with acute pancreatitis survive without complications. Severe acute pancreatitis show bizarre evolution and the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality is infection of the pancreatic necrosis. Advances in diagnostic imaging and minimally invasive techniques in surgery and radiology have revolutionized the surgical management of this disease.

Julio Alberto Nieto

2010-06-01

56

Influence of available resources on medical practitioners' decision-making process and practice: study of a reference hospital emergency department / Influencia de los recursos disponibles en la práctica clínica: estudio en una unidad de urgencias de un hospital de referencia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la variación del indicador "periodo de tiempo de observación" dedicado a cada paciente, en respuesta a una reducción del número de camas disponibles. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio «quasiexperimental preprueba postprueba» sin grupo control en una unidad de urgencias durante 2 perío [...] dos de un mes. En este tiempo el único cambio fue el número de camas disponibles, que disminuyeron de 20 (período A) a 16 (período B). Resultados: El servicio de urgencias atendió a 7.725 pacientes: 3.706 pacientes en el período A, 335 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 1.105,4 minutos por paciente; y 4.019 pacientes en el período B, 570 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 686,1 minutos por paciente (p Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate variations in the observation period in the emergency department (ED) in response to bed availability. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study without a control group was conducted in the ED observation ward over 2 1-month periods. During this time the only vari [...] able that changed was the number of beds available, which decreased from 20 (pre-test period) to 16 (post-test period). Results: The ED attended 7,725 patients: 3,706 patients in pre-test period, 335 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 1,105.4 minutes per patient, and 4,019 patients in post-test period, 570 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 686.1 minutes per patient (p

Juan, Viñas Salas; Ramón, Casals Garrigó; Ana M., Jiménez Vilchez; Pere, Godoy.

2007-04-01

57

Influence of available resources on medical practitioners' decision-making process and practice: study of a reference hospital emergency department / Influencia de los recursos disponibles en la práctica clínica: estudio en una unidad de urgencias de un hospital de referencia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la variación del indicador "periodo de tiempo de observación" dedicado a cada paciente, en respuesta a una reducción del número de camas disponibles. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio «quasiexperimental preprueba postprueba» sin grupo control en una unidad de urgencias durante 2 perío [...] dos de un mes. En este tiempo el único cambio fue el número de camas disponibles, que disminuyeron de 20 (período A) a 16 (período B). Resultados: El servicio de urgencias atendió a 7.725 pacientes: 3.706 pacientes en el período A, 335 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 1.105,4 minutos por paciente; y 4.019 pacientes en el período B, 570 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 686,1 minutos por paciente (p Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate variations in the observation period in the emergency department (ED) in response to bed availability. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study without a control group was conducted in the ED observation ward over 2 1-month periods. During this time the only vari [...] able that changed was the number of beds available, which decreased from 20 (pre-test period) to 16 (post-test period). Results: The ED attended 7,725 patients: 3,706 patients in pre-test period, 335 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 1,105.4 minutes per patient, and 4,019 patients in post-test period, 570 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 686.1 minutes per patient (p

Juan, Viñas Salas; Ramón, Casals Garrigó; Ana M., Jiménez Vilchez; Pere, Godoy.

2007-04-01

58

Los principios pedagógicos en cursos de actualización docente disponibles en la web / Pedagogical principles in teacher training courses available on the web  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Una de las necesidades de cualquier docente es mantenerse al día en relación con las técnicas y procedimientos pedagógicos que potencien el desarrollo del aprendizaje en sus alumnos. Para satisfacer esta necesidad, en los últimos años han surgido diversas plataformas educativas que usan las tecnolog [...] ías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) para actualizar docentes en ejercicio a distancia por medio de cursos basados en la web. Sin embargo, estos desarrollos requieren de un estudio detallado de los procedimientos para diseñar e implementar cursos en línea de manera que se produzca una educación de calidad. En este trabajo se presentan los "principios de la buena práctica pedagógica" propuestos por Chickering y Gamson (1987, 1991) para la educación presencial y se analiza su aplicación a los ambientes de aprendizaje a distancia. Además, se presentan y analizan las estrategias instruccionales y los recursos tecnológicos que se pueden usar para desarrollar cursos dictados a distancia, basados en los principios pedagógicos de Chickering y Gamson y dirigidos a docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Los principios utilizados fueron: a) el contacto entre estudiantes y profesores, b) la cooperación entre los estudiantes, c) el aprendizaje activo, d) la retroalimentación a tiempo, e) el uso apropiado del tiempo, f) las altas expectativas del estudiante, y g) el respeto a los estilos de aprendizaje. Se ilustra cada principio con ejemplos de recursos tecnológicos y estrategias instruccionales usados en un curso de postgrado impartido de manera mixta (presencial y a distancia). Abstract in english One of the needs of any teacher is to keep up to date in relation to the pedagogical techniques and procedures that promote the development of learning in the students. To satisfy this need, several educational platforms have emerged in the last years that make use of information and communication t [...] echnologies (ICT) to update in-service teachers through distance education. Yet, these developments require a detailed study of the procedures to design and implement on-line courses so they produce quality education. In this paper, the "principles of good practice", proposed by Chickering and Gamson (1987, 1991) for face to face instruction, are presented and an analysis is made of their application to distance learning environments. Also, instructional strategies and technological resources which can be used to develop distance education courses, using Chickering and Gamson’s pedagogical principles and aimed at foreign language teachers, are presented and analyzed. The principles used were a) the contact between students and teachers, b) the cooperation of students, c) active learning, d) feedback on time, e) the appropriate use of time, f) the high expectations of students, and g) the respect for learning styles. Each of these principles is illustrated with examples of technological resources used in a graduate course taught partly face to face and partly at distance.

Javier, García-Calvo.

2002-01-01

59

Enseignement Technique CERN 2004 - French version only  

CERN Multimedia

Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE Monique Duval tél. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Aimeriez-vous améliorer vos connaissances des applications de Microsoft Office ou d'Outlook ? Un nouveau cours, combinant un cours avec professeur et ...

Monique Duval

2004-01-01

60

Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

2007-07-01

61

Internet y recursos en línea como alternativas terapéuticas para trastornos de abuso o dependencia a sustancias: una revisión de los recursos disponibles / Internet and Online Resources Such as Therapeutic Alternatives for Substance Use Disorders: A Review of Available Resources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las intervenciones en línea constituyen una de las tantas opciones terapéuticas disponibles para pacientes con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias y otras condiciones psiquiátricas. No obstante, su utilidad ha sido ampliamente cuestionada a la luz de falta de rigurosidad. Obj [...] etivo: Revisar y discutir la literatura existente acerca de los recursos e intervenciones en línea para trastornos por abuso/dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas. Método: Búsqueda sistemática de literatura sobre los recursos e intervenciones en línea relacionados con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias. Resultados: Existen numerosos recursos informativos para el público general, pero la calidad de la información disponible no es siempre adecuada. También hay, aunque en menor número, intervenciones y programas de autoayuda en línea, específicamente para tabaquismo y alcoholismo. No obstante, su efectividad no ha sido determinada en estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados, adecuadamente diseñados. Conclusión: Son necesarios estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados que permitan evaluar la efectividad de este tipo de intervenciones. Los resultados iluminarán el desarrollo de estrategias de intervención integrales que usen esta poderosa herramienta de comunicación. Abstract in english Introduction: Online interventions are one of the many treatment options available for patients with substance use disorders and other psychiatric conditions. However, its usefulness has been widely questioned due to a lack of rigorous scientific research. Objective: To review and discuss the litera [...] ture about online resources and interventions for substance use disorders. Methods: Systematic search of literature on online resources and interventions related to substance use disorders. Results: There are many sources of information for the general public, but the quality of information available is not always appropriate. There are, though in smaller numbers, interventions and online self-help programs specifically for smoking and alcoholism. However, their effectiveness has not been determined in properly designed randomized controlled trials. Conclusion: It is necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of online interventions using rigorous randomized controlled trials. The results illuminate the development of comprehensive intervention strategies that may use this powerful communication tool.

Luis Felipe, Orozco Cabal.

2010-02-01

62

EVALUACIÓN ESPACIAL DEL NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE DEL SUELO EN UN CULTIVO DE PAPA cv. SPUNTA EN CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA Spatial evaluation of available soil nitrogen in a potato crop cv. Spunta in Córdoba, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Un análisis espacial del N disponible en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta es necesario a fin de hacer un diagnóstico de la práctica de fertilización localizada y aportar evidencias sobre un potencial problema de riesgo ambiental por lavado de nitratos. Con este propósito se diseñó un esquema de muestreo durante la temporada 2000 que consistió de una grilla rectangular de 3 x 10 estaciones, en dos fechas (21/03 y 14/04 y a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm. El contenido de humedad del suelo en ambas fechas resultó elevado y escasamente variable (CV 52% fue muy superior a la humedad del suelo en ambas fechas. Una comparación localizada del N disponible mostró que en el estrato superficial el contenido de N-NO3- de toda el área fue siempre superior a 7,5 mg kg-1, considerada la disponibilidad mínima para un óptimo crecimiento de los tubérculos. Entre 20 y 40 cm, en cambio, el contenido de N fue menor en ambas fechas, y la cantidad de N en la segunda se presentó por debajo de 7,5 mg kg-1 en 31% del lote. Esta distribución vertical del N-NO3-, con mayor contenido en superficie, no garantiza un consumo uniforme de N entre 0 y 40 cm. Al mismo tiempo, la mayor acumulación de N-NO3- entre 0 y 20 cm demostró que no ocurrió lixiviación en el perfil.A spatial analysis of the available N in a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta is necessary in order to make a diagnosis of the local fertilization practice and to provide evidence on a potential environmental risk problem from nitrate wash. For this purpose a sampling scheme was designed during the 2000 season that consisted of a rectangular grid of 3 x 10 stations. Samples were taken on two dates (21/3 and 14/04 and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm. The soil water content on both dates resulted to be high and hardly variable (coefficient of variation (CV 52% was much higher than the soil water content on both dates. A localized comparison of the available N showed that in the superficial stratum the content of N-NO3- of all the area was always superior to 7.5 mg kg-1, considered the minimal availability for an optimum growth of the tubers. Between 20 and 40 cm, on the other hand, the content of N was smaller on both dates, and the quantity of N of the latter was below 7.5 mg kg-1 in 31% of the area. This vertical distribution of the N-NO3-, with greater content on the surface, does not guarantee a uniform consumption of N between 0 and 40 cm. At the same time, the greater accumulation of N-NO3- between 0 and 20 cm demonstrated that leaching did not occur in the profile.

Antonio de la Casa

2003-07-01

63

Dismantling techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

64

MEDICAMENTOS VITALES NO DISPONIBLES: ANALISIS DE REGLAMENTACIÓN NACIONAL E INTERNACIONAL, PROPUESTA DE ACTUALIZACIÓN DEL LISTADO NACIONAL / VITAL MEDICINES NOT AVAILABLE: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATION ANALYSIS, UPDATE PROPOSAL OF NATIONAL LIST  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realiza una revisión comparativa de las políticas y normas existentes a nivel nacional e internacional en relación con la disponibilidad y acceso a medicamentos huérfanos y/o vitales. Adicionalmente se elabora una propuesta de actualización del listado de medicamentos vitales no disponibles a par [...] tir de la comparación con las listas de medicamentos huérfanos de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la lista de solicitudes de importación realizadas al Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (INVIMA) hasta mayo de 2006, una consulta a prestadores de servicios de salud, aseguradores e importadores y comercializadores de medicamentos vitales, el listado propuesto por la Sala Especializada de Medicamentos de la Comisión Revisora del instituto, así como una revisión de la lista de medicamentos protegidos por el decreto 2085 de 2002 y de las importaciones de medicamentos realizadas por el Ministerio de la Protección Social en el marco de los programas de salud pública. De un total de 107 medicamentos propuestos, 26 coinciden con las listas de medicamentos huérfanos de los países de referencia y 12 se encuentran en condiciones de exclusividad en virtud del Decreto 2085 de 2002. Abstract in english A comparative revision was carried out on the national and international policies and regulations about access of orphan and/or vital drugs. An analysis of: orphan drugs' list from USA, European Union and all applications for importation of not available drugs submitted by the Drug Regulatory Author [...] ity (INVIMA) until 2006; an informal consultation with health care providers, insurance companies and distributors of vital medicines, were included, in order to improve the actual vital drugs list within the frame of public health programs. The analysis included all drugs that have been protected by Decree 2085 from 2002, as well as the imported drugs by the Ministry of Social Welfare under the public health program. 26 of 107 proposed drugs match the lists of orphan drugs from the countries analyzed and 12 are protected with exclusivity by decree 2085 from 2002.

Gloria A, SANDOVAL; Claudia P, VACCA G; Jorge, OLARTE.

2008-01-01

65

Optimization techniques  

CERN Document Server

Optimization Techniques is a unique reference source to a diverse array of methods for achieving optimization, and includes both systems structures and computational methods. The text devotes broad coverage toa unified view of optimal learning, orthogonal transformation techniques, sequential constructive techniques, fast back propagation algorithms, techniques for neural networks with nonstationary or dynamic outputs, applications to constraint satisfaction,optimization issues and techniques for unsupervised learning neural networks, optimum Cerebellar Model of Articulation Controller systems, a new statistical theory of optimum neural learning, and the role of the Radial Basis Function in nonlinear dynamical systems.This volume is useful for practitioners, researchers, and students in industrial, manufacturing, mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering.Key Features* Provides in-depth treatment of theoretical contributions to optimal learning for neural network systems* Offers a comprehensive treatmen...

Leondes, Cornelius T

1998-01-01

66

Informações médicas na internet afetam a relação médico-paciente? / Does the information currently available on the Internet affect the physician-patient relationship? / ¿Las informaciones médicas disponibles en la Internet pueden afectar la relación médico-paciente?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo pretende avaliar o impacto, sobre a relação médico-paciente, das informações disponíveis na internet. Foram aplicados questionários para 221 pacientes e 84 médicos, seguidos de análise descritiva dos dados, bem como incluídos pacientes com fácil acesso à internet e médicos que os atendem [...] . A pesquisa, feita pelo paciente, muitas vezes resultou em pacientes melhor informados. Relevante número de pacientes se sentiu preocupado pela falsa impressão de portar males descritos na internet. Alguns recorreram à automedicação, modificação da prescrição médica ou, mesmo, à troca de profissional. Não é infrequente ocorrer prejuízo ao tratamento e à relação médico-paciente relacionado às informações obtidas e seu entendimento pelo paciente. Conclui-se que ao potencial "iatrogênico" da internet se contrapõe sua capacidade de difundir importantes informações à população. A certificação de sites por entidade reguladora, gerando qualidade de informação e menor "iatrogenia", associada à orientação, poderia ser útil para aperfeiçoar a relação médico-paciente. Abstract in spanish Este artículo pretende evaluar el impacto de la información disponible en la Internet acerca de la relación médico-paciente. Cuestionarios fueron administrados a 221 pacientes y a 84 médicos, seguidos de análisis descriptivo de los datos. Los pacientes con fácil acceso a internet y los médicos que l [...] os atienden fueron incluidos en el estudio. La búsqueda realizada por el paciente, a menudo resultó pacientes mejor informados. Un relevante número de los pacientes se sintió preocupado por la falsa impresión de tener las enfermedades descritas en la Internet. Algunos recurrieron a la automedicación, la modificación de la prescripción médica o aun el cambio de los profesionales. No es infrecuente existir perjuicio al tratamiento y a la relación médico-paciente gracias a la información obtenida por el paciente y su comprensión de ella. A la conclusión se verifica que el potencial "iatrogénico" de la Internet se opone a su capacidad de difundir informaciones importantes a la población. La certificación de sitios web por institución reguladora, proporcionando mejor calidad de la información y reducción de "iatrogenia", asociada a la orientación, podría ser útil para perfeccionar la relación médico-paciente. Abstract in english This article evaluates the impact of information available on the internet over the physician-patient relationship. The questionnaires were applied to 221 patients and 84 physicians followed by a descriptive data analysis. Patients with easy access to the internet and doctors who consult these peopl [...] e were included in the study. The research when done by the patient often resulted in better informed patients. A significant number of patients said they felt worried about having a false impression of having diseases described on the internet. Some have resorted to self-medication, modification of the prescription or even the exchange of the attending professional. Not infrequently there is damage to treatment and doctor-patient relationship due to information obtained by the patient and their understanding of them. At conclusion the "iatrogenic" potential of the internet is opposed to its ability to disseminate important information to the people. Certification of sites by regulatory authorities, improving information quality and reducing "iatrogenic", associated with the guidance of doctors, could be useful to improve the doctor-patient relationship.

Elisa Quaresma, Coelho; Augusto Quaresma, Coelho; José Eduardo Dias, Cardoso.

2013-04-01

67

Miscellaneous Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Nondestructive way of determining the food quality is the need of the hour. Till now major methods such as colour measurements and their modeling; machine vision systems; X-ray, CT and MRI; NIR spectroscopy; electronic nose and tongue; and ultrasonic technology have been discussed in detail. These techniques, in general, are considered to be sophisticated and costly, and therefore probably are not being adopted as fast as it should be. I am however of the reverse opinion. While going through these techniques, it has been seen that majority of quality parameters have been measured and correlated with the signals obtained using different equipment.

Jha, Shyam N.

68

Implementation techniques  

CERN Document Server

This volume covers practical and effective implementation techniques, including recurrent methods, Boltzmann machines, constructive learning with methods for the reduction of complexity in neural network systems, modular systems, associative memory, neural network design based on the concept of the Inductive Logic Unit, and a comprehensive treatment of implementations in the area of data classification. Numerous examples enhance the text. Practitioners, researchers,and students in engineering and computer science will find Implementation Techniques a comprehensive and powerful reference.Key Features* Recurrent methods* Boltzmann machines* Constructive learning with methods for the reduction of complexity in neural network systems* Modular systems* Associative memory* Neural network design based on the concept of the Inductive Logic Unit* Data classification* Integrated neuron model systems that function as programmable rational approximatorsWith numerous examples to enhance the text, practitioners, researcher...

Leondes, Cornelius T

1998-01-01

69

Decontamination techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent decontamination work at the UKAEA's Winfrith site has concentrated on the scientific evaluation and subsequent development of existing physical, chemical and electrochemical processes. Some of the work, such as the decontamination of SGHWR using chemical methods and high pressure water jetting, supports the laboratory's own work programmes. Other techniques such as electrochemical decontamination, vibratory cleaning and wet grit blasting have been developed mainly on behalf of customers in the UK nuclear industry. (author)

70

La valuación de empresas cotizadas en México, mediante la metodología del modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible: Relaciones con la valuación del mercado / Valuation of Companies Quoted in Mexico, by means of the Methodology of the Model of Cash flow Available: Relations with Valuation of the Market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue aplicar el modelo de Flujo de efectivo disponible para determinar el valor de un grupo de empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores para comparar los valores obtenidos con el precio de mercado. La revisión de la literatura del modelo de Flujo de Efect [...] ivo Disponible permitió identificar y describir las principales variables que contiene el mismo, con el fin de proponer una metodología de aplicación a las empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de valores, considerando que sólo se contaba con información pública. Con la metodología propuesta se aplicó el modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible a las empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, con el fin de determinar su valor y tratar de encontrar si existe algún patrón de comportamiento del modelo al valuar a este conjunto de empresas, por un periodo de 10 años de 1991 a 2000. Encontramos que el modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible sigue una tendencia muy similar al precio de mercado, lo cual estaría indicando a este modelo como el más adecuado para valuar a este conjunto de empresas tomando, desde luego, el valor de mercado como patrón de referencia. Abstract in english The objective of this investigation was to apply the model of Cash flow available to determine the value of a group of companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of Values, and of comparing the values obtained with the price of market. The revision of the Literature of the model of Cash flow Avail [...] able allowed to identify and to describe the main variables that he himself contains, with the objetive of proposing a methodology of application to the companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of values, considering that single was counted on public information. With the propose methodology the model of Cash flow Available was applied to the companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of Values, with the purpose of determine their value and of try to find if some pattern of behavior of the model when estimating to this set of companies exists, by a period of 10 years from 1991 to 2000. We found that the model of Cash flow Available follows a very similar tendency at the cost of market, which would be indicating to this model like the most adapted to estimate to this set of companies taking, of course, the value from market like reference pattern.

María Luisa, Saavedra.

2007-12-01

71

Measurement techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discussion will be restricted to measurements of voltage and current. Also, although the measurements themselves should be as quantitative as possible, the discussion is rather nonquantitative. Emphasis is on types of instruments, how they may be used, and the inherent advantages and limitations of a given technique. A great deal of information can be obtained from good, clean voltage and current data. Power and impedance are obviously inherent if the proper time relationships are preserved. Often an associated, difficult-to-determine, physical event can be evaluated from the V-I data, such as a time-varying load characteristic, or the time of light emission, etc. The lack of active high voltage devices, such as 50-kV operational amplifiers, restricts measurement devices to passive elements, primarily R and C. There are a few more exotic techniques that are still passive in nature. There are several well-developed techniques for voltage measurements. These include: spark gaps; electrostatic meters; capacitive dividers; mixed RC dividers; and the electro-optic effect. Current is measured by either direct measurement of charge flow or by measuring the resulting magnetic field.

Willis, W.L.

1980-10-01

72

Presentation Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

73

Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques  

OpenAIRE

L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches ...

Perthuis E.

2006-01-01

74

Terahertz Techniques  

CERN Document Server

Research and development in the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has expanded very rapidly during the past fifteen years due to major advances in sources, detectors and instrumentation. Many scientists and engineers are entering the field and this volume offers a comprehensive and integrated treatment of all aspects of terahertz technology. The three authors, who have been active researchers in this region over a number of years, have designed Terahertz Techniques to be both a general introduction to the subject and a definitive reference resource for all those involved in this exciting research area.

Bründermann, Erik; Kimmitt, Maurice FitzGerald

2012-01-01

75

Astrophysical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: detectors (optical and infrared detection; radio and microwave detection; X-ray and gamma-ray detection; cosmic ray detectors; neutrino detectors; gravitational radiation); imaging (photography; electronic imaging; scanning; interferometry; speckle interferometry; occultations; radar); photometry and photometers; spectroscopy and spectroscopes; other techniques (astrometry; polarimetry; solar studies; magnetometry). Appendices: magnitudes and spectral types of bright stars; north polar sequence; standard stars for the UBV photometric system; standard stars for the uvby photometric system; standard stars for MK spectral types; standard stars for polarimetry; Julian date; catalogues; answers to the exercises. (U.K.)

76

Experimental techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, ? detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

77

WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embedding a hidden stream of bits in a file is called Digital watermarking. The file could be an image, audio, video or text. Nowadays, a digital watermarking has many applications such as broadcast monitoring, owner identification, proof of ownership, transaction tracking, content authentication, copy control, device control and file reconstruction. It is intended to complement cryptographic processes. It is a visible or preferably invisible, identification code that is permanently embedded in the data and remains present within the data after any decryption process. The focus of this paper will detail digital watermarking for multimedia applications and covered by definition of digital watermarking, purpose, techniques and types of watermarking attacks briefly discussed.

Man Kan Dan

2012-06-01

78

Experimental Techniques  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectrometry and many of them home-built: electrostatic ion storage devices, accelerator mass spectrometers (i.e., sector instruments), reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and ion traps. The experimental results presented in this volume were obtained with such instruments. Detection schemes are detailed, both for the identification of neutral products and charged ones. In delayed dissociation experiments, prompt dissociation is a problem as all the fragmentation is then not sampled; an example is photo-induced electron transfer to an ammonium group and subsequent hydrogen loss. A way to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.

Wyer, Jean

2013-01-01

79

Industrial technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

80

Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or enriching it with oxygen. Several examples are given of the influence of these operational parameters on possible fuel savings.

Perthuis E.

2006-11-01

81

Parallel pic plasma simulation through particle decomposition techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are among the major candidates to yield a satisfactory description of the detail of kinetic effects, such as the resonant wave-particle interaction, relevant in determining the transport mechanism in magnetically confined plasmas. A significant improvement of the simulation performance of such codes con be expected from parallelization, e.g., by distributing the particle population among several parallel processors. Parallelization of a hybrid magnetohydrodynamic-gyrokinetic code has been accomplished within the High Performance Fortran (HPF) framework, and tested on the IBM SP2 parallel system, using a `particle decomposition` technique. The adopted technique requires a moderate effort in porting the code in parallel form and results in intrinsic load balancing and modest inter processor communication. The performance tests obtained confirm the hypothesis of high effectiveness of the strategy, if targeted towards moderately parallel architectures. Optimal use of resources is also discussed with reference to a specific physics problem. [Italiano] I codici Particle-in-cell (PIC) sono considerati tra i piu` promettenti candidati per ottenere una descrizione soddisfacente e dettagliata degli effetti cinetici, quali per esempio l`interazione risonante particella-onda, rilevanti nel determinare i meccanismi di trasporto che interessano il confinamento del plasma. Un significativo miglioramento delle prestazioni della simulazione puo` essere ottenuto distribuendo la popolazione di particelle tra diversi processori in parallelo. La parallelizzazione di un codice ibrido MHD-girocinetico e` stata effettuata, in ambiente HPF, utilizzando la tecnica di `decomposizione per particelle`, ed e` stata provata sul sistema parallelo IBM SP2. La tecnica adottata richiede uno sforzo moderato per la trasformazione del codice in versione parallela, permette un intrinseco bilanciamento tra i processori del carico di lavoro e necessita di una modesta comunicazione tra processori. I risultati ottenuti confermano l`ipotesi di alta efficenza di tale strategia, se applicata ad architetture moderatamente parallele. Si discute inoltre l`uso ottimale delle risorse con riferimento ad uno specifico esempio fisico.

Briguglio, S.; Vlad, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Di Martino, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. for Software Tecnology and Parallel Systems]|[Naples, Univ. `Federico II` (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica

1998-02-01

82

KDD Techniques: A survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge discovery in database (KDD emerged as an efficient solution to assist user in extracting information and knowledge from rapidly growing data. KDD is composed of with the development of methods and techniques for converting data to information to knowledge. There are many different approaches that are classified as KDD techniques. Statistical techniques, probabilistic techniques, classification techniques etc. are the different techniques used for KDD. This paper gives the overview of all these techniques.

Raj Kumar

2012-09-01

83

Determination of D-Dimers in condition of emergency: the D-Di Liatest. Threshold value in elimination of pulmonary emboli (PE); Determination en urgence des D-Dimeres: le liatest D-DI. Valeur seuil permettant d`eliminer une embolie pulmonaire (EP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several studies have shown that a low rate of D-Dimers (products of fibrin decay) measured by Elisa technique can eliminate the diagnosis of thrombo-embolic disease. However, the conventional Elisa technique is not adapted to emergency conditions. A new agglutination test of latex microparticles (D-Di Liatest) has been developed by Diagnostica Stago with a sensitivity of 100 ng/ml. Our goal was to determine the threshold of PE exclusion. Ninety six patients suspected of PE were included. The pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy (PPS), as a reference examination the positivity of which has been confirmed by clinical follow-up, has been carried out in association with the determination of plasmatic rates of D-Dimers by the techniques Elisa and Liatest based on different antibodies. A table is given containing the D-Di threshold rates obtained by these techniques. In conclusion, our results showed that the rate of D-Dimers which eliminate a PE is {<=} 500 ng/ml by Elisa and {<=} 400 ng/ml by Liatest with a VPN of 100%. However, the PPS remains necessary in 77% of cases. This work stresses the necessity of clinical validations for the new biological tests

Duet, M. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France); Soria, C. [Service de Hematologie (France); Elkarrat, D. [Service de Urgences (France); Benelhadj, S. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France); Bailliard, O.; Kedra, A.W. [Service de Explorations Founctionnelles, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Drouet, L. [Service de Hematologie (France); Mundler, O. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France)

1997-12-31

84

Formation sécurité : places disponibles dans les sessions de juin  

CERN Document Server

Il reste des places dans les formations sécurité suivantes. Pour les mises à jour et les inscriptions, veuillez vous reportez au catalogue des formations sécurité. Safety in Cryogenics level 1, 14 juin, en anglais, 3 heures, 9h00 – 12h00 (5 places) Radiological Protection, 18 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Radiological Protection, 22 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 08h30 – 12h30 (15 places) Sécurité Radiologique, 22 juin, en français, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Conduite de chariots élévateurs, 24-25 juin, en français, 2 jours, 8h00 – 17h30 (3 places) 

DGS Unit

2010-01-01

85

KDD Techniques: A survey  

OpenAIRE

Knowledge discovery in database (KDD) emerged as an efficient solution to assist user in extracting information and knowledge from rapidly growing data. KDD is composed of with the development of methods and techniques for converting data to information to knowledge. There are many different approaches that are classified as KDD techniques. Statistical techniques, probabilistic techniques, classification techniques etc. are the different techniques used for KDD. This paper gives the overview ...

Raj Kumar; Dr. Rajesh Verma

2012-01-01

86

Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras / Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA) por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usan [...] do la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994). Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979). La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g) fue mayor (P Abstract in english An experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD) and simulated grazing samples (FA), at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data coll [...] ected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P

R., Pulido; C. D., Wood; J.D., Leaver.

87

Surface science techniques  

CERN Document Server

The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

Bracco, Gianangelo

2013-01-01

88

Bibliographical resources available in the Internet about dangerous substances and residues and their influence in the environment in the period 1975-2005 Recursos bibliográficos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias y residuos peligrosos y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The Internet has become the most used source of biomedical information. The documentation, produced by the public and private institutions, in relation with the dangerous substances that can recover in the Internet is fundamental for the prevention of this type of risks. Objective. To locate and to check the available documents in the Internet about dangerous substances, dangerous residues, including inert, and his influence in the environment in the period 1975 - 2005. Material and Method. Descriptive and cross sectional study of the results of the bibliographical searches made in the Internet, in the corresponding databases. Results. It has been recognized 162 records that expire with the requirements indicated in the pre-established methodology. Discussion. With respect to the environmental documentation present in the Internet it seems to be suitable to increase his diffusion and to improve his classification and accessibility.Introducción. Internet se ha convertido en una fuente de información biomédica cada vez más utilizada. La documentación producida por las instituciones públicas y privadas, en relación con las sustancias peligrosas que se pueden recuperar en Internet, es fundamental para la prevención de este tipo de riesgos. Objetivo. Localizar y revisar los documentos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias peligrosas, residuos peligrosos, incluyendo inertes, y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005. Material y método. Estudio descriptivo transversal de los resultados de las búsquedas bibliográficas efectuadas en Internet, en las correspondientes bases de datos. Resultados. Se han reconocido 162 registros que cumplen con los requisitos señalados en la metodología preestablecida. Discusión. Con respecto a la documentación medioambiental pre- sente en Internet, parece conveniente incrementar su difusión y mejorar su clasificación y accesibilidad.

Elena Ronda-Pérez

2008-06-01

89

The relationship between available P and selected biological properties in the rhizosphere of ten crop species under glasshouse conditions Relación entre el P disponible y algunas propiedades biológicas en la rizosfera de diez especies vegetales cultivadas en invernadero Relação entre o P disponível e um conjunto de propriedades biológicas selecionadas na rizosfera de dez espécies vegetais cultivadas em estufa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cultivation of 10 agronomic plant species on selected biological activities and bioavailability of phosphorus (P in different sampling zones. The lowest available P was measured in the planted soil with Solanum lycopersicum. Helianthus annuus, Zea mays and Phasaeolous vulgaris had a relatively larger effect on the decrease of available P in the rhizosphere soil and in the soil adhering to the root mats. S. lycopersicum and P. vulgaris had the highest P concentration (> 980 mg kg-1 and H. annuus and Z. mays had the highest P uptake (17.62 mg pot-1 and 13.13 mg pot-1, respectively. The mean soil microbial biomass P (MBP was significantly high in the rhizophere soil and in the soil adhering to root mats of T. aestivum, Z. mays, S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum (> 16 mg kg-1. The mean spore numbers of glumales (SNG were significantly high in the rhizophere soil and in the soil adhering to root mats of P. vulgaris, S. lycopersicum, T. aestivum and Z. mays (> 167 N/10 g soil. The negative correlations of available P and soluble P with soil biological properties like SNG and alkaline phosphatase activity and the positive correlation with soil pH shows the importance of rhizomicroorganisms and glumales on P nutrition by plants in calcareous soil. Thus rhizosphere acidification of calcareous soil may not be as important as the improvement of biological properties in P uptake and acquisition by plants.

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del cultivo de 10 especies de plantas vegetales sobre determinadas actividades biológicas y sobre la biodisponibilidad de fósforo (P en diferentes zonas de muestreo. El valor más bajo de P disponible se midió en el suelo con Solanum lycopersicum. Helianthus annuus, Zea mays y Phasaeolous vulgaris tuvieron un efecto relativamente mayor sobre la disminución de P disponible en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces. S. lycopersicum y P. vulgaris presentaron la concentración de P más elevada (> 980 mg kg-1 y H. annuus y Z. mays fueron las especies que mostraron una mayor asimilación de P (17,62 mg maceta-1 y 13,13 mg maceta-1, respectivamente. El contenido medio de P en la biomasa microbiana del suelo (MBP fue significativamente elevado en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces de T. aestivum, Z. mays, S. tuberosum y S. lycopersicum (> 16 mg kg-1. La media del número de esporas de glomales (SNG presentó valores elevados en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces de P. vulgaris, S. lycopersicum, T. aestivum y Z. mays (> 167 N/10 g suelo. Las correlaciones negativas entre el P disponible y soluble con propiedades biológicas del suelo, como el SNG y la actividad fosfatasa alcalina, así como la correlación positiva con el pH del suelo, pusieron de manifiesto la importancia de los microorganismos de la rizosfera y de los glomales sobre la nutrición fosfatada de especies vegetales en suelos calizos. Así, la acidificación de la rizosfera en suelos calizos podría no ser un fa

Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

2012-07-01

90

Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome; Proteomique fonctionnelle dediee aux Metalloproteases Matricelles (MMPs): developpement d'une methode extremement sensible permettant la detection des formes actives des MMPs dans des proteomes complexes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows us to identify active forms of gelatinases (M.M.P.-2 and -9) in an indirect manner by comparing the results of tumour samples treated with the photoaffinity probe and the results of tumour samples analysed in zymography. These studies indicate that the protein expression levels of active forms of M.M.P. are extremely low (fmoles) and do not permit any characterisation of those forms of M.M.P. by mass spectrometry, constituting a genuine challenge which can be approached by the development of new photoaffinity probes incorporating a biotin-group. The example of this class of proteins expressed in very low abundance under active form implicates to grant efforts to develop new strategies allowing the capture of the targeted proteins. (author)

David, A

2007-07-15

91

Introduction to perturbation techniques  

CERN Document Server

Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

Nayfeh, Ali H

2011-01-01

92

Nuclear techniques in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

93

Techniques of microstructural analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The techniques of microstructure analysis are presented aiming to the microstructure as determination factor of material properties. The follwing topics are treated: microstructure, x ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, microscopy, quantitative metallography, chemical analysis of microregion, precipitated extraction, indirect techniques and selection of techniques. (M.C.K.)

94

Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques  

CERN Document Server

The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

Balkan, Naci

2012-01-01

95

Scanning electron microscopy techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has become as standard a tool for IC failure analysis as the optical microscope, with improvements in existing SEM techniques and new techniques being reported regularly. This tutorial has been designed to benefit both novice and experienced failure analysts by reviewing several standard as well as new SEM techniques used for failure analysis. Advanced electron-beam test systems will be covered briefly; however all techniques discussed may be performed on any standard SEM. Topics to be covered are (1) standard techniques: secondary electron imaging for surface topology, voltage contrast, capacitive coupling voltage contrast, backscattered electron imaging, electron beam induced current imaging, and x-ray microanalysis and (2) new SEM techniques: novel voltage contrast applications, resistive contrast imaging, biased resistive contrast imaging, and charge-induced voltage alteration. Each technique will be described in terms of the information yielded, the physics behind technique use, any special equipment and/or instrumentation required to implement the technique, the expertise required to implement the technique, possible damage to the IC as a result of using the technique, and examples of using the technique for failure analysis. 11 refs.

Cole, E.I. Jr.

1992-01-01

96

Semiconductor research. Experimental techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

Patane, Amalia [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Balkan, Naci (eds.) [Essex Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering

2012-07-01

97

Exploring image binarization techniques  

CERN Document Server

The book focuses on an image processing technique known as binarization. It provides a comprehensive survey over existing binarization techniques for both document and graphic images. A number of evaluation techniques have been presented for quantitative comparison of different binarization methods. The book provides results obtained comparing a number of standard and widely used binarization algorithms using some standard evaluation metrics. The comparative results presented in tables and charts facilitates understanding the process. In addition to this, the book presents techniques for preparing a reference image which is very much important for quantitative evaluation of the binarization techniques. The results are produced taking image samples from standard image databases.

Chaki, Nabendu; Saeed, Khalid

2014-01-01

98

Specific radiography technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beside radiography testing using x-ray machine and gamma source, there are several technique that developed specifically to complete the testing that cannot be done with the two earlier. This technique was specific based on several factor, for the example, the advantages of neutron and electron using to show the image was unique compare to x-ray and gamma. Besides that, these special radiography techniques maybe differ in how to detect the radiation get through the object. These technique can used to inspect thin or specimen that contained radioactive material. There are several technique will discussed in this chapter such as neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and also autoradiography.

99

Ecocardiografía de contraste: historia, características de las microburbujas y técnicas instrumentales / Contrast echocardiography: history, micro bubble characteristics and instrumental techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo describe la historia de la ecocardiografía de contraste, las características físicas de las microburbujas de los agentes de contraste, las principales herramientas instrumentales (índice mecánico, foco y enfoque, número de imágenes por segundo) y las técnicas ecocardiográficas (segunda [...] armónica, armónica de fusión, segunda armónica de pulso invertido, imagen intermitente, angio y densitometría acústica) actualmente disponibles para uso clínico. Abstract in english This article describes the history of contrast echocardiography, the physical characteristics of the contrast agents’ micro bubbles, the main instrumental tools (mechanical index, focus and focusing, frame rate), and the echocardiography techniques (second harmonic imaging, fusion harmonic, power pu [...] lse inversion imaging, triggered imaging, intermittent harmonic power Doppler, color power angio and acoustic densitometry), actually available for clinical use.

Carlos, Cubides; Gustavo, Restrepo; Dagnóvar, Aristizábal; Ana, Múnera.

2006-04-22

100

Pulse holographic measurement techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

101

Guía para el tratamiento de lactantes con alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca: Ficha comparativa de las fórmulas especiales disponibles en el mercado español Guideline for the treatment of infants with allergy to cow milk proteins: comparative data sheet of the specific formulae available on the Spanish market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

La alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca (APLV es una enfermedad de elevada incidencia y prevalencia. Su tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de las proteínas de la leche de vaca de la dieta, mediante lactancia materna exclusiva y, en caso de uso de fórmulas adaptadas, con el uso de fórmulas especiales, como fórmulas derivadas de proteínas lácteas altamente hidrolizadas, de fórmulas derivadas de proteínas vegetales o de fórmulas elaboradas a partir de aminoácidos biosintéticos (fórmulas elementales. Estas fórmulas suponen un coste económico considerable y un importante campo comercial para las industrias alimentaria y farmacéutica. Dado el continuo avance científico y técnico, son muchas las modificaciones que se presentan en la elaboración de dichas fórmulas y en las normas para su correcto manejo y muy numerosas las publicaciones sobre diferentes aspectos relativas a las mismas.
En el presente trabajo pretendemos revisar las últimas modificaciones debidas a los nuevos conocimientos y a la experiencia clínica acumulada sobre prevención y tratamiento de la APLV. Además, se revisa la importancia de los aspectos nutricionales en todos los lactantes y niños pequeños que reciben fórmulas alimentarias especiales y dietas de exclusión y se presentan las principales características compositivas de las fórmulas disponibles en el mercado español y las recomendaciones de los organismos reguladores.

Allergy to cow milk proteins (ACMP is a disease having high incidence and prevalence. Its treatment consists in the elimination of cow milk proteins, using maternal breastfeeding exclusively and, in the case of adapted formulae, with the use of special formulae such as highly hydrolyzed lactic protein derived formulae, vegetables protein derived formulae or formulae elaborated from biosynthetic aminoacids (Elemental formulae. These formulae entail a considerable financial cost and provide an important commercial field for the food and drug industry. Given the continuous scientific and technical advance, there are many modifications that occur in the elaboration of these formulae and on the guidelines for their correct handling and there are many publications on the different aspects of them. In the present work, we have aimed to review the recent modifications due to the newer knowledge and clinical experience accumulated on prevention and treatment of ACMP. In addition, the importance of the nutritional aspects in all infants and small children who receive special feeding formulae and diets of exclusion and that have the principle

E. de Goicoechea Manzanares

2009-01-01

102

Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usando la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994. Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979. La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g fue mayor (PAn experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD and simulated grazing samples (FA, at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data collected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P<0.05 from herbage mass samples than simulated grazing samples at 12, 21, and 27 hours of incubation (161.7 v/s 150.6, s.e.d.= 4.23; 217.6 v/s 209.2, s.e.d.= 3.65; and 242.1 v/s 234.7, s.e.d.= 3.34, respectively. However, after 27 hours of incubation, no significant effect (P0.05 of type of sample, either on the amount of gas produced or on the kinetic of fermentation, were found. The dry matter disappearance after 96 hours of incubation was significantly lower (P<0.05 for herbage mass samples compared with simulated grazing samples (0.908 v/s 0.873, s.e.d.= 0.005, but with no effect of sward height (P0.05. These findings show the benefits of complementing in vitro gas production measurements with post digestion residue determinations to improve the knowledge on the nutritive value of feed fermented in the rumen

R. Pulido

1998-01-01

103

Techniques of periocular reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eyelid and periocular reconstruction is often needed in ophthalmic practice, as a result of defects created by excision of lesions or following trauma. A variety of techniques have been described for the repair of these defects. However, it is important to have a knowledge of the basic principles underlying all these techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each, so as to ensure the selection of the optimal technique in a particular case. Different authors have popularized different techniques based on individual preferences and experiences and a brief overview of the different techniques will be helpful to compare them. The articles referenced in this manuscript were looked up through PubMed by feeding the keywords ?periocular reconstruction? and ?eyelid reconstruction? and then looking for relevant cross-references. In this review, we have discussed the various techniques available and also illustrated them diagrammatically to have a quick overview of the topic.

Sharma Vidushi

2006-01-01

104

LAPAROSCOPIC SPLENECTOMY – SURGICAL TECHNIQUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is the second level of skill for a surgeon. The aim of this paper is to present the technique and the tricks for a succesfull splenectomy. There are also presented some datas of history of spleen surgery and surgical anatomy. Indications of laparoscopic splenectomy are the same as in the open technique. The standard operative technique is described. I also present different laparoscopic techniques so as trocars approach, dissection, divided of the spleen vessels by Ligasure or staplers, hand assited technique etc. The postoperative course and follow-up are also described. Conclusion: Laparoscopic splenectomy is a feasible technique. An adequate training in laparoscopic surgery and modern technologies are necessary to perform this operation. LS is the gold standard treatment for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

E. Târcoveanu

2007-07-01

105

Semiconductor Modeling Techniques  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the key theoretical techniques for semiconductor research to quantitatively calculate and simulate the properties. It presents particular techniques to study novel semiconductor materials, such as 2D heterostructures, quantum wires, quantum dots and nitrogen containing III-V alloys. The book is aimed primarily at newcomers working in the field of semiconductor physics to give guidance in theory and experiment. The theoretical techniques for electronic and optoelectronic devices are explained in detail.

Xavier, Marie

2012-01-01

106

On the Jacopini Technique  

OpenAIRE

The general concern of the Jacopini technique is the question: 'Is it consistent to extend a given lambda calculus with certain equations?' The technique was introduced by Jacopini in 1975 in his proof that in the untyped lambda calculus ? is easy, i.e., ? can be assumed equal to any other (closed) term without violating the consistency of the lambda calculus. The presentations of the Jacopini technique that are known from the literature are difficult to understand and har...

Kuper, Jan

1997-01-01

107

Persian fencing techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

2012-07-01

108

Communication Analysis modelling techniques  

OpenAIRE

This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we ref...

Espan?a, Sergio; Gonza?lez, Arturo; Pastor, O?scar; Ruiz, Marcela

2012-01-01

109

Deployment of learning techniques  

OpenAIRE

The CONNECT Integrated Project aims at enabling continuous composition of networked systems, by developing techniques for synthesizing connectors. A prerequisite for synthesis is to learn about the interaction behavior of networked peers. The role of WP4 is to develop techniques for learning models of networked peers and middleware through exploratory interaction.

Bertolino, Antonia; Calabro, Antonello; Cassel, Sofia; Chen, Yu-fang; Howar, Falk; Isberner, Malte; Jonsson, Bengt; Merten, Maik; Pelliccione, Patrizio; Steffen, Bernhard; Tivoli, Massimo

2012-01-01

110

Radionuclide techniques in haematology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter should serve as a practical guide for the clinician who uses radionuclide techniques to solve haematological problems. Commonly used techniques are discussed in some detail with practical guidelines for labeling of blood cells and plasma proteins, handling of labeled products, and for necessary, if simple, calculations. (Auth.)

111

Laser induced pyrolysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of laser pyrolysis techniques to the problems of chemical analysis is discussed. The processes occurring during laser pyrolysis are first briefly reviewed. The problems encountered in laser pyrolysis gas chromatography are discussed using the analysis of phenanthrene and binary hydrocarbons. The application of this technique to the characterization of naturally occurring carbonaceous material such as oil shales and coal is illustrated

112

Classroom Assessment Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a short, but easy to read matrix of assessment techniques, outlining descriptions, what to do with the data, and the time required for each type of assessment. The techniques included are the minute paper, chain notes, memory matrix, directed paraphrasing, one sentence summary, exam evaluations, application cards, and student-generated test questions.

113

X-ray techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter covers the basic techniques utilized in podiatric radiology. It covers the most frequently used projections, along with a discussion of x-ray film, its composition, intensifying screens, their uses, and definitions needed to understand the characteristics, and how to make a decision about these characteristics, when developing an office technique

114

Analog signal isolation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application

115

Contamination Control Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

116

TECHNIQUE OF JEJUNOSTOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feeding difficulties is an important problem of some patients (postoperative feeding in major interventions, acute pancreatitis etc.. Many of these patients are managed by jejunostomy. This paper presents the surgical technique for temporary or permanent jejunostomy by laparoscopic and open approach. Standard technique is Witzel jejunostomy but in some cases it is indicated other types of interventions: Stamm, Liffmann, Albert or Roux jejunostomy. It is also presented postoperative complications. Jejunostomy is a safe and effective procedure for enteral feeding but this operation has some „critical technique points”.

E. Tarcoveanu

2005-04-01

117

Reversible Data Hiding Techniques  

OpenAIRE

Reversible data hiding is a technique that is used to hide data inside an image. The data is hidden in such a way that the exact or original data is not visible. The hidden data can be retrieved as and when required. There are several methods that are used in reversible data hiding techniques like Watermarking, Lossless embedding and encryption. In this paper we present a review of reversible watermarking techniques and show different methods that are used to get reversible data hiding techni...

Dhananjay Yadav; Vipul Singhal; Devesh Kumar Bandil

2012-01-01

118

Island custom blocking technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The ''cookie cutter'' is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author

119

Computer techniques for electromagnetics  

CERN Document Server

Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

Mittra, R

1973-01-01

120

Advanced analytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

121

Développement de vecteurs viraux permettant une expression spécifique du transgène dans les neurones  

OpenAIRE

Zielsetzung Das vorliegende Projekt bestand in der Aufgabe, eine Palette von Konstrukten zur Produktion von Adeno-assoziierten rekombinanten Viren zu entwickeln, die es, mittels verschiedener spezifischer Promotoren, erlauben würeden, bestimmte Transgene spezifisch in neuronalen Zellen zu exprimieren. Diese Konstrukte werden im Weiteren verwendet werden, um verschiedene pathogene und protektive Transgene in einem Parkinson-Tiermodell zu testen. Resultate Die verschiedenen Konstrukte wurden h...

Thevenet, Jonathan; Schmid, Sergio

2008-01-01

122

Appareil permettant la caractérisation thermique de substrats et matériaux à forte conductibilité pour micro-électronique  

OpenAIRE

La caractérisation thermique des substrats en nitrure d'aluminium AIN est un problème actuel en micro-électronique. La méthode classique dite du “flash-laser”, est mal adaptée à ce type de matériau, car nécessitant des échantillons d'épaisseur supérieure à 3 mm. Cette méthode a été nouvellement adaptée mais au prix d'un investissement relativement lourd. Nous avons développé au C.N.E.T. Lannion une méthode de caractérisation basée sur le principe de la mesure du flux ...

Paris, Pierre; Haussonne, Jean-marie; Lostec, Jean

1993-01-01

123

Les indicateurs des conditions monétaires permettent-ils de prévoir l'activité économique ?  

OpenAIRE

Dans une économie ouverte, le taux d’intérêt n’est plus suffisant pour rendre compte des effets de la politique monétaire. La prise en compte des taux de change s’avère nécessaire. Les ICM (indicateurs des conditions monétaires), qui combinent à la fois le taux de change et le taux d’intérêt en fonction de leur impact relatif sur la croissance et l’inflation, ont été proposés à cette fin et utilisés, soit à des fins d’analyse conjoncturelle, soit en tant que simple...

Blot, Christophe; Levieuge, Gre?gory

2008-01-01

124

A propos d'interactions qui permettent d'analyser une vidéo  

OpenAIRE

Face à la production massive actuelle d'images et de vidéos numériques, la compréhension automatique de contenus visuels est un enjeu majeur. Quel peut-être le rôle des utilisateurs dans ce processus d'analyse qui s'appuie, aussi, sur des mécanismes de vision artificielle ? Telle est la question centrale soulevée dans cet article. L'approche suivie ici consiste à analyser le comportement des utilisateurs lorsqu'ils visionnent des vidéos interactives (zoomables) pour détecter des r?...

Carlier, Axel; Charvillat, Vincent

2011-01-01

125

Reversible Data Hiding Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reversible data hiding is a technique that is used to hide data inside an image. The data is hidden in such a way that the exact or original data is not visible. The hidden data can be retrieved as and when required. There are several methods that are used in reversible data hiding techniques like Watermarking, Lossless embedding and encryption. In this paper we present a review of reversible watermarking techniques and show different methods that are used to get reversible data hiding technique with higher embedding capacity and invisible objects. Watermark need not be hidden. Watermarking can be applied to 1. Images, 2. Text, 3. Audio/video, 4. Software.

Dhananjay Yadav

2012-03-01

126

The MST radar technique  

Science.gov (United States)

The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

Balsley, B. B.

1985-07-01

127

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

128

Evaluation techniques work group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper was an overview of the evaluation techniques breakout session. Topics discussed were verification/validation of computer codes and criteria for subcriticality safety margin

129

Radiochemical procedures and techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is presented of the radiochemical procedures and techniques currently in use by the Chemistry Division Nuclear Chemistry Group at Argonne National Laboratory for the analysis of radioactive samples. (U.S.)

130

The MST Radar Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

Balsley, B. B.

1985-01-01

131

The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence / Efficacité des politiques de réduction des acides gras trans alimentaires: une revue systématique des données probantes / La eficacia de las estrategias para reducir las grasas trans en la dieta: examen sistemático de los datos disponibles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Examinar sistemáticamente los datos disponibles sobre la eficacia de las estrategias (incluida la autorregulación) dirigidas a reducir los ácidos grasos de tipo trans (AGT) de producción industrial en los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las bases de datos Medline, Embase y Cinahl para id [...] entificar artículos revisados por expertos en los que se estudiara el efecto de las estrategias acerca de las grasas trans. Además, también se buscaron artículos de literatura gris en las primeras 20 páginas de resultados de Google. Los estudios se incluyeron cuando: (i) se trataba de un estudio empírico que se desarrolló en un entorno del «mundo real» (esto es, se excluyeron estudios de modelamiento); (ii) se examinaba una estrategia relacionada con los AGT que incluyera, por ejemplo, etiquetado, límites voluntarios o prohibiciones; y (iii) se examinaba el efecto de una estrategia sobre los niveles de AGT en los alimentos, la dieta de las personas, la sangre o la leche materna. RESULTADOS: Veintiséis artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. De ellos, cinco incluyeron una autorregulación voluntaria; ocho, sólo etiquetado; cuatro, etiquetado y límites voluntarios; cinco, prohibiciones locales y cuatro, prohibiciones nacionales. En su conjunto, todas las estrategias redujeron el nivel de AGT en los alimentos. Por regla general, los niveles de grasas saturadas aumentaron o disminuyeron según el tipo de producto, y el contenido total de grasa permaneció estable. Las prohibiciones locales y nacionales resultaron ser las más eficaces a la hora de eliminar los AGT de los alimentos, mientras que el etiquetado obligatorio y los límites voluntarios obtuvieron resultados variados, dependiendo, en su mayor parte, de la categoría de alimento. CONCLUSIÓN: Las estrategias dirigidas a la reducción del contenido de AGT en los alimentos estuvieron asociadas a reducciones significativas de los niveles de AGT sin un aumento del contenido total en grasas. Estas estrategias son factibles, viables y pueden tener un efecto sobre la salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of policies, including self-regulation, aimed at reducing industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food. METHODS: The Medline, Embase and Cinahl databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles examining the effect [...] of TFA policies. In addition, the first 20 pages of Google searches were examined for articles from the grey literature. A study was included if: (i) it was empirical and conducted in a "real-world" setting (i.e. modelling studies were excluded); (ii) it examined a TFA policy involving, for example, labelling, voluntary limits or bans; and (iii) it examined a policy's effect on TFA levels in food, people's diets, blood or breast milk. FINDINGS: Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 involved voluntary self-regulation; 8, labelling alone; 4, labelling and voluntary limits; 5, local bans and 4, national bans. Overall, the TFA content of food decreased with all types of policy intervention. In general, saturated fat levels increased or decreased, depending on the product type, and total fat content remained stable. National and local bans were most effective at eliminating TFAs from the food supply, whereas mandatory TFA labelling and voluntary TFA limits had a varying degree of success, which largely depended on food category. CONCLUSION: Policies aimed at restricting the TFA content of food were associated with significant reductions in TFA levels, without increasing total fat content. Such policies are feasible, achievable and likely to have an effect on public health.

Shauna M, Downs; Anne Marie, Thow; Stephen R, Leeder.

2013-04-01

132

Análise de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica disponíveis na BVS-PSI Brasil Análisis de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica disponibles en la BVS-PSI Brasil Thesis and dissertations analysis in psychological assessment available in the BVS-PSI Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou verificar a produção científica de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica no Brasil, disponíveis na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil. Foram analisados 141 resumos de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica referentes a estudos que tinham avaliação psicológica, psicometria, validade, precisão e testes psicológicos como palavras-chave. Os resultados revelaram que 54,6% dos resumos eram de dissertações de mestrado, 43,3%, de teses de doutorado, e 2,1% eram de teses de pós-doutorado. Destes, 19,15% foram defendidos em Universidades estabelecidas na Região Sul do País, 80,14%, no Sudeste, e 0,71%, no Nordeste. Pode-se constatar que maior concentração da produção científica de avaliação psicológica fica na Região Sudeste. Verificou-se que 60,3% tinham por objetivo buscar parâmetros psicométricos, e 27,7% tinham a finalidade de utilizar os testes para validar protocolos de intervenção, descrever habilidades específicas e estudar relações entre variáveis, e constituem a maioria dos estudos transversais. Os construtos mais estudados são a personalidade e a inteligência, e as áreas de aplicação em que se utiliza mais avaliação psicológica são a clínica e a escolar, de acordo com os resultados do presente estudo.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la producción científica de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica en Brasil, disponibles en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud de Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil. Fueron analizados 141 resúmenes de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica referentes a estudios que tenían evaluación psicológica, psicometría, validez, precisión y testes psicológicos como palabras-clave. Los resultados revelaron que 54,6% de los resúmenes eran de disertaciones de maestrazgo, 43,3%, de tesis de doctorado, y 2,1% eran de tesis de post-doctorado. De éstos, 19,15% fueron defendidos en Universidades establecidas en la Región Sur del País, 80,14%, en el Sudeste, y 0,71%, en el Nordeste. Se puede constatar que la mayor concentración de la producción científica de evaluación psicológica está localizada en la Región Sudeste. Se verificó que 60,3% tenían por objetivo buscar parámetros psicométricos, y 27,7% tenían la finalidad de utilizar los testes para validar protocolos de intervención, describir habilidades específicas y estudiar relaciones entre variables, y constituyen la mayoría de los estudios transversales. Los constructos más estudiados son la personalidad y la inteligencia, y las áreas de aplicación en la que se utiliza más evaluación psicológica son la clínica y la escolar, de acuerdo con los resultados del presente estudio.The present study aimed to verify the scientific production of the thesis and dissertations in psychological assessment in Brazil, all which are from the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (BVS-Psi Brasil. 141 theses’ and dissertations’ abstracts that referred to studies with psychological assessment, psychometric, validity, reliability and psychological tests as keywords were analyzed. The results showed that 54,6% of the abstracts were from Masters’ dissertations, 43,3% of PhD’s thesis and 2,1% were from post-doctoral thesis. 19,15% of the studies were defended in universities established in the south region of the country, 80,14% in the southeast and 0,71% in the northeast region. It can be seen that most of the scientific production in psychological assessment comes from the southeast region. It was verified that 60,3% were aimed to search psychometrics parameters and 27,7% had the purpose of using the test to validate intervention protocols, describe specific abilities and study relations between variables, being most of them from transversal studies. The constructs most studied are personality and intelligence and the clinic and the school are the areas of application where the psychological assessment is most used, according to the study’s results.

Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly

2010-01-01

133

A Importância da Literatura Cinzenta Disponível na Internet para as Áreas de Ciências Contábeis e Administração de EmpresasThe Importance of the Gray Literature in the Internet for the Accounting and Business Administration AreasLa Importancia de la Literatura Gris Disponible en Internet para las Áreas de Ciencias Contables y Administración de Empresas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RESUMOEste trabalho analisa as principais características da literatura cinzenta, avaliando o uso de algumas das fontes potencialmente úteis para os docentes e discentes das áreas de administração de empresas e ciências contábeis, além de considerar novas formas de difusão do conhecimento científico propiciado pelos open-archives, pre-prints e open-access.Apesar de restrições manifestadas pela comunidade acadêmica quanto ao uso desse tipo de referência, em muitos casos, ela constitui a única fonte primária de informação disponível sobre determinados temas, ampliando sua importância para as ciências sociais aplicadas. Adicionalmente, há que se considerar que as facilidades propiciadas pela Internet têm levado a um crescimento do uso de referências não convencionais, especialmente sob a forma de relatórios, estudos setoriais e evolu??ão de índices e indicadores, ajudando a fundamentar análises e trabalhos acadêmicos. Verifica-se também que textos, apresentações e interações eletrônicas com grupos e fóruns on-line de debate têm possibilitado uma troca profícua de informações, colaborando de maneira significativa para a evolução do conhecimento em ciências contábeis e administração de empresas. Essas formas de difusão também são analisadas neste trabalho.ABSTRACTThis work analyzes the characteristics of gray literature, evaluating the use of this useful information source for teachers, students and researches of business administration and accounting. Moreover, it studies new kinds of diffusion of the scientific knowledge with the use of open archives, preprints and open-access bases. Although we found restrictions of some academics communities, the use of this kind of reference have been growing, justifying its importance. In many cases, it is the only primary information source about some subjects. The Internet has led to increase of the gray literature uses, such as reports and studies. Websites, electronic presentations and interactions with on-line groups have made possible the exchange of more information, allowing the evolution of the knowledge in accounting and business administration. This kind of diffusion also is analyzed in this work.RESUMENEste trabajo analiza las principales características de la literatura gris, para evaluar el uso de algunas de las fuentes potencialmente útiles para los docentes y discentes de las áreas de administración de empresas y ciencias contables, además de considerar nuevas formas de difusión del conocimiento científico propiciado por los open-archives, pre-prints y open-access. A pesar de las restricciones expuestas por la comunidad académica sobre el uso de este tipo de referencia, en muchos casos, ella constituye la única fuente primaria de información disponible sobre determinados temas, y su importancia se amplía en las ciencias sociales aplicadas. Hay que considerar además que las facilidades que la Internet ofrece suscitó el crecimiento del uso de referencias no convencionales, especialmente los informes, estudios sectoriales y evolución de índices e indicadores, que ayudan a fundamentar análisis y trabajos académicos. Se observa también que textos, presentaciones e interacciones electrónicas con grupos y fórum on-line de debates posibilitaron un intercambio proficuo de informaciones, que colaboran de manera significativa para la evolución del conocimiento en ciencias contables y administración de empresas. Estas formas de difusión también se analizan en este trabajo.

CÔRTES, Pedro Luiz

2006-01-01

134

Caracterización por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas del thinner comercialmente disponible en la ciudad de Cartagena / Characterization by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Commercially Available Thinner in the City of Cartagena / Caracterização por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas do Tíner comercialmente disponível na cidade de Cartagena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O Tíner é um dos produtos de maior utilização na indústria das pinturas, lubrificantes e colas. Sua composição é variável conforme a seu uso e qualidade. No entanto, a exposição crônica é uma preocupação devido a que pode afetar órgãos principais tais como pulmões, fígados, rins e glândulas suprarre [...] nais. Neste estudo foi caracterizada a composição de várias amostras de Tíner, disponíveis comercialmente na cidade de Cartagena. Doze amostras de Tíner foram recoletadas em diferentes lojas e analisadas por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (GC/MS). Os resultados mostraram que não só a composição, más também a distribuição relativa dos componentes presentes nas amostras são variáveis. Trinta e dois compostos foram detectados, entre os que se encontram: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno e etilbenceno, com frequências de aparição de 91.7, 66.7, 75.0 e 66.7%, respectivamente. O desconhecimento do risco de intoxicação, gerado ao manipular este tipo de misturas, pode ser a causa de muitos dos problemas de saúde em pessoas expostas ao Tíner, tanto nas atividades laborais quanto domésticas. Uma mineração de dados mostrou a associação potencial entre os componentes do Tíner e manifestações clínicas, as quais incluem dano renal e hepático, perda de cabelo, alterações hematológicas, dermatite, ansiedade e problemas de equilíbrio, entre outras. Em conclusão, o Tíner possui grande variabilidade tanto em seus componentes quanto na proporção relativa dos mesmos. Os efeitos prejudiciais na saúde por exposição direta ou indireta a estes componentes têm sido amplamente descritos na literatura. Abstract in spanish El thinner es uno de los productos de mayor utilización en la industria de las pinturas, lubricantes y pegamentos. Su composición es variable de acuerdo con su uso y calidad. Sin embargo, la exposición crónica es una preocupación debido a que puede afectar órganos principales tales como pulmones, hí [...] gado, riñón y glándulas suprarrenales. En este estudio fue caracterizada la composición de varias muestras de thinner, disponibles comercialmente en la ciudad de Cartagena, que fueron recolectadas en diferentes almacenes y analizadas por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Los resultados mostraron que no solo la composición, sino también la distribución relativa de los componentes presentes en las muestras son variables. Treinta y dos compuestos fueron detectados, entre los que se encuentran: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno y etilbenceno, con frecuencias de aparición de 91,7%, 66,7%, 75,0% y 66,7%, respectivamente. El desconocimiento del riesgo de intoxicación, generado al manipular este tipo de mezclas, puede ser la causa de muchos de los problemas de salud en personas expuestas al thinner, tanto en actividades laborales como domésticas. Una minería de datos mostró la asociación potencial entre los componentes del thinner y manifestaciones clínicas, las cuales incluyen daño renal y hepático, pérdida de cabello, alteraciones hematológicas, dermatitis, ansiedad y problemas de equilibrio, entre otras. En conclusión, el thinner posee gran variabilidad tanto en sus componentes como en la proporción relativa de los mismos. Los efectos perjudiciales en la salud por exposición directa o indirecta a estos componentes han sido ampliamente descritos en la literatura. Abstract in english Thinner is a widely used product in the industry of paints, lubricants and adhesives. Its composition varies according to its use and quality. However, its chronic exposure is a concern, because it can affect major organs such as lungs, liver, kidney and the adrenal glands. This study characterizes [...] the composition of several thinner samples commercially available in the city of Cartagena. Twelve samples were collected in different stores, these were then analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The re

Wilson, Maldonado; Katia, Noguera; Jesús, Olivero.

2013-12-01

135

Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

Intervartolo, Michael

2009-01-01

136

Digital Watermarking Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available More the development of the multimedia, more the digitalization, the more is the access to internet. This fast rate of enhancement gives a sense of protection and authentication.  Digital watermarking technology provides a strong solution to insecurity created by digitalization. In this paper, our focus is on the basic concepts of watermarking, their characterisation, their techniques. Extending more, we will elaborate one of the latest technique of watermarking named as “Discrete Cosine Transform” (DCT.

Prabhjot Kaur Chahal

2013-11-01

137

TECHNIQUE OF JEJUNOSTOMY  

OpenAIRE

Feeding difficulties is an important problem of some patients (postoperative feeding in major interventions, acute pancreatitis etc.). Many of these patients are managed by jejunostomy. This paper presents the surgical technique for temporary or permanent jejunostomy by laparoscopic and open approach. Standard technique is Witzel jejunostomy but in some cases it is indicated other types of interventions: Stamm, Liffmann, Albert or Roux jejunostomy. It is also presented postoperative complic...

Tarcoveanu, E.

2005-01-01

138

Applying contemporary statistical techniques  

CERN Document Server

Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

Wilcox, Rand R

2003-01-01

139

Plant Breeding Techniques  

OpenAIRE

Seeds form the basis for agricultural production, but most organic growers know little about how their seedstocks have been produced. Within the organic movement the discussion on the compatibility of plant breeding techniques has been accelerated by the public discussion on genetic engineering. This decision-making is important to develop a framework for organic plant breeding and facilitate investment by breeding companies. This dossier explains all standard techniques used in modern plant ...

Wyss, E.; Lammerts Bueren, E. T.; Hulscher, M.; Haring, M.

2001-01-01

140

Imaging techniques for haemangiopericytomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight patients with histologically verified hemangiopericytomas were examined by conventional radioagraphic techniques (plain films, angiography including cavography) as well as by Duplexsonography, CT and MRI. These imaging techniques detected solid tumors with cystic compartments. A typical computed tomographic finding was intensive contrast enhancement within the tumor. Duplexsonography revealed blood flow in the periphery of the tumor. In contrast to reports by other authors no tumor calcification was found by plain film radiography. (orig.)

141

Optimization techniques in statistics  

CERN Document Server

Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

Rustagi, Jagdish S

2014-01-01

142

Techniques of Radio Astronomy  

OpenAIRE

This chapter provides an overview of the techniques of radio astronomy. This study began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cosmos, but the period of rapid progress began fifteen years later. From then to the present, the wavelength range expanded from a few meters to the sub-millimeters, the angular resolution increased from degrees to finer than milli arc seconds and the receiver sensitivities have improved by large factors. Today, the technique of apertu...

Wilson, T. L.

2011-01-01

143

Imaging Techniques in Orthopedics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principles and limitations of current imaging modalities are described. It may help to determine the most effective radiologic technique, minimizing the cost of examination as well as the exposure to ra-diation. It is important to choose the appropriate mo-dality for specific types of orthopedic abnormalities. It is important to reemphasize that conventional ra-diography remains the most effective tool for demon-strating a bone and joint abnormality. "nUse of radiological techniques differs in evaluating the presence, type, and extent of various bone, joint, and soft-tissue abnormalities. Therefore, both the ra-diologist and orthopedic surgeon must know the in-dication for use of each technique, the limitations of a particular modality, and the appropriate imaging ap-proaches for abnormalities at specific sites. The ques-tion; "what modality should I use for this particular problem?" is frequently asked by radiologists and or-thopedic surgeons. Although numerous algorithms are available to evaluate various problems at different anatomic sites, the answer cannot always be clearly stated. "nThe choice of techniques for imaging bone and soft-tissue abnormalities is dictated not only by clinical presentation, but also by equipment availability, ex-pertise, and cost. Restriction may also be imposed by the needs of individual patients. Most of the time, the choice of imaging technique is dictated by the type of suspected abnormality. The purpose of this study was to review imaging techniques in orthopedics.

H. Zekavat

2008-01-01

144

MEMS metrology techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The MEMS industry currently produces over $13 billion in annual revenue, with devices in such diverse applications as blood pressure sensors, projection displays, optical switches, printers, hard drives, and gyroscopes. As production techniques improve, ever more functions may be served by MEMS, and the industry is growing at an annual rate of more than 15%. The large diversity of MEMS leads to many challenges in metrology, as each design has different critical factors which will affect its performance. Unlike traditional semiconductor devices, MEMS require characterization both in their static state and under actuation. Parameters of interest include shape, dimensions, surface roughness, sidewall angles, film thickness, residual stress, feature volumes, response times, thermal properties, resonance frequencies, stiction, environmental immunity and more. This talk will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of techniques for MEMS surface metrology. Bright- and dark-field microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact and non-contact surface profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laser Doppler vibrometry and digital holography are some of the primary techniques used to evaluate MEMS surfaces and motion. While no single technique can fully characterize all MEMS devices, or even one device under all conditions, the utility of each of the different types of instruments is increasing as they are pushed by MEMS and other industries to provide more characterization capability. With a broad understanding of the various metrology techniques available, the one or few critical instruments to measure a given class of devices will hopefully be more easily understood.

Novak, Erik

2005-01-01

145

Handbook of laboratory techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

146

Imaging Techniques in Conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor object condition.3D laser scanning, PTM, and CT scanning are investigated. Case studies are explored to investigate their current role in cultural heritage. The appropriateness of this role and whether it should be expanded is addressed by analysing advantages and disadvantages of the techniques, their feasibility, and risks caused to object preservation and accessibility.The results indicate that the technologies present some advantages over standard digital photography; PTM in particular is found to be an extremely useful, affordable technique. A more established role within conservation, especially for condition assessments, could be worthwhile. Use of the imaging techniques to create models for exhibition can also be advantageous; however, care must be taken to ensure that such models are used to enhance accessibility to original objects and not to replace them.

Emma Marie Payne

2013-02-01

147

Radiation techniques for acromegaly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

Minniti Giuseppe

2011-12-01

148

[Modern fertilization techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Germany, some 17.2% of married couples are unintentionally childless. Of these, about one-third have a male factor infertility (with disordered spermatogenesis), which in part is unresponsive to drug treatment. In such cases, assisted reproductive techniques are giving childless couples new hope. The techniques are based on two principles: 1) in vitro improvement in semen quality in the laboratory, and 2) the overcoming of natural barriers to fertilization. The latter includes intra-uterine insemination (IUT), in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), subzonal sperm insemination (SUZI), zona pellucida drilling, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI). ICSI has also used epididymal spermatozoa obtained by microsurgical aspiration (MESA) and sperm extracted from testicular biopsies (TESA). These methods have their own specific indications, contraindications and pregnancy rates. However, assisted conception techniques should not be considered outside the overall situation of the couple, including ethical, sociological, physiological and general medical problems. PMID:8999011

Glander, H J

1996-09-30

149

Current techniques in mammography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper represents a literature survey of current techniques in mammography. The major objection to the otherwise acceptable methods in widespread use are the radiation doses given the patient, particularly the asymptomatic patient. Even using current techniques which involve x-raying the breast, all women over 50 should have yearly exams for the earliest possible cancer detection and hence improved diagnosis. It is for asymptomatic women under 50 that the risk versus benefit issue becomes controversial. Strong efforts are being made to reduce or eliminate this dose. Current methods in widespread clinical use and experimental methods are briefly covered, and the recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (released July 1980) are stressed. The current experimental techniques which include NMR, ultrasound, thermography, computer tomography, heavy particle radiography and ionography are capsulized

150

Telescopes and Techniques  

CERN Document Server

Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

Kitchin, C R

2013-01-01

151

Radiological focusing techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The textbook explains the most common and essential radiological focusing techniques and gives the relevant theory and technical fundamentals. The theory does not consume much space in this book, the theoretical part briefly addressing such aspects as film-screen combinations, doses administered by X-ray radiography, quality assurance, radiological protection, and potential patient reactions to contrast media applied. The textbook primarily is a practical guide giving general advice and guidance on focusing techniques, accompanied by an illustrative compilation of frequent mistakes. Arranged by body regions, the well over 80 examples of focusing techniques are presented by systematic texts and illustrations. There is an annex giving a glossary of terms, a bibliography, and a list of useful addresses. (orig./MG)

152

Technique of radiograph exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter was a continuation to chapter before. In this chapter, the radiographer must know a little bit technique that to make this radiography work successful. All of this technique was produced to give a guideline to radiographer how to produce good radiograph. In radiography, technique is more on one specific way to implement the exposure on the some object. So, there is two way, one to refer to the characteristic of radiation used during exposure either it panoramic or directed. The other way is based on number of thickness that radiation gets through it from the source to the object inspected. So, it depends to radiographer to choose the best way based on expertise, time and location of the inspection.

153

Separation techniques, ch. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The techniques used in radioimmunoassay for separation of antibody-bound and free labelled antigen are divided in three groups: 1) adsorption of the free antigens. From this group are described a) the test tube method according to which the adsorbent is added to the tube and subsequently centrifugated and b) chromatoelectrophoresis which is performed after adsorption to a strip of paper; 2) the double antibody technique. With insulin as an example, the description of how anti-?-globulin is used to make the antibody-bound insulin insoluble is given; 3) the solid phase technique providing insoluble forms of specific antibodies. Of this method are described the use of reactive insoluble polymer doses to which the antibodies are coupled, test tubes of polymers to which surface the antibodies are adsorbed as well as the polymerization of the antibodies themselves in order to make them insoluble

154

Communication Analysis modelling techniques  

CERN Document Server

This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we refer to business activities as communicative events. Message Structures is a technique based on structured text that allows specifying the messages associated to communicative events. Event Specification Templates are a means to organise the requirements concerning a communicative event. This report can be useful to analysts and business process modellers in general, since, according to our industrial experience, it is possible to apply many Communication Analysis concepts, guidelines and criteria to other business process modelling notation...

España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

2012-01-01

155

Dermal exposure assessment techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer) into production processes represents an important limitation of this approach. Surface sampling techniques provide a measure of workplace chemical contamination. Wipe sampling has been used extensively, but is susceptible to high variability. Surface sampling requires definition of dermal transfer coefficients for specific work activities. A preliminary dermal exposure sampling strategy which addresses such issues as sampling method, representativeness and sample duration is proposed. Despite the limitations of current assessment techniques, it appears feasible to consider developing dermal occupational exposure limits (DOELs) for selected workplaces and chemical agents. Initial development of DOELs would be most practical where dermal exposure is from surface contact primarily, and where the work closely follows a routine. Improvement in the techniques of dermal exposure assessment is an important goal for occupational hygiene research, and is likely to lead to better health for worker populations. PMID:8304685

Fenske, R A

1993-12-01

156

Radiographic constant exposure technique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out

Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

1985-01-01

157

Science et Technique  

OpenAIRE

La technique qui est l'action sur le réel peut-elle se passer de la science qui est l'effort de comprendre le réel, de l'expliquer et d'en prédire le comportement ? Et réciproquement peut-on concevoir une science sans technique ? Le module d'informatique de la classe de seconde devrait être l'occasion d'amener les élèves à une réflexion sur ce sujet, peu évoqué dans l'enseignement secondaire et généralement mal traité. Mais plus le temps passe, plus j'ai l'impression qu'il y a u...

Nivat, Maurice

2009-01-01

158

Neutron computed tomography technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron Computed Tomography (N CT) is the nondestructive testing technique. Neutrons can interact with the light materials and can be distinguished between light materials and heavy materials as well. The good profile data were obtained from the television method using neutron beam from the research reactor. N CT images were reconstructed and displayed on IBM P C 80486 microcomputer with VGA color monitor by 64 gray levels. The convolution filter backprojection technique and Shepp-Logan filter function were selected for the reconstruction program

159

LDAP Injection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase in the number of databases accessed only by some applications has made code injection attacks an important threat to almost any current system. If one of these applications accepts inputs from a client and executes these inputs without first validating them, the attackers are free to execute their own queries and therefore, to extract, modify or delete the content of the database associated to the application. In this paper a deep analysis of the LDAP injection techniques is presented. Furthermore, a clear distinction between classic and blind injection techniques is made.

Jose Maria ALONSO

2009-11-01

160

Millimicrosecond pulse techniques  

CERN Document Server

Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

Lewis, I A D

2013-01-01

161

Millimicrosecond pulse techniques  

CERN Document Server

Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

Lewis, Ian A D

1959-01-01

162

Wireless communications algorithmic techniques  

CERN Document Server

This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

2013-01-01

163

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 2): Transferencias nerviosas intraplexuales / Nerve Reconstruction Techniques in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Surgery (Part 2): Intraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nervio [...] sa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc., para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En una primera entrega se analizaron las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales; este trabajo viene a complementar al anterior revisando las transferencias intraplexuales, y así completando el análisis de las transferencias nerviosas disponibles en la cirugía del plexo braquial. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the l

J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; D., Robla-Costales; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

2011-12-01

164

A video authentication technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system

165

The attribute measurement technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

Macarthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Langner, Diana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Razinkov, Sergey [RFNC-VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [RFNC-VNIIEF

2010-01-01

166

Remote handling technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economical operation of a fusion reactor requires intensive maintenance. For this purpose and due to the special conditions with regard to the components of a fusion reactor, remote handling instruments and machinery have to be developed. The state-of-the-art of such remote handling technique, in particular of multi-purpose and special devices (master-slave-manipulators), is described. (DG)

167

Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques  

OpenAIRE

This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations.

Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

2010-01-01

168

Radionuclide techniques in cardiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several radionuclide techniques to study cardiac pathophysiology have been developed over the last decade. There are four major areas of interest for the clinician: cardiac function, myocardial perfusion, myocardial infarction and myocardial metabolism. Each area of interest is discussed. General methodology, clinical indications, limitations and possible future developments are mentioned. (Auth.)

169

Nuclear techniques in NDT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper an attempt is made to present the different nuclear NDT techniques as a composite system of complementary parts towards evaluation of engineering components for quality control and quality assurance. Some of the salient applications are indicated. Developments in the systems utilising micro-electronic hardware and data acquisition and processing for imaging are also mentioned

170

The ion plating technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ion plating technique and the characteristics of the coatings are described, and the mechanisms involved are discussed. It is essentially vapour deposition on to a substrate which is the cathode of a glow discharge and the substrate has been cleaned and is maintained clean by sputtering. The source of evaporant is resistance heated. (author)

171

Safeguards techniques and equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

172

Computerized tomography: Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is an introduction to the physical and technical fundamentals of computerized tomography. The measuring and imaging mechanisms of the various CT techniques are described with a view to relevant medical perspectives and potential side effects. Particular regard is given to magnetic resonance tomography. (orig./MG)

173

Structural Geology Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.

Dutch, Steven

2009-05-21

174

Correlative Techniques in Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Imaging is an important component in basic research, product development and understanding structure/function relationships in agricultural commodities and products. An array of microscopes and techniques can be used illustrate the structure and microchemistry of diverse samples. Examples of the var...

175

Analysis and analytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technology associated with the use of organic coolants in nuclear reactors depends to a large extent on the determination and control of their physical and chemical properties, and particularly on the viability, speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy (depending on the intended usage) of the methods employed in detection and analytical determination. This has led to the study and development of numerous techniques, some specially designed for the extreme conditions involved in working with the types of product in question and others adapted from existing techniques. In the specific case of polyphenyl and hydropolyphenyl mixtures, which have been the principal subjects of study to date and offer greatest promise, the analytical problems are broadly as follows: Composition of initial product or virgin coolant composition of macro components and amounts of organic and inorganic impurities; Coolant during and after operation. Determination of gases and organic compounds produced by pyrolysis and radiolysis (degradation and polymerization products); Control of systems for purifying and regenerating the coolant after use. Dissolved pressurization gases; Detection of intermediate products during decomposition; these are generally very unstable (free radicals); Degree of fouling and film formation. Tests to determine potential formation of films; Corrosion of structural elements and canning materials; Health and safety. Toxicity, inflammability and impurities that can y, inflammability and impurities that can be activated. Although some of the above problems are closely interrelated and entail similar techniques, they vary as to degree of difficulty. Another question is the difficulty of distinguishing clearly between techniques for determining physical and physico-chemical properties, on one hand, and analytical techniques on the other. Any classification is therefore somewhat arbitrary (for example, in the case of dosimetry and techniques for determining mean molecular weights or electrical conductivity). For any analytical technique to be efficient two pre-requisites must be met: The sample must be truly representative; and the results must be available at the time when required. The papers mentioned here are PL-194/3, PL-194/4, PL-194/6, PL-194/7, PL-194/8 and PL-194/11, of which abstracts are given in Section III

176

Autocontrol technique of combined centrifuges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design characteristic of the autocontrol technique of the combined centrifuge is introduced. Digital technique, vary structure control and interface technique, graphical display techniques, digital communication technique as well as electronic technique are applied in the course of research. Automation in the operation of large scale combined centrifuges and the course of combined test has been realized and it can coordinate with other systems of status monitoring, data collecting and centrifugal force-aerodynamic force matched load automatically

177

Nuclear techniques in agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutanlop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among the scientists of the country to use this technique. The NA and BTD provides service to outside users for research and development purpose and many scientists have availed of this service. (author)

178

Potentiel de production de biogaz à partir de résidus agricoles ou de cultures dédiées en France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Et si on destinait une part importante des résidus agricoles à la production de biogaz ? Encore faut-il évaluer les ressources mobilisables, les taux de résidus disponibles, les moyens de collecte permettant la production ainsi que les rendements envisageables en fonction des cultures utilisées. L'étude présentée ici laisse entrevoir un potentiel important largement sous-estimé.

Essam Almansour, Jean-François Bonnet et Manuel Heredia

2011-02-01

179

Techniques de hacking  

CERN Document Server

Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

Erickson, Jon

2008-01-01

180

Ion beam analysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Accelerator Applications group at ANSTO operates, maintains and runs analytical facilities utilising both of these accelerators; the 3 MV Van de Graaff and the 10 MV Tandem Accelerator (ANTARES). A variety of sample measurement end-stations, equipped with X-ray, Gamma ray and charged particle detectors are available. The 3 MV accelerator is mainly used for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and some Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), while the higher energies and the heavier ions from the Tandem accelerator are used for sample characterisations utilising techniques such as recoil time-of-flight spectrometry (RToF), NRA and heavy ion RBS. This article describes some of the techniques used at ANSTO, and some typical applications to which they have been applied

181

Ion beam analysis techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Accelerator Applications group at ANSTO operates, maintains and runs analytical facilities utilising both of these accelerators; the 3 MV Van de Graaff and the 10 MV Tandem Accelerator (ANTARES). A variety of sample measurement end-stations, equipped with X-ray, Gamma ray and charged particle detectors are available. The 3 MV accelerator is mainly used for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and some Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), while the higher energies and the heavier ions from the Tandem accelerator are used for sample characterisations utilising techniques such as recoil time-of-flight spectrometry (RToF), NRA and heavy ion RBS. This article describes some of the techniques used at ANSTO, and some typical applications to which they have been applied 3 refs., 9 figs.

Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.; Cohen, D.D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

1998-03-01

182

Parallel simulated annealing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Simulated annealing is a stochastic algorithm for solving discrete optimization problems, such as the traveling salesman problem and circuit placement. To reduce execution time, researchers have parallelized simulated annealing. Serial-like algorithms identically maintain the properties of sequential algorithms. Altered generation algorithms modify state generation to reduce communication, but retain accurate cost calculations. Asynchronous algorithms reduce communication further by calculating cost with outdated information. Experiments suggest that asynchronous simulated annealing can obtain greater speedups than other techniques. It exhibits the properties of cooperative phenomena: processors asynchronously exchange information to bring the system toward a global minimum. This paper provides a comprehensive, taxonomic survey of parallel simulated annealing techniques, highlighting their performance and applicability.

Greening, Daniel R.

1990-06-01

183

Techniques of Radio Astronomy  

CERN Document Server

This chapter provides an overview of the techniques of radio astronomy. This study began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cosmos, but the period of rapid progress began fifteen years later. From then to the present, the wavelength range expanded from a few meters to the sub-millimeters, the angular resolution increased from degrees to finer than milli arc seconds and the receiver sensitivities have improved by large factors. Today, the technique of aperture synthesis produces images comparable to or exceeding those obtained with the best optical facilities. In addition to technical advances, the scientific discoveries made in the radio range have contributed much to opening new visions of our universe. There are numerous national radio facilities spread over the world. In the near future, a new era of truly global radio observatories will begin. This chapter contains a short history of the development of the field, details of calibration procedures, coherent/heterodyne and incoherent/bolom...

Wilson, T L

2011-01-01

184

Laser beam shaping techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

2000-03-16

185

Network acceleration techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

2012-01-01

186

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software development is the set of activities and processes for programmers that will eventually result in a software product. This may include requirement analysis, software design, implementation, testing, documentation, maintenance and then describing computer programs that meet user requirements within the constraints of the environment. It is a structure imposed on the development of software product. Software development is the most important process in developing a Software/tool. The successful execution of the project highly depends on the techniques used to develop the model. Software development technology has an under the model-explicit or implicit-of the development process. In order to understand more about the development process and the methodologies, we abstract from these. The perspective chosen for the abstraction include models developed during the process and the kind of abstraction involved in the techniques of the process.

Asst. Prof. Rajani Kota

2012-05-01

187

Signal integrity characterization techniques  

CERN Document Server

"Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

Bogatin, Eric

2009-01-01

188

Magnetron sputtering techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inherently low deposition rates of conventional sputtering techniques have limited their practical use to applications where the required film thickness is low, or where the cost of deposition is not a critical factor. The key to the low deposition rate is the low efficiency of ionisation of the sputtering gas. The use of a toroidal magnetic field to trap electrons near to the cathode surface increasing ionisation efficiency, is the basis of high rate magnetron sputtering. The basic magnetron process is described, and its relevance as a deposition technique is compared with conventional sputtering, evaporation, and ion plating. The essential non-uniformity of cathode erosion causes complications in the practical applications of magnetron sources. Several alternative solutions are described and compared. Current applications of magnetron sputtering are reviewed, and forecasts of future trends in applications and equipment design are given. (author)

189

Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

2007-01-01

190

Resin infiltration transfer technique  

Science.gov (United States)

A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

Miller, David V. (Pittsburgh, PA); Baranwal, Rita (Glenshaw, PA)

2009-12-08

191

Endoscopic thyroidectomy: Our technique  

OpenAIRE

Minimally invasive surgery is widely employed for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Several minimal access approaches to the thyroid gland have been described. The commonly performed surgeries have been endoscopic lobectomies. We have performed endoscopic total thyroidectomy by the anterior chest wall approach. In this study, we have described our technique and evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of this procedure. Materials and Methods: From June 2005 to August 2006, 15 cases of...

Puntambekar Shailesh; Palep Reshma; Patil Anjali; Rayate Neeraj; Joshi Saurabh; Agarwal Geetanjali; Joshi Milind

2007-01-01

192

Visual Data Mining Techniques  

OpenAIRE

Never before in history has data been generated at such high volumes as it is today. Exploring and analyzing the vast volumes of data has become increasingly difficult. Information visualization and visual data mining can help to deal with the flood of information. The advantage of visual data exploration is that the user is directly involved in the data mining process. There are a large number of information visualization techniques that have been developed over the last two decades to suppo...

Keim, Daniel A.; Ward, Matthew O.

2002-01-01

193

DNA Microarray Technique  

OpenAIRE

DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and short tandem repeats (STRs). In addition to the many molecula...

Sp, Thakare; Pk, Trivedi; Ph, Jani; Gv, Patel

2012-01-01

194

Advanced Techniques in {XSLT}  

OpenAIRE

This talk focuses on some advanced techniques used within XSLT, such as sort procedures, keys, interface with identifier management, and priority rules among templates matching an XML node. We recall how these features work and propose some examples, some being related to bibliography styles. A short comparison between XSLT and nbst, the language used within MlBibTeX for bibliography styles, is given, too.

Hufflen, Jean-michel

2006-01-01

195

Radiation techniques for acromegaly  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Radiotherapy (RT) remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and co...

Minniti Giuseppe; Scaringi Claudia; Enrici Riccardo

2011-01-01

196

Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques  

CERN Document Server

Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

Chis, Timur

2009-01-01

197

Computer Assisted Audit Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the modern point of view, audit takes intoaccount especially the information systems representingmainly the examination performed by a professional asregards the manner for developing an activity by means ofcomparing it to the quality criteria specific to this activity.Having as reference point this very general definition ofauditing, it must be emphasized that the best known segmentof auditing is the financial audit that had a parallel evolutionto the accountancy one.The present day phase of developing the financial audithas as main trait the internationalization of the accountantprofessional. World wide there are multinational companiesthat offer services in the financial auditing, taxing andconsultancy domain. The auditors, natural persons and auditcompanies, take part at the works of the national andinternational authorities for setting out norms in theaccountancy and auditing domain.The computer assisted audit techniques can be classified inseveral manners according to the approaches used by theauditor. The most well-known techniques are comprised inthe following categories: testing data techniques, integratedtest, parallel simulation, revising the program logics,programs developed upon request, generalized auditsoftware, utility programs and expert systems.

Eugenia Iancu

2007-01-01

198

Techniques for Wireless Applications  

KAUST Repository

Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

2012-05-01

199

Image compression technique  

Science.gov (United States)

An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

Fu, Chi-Yung (San Francisco, CA); Petrich, Loren I. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

200

Best available techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work is currently in progress within the EU to determine which techniques are to form the benchmark standards preventing and controlling pollution from large combustion plants (LCPs) under the new Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (IPCC). It is being undertaken by a working group made up of representatives from each member state, industry and one from the European Environment Bureau (EEB). It expects to report in Spring 2002, with final report describing the Best Available Techniques Reference Document (BREF). The author reports on some BATs under consideration by the EEB as available from Alstom Power for desulfurization. It also describes its proposal for the SCONOX process for NOx control from gas-fired LCPs, the DENIT SCR system for other fuels, and fabric filters for particulate controls. EEB has submitted details of General Electric's H System to increase efficiency of combined-cycle gas turbines. Despite advantages of pressurizing fluidized bed combustion, the problem of ash re-use must call into question any widespread acceptance of this technique as BAT under IPCC so EEB has recommended this purely as a contribution to the debate. The draft of the BREF is due early this year. 1 ref.

James, L.

2001-03-01

201

Applied ALARA techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

202

Neutron interference imaging technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neutron interference imaging technique has been developed for these years with several methods. Here we introduce recent results of neutron interference method. The neutron interference imaging experiment with two absorption gratings has been done. We develop new way to fabricate absorption gratings for neutron with the pitch of 150 ?m, 180 ?m, and 200 ?m. Small break in an acrylic plate was observed. We expect that the neutron interference imaging method can become new method of a nondestructive inspection method for reinforced plastics and composite material such as CFRP and so on especially installed at compact neutron source which is being developed in RIKEN now. (author)

203

DNA Microarray Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

Thakare SP

2012-11-01

204

Ionized cluster beam technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionized cluster beams (ICB) are widely used to deposit metal, semiconductor and insulating films. This paper describes the current state of this technology in both fundamental and applications areas. ICB provides tight control of the kinetic energy and ion content of the beam, which gives the technique a unique advantage compared to MBE, VPE, LPE, MOCVD, sputtering, or other thin film deposition methods. The development of this technology should allow the deposition of high quality material at low temperature onto a wide variety of substrate surfaces and even permit the formation of thin film materials not previously possible. (author)

205

Monopulse principles and techniques  

CERN Document Server

Monopulse is a type of radar that sends additional information in the signal in order to avoid problems caused by rapid changes in signal strength. Monopulse is resistant to jamming which is one of the main reasons it is used in most radar systems today. This updated and expanded edition of an Artech House classic offers you a current and comprehensive treatment of monopulse radar principles, techniques, and applications. The Second Edition features two brand new chapters, covering monopulse countermeasures and counter-countermeasures and monopulse for airborne radar and homing seekers.This es

Sherman, Samuel M

2011-01-01

206

A fuzzy disaggregation technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a problem of time series disaggregation in presence of broad information lack. In this framework it is not possible to follow standard methodologies, like those stemming from the Chow and Lin algorithm and based on probabilistic assumptions. In general terms, when information sets are limited, instead of referring to probabilistic measures it could be more appropriate to adopt an uncertainty measure satisfying only some general properties, like the fuzzy one. After a synthetic survey about fuzzy aggregation operators, we introduce a fuzzy disaggregation technique, based on Choquet capacity theory and characterized by De Finetti coherence.

Alessandro Polli

2013-05-01

207

Evolution of Opf techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper analyses some possible applications of Opf techniques to the new market scenario of electric systems. New control tools (the adoption of Facts devices, or the use of correct economical signals related to nodal prices) are introduced. As the technical and economic requirements of the market could give rise to mutual conflict, the use of Multi objective Optimisation (MO) is envisaged. MO allows the management of different objectives and makes it easier to take a decision, as it gives indications on the consequences of the choice with respect to all the objective functions considered

208

Electricity demand forecasting techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

209

Survey Of Cooling Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods of maintaining electronics at best operating temperatures reviewed. Paper surveys cooling techniques for electronic components and sensors that must be kept at temperatures ranging from thousandths of kelvin to room temperature. Discusses characteristics of various coolers in terms of ground and space applications, cooling capacity, reliability, and temperature range. Also discusses briefly, cooling of conventional electronic circuitry operating few degrees above environmental temperature by natural or forced convection of air or liquid. At greater length, discusses passive and active refrigeration of "cold" electronic circuitry operating below environmental temperature.

Chan, Chung K.

1989-01-01

210

Landing techniques in volleyball.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knee injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament lesions and patellar tendonitis are very frequent in volleyball, and are often attributed to micro traumas that occur during the landing phase of airborne actions. The aim of the present study was to compare different jumping activities during official men's and women's volleyball games. Twelve top-level matches from the Italian men's and women's professional leagues were analysed. The jumps performed during the games were classified according to the landing technique used by the player (left or right foot or both feet together), court position, and ball trajectory. Chi-square analyses were performed to detect differences in landing techniques between the sexes, court positions, and trajectories when serving, attacking, blocking, and setting. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the sexes for block, set, and spike but not for the jump serve. The frequency of landings on one foot was related to court position and the trajectory of the sets: when spiking faster sets, the players were more likely to use a one-footed landing. The present results should help coaches and physiotherapists to devise appropriate training and prevention programmes, and reveal the need for further detailed biomechanical investigations of the relationships between landings and knee injuries. PMID:20967671

Lobietti, Roberto; Coleman, Simon; Pizzichillo, Eduardo; Merni, Franco

2010-11-01

211

A Technique: Exposure Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

Serkan AKKOYUNLU

2013-07-01

212

Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

E. Lubrano

2012-06-01

213

Underwater cutting techniques developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

214

Stochastic Process Optimization Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conventional optimization methods were generally based on a deterministic approach, since their purpose is to find out an accurate solution. However, when the solution space is extremely narrowed as a result of setting many inequality constraints, an ingenious scheme based on experience may be needed. Similarly, parameters must be adjusted with solution search algorithms when nonlinearity of the problem is strong, because the risk of falling into local solution is high. Thus, we here propose a new method in which the optimization problem is replaced with stochastic process based on path integral techniques used in quantum mechanics and an approximate value of optimal solution is calculated as an expected value instead of accurate value. It was checked through some optimization problems that this method using stochastic process is effective. We call this new optimization method “stochastic process optimization technique (SPOT”. It is expected that this method will enable efficient optimization by avoiding the above difficulties. In this report, a new optimization method based on a stochastic process is formulated, and several calculation examples are shown to prove its effectiveness as a method to obtain approximate solution for optimization problems.

Hiroaki Yoshida

2014-11-01

215

Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA) include radiography, ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis) with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes). US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses) and cutaneous (skin and nails) involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques. PMID:22690386

Spadaro, A; Lubrano, E

2012-01-01

216

Decision Analysis Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most significant step in building structure maintenance decision is the physical inspection of the facility to be maintained. The physical inspection involved cursory assessment of the structure and ratings of the identified defects based on expert evaluation. The objective of this paper is to describe present a novel approach to prioritizing the criticality of physical defects in a residential building system using multi criteria decision analysis approach. A residential building constructed in 1985 was considered in this study. Four criteria which includes; Physical Condition of the building system (PC, Effect on Asset (EA, effect on Occupants (EO and Maintenance Cost (MC are considered in the inspection. The building was divided in to nine systems regarded as alternatives. Expert's choice software was used in comparing the importance of the criteria against the main objective, whereas structured Proforma was used in quantifying the defects observed on all building systems against each criteria. The defects severity score of each building system was identified and later multiplied by the weight of the criteria and final hierarchy was derived. The final ranking indicates that, electrical system was considered the most critical system with a risk value of 0.134 while ceiling system scored the lowest risk value of 0.066. The technique is often used in prioritizing mechanical equipment for maintenance planning. However, result of this study indicates that the technique could be used in prioritizing building systems for maintenance planning

Hammad Dabo Baba

2014-01-01

217

Variation in mantle technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

74 European and American radiotherapists responded to a questionnaire investigating the treatment of a patient with stage IIA non-bulky Hodgkin's disease by mantle irradiation. A consensus was present for the dose aims to involved and uninvolved lymph nodes and the acceptable incidence of late normal tissue effects. There was less agreement as to the total dose and dose per fraction required to maintain normal tissue toxicity within the agreed acceptable incidence. Variation was found in the radiation technique employed, the amount of spinal cord shielding used, the prescription point, modifications if irradiation was given after chemotherapy, and the routine recording of dose and dose per fraction to the normal tissue at risk. This descriptive survey confirms the need for well designed quality assurance programmes and indicates the areas of particular uncertainty that currently exist. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

218

[Therapeutic education didactic techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective. PMID:23157069

Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

2012-10-01

219

Advanced enrichment techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

220

Advanced enrichment techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

221

New accelerating techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A selection of new accelerating techniques is presented. The criterion for having selected a certain scheme was the promise to achieve high accelerating gradients. All schemes belong to one of three essentially different classes: - Near field accelerators, where the particles travel on straight trajectories in free space. The accelerating field, parallel to the trajectory, is guided by a nearby structure with dimensions of the order of the R.F. wave-length (grating accelerator) or the bunch length (wakefield accelerator). - Far-field accelerators. The particles travel in free space on curved trajectories and the acceleration takes place in transverse direction by an el.-magn. beam in free space or weakly guided (inverse free-electron-laser accelerator). - Media accelerators. The particles travel on straight trajectories in a medium (gas, plasma) and are accelerated either by el. magn. or el.-static fields parallel to their trajectory (beam wave accelerators, beam front accelerators, plasma beat-wave accelerator). 31 refs.

222

Tracer technique in casting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of silumine modification studies are described. The following modificators have been used: sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, cryolite labelled with sodium-24 as well as potassium chloride labelled with potassium-42 and phosphoric copper labelled with phosphorus-32. The following factors have been identified as results of the investigations: the effects of modificator chemical composition, temperature and feeding technique on the residual sodium and phosphorus content in silumines; sodium and potassium amounts transfered into the alloys from the salt constituents of fluxes; the effects of the melt maturing time on sodium and phosphorus losses at various temperatures with degassing by hexachloroethane and chlorine and the same during remelting. Some results are also presented concerning the effects of chemical composition and a number of metallurgical factors on grey iron tightness

223

The Sterile Insect Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

224

New vitrification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has developed a new direct-induction cold-crucible glass melting technique to the industrial stage. Process equipment is no longer subject to previous limitations on the glass melting temperature and capacity, making it possible in future facilities to vitrify not only high-level but also low- and intermediate-level liquid wastes. In the new vitrification facilities the liquid evaporation capacity has been increased by adding a head-end concentration step prior to calcining, and by increasing the calciner evaporation capacity. Vitrification furnace performance has been enhanced by increasing the melting capacity as well as the melting temperature to produce a wider range of glass formulations. Consequently, liquid waste vitrification now includes two types of facilities for high-level wastes and for low-to intermediate-level wastes

225

Spyware Detection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer viruses are big threat to computer world; researchers doing work in this area have made various efforts in the direction of classification and detection methods of these viruses. Graph mining, system call arrangement and CFG analysis are some latest research activities in this field. The computability theory and the semi computable functions are quite important in our context of analyzing malicious activities. A mathematical model like random access stored program machine with the association of attached background is used by Ferenc Leitold while explaining modeling of viruses in his paper. Computer viruses like polymorphic viruses and metamorphic viruses use more efficient techniques for their evolution so it is required to use strong models for understanding their evolution and then apply detection followed by the process of removal. Code Emulation is one of the strongest ways to analyze computer viruses but the anti-emulation activities made by virus designers are also active. This paper involves the study of spywares.

Ankur Singh Bist

2014-02-01

226

[New retinal imaging techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal imaging techniques progress rapidly. In many cases, the diagnosis of macular diseases can be done by the combination of fundus photography (color, monochromatic or autofluorescence images) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Fluorescein or indocyanine green angiography remains useful when the other exams are not conclusive. Fundus angiography can be coupled with OCT. Other new investigation methods have appeared such as wide-field retinography on the one hand, or adaptive optics on the other hand which allows visualising photoreceptors in a very small field. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is based on color fundus photos. When the diagnostic of diabetic retinopathy is obvious, a more comprehensive fundus examination is warranted to decide on the treatment and follow-up. PMID:23457827

Gaudric, Alain

2013-01-01

227

Nuclear techniques in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long term development and successful utilization of the Tongonan geothermal field for electric power generation is ultimately a function of the response of the reservoir to extensive exploitation. A field drawdown test of several years duration has been planned to test this response. A number of nuclear chemical techniques have been incorporated into this to assist in quantitatively tracing the subsurface movements of both reservoir and reinjected fluids; and to provide an early warning of changes in the physical and chemical properties of the reservoir fluids with respect to natural recharge. The programme will be implemented by Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) under contract to Philippine National Oil Company - Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC). (author)

228

Nozzle beam techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since its discovery by Dunoyer in 1911 and its early exploitation beginning in 1919 in Stern's Laboratory, the molecular beam technique, used in deflection and scattering experiments, has been a rich source of information about the structure and properties of atoms and molecules. Due to the development of nozzle beam methods, it is now possible to achieve higher intensities, narrower velocity distributions, and intermediate energies (from 0.5 to about 40 eV), all of which are of extreme interest in chemical reactions and many other collision processes. Furthermore, the present state-of-art of supersonic molecular beam technology offers new, interesting possibilities which are summarized, emphasizing the research that has occurred in the most recent years. (Auth.)

229

Changes in urological surgical techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, laparoscopic and afterwards robotic techniques have constituted most of urologic surgery procedures. Open surgery may give place to robotic surgery due to possible widespread use of robots in the future. Studies, that compare these two techniques are usually designed about radical prostatectomy, since it is the most common operation performed by using these techniques. In literature,robotic surgery seems more advantageous than other techniques but the most important disadvantage of this technique is cost-effective problems. In present review,history of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery, and comparison of advantages, disadvantages and cost of these techniques have been discussed with literature.

Oktay Üçer

2010-06-01

230

ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S) FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS  

OpenAIRE

: Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effecti...

Akwasi Asamoah; Charles Antwi-Boasiako; Kwasi Frimpong-Mensah

2013-01-01

231

Geological data integration techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

232

Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy. Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction. Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other. Deriving contours for planning teletherapy. Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit. Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs. Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

233

Classification Based Outlier Detection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Outlier detection is an important research areaforming part of many application domains. Specific application domains call for specific detection techniques, while the more generic ones can be applied in a large number of scenarios with good results. This survey tries to provide a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on Classification Based Outlier Detection listing out various techniques as applicable to our area of research. We have focused on the underlying approach adopted by each technique. We have identified key assumptions, which are used by the techniques to differentiate between normal and Outlier behavior. When applying a given technique to a particular domain, these assumptions can be used as guidelines to assess the effectiveness of the technique in that domain. We provide a basic outlier detection technique, and then show how the different existing techniques in that category are variants of this basic technique. This template provides an easier and succinct understanding of the Classification based techniques. Further we identify the advantages and disadvantages of various classification based techniques. We also provide a discussion on the computational complexity of the techniques since it is an important issue in our application domain. We hope that this survey will provide a better understanding of the different directions in which research has been done on this topic, and how techniques developed in thisarea can be applied in other domains for which they were not intended to begin with.

Dr. Shuchita Upadhyaya, Karanjit Singh

2012-04-01

234

IC Self-Help Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-Help Techniques For many people, living with interstitial cystitis (IC) is a challenge that requires creativity, patience and ... Travel Restroom Access Learn more about IC self-help techniques - check out the IC Reading List . IC ...

235

Changes in urological surgical techniques  

OpenAIRE

Recently, laparoscopic and afterwards robotic techniques have constituted most of urologic surgery procedures. Open surgery may give place to robotic surgery due to possible widespread use of robots in the future. Studies, that compare these two techniques are usually designed about radical prostatectomy, since it is the most common operation performed by using these techniques. In literature,robotic surgery seems more advantageous than other techniques but the most important disadvantage of ...

Oktay Üçer; Bilal Gümü?

2010-01-01

236

LESS nephrectomy: technique and outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) represents the next step of laparoscopic surgery and a major advancement towards scarless surgery. LESS radical nephrectomy is an evolving technique based on technological advancement of laparoscopic instruments as well as the refinement of existing techniques.The current report describes LESS nephrectomy technique, presents the experience with the technique in a series of 42 patients and reviews current literature in the field of LESS nephrectomy. PMID:22495269

Liatsikos, Evangelos; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Do, Minh; Georgiopoulos, Ioannis; Dietel, Anja; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

2012-04-01

237

Steganalysis: Detecting LSB Steganographic Techniques  

OpenAIRE

Steganalysis means analysis of stego images. Like cryptanalysis, steganalysis is used to detect messages often encrypted using secret key from stego images produced by steganography techniques. Recently lots of new and improved steganography techniques are developed and proposed by researchers which require robust steganalysis techniques to detect the stego images having minimum false alarm rate. This paper discusses about the different Steganalysis techniques and help to un...

Sarkar, Tanmoy; Sanyal, Sugata

2014-01-01

238

Technique of pneumatic pest control  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Pest control in organic production of berries, potatoes and vegetables usually employs spreading technique of registered phytopharmaceutical agents. This technique may be supported or even replaced by pneumatic pest control. Up to now there is no evaluation of pneumatic pest control available from agricultural engineering point of view. This paper concerns the following questions: Which techniques of pneumatic pest control are available and how may these techniques be improved in ...

Scha?fer, Winfried

2003-01-01

239

Utilidad de las técnicas de imagen en el hiperparatiroidismo secundario / Usefulness of imaging techniques in secondary hyperparathyroidism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica que desarrollan hiperparatiroidismo secundario (HPTS), las técnicas de imagen pueden ser de utilidad, fundamentalmente para valorar la localización, el tamaño y el funcionalismo de las glándulas paratiroides. Esta revisión valora las técnicas de imagen d [...] e las que se dispone actualmente para evaluar las glándulas paratiroides en el contexto del HPTS. Se hace referencia a: 1) ecografía cervical (modo B, Doppler, Doppler-color y power-Doppler); 2) estudios gammagráficos (talio, 99mTc-MIBI y 99mTc-tetrofosmin), incluyendo técnicas especiales de adquisición de imágenes (Pinhole, SPECT); 3) estudios PET (tomografía por emisión de positrones); 4) tomografía computarizada (TC) y resonancia magnética, y 5) escáneres híbridos (SPECT/TC y PET/TC). Nuestra recomendación es practicar, en todos los pacientes con HPTS que no responden inicial y fácilmente al tratamiento médico, una gammagrafía con 99mTc-MIBI que puede complementarse con un Eco-Doppler color. Si la gammagrafía es positiva y, tras gradación de la intensidad de captación, alguna de las glándulas (no ectópicas) presenta un índice intenso, aunque se puede intentar intensificar el tratamiento, debería pensarse en la realización de una paratiroidectomía. Si la gammagrafía es positiva y, tras gradación de la intensidad de captación, ninguna de las glándulas (no ectópicas) presenta un índice intenso, debería intentarse la intensificación del tratamiento, y si no existe buena respuesta, considerar la paratiroidectomía. Si la gammagrafía es negativa, debería practicarse un PET si se dispone de dicha prueba. En caso de no disponer de PET, lo aconsejable sería realizar una resonancia magnética. Abstract in english For patients with chronic renal failure who develop secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), imaging techniques can be useful, especially to evaluate the location, size and functional status of parathyroid glands. This review analyzes all available imaging procedures in the context of SHPT. We evaluate [...] : 1) Cervical ultrasound (B-mode, Doppler, colour-Doppler and power-Doppler), 2) Scintigraphic studies (Tallium, 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-tetrofosmin), including non-standard image acquisition techniques (Pinhole, SPECT), 3) Positron emission tomography (PET), 4) Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 5) hybrid scanners (SPECT/CT and PET/CT). Our recommendation is that SHPT patients who are initially non responders to medical therapy should be investigated using parathyroid scintigraphy and cervical ultrasound. 99mTc-MIBI uptake can be graded in a semiquantitative scale. Intense uptake indicates a low probability of success using medical treatment and parathyroidectomy should be considered. A moderate to faint uptake indicates that a more intensive medical therapy would probably be beneficial. In the case of no uptake of 99mTc-MIBI, PET should be performed. Where this is not available, MRI could be a possible alternative.

José Vicente, Torregrosa; I., Félez; D., Fuster.

240

MFIX documentation numerical technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges) is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model for describing chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, which typically occur in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. The calculations give time-dependent information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. The theoretical basis of the calculations is described in the MFIX Theory Guide. Installation of the code, setting up of a run, and post-processing of results are described in MFIX User`s manual. Work was started in April 1996 to increase the execution speed and accuracy of the code, which has resulted in MFIX 2.0. To improve the speed of the code the old algorithm was replaced by a more implicit algorithm. In different test cases conducted the new version runs 3 to 30 times faster than the old version. To increase the accuracy of the computations, second order accurate discretization schemes were included in MFIX 2.0. Bubbling fluidized bed simulations conducted with a second order scheme show that the predicted bubble shape is rounded, unlike the (unphysical) pointed shape predicted by the first order upwind scheme. This report describes the numerical technique used in MFIX 2.0.

Syamlal, M.

1998-01-01

241

Specialized financing techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

242

[Hepatobiliary anastomosis techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of hepatobiliary anastomoses is influenced by the diameter of the bile duct, the location within the biliary tract, the situation of primary or revision surgery and accompanying infections. The exact preoperative diagnostics of the anatomy of the biliary tract are indispensable for low complication rates. Within reconstructive surgery, hepaticojejunostomy has been established as the standard technique and a biliodigestive anastomosis is performed proximal to the cystic duct and 2-3 cm below the fork in the hepatic duct. In general, end-to-end anastomoses of the common bile duct are not recommended due to the high risk for stenosis. Within the liver hilus an exact preparation of all tubular structures is mandatory. With regard to possible perioperative complications operations on the hepatic duct or segmental bile ducts should be performed in specialized centers. Methods of drainage in hepatobiliary surgery are percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD), internal-external drainage, internal drainage with endoscopic or surgically placed stents, external-internal-external drainage and the T-drain. PMID:21153387

Heidenhain, C; Rosch, R; Neumann, U P

2011-01-01

243

The Shouldice Hospital technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Shouldice repair is used for all types of inguinal hernia whether indirect, direct, sliding, multiple, recurrent, male or female. Local anesthesia is given in more than 95% of cases. The repair is a modified Bassini. Essential preliminaries are accurate dissection at the internal ring with adequate treatment of any indirect hernia. The cremaster is excised. Accurate recognition and definition of the transversalis plane is routine and fundamental. Essentially the repair is an overlap of the divided transversalis plane utilising 4 lines of continuous monofilament stainless steel wire 34 gauge. Patients, ambulant immediately, stay in hospital 2-3 days postoperatively. A large personal series of more than 20,000 inguinal repairs performed almost exclusively in this hospital during a 30 year period from 1954 to 1984 is tabulated. Recurrence rates of less than 1% for repair of primary inguinal hernia and re-recurrence rates of 2-4% for repair of recurrent inguinal hernia are reported. Surgeons in other countries now employing this technique achieve comparable results, often using other non-absorbable suture material. PMID:3771116

Glassow, F

1986-01-01

244

Improved Search Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

2012-01-01

245

[Evolving intravitreous injection technique].  

Science.gov (United States)

The technique of intravitreous injections has been well documented for several years. Recently, a descriptive article on the intravitreous injections procedure was published in the Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie, and the AFSSAPS (French agency for drug safety) released recommendations concerning this matter on the occasion of commercial launch of pegaptanib. Since that time, the number of intravitreal injections has considerably increased, because anti-VEGF drugs had been made available to ophthalmologists, and several teams have performed a large number of procedures, allowing them to better comprehend intravitreous injections. The present paper describes our current practice of intravitreous injections. Several specialists have exchanged their experiences and issued a common synthesis. Detailed modifications of the initial recommendations have been suggested, with such basic changes such as abandoning preoperative pupil dilatation and easing postsurgical monitoring. Follow-up examinations should be adapted to each patient rather than being systematic. The suggested modifications do not change the procedure of intravitreous injections substantially, but they simplify many steps and detail the various procedures when consensus is lacking. PMID:18772818

Weber, M; Cohen, S Y; Tadayoni, R; Coscas, G; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Devin, F; Gaudric, A; Mauget-Faysse, M; Sahel, J A; Soubrane, G; Souied, E; Korobelnik, J F

2008-06-01

246

Dating technique tested  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes.

1985-04-01

247

Modified Pulsed Source Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modified pulsed source techniques of Gozani and of Garelis and Russell were checked experimentally at the swimming pool reactor SAPHIR. These methods are characterized by the simultaneous experimental determination of negative reactivity and generation time. Both quantities obtained by these methods are in units of dollar (i.e. ?eff) and therefore are independent of arbitrary theoretical definitions. Measurements were carried out for several subcritical states. Various proposed correction terms were scrutinized experimentally. The effects of the finite width of the neutron pulses were investigated. Measurements were carried out for a variety of delayed neutron states at the beginning and end of the experiment. All corrected reactivity values agreed well within their statistical errors. Systematic errors caused by spatial harmonics were studied by varying the position of the detector. It is shown that in the presence of positive harmonics (normally close to the source) the evaluation procedure proposed by Gozani generally gave results slightly below the correct reactivity values, whereas the procedure proposed by Garelis and Russell resulted in slightly larger ones. For negative harmonics the situation is reversed. Thus, the two methods may be used to bracket the correct values of reactivity and generation time. The reactivity of a state near -10$ was measured in this manner with a precision of 2%. (author)

248

Neutron detection technique  

CERN Document Server

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has the ability to measure the total flux of all active flavors of neutrinos using the neutral current reaction, whose signature is a neutron. By comparing the rates of the neutral current reaction to the charged current reaction, which only detects electron neutrinos, one can test the neutrino oscillation hypothesis independent of solar models. It is necessary to understand the neutron detection efficiency of the detector to make use of the neutral current reaction. This report demonstrates a coincidence technique to identify neutrons emitted from the sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron calibration source. The source releases on average four neutrons when a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf nucleus spontaneously fissions. Each neutron is detected as a separate event when the neutron is captured by a deuteron, releasing a gamma ray of approximately 6.25 MeV. This gamma ray is in turn detected by the photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. By investigating the time and spatial separation between n...

Oblath, N S

2000-01-01

249

Benchmarking steganographic and steganalysis techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been a number of steganography embedding techniques proposed over the past few years. In turn the development of these techniques have led to an increased interest in steganalysis techniques. More specifically Universal steganalysis techniques have become more attractive since they work independently of the embedding technique. In this work, our goal is to compare a number of universal steganalysis techniques proposed in the literature which include techniques based on binary similarity measures, wavelet coefficients' statistics, and DCT based image features. These universal steganalysis techniques are tested against a number of well know embedding techniques, including Outguess, F5, Model based, and perturbed quantization. Our experiments are done using a large dataset of JPEG images, obtained by randomly crawling a set of publicly available websites. The image dataset is categorized with respect to the size and quality. We benchmark embedding rate versus detectability performances of several widely used embedding as well as universal steganalysis techniques. Furthermore, we provide a framework for benchmarking future techniques.

Kharrazi, Mehdi; Sencar, Husrev T.; Memon, Nasir

2005-03-01

250

Dose Reduction Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

251

Advanced qualification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments

252

Aseptic technique in microgravity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the next decade, the United States will launch a space station into low Earth orbit as a preliminary step toward a manned mission to Mars. Provision of asepsis in the unique microgravity environment, essential in operative and invasive procedures, is addressed. An assessment of conventional terrestrial aseptic methods and possible modifications for a microgravity environment was done during the microgravity portion of parabolic flight on NASA KC-135 aircraft. During 110 parabolas on three flight days, a "surgical team" (surgeon, scrub nurse and circulating nurse) using a life size mannequin fastened to a prototype surgical "work station" (operating table), evaluated open and closed gloving (ten parabolas), skin preparation (six parabolas), surgical scrub methods (24 parabolas), gowning (22 parabolas) and draping (48 parabolas). Evaluated were povidone iodine solution, 1 percent povidone iodine detergent, Chloroxylenol with detergent, wet prep soap sponge, a water insoluble iodophor polymer (DuraPrep, 3M), disposable towels, disposable and reusable gowns, large and small disposable drapes with and without adhesive edges, disposable latex surgeon's gloves with and without packaging modifications and restraint mechanisms (tether, swiss seat, waist and foot restraint devices, fairfield and wire clamps and clips). Ease of use, provision of restraint for supplies and personnel and waste disposal were assessed. The literature was reviewed and its relevance to the space environment discussed, including risk factors, environmental contamination, immune status and microbiology. The microgravity environment, limited water supply and restricted operating area mandated that modifications of fabrication and packaging of supplies and technique be made to create and preserve asepsis. Material must meet stringent flammability and off-gassing standards. Either a chlorhexidine or povidone iodine detergent prepackaged brush and sponge would provide an adequate scrub plus preliminary cleansing of a dirty wound. Choice may depend on ease of removal from the water supply as well as sensitivity to each compound of individual crew members. Rinsing was achieved with sterile water soaked gauze. Drying would be more efficient with two small hand towels, which would be easier to manipulate in microgravity and require less stowage volume. Skin preparation highlighted unexpected packaging problems, as centrifugal force was required to "shake" the solution out of the container on to the mannequin. To minimize contamination, a gown should be folded in an accordion manner and fastened to the base of its sterile wrapper, so that an assistant can compensate for the lack of gravity by applying constant tension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1440179

McCuaig, K

1992-11-01

253

ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

Akwasi Asamoah

2013-03-01

254

Diagnostic tests in HIV management: a review of clinical and laboratory strategies to monitor HIV-infected individuals in developing countries / Tests diagnostiques et prise en charge des infections à VIH: revue des méthodes cliniques et analytiques permettant le suivi des personnes contaminées dans les pays en développement / Pruebas diagnósticas en el manejo de la infección por VIH: estudio de las estrategias clínicas y de laboratorio empleadas para controlar a las personas infectadas por el VIH en los países en desarrollo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Realizamos una revisión sistemática de la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas como medio de seguimiento clínico y de laboratorio de las personas infectadas por el VIH en los países en desarrollo. La información sobre pruebas diagnósticas reunida a partir de bases de datos computadorizadas, de las p [...] ublicaciones y de Internet se clasificó como clínica (información sobre los pacientes distinta de los datos de laboratorio), inmunológica (información sobre pruebas inmunológicas) o virológica (información sobre pruebas virológicas). De los 51 estudios seleccionados para la revisión, 28 evaluaron pruebas inmunológicas, 12 pruebas virológicas, y 7 pruebas clínicas e inmunológicas. Los métodos de evaluación de la eficacia fueron principalmente la sensibilidad y la especificidad en el caso de las pruebas clínicas, y los coeficientes de correlación en el caso de las pruebas inmunológicas y virológicas. Entre las primeras, la mayoría de las medidas de eficacia de las pruebas revelaron una sensibilidad superior al 70% y una especificidad superior al 65%. En la categoría de pruebas inmunológicas, los coeficientes de correlación oscilaron entre 0,54 y 0,99 para diferentes técnicas de recuento de CD4, mientras que la correlación (r) entre los recuentos de CD4 y de linfocitos totales se situó entre 0,23 y 0,74. En cuanto a las pruebas virológicas, los coeficientes de correlación para diferentes técnicas de cuantificación del ARN del VIH fueron de entre 0,54 y 0,90. A la hora de realizar nuevas investigaciones en el futuro, será necesario consensuar el diseño de los estudios, y reunir y notificar datos de utilidad para las instancias decisorias. Recomendamos clasificar la información en categorías clínicamente pertinentes, utilizar una definición coherente de enfermedad en todos los estudios, y proporcionar medidas tanto de asociación como de exactitud. Abstract in english We conducted a systematic review on the performance of diagnostic tests for clinical and laboratory monitoring of HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Diagnostic test information collected from computerized databases, bibliographies and the Internet were categorized as clinical (non-laborato [...] ry patient information), immunologic (information from immunologic laboratory tests), or virologic (information from virologic laboratory tests). Of the 51 studies selected for the review 28 assessed immunologic tests, 12 virologic tests and seven clinical and immunologic tests. Methods of performance evaluation were primarily sensitivity and specificity for the clinical category and correlation coefficients for immunologic and virologic categories. In the clinical category, the majority of test performance measures was reported as >70% sensitive and >65% specific. In the immunologic category, correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.99 for different CD4 count enumeration techniques, while correlation for CD4 and total lymphocyte counts was between r = 0.23 and r = 0.74. In the virologic category, correlation coefficients for different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) quantification techniques ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.90. Future research requires consensus on designing studies, and collecting and reporting data useful for decision-makers. We recommend classifying information into clinically relevant categories, using a consistent definition of disease across studies and providing measures of both association and accuracy.

April D, Kimmel; Elena, Losina; Kenneth A, Freedberg; Sue J, Goldie.

2006-07-10

255

Practical hacking techniques and countermeasures  

CERN Document Server

Examining computer security from the hacker''s perspective, Practical Hacking Techniques and Countermeasures employs virtual computers to illustrate how an attack is executed, including the script, compilation, and results. It provides detailed screen shots in each lab for the reader to follow along in a step-by-step process in order to duplicate and understand how the attack works. It enables experimenting with hacking techniques without fear of corrupting computers or violating any laws.Written in a lab manual style, the book begins with the installation of the VMware® Workstation product and guides the users through detailed hacking labs enabling them to experience what a hacker actually does during an attack. It covers social engineering techniques, footprinting techniques, and scanning tools. Later chapters examine spoofing techniques, sniffing techniques, password cracking, and attack tools. Identifying wireless attacks, the book also explores Trojans, Man-in-the-Middle (MTM) attacks, and Denial of S...

Spivey, Mark D

2006-01-01

256

Electronic Payment Fraud Detection Techniques  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we discuss the fraudulent transactions that occur in electronic payment systems. We evaluate various techniques that can be used in detecting fraudulent transactions of card-not-present payment systems. The presented evaluation based on the literature, and from our own studies for these techniques. It provides a basis for exploring the common ground between techniques and for analyzing experimental studies and scenarios in practice.

Al-khatib, Adnan M.

2012-01-01

257

Introduction to the Pinch Technique  

OpenAIRE

These notes are a short introduction to the pinch technique. We present the one-loop calculations for basic QCD Green's functions. The equivalence between the pinch technique and the background field method is explicitly shown at the one-loop level. We review the absorptive pinch technique in the last sections. These lectures are a compilation of relevant papers on this subject and are prepared for the third Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics.

Mathieu, Vincent

2008-01-01

258

Further development of learning techniques  

OpenAIRE

The CONNECT Integrated Project aims at enabling continuous composition of networked systems, by developing techniques for synthesizing connectors. A prerequisite for synthesis is to learn about the interaction behavior of networked peers. The role of WP4 is to develop techniques for learning models of networked peers and middleware through exploratory interaction. During Y1 of CONNECT, exploratory work was performed to understand the requirements for learning techniques in the CONNECT process...

Bertolino, Antonia; Calabro, Antonello; Cassel, Sofia; Chen, Yu-fang; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Merten, Maik; Sabetta, Antonino; Steffen, B.

2011-01-01

259

Semiconductor-laser modulation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three simple modulation techniques for semiconductor lasers have been described. The first technique employs a single constant current source and is suitable for low frequency modulation up to 500 Khz. The second and third techniques employ two constant current sources each with current summing of subtraction and are suitable for higher frequency modulation up to several MHz. Schematic diagrams of designed, developed and tested circuits, implementing each of the above mentioned schemes, have also been presented. (author)

260

Electronic Payment Fraud Detection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the fraudulent transactions that occur in electronic payment systems. We evaluate various techniques that can be used in detecting fraudulent transactions of card-not-present payment systems. The presented evaluation based on the literature, and from our own studies for these techniques. It provides a basis for exploring the common ground between techniques and for analyzing experimental studies and scenarios in practice.

Adnan M. Al-Khatib

2012-06-01

261

Optical techniques in regenerative medicine  

CERN Document Server

In regenerative medicine, tissue engineers largely rely on destructive and time-consuming techniques that do not allow in situ and spatial monitoring of tissue growth. Furthermore, once the therapy is implanted in the patient, clinicians are often unable to monitor what is happening in the body. To tackle these barriers, optical techniques have been developed to image and characterize many tissue properties, fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, and characterize the properties of the scaffolds. Optical Techniques in Regenerative Medicine illustrates how to use optical imaging techniques and

Morgan, Stephen P

2013-01-01

262

Non-contact ultrasound techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-contact ultrasound plays significant role in material characterisation and inspection. Unlike conventional ultrasonic techniques, non-contact ultrasonic is mostly applicable to areas where the former has its weaknesses and limitations. It is interesting to note that the non-contact ultrasonic technique has an important significant application in industry. The technique is signified by the fact that the object to be inspected is further away from the ultrasonic source, no couplant is needed and inconsistent pressure between the transducer and the specimen can be eliminated. The paper discusses some of the non-contact ultrasound technique and its applications. (Author)

263

Parachute technique for partial penectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

Fernando Korkes

2010-04-01

264

Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

Tim Lajcik

2012-07-01

265

Techniques for Modelling Network Security  

OpenAIRE

The article compares modelling techniques for network security, including the theory of probability, Markov processes, Petri networks and application of stochastic activity networks. The paper introduces the advant...

Lech Gulbinovi?

2012-01-01

266

Visualization Techniques in Smart Grid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visualization is an established methodology in scientific computing. It has been used in many fields because of its strong capability in large data management and information display. However, its applications in power systems, especially in Smart Grid are still in infancy stage. Besides, while there were a lot of researches working on visualizing data in transmission power system, the study on displaying distribution power system data was limited. Therefore, in this paper, author proposed some techniques to visualize the Smart Grid data at distribution. They are classified in three categories, which are low dimensional techniques, multivariate high dimensional techniques and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.

Dao Viet Nga

2012-08-01

267

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 1): Transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales / Nerve reconstruction techniques in traumatic brachial plexus surgery (Part 1): Extraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los años '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia n [...] erviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc, para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En esta primera parte se analizan las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales, para luego hacer lo propio con las intraplexuales, en una segunda entrega. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexus traumatic injuries, the present arti

J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

2011-12-01

268

L'addiction en milieu professionnel : quelles techniques de confirmation après l'immunoanalyse ? Workplace drug testing: which technique to use after immunoassay ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les analyses de confirmation concernant les conduites addictives en milieu professionnel sont pratiquées, soit en seconde intention après dépistage urinaire par immunoanalyse, ou d'emblée lorsqu'il n'existe pas d'immunoessal Pour les principales familles de stupéfiants (cannabis, opiacés, cocaïne, amphétamines, en cas de positivité lors du dépistage par immunoanalyse, la ou les substances dont la présence est suspectée lors de l'immunoessai doivent être formellement identifiées par Chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse. Cette analyse permet d'établir un profil d'exposition, et le plus souvent de conclure, soit à une conduite toxicophile, soit à une prise thérapeutique, soit à une interférence lors de l'immunoanalyse. Les méthodes dites de confirmation peuvent également être mises en oeuvre lorsque l'immunoanalyse est négative en raison d'une sensibilité insuffisante comme c'est le cas par exemple avec certaines benzodiazépines. Pour ces recherches, chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à une détection par barrette de diodes et chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à la spectrométrie de masse sont les techniques de choix. Enfin, en l'absence d'immunoessal disponible, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse permet de mettre en évidence un certain nombre de molécules parmi lesquelles on trouve des médicaments, ou des produits dopants comme les stéroïdes anabolisants. Enfin la chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à une détection par barrette de diodes peut-être mise en oeuvre pour d'autres médicaments appartenant à la classe des substances psychoactives. Professional workplace addiction testing is performed either to validate urine positive screening immunoassay or directly in the absence of immunoassay. As regards the main drugs of abuse (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines positive results must be confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Exposure, an addiction, or a therapeutic pattern, in most cases, may then be concluded. Confirmation techniques have also to be carried out, when immunoassay is not sensitive enough, ie. for some benzodiazepines. For these exposures, liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector or to a mass detector, are the optimal techniques. However, when immunoassay is not available, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is useful for many substances, as doping agent like anabolic steroids. Liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector is also the method of choice for most psychoactive drugs.

Goullé Jean-Pierre

2009-04-01

269

Coding techniques of MHD simulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present chapter, coding techniques of parallel computing in MHD simulation are discussed. They include parallelization of computer codes in the finite difference method and techniques for acceleration of 3D Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorism. (J.P.N.)

270

Exponential Finite-Difference Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Report discusses use of explicit exponential finite-difference technique to solve various diffusion-type partial differential equations. Study extends technique to transient-heat-transfer problems in one dimensional cylindrical coordinates and two and three dimensional Cartesian coordinates and to some nonlinear problems in one or two Cartesian coordinates.

Handschuh, Robert F.

1989-01-01

271

Software Testing Techniques and Strategies  

OpenAIRE

Software testing provides a means to reduce errors, cut maintenance and overall software costs. Numerous software development and testing methodologies, tools, and techniques have emerged over the last few decades promising to enhance software quality. This paper describes Software testing, need for software testing, Software testing goals and principles. Further it describe about different Software testing techniques and different software testing strategies.

Isha; Sunita Sangwan

2014-01-01

272

Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques  

CERN Document Server

The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

Mancini, Ferdinando

2015-01-01

273

DIAGNOSTIC LOGIQUE DES SYSTEMES COMPLEXES ET DYNAMIQUES DANS UN CONTEXTE MULTI-AGENT  

OpenAIRE

Cette thèse propose une méthodologie pour la conception de systèmes de diagnostic fiables permettant d'appréhender les systèmes dynamiques complexes et spatialement distribués. Les résultats proposés s'appuient d'une part sur des techniques d'analyse diagnostic formelle ou à base de consistance, qui permettent de garantir la justesse de l'analyse diagnostic, et d'autre part, sur le paradigme multi-agents. Les algorithmes proposés permettent de déduire tous les défauts possibles po...

Touaf, Samir

2005-01-01

274

Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Première partie : Présentation théorique des trois techniques Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part One : Theoretical Description of Three Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les techniques de diffusion, des rayons X, des neutrons et de la lumière, jouent un rôle très important pour la compréhension des milieux colloïdaux. Peu d'articles de la littérature s'attachent à présenter conjointement les trois méthodes. Nous avons, dans la première partie de cet article, détaillé les principes théoriques en insistent tout particulièrement sur les spécificités de chacune. Après les rappels concernant la diffusion par les systèmes dilués, nous nous sommes intéressés aux systèmes concentrés pour lesquels les entités diffusantes sont en interaction. Les milieux dispersés montrent souvent une certaine polydispersité que l'on cherche à mesurer; les techniques de diffusion permettent cette mesure. Nous terminerons cette revue par une description des appareillages utilisés. La deuxième partie de cet article concernera une large illustration des possibilités de ces méthodes d'analyse à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux, sur la base de travaux effectués à I'IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole ou dans de nombreux laboratoires de recherche extérieurs. This article aims to describe X-ray, neutron and light scattering techniques with emphasis on their specific nature and their scope of application. Indeed, whereas light diffusion has been used for a long time in research laboratories, in particular for characterizing polymers in solution, small angle X-ray scattering has been the subject of renewed interest in recent years. Neutron scattering, which is obviously more difficultly accessible, has proven to be extremely useful for studying various systems for which light and X-ray scattering remain relatively powerless. Whereas there is an abundant literature concerning various applications of the three methods, it should be noted that only a few articles have attempted to describe all three techniques at the same time. In this article we have tried to make up for this lack, and as such it was indispensable for us to review the basic theoretical principles, and especially radiation-matter interaction. This should clearly highlight the fields of application and the specific features of each method together with the information that can be obtained about colloidal systems. This article is divided into two general parts : (1 a description of the theoretical principles, including a joint description of the specific features of the three types of radiation - light, X rays and neutrons, and (2 a bibliographic review, not an exhaustive one, based on the extensive work done at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP or in outside research laboratories, and concerning the characterizing of colloidal systems. Part One is divided into several chapters. First of all we review the physical laws governing the interaction of radiation with matter. X-ray or light photons are electromagnetic waves characterized by a very different wavelength, which is close to one angstrom for X rays and to about 6000 angstroms for light. Neutrons are moving particles having a wavelength of several angstroms. X rays interact solely with electrons from atoms, while neutrons interact with the nuclei of these same atoms. When a light wave passes through a diffusing medium, it creates a dipole that will radiate an electromagnetic field proportional to the polarizability of the medium. The diffused intensity or scatter cross-section appears as the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function gamma(x. This intensity contains all information about the nature, geometry and size of the diffusing entities contained in the medium. All these characteristic magnitudes of the colloid can be deduced from the experiment when the particles are homogeneous, identical and uncorrelated. This last qualification reveals the presence of particles that are very similar to one another, possibly in the form of more or less compact aggregates. We also refer to interactions among particles, which will be negligible if the diffusing entities are very far away, i. e. when a dilute system is present. The magnitudes that char

Espinat D.

2006-11-01

275

Food physics and radiation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

276

Statistical Techniques for Project Control  

CERN Document Server

A project can be simple or complex. In each case, proven project management processes must be followed. In all cases of project management implementation, control must be exercised in order to assure that project objectives are achieved. Statistical Techniques for Project Control seamlessly integrates qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques for project control. It fills the void that exists in the application of statistical techniques to project control. The book begins by defining the fundamentals of project management then explores how to temper quantitative analysis with qualitati

Badiru, Adedeji B

2012-01-01

277

SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATION – DIRECT TABLETTING TECHNIQUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direct tabletting technique is the modern and the most efficient process used in tablet manufacturing and has been successfully employed for various poorly soluble and poorly compressible drugs. Spherical agglomeration is particle engineering technique which involves the transformation of fine crystals into spherical shape particles which enhances the powder properties such as particle size, shape, flow properties, solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical drug substances. This technique can also be applied to sustain the drug release from solid dosage forms. The present article is on the detailed comprehensive review about advantages and disadvantages, mechanism, different manufacturing methods of spherical agglomerates and characterization of spherical agglomerates.

Patil Pradnya B.

2011-11-01

278

Data analysis techniques in phosphoproteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interpretation of phosphoproteomics data sets is crucial for generating hypotheses that guide therapeutic solutions, yet not many techniques have been applied to this type of analysis. This paper intends to give an overview about the two main standard techniques that can be applied to the analysis of these large scale data sets. These are data-driven or exploratory techniques based on a statistical model and topology-driven methods that analyze the signaling network from a dynamical standpoint. While employing different paradigms, these algorithms will detect unique "fingerprints" by revealing the intricate interactions at the proteome level and will support the experimental environment for novel therapeutics for many diseases. PMID:25311575

Meyer-Baese, Anke; Wildberger, Joachim; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Nilsson, Carol L

2014-12-01

279

Underwater YAG laser welding technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When planning preventive maintenance of reactor components using welding, it is necessary to consider special environments such as narrow space or difficult accessibility while minimizing exposure to radiation in the reactor pressure vessel. Toshiba has developed an underwater neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd: YAG) laser welding technique. The features of this welding technique are low-heat-input welding and compact welding machine dimensions for welding in narrow spaces. This paper provides a summary of the new welding technique as a reliable welding technology. (author)

280

Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry  

CERN Document Server

Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

1964-01-01

281

A Modified Borel Summation Technique  

CERN Document Server

We compare and contrast three different perturbative expansions for the quartic anharmonic oscillator wavefunction and apply a modified Borel summation technique to determine the energy eigenvalues. In the first two expansions this provides the energy eigenvalues directly however in the third method we tune the wavefunctions to achieve the correct large x behaviour. This tuning technique allows us to determine the energy eigenvalues up to an arbitrary level of accuracy with remarkable efficiency. We give numerical evidence to explain this behaviour. We also refine the modified Borel summation technique to improve its accuracy. The main sources of error are investigated with reasonable error corrections calculated.

Leonard, David

2007-01-01

282

Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification  

CERN Document Server

This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

Ray, Sandip

2010-01-01

283

Modern cooling-tower techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a general review the author deals with modern cooling-tower technique and its technical possibilities. He calls attention to output limits and discusses economic efficiency. Finally he mentions environmental questions. (orig.)

284

Radioimmunoassay techniques in cancer medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RIA principle is described, and the application of this technique in cancer treatment is discussed. In general, 125I is used as tracer. The application of RIA in tumour diagnosis is illustrated by various examples. (VJ)

285

Evaluation of radiocolloid sizing techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques for sizing radiocolloids are reviewed. The small size range (1 to 100 nm) of many radiocolloids and their polydispersity limit the choice of the technique used. To compare several techniques directly, the particle size of technetium-99m sulfide colloid was studied using Nuclepore filtration, ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The last of these was adopted as the method of choice. Using this technique, the particle size and shape of colloids below 100 nm can be accurately determined. Technetium-99m antimony sulfide colloid and indium-113m hydroxide were then examined by electron microscopy, and the chemical nature of the particles was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis. Results resolved the size discrepancies reported in the literature and demonstrated the importance of identifying the chemical nature of the particles under examination

286

Image Watermarking Techniques - A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia communication technology has developed very rapidly during the last few years. The main aim of the watermarking technique is to protect the confidentiality, integrity, availability and authenticity of information in communication from unauthorized access, reveal, disruption, change and copy. In watermarking the required information is inserted in multimedia data. This study analyzes watermarking techniques, various categories of watermarking and its requirements. This study mainly concentrates on two broad categories of Image watermarking.

S. Priya

2012-07-01

287

Uranium exploration techniques in Bolivia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exploration techniques used by the Bolivian Nuclear Energy Commission/Comision Boliviana de Energia Nuclear (COBOEN) in certain areas of Bolivia that are considered promising from the standpoint of uranium deposits are presented in summary form. The methods and results obtained are described, including the techniques used by the Italian company AGIP-URANIUM during four years of exploration under contract with COBOEN. Statistical data are also given explaining the present level of uranium exploration in Bolivia. (author)

288

A compendium of modelling techniques  

OpenAIRE

This Integration Insight provides a brief overview of the most popular modelling techniques used to analyse complex real-world problems, as well as some less popular but highly relevant techniques. The modelling methods are divided into three categories, with each encompassing a number of methods, as follows: 1) Qualitative Aggregate Models (Soft Systems Methodology, Concept Maps and Mind Mapping, Scenario Planning, Causal (Loop) Diagrams), 2) Quantitative Aggregate Models (Function fitting a...

Badham, J.

2010-01-01

289

SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATION – DIRECT TABLETTING TECHNIQUE  

OpenAIRE

Direct tabletting technique is the modern and the most efficient process used in tablet manufacturing and has been successfully employed for various poorly soluble and poorly compressible drugs. Spherical agglomeration is particle engineering technique which involves the transformation of fine crystals into spherical shape particles which enhances the powder properties such as particle size, shape, flow properties, solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical drug substances. This techni...

Patil Pradnya B.; Gupta V.R.M; Udupi R. H.; Srikanth, K.; Pati Nikunja B.; Sree Giri Prasad, B.

2011-01-01

290

Lead Extraction: "Drag Through" Technique  

OpenAIRE

The goal of extraction techniques of chronic pacemaker and defibrillator leads is to present an approach that is successful in extracting all leads and minimizes or eliminates complications. To extract a chronically implanted intravascular device, the device must be separated from the encapsulating inflammatory tissue. Three ablation techniques are currently used: mechanical, laser and electrosurgical. Indirect traction is traction applied by an instrument such as a snare passed i...

Gupta, Anoop K.

2002-01-01

291

Experimental technique of neutron reflection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is presented that the classifications, structures and components of neutron reflectometer (NR), as well s functions and parameters of each components, detailed characters of NR facility 'PRN-2M'. Based on the practical experiments, the basic experimental techniques, the measurement and the related experimental settings are described, including the choice of experimental conditions, adjustments of polarized neutron beam line, basic experimental technique and approach of measurement. The above can be an instruction for NR experiments and a reference for NR construction. (authors)

292

Survey on Spam Filtering Techniques  

OpenAIRE

In the recent years spam became as a big problem of Internet and electronic communication. There developed a lot of techniques to fight them. In this paper the overview of existing e-mail spam filtering methods is given. The classification, evaluation, and comparison of traditional and learning-based methods are provided. Some personal anti-spam products are tested and compared. The statement for new approach in spam filtering technique is considered.

Saadat Nazirova

2011-01-01

293

Perfecting Your Spread Plate Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Spread Plate Technique, in conjunction with serial dilutions, is a valuable research tool. In this example, dye is used to accentuate the visible volume of each aliquot and the dispersion pattern on the agar. With the utilization of a second dye, each agar plate can be used twice. The immediate feedback and personal evaluation of these techniques provide an active learning experience that students remember.

Diane Hartman

2011-08-01

294

New techniques for simulating crystals  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Methods for simulating solid crystalline phases are generally not as straightforward as those for fluids. This work discusses the reason for this and reviews some recently developed Monte-Carlo techniques for simulating crystalline phases. The self-referential (SR) method for calculating crystal free energies is described first. This technique is particularly straightforward and it is expected to be very versatile. Next, a novel kind of Gibbs ensemble method adapted to tre...

Sweatman, Martin

2009-01-01

295

MHV Techniques for QED Processes  

OpenAIRE

Significant progress has been made in the past year in developing new `MHV' techniques for calculating multiparticle scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills gauge theories. Most of the work so far has focussed on applications to Quantum Chromodynamics, both at tree and one-loop level. We show how such techniques can also be applied to abelian theories such as QED, by studying the simplest tree-level multiparticle process, e^+e^- to n \\gamma. We compare explicit results for up to...

Ozeren, K. J.; Stirling, W. J.

2005-01-01

296

Software Testing Techniques and Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software testing provides a means to reduce errors, cut maintenance and overall software costs. Numerous software development and testing methodologies, tools, and techniques have emerged over the last few decades promising to enhance software quality. This paper describes Software testing, need for software testing, Software testing goals and principles. Further it describe about different Software testing techniques and different software testing strategies.

Isha,

2014-04-01

297

QVOA techniques for fracture characterization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se desarrollan nuevas técnicas de cálculo en el análisis del factor de calidad frente a la distancia fuente receptor y el acimut (QVOA) para caracterización de fracturas. Estas técnicas se aplican a datos sintéticos superficiales de reflexión con ruido. [...] Abstract in english New computational techniques of QVOA analysis (Quality factor Versus Offset and Azimuth) for fracture characterization are developed. The techniques are applied to synthetic surface data of reflection with noise. [...

Vladimir, Sabinin.

2013-12-01

298

PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

Punia Supriya

2012-03-01

299

Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sciences. This paper mainly discusses about the human face recognition with the help of different tactics and techniques like “Eigen faces for Recognition” and “Feature Based Recognition: Elastic Bunch Graph Matching”. The scanning technique such as 4-D laser scanning is still under discussion since for recognition technique it is necessary, The real world is CCTV technology and similarity between the human and computer recognition.This technology is outstanding in the capturing image of faces such as criminal investigation, terrorists identification, medical purposes like plastic surgery .It provides almost security and reliability compared to the other techniques. In future this technology will be the most convenient and secure technique. This will over through all the current security traits and become a efficient security measure

P.RAVI TEJA#1 , R.R.V.S.S.ABHISHEK *2 , P.RAM MANINTH

2013-04-01

300

LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (?²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

Markus Tilp

2013-09-01

301

Radar rainfall image repair techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

Stephen M. Wesson

2004-01-01

302

Mutation techniques in plant breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in the use of mutation techniques for generating and selecting desired genetic variation in crop and model plant species has significantly increased over the past decade. This was mainly due to: (1) successful application of in vivo mutation techniques in the breeding of new, improved crop varieties; (2) new opportunities for induced mutation using in vitro techniques for improving vegetatively propagated crops; (3) emerging possibilities for applying in vitro selection of mutagenized cells and tissues; (4) increasing application of doubled haploids (DHs) for the rapid selection and shortening of the breeding cycle of improved varieties from desired mutants, and for the development of F1 performing DH lines from heterotic hybrids; (5) advancement of rapid, often non-destructive, mass screening methods; (6) enhanced demand for morphological, developmental and biochemical mutants of various species for studies on the molecular genetics of plant differentiation and development or on plant physiology; (7) wider availability of gene transformation technology that allows the transfer of desired mutated genes from model or other plant species to the desired crop plant (shuttle mutagenesis); and (8) application of mutation techniques for generating DNA polymorphism and for mapping particular genes. An overview of the results of applying mutation techniques for crop improvement is given. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs tabs

303

Authentication techniques for smart cards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

304

Le FIA: un nouvel automate permettant l'extraction efficace d'itemsets fréquents dans les flots de données.  

OpenAIRE

Nous présentons dans cet article un nouvel automate : le FIA qui permet de traiter de façon efficace la problématique de l'extraction des itemsets fréquents dans les data streams. Le FIA est une structure de données très compacte et informative qui, par ailleurs, présente des propriétés incrémentales facilitant grandement la mise à jour avec une granularité très fine. L'algorithme développé pour la mise à jour du FIA effectue un unique passage sur les données qui sont prises ...

Symphor, Jean-e?mile; Mancheron, Alban; Vinceslas, Lionel; Poncelet, Pascal

2008-01-01

305

New techniques in neutron scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New neutron sources being planned, such as the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) or the European Spallation Source (ESS), will provide an order of magnitude flux increase over what is available today, but neutron scattering will still remain a signal-limited technique. At the same time, the development of new materials, such as polymer and ceramic composites or a variety of complex fluids, will increasingly require neutron-based research. This paper will discuss some of the new techniques which will allow us to make better use of the available neutrons, either through improved instrumentation or through sample manipulation. Discussion will center primarily on unpolarized neutron techniques since polarized neutrons will be the subject of the next paper. (author)

306

Phase refocusing techniques in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phase refocusing (FR) techniques have commonly used for reducing motion artifacts. With these techniques it can also be detected how fluid moves. We compared signal intensities between FR and spin echo (SE) techniques, using the same repetition time and echo time in flow phantom studies. We also examined the possibility of clinical application of this method. Experimental studies using the flow phantom revealed that decrease of the signal intensity was usually velosity-dipendent, but the range of the decrease was different in each encoding gradient. In our study of a patient with mitral stenosis the defference of velosity, which was confirmed by ultrasonography, and between 1t.-atrium and the other three chambers was clearly demonstrated. In a patient with arteriovenous malformation we could detect a variety of velosity in the nidus. We also found significant increase of signal intensity in the spleen in a patient with liver cirrhosis. (author)

307

Aseptic technique for cell culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit describes some of the ways that a laboratory can deal with the constant threat of microbial contamination in cell cultures. A protocol on aseptic technique is described first. This catch-all term universally appears in any set of instructions pertaining to procedures in which noncontaminating conditions must be maintained. In reality, aseptic technique encompasses all aspects of environmental control, personal hygiene, equipment and media sterilization, and associated quality control procedures needed to ensure that a procedure is, indeed, performed with aseptic, noncontaminating technique. Although cell culture can theoretically be carried out on an open bench in a low-traffic area, most cell culture work is carried out using a horizontal laminar-flow clean bench or a vertical laminar-flow biosafety cabinet. Both are described here. PMID:18228291

Coté, R J

2001-05-01

308

A new parallel simulation technique  

CERN Document Server

We develop a "semi-parallel" simulation technique suggested by Pretorius and Lehner, in which the simulation spacetime volume is divided into a large number of small 4-volumes which have only initial and final surfaces. Thus there is no two-way communication between processors, and the 4-volumes can be simulated independently without the use of MPI. This technique allows us to simulate much larger volumes than we otherwise could, because we are not limited by total memory size. No processor time is lost waiting for other processors. We compare a cosmic string simulation we developed using the semi-parallel technique with our previous MPI-based code for several test cases and find a factor of 2.6 improvement in the total amount of processor time required to accomplish the same job for strings evolving in the matter-dominated era.

Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Shlaer, Benjamin

2010-01-01

309

Advanced X ray fluorescence techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the goals of analytical techniques is to obtain in a nondestructive way the chemical composition and physical characteristics of individual particles, for example airborne particles or particles from soil dust or from a specific emission source. Detailed information on the composition and physical characteristics of individual particles is of importance in environmental pollution studies and forensic investigations, and it can be helpful in solving many other analytical problems. In a similar way, analyses of minute samples are carried out to quantify the degree of heterogeneity of the material with respect to element concentration, determination of porosity and identification of regions with the highest accumulation of the essential elements. Another goal that is difficult to achieve is to carry out a bulk chemical composition analysis not under laboratory conditions but in situ. For various reasons, there is very often a need to identify and quickly evaluate the chemical composition of a material in the field or to monitor an area in search of the places with the greatest abundance of an element. The aim is to carry out the analytical process outside the laboratory with minimal or no sample preparation. The X ray fluorescence (XRF) technique in the energy dispersive mode (EDXRF) has been used to deal with these analytical problems. XRF spectrometry is a well established instrumental analytical technique used for chemical composition analysis. XRF is a non-descal composition analysis. XRF is a non-destructive multielement technique capable of determining elements with atomic number Z ? 11 (sodium) in different matrices. The samples to be analysed require minimal or no preparation, and the technique is regarded as non-destructive. Typical relative detection limits vary from about 0.1 to 10 mg/kg, and in special configurations they can reach values as low as 1 mg/kg. The technique is based on measurements of the characteristic X ray radiation emitted by atoms following their de-excitation to the ground electronic state. The excitation of the atoms is achieved by means of a photoelectric effect in which primary photons from an external source, for example photons emitted by an X ray tube or by a radioisotope source, illuminate the specimen and interact with inner atomic shell electrons. An advanced EDXRF laboratory spectrometer utilizing a focused X ray beam has been used for the identification of individual particles. Microbeam XRF is a unique technique that can provide information on the distribution of elements within a heterogeneous specimen. This method is also suitable for the determination of elements in minute samples such as individual particles. It has capabilities similar to those of electron probe micro X ray analysis (EPMXA), with an inferior spatial resolution of about 10 mm (versus 0.1 mm for EPMXA) but much better detection limits for heavy metals. The microbeam XRF technique has been used to obtain spatially resolved images of element distribution in samples. Using the same spectrometer, the computerized tomographic (CT) imaging measurements are carried out with a spatial resolution of better than 20 mm. The CT imaging is performed with two detectors simultaneously in absorption and emission mode, providing information about the density and element distribution within the object. The XRF technique has also been selected to perform in situ chemical composition analysis. XRF spectrometry is usually used for the field applications owing to its several advantages over other chemical or spectrophotometric methods. The XRF technique is a non-destructive method, it requires a minimum of sample preparation, it has the capability to analyse solid and liquid samples, it is a multielement technique and there are portable battery operated XRF spectrometers available. For the successful application of XRF for in situ measurements, dedicated instruments are constructed and robust quantitative analytical methods have been developed. The microbeam XRF technique was used to investigate the presence of depleted ura

310

Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

2013-04-01

311

Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24698045

Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

2014-04-01

312

Erasure Techniques in MRD codes  

CERN Document Server

This book is organized into six chapters. The first chapter introduces the basic algebraic structures essential to make this book a self contained one. Algebraic linear codes and their basic properties are discussed in chapter two. In chapter three the authors study the basic properties of erasure decoding in maximum rank distance codes. Some decoding techniques about MRD codes are described and discussed in chapter four of this book. Rank distance codes with complementary duals and MRD codes with complementary duals are introduced and their applications are discussed. Chapter five introduces the notion of integer rank distance codes. The final chapter introduces some concatenation techniques.

Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Sujatha, R; Durai, R S Raja

2012-01-01

313

Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

314

Clustering Techniques for Marbles Classification  

CERN Document Server

Automatic marbles classification based on their visual appearance is an important industrial issue. However, there is no definitive solution to the problem mainly due to the presence of randomly distributed high number of different colours and its subjective evaluation by the human expert. In this paper we present a study of segmentation techniques, we evaluate they overall performance using a training set and standard quality measures and finally we apply different clustering techniques to automatically classify the marbles. KEYWORDS: Segmentation, Clustering, Quadtrees, Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), Simulated Annealing (SA).

Caldas-Pinto, J R; Ramos, V; Ramalho, M; Pina, Pedro; Ramos, Vitorino; Ramalho, Mario

2004-01-01

315

CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

A. Cacciamano

2008-08-01

316

Reactor vital equipment determination techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Vital Equipment Determination Techniques program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is discussed. The purpose of the program is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with technical support in identifying vital areas at nuclear power plants using a fault-tree technique. A reexamination of some system modeling assumptions is being performed for the Vital Area Analysis Program. A short description of the vital area analysis and supporting research on modeling assumptions is presented. Perceptions of program modifications based on the research are outlined, and the status of high-priority research topics is discussed

317

Pinch Technique: Theory and Applications  

OpenAIRE

We review the theoretical foundations and the most important physical applications of the Pinch Technique (PT). This general method allows the construction of off-shell Green’s functions in non-Abelian gauge theories that are independent of the gauge-fixing parameter and satisfy ghost-free Ward identities. We first present the diagrammatic formulation of the technique in QCD, deriving, at one loop, the gauge independent gluon self-energy, quark–gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex, togeth...

Papavassiliou, Joannis; Binosi, D.

2009-01-01

318

Surface analysis the principal techniques  

CERN Document Server

This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they can overcome problems within this area of study.  

Vickerman, John C

2009-01-01

319

Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

1976-01-01

320

Grid flexibility and patching techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The numerical determination of combustor flowfields is of great value to the combustor designer. An a priori knowledge of the flow behavior can speed the combustor design process and reduce the number of experimental test rigs required to arrive at an optimal design. Even 2-D steady incompressible isothermal flow predictions are of use; many codes of this kind are available, each employing different techniques to surmount the difficulties arising from the nonlinearity of the governing equations and from typically irregular combustor geometries. Mapping techniques (algebraic and elliptic PDE), and adaptive grid methods (both multi-grid and grid embedding) as applied to axisymmetric combustors are discussed.

Keith, T. G.; Smith, L. W.; Yung, C. N.; Barthelson, S. H.; Dewitt, K. J.

1984-01-01

321

EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a wide spectrum of technological areas, such as medical imaging, pharmaceutical industry, analytical instrumentation, aerospace, remote sensing, lidars and ladars, surveillance, national defense, corrosion imaging and monitoring, sub-terrestrial and marine imaging. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios, and demanding design parameters such as speed, signal-to-noise ratio, high specificity, high contrast and spatial resolution, high-scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environment, necessitate the development of a multifunctional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, operating on diverse detection and imaging principles. Finally, pattern recognition and image processing algorithms can significantly contribute to enhanced detection and imaging, including object classification, clustering, feature selection, texture analysis, segmentation, image compression and color representation under complex imaging scenarios, with applications in medical imaging, remote sensing, aerospace, radars, defense and homeland security. We feel confident that the exciting new contributions of this special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques will appeal to the technical community. We would like to thank all authors as well as all anonymous reviewers and the MST Editorial Board, Publisher and staff for their tremendous efforts and invaluable support to enhance the quality of this significant endeavor.

Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

2011-10-01

322

Biomedical engineering and rehabilitation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors outline the programmes set up by the ORIS for the development of biomaterials and rehabilitation products using the radiochemical techniques. They then discuss the development of instruments designed to make the handling and use of radioactive isotopes easier for users

323

A synopsis of resampling techniques  

OpenAIRE

Bootstrap is a computer intensive technique of resampling with replacement, which can be applied in many statistical analytical tests. The article describes the most frequent situations where bootstrap resampling can be applied in thoracic surgical research: variable selection for multivariable regression analysis, internal validation of regression equations, model validation. Practical examples for programming bootstrap in commercially available statistical software are finally reported.

Brunelli, Alessandro

2014-01-01

324

Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

Wilson, Diane

325

Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

Goldberg, Cristine

2004-01-01

326

BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

327

Measurements Techniques for Gyrotron characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments planned for the characterization of the 35GHz girotron, which is being built at the Plasma Laboratory of INPE, are described. The methods of the measurements are presented and the required instrumentation and devices are specified. Special attention is given to the measurement techniques of the resonator electric field profile. (author)

328

A Compendium of Assessment Techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide variety of techniques are appropriate for evaluating different types of experiential learning. This monograph includes sections on performance tests, simulations, interviews, ratings, self evaluation, and product assessment. Each section orients the reader to one of these general types of assessment and then provides brief illustrations of…

Knapp, Joan; Sharon, Amiel

329

Nuclear techniques and human behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of nuclear energy discovery and utilization is introduce briefly. It is dissertated the necessity of developing nuclear power and the essentiality of strengthening environment monitoring. It is brought forward that nuclear techniques can bring civilization and progress, but it can bring disaster if not correct uses

330

Disciplinary Techniques: Repertoires and Relationships.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 300 elementary and secondary public school teachers were surveyed in order 1) to develop a taxonomy of disciplinary techniques that is both quantitative and qualitative; and 2) to compare the relationship of teachers' disciplinary repertoires with type of school (urban, suburban, or rural), age of pupils, and teacher experience. The…

Langenbach, Michael; Letchworth, George A.

331

Novel medical technique: antiprotonic imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors illustrate how a beam of antiprotons can be used to make density measurements in biological and other similar materials by measuring the energy loss per unit length, dE/dx, for stopping antiprotons. These measurements are displayed using computer graphic techniques to produce high resolution images comparable to those produced by state of the art X-ray computer assisted tomography, (CAT). Unlike computer assisted tomographic methods, antiproton imaging directly measures dE/dx at any point in the medium, and requires no reconstruction algorithms. Monte Carlo techniques have been used to explore the quality of antiprotonic imaging. The images produced by this method are presented, discussed and compared to X-ray CAT scans. Theoretically there are no limits to the resolution of antiprotonic imaging, but the technique is limited by radiation dosage and data processing. The authors estimate that, in general, one would be able to obtain images from their antiprotonic technique of comparable quality to CAT images, with a substantial reduction in the dose delivered to the patient

332

Capture techniques for wrasse (Labridae)  

OpenAIRE

An increasing demand for wrasse used as cleaner-fish for louse control in salmon farming has led to a new fishery for different wrasse species - particularly goldsinny, rock-cook and corkwing wrasse. This paper describes different capture techniques with emphasis on a collapsible pot design.

Bjordal, A?smund

1993-01-01

333

Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

2012-01-01

334

Survey of Biochemical Separation Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple laboratory exercise is illustrated that exposes students to wide range of separation techniques in one laboratory program and provides a nice complement to a project-oriented program. Students have learned the basic principles of syringe filtration, centricon, dialysis, gel filtration and solid-phase extraction methodologies and have got…

Nilsson, Melanie R.

2007-01-01

335

Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

336

New techniques for wound debridement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Debridement is a crucial component of wound management. Traditionally, several types of wound debridement techniques have been used in clinical practice such as autolytic, enzymatic, biodebridement, mechanical, conservative sharp and surgical. Various factors determine the method of choice for debridement for a particular wound such as suitability to the patient, the type of wound, its anatomical location and the extent of debridement required. Recently developed products are beginning to challenge traditional techniques that are currently used in wound bed preparation. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the current evidence behind the use of these newer techniques in clinical practice. There is some evidence to suggest that low frequency ultrasound therapy may improve healing rates in patients with venous ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers. Hydrosurgery debridement is quick and precise, but the current evidence is limited and further studies are underway. Debridement using a monofilament polyester fibre pad and plasma-mediated bipolar radiofrequency ablation are both very new techniques. The initial evidence is limited, and further studies are warranted to confirm their role in management of chronic wounds. PMID:23418808

Madhok, Brijesh M; Vowden, Kathryn; Vowden, Peter

2013-06-01

337

Advances phase-lock techniques  

CERN Document Server

From cellphones to micrprocessors, to GPS navigation, phase-lock techniques are utilized in most all modern electronic devices. This high-level book takes a systems-level perspective, rather than circuit-level, which differentiates it from other books in the field.

Crawford, James A

2008-01-01

338

A synopsis of resampling techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bootstrap is a computer intensive technique of resampling with replacement, which can be applied in many statistical analytical tests. The article describes the most frequent situations where bootstrap resampling can be applied in thoracic surgical research: variable selection for multivariable regression analysis, internal validation of regression equations, model validation. Practical examples for programming bootstrap in commercially available statistical software are finally reported. PMID:25589996

Brunelli, Alessandro

2014-12-01

339

Optical multiple object tracking techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

1989-02-01

340

DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS  

OpenAIRE

Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

. Ramageri; Bharati M.

2010-01-01

341

Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

342

REDVET y RECVET están disponibles desde la biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenLos artículos publicados en REDVET y en RECVET son inmediatamente accesibles desde la Biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia, con sede en Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia, Suramérica, donde las dos revistas científicas editadas por Veterinaria Organización aparece en el área de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia junto a la Bases de datos bibliográficas de la Biblioteca Agropecuaria de Colombia (BAC del Centro Internacional de Agricultura tropical (CIAT y la Biblioteca de la FAO (Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación.

Veterinaria.org

2008-03-01

343

Maintenant disponible : Collection en ligne des codes de pays ISO (2014-02-03) - ISO  

SCPinfonet

... Vous pourrez accéder en ligne à la liste des codes des trois parties d'ISO 3166 en trois formats (XML, CSV et XLS). L'accès à la collection implique de souscrire un abonnement annuel aux listes de codes que vous pourrez télécharger depuis la bibliothèque dont vous disposez sur la plateforme OBP. En prime : durant toute l'année de votre abonnement, vous serez systématiquement tenu informé des mises à jour. Cette collection, qui est la dernière nouveauté de la plateforme de consultation en ligne (OBP), ...

344

Bioensayo microbiano para estimar los nutrimentos disponibles en los abonos organicos: calibracion en el campo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se demostr6 recientemente que el aumento nude la biomasa microbiana en una mezcla de sue- calo: abono organico (9:1, suplementada con gluco- sa como fuente de carbono, fue proporcional al crecimiento de una planta indicadora (sorgo cre- cida en el mismo sustrato. En la presente investi- gaci6n se determina si este bioensayo es de utili- dad como gufa en la fertilizaci6n de los cultivos con abonos organicos, mediante la siembra en el campo de chile dulce (Capsicum annuum L. y to- mate (Lycopersicum esculentum L. como plantas indicadoras. Los tratamientos consistieron de sue- 10 solo 0 en mezcla con 10% de abonos organicos amende contenido de nutrimentos contrastante a saber: pollinaza (CM, compost (C, bocashi (B, vermi- macompost (V y broza de cafe (Br. En el bioensa- vermicomyo microbiano se utiliz6 un disefio de bloques randocompletos al azar con 6 repeticiones, la biomasa microbiana (BM se midi6 2 dfas despues de in- cubar con glucosa. En los ensayos de campo las plantas indicadoras se sembraron en un disefio de bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. En chile dulce se midi6 el peso seco (600 C de la comparte aerea de la planta (PSC y el peso fresco de frutos verdes (PFF a los 97 dfas despues de la Microsiembra. El peso seco de la parte aerea de las amendplantas de tomate (PST fue medido a los 32 dfas. Los abonos organicos CM, C y B indujeron la mayor BM y tambien el mayor PSC, PFF Y PST, indicaci6n de que fueron los de mayor y mas in- mediato suministro de nutrimentos, contrario al y Br que mostraron los valores mas bajos para es- tas variables (P<0.05. Estos 2 abonos, respecto vatratamiento de CM presentaron 3 y 5 veces menos BM y 2 Y 4 veces menos biomasa aerea, respecti- vamente (P<0.05. Las correlaciones altas obteni- codas entre la BM y el PSC (r=0.87 y entre la BM y el PST (r= 0.93, permiten concluir que bioensayo microbiano es un metoda promisorio para pronosticar el suministro de nutrimentos orlos abonos organicos a los cultivos bajo condicio- determines de campo y en consecuencia puede ser una excelente gufa en su dosificaci6n.

Eduardo Salas

2001-01-01

345

Recursos disponibles para la recuperación de información sobre salud en Internet  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Internet se ha convertido en un fenómeno social en nuestros tiempos y en un apoyo vital para el desarrollo de las investigaciones en salud.El hecho de que es una herramienta para recuperar información e investigar no se discute.Las ciencias de la información avanzan a grandes pasos y los profesio [...] nales en salud que se apoyan o tienen contacto con la realidad de Internet,encuentran difícil seguir este paso,lo que disminuye la efectividad y eficiencia con que se utiliza este recurso.Motivado en los hechos previos,se realizó una revisión de algunos recursos encontrados en la red de redes,Internet,y se plantea una estrategia de búsqueda de información para recuperarla en un motor de búsqueda y,así,resolver las preguntas clínicas diarias.En especial,se focaliza la revisión del tema sobre los motores de búsqueda Pubmed y Google.Basado inicialmente en la construcción de una pregunta para hallar información mediante la metodología PICO,el profesional se orienta para definir los términos de búsqueda que le permitirán recuperar información con varios niveles de rigurosidad científica y aplicable a varias latitudes.Finalmente,se comentan algunas limitaciones que existen en torno a la recuperación de información y las oportunidades que ofrecen las iniciativas para la Web semántica.

Luis Guillermo, Elizondo Herrera.

2005-12-01

346

Perfil nutricional y microbiológico de los embutidos de soya disponibles en Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la calidad nutricional y microbiológica de 80 muestras de embutidos de soya (50% mortadela y 50% salchicha). El promedio de proteína en la mortadela fue de 17,5g/100 g y en la salchicha 20g/100g. El contenido de grasa total fue de 5.5g/100g para ambos productos; no obstante, se hallaron d [...] iferencias altamente significativas (0.0000) en el contenido de los diferentes ácidos grasos entre ambos productos y en las muestras de un mismo producto dependiendo de la industria que los elaborara. Las mayores diferencias se evidenciaron en los niveles de ácido palmítico (C16:0), ácido oleico (C18:1) y ácido linoleico (C18:2). En ninguna muestra se evidenció la presencia de colesterol. El índice de aterogenicidad promedio para mortadela fue 0.55 y para salchicha 0.59. El consumo de 25 gramos de proteína de soya derivada de estos embutidos puede generar aportar entre el 20-90% de la cantidad de ácidos grasos saturados recomendada por día. Así mismo, puede brindar entre el 12-70% de la cantidad de ácidos graso s poliinsaturados recomendada por día. Estas variaciones responden a las importantes diferencias en la especiación de ácidos grasos evidenciadas según la marca del producto. El 20% de los embutidos estudiados mostraron niveles de coliformes totales> 10(4)/g, lo cual fue más frecuente en la salchicha. El 60% de las muestras de este embutido y el 10% de las muestras de mortadela mostraron niveles de psicrótrofos > 10(6)/g. En ninguna de las muestras se evidenció Escherichia coli y en el 5% Clostridium perfringens en niveles mayores a 10²/g. Los resultados señalan la urgente necesidad de implementar un sistema de control de calidad de los embutidos de soya, antes que las autoridades de salud consideren respaldar las campañas nutricionales que promuevan el consumo de los mismos. Abstract in english Nutritional and microbiological profile of soy bean sausages available in Costa Rica. The nutritional and microbiological quality of 80 soybean sausage samples (50% frankfurter and 5% sausage mortadela) was studied. On average, the protein content was 17 ,5g/100g in sausage mortadela and 20g/100g in [...] frankfurter.the mean total fat content was 5,5g/100g for both products. However when products of different manufacture industries were compared, a highly significant difference (p= 0,0000) in the fatty acids speciation between both groups and between samples of the same product were found. Bigger differences were found in the content of palmitic acid(C16:0), oleic acid (C18:l) and linoleic acid (C18:2). Cholesterol was not detected in samples analyzed. On average the atherogenicity index was 0,55 for sausage mortadela and 0,59 for frankfurter. A consumption of 25 grams of soybean protein from these sausages can bring an intake of saturated fatty acids between 20-90% of the daily recommendation. Likewise, they can supply between 12-70% of the recommended daily polyunsaturated fattly acids. These variations are owing to the big difference in fatty acids speciation in each sausage brand. Around 20% of soybean sausages studied showed total coliform levels above l0(4)/g, being more frequent in sausage mortadela. Also 60% of this product and 10% of frankfurters showed psychrotroph levels of 10(6)/g. Clostridium perfringens, in levels above 10²/g was evidenciated in 5% of samples, Escherichia coli was not isolated from them. The findings of this study suggest the urgent need for implementing a quality control system for soybean sausages, before national health authorities consider to support nutritional campaings that promote their consumption.

Rafael, Monge; María Laura, Arias; Thelma, Alfaro; Manuel, Jiménez.

2000-06-01

347

DISTRIBUCIÓN DE NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE EN SUELO ABONADO CON ESTIÉRCOL BOVINO EN MAÍZ FORRAJERO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en la Región Lagunera, la cual se localiza en la parte central de la porción norte de México. Se encuentra ubicada en los meridianos 102° 22' y 104° 47' O, y los paralelos 24° 22' y 26° 23' N; la altitud es de 1139 m. Los trabajos se realizaron en el campo agrícola experimental de la Facultad de Agricultura y Zootecnia, División de Estudios de Posgrado de la Universidad Juárez del estado de Durango. El objetivo fue determinar la mejor dosis de estiércol para la producción de maíz (Zea mays L. y maíz asociado con soya (Glycine max L., así como medir la lixiviación de los nitratos a través del perfil del suelo. Los tratamientos de estiércol probados en el estudio fueron 0, 40, 80, 120 y 160Mg ha-1 de estiércol y un testigo químico de 100-150-00 (N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1 aplicados durante cinco años en forma consecutiva. Los resultados indican que hubo mejor respuesta en el tratamiento de 120 seguido del de 160 Mg ha-1, con una producción superior a los 100 Mg ha-1 de forraje verde. Las concentraciones de nitratos en el perfil del suelo muestran diferentes cantidades en cada tratamiento de estiércol, sin embargo, en todos se aprecia una tendencia a la baja en las profundidades de 180 y 210 cm con valores desde 330 mg kg-1 en el primer estrato de 0 a 30 cm hasta menos de 100 mg kg-1 a una profundidad de 150 cm. El amonio tiene su máxima concentración en los primeros 30 cm de profundidad con 20 mg kg-1 luego baja hasta 10 en el resto del perfil. La materia orgánica (MO alcanzó hasta 6% en los primeros 30 cm de profundidad para luego decrecer a 1.5 en el siguiente estrato (30-60 y continuó bajando conforme se incrementó la profundidad. La conductividad eléctrica también siguió esta tendencia solo que los valores más altos llegan hasta 13 dS m-1 en el estrato 0-15 cm de profundidad, luego bajó a dos conforme aumentó la profundidad.

Enrique Salazar-Sosa

2009-01-01

348

DISTRIBUCIÓN DE NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE EN SUELO ABONADO CON ESTIÉRCOL BOVINO EN MAÍZ FORRAJERO  

OpenAIRE

El presente trabajo se realizó en la Región Lagunera, la cual se localiza en la parte central de la porción norte deMéxico. Se encuentra ubicada en los meridianos 102° 22' y 104° 47' O, y los paralelos 24° 22' y 26° 23' N; la altitud es de 1139 m. Los trabajos se realizaron en el campo agrícola experimental de la Facultad de Agricultura y Zootecnia, División de Estudios de Posgrado de la Universidad Juárez del estado de Durango. El objetivo fue determinar la mejor dosis de estiérc...

Enrique Salazar-Sosa; H\\u00E9ctor Idilio Trejo-Escare\\u00F1o; Zquez, Cirilo V. U. E. Zquez-v U. E.; Ednez, Jos U. E. Dimas L. U. F. Pez-mart U.; Ndez, Manuel Fortis-hern U. E.; Iga-tarango, Rafael Zu U. F.; Lvarez, Jes U. Fas P. Amado- U. C.

2009-01-01

349

Ficción en un blog de Internet: El autor propone, el lector infiere y dispone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La ciberescritura es todavía un enigma que sigue cambiando los principios fundamentales de la cultura escrita tradicional. Así como no hay fronteras temporales ni espaciales en la Internet, tampoco parecen existir verdades absolutas, principios irrefutables ni reglas pragmáticas formales que faciliten aún la conformación de una gramática del discurso virtual. Todo puede ser ficción o verdad en un universo en el que escritores y lectores somos discurso. Nonecesariamente hay rostros ni gestos ni otro tipo de recursos paralingüísticos, quinésicos o proxémicos que ayuden aambos participantes a entenderse mutuamente. Frente a un emisor discursivo mediado por un computador, el principiode la cooperación de Grice (1975 se potencia hacia el receptor por lo que las llamadas “máximas” pueden a vecesvolverse “mínimas” para el emisor. Este trabajo propone el análisis discursivo de una muestra de 28 comentarios interactivosincorporados por 27 ciberlectores hasta septiembre de 2009, como respuestas a la crónica bloguera de ficciónintitulada Remedios que sacan la piedra (http:barreralinares.blogspot.com, 28-02-2007. Asumiendo como baseteórica la diferencia formal y funcional entre las nociones retóricas y discursivas de ficción, realidad, verdad y verosimilitud,se postula que un cibertexto marcado expresamente por el emisor con rasgos ficcionales de humor, ironía y sarcasmo, termina adquiriendo veracidad a partir de las inferencias que los comentaristas hacen en relación con el tópico tratado. Los resultados muestran una variedad de falsas inferencias o “ciberimplicaturas” que, de acuerdo conel análisis de los comentarios, terminan cambiando la intención original de la crónica. Fenómeno que convierte untexto de “narrativa artificial” en otro de “narrativa natural” (van Dijk, 1975.

Luis Barrera

2010-01-01

350

Le point sur les données actuellement disponibles en épidémiologie de la carie chez les enfants belges  

OpenAIRE

Le nombre limité de données épidémiologiques sur la santé bucco-dentaire des enfants belges nous a conduits à réaliser une étude pilote dans ce domaine. L'objectif était de recenser un maximum d'informations sur la carie dentaire et ses facteurs de risque. L'enquête a été réalisée sous la forme d'un dépistage clinique chez des enfants âgés entre 6 et 12 ans et scolarisés dans deux établissements de la région liégeoise.

Lardinois, Julie; Gueders, Audrey; Geerts, Sabine

2009-01-01

351

Aplicación de las técnicas de biología molecular en oncología oral / Application of molecular biology techniques in oral cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo de revisión se propone exponer las principales técnicas de biología molecular disponibles actualmente para los investigadores, en el campo del cáncer y precáncer oral, clasificadas según el tipo de material biológico del que se disponga para iniciar la investigación. Éste puede ser ADN [...] , ARN o proteínas. La explicación de cada técnica comprenderá una breve sistemática del proceso, así como sus ventajas, inconvenientes y estado de actividad actual. Todo ello con la finalidad de esclarecer las aplicaciones, pronto indispensables, de las técnicas más destacadas, en el diagnóstico precoz, pronóstico y tratamiento individualizado del carcinoma oral. Entre las técnicas más útiles en este proceso se encuentran: la electroforesis en gel, las técnicas de hibridación, la tecnología microarray, los biochips, la PCR convencional, la cuantitativa o la transcriptasa inversa, las técnicas de Southern, Northern y Western blot, la secuenciación de ADN, la clonación de genes, la inmunohistoquímica, el ensayo ELISA y la citometría de flujo. Destacan en particular por su gran utilidad, la tecnología microarray, los biochips y la PCR. Abstract in english This article summarizes the main techniques in the area of molecular biology that are available for the investigation of oral cancer and precancer. They have been classified depending on the biological material we expect to analyze, which can be DNA, RNA or proteins. The explanation for each techniq [...] ue includes a brief description of its basics, as well as some advantages, drawbacks and current use of the technique. Our aim is to throw light on the applications of these techniques, soon indispensable for most studies, in the early diagnosis, prognosis and individualized treatment of oral carcinoma. The most useful techniques for this objective are nowadays: gel electrophoresis, hybridation, microarray technology, biochips, PCR (conventional, quantitative or reverse transcriptase), Southern, Northern and Western blot studies, DNA sequenciation, cloning, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and flow citrometry. Some techniques that deserve a special mention due to their greater usefulness in the area of oral cancer are microarray technology, biochips and PCR.

M., López-Durán; J., Campo-Trapero; J., Cano-Sánchez; R., Díez-Pérez; A., Bascones-Martínez.

2010-08-01

352

Autograft mitral valve replacement: a new technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a new technique wherein we have used the Ionescu Ross Wooler stent for housing the pulmonary autograft. We believe that this technique is easy and reproducible and offers many advantages over the previously described techniques. PMID:22215498

Singh, Aditya Kumar; Agarwal, Saket; Satsangi, Deepak Kumar

2012-07-01

353

Modélisation et conception d'outils robotises et de techniques de fraisage pour l'arthroplastie total du genou  

OpenAIRE

La chirurgie assistée par ordinateur a amené une valeur ajoutée significative aux interventions médicales, en fournissant des outils de mesures permettant au chirurgien de quantifier et contrôler leurs gestes. En orthopédie et notamment pour la pose de prothèse totale de genou (PTG), la chirurgie assistée par ordinateur a réduit de manière significative les variations d'alignement et de position, paramètres directement corrélés aux échecs précoces nécessitant une chirurgie de ...

Plaskos, Christopher

2005-01-01

354

A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.

John Justin M

2012-03-01

355

Size Adaptive Region Based Huffman Compression Technique  

OpenAIRE

A loss-less compression technique is proposed which uses a variable length Region formation technique to divide the input file into a number of variable length regions. Huffman codes are obtained for entire file after formation of regions. Symbols of each region are compressed one by one. Comparisons are made among proposed technique, Region Based Huffman compression technique and classical Huffman technique. The proposed technique offers better compression ratio for some fi...

Nandi, Utpal; Mandal, Jyotsna Kumar

2014-01-01

356

A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques  

OpenAIRE

This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their sec...

John Justin M; Manimurugan S

2012-01-01

357

Nuclear techniques in food production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination

358

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Weekly Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes the use of weekly reports as an assessment tool for student learning. It is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. Weekly reports provide rapid feedback about what students think they are learning and what conceptual difficulties they are experiencing. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique including information about how to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Eugenia Etkina

359

Data mining concepts and techniques  

CERN Document Server

Our ability to generate and collect data has been increasing rapidly. Not only are all of our business, scientific, and government transactions now computerized, but the widespread use of digital cameras, publication tools, and bar codes also generate data. On the collection side, scanned text and image platforms, satellite remote sensing systems, and the World Wide Web have flooded us with a tremendous amount of data. This explosive growth has generated an even more urgent need for new techniques and automated tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge.Like the first edition, voted the most popular data mining book by KD Nuggets readers, this book explores concepts and techniques for the discovery of patterns hidden in large data sets, focusing on issues relating to their feasibility, usefulness, effectiveness, and scalability. However, since the publication of the first edition, great progress has been made in the development of new data mining methods, systems, and app...

Han, Jiawei

2006-01-01

360

Computer animation algorithms and techniques  

CERN Document Server

Whether you''re a programmer developing new animation functionality or an animator trying to get the most out of your current animation software, Computer Animation: Algorithms and Techniques will help work more efficiently and achieve better results. For programmers, this book provides a solid theoretical orientation and extensive practical instruction-information you can put to work in any development or customization project. For animators, it provides crystal-clear guidance on determining which of your concepts can be realized using commercially available products, which demand custom programming, and what development strategies are likely to bring you the greatest success.* Expert instruction from a pace-setting computer graphics researcher.* Provides in-depth coverage of established and emerging animation algorithms.* For readers who lack a strong scientific background, introduces the necessary concepts from mathematics and physics.* Illustrates advanced programming techniques with highly detailed worki...

Parent, Rick

2001-01-01

361

An Improved Face recognition Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We are proposing an approach for identifying face from given database which stores large amount of distinct faces. Database is considered that stores three unique parameters for each face. Based on these, the database is divided into few categories and sub-categories .Whenever it is required to search a face, computation of thefirst category that contains the face is performed, based on first parameter attached with the face. In this way the next category can be found based on the other parameters .The final category may contain many faces and finally another search technique is performed to find out the actual face. It produces better result in terms oftime consumption comparing to other popular approaches. We also use neural network technique to find out whether the picture to be searched is a face or not and also the concept of fuzzy logic to calculate the database categories

Debjyoti Bagchi

2011-08-01

362

Primary system leakage monitoring techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different methods currently used for monitoring leakage in the reactor coolant pressure boundary (RCPB) are based on suitable traditional measurement techniques. The main function of these methods is to detect, locate and quantify leaks in the containment. There is no single measurement technique that can satisfactorily fulfill all three functions together. Several methods are used in combination, to achieve all three leakage monitoring objectives, and also to satisfy redundancy and diversity criteria. Each method is studied in detail, to determine its measurement threshold, sensitivity and other characteristics, to assess the suitability of each for complying with the leakage monitoring requirements of the RCPB. Using calculation codes to model the physical configuration of rooms inside the containment, an analytical study is made of the behaviour of measurement parameters of some methods. The studies demonstrate the possibility of considerably improving these methods, to adapt current measuring methods using modern program logic controls and small computer programs to aid the operator. (Author)

363

Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques  

CERN Document Server

This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

Kido, Ken'iti

2015-01-01

364

Spacecraft techniques for lunar research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most significant findings about the Moon obtained by spacecraft so far, have resulted from measurements of gravity, electromagnetic properties, seismicity, mechanical properties, geologic features, composition, ages, and the lunar environment. A number of major lunar questions remain to be answered. Other properties, measurable with spacecraft, which may provide data critical to answering these questions include geometrical shape, motions, and heat flow. In this paper specific measurements that should provide critical data for each of these questions are identified, with some candidate techniques. Among the suggested techniques that have not yet been used are very long baseline interferometry (Earth-Moon baseline), gravity gradiometry, elemental analysis by neutron interactions, and remotely-controlled on-moon microscopy.

Jaffe, L. D.; Choate, R.; Coryell, R. B.

1972-01-01

365

Simulation techniques for cosmological simulations  

CERN Document Server

Modern cosmological observations allow us to study in great detail the evolution and history of the large scale structure hierarchy. The fundamental problem of accurate constraints on the cosmological parameters, within a given cosmological model, requires precise modelling of the observed structure. In this paper we briefly review the current most effective techniques of large scale structure simulations, emphasising both their advantages and shortcomings. Starting with basics of the direct N-body simulations appropriate to modelling cold dark matter evolution, we then discuss the direct-sum technique GRAPE, particle-mesh (PM) and hybrid methods, combining the PM and the tree algorithms. Simulations of baryonic matter in the Universe often use hydrodynamic codes based on both particle methods that discretise mass, and grid-based methods. We briefly describe Eulerian grid methods, and also some variants of Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods.

Dolag, K; Schindler, S; Diaferio, A; Bykov, A M

2008-01-01

366

Beam direction and immobilization techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of modern localization techniques allows a radiotherapist to locate a tumor volume to a high degree of accuracy. The treatment of this volume by radiotherapy, while minimizing the radiation dose to the surrounding tissues, requires the use of accurately defined beams of radiation of suitable dimensions. Misalignment of any of these beams may mean that the radiotherapy treatment plan does not accurately describe the treatment. This may lead to parts of the tumor region being overdosed, and other parts underdosed, resulting in variations of tumor dose in excess of recommended tolerances. Sophisticated techniques have become available to enable radiation beams to be directed with the required accuracy, relative to marks on the surfaces of the patient. The accurate positioning of these marks is part of the planning procedure, using simulators or other diagnostic aids

367

Non-perturbative Pinch Technique  

CERN Document Server

In this article we present the non-perturbative implementation of the pinch technique. In particular, in the context of scalar QED, we derive the pinch technique self-energies and vertices directly from the Schwinger-Dyson equations. After reviewing the perturbative construction, we discuss in detail the general methodology and the basic field-theoretic ingredients necessary for the completion of this task. The construction requires the simultaneous treatment of the equations governing the scalar self-energy and the fundamental interaction vertices. The resulting non-trivial rearrangement of terms generates dynamically the Schwinger-Dyson equations for the corresponding Green's functions of the background field method. The proof relies on the extensive use of the all-order Ward-identities satisfied by the full vertices of the theory and by the one-particle-irreducible kernels appearing in the usual skeleton expansion. The Ward identities for these latter quantities are derived formally, and several subtleties...

Binosi, D; Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis

2006-01-01

368

Text Steganography Techniques: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography has been in use since the presence of secret messages and this use has gained popularity as the internet became well-liked. Text steganography is a sub part of steganography that hides the message behind other cover text file. Moreover, hiding the text behind HTML coding of web pages makes the detection of steganography impractical as web pages are a fundamental building blocks of the internet. This paper reviews some of most common text steganography techniques that mainly focus on protecting text behind HTML and CSS (Cascading Style sheets coding of web pages. This paper also proposes a new technique based on hiding text behing HTML and CSS portion of web page coding

Neha Rani#1 , Jyoti Chaudhary

2013-07-01

369

The ancient Chinese casting techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

Tan Derui

2011-02-01

370

Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques  

CERN Document Server

Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

Ferreira, Antoine

2013-01-01

371

Wavelength conversion techniques and devices  

OpenAIRE

Taking into account the requirements to the converters e.g., bit rate transparency (at least up to 10 Gbit/s), polarisation independence, wavelength independence, moderate input power levels, high signal-to-noise ratio and high extinction ratio interferometric wavelength convertors are very interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electr...

Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Kloch, Allan; Stubkjær, Kristian

2010-01-01

372

Survey on FPGA Routing Techniques  

OpenAIRE

Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a programmable integrated circuit, has gained great popularity in the circuit design. Routing is an important part of FPGA design step which determines therouting in horizontal and vertical channels of FPGA. In this paper, a number of routing techniques are reviewed. FPGA routing can be achieved in various approaches like based on geometric routing, andbased on Boolean Satisfiability. The algorithms based on geometric routing are proved to be efficient al...

Ms. Nagalakshmi Venugopal; Manimegalai, R.

2012-01-01

373

PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

OpenAIRE

In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation o...

Punia Supriya; Bala Rajni; Rana A.C

2012-01-01

374

Text Steganography Techniques: A Review  

OpenAIRE

Steganography has been in use since the presence of secret messages and this use has gained popularity as the internet became well-liked. Text steganography is a sub part of steganography that hides the message behind other cover text file. Moreover, hiding the text behind HTML coding of web pages makes the detection of steganography impractical as web pages are a fundamental building blocks of the internet. This paper reviews some of most common text steganography techniques that mainly focu...

Neha Rani, Jyoti Chaudhary

2013-01-01

375

5.3. Experimental technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is devoted to experimental technique. Solvents used in experiment were purified by conventional method; N-vinyl-pyrrolidone was purified by vacuum distillation at presence of inhibitor-hydroquinone; vinyl-pyridine was purified by vacuum distillation. The synthesis of ethynyl piperidol monomers was studied. The synthesis of cross-linked polymers of ethynyl piperidol was suited as well. The assessment of composition of monomer units of cross-linked polymers of ethynyl piperidol was carried out.

376

Experimental techniques for multiphase flows  

Science.gov (United States)

This review discusses experimental techniques that provide an accurate spatial and temporal measurement of the fields used to describe multiphase systems for a wide range of concentrations, velocities, and chemical constituents. Five methods are discussed: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonic pulsed Doppler velocimetry (UPDV), electrical impedance tomography (EIT), x-ray radiography, and neutron radiography. All of the techniques are capable of measuring the distribution of solids in suspensions. The most versatile technique is MRI, which can be used for spatially resolved measurements of concentration, velocity, chemical constituents, and diffusivity. The ability to measure concentration allows for the study of sedimentation and shear-induced migration. One-dimensional and two-dimensional velocity profiles have been measured with suspensions, emulsions, and a range of other complex liquids. Chemical shift MRI can discriminate between different constituents in an emulsion where diffusivity measurements allow the particle size to be determined. UPDV is an alternative technique for velocity measurement. There are some limitations regarding the ability to map complex flow fields as a result of the attenuation of the ultrasonic wave in concentrated systems that have high viscosities or where multiple scattering effects may be present. When combined with measurements of the pressure drop, both MRI and UPDV can provide local values of viscosity in pipe flow. EIT is a low cost means of measuring concentration profiles and has been used to study shear-induced migration in pipe flow. Both x-ray and neutron radiographes are used to image structures in flowing suspensions, but both require highly specialized facilities.

Powell, Robert L.

2008-04-01

377

The ancient Chinese casting techniques  

OpenAIRE

In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

2011-01-01

378

Electromigration techniques theory and practice  

CERN Document Server

The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

2013-01-01

379

Different Approaches of CBIR Techniques  

OpenAIRE

Image retrieval has been one of the most interesting and vivid research areas in the field of computer vision .Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems are used in order to automatically index, search, retrieve and browse image databases. Colour and texture features are important properties in content-based image retrieval systems. In this paper we have mentioned detailed classification of CBIR system. We have discussed the efficiency of different techniques and the co...

Jashanbir Singh Kaleka; Jagpal Singh; Reecha Sharma

2012-01-01

380

Recent Developments in Tolerancing Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanical tolerances are specified in conjunction with part geometry, material type andother technical specifications during the design of mechanical components and assemblies., These tolerances ensure the expected design function, and provide guidelines for the manufactureof designed parts. However, assigning proper tolerances for a design is a non-trivial task. Thispaper reviews the recent developments in the field of tolerancing techniques, particularly withreference to the use of computers, cost tolerance relationship and tolerance design for qualityimprovement of the product.

Kamlesh Purohit

2013-04-01

381

Remote-controlled decontamination techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several surface decontamination techniques have recently been developed and adapted for robotics use. One method involves a water spray system, operating at 100 psi and 250 degree F, combined with a vacuum and mounted to a small, six-wheeled robot (the PEDSCO). A second method combines an ultra-high-pressure (UHP) water jet system capable of cutting through 3 ft of concrete mounted to a slightly larger, four-wheeled robot (the WASP)

382

Optimization of the filter technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique of the resonant filtering is used in the Moessbauer spectroscopy for receiving polarized radiation. Two main contributions suppress the filter quality: unwanted small absorption line located at the resonance energy and large unwanted absorption line located far from the resonance energy. Both contributions can be parametrized by a single small parameter r. The optimal effective thickness is proportional to 1 / r2, while the departure of the maximum polarization degree from the unity is proportional to r.

383

Analysing Malicious Code: : Dynamic Techniques  

OpenAIRE

This report starts out discussing a framework for building an API monitoring system. In such a system, malicious code can be run, and its actions can be taken notice of. I look into different analysis tools for stuctural analysis, and API monitoring tools. I will also discuss dynamic analysis using a debugger, and anti-debugging techniques used by modern malware. When using a debugger, API hooking can be implemented using brakepoints as well. In any case, we will need an isolated environm...

Haukli, Lars

2007-01-01

384

Techniques to Teach Communication Strategies  

OpenAIRE

Second language learners encounter communication problems when they attempt to use the target language. One way to overcome the problems is using effective strategies. Thus, L2 learners can benefit from teaching communication strategies to use them effectively. However, teaching and teachability of CS is a controversial issue. In this paper, it is discussed that teaching CS is useful and feasible and that techniques can be introduced to teach them. It is claimed that the Bottom-Up Approach is...

Ataollah Maleki

2010-01-01

385

Radon assay and purification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive 222Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed

386

evaluation of a new technique  

OpenAIRE

Complete thymectomy is necessary for all cases of thymoma and for almost all patients with myasthenia gravis. The radicality of minimally invasive techniques is comparable with that of conventional surgery. The introduction of robotic-assisted surgery has offered a refinement of the minimally invasive procedures. The da Vinci robotic system is the most developed telemetric system worldwide. The dexterity of tissue dissection is improved with the da Vinci robotic system. Due to the inherent te...

Swierzy, Marc

2012-01-01

387

Automated medical image segmentation techniques  

OpenAIRE

Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT) and Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits ...

Sharma Neeraj; Aggarwal Lalit

2010-01-01

388

Video Compression Techniques: An Overview  

OpenAIRE

In this study, a new comparative study of video compression techniques was presented. Due to the rapid developments in internet technology and computers, popularity of video streaming applications is rapidly growing. Therefore today, storing and transmitting uncompressed raw video requires large storage space and network bandwidth. Special algorithms which take these characteristics of the video into account can compress the video with high compression ratios. This study demonstrates the repr...

Zaidan, B. B.; Zaidan, A. A.; Zakaria, O.; Khalifa, O. O.; Abomhara, M.; Rame, A.

2010-01-01

389

Data mining and visualization techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Whitney, Paul (Richland, WA); Thomas, Jim (Richland, WA)

2004-03-23

390

Optical techniques for shape measurements  

OpenAIRE

Optical methods are becoming interesting tools for high resolution surface topography measurements. Micro- and macrostructure measurement techniques were developed to measure the surface topography, resolutions of one micrometer or better can be obtained. The progress made in the last few years is due to the development of laser and solid state detector elements together with very powerful computer support for the processing of information. Methods for optical shape measurements together with...

Tiziani, Hans J.

1993-01-01

391

Radar techniques using array antennas  

CERN Document Server

Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

2013-01-01

392

Nuclear techniques in animal agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear technology plays an integral part in research to improve the health and productivity of animals. The use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in animal agriculture is briefly reviewed. The radioimmunoassay techniques give the opportunity of measuring and following precisely hormonal patterns in animals over the reproductive cycle. Simply by analysing a sample of blood, milk, or other body fluid, minute hormone concentrations can be assayed and the reproductive status of the animal assessed. The radioimmunoassay procedure uses antigens which are isotopically labelled, usually with 125I, and antibodies specifically developed for each hormone. The onset of sexual maturity, of oestrus, or the influence of environmental, nutritional or other factors on the reproductive state of an animal can be studied. An example of the use of the radioimmunoassay technique is illustrated in the coordinated research program of the IAEA which focuses on improving domestic buffalo production. Nuclear techniques, particularly the use of stable and radioactive tracers are providing important insights into the functioning of the digestive system of ruminants, its qualitative dynamics and metabolism. For assessing the products of the rumen, particularly volatile fatty acids which become an energy source, and microbial proteins which become a protein source for the animal, materials labelled with 14C, 3H, 35S, 15N and 3235S, 15N and 32P are used. As an illustrative example, the results of one study of nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein and rumen bypass protein synthesis in cattle are shown

393

Airborne dust particle counting techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper briefly describes an electro-optical system for counting of dust particles, which is based on the scattering phenomena. Utilizing the scattering of light by various size particles present in the environment, various particle counting techniques have been developed in order to measure the scattered intensity of light. Light scatters in all directions but much more in the so-called near forward direction 17( composite function) off axis, at 163( composite function) from the light source in the visible range. On the basis of two techniques, the right angle and forward angle scattering, opto-mechanical systems have been developed which measure scattered intensity and particulate matter. The forward scattering Nephelometer is more sensitive and therefore is more suitable for pollution monitoring than the right angle scattering Nephelometer. Whereas the right angle scattering Nephelometer has the utility in extremely low concentration in ppb level owing to the excellent light trap efficiency in comparison to forward scattering Nephelometer. In this paper measurement techniques and measurement results associated with design and development of a real time particle analyser are also discussed. PMID:16565805

Sharma, S G; Prasad, B D

2006-03-01

394

Lead Extraction: "Drag Through" Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of extraction techniques of chronic pacemaker and defibrillator leads is to present an approach that is successful in extracting all leads and minimizes or eliminates complications. To extract a chronically implanted intravascular device, the device must be separated from the encapsulating inflammatory tissue. Three ablation techniques are currently used: mechanical, laser and electrosurgical. Indirect traction is traction applied by an instrument such as a snare passed into the heart, usually through a femoral vein. The lead is entrapped in the snare, and pulling or pushing applies traction. 1,2 The safety of this technique is enhanced by the ability to avoid those problems associated with the binding sites in the superior veins and right atrium. Indirect traction is more successful than direct traction. Countertraction is a method of safely extracting an electrode entrapped in fibrous tissue at the electrode-myocardial interface. It is defined as the countering of the traction on the lead by a sheath. A sheath of slightly larger diameter is passed over the lead to a point about 1 cm from the heart wall. Traction is applied on the lead, pulling the myocardial wall to the edge of the sheath, which counters the traction. Because only the scar tissue is present between the sheath and the heart wall, cardiac tissue is not in jeopardy.

Anoop K. Gupta

2002-10-01

395

Computational intelligence techniques in bioinformatics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational intelligence (CI) is a well-established paradigm with current systems having many of the characteristics of biological computers and capable of performing a variety of tasks that are difficult to do using conventional techniques. It is a methodology involving adaptive mechanisms and/or an ability to learn that facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments, such that the system is perceived to possess one or more attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery, association and abstraction. The objective of this article is to present to the CI and bioinformatics research communities some of the state-of-the-art in CI applications to bioinformatics and motivate research in new trend-setting directions. In this article, we present an overview of the CI techniques in bioinformatics. We will show how CI techniques including neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief network, fuzzy logic, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems and support vector machines, could be successfully employed to tackle various problems such as gene expression clustering and classification, protein sequence classification, gene selection, DNA fragment assembly, multiple sequence alignment, and protein function prediction and its structure. We discuss some representative methods to provide inspiring examples to illustrate how CI can be utilized to address these problems and how bioinformatics data can be characterized by CI. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are also presented and an extensive bibliography is included. PMID:23891719

Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Ghali, Neveen I

2013-12-01

396

Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

2007-04-30

397

Techniques d'Optimisation pour le Dimensionnement et la Reconfiguration des Réseaux MPLS  

OpenAIRE

La superposition de topologies virtuelles à la topologie physique d'un réseau est un des principaux mécanismes de l'ingénierie de trafic. Soit un réseau physique d'une certaine topologie et capacité fixées et une matrice de trafic à véhiculer, il s'agit trouver une topologie logique permettant de mapper de manière optimale la matrice de trafic sur le réseau physique. Lors de l'évolution de la matrice de trafic sur des échelles de temps longues, il faudra agir sur le layout. La pr...

Beker, Sergio Ariel

2004-01-01

398

Techniques avancées du traitement d'antennes pour la localisation de sources  

OpenAIRE

La thèse a porté sur la localisation de mobile pour les systèmes UMTS-FDD. Il s'agit d'un sujet qui intéresse de plus en plus les opérateurs, notamment dans le cas de système UMTS-FDD où il existe très peu de réseaux réels. Les différentes approches permettant de localiser un émetteur ont ainsi été envisagées, et plus particulièrement, celles basées sur les mesures de puissances, les temps d'arrivée (TOA) en liaison descendante ou encore celles basées sur les angles d'arriv...

Grosicki, Emmanuele

2003-01-01

399

Reconnaissance des digues de protection contre les crues du bassin de la Loire par méthodes géophysiques sismique et électrique pour la caractérisation de l'aléa karstique  

OpenAIRE

Objectifs - Elaborer une méthodologie permettant de déterminer une probabilité de présence de karsts sous les digues de la Loire - Caractériser l'hétérogénéité des digues de la Loire - Evaluer le niveau de susceptibilité de présence de karsts - Orienter les futurs actions complémentaires envisageables sur les digues de la Loire Phasage du projet - Collecte exhaustive des données géologiques et hydrogéologiques disponibles le long des levées (tranche 1) - Élaboration d'une ca...

Samyn, Ke?vin; Bitri, Adnand; Mathieu, Francis; Nachbaur, Aude; Closset, Luc; Lequin, Delphine

2011-01-01

400

COMMENT EMBARQUER LE COMPILATEUR FAUST DANS VOS APPLICATIONS ?  

OpenAIRE

Le compilateur Faust est désormais disponible sous la forme d'une librairie nommée libfaust. Associée à la technologie LLVM, cette librairie peut être embarquée dans n'importe quelle application ou plugin audio, leur permettant ainsi de compiler et d'exécuter dynamiquement du code Faust de manière native, aussi efficacement que du code compilé traditionnel. L'article présente la libraire libfaust, l'infrastructure de compilation LLVM, et deux applications de cette technologie : faus...

Letz, Ste?phane; Fober, Dominique; Orlarey, Yann

2013-01-01

401

Irrigation et développement local Cas du périmètre irrigué du Garaat Enneam (Gouvernorat de Kasserine, Tunisie)  

OpenAIRE

En Tunisie, la quasi-totalité des ressources hydriques est affectée au secteur irrigué utilisant plus de 80% des ressources en eau disponibles permettant d'irriguer 370000 ha. La pauvreté se matérialise dans le Centre et le Sud par un milieu naturel difficile et une agriculture de subsistance à faible niveau de productivité et représentant souvent l'unique source de revenu pour la majorité des exploitants. La création de périmètres irrigués constitue le principal voire le seul mo...

Selmi, Salah; Araissi, N.; Zaibet, L.

2007-01-01

402

Filtrage matriciel multicomposante et estimation de la polarisation  

OpenAIRE

Ce papier présente une méthode de séparation des ondes polarisées reçus sur des réseaux de capteurs multicomposantes. Cette méthode est basée sur la diagonalisation d'une matrice spectrale large bande multicomposante assurant la prise en compte de toute l'information disponible. De plus, une méthode permettant l'analyse de la polarisation de ces ondes à partir de la matrice spectrale est aussi proposée. Enfin, les performances du filtrage sont testées sur des données synthétique...

Paulus, Caroline; Mars, Jerome

2005-01-01

403

Quantification of modelling uncertainties in climate change impact studies on water resources: application to a glacier-fed hydropower production system in the Swiss Alps  

OpenAIRE

Cette thèse de doctorat présente le développement d'un cadre méthodologique pour l'analyse des impacts potentiels d'un changement climatique sur un système de ressources en eau de haute montagne et pour la quantification des incertitudes associées. L'objectif principal est de déterminer si les méthodes actuelles de modélisation hydrologique et les scénarios de changement climatique disponibles permettent de prédire l'évolution à long terme du système analysé. Le cas d'étude es...

Schaefli, Bettina

2007-01-01

404

Estampillage et Journalisation P2P pour XWiki  

OpenAIRE

Les systèmes pair-à-pair sont de plus en plus utilisés pour développer des applications distribuées au sein des entreprises. Les réseaux pair-à-pair permettent de construire des applications fiables, performantes, disponibles et passant à l'échelle en répliquant les données sur plusieurs pairs du réseau. Dans cet article nous nous intéressons à la réplication des données de l'application XWiki dans un réseau pair-à-pair. Pour ce faire, nous proposons un nouveau mécanisme de...

Tlili, Mounir; Kokou Dedzoe, William; Pacitti, Esther; Valduriez, Patrick; Akbarinia, Reza; Dubost, Ludovic; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Laurie?re, Ste?phane; Canals, Ge?ro?me; Molli, Pascal; Julien, Maire

2008-01-01

405

Indexation collaborative à base de tags structurables à l'usage des communautés d'enseignants  

OpenAIRE

Compte tenu du nombre croissant de documents disponibles sur le Web, leur indexation est un enjeu essentiel pour faciliter leur partage dans les communautés d'enseignants. D'une part, la description d'objets pédagogiques conformément à un standard comme LOM (Learning Object Metadata) requiert un travail important. D'autre part, des approches permettant l'usage de mots-clés librement choisis, les tags, sont plus répandus parmi les sites Web à forte fréquentation mais restent difficiles...

Huynh-kim-bang, Benjamin; Dane?, Eric

2008-01-01

406

Une plateforme de communication alternative  

OpenAIRE

Les outils de communication alternative permettent d'aider voir rétablir la communication dans de nombreux cas. Un certain nombre d'outils sont aujourd'hui disponible et apportent des éléments de réponse aux situations rencontrées. Un des enjeux importants de la communication alternative reste cependant celui de la généricité. Il s'agit en effet pour les outils proposés de s'adapter à plusieurs paramètres : les capacités motrices de l'utilisateur, ses capacités cognitives, la sit...

Blache, Philippe; Rauzy, Ste?phane

2004-01-01

407

L'intervention sous-marine : situation actuelle et perspectives d'avenir Underwater Operations and Techniques: Current Situation and Future Outlook  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A l'occasion de la Conférence Internationale de Paris sur la Pénétration sous-marine(6-8 décembre 1982, cet article fait le point sur les différents moyens d'intervention sous-marine disponibles à ce jour (plongeurs, engins télécommandés, sous-marins à pression atmosphérique et sur un certain nombre de problèmes technologiques communs (matériaux, télémanipulation, navigation, sources d'énergie. Ce domaine est encore en pleine évolution et fait appel aux récentes innovations technologiques. Bien que les engins télécommandés semblent avoir actuellement la faveur des industriels, les autres moyens restent d'avenir prometteur, la complémentarité devant remplacer dans le futur la concurrence La résurrection de l'Argyronète qui doit devenir en 1985 un banc d'essais des nouvelles techniques est le témoignage de l'activité de ce secteur industriel. This article is based on the International Symposium in Paris on Underwater Operations and Techniques 6-9 December 1982. It reviews the different methods now available for underwater operations (divers, remote-controlled vehicles, atmospheric-pressure submarines and various technological problems common to all of them (materials, remote manipulation, navigating, power sources. This field is evolving rapidly and makes use of the most recent technological innovations. Although remote-controlled vehicles now seem to be favored by industrialists, the other methods still have a promising future, and the complementariness of these methods can be expected to replace rivalry among them. The resurrection of the Argyronète project, which should become a test bench for new techniques in 1985, is a good illustration of the activity going on in this industrial sector.

Bertrand A. R. V.

2006-11-01

408

Neutron radiography, techniques and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

409

Wavelength conversion techniques and devices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Taking into account the requirements to the converters e.g., bit rate transparency (at least up to 10 Gbit/s), polarisation independence, wavelength independence, moderate input power levels, high signal-to-noise ratio and high extinction ratio interferometric wavelength convertors are very interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices

Danielsen, SØren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny

1997-01-01

410

New improvements in shearography techniques  

OpenAIRE

Shearography is a non-contact full field technique used in the assessment of spatial gradient of displacements through a preset direction, Hung and Taylor [1]. The optical set-up can be based on a Michelson interferometer scheme, for static or quasi-static measurements, and on the Mach- Zehnder interferometer if dynamic measurements have to be performed, Santos et al [2]. In both set-ups a speckle pattern, obtained from a rough surface, is laterally shifted to create the interference an...

Lopes, H.; Vaz, M. A. P.; Guedes, R. M.; Gomes, J. F. S.

2007-01-01

411

The cold crucible melting technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work deals with the principle of the cold crucible melting technique with induction heating which is used in metals, glasses and refractory materials melting and in gas induced plasma. As there is no contact between the melted material and the crucible, there is no wear of the crucible, a long life and a very low contamination of the crucible with no temperature limit. As glass is an electric insulator when cold, it is necessary to preheat a little part of the glass (microwaves for nuclear purposes). (O.L.). 8 figs

412

Development of applied optical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report resents the status of researches on the applications of lasers at KAERI. A compact portable laser fluorometer detecting uranium desolved in aqueous solution was built. The laser-induced fluorescence of uranium was detected with a photomultiplier tube. A delayed gate circuit and an integrating circuit were used to process the electrical signal. A small nitrogen laser was used to excite uranium. The detecting limit is about 0.1 ppb. The effect of various acidic solutions was investigated. Standard addition technique was incorporated to improve the measuring accuracy. This instrument can be used for safety inspection of workers in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (Author)

413

New techniques in software production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The productivity in software production has reached about 1,000-2,000 computer instructions per year and party. About one fourth of these deal with problems analysis, the encoding of programmes, testing, and documentation. It can be said that, at the present state of development, the software for a process control system is about as expensive and reliable as the hardware. However, the increasing cheapness and reliability of hardware warrants the assumption that by 1980 more than 90% of the cost of the system and more than half of all system failures will be caused by software - if the techniques of software production are not fundamentally improved. (orig./AK)

414

Deconvolution Method for TOFD Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Time of flight diffraction(TOFD) method is used in nondestructive tests of piping and pressure vessels because of its advantages over a pulse echo technique: its speed, objectivity, repeatability and its insensitivity to specimen surface conditions and discontinuity orientation. But it is the one of weak points in TOFD method that it has the dead zone in sub-surface resolution induced by lateral waves. We solved the dead-zone problem near the sub-surface by using the deconvolution method and the developed ultrasonic testing system showed high performance

415

Projection technique and Bloch functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of projection technique as a tool for investigating properties of Block functions, is demonstrated. Having first established the necessary prerequisities, a general form for the projection operators relevant to cyclic operators, is derived. This form is then used to construct the projection operators for translation operators relevant to crystal lattices. With the help of these projection operators, it is shown finally that any arbitrary function satisfying Born-Von Karman boundary condition, is resolvable into components which are identical to Bloch functions. The treatment is given with reference to a N-dimensional lattice, the results for the ordinary three dimensional case being obtainable by putting N = 3. (author)

416

Lightning spectroscopy-photographic techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some spectroscopic studies of lightning from 1901 to the present are reviewed, with special emphasis on slitless techniques-time-integrated and time-resolved. Some of the best examples of the authors' time-integrated spectra are reproduced to display and identify emission and absorption features from 3000 A to almost 9000 A on a nearly uniform scale approximating 20 A/mm. Time-resolved spectra in the visible region are reproduced in the range of milliseconds for a continuing-current luminosity, and microseconds for a return stroke and a stepped leader. PMID:20094137

Orville, R E; Salanave, L E

1970-08-01

417

Radioisotope techniques in oil wells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotope techniques are quite useful in oil exploration and exploitation. Nuclear logging offers a way of gathering information on porosity, permeability, fluid saturations, hydrocarbon types and lithology. Some of the interesting applications in well drilling are determining depth of filtrate invasion, detection of lost circulation, drill-bit erosion control; primary cement measurements and well completions such as permanent tubular markers, perforation position marking, detection of channeling behind casing and gravel pack operations. Radioisotopes have been successfully used in optimizing production processes such as production profiling injection profiling, corrosion measurements and well to well tracer tests. (author)

418

Analytical techniques in radiation technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiation processing which applies gamma, X rays , or fast electrons for inducing the changes in the material's chemical, physical of biological properties has been introduced in many fields. Quite a few applications are related to the health and environmental protection. Sterilization of health-care products and food irradiation belongs to the first group. The second covers flue gas and wastewater treatment .Radiation sterilization or food irradiation plants are in regular operation in many countries all over the world. Their role in medical hygiene, food borne diseases control, tissue banking can not be overestimated.Quality control is a very important issue concerning these processes; dosimetry, microbiology, content of pollutants and radiolytic products are all based on physico-chemical and biological analyses . Since the changes are very small and concentration of investigated substances very low, advanced or special development methods have to be applied. They concern photometry, ESR, luminescence and others. Regarding environmental protection, first introduced limits for emission of pollutants concerned gram quantities. Nowadays emission limits for sulphur and nitrogen oxides, small diameter particulate (smaller than 2.5 or 10 microns) are given in milligrams, while concentrations of heavy metals (including mercury) or poly aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e. dioxins) are in nanograms even. Therefore, monitoring techniques are of the biggest importance for iniques are of the biggest importance for implementation of radiation technologies for environment conservation. Two industrial plants for flue gas purification at coal fired power stations are in operation. The monitoring system for ppm's quantities of nitrogen and sulphur oxide, ammonium, ozone are substantial components of the system. The by-product being used as a fertilizer is controlled for composition and heavy metal content. The technology can be used for VOC and PAH (dioxins) control as well, HCPL/MS techniques should be used in this case and sampling is quite a sophisticated procedure. Stable isotope tracers are utilized to investigate process mechanism as well. Wastewater pollutants treatment plant using electron accelerator as a source of radiation has been constructed as well. HCLP/MS and other techniques are used to record performance of the plant. Solutions presented in the paper are the example of the role which analytical techniques play in modern technology development. (author)

419

Text Summarization using Clustering Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A summarization system consists of reduction of a text document to generate a new form which conveys the key meaning of the contained text.Due to the problem of information overload, access to sound and correctly-developed summaries is necessary. Text summarization is the most challenging task in information retrieval. Data reduction helps a user to find required information quickly without wasting time and effort in reading the whole document collection. This paper presents a combined approach to document and sentence clustering as an extractive technique of summarization

Anjali R. Deshpande #1 , Lobo L. M. R. J.

2013-08-01

420

Intraoperative irradiation techniques and results  

CERN Document Server

The rationale for using intraoperative irradiation (IORT) is based on the realization that tolerable doses of external beam radiation are often insufficient to achieve control of locally advanced malignancies. In these instances, the IORT component of treatment becomes the optimal conformal technique of irradiation, since dose-limiting organs or structures can either be surgically displaced or protected by placement of lead shielding. This fully revised and expanded second edition is of interest to those with intraoperative electron (IOERT) capabilities, high-does-rate brachytherapy (HDR-IORT)

Gunderson, Leonard L; Calvo, Felipe A

2011-01-01

421

Personalization techniques and recommender systems  

CERN Document Server

The phenomenal growth of the Internet has resulted in huge amounts of online information, a situation that is overwhelming to the end users. To overcome this problem, personalization technologies have been extensively employed. The book is the first of its kind, representing research efforts in the diversity of personalization and recommendation techniques. These include user modeling, content, collaborative, hybrid and knowledge-based recommender systems. It presents theoretic research in the context of various applications from mobile information access, marketing and sales and web services,

Uchyigit, Gulden

2008-01-01

422

Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications  

CERN Document Server

Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

2012-01-01

423

Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications  

CERN Document Server

Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

Kirovski, Darko

2006-01-01

424

Liquid weighing by buoyancy technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A unique method is being developed to indirectly measure the mass of liquid in a tank. This method (the Bob Displacement Technique), which is based on Archimedes Buoyancy Principle, is described. The working equation is developed and reduced to a linear response equation which is unaffected by density. A prototype design for use on a plutonium/uranium nitrate feed tank has been developed and is described. The water testing of this hardware is discussed. Typical fuel cycle applications and the material accountability considerations are included

425

Binaural localization and separation techniques  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Based on binaural signals, i.e. the signals observed at the two ears, a listener can localize and recognize different sound sources and then focus on one of these. For decades, researchers have tried to invent a machine that can do the same under similar conditions. Despite all the efforts, the human auditory system is, by far, superior to any machine that has been devised. The topic of this thesis is computational techniques for the localization and separation of sources in binaural...

Viste, Harald

2005-01-01

426

A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures, Hidden Markov Model (HMM, geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and processes are also discussed along with the solutions provided by different authors.

Muhammad Sharif

2012-12-01

427

Study on Image Steganography Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is a secret Communication to hide the secret Data. It is an invisible communication that hides data like text, image, and audio, video etc .The secret message is inserted into the image files. The image files can use stego-key to hide the data and the resultant image is called as stego-image. This is most important for the internet users to share their secret data in an efficient manner. Steganography plays an important role in defence. Various steganographic techniques areanalyzed and its pros and cons are highlighted in this paper.

C.Gayathri

2013-04-01

428

Data acquisition techniques using PC  

CERN Document Server

Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

Austerlitz, Howard

2014-01-01

429

Conventional colonoscopy: Technique, indications, limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Colonoscopy has long been the gold standard for the diagnosis of colonic diseases. Recently, with the advent of CT colonografy, new alternatives seem to appear on the horizon, which seem to finally overcome some of colonoscopy's drawbacks like procedure related pain and discomfort during the examination. Polyp miss rate and the fact that not always the caecum can be reached are also the basis of debate. This article gives an overview about current technique, indications and limitations of diagnostic colonoscopy as well as a potential prospect for the future, discussing novel imaging technologies ranging from magnification endoscopy to virtual histopathology

430

Negotiation Techniques (That Really Work!)  

CERN Document Server

Sales is all about negotiation. Price. Delivery. Terms. And every day, salespeople leave money on the table. They just don't have the skills to get what they want. Now Stephan Schiffman, drawing on years of experience, shows you how to nail the sale, hit quotas, and boost the bottom line. Schiffman-style negotiation is all about getting the best deal. And he outlines specific techniques to get there. Things can be tough out there. But with Schiffman's negotiation skills in your pocket, you can do battle and win.

Schiffman, Stephan

2010-01-01

431

Experimental techniques in nuclear physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of experimental techniques involving wide varieties of nuclear radiation detection methods are required to carry out research in different areas of nuclear physics. The progress in the design and operation of nuclear radiation detectors in various applications has been very rapid and a periodic review in this field is always appropriate. The present report, while dealing with the general principles of particle and radiation detection using conventional detectors of gas, scintillator and semiconductor types, also gives an update of the recent developments in sophisticated detector systems which are built to meet the requirements of present day nuclear physics experiments. (author)

432

Adaptation des techniques de forage à la recherche et à l'équipement des stockages souterrains de gaz naturel Adapting Drilling Techniques to the Search for and Equipment of Underground Natural-Gas Storage Facilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pour répondre à la modulation annuelle de la consommation de gaz, le Gaz de France a décidé, il y a une trentaine d'années, de stocker du gaz, soit dans des nappes aquifères, soit dans des cavités salines. La recherche de structures géologiques aptes à recevoir ce gaz, la réalisation et l'équipement de puits d'exploration ou d'exploitation, l'entretien de ces puits et le contrôle des stockages ont été confiés au Département réservoirs souterrains de la Direction des études et techniques nouvelles. Les phases d'exploration et de développement d'un stockage souterrain nécessitent le forage de puits du type pétrolier. Ces sondages permettent, d'une part la récupération d'un maximum de renseignements concernant les différentes couches géologiques traversées et l'évaluation de leur aptitude à stocker le gaz, et d'autre part, d'assurer une exploitation optimale et fiable du stockage dans les meilleures conditions de sécurité. La pratique acquise dans l'exécution de ces forages par le Gaz de France lui a permis d'adapter aux stockages souterrains de nombreuses techniques des forages pétroliers. Parallèlement des procédés originaux ont pu être mis au point pour répondre à certaines exigences particulières du forage des puits de réservoirs souterrains, notamment à celles concernant le bon calibrage du trou foré ou la qualité des cimentations des cuvelages. L'article présente l'ensemble de ces adaptationset pratiques originales; bien que ne prétendant rien d'autre qu'apporter une contribution au chapitre problèmes particuliers des forages pour stockages souterrains de la technique pétrolière, certaines de celles-ci devraient pouvoir, en retour, trouver des applications intéressantes dans les forages pétroliers de moyenne profondeur. About 30 years ago and with a view to keep pace with the annual variation of gas consumption, Gaz de France decided to store gas in either aquifer layers or salt cavities. The search for geological structures suitable for holding this gas, the drilling and equipment of exploration or production wells, their maintenance and the controlling of such storage facilities were entrusted to the Underground Reservoirs Department of the Service for Research and New Technologies. The exploration and development phases of an underground storage facility require the drilling of petroleum-type wells. Such boreholes are used to recover the maximum amount of information concerning the different geological layers crossed and to assess their suitability for storing gas. At the same time, they must be capable of ensuring the optimal and reliable exploitation of the storage facilities under the best possible safety conditions. The practical drilling experience acquired by Gaz de France enabled it to adapt many petroleum drilling techniques to underground storage facilities. At the same time, original procedures were developed to cope with various specific requirements inherent to drilling wells into underground reservoirs, particularly requirements concerning the proper sizing of boreholes and casing cementation quality. This article describes all these adaptations and original developments. Primarily a contribution to the field of Specific Problems in Boreholes for Underground Storage Facilitiesamong petroleum technologies, some of these developments should in turn result in interesting applications in medium-depth oil and gas wells.

Grandin J.

2006-11-01

433

Repositioning of Covered Stents: The Grip Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: Retrieval and repositioning of a stent deployed beyond its intended target region may be a difficult technical challenge. Materials and Methods: A balloon-mounted snare technique, a variant of the coaxial loop snare technique, is described. Results: The technique is described for the repositioning of a covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent and a covered biliary stent. Conclusion: The balloon-mounted snare technique is a useful technique for retrieval of migrated stents.

434

Neuromodulation and the role of electrodiagnostic techniques  

OpenAIRE

Electrodiagnostic techniques have been utilized in surgery since the early 1960s. These techniques have been primarily used in neurosurgery; however, with the introduction of neuromodulation for voiding dysfunction, these techniques have now found their way into the field of female pelvic medicine. This article will review techniques applicable to evaluate pelvic floor function as it relates to neuromodulation. It will also review the literature describing how these techniques are used to hel...

Noblett, Karen L.

2010-01-01

435

PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR OFDM USING CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has recently been applied in wireless communication systems due to its high data rate transmission capability with high bandwidth efficiency and its robustness to multi-path delay. Fading is the one of the major aspect which is considered in the receiver. To cancel the effect of fading, channel estimation and equalization procedure must be done at the receiver before data demodulation. Many channel estimation and equalization algorithms are studied in the literatures. This projectmainly deals with pilot based channel estimation techniques for OFDM communication over frequency selective fading channels. Mainly three prediction algorithms are used in the equalizer to estimate the channel responses namely, Least Mean Square (LMS, Normalized LMS (NLMS and Recursive Least Square (RLS algorithm. These three algorithms are considered in this work and their performances are statistically compared by using computer simulations.

K. Elangovan,

2010-08-01

436

New Techniques in Neutron Scattering  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher potential performance than any existing facility, however in order to use this pulse structure optimally many existing neutron scattering instruments will need to be redesigned. This defense will concentrate on the design and optimization of the inverse time-of-flight cold neutron spectrometer CAMEA. The instrument is ideally suited for solid state experiments with extreme sample environments such as large pressures and strong magnetic fields. CAMEA combines the time-of-flight technique to determine the energy of the incoming neutrons with a complex multiplex backend that will analyse and detect an unprecedented large fraction of neutrons scattered in the horizontal plane. Together with the ESS source this will produce an instrument that promises several orders of magnitude higher performance than the best currently existing neutron spectrometers. The design of CAMEA involved kinematic calculations, simulations and prototyping to optimize the instrument and ensure that it will deliver the predicted performance when constructed. During the design a new prismatic analyser concept that can be of interest to many other neutron spectrometers was developed. The design work was compiled into an instrument proposal for the European Spallation Source, and approved for construction. CAMEA will thus be constructed in Copenhagen as a Swiss-Danish contribution to ESS.

Birk, Jonas Okkels

2014-01-01

437

Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design

438

Selected manufacturing techniques of nanomaterials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Enabling nanofabrication techniques as tools for experiments to understand the underlying scienceand engineering in the nanometer scale are required. This paper is a resume a range of technology andcharacterization tools relevant for nanoeletronics devices.Design/methodology/approach: An overview on bottom – up and bottom – down fabrication techniques arepresented in this paper. As an alternative to the continually increasing cost of nanotechnology for manufacturingelectronic devices, new strategies are examined in research, which are based on basic principles of physics andchemistry. For example, molecular self-organization mechanisms are developed in order to manufacture welldefinednanostructures with desired properties.Findings: This paper includes description of three methods of production nanolayers and monolayers molecularself-organization, Langmuir – Blodget films and Nanoimprint Lithography.Research limitations/implications: The most extreme approach is to build nanostructures atom by atomwith the help of scanning tunneling microscope at low temperatures. This is very slow method to buildnanostructures, usually a couple of hours. An alternative approach for the formation of nanostructures is self– organization of atoms.Practical implications: The greatest advantage of litographic patterning is very large variety of differentstructures which can be defined by lithographic methods, Langmuir – Blodget (LB films is another unpopularmethod to produce nanomaterials.Originality/value: Materials engineering technology stands today at the edge of a huge challenge: produce cheapnanomaterials for nanoelectronics. Building materials from the bottom up requires a multidisciplinary approach.This arena is unquestionably in the nano-dimension, where all fields of science and engineering meet.

R. Nowosielski

2007-01-01

439

Radionuclide tracer techniques in haematology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first two chapters cover the basic properties of radionuclides and the instrumentation currently used for their detection and measurement. The body of the book includes chapters on the measurement of blood volume and of cell survival, ferrokinetic studies (59Fe, 55Fe, and 52Fe are discussed), the use of external counters and of imaging techniques; a chapter on absorption, loss and clearance studies includes a discussion of vitamin B12 and iron absorption. Throughout, the theory, practice, interpretation and clinical usefulness of each test is discussed and sufficient practical detail is included to allow the book to be used as a laboratory workbook. Appendices include descriptions of 51Cr labelling of red cells, heat-damaged red cells and platelets, sup(99m)Tc labelling of red cells and heat-damaged red cells, 111In labelling of platelets, Indium and Iron labelling of transferrin, a derivation of Dornhorst's equation for cell survival, calibration of imaging equipment, and radioassay techniques. (U.K.)

440

Chromoendoscopy and intravital staining techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromoendoscopy and intravital staining techniques are synonymous methods for the endoscopic early detection of malignant changes in the intestinal tract. Endoscopic intravital staining involves the use of absorptive stains (methylene blue and Lugol's solution), contrast stains (indigo carmine) and reactive stains (Congo red). Lugol's iodine solution is used to identify superficial carcinomas in the squamous epithelium of the oesophagus. Methylene blue stains the specialized intestinal epithelium in Barrett's oesophagus and, in addition to this, is helpful in the diagnosis of dysplasia. Intravital staining with indigo carmine contributes to contrasting and accentuating changed mucosal processes. Together with Cresyl violet, contrast staining is particularly important in detecting small, early malignant changes in the colon. The use of chromoendoscopy enables a biopsy diagnosis of superficial dysplastic changes and an accurate delineation of carcinomatous areas. In conjunction with the modern video-endoscopy (high-resolution endoscopy and magnification endoscopy), vital staining forms the diagnostic foundation for the detection of early malignant changes in the gastrointestinal tract. These techniques are therefore prerequisites to local endoscopic tumour therapy (mucosectomy). Despite their increasing acceptance, these methods must prove their diagnostic merit in randomized studies. PMID:11030630

Jung, M; Kiesslich, R

1999-04-01

441

Baking technique of JT-60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It needs to make low ultimate pressure to decrease impurities in a plasma in a nuclear fusion device. Baking technique is very effective method to decrease outgassing rate from first walls and inner surface of the vacuum vessel. However, in such large vacuum vessel, e.g. JT-60, the non-uniform heating and the deformation due to thermal expansion might be very important problems. The baking technique of JT-60 is described. Two baking systems were applied to JT-60 to solve the problem of non-uniform heating. One is a circulation system of the hot nitrogen gas which is located between the inner and outer skins of the double-skin structured vacuum vessel. The other is an electric heater which apply the thick of the vessel. In order to prevent the deformation, the difference of temperature was as small as possible. By both the baking at 300degC and the conditioning such as discharge cleaning, the ultimate pressure was achieved 7.9x10-7 Pa. (author)

442

Dismantling techniques for steel components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research programme we looked out for possibilities to solve the dismantling problems in the reference BWR reactor with thermal cutting techniques. It was shown that the stainless steel plated wall of the reactor pressure vessel with a thickness of 600 mm, can be dismantled by plasma-autogen-combination-cutting. Further research work was done to find out the efficiency of oxygen lance piercing and powder flame cutting, specially at parts which cannot be done or only with great difficulties by flame cutting. It was carried out that the oxygen lance piercing gives the best results, when it is done by mankind. A special dismantling problem was the recirculation inlet tube at the vessel wall with only a small clearance between tube and wall. It was solved by using the plasma arc cutting in air as well as under water. The mastering of the dust and aerosol emission by application of the thermal cutting techniques is a serious problem for the future. The comparison of the dust and aerosol emission by plasma arc cutting in air and under water gave a remarkable reduction of the emissions by cutting under water. (author)

443

The Tokai NPP decommissioning technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and started decommissioning from December 2001 as a pioneer of NPP decommissioning. This article presented current state of Tokai NPP decommissioning technique. As the second stage of decommissioning works, removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) were started from 2006 by jacking down method with decommissioning data accumulated. Each heat exchanger was divided into top head, seven 'tears' of shell and bottom head. Each 'tear' was out and separated into a cylinder, and then divided into two by remote-operated cutting equipment with manipulators for gas cutting and motor disk cutting under monitoring works by fixed and mobile cameras. Divided 'tear' was further cut into center baffle plate, heat transfer tubes and fine pieces of shell. Cutting works would produce radioactive fine particles, which were filtered by temporary ventilation equipment with exhaust fan and filters. Appropriate works using existing technique combined and their rationalization were important at this stage. (T. Tanaka)

444

Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

Sayed, Hisham Kamal

2011-05-31

445

Some developments in safeguards techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fundamental principles of safeguards and the research and development of safeguards techniques are described. Safeguard accountancy based upon the partition of the fuel cycle into suitable material balance areas will be further improved. Implementation of international safeguards in the European fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities is described. The effectiveness of a material accounting system depends on the quality of the quantitative data. The allocation of the tasks in the framework of an integrated safeguards is concerned with R and D work only and has no bearing on the allocation of the implementation costs. Bulk measurements, sampling and destructive or non-destructive analysis of samples are described for the determination of batch data. Testing of the safeguards techniques as a keystone in relation to plant instrumentation programmes are still being developed throughout the world. In addition to accountancy and control, it also includes an effective physical security program. The system of international safeguards that prevailed in the sixties has been re-modelled to comply with the new requirements of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and with the growth of nuclear energy

446

Technique for calibrating V probes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

V probes designed by Maxwell Laboratories, Inc. (MLI) have been extensively used at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory to measure the voltage of fast capacitor banks. The straightforward calibration method of pulsing a high voltage across the voltage probe typically produces only millivolts of output signal. Based on a suggestion by MLI, a new method to calibrate the probes has been devised. This technique, which uses a capacitive discharge and measures the dV/dt directly, has the advantage of producing an output signal of nearly a volt. A circuit has been designed and constructed to provide an appropriate ringing discharge which can be used to calibrate V probes. The theory of V probes and their calibration is discussed, and the construction and operation of the discharge circuit is presented. Finally, as an example of the calibration technique, details of how to calibrate a V probe are presented. A precision of 4% is readily attainable in the V probe calibration. Such accuracy should make possible routine 5% voltage measurements on pulsed power systems

447