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Sample records for techniques disponibles permettant

  1. Boilers. Comparison of the main available techniques for boilers to comply with new regulations; Les chaudieres, comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

    1997-12-31

    The main techniques, presently available, that can lead to a consequent decrease in pollutant emissions, are presented pointing out their advantages and drawbacks: sulfur oxide emissions can be lowered by fuel processing and fume desulfurization (through desulfurizer in situ injection or a downstream treatment for solid and liquid fuels); NOx emissions are decreased through fume recycling, low-NOx burners, air staging (OFA), combustion chamber over-dimensioning, combustion air temperature reduction, re-burning (IFR), injection of de-nitrifying agents (at high temperature without catalysts, at low temperature with catalysts). Associations of these techniques are also discussed. Ash processing is studied for coal and fuel oil, depending on the NOx and SOx previously selected cleansing techniques

  2. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Places disponibles*/Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) Plannification de projet avec MS-Project/Project Scheduling with MS-Project : 2 sessions : 23.10 & 4.11.03 and 18 &25.11.03 (2 jours/2 days - langue à définir/language to be defined) AutoCAD 2002 ? Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11...

  3. Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l’enseignement de la thermodynamique technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Jaubert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé DiagSim capable d’estimer les propriétés d’un corps pur et de tracer n’importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés. [English] The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This technology tool is particularly useful when teaching engineering students the basic concepts of technical thermodynamics.

  4. Heating plants. Comparison between the main available techniques that allow heating plants to respect the new regulations; Les chaudieres. Comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the main methods available today to improve the thermal and environmental performances of heating plants and burners and points out the technical and economical advantages and drawbacks of these methods. The methods are described according to the type of pollutant: SO{sub x} (fuel treatment, smokes desulfurization, in-situ desulfurizers injection, lime treatment of solid and liquid fuels), NO{sub x} (smokes recycling, low-NO{sub x} burners, air staging, over-dimensioning of combustion chambers, reduction of combustion air temperature, re-burning, denitrifier injection, combination of several methods), dusts (filters and cyclones). (J.S.)

  5. Correlación y concordancia de tres técnicas de cuantificación de carga viral del VIH disponibles en Colombia / Correlation and concordance of three HIV viral load techniques available in Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Olaya; Carlos A, DíazGranados.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La cuantificación del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) es una herramienta útil para el manejo de los pacientes infectados. Diferentes técnicas se encuentran disponibles en Colombia para ese propósito. Objetivo. Comparar los resultados de carga viral obtenidos mediante el uso de [...] tres técnicas de cuantificación del VIH disponibles en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Muestras seleccionadas por conveniencia y provenientes de diferentes áreas del país se sometieron a cuantificación del VIH por tres métodos: Versant bDNA 3.0 ® (Bayer), LCx HIV ® (Abbott) y Amplicor Monitor HIV v1.5 ® (Roche). Todas las muestras se procesaron en el Centro de Análisis Molecular en Bogotá, Colombia. Los resultados obtenidos con las tres técnicas fueron comparados entre sí mediante regresión lineal. Adicionalmente se determinó la concordancia entre las técnicas calculando el kappa no ponderado, la frecuencia de discordancia según puntos de corte clínicamente relevantes y la frecuencia de diferencias superiores a 0,5 logaritmos. Resultados. La correlación entre técnicas fue altamente significativa, con un R2 superior a 0,97. La concordancia también fue sustancial, con kappas no ponderados superiores a 0,7. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de discordancias para puntos de corte clínicamente relevantes y de diferencias superiores a 0,5 logaritmos fueron considerables (8,8% a 15,6% y 19,6% a 36,3%, respectivamente). Conclusión. Las tres técnicas para cuantificación de carga viral son adecuadas y muestran un alto nivel de correlación y concordancia. Sin embargo, la variabilidad observada hace necesario comparar la lectura de una técnica con otra lectura realizada por la misma técnica cuando se incorporen dichos resultados en la toma de decisiones clínicas Abstract in english Introduction. Human Immunodeficiency Virus quantitation is a helpful indicator for the management of infected patients. Different technologies are available in Colombia for this purpose. Objective. To compare the performance of three available technologies for Human Immunodeficiency Virus quantitati [...] on in Colombia. Methods. Samples from different areas of the Country were selected by convenience and underwent Human Immunodeficiency Virus quantitation using three methods: Versant bDNA 3.0 ® (Bayer), LCx HIV ® (Abbott) and Amplicor Monitor v1.5 ® (Roche). All samples were processed at the Centro de Análisis Molecular in Bogotá, Colombia. Results obtained with the three techniques were compared using linear regression. Additionally, the concordance between techniques was assessed calculating the unweighted kappa, the frequency of discordance according to cut-off points of clinical importance, and the frequency of differences exceeding 0.5 logs. Results. The correlation between techniques was highly significant, with an R2 higher than 0.97. The concordance was substantial, with unweighted kappas above 0.7. Nevertheless, the frequency of discordance for cut-off points of clinical importance and the frequency of differences exceeding 0.5 logs were considerable (8.8%-15.6% and 19.6%-36.3% respectively). Conclusion. The three technologies for quantitation of viral load are adequate with high levels of correlation and concordance. However, because of the observed variability we recommend comparing a reading from one technique with another reading from the same technique when incorporating the results into clinical decision making.

  6. Diagnóstico serológico de sífilis.: Correlación de resultados según técnicas disponibles en el laboratorio / Serological diagnosis of syphilis: correlation of results according to available techniques in the laboratory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Elena, Quattordio; Pedro Luis, Milani; Héctor Luis, Milani.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 117 muestras de suero con pedido exclusivo de FTA-Abs (anticuerpos absorbidos fluorescentes antitreponema) con el objetivo de correlacionar los resultados obtenidos según las siguientes técnicas: VDRL, inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) y enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos recombinantes [...] (ELISA rec.), disponibles en el laboratorio para el diagnóstico serológico de sífilis. El 51% de las muestras tuvo resultados positivos por los tres métodos, el 36%, resultados negativos por los tres métodos, el 10% presentó VDRL reactiva con ELISA y FTA-Abs negativas y el 3% restante, VDRL no reactiva con ELISA y FTA-Abs positivas. Se encontró una concordancia del 100% entre los resultados obtenidos por ELISA y FTA-Abs tanto positivos como negativos, mientras que la incidencia de falsos resultados para la prueba reagínica VDRL quedó establecida en un 10% de falsos positivos con títulos en su mayoría no superiores a 1/8. De esta manera, se resalta la importancia de la realización de una segunda prueba treponémica para la confirmación de resultados, especialmente en los casos donde resulten discordantes los datos obtenidos por VDRL y FTA-Abs, tradicionalmente utilizados en el laboratorio como pruebas diagnósticas de sífilis. Abstract in english In the present study, 117 serum samples with exclusive request of FTA-Abs (fluorescent treponemal antibody absortion) were tested with the aim of establishing a correlation of the obtained results according to the following techniques: VDRL, indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and enzime immunoassay w [...] ith recombinant antigens (ELISA rec), available in the laboratory for serological diagnosis of syphilis. 51% of the samples had positive results with the three methods respectively, 36% negative results with the three methods, 10% showed reactive VDRL with negative ELISA and FTA-Abs and the remaining 3% non reactive VDRL with positive ELISA and FTA-Abs. A 100% concordance between the results obtained by ELISA and FTA-Abs, either positive or negative was found, while the incidence of false results for the reagin test VDRL was established in 10% of false positive results with titers mostly non higher than 1/8. Consequently a second treponemal test is highly important to confirm the results, especially in those cases in which the data obtained by VDRL and FTA-Abs, traditionally used in the laboratory as diagnostic tests of syphilis, were discordant.

  7. Places disponibles*/Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 20 - 22.1.03 (3 days) Introduction to PVSS : 27.1.03 (Afternoon) free course but registration necessary Basic PVSS : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 days) MAGNE-03 - Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 jours) MAGNE-03 - Magnetism for Technical Electronics : 11 - 13.2.03 (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 et 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.3.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Si vous désirez ...

  8. Places disponibles/Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : / Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 13 - 17.9.2004 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.9.2004 (4 jours) Programmation S...

  9. Places disponibles/Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Off...

  10. Places disponibles*/Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : WorldFIP 2003 pour utilisateurs : 11 - 14.2.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 & 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 25.2.03 (1/2 journée) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.2.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 11 & 12.3.03 / 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 Ces cours seront donnés en français ou anglais en fonction des demandes / These courses will be given in French o...

  11. Places disponibles*/Places available ** - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 20 - 22.1.03 (3 days) Introduction to PVSS : 27.1.03 (Afternoon) free course but registration necessary Basic PVSS : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 days) MAGNE-03 - Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 jours) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System : 28.1.03 (1 day) MAGNE-03 - Magnetism for Technical Electronics : 11 - 13.2.03 (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 et 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.2.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may va...

  12. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansores Raúl H

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente. El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8, sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar.

  13. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl H, Sansores; Alejandra, Ramírez-Venegas; Marlene, Espinosa-Martínez; Ricardo A, Sandoval.

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochran [...] e Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente). El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8), sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar. Abstract in english Objective. To describe smoking cessation therapies available in Mexico. Material and Methods. Literature review of meta-analysis, controlled clinical trials, and behavioral therapy studies. Results. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions showed a good chance of success on average, expressed [...] as the ratio of the active drug vs. placebo cessation therapy outcomes (ratios of 39, 78, 79, 117, and 119%, for nicotine chewing gum, bupropion, nicotine patch, inhaler, and nicotine nasal spray, respectively). Behavioral therapy showed satisfactory results, (OR= 3.8) however, more research is needed to establish its effectiveness. Conclusions. Emphasis is made on the need to combine behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy, to increase the likelihood of successful smoking cessation.

  14. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl H Sansores

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente. El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8, sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar.Objective. To describe smoking cessation therapies available in Mexico. Material and Methods. Literature review of meta-analysis, controlled clinical trials, and behavioral therapy studies. Results. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions showed a good chance of success on average, expressed as the ratio of the active drug vs. placebo cessation therapy outcomes (ratios of 39, 78, 79, 117, and 119%, for nicotine chewing gum, bupropion, nicotine patch, inhaler, and nicotine nasal spray, respectively. Behavioral therapy showed satisfactory results, (OR= 3.8 however, more research is needed to establish its effectiveness. Conclusions. Emphasis is made on the need to combine behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy, to increase the likelihood of successful smoking cessation.

  15. RESEÑA DEL SOFTWARE DISPONIBLE EN COLOMBIA PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS EN CADENAS DE ABASTECIMIENTO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VALENTINA, GUTIÉRREZ; DIANA PATRICIA, JARAMILLO.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de los diferentes tipos de inventario a lo largo de una cadena de abastecimiento es un problema complejo que, en la mayoría de los casos de la industria colombiana e internacional, se aborda mediante la implementación de herramientas de software. Sin embargo, la decisión de implementar di [...] chas herramientas está en muchos casos limitada por la capacidad financiera para invertir en ellas y por el desconocimiento de la oferta de software disponible en Colombia. Este artículo presenta una reseña del software disponible en Colombia para la gestión de inventarios con el fin de brindar a las empresas que se enfrentan a la decisión de implementar un software, una herramienta de soporte que indique cuál es la oferta en Colombia y cuáles son las características de los sistemas disponibles. Para esto se presenta primero el estado del arte, en el cual se identifica el resultado de la revisión de la literatura y el uso de las herramientas de software en la industria colombiana. Seguidamente se presenta la caracterización de los productos de software disponibles en el país. Dicha caracterización permite identificar la configuración general de los productos, los módulos de gestión con los que cuenta, las opciones de integración con otras herramientas informáticas, y la información general de precios e instalación. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones del estudio y las futuras oportunidades de investigación. Abstract in english Review of the software available for inventory management in supply chains in Colombia The inventory management of the different types of inventory along a supply chain is a complex problem that, in most of the cases of the Colombian and international industry, is dealt through the implementation of [...] inventory software. However, the decision to implement such software is, in many cases, constrained by the financial capacity of investment and by the lack of knowledge of the available software in Colombia . This work presents a review of the inventory software available in Colombia in order to give support to the companies that face the decision of implementing this kind of software. First, we present the state of the art in which we identify the result of the literature review and the use of the inventory software in the Colombian industry. Then, we present the characterization of the inventory software available in the country. This characterization allows the identification of the general configuration of the products included in the study; the management modules, the integration options with other informatics tools, and the general information of prices and installation are also included in the review. Finally, we present the conclusions of the study and identify future research opportunities.

  16. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Alexia; Guerra, Marisa; Rosquete, Yrelur

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación ...

  17. Une utilisation inattendue des outils de télédétection disponibles sur internet : l’identification des sujets de deux aquarelles du peintre William Turner.

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Courtot

    2008-01-01

    Internet nous fournit maintenant des cartes, des images satellitaires et des photographies aériennes pour la quasi totalité des surfaces terrestres du globe : les modèles numériques de terrain permettent d’observer le relief en trois dimensions, et s’appliquent à des surfaces de plus en plus importantes. Ces outils, on le sait, permettent des repérages sur le terrain et des analyses d’espaces géographiques et de paysages de plus en plus détaillés. Ils sont depuis longtemps les...

  18. Correlacion entre metodos de analisis de Zn disponible en cuatro ordenes de suelos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Molina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizo una comparación entre métodos analisis del Zn disponible en 4 ordenes de sue- Analytilos de Costa Rica (Ultisoles, Vertisoles, Andisoles Inceptisoles, 25 de c/u, utilizando las siguientes soluciones extractoras: Olsen Modificado, Meh- lich 3, Morgan Modificado, DTPA y HC1. Las cantidades de Zn extrafdas dependieron de la natu- raleza qufmica de la solucion extractora. El HCl presento los contenidos mas altos de Zn en los chasuelos, excepto en Vertisoles. Las soluciones que hicontienen el agente quelante EDTA (Olsen Modi- ficado y Mehlich`3, extrajeron niveles interme- Modidios de Zn, en tanto que los metodos que contie- Den el quelato DTPA (Morgan Modificado y DT - PA, obtuvieron los valores mas bajos. Las corre- laciones de Zn extrafble entre los 5 metodos fue- signifirOD significativas en la mayona de los casos, tanto nivel de orden de suelos como en el conjunto de indivilos 100 suelos analizados. Los coeficientes de co- rrelacion mas altos, se presentaron entre Mehlich Morgan Modificado y DTPA. Las correlaciones Modifueron consistentes en los 4 ordenes, 10 que indica que estas soluciones poseen un amplio margen de adaptacion a diferentes tipos de suelo, siendo una caractenstica ventajosa para la selección de un metodo de analisis. El Olsen Modificado fue mas slighteficiente para la extraccion de Zn en suelos de pH ligeramente acido 0 neutro (Vertisoles e Inceptiso- les, que en suelos acidos (Ultisoles y Andisoles. EI HCI extrajo cantidades muy aItas de Zn que Moraparentementestan relacionadas con formas no disponibles para lag plantas. Se concluye que lag soluciones Mehlich 3, Morgan Modificado y DT - PA son semejantes en la forma de extraer Zn dispo- Dible, y podrian seT una altemativa para sustituir el metoda tradicional de Olsen Modificado utilizado en Costa Rica. Sin embargo,la eficiencia de ellas no puede seT establecida sino a traves de log estudios de correlacion contra rendimiento en invernadero y campo.

  19. Niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible en gallinas durante 48 semanas en postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ang\\u00E9lica Guti\\u00E9rrez Arenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para evaluar niveles de calcio (Ca y fósforo disponible (Pd en gallinas. Se utilizaron 300 gallinas Leghorn Hy-line W36 y se alimentaron con cinco tratamientos, tomando en cuenta los niveles óptimos de encontrados en la literatura. Las dietas fueron: T1, 4.34% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T2, 4.34% Ca y 0.23% Pd; T3, 4.62% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T4, 4.62% Ca y 0.23% Pd y T5, 3.25% Ca y 0.25% Pd. Se midió consumo de alimento, consumo de Ca y de Pd, conversión alimenticia, número de huevos, masa de huevo, peso del huevo, gravedad específica y porcentaje de cascarón. Para número de huevos, masa de huevo, consumo de alimento, conversión alimenticia y peso de huevo, no se encontraron diferencias entre tratamientos (P>0.05. Se observó mayor consumo de Ca (P<0.05 en las gallinas de los tratamientos T3 y T4 (4.80 y 4.81 g ave-1 día-1 ; en cuanto a consumo de fósforo disponible, las gallinas del T5 consumieron más (P<0.05 que las demás (0.258 g ave -1 día-1 . Para gravedad específica, hubo mejores resultados con T1, T3 y T4 (1.0837, 1.0841, y 1.0840; P<0.05. En porcentaje de cascarón se observaron mejores resultados con las gallinas de T1, T2, T3 y T4 (P<0.05. Se concluye que las concentraciones de Ca sugeridas por el NRC (1994, no son suficientes para máxima calidad del cascarón; sin embargo, los niveles de Pd 0.18 y 0.23% son menores a los sugeridos por el NRC, de 0.25%.

  20. What essential medicines for children are on the shelf? / Quels sont les médicaments essentiels à usage pédiatrique disponibles à la vente ? / ¿Qué medicamentos pediátricos esenciales hay realmente disponibles?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane, Robertson; Gilles, Forte; Jean-Marie, Trapsida; Suzanne, Hill.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Documentar la inclusión de medicamentos pediátricos clave en las listas de medicamentos esenciales (LME) nacionales, y evaluar la disponibilidad y el costo de dichos medicamentos en 14 países de África central. MÉTODOS: Se realizaron encuestas en 12 puntos de venta de medicamentos, público [...] s y privados, de la capital de cada país. Se reunieron datos sobre la disponibilidad de los fármacos considerados durante el día de la encuesta y sobre el costo para los pacientes del medicamento más barato en existencias. RESULTADOS: Teniendo en cuenta los medicamentos contemplados en la encuesta, la proporción de los mismos hallada en las LME nacionales osciló entre el 50% y el 90%. Sólo en tres países se hallaron en los depósitos centrales de suministros médicos más del 50% de esos medicamentos (intervalo: 15%-75%). La disponibilidad en los depósitos de las organizaciones no gubernamentales no fue sistemáticamente mejor (intervalo: 10%-65%), pero tendió a ser mayor en los hospitales docentes, si bien con un intervalo similar (15%-70%). Los hospitales de distrito (intervalo: 10%-80%) presentaron una mayor disponibilidad que los docentes, mientras que en los dispensarios de atención primaria se observó en general una menor disponibilidad (intervalo: 18%-48%). Las farmacias minoristas o privadas solían disponer de una mayor proporción de los medicamentos abarcados por la encuesta (intervalo: 38%-62%). Se observó una variabilidad considerable de los precios, que tendían a ser más altos en las farmacias minoristas. CONCLUSION: La disponibilidad de medicamentos pediátricos esenciales era escasa. Para mejorar la situación, habrá que entender mejor los sistemas de suministro en los países estudiados y las pautas de demanda de medicamentos. Además de garantizar la disponibilidad de los medicamentos, es preciso que éstos sean asequibles y aceptables para los pacientes. No se conseguirá avanzar sensiblemente hacia los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio si no se hace un gran esfuerzo para mejorar el acceso a los medicamentos pediátricos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To document the inclusion of key medicines for children in national essential medicines lists (EMLs) and standard treatment guidelines, and to assess the availability and cost of these medicines in 14 countries in central Africa. METHODS: Surveys were conducted in 12 public and private se [...] ctor medicine outlets in each country's capital city. Data were collected on medicine availability on the survey day and on the cost to the patient of the lowest priced medicine in stock. FINDINGS: The proportion of survey medicines in national EMLs ranged from 50% to 90%. In only three countries were more than 50% of such medicines available from central medical stores (range: 15-75%). Availability in nongovernmental organization stores was not consistently better (range: 10-65%) but tended to be higher in teaching hospitals, although the range was similar (15-70%). District hospitals (range: 10-80%) had slightly better availability than teaching hospitals, while primary health care clinics generally had poorer availability (range: 18-48%). Retail or private pharmacies tended to have more survey medicines available (range: 38-62%). There was considerable variability in prices, which tended to be higher in retail pharmacies. CONCLUSION: The availability of key essential medicines for children was poor. Better understanding of the supply systems in the countries studied and of the pattern of demand for medicines is needed before improvements can be made. Medicines must be available, affordable and acceptable to patients. Substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goals will not occur without a major effort to improve access to medicines for children.

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DA DISPONIBILIDADE E DA QUALIDADE DE UMA PASTAGEM NATURAL / DISPONIBILITY AND QUALITY OF NATIVE PASTURE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jumaida Maria, Rosito; Carmen Elizabeth, Denardin-Saldanha; Leonir Terezinha, Uhde.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado numa área de pastagem natural de 1,5ha localizada no Campus da UFSM (Santa Maria, RS). Com o uso do Método Botanal, foram efetuados levantamentos nos meses de fevereiro, maio e outubro de 1985 e em maio de 1986. O objetivo do trabalho foi a determinação da disponibilidade [...] total da pastagem (em kg MS/ha), a contribuição dos seus principais componentes para esta disponibilidade e a determinação da qualidade da pastagem através dos teores de PB, fibra detergente neutra (FDN) e lignina encontrados. Com relação aos componentes da pastagem, Paspalum notatum destacou-se pela sua contribuição, que se manteve praticamente constante nos quatro períodos de amostragem. Axonopus affinis evidenciou uma queda nos valores de contribuição para a MS no levantamento que se seguiu ao período de estiagem prolongada (maio/86), enquanto Setaria geniculata registrou um comportamento inverso, neste mesmo período. Entre as leguminosas, Desmodium incanum destacou-se por sua persistência, mesmo durante períodos desfavoráveis. Com relação à PB, nos meses de outubro de 1985 e maio de 1986, primavera e outono, respectivamente, a pastagem apresentou os maiores teores, ocorrendo o inverso com a FDN. Em outubro de 1985 (outono) a comunidade apresentou o menor teor de FDA, enquanto os menores teores de lignina foram encontrados no mês de fevereiro de 1985 (verão). Abstract in english The research was conducted in an native pasture area of 1.5ha at the UFSM "Campus" (Santa Maria, RS). Using the Botanal Method, surveys were made in February, in May, in October 1985 and in May 1986. The aim of this work was the determination of the whole disponibility of the pasture (in DM.kg/ha), [...] the contribution of its main components for this disponibility and the determination of the pasture quality through the founded rates of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and lignin. Regarding to the pasture components, Paspalum notatum distinguished it self by its contribution that kept constaint in the four sampling periods. Axonopus affinis showed a drop in contribution values to dry matter, in the survey after the long period of drough (May, 1986), while Setaria geniculata recorded an inverse behavior in the same period. Among the legume species, Desmodium incanum distinguished itself by its persistence even during the unfavourable periods. Regarding to crude protein, in October 1985 and May 1986, spring and autumn, respectively, tha pasture showed the largest rates, the inverse happened with NDF. In October 1985 (autumn) was found the minor rate of ADF while the minorrates of lignin were found in February 1985 (summer).

  2. Observation du trafic malveillant à l'aide d'un cadriciel permettant la composition et la parallélisation d'inspecteurs de points d'interconnexion

    OpenAIRE

    Alberdi, Ion

    2010-01-01

    Notre thèse stipule qu'au vu de l'ampleur des agissements malveillants dans l'Internet, les logiciels d'extrémité doivent être surveillés. Pour limiter le nombre de points de surveillance, nous proposons de surveiller les logiciels depuis un point d'interconnexion. Nous avons dans ce but conçu Luth, un outil permettant de composer et de paralléliser un ensemble d'inspecteurs de points d'interconnexion (appelés MI) qui implémentent des mini IDS, IPS ou pare-feux, tout en vérifiant la...

  3. Conception, elaboration et mise a l'essai d'un simulateur interactif permettant une approche modelisante: Application aux lois de la genetique mendelienne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasri, Abdel-Halim

    Dans cette recherche-developpement, nous avons concu, developpe et mis a l'essai un simulateur interactif pour favoriser l'apprentissage des lois probabilistes impliqees dans la genetique mendelienne. Cet environnement informatise devra permettre aux etudiants de mener des experiences simulees, utilisant les statistiques et les probebilites comme outils mathematiques pour modeliser le phenomene de la transmission des caracteres hereditaires. L'approche didactique est essentiellement orientee vers l'utilisation des methodes quantitatives impliquees dans l'experimentation des facteurs hereditaires. En incorporant au simulateur le principe de la "Lunette cognitive" de Nonnon (1986), l'etudiant fut place dans une situation ou il a pu synchroniser la perception de la representation iconique (concrete) et symbolique (abstraite) des lois probabilistes de Mendel. A l'aide de cet environnement, nous avons amene l'etudiant a identifier le(s) caractere(s) hereditaire(s) des parents a croiser, a predire les frequences phenotypiques probables de la descendance issue du croisement, a observer les resultats statistiques et leur fluctuation au niveau de l'histogramme des frequences, a comparer ces resultats aux predictions anticipees, a interpreter les donnees et a selectionner en consequence d'autres experiences a realiser. Les etapes de l'approche inductive sont privilegiees du debut a la fin des activites proposees. L'elaboration, du simulateur et des documents d'accompagnement, a ete concue a partir d'une vingtaine de principes directeurs et d'un modele d'action. Ces principes directeurs et le modele d'action decoulent de considerations theoriques psychologiques, didactiques et technologiques. La recherche decrit la structure des differentes parties composant le simulateur. L'architecture de celui-ci est construite autour d'une unite centrale, la "Principale", dont les liens et les ramifications avec les autres unites confere a l'ensemble du simulateur sa souplesse et sa facilite d'utilisation. Le simulateur "Genetique", a l'etat de prototype, et la documentation qui lui est afferente ont ete soumis a deux mises a l'essai: l'une fonctionnelle, l'autre empirique. La mise a l'essai fonctionnelle, menee aupres d'un groupe d'enseignants experts, a permis d'identifier les lacunes du materiel elabore afin de lui apporter les reajustements qui s'imposaient. La mise a l'essai empirique, conduite par un groupe de onze (11) etudiants de niveau secondaire, avait pour but, d'une part, de tester la facilite d'utilisation du simulateur "Genetique" ainsi que les documents d'accompagnement et, d'autre part, de verifier si les participants retiraient des avantages pedagogiques de cet environnement. Trois techniques furent exploitees pour recolter les donnees de la mise a l'essai empirique. L'analyse des resultats a permis de faire un retour critique sur les productions concretes de cette recherche et d'apporter les modifications necessaires tant au simulateur qu'aux documents d'accompagnement. Cette analyse a permis egalement de conclure que notre simulateur interactif favorise une approche inductive permettant aux etudiants de s'approprier les lois probabilistes de Mendel. Enfin, la conclusion degage des pistes de recherches destinees aux etudes ulterieures, plus particulierement celles qui s'interessent a developper des simulateurs, afin d'integrer a ceux-ci des representations concretes et abstraites presentees en temps reel. Les disquettes du simulateur "Genetique" et les documents d'accompagnement sont annexes a la presente recherche.

  4. Degradabilidad ruminal del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PULIDO RUBÉN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica degradativa de forrajes, en muestras de una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., manejadas a dos alturas de pradera, alta y baja. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo (FD y en forraje aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo (FS. La degradabilidad ruminal se estudió usando la técnica de las bolsas de dacrón y los datos fueron ajustados a una ecuación exponencial. La fracción soluble (g/kg MS, de la materia seca (MS (299 v/s 351, s.e.d.= 5,4, de la materia organica (MO (304 v/s 376, s.e.d.= 3,3 y del nitrógeno (250 v/s 301, s.e.d.= 6,4, fueron significativamente mayores (P<0,05 en muestras de FS que en muestras de FD. La degradabilidad potencial (g/kg MS de MS, MO y nitrógeno, fue significativamente mayor (P<0,05 en las muestras de FS, que en las muestras de FD. La degradabilidad efectiva fue mayor en las muestras de FS, que en las muestras de FD, tanto para la MS (474 v/s 508, s.e.d.= 13,0, MO (490 v/s 529, s.e.d.= 11,6 y nitrógeno (351 v/s 419, s.e.d.= 10,0. Respecto del factor altura, sólo se encontró un efecto significativo en la degradabilidad efectiva en el nitrógeno, en favor de la altura baja (365 v/s 406, s.e.d.= 10,0.

  5. Producción de huevo, calidad del cascarón y rentabilidad en gallinas de primer ciclo con niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V\\u00EDctor Manuel Vald\\u00E9s Narv\\u00E1ez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el efecto del calcio y fósforo en la calidad del cascarón del huevo se realizó un experimento con 480 gallinas Hy- Line W-36. Se usaron tres niveles de calcio (Ca (3.2, 4.2 y 5.2 % y cuatro de fósforo disponible (Pd (0.15, 0.20, 0.25 y 0.30 %. Se encontró interacción (P<0.05 del Ca y Pd en consumo de alimento (CAL y masa de huevo (MH. Con el nivel de Ca de 5.2 % y de Pd (0.15 % disminuyó el CAL (96.7 g y MH (48.7 g. El porcentaje de postura y MH fueron menores (P<0.05 con 0.15 % que con 0.3 % de Pd. La conversión alimenticia se afectó (P<0.05 por el nivel de Pd, obteniendo la mejor con 0.3 % (1.94, seguida por 0.20 % (1.96, 0.15 % (1.98, y 0.25 % (1.99. El peso del huevo fue mayor (P<0.05 en 0.7 y 0.8 g con 3.2 % que con 4.2 y 5.2 % de Ca, respectivamente. La gravedad específica se mejoró (P<0.05 al incrementar el calcio (1.080 vs 1.081 y 1.082 en la dieta. Se concluye que para buena calidad del cascarón es necesario 4.2 % de Ca, pero se debe incrementar de manera proporcional el fósforo disponible. El nivel de 0.15 % de fósforo disponible no es suficiente para obtener buena producción de huevo y conversión alimenticia.

  6. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Alexia; Guerra, Marisa; Rosquete, Yrelur

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación ...

  7. Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ramos Sánchez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se realizó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red.The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Google, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

  8. Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Ramos Sánchez.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se real [...] izó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red. Abstract in english The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Googl [...] e, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

  9. Medición de ph en champús y jabones, nacionales e importados destinados al uso en perros disponibles en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlujnewsky H. Javier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron mediciones con cinta de pH y medidor de pH electrónico a diferente champús y jabones (50 que se encuentran disponibles en las tiendas de productos médicos veterinarios en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Las mediciones tienen como objetivo, servir de guía o modelo para el médico veterinario que se dedica a la clínica de pequeños animales para que mediante los datos reflejados en esta, puedan hacer una mejor escogencia de los productos que deben ser prescritos a los pacientes, así como sugerir mejoras en la elaboración de los productos por parte de las casas comerciales y laboratorios. Los resultados obtenidos muestran diferentes valores, pH alcalinos en los productos tipo jabón o barra en contraste con los de presentación champú de pH mayoritariamente neutro o ácido.

  10. Agua disponible en monocultivo de soja con cultivos de cobertura y barbechos reducidos en la región semiárida y subhúmeda Pampeana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia Fabiana, Carfagno; Maximiliano Joaquín, Eiza; Alberto, Quiroga; Francisco, Babinec; Celio, Chagas; Roberto, MIchelena.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En ambientes subhúmedos y semiáridos el principal factor de pérdida de agua desde la superficie del suelo es la evaporación. Este proceso puede ser reducido utilizando cultivos de cobertura (CC) que al aumentar la transpiración, reasignan el agua potencialmente evaporada al flujo transpiratorio de l [...] as plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la dinámica del agua bajo los sistemas de cultivo (SC) de soja continua con CC y barbechos de duración reducida. Se estudiaron cuatro CC y tres momentos de secado en un Hapludol y en un Haplustol, evaluando la lámina de agua disponible (LAD) durante dos años. Para el Hapludol, en general, la LAD a la siembra de soja fue mayor o igual en los SC con CC que bajo monocultivo de soja. En el Haplustol sólo en el SC con CC centeno secado tardío la LAD fue mayor al sistema de soja continua. Se concluye que la dinámica hídrica bajo monocultivo de soja es afectada por la inclusión de CC, siendo el centeno la especie mejor adaptada a estos ambientes. Abstract in english In subhumid and semiarid environments, the main factor affecting water loss from the soil surface is evaporation. This process can be reduced by using cover crops (CC) that increase transpiration and potentially reallocate evaporated water to plant transpiration. The aim of this work was to study th [...] e water dynamics under cropping systems (SC) with continuous soybean in two soil great groups, four CC and three fallow lengths. We studied four CC and three drying times under two soils, a Haplustol and a Hapludol, evaluating the available water depth (LAD) for two years. For the Hapludol, in general, the LAD at soybean planting rotated with CC was greater than or equal to the SC under continuous soybean. In the Haplustol, the LAD at soybean planting was greater only in the SC with the late-dried CC rye when compared to the continuous soybeans SC. We conclude that the water dynamics under continuous soybean is affected by the inclusion of CC, where rye is the best species adapted to these environments.

  11. Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseigement technique

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  12. Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseignement technique

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  13. Estimación del gasto cardíaco: Utilidad en la práctica clínica. Monitorización disponible invasiva y no invasiva / Estimating cardiac output: Utility in the clinical practice. Available invasive and non-invasive monitoring

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    X., García; L., Mateu; J., Maynar; J., Mercadal; A., Ochagavía; A., Ferrandiz.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión pretende profundizar en el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco, sus variables y sus condicionantes, así como repasar exhaustivamente las diferentes técnicas disponibles para su monitorización y establecer las situaciones en que el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco nos aporta una información [...] fundamental en el manejo del paciente crítico. La técnica de Fick, utilizada en los inicios para calcular el gasto cardíaco de los pacientes, ha sido sustituida hoy en día en la práctica clínica por los métodos de termodilución (transcardíaca o transpulmonar), litiodilución, biorreactancia, la tecnología basada en el efecto Doppler o la ecocardiografía. El análisis de la onda de pulso ha permitido la obtención de una medida continua y mínimamente invasiva del gasto cardíaco. Otros métodos, como la biorrectancia, el Doppler o la ecocardiografía nos permiten, en la actualidad, obtener medidas del gasto cardíaco de forma no invasiva, rápida y fiable. Abstract in english This aim of this review is to provide a detailed review of the physiologic conditions and variables of the cardiac output, as well as review the different techniques available for its measurement. We also want to establish the clinical situations in which the measurement of cardiac output can add va [...] luable information for the management of critically ill patients. The Fick technique, used in the beginning to calculate cardiac output, has been replaced today by thermodilution techniques (transcardiac or transpulmonary), lithium dilution, bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography. Pulse wave analysis allows a continuous minimally invasive cardiac output measurement. Other methods, such bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography currently provide a valid, fast and non-invasive measurement of cardiac output.

  14. Fósforo, calcio y azufre disponibles de la roca fosfórica acidulada con ácido sulfúrico y tiosulfato de amonio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omaira, Sequera; Ricardo, Ramírez.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A produção de milho e sorgo em solos ácidos está limitada por deficiências de N, P, Ca e possivelmente S disponíveis. O uso de rocha fosfórica (RF) acidulada como fonte de P, em solos ácidos e cultivos de ciclo curto, é factível, mas é necessário ensaiar alternativas de acidulação mais econômicas. O [...] tiosulfato de amônia (TSA) como agente acidulador, sozinho ou combinado com ácido sulfúrico (AS) é uma alternativa válida. Para provar a eficiência da RF acidulada se experimentou com solo ácido encalado (SE) e sem encalar (SSE) usando como fertilizantes: RF, RF acidulada com AS (RA), RF acidulada com 70% AS e 30% TSA (R30T), RF acidulada com TSA (R100T), superfosfato triplo (SFT) e 0P. Se aplicou uma dose de 400mg·kg-1 de P ao solo. Se estabeleceram experimentos de incubação em meio ambiente e de invernadouro em SE e SSE. O P liberado por RA e R30T em SSE foi maior que em RF e R100T. Em SE a liberação de P de R30T foi menor que em RA nos primeiros 21 dias, mas logo não houve diferenças significativas. Em invernadouro, com milho, em SSE não houve diferenças em matéria seca (MS) entre SFT, RA e R30T, que foram superiores a RF e R100T. Em SE a produção de MS com R30T não superou àquela com RF e R100T. A absorção de P pelo milho em SSE foi melhor com RA e R30T que com RF e R100T, e em SE foi maior com R30T. Em SE a relação P absorvido / longitude radical foi inversa e em SSE não se encontrou relação. A acidulação parcial de RF substituindo 30% do AS por TSA não muda a eficiência de RF como fonte de P. Abstract in spanish La producción de maíz y sorgo en suelos ácidos esta limitada por deficiencias de N, P, Ca y posiblemente S disponibles. El uso de roca fosfórica (RF) acidulada como fuente de P, en suelos ácidos y cultivos de ciclo corto, es factible, pero es necesario ensayar alternativas de acidulación más económi [...] cas. El tiosulfato de amonio (TSA) como agente acidulador, solo o combinado con ácido sulfúrico (AS) es una alternativa válida. Para probar la eficiencia de la RF acidulada se experimentó con suelo ácido encalado (SE) y sin encalar (SSE) usando como fertilizantes: RF, RF acidulada con AS (RA), RF acidulada con 70% AS y 30% TSA (R30T), RF acidulada con TSA (R100T), superfosfato triple (SFT) y 0P. Se aplicó una dosis de 400mg·kg-1 de P al suelo. Se establecieron experimentos de incubación en medio ambiente y de invernadero en SE y SSE. El P liberado por RA y R30T en SSE fue mayor que en RF y R100T. En SE la liberación de P de R30T fue menor que en RA en los primeros 21 días, pero luego no hubo diferencias significativas. En invernadero, con maíz, en SSE no hubo diferencias en materia seca (MS) entre SFT, RA y R30T, que fueron superiores a RF y R100T. En SE la producción de MS con R30T no superó a aquella con RF y R100T. La absorción de P por el maíz en SSE fue mejor con RA y R30T que con RF y R100T, y en SE fue mayor con R30T. En SE la relación P absorbido / longitud radical fue inversa y en SSE no se encontró relación. La acidulación parcial de RF sustituyendo 30% del AS por TSA no cambia la eficiencia de RF como fuente de P. Abstract in english N, P, Ca and possibly S are critical in maize and sorghum production in acidic soils. The use of phosphate rock (RF) acidulated with sulfuric acid (AS) as source of these elements in short term crops is possible. The use of ammonium thiosulfate (TSA) for RF acidulation combined with sulfuric acid (S [...] A) is feasible. An acidic soil low in P and Ca was used to test the efficiency of RF acidulated with SA and TSA. Field and incubation experiments were conducted on limed (SE) and non-limed soil (SSE). Fertilizer treatments were: RF acidulated with AS (RA), RF acidulated with 70% AS and 30% TSA, (R30T); RF acidulated with TSA (R100T), triple super-phosphate (SP) and 0P. The P dosis applied to the soil was 400mg·kg-1. Released P in SSE with RA and R30T was higher than with RF and R100T, but P released from R30T in SE was lower than that from RA in the first 21 days. In SSE

  15. LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Germany G

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: • Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. • Determinar la incidencia del factor tipo de establecimiento educacional en la disponibilidad léxica del inglés como segunda lengua en los alumnos que componen la muestra.The present work is a transectional correlational study among students who learn English as a second language, across the Eight Region at the formal learning schools in Chile. The linguistic level of the available lexicon was explored among samples of students from different secondary schools. The research was planned in terms of general objectives: • Describe the available lexicon produced by students of English as L2 (second language, from different schools. • Know the incidence of the variable type of school in English lexicon availability, produced by students included in the sample.

  16. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE / PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexia, TORRES; Marisa, GUERRA; Yrelur, ROSQUETE.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 3 [...] 0 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temperatura. Al finalizar el estudio, la cantidad de lisina disponible remanente fue de 38,5% (a 25°C); 15,3 % (a 30°C) y 14,1% (a 35°C). La cinética de la reacción de deterioro fue de orden uno, dependiente de la temperatura de almacenamiento, según la ecuación de interrelación de Arrhenius, con un valor de energía de activación de 15,17 kcal/mol, por lo que cae dentro del rango de las reacciones de oxidación de lípidos. De acuerdo a las características del producto [contenido de lípidos (17,5%), proteínas (17,3%) y una actividad de agua de 0,46], la disminución de lisina pudiera ser explicada por la interacción de productos de oxidación de lípidos con proteínas. Considerando un valor de 0,422g lis/100g producto como punto crítico, se predijo la vida útil del producto a temperaturas diferentes a las evaluadas. Condiciones de almacenamiento por debajo de 30°C, garantizan un mayor período de vida útil: hasta 9 meses a 15°C, 6 meses a 20°C y 3 meses a 28°C, en función del indicador de deterioro evaluado. Abstract in english This study estimated the shelf life of a dietary formula for children with diarrhea, using the decrease of available lysine as an indicator of deterioration. Product samples were packaged in multilaminal pouches (paper-plastic-foil) and stored at 25, 30 and 35°C, for two months. The available lysine [...] was measured weekly and the reaction of deterioration kinetics and its relationship with temperature was calculated. At the end of the study, the remainder of available lysine was of 38.5 (at 25°C), 15.3 (at 30°C) and 14.1% (at 35°C).The findings of the study indicated a first order reaction kinetics, dependent on the storage temperature based on the Arrhenius approach, with an activation energy of 15.17 kcal/mol, falling within the lipid oxidation range. According to the product characteristics [lipids content (17.5%), protein (17.3%) and water activity of 0.46], the decrease of available lysine could be explained by the interaction between lipid oxidation products and proteins. Based on a critical value of 0.422 g lysine/100g product, the product shelf life was predicted at temperatures different from those of experimental conditions. At temperatures below 30°C, the shelf life would be extended up to 9 months at 15°C, 6 months at 20°C and 3 months at 28°C, as a function of the chosen indicator.

  17. Hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad: evidencia disponible diagnóstica y terapéutica / Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the preterm infant: current evidence in diagnosis and treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Bravo; P., Cano; R., Conde; M., Gelabert; P., Pulido; B., Ros; P., Miranda.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La hemorragia de la matriz germinal y la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica son las complicaciones neuroquirúrgicas más frecuentes en los pacientes recién nacidos pretérmino91. La incidencia de estas complicaciones es muy variable según las series consultadas19,36,47,56,61,71,93, pero su prevalencia está e [...] n cualquier caso en aumento debido tanto a la mayor incidencia de embarazos múltiples y partos prematuros en relación al avance de las nuevas técnicas de fertilización, como a la mayor supervivencia de estos pacientes merced a los recientes avances en los cuidados perinatales85. En este contexto resulta esencial disponer de un conocimiento preciso y concreto de las recomendaciones diagnósticas y terapéuticas en referencia a esta entidad. Sin embargo, la evidencia disponible al respecto es a menudo fragmentada e incompleta. El objetivo de la presente revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de los principales aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad. Para ello se ha solicitado a los miembros del grupo de trabajo de Neurocirugía Pediátrica de la Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía que revisen las cuestiones más relevantes en referencia a esta patología. Esto supone el primer paso para la elaboración de una guía clínica común para el tratamiento de las complicaciones asociadas a la hemorragia intra y periventricular del prematuro. Abstract in english Intraventricular haemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus are the most important neurological complications in preterm infants during the neonatal period91. The prevalence of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage widely varies depending on the population of study19,36,47,56,61,71,93, but [...] it is in any case increasing due both to the higher incidence of multiple and preterm deliveries as well as the longer survival of preterm infants favoured by recent advances in perinatal care85. It is therefore of the utmost convenience to be familiar with the most important clinical evidence regarding this entity. However, the available evidence is often incomplete and piecemeal. The objective of the present review is to summarise the main diagnostic and therapeutic points regarding preterm-related posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. The participants of the working-group in Pediatric Neurosurgery of the Spanish Society of Neurosurgery were asked to write these recommendations down. This hopefully represents the first step towards the definition of a clinical guide in the treatment of complications related to periventricular hemorrhage of the preterm infants.

  18. Recursos disponibles para la protección de mujeres migrantes en tránsito por Tamaulipas / Resources available (few) for the protection of migrant women transit by Tamaulipas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rocío, Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Blanca Delia, Vázquez Delgado.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La labor del gobierno mexicano en materia de política migratoria es una estrategia para administrar el flujo de migrantes en tránsito rumbo a Estados Unidos, no para salvaguardar su integridad y derechos, menos aún está diseñada para proteger a las mujeres. En esa medida, el interés de este artículo [...] es hacer evidentes los escasos recursos de protección disponibles para migrantes y la ausencia de perspectiva de género en los recursos de apoyo para mujeres en tránsito por México. A través de entrevistas a autoridades y organismos sociales en la frontera de Tamaulipas y con base en el enfoque del modelo ecológico, se evaluaron los recursos de la política pública mexicana como elementos amortiguadores para los migrantes, frente a riesgos y elementos de vulnerabilidad de la mujer en tránsito. Abstract in english The work of the Mexican government immigration policy is a strategy to manage the flow of migrants in transit heading for the U.S., not to safeguard their integrity and rights, much less is designed to protect women. To that extent, the interest is to make clear the limited resources available for m [...] igrant protection and the absence of a gender perspective in support resources for women in transit through Mexico. Through interviews with authorities and social organizations on the border of Tamaulipas, and based on the ecological model approach, were evaluated the resources of Mexican public policy as damping elements for migrants face risks and vulnerability elements woman in transit.

  19. Grado de acidez y potencial erosivo de las bebidas energizantes disponibles en Chile / Acidity and erosive potential of energy drinks available in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MC, Fresno; P, Angel; R, Arias; A, Muñoz.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace una década están disponibles en el mercado nacional, tanto bebidas como otros productos energéticos. Su popularidad ha ido en aumento, sin embargo su consumo no está exento de riesgos. La cafeína es el ingrediente activo principal de estas bebidas y el consumo excesivo puede llegar a caus [...] ar alteraciones en la salud general. Mucha gente las bebe a diario sin estar consciente del daño potencial que puede significar para su salud y sus dientes, especialmente en el caso de niños y adolescentes. En Chile, la acidez de estas bebidas es desconocida. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el pH de las bebidas energéticas presentes en el mercado chileno, estableciendo su potencial erosivo sobre los dientes. Metodología: La muestra quedó formada por 8 diferentes bebidas energéticas disponibles en Chile. El pH fue evaluado con un pHmetro calibrado (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH/Ion 510) a 4°C y 17°C. Los resultados obtenidos fueron registrados y analizados estadísticamente. Resultados: El rango de pH osciló entre 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) y 3.30 (Red Bull). El promedio fue 2.88 a 4°C y 2.89 a 17°C. Conclusiones: Todas las muestras estudiadas tuvieron pH ácido, haciendo de ellas bebidas potencialmente erosivas para los dientes. Los valores de pH fueron menores a 4°C que a 17°C, pero sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0.05). Abstract in english For a decade, energy drinks and other energy products have been available in the national market, and their popularity has increased. The consumption is not risk free, though. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in these drinks and an excessive consumption may be dangerous for general health. Man [...] y people drink them daily without being aware of the potential risk they pose on their health and teeth, especially on children and adolescents. Currently, the acidity of those beverages is unknown in Chile. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pH of energy drinks, and correlate it with their erosive potential on teeth. Methodology: 8 different energy drinks available in Chile constituted the sample. pH was measured with a calibrated digital pHmeter (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH / Ion 510) at 4°C and 17°C. The results obtained were registered and statistically analyzed. Results: pH values ranged from 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) to 3.30 (Red Bull) the mean pH was 2.88 and 2.89, at 4°C and 17°C respectively. Conclusions: All of the beverages showed low pH, which makes them potentially erosive for hard dental tissue. The pH values were lower at 4°C than at 17°C, but without statistical significance (p>0.05).

  20. Validación de la metodología para la determinación cuantitativa de plomo en tintes cosméticos disponibles en el mercado nacional por espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se validó la metodología analítica para determinar cuantitativamente plomo en tintes cosméticos disponibles en el mercado nacional, por el método de espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama. Las muestras se digirieron por digestión húmeda con HNO3 al 65 % m/men horno de microondas; el porcentaje de recuperación para la digestión de muestras de 0,25 g y 0,45 g en 5,00 mL fue de 100,5±0,5. El ámbito de linealidad óptimo fue del límite de detección a 5,0 mg/L con un coeficiente de correlación de 0,9998.Los límites de detección y los límites de cuantificación determinados gráficamente por el método de corredor de errores para regresión lineal fueron de 0,12 ±0,02 mg/L y 0,21±0,02 mg/L, respectivamente. Se evaluó la precisión determinando la repetitividad como desviación estándar de 5 réplicas de un tinte positivo para plomo, de acuerdo con la definición de la ISO,2?2*?, y se obtuvo un valor de 2,3. La veracidad se determinó por medio de los porcentajes de recuperación evaluados, agregando alícuotas de patrones de plomo a muestras de tinte y comparándolo con muestras de igual masa a las que no se les realizó adición. Las muestras de tintes se obtuvieron en puestos de venta, tales como farmacias, suplidoras de belleza,supermercados, centros de ventas de productos naturales y el mercado central de San José. De los tintes analizados, de marca Youthair, de fabricación norteamericana, Doni, Mont D’Or, Matador y Siempre Joven, producidos localmente, contienen acetato de plomo como ingrediente activo

  1. Niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible en gallinas durante 48 semanas en postura / Levels of calcium and available phosphorus in laying hens during 48 weeks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana Angélica, Gutiérrez Arenas; Juan Manuel, Cuca García; Arturo, Pró Martínez; Carlos Miguel, Becerril Pérez; José Luis, Figueroa Velasco.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para evaluar niveles de calcio (Ca) y fósforo disponible (Pd) en gallinas. Se utilizaron 300 gallinas Leghorn Hy-line W36 y se alimentaron con cinco tratamientos, tomando en cuenta los niveles óptimos de encontrados en la literatura. Las dietas fueron: T1, 4.34% Ca y 0.18% [...] Pd; T2, 4.34% Ca y 0.23% Pd; T3, 4.62% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T4, 4.62% Ca y 0.23% Pd y T5, 3.25% Ca y 0.25% Pd. Se midió consumo de alimento, consumo de Ca y de Pd, conversión alimenticia, número de huevos, masa de huevo, peso del huevo, gravedad específica y porcentaje de cascarón. Para número de huevos, masa de huevo, consumo de alimento, conversión alimenticia y peso de huevo, no se encontraron diferencias entre tratamientos (P>0.05). Se observó mayor consumo de Ca (P Abstract in english An experiment was conducted to evaluate levels of calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (AP) in hens. For this study 300 Leghorn Hy-line W36 hens were used. Five treatments were evaluated, level of Ca and AP in the diet: T1, 4.34 and 0.18%; T2, 4.34 and 0.23%; T3, 4.62 and 0.18%; T4, 4.62 and 0.23% [...] and T5, 3.25 and 0.25% (control). The experiment lasted 48 wk. It was measured feed, Ca and AP consumption, number of eggs, egg mass, feed conversion, egg weight, specific gravity and percentage of eggshell. In feed consumption, number of eggs, egg mass, feed conversion and egg weight, there were no differences among treatments (P>0.05). Higher consumption of calcium (P

  2. Evaluación del fósforo disponible mediante tres métodos en distintos suelos y manejos productivos / Evaluation of phosphorus available by three methods in different soils and productive managements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Fernández López; Rodolfo, Mendoza.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo (P) es un nutriente de baja solubilidad y movilidad en los suelos, que se encuentra generalmente en situaciones de deficiencia para el crecimiento vegetal, y sólo puede ser repuesto mediante la fertilización. Debido a la variabilidad en la evaluación de la disponibilidad de P en el suelo, [...] se realizó este trabajo con el objetivo de: a) comparar entre sí dos de los métodos más comunes de evaluación de disponibilidad de P del suelo (Bray I y Olsen), y el método de la tirita de papel de filtro embebida en óxido de hierro (Strip); b) estimar cual de los métodos se relaciona mejor con algunas variables vegetales ante distintas condiciones de manejo y tipos de suelos. Se estudiaron suelos de los órdenes Entisol, Alfisol y Vertisol de la provincia de Corrientes en condición natural o cultivado con Citrus, arroz o pasturas, respectivamente. Se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas y químicas, verificando la similitud textural entre los suelos Testigos y Cultivados. Se realizó un ensayo en invernadero de cada uno de los seis suelos con once niveles de P (entre 0-200 mg P por kg de suelo) y luego se los incubó durante 25 días a 28 °C. Al finalizar la incubación se determinó el P disponible mediante los procedimientos recomendados para los métodos de Bray I, Olsen y Strip. Se sembró "rye grass" (Lolium perenne) que se cosechó a los 45 días de la siembra para cuantificar la materia seca aérea y análisis de P en tejido. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que todos los métodos de evaluación de la disponibilidad de P del suelo describieron de manera adecuada y significativa las relaciones entre MS (R² entre 0,35 a 0,95, y valores extremos para el Vertisol y el Entisol), %P (con R² entre 0,92 y 0,95) y P absorbido (R² entre 0,93 y 0,96 y con muy pocas diferencias entre los suelos) con el P extractado por los tres métodos. Sin embargo, la bondad de los ajustes fue diferente entre suelos, extractantes y manejos productivos, y sugieren la existencia de una interacción tripartita que arroja diferentes resultados en el valor final del P disponible. Se concluye que, no necesariamente el método más sencillo en la evaluación de P disponible para el vegetal es el que mejor refleja la relación con la materia seca o con la concentración del P en el tejido. Abstract in english Phosphorus is a nutrient with low soil solubility and mobility and may present limited availability for plant growth. One way to increase phosphorus availability in soil is by fertilization. Due to the variability in the evaluation of phosphorus availability in soil, the study was carried out with t [...] he following objectives: a) to compare two of the most common soil available P methods (Bray I and Olsen), and the iron oxide impregnated filter paper method (Strip); b) to evaluate which of the methods is better related to some plant variables under different managements and soil conditions. The soils selected from Corrientes Province were: 1) Entisol: natural soil as a control and cultivated with Citrus, 2) Alfisol: control and cultivated with rice, 3) Vertisol: control and cultivated with pastures. Physical and chemical soil properties indicated that soils from the same order differed in the textural composition, despite having similar chemical properties, suggesting that the differences among soils can be ascribed to cultivation. In addition, a greenhouse pot trial was conducted.Six soils were fertilized with eleven levels of P (0-200 mg P kg-1) and then incubated during 25 days at 28 °C. After incubation, soil samples were analyzed for P by the Olsen, Bray I and Strip methods. Rye grass was grown in pots during 45 days and the shoot dry matter was harvested and its P content analyzed. The results obtained in this work suggest that the three studied methods of P availability in soils described adequately and significantly the relationship between extracted P and dry matter yield (R² between 0.35 for the Vertisol and 0.95, for the Entisol), % P (R² between 0.92 and 0.95) and a

  3. Available phosphorus in starter diets for meat-type quail / Fósforo disponible en dietas para codornices de engorde en la fase inicial de cría

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Gomes de, Oliveira; Sandra R, Freitas Pinheiro; Karen B, Goulart; Aldrin V, Pires; Frederico de C, Figueiredo; Karoll A. Alfonso, Torres-Cordido.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo es un mineral importante por ser necesario para la óptima tasa de crecimiento y para la mineralización ósea, siendo considerado como el tercer nutriente más caro en los concentrados para no rumiantes. Fue conducido un experimento para evaluar las exigencias de fósforo disponible (Pd) para [...] codornices de engorde en la fase inicial de cría (1 a 21 días de edad). Se utilizaron 375 codornices europeas, linaje LF1, no sexadas, instaladas en compartimientos. El delineamiento experimental utilizado fue enteramente al azar, siendo los tratamientos constituidos por cinco niveles de Pd (0,13; 0,23; 0,33; 0,43 y 0,53%) cada tratamiento contó con cinco repeticiones de 15 aves por repetición. Se evaluó el consumo de concentrado, la ganancia de peso, la conversión alimenticia y la deposición de fósforo, calcio y cenizas en las tibias. Se observó que los niveles de Pd estudiados influenciaron todas las variables analizadas. Fue calculado el nivel de 0,381% de Pd o 0,12% de Pd/Megacaloría de Energía Metabolizable para obtener la mejor calidad ósea, porque permite maximizar la deposición de cenizas en la tibia de las codornices de engorde. Abstract in english Phosphorus is an important mineral for optimum growth and bone mineralization and is considered the third most expensive nutrient in diets for nonruminants. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the available phosphorus requirements (AP) for meat-type quail in the starter phase (1 to 21 days old). [...] One-day-old, unsexed European quail (375) from the LF1 lineage were used for the study and were housed in pens. The experiment had a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0.13, 0.23, 0.33, 0.43 and 0.53% of AP), each of which included five replicates in 15 birds. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and the tibial deposition of phosphorus, calcium, and ash were assessed. The AP levels influenced all studied variables. We calculated that levels of 0.381% AP or 0.12% AP megacalorie of metabolizable energy (% AP/Mcal ME) were best for bone quality related to high tibial ash deposition.

  4. Influence of available resources on medical practitioners' decision-making process and practice: study of a reference hospital emergency department Influencia de los recursos disponibles en la práctica clínica: estudio en una unidad de urgencias de un hospital de referencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Viñas Salas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate variations in the observation period in the emergency department (ED in response to bed availability. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study without a control group was conducted in the ED observation ward over 2 1-month periods. During this time the only variable that changed was the number of beds available, which decreased from 20 (pre-test period to 16 (post-test period. Results: The ED attended 7,725 patients: 3,706 patients in pre-test period, 335 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 1,105.4 minutes per patient, and 4,019 patients in post-test period, 570 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 686.1 minutes per patient (p Objetivo: Evaluar la variación del indicador "periodo de tiempo de observación" dedicado a cada paciente, en respuesta a una reducción del número de camas disponibles. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio «quasiexperimental preprueba postprueba» sin grupo control en una unidad de urgencias durante 2 períodos de un mes. En este tiempo el único cambio fue el número de camas disponibles, que disminuyeron de 20 (período A a 16 (período B. Resultados: El servicio de urgencias atendió a 7.725 pacientes: 3.706 pacientes en el período A, 335 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 1.105,4 minutos por paciente; y 4.019 pacientes en el período B, 570 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 686,1 minutos por paciente (p < 0,001. No hubo variaciones en la mortalidad, readmisiones o quejas. Conclusiones: Una disminución en el número de camas disponibles para observación comporta una reducción en el tiempo de estancia de los pacientes.

  5. EVALUACIÓN ESPACIAL DEL NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE DEL SUELO EN UN CULTIVO DE PAPA cv. SPUNTA EN CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA Spatial evaluation of available soil nitrogen in a potato crop cv. Spunta in Córdoba, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio de la Casa; Gustavo Ovando; Angel Rodríguez; Luciano Bressanini; Eduardo Buffa

    2003-01-01

    Un análisis espacial del N disponible en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Spunta es necesario a fin de hacer un diagnóstico de la práctica de fertilización localizada y aportar evidencias sobre un potencial problema de riesgo ambiental por lavado de nitratos. Con este propósito se diseñó un esquema de muestreo durante la temporada 2000 que consistió de una grilla rectangular de 3 x 10 estaciones, en dos fechas (21/03 y 14/04) y a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm). El co...

  6. Aerial and snorkelling census techniques for estimating green turtle abundance on foraging areas: A pilot study in Mayotte Island (Indian Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, David; Pelletier, Dominique; Ciccione, Stéphane; Taquet, Marc; Hughes, George

    2005-01-01

    Le suivi de l'abondance de tortues vertes (Chelonia mydas) est nécessaire pour évaluer l'évolution et éventuellement, le risque d'extinction des populations. L'objectif de cette expérience est de comparer trois techniques d'observation permettant l'évaluation directe de l'abondance totale de tortues vertes sur les aires d'alimentation (herbiers et platiers récifaux). L'étude a été conduite à l'île de Mayotte (ouest de l'océan Indien). Les techniques testées sont le comptage sous-marin et les ...

  7. Meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for mass and routine vaccination with available polysaccharide vaccines / Méningite à méningocoque en Afrique subsaharienne: justification de la vaccination de masse et de la vaccination systématique avec les vaccins polyosidiques disponibles / Meningitis meningocócica en el África subsahariana: justificación de la vacunación masiva y rutinaria con las vacunas de polisacáridos disponibles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John B., Robbins; Rachel, Schneerson; Emil C., Gotschlich; Idris, Mohammed; Abdulsalami, Nasidi; Jean-Philippe, Chippaux; Luis, Bernardino; Moussa A., Maiga.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis endémica y epidémica por meningococos del grupo A sigue siendo una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el África subsahariana, pese a la disponibilidad de la vacuna de polisacáridos de meningococos del grupo A, que es barata y segura y proporciona protección en todos los gru [...] pos de edad cuando se administra de acuerdo con las instrucciones. Incluso con un tratamiento óptimo, la meningitis meningocócica tiene una tasa de letalidad del 10% y produce lesiones del sistema nervioso central en al menos un 15% de los pacientes. En el mejor de los casos, la política de la OMS de contención de las epidemias evita aproximadamente un 50% de los casos e ignora la meningitis endémica, que produce unos 50 000 casos anuales. La recomendación de proceder a la vacunación universal con el polisacárido del meningococo del grupo A dos veces durante la lactancia, seguida de la administración de la vacuna tetravalente a los niños de 2 y 6 años, se fundamenta en la eficacia de los polisacáridos capsulares de los grupos A, C, W135 e Y. Esto permitiría eliminar la enfermedad, tanto epidémica como endémica, y preparar el terreno para el uso de conjugados cuando estén disponibles, y probablemente hubiera evitado la reciente epidemia de meningitis por meningococos de los grupos A y W135 registrada en Burkina Faso. Abstract in english Endemic and epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of the safe and inexpensive group A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which is protective at all ages when administered as directed. Despite opti [...] mal therapy, meningococcal meningitis has a 10% fatality rate and at least 15% central nervous system damage. WHO's policy of epidemic containment prevents, at best, about 50% of cases and ignores endemic meningitis, which is estimated at 50 000 cases per year. The effectiveness of group A, C, W135, and Y capsular polysaccharides is the basis for recommending universal vaccination with group A meningococcal polysaccharide twice in infancy, followed by the four-valent vaccine in children aged two and six years. This could eliminate epidemic and endemic disease, prepare for the use of conjugates when they become available, and probably could have prevented the recent epidemics of groups A and W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso.

  8. DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible / DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MAX S, ECHEVERRIA; ROBERTO, VARGAS; PAULA, URZUA; ROBERTO, FERREIRA.

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingres [...] a los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se interpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso) para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes. Abstract in english A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines t [...] he links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak connections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

  9. DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAX S ECHEVERRIA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingresa los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se interpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes.A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines the links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak connections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

  10. Manejo de la pancreatitis aguda: guía de práctica clínica basada en la mejor información disponible / Management of acute pancreatitis: clinical practice guideline based on the best available evidence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio Alberto, Nieto; Samuel Jesús, Rodríguez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de la pancreatitis aguda ha variado en el transcurso de los últimos años. La mayoría de los pacientes que cursan con pancreatitis aguda leve, sobrevive sin mayores complicaciones; por el contrario, aquellos con pancreatitis aguda grave presentan un curso incierto y, con respecto a su [...] morbimortalidad, la infección pancreática es el factor de riesgo más importante. Los avances en el diagnóstico por imágenes y el desarrollo de la radiología intervencionista, han revolucionado el tratamiento quirúrgico. Abstract in english The management of acute pancreatitis has evolved significantly over the last few years. Currently, most patients with acute pancreatitis survive without complications. Severe acute pancreatitis show bizarre evolution and the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality is infection of the [...] pancreatic necrosis. Advances in diagnostic imaging and minimally invasive techniques in surgery and radiology have revolutionized the surgical management of this disease.

  11. Control de admisión para redes móviles AD HOC con base en estimación de ancho de banda disponible / Control of admission for AD HOC mobile network based on estimates available bandwidth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco A, Alzate; Leydi J, Támara.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los algoritmos de control de admisión en redes alambradas pueden monitorear el tráfico sobre cada uno de los enlaces punto-a-punto con el fin de determinar el ancho de banda disponible para los flujos a lo largo de diferentes rutas y basar su decisión en la diferencia entre el ancho de banda disponi [...] ble y el ancho de banda requerido. Infortunadamente, esto no es posible en una red móvil ad hoc (MANET) por varias razones, entre las que se destacan dos: (1) en la MANET, una transmisión entre dos nodos adyacentes consume el ancho de banda de muchos nodos vecinos, lo cual dificulta la estimación del ancho de banda disponible. (2) Un nodo que se admite tiene un efecto sobre la red que va mucho más allá de reducir el ancho de banda disponible en una cantidad previsible; al contrario, puede afectar la distribución espacial de los flujos existentes así como las probabilidades de colisión. En estas condiciones, no es fácil para un algoritmo de control de admisión determinar la magnitud de los flujos que deben ser admitidos para aprovechar los recursos de comunicación sin saturar la red. Este es un artículo de reflexión en el que discutimos algunos de los principales aspectos asociados con la interacción entre estos dos problemas fundamentales y proponemos un nuevo enfoque de investigación al respecto. Abstract in english The admission control algorithms in wired networks can monitor traffic on each of the links point-to-point in order to determine the available bandwidth for the flows along different routes and base their decision the difference between the available bandwidth and the bandwidth required. Unfortunate [...] ly, this is not possible in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) for several reasons, among which two stands out: (1) In the MANET, a transfer between two adjacent nodes consumes the bandwidth of many neighbors, which difficult to estimate the available bandwidth. (2) A node that supports has an effect on the network that goes far beyond reducing the bandwidth available in a predictable amount, on the contrary, it can affect the spatial distribution of existing flows and the likelihood of collision. In these conditions, it is easy for an admission control algorithm to determine the magnitude of the flows should be admitted to exploit the resources of communication without saturating the network. This is a refection article where we discuss some major issues associated with the interaction between these two fundamental problems and propose a new approach to investigation.

  12. Techniques d'amélioration des performances de compression dans le cadre du codage vidéo distribué

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-elailah, Abdalbassir

    2012-01-01

    Le codage vidéo distribué (DVC) est une technique récemment proposée dans le cadre du codage vidéo, et qui convient surtout à une nouvelle classe d'applications telles que la surveillance vidéo sans fil, les réseaux de capteurs multimédia, et les téléphones mobiles. En DVC, une information adjacente (SI) est estimée au décodeur en se basant sur les trames décodées disponibles, et utilisée pour le décodage et la reconstruction des autres trames. Dans cette thèse, nous proposo...

  13. Présentation Technique - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Tuesday 9 September PRESENTATION TECHNIQUE From 09:00 - 12:00 - bldg. 40, S2-B01 Techniques de mesure: Acquisition, analyse et présentation avec LabVIEW 7 Express National Instruments Switzerland Avec LabVIEW 7 Express, National Instruments inaugure une nouvelle ère pour la programmation graphique dans le monde de la mesure et de l'automatisation. Pour la première fois dans l'histoire de la programmation par flux de données, les antagonismes inconciliables entre la programmation et la configuration se laissent réduire au même dénominateur et sont disponibles dans un environnement de développement intégré. En outre, cette nouvelle version peut-être supportée par une plus large palette de plates-formes et de matériels cibles : de Windows, Linux ou Mac OS X jusqu'aux PDA (assistants personnels) ou aux FPGA embarqués. Avec LabVIEW 7 Express, vous disposez d'un outil logiciel, qui vous permet de construire encore plus vite, plus facilement et à moindres frais vos...

  14. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  15. Los principios pedagógicos en cursos de actualización docente disponibles en la web / Pedagogical principles in teacher training courses available on the web

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier, García-Calvo.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las necesidades de cualquier docente es mantenerse al día en relación con las técnicas y procedimientos pedagógicos que potencien el desarrollo del aprendizaje en sus alumnos. Para satisfacer esta necesidad, en los últimos años han surgido diversas plataformas educativas que usan las tecnolog [...] ías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) para actualizar docentes en ejercicio a distancia por medio de cursos basados en la web. Sin embargo, estos desarrollos requieren de un estudio detallado de los procedimientos para diseñar e implementar cursos en línea de manera que se produzca una educación de calidad. En este trabajo se presentan los "principios de la buena práctica pedagógica" propuestos por Chickering y Gamson (1987, 1991) para la educación presencial y se analiza su aplicación a los ambientes de aprendizaje a distancia. Además, se presentan y analizan las estrategias instruccionales y los recursos tecnológicos que se pueden usar para desarrollar cursos dictados a distancia, basados en los principios pedagógicos de Chickering y Gamson y dirigidos a docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Los principios utilizados fueron: a) el contacto entre estudiantes y profesores, b) la cooperación entre los estudiantes, c) el aprendizaje activo, d) la retroalimentación a tiempo, e) el uso apropiado del tiempo, f) las altas expectativas del estudiante, y g) el respeto a los estilos de aprendizaje. Se ilustra cada principio con ejemplos de recursos tecnológicos y estrategias instruccionales usados en un curso de postgrado impartido de manera mixta (presencial y a distancia). Abstract in english One of the needs of any teacher is to keep up to date in relation to the pedagogical techniques and procedures that promote the development of learning in the students. To satisfy this need, several educational platforms have emerged in the last years that make use of information and communication t [...] echnologies (ICT) to update in-service teachers through distance education. Yet, these developments require a detailed study of the procedures to design and implement on-line courses so they produce quality education. In this paper, the "principles of good practice", proposed by Chickering and Gamson (1987, 1991) for face to face instruction, are presented and an analysis is made of their application to distance learning environments. Also, instructional strategies and technological resources which can be used to develop distance education courses, using Chickering and Gamson’s pedagogical principles and aimed at foreign language teachers, are presented and analyzed. The principles used were a) the contact between students and teachers, b) the cooperation of students, c) active learning, d) feedback on time, e) the appropriate use of time, f) the high expectations of students, and g) the respect for learning styles. Each of these principles is illustrated with examples of technological resources used in a graduate course taught partly face to face and partly at distance.

  16. Les écoulements par RMN à gradient pulsé Pulsed Gradient Nmr Techniques for Studying Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebon L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nous présentons ici les techniques de RMN à gradient pulsé qui permettent d'étudier les écoulements multiphasiques en canalisation ou en milieu poreux. Les principaux avantages sont de pouvoir travailler sur des milieux non transparents et d'accéder à des échelles de longueurs faibles. On montre qu'il est possible d'obtenir des informations locales sur l'écoulement, telles que le profil de vitesse et ses fluctuations dans les écoulements diphasiques, ou les cartes de distribution des probabilités de déplacement dans des échantillons poreux hétérogènes. Pulsed gradient NMR techniques are presented here. They allow the study of multiphase flow in pipes as well as porous media. The main advantages are the possibilities of studying non transparent media at small length scales. We show that it is possible to obtain local information on the fluid flow, such as velocity profiles in two phase systems, or maps of distribution of displacement probabilities in heterogeneous porous media.

  17. Enseignement Technique CERN 2004 - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE Monique Duval tél. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Aimeriez-vous améliorer vos connaissances des applications de Microsoft Office ou d'Outlook ? Un nouveau cours, combinant un cours avec professeur et ...

  18. ¿Es necesario disponer de tratamientos con buprenorfina/naloxona para los presos dependientes de opiáceos? / Is the availability of buprenorphine/naloxone therapy for opioid-dependent inmates a necessity?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Marco; A., López-Burgos; L., García-Marcos; C., Gallego; J.J., Antón; A., Errasti.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de programas de tratamiento con agonistas opiáceos (TAO), junto con un abordaje psicosocial, es la forma más efectiva de prevenir recaídas en los pacientes con dependencia a opiáceos. Estos programas disminuyen la morbimortalidad así como las conductas de riesgo de transmisión del VIH [...] y de otras infecciones, mejoran la calidad de vida y la retención en tratamiento, y tienen un impacto positivo sobre los comportamientos asociales, por lo que son muy útiles en presos con antecedente de consumo de opiáceos. Los TAO basados en el uso de buprenorfina/naloxona (B/N), igual que los basados en metadona (MT), están actualmente disponibles en España. El tratamiento diversificado ofrece una alternativa de tratamiento para la dependencia de opioides más individualizada y adaptada a las características de los pacientes. En cuanto a eficacia ambos fármacos son muy similares, pero B/N es más segura, con menor perfil de interacciones con posibilidad de dispensación en farmacias una vez que el paciente sea puesto en libertad, lo que puede ayudar a la reintegración social. Económicamente, el tratamiento con B/N es más costoso que el de MT. Se aconseja disponer de las diferentes modalidades de TAO y que estas se prescriban según las características y necesidades de cada caso, sin que la reclusión menoscabe el derecho al tratamiento farmacológico, que debe ser similar al efectuado extrapenitenciariamente. Abstract in english Agonist therapy (OAT) programs in combination with a psychosocial approach are the most effective way to prevent relapse in opioid-dependent patients. These programs reduce morbidity and risk behaviours for HIV transmission and other infections, improve quality of life and retention in treatment, an [...] d have a positive impact on antisocial behaviour. They are therefore very useful for prisoners with a history of opiate use. OATs based on buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N), along with others using methadone, are currently available in Spain. Diversified treatment offers an alternative treatment for opioid dependence that is more personalized and tailored to the patient's characteristics. As regards effectiveness, both drugs are very similar, but B/N shows a better safety profile and fewer drug-drug interactions and can be dispensed in pharmacies once the patient is released, which can assist with the patient' social reintegration. B/N treatment is more expensive than methadone. It is advisable to have different modes of OAT. These should be prescribed according to the characteristics and needs of each case, without incarceration impeding the right to drug treatment, which should be similar to that performed outside prison.

  19. Internet y recursos en línea como alternativas terapéuticas para trastornos de abuso o dependencia a sustancias: una revisión de los recursos disponibles / Internet and Online Resources Such as Therapeutic Alternatives for Substance Use Disorders: A Review of Available Resources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Felipe, Orozco Cabal.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las intervenciones en línea constituyen una de las tantas opciones terapéuticas disponibles para pacientes con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias y otras condiciones psiquiátricas. No obstante, su utilidad ha sido ampliamente cuestionada a la luz de falta de rigurosidad. Obj [...] etivo: Revisar y discutir la literatura existente acerca de los recursos e intervenciones en línea para trastornos por abuso/dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas. Método: Búsqueda sistemática de literatura sobre los recursos e intervenciones en línea relacionados con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias. Resultados: Existen numerosos recursos informativos para el público general, pero la calidad de la información disponible no es siempre adecuada. También hay, aunque en menor número, intervenciones y programas de autoayuda en línea, específicamente para tabaquismo y alcoholismo. No obstante, su efectividad no ha sido determinada en estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados, adecuadamente diseñados. Conclusión: Son necesarios estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados que permitan evaluar la efectividad de este tipo de intervenciones. Los resultados iluminarán el desarrollo de estrategias de intervención integrales que usen esta poderosa herramienta de comunicación. Abstract in english Introduction: Online interventions are one of the many treatment options available for patients with substance use disorders and other psychiatric conditions. However, its usefulness has been widely questioned due to a lack of rigorous scientific research. Objective: To review and discuss the litera [...] ture about online resources and interventions for substance use disorders. Methods: Systematic search of literature on online resources and interventions related to substance use disorders. Results: There are many sources of information for the general public, but the quality of information available is not always appropriate. There are, though in smaller numbers, interventions and online self-help programs specifically for smoking and alcoholism. However, their effectiveness has not been determined in properly designed randomized controlled trials. Conclusion: It is necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of online interventions using rigorous randomized controlled trials. The results illuminate the development of comprehensive intervention strategies that may use this powerful communication tool.

  20. Degradabilidad ruminal del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras / Rumen degradation characteristics of the herbage mass samples and the simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RUBÉN, PULIDO; JOHN DAVID, LEAVER.

    1003-10-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica degradativa de forrajes, en muestras de una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L.), manejadas a dos alturas de pradera, alta y baja. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo (FD) y en forraje aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo [...] (FS). La degradabilidad ruminal se estudió usando la técnica de las bolsas de dacrón y los datos fueron ajustados a una ecuación exponencial. La fracción soluble (g/kg MS), de la materia seca (MS) (299 v/s 351, s.e.d.= 5,4), de la materia organica (MO) (304 v/s 376, s.e.d.= 3,3) y del nitrógeno (250 v/s 301, s.e.d.= 6,4), fueron significativamente mayores (P Abstract in english An experiment was carried out in order to describe the ruminal degradation characteristics of forages, in herbage mass samples (FD) and in simulated grazing samples (FS), obtained at two sward heights (high and low) from a permanent pasture (Lolium perenne L.). The degradation kinetics of the sample [...] s was studied using in situ dacron bags. Data collected were fitted according to an exponential equation. The soluble fraction (g/kg DM) of the dry matter (DM) (299 vs. 351, s.e.d.= 5.4), of the organic matter (OM) (304 vs. 376, s.e.d.= 3.3) and of the nitrogen (250 vs. 301, s.e.d.= 6.4) were significantly higher (P

  1. Producción de huevo, calidad del cascarón y rentabilidad en gallinas de primer ciclo con niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible / Egg production, eggshell quality and profitability of laying hens during first cycle with levels of calcium and available phosphorus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor Manuel, Valdés Narváez; Manuel, Cuca García; Arturo, Pro Martínez; Mariano, González Alcorta; Ma. Elena, Suárez Oporta.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el efecto del calcio y fósforo en la calidad del cascarón del huevo se realizó un experimento con 480 gallinas Hy-Line W-36. Se usaron tres niveles de calcio (Ca) (3.2, 4.2 y 5.2 %) y cuatro de fósforo disponible (Pd) (0.15, 0.20, 0.25 y 0.30 %). Se encontró interacción (P[...] y Pd en consumo de alimento (CAL) y masa de huevo (MH). Con el nivel de Ca de 5.2 % y de Pd (0.15 %) disminuyó el CAL (96.7 g) y MH (48.7 g). El porcentaje de postura y MH fueron menores (P Abstract in english In order to evaluate the importance of calcium and phosphorus for egg shell quality, a trial was conducted using 480 Hy-Line 36 hens in a 3*4*3 factorial arrangement to evaluate three calcium (Ca) (3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 %) and four available phosphorus (Ap) levels (0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 %) during 20 [...] to 72 wk of age). Results showed an interaction (P

  2. Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054 / Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elsa E., Barber; Silvia, Pisano; Carolina, Gregui; Gabriela, De Pedro; Sofía, D' Alessandro; Sandra, Romagnoli; Verónica, Parsiale.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007). Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs) disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas [...] nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnóstico de situación válido para los catálogos de la región. Plantea, además, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temática en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay. Abstract in english The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007) are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs) in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to M [...] ercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  3. Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054 Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa E. Barber

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007. Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnóstico de situación válido para los catálogos de la región. Plantea, además, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temática en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay.The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007 are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to Mercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  4. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  5. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  6. Culinary Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website is a simple, quick reference for a variety of basic culinary techniques. It covers a wide variety of techniques that some recipes or class situations might assume are basic but in fact are not necessarily so. Techniques from preparing stock and mayonnaise, to poaching and saut�ing are included. While not designed specifically as an educational site, the technique descriptions are handy and easily found in a pinch, and act as a simple and relevant source of reference for anyone involved in the culinary arts.

  7. EVALUACIÓN ESPACIAL DEL NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE DEL SUELO EN UN CULTIVO DE PAPA cv. SPUNTA EN CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA / Spatial evaluation of available soil nitrogen in a potato crop cv. Spunta in Córdoba, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, de la Casa; Gustavo, Ovando; Angel, Rodríguez; Luciano, Bressanini; Eduardo, Buffa.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Un análisis espacial del N disponible en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Spunta es necesario a fin de hacer un diagnóstico de la práctica de fertilización localizada y aportar evidencias sobre un potencial problema de riesgo ambiental por lavado de nitratos. Con este propósito se diseñ [...] ó un esquema de muestreo durante la temporada 2000 que consistió de una grilla rectangular de 3 x 10 estaciones, en dos fechas (21/03 y 14/04) y a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm). El contenido de humedad del suelo en ambas fechas resultó elevado y escasamente variable (CV 52%) fue muy superior a la humedad del suelo en ambas fechas. Una comparación localizada del N disponible mostró que en el estrato superficial el contenido de N-NO3- de toda el área fue siempre superior a 7,5 mg kg-1, considerada la disponibilidad mínima para un óptimo crecimiento de los tubérculos. Entre 20 y 40 cm, en cambio, el contenido de N fue menor en ambas fechas, y la cantidad de N en la segunda se presentó por debajo de 7,5 mg kg-1 en 31% del lote. Esta distribución vertical del N-NO3-, con mayor contenido en superficie, no garantiza un consumo uniforme de N entre 0 y 40 cm. Al mismo tiempo, la mayor acumulación de N-NO3- entre 0 y 20 cm demostró que no ocurrió lixiviación en el perfil. Abstract in english A spatial analysis of the available N in a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Spunta is necessary in order to make a diagnosis of the local fertilization practice and to provide evidence on a potential environmental risk problem from nitrate wash. For this purpose a sampling scheme was designed [...] during the 2000 season that consisted of a rectangular grid of 3 x 10 stations. Samples were taken on two dates (21/3 and 14/04) and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm). The soil water content on both dates resulted to be high and hardly variable (coefficient of variation (CV) 52%) was much higher than the soil water content on both dates. A localized comparison of the available N showed that in the superficial stratum the content of N-NO3- of all the area was always superior to 7.5 mg kg-1, considered the minimal availability for an optimum growth of the tubers. Between 20 and 40 cm, on the other hand, the content of N was smaller on both dates, and the quantity of N of the latter was below 7.5 mg kg-1 in 31% of the area. This vertical distribution of the N-NO3-, with greater content on the surface, does not guarantee a uniform consumption of N between 0 and 40 cm. At the same time, the greater accumulation of N-NO3- between 0 and 20 cm demonstrated that leaching did not occur in the profile.

  8. EVALUACIÓN ESPACIAL DEL NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE DEL SUELO EN UN CULTIVO DE PAPA cv. SPUNTA EN CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA Spatial evaluation of available soil nitrogen in a potato crop cv. Spunta in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de la Casa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Un análisis espacial del N disponible en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta es necesario a fin de hacer un diagnóstico de la práctica de fertilización localizada y aportar evidencias sobre un potencial problema de riesgo ambiental por lavado de nitratos. Con este propósito se diseñó un esquema de muestreo durante la temporada 2000 que consistió de una grilla rectangular de 3 x 10 estaciones, en dos fechas (21/03 y 14/04 y a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm. El contenido de humedad del suelo en ambas fechas resultó elevado y escasamente variable (CV 52% fue muy superior a la humedad del suelo en ambas fechas. Una comparación localizada del N disponible mostró que en el estrato superficial el contenido de N-NO3- de toda el área fue siempre superior a 7,5 mg kg-1, considerada la disponibilidad mínima para un óptimo crecimiento de los tubérculos. Entre 20 y 40 cm, en cambio, el contenido de N fue menor en ambas fechas, y la cantidad de N en la segunda se presentó por debajo de 7,5 mg kg-1 en 31% del lote. Esta distribución vertical del N-NO3-, con mayor contenido en superficie, no garantiza un consumo uniforme de N entre 0 y 40 cm. Al mismo tiempo, la mayor acumulación de N-NO3- entre 0 y 20 cm demostró que no ocurrió lixiviación en el perfil.A spatial analysis of the available N in a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta is necessary in order to make a diagnosis of the local fertilization practice and to provide evidence on a potential environmental risk problem from nitrate wash. For this purpose a sampling scheme was designed during the 2000 season that consisted of a rectangular grid of 3 x 10 stations. Samples were taken on two dates (21/3 and 14/04 and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm. The soil water content on both dates resulted to be high and hardly variable (coefficient of variation (CV 52% was much higher than the soil water content on both dates. A localized comparison of the available N showed that in the superficial stratum the content of N-NO3- of all the area was always superior to 7.5 mg kg-1, considered the minimal availability for an optimum growth of the tubers. Between 20 and 40 cm, on the other hand, the content of N was smaller on both dates, and the quantity of N of the latter was below 7.5 mg kg-1 in 31% of the area. This vertical distribution of the N-NO3-, with greater content on the surface, does not guarantee a uniform consumption of N between 0 and 40 cm. At the same time, the greater accumulation of N-NO3- between 0 and 20 cm demonstrated that leaching did not occur in the profile.

  9. Servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes con trastornos mentales en México / The clinical services available to children and young people with mental illnesses in México / Serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens com perturbações mentais no México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela, Zamora-Carmona.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Na área da saúde, bem-estar físico e mental deveria ser uma prioridade. Porém no México na atenção de saúde mental existem restrições importantes, como o estigma social que prevalece nas doenças mentais, discriminação e violação dos direitos humanos das pessoas afetadas por estas perturbações, o núm [...] ero limitado de serviços clínicos que podem ser acessados , a falta de serviços especializados de saúde, e a tendência dos governos em ignorar esta realidade. Este artigo procura fazer uma breve revisão dos serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens mexicanos que tenham alguma perturbação mental. Abstract in spanish En el ámbito de la salud, el bienestar físico y mental debería ser una prioridad. No obstante, en México existen limitantes importantes en la atención a la salud mental, como el estigma social que prevalece hacia las enfermedades mentales, la discriminación y violación a los derechos humanos de las [...] personas afectadas por estos trastornos, el limitado número de servicios clínicos a los que se puede acceder, la falta de servicios de salud especializados, y la tendencia de los gobiernos a omitir esta realidad. En el presente artículo de tipo descriptivo pretendo hacer una breve revisión de los servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes mexicanos que padecen trastornos mentales. Abstract in english In the field of health, physical and mental well-being should be a priority. Nevertheless, in Mexico, the attention given to mental health has important limitations, such as the social stigma that prevails toward mental illnesses; the discrimination and violation of human rights of people affected b [...] y these disorders; the limited number of clinical services which can be accessed; the lack of specialized health services and the tendency of Governments to ignore this reality. This article aims to undertake a brief review of the clinical services available to Mexican children and young people that are affected by a mental disorder.

  10. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market / Capacidad antioxidante, contenido de ácidos fenólicos y cafeína de algunos tipos de café disponibles en el mercado de Rumania

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ion, Trandafir; Violeta, Nour; Mira Elena, Ionica.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, un método sensible RPHPLC fue desarrollado para la determinación simultánea del ácido clorogénico, del ácido cafeico, del ácido vanílico y de la cafeína en las pruebas de café. El método fue aplicado para analizar ocho tipos de café disponibles en el mercado de Rumania, que fueron a [...] nalizados también en cuanto al contenido total de polifenoles y la capacidad antioxidante. La reducción del radical DPPH fue utilizada para determinar la capacidad antioxidante de los extractos de café mientras que el contenido total de polifenoles fue determinado por la espectrofotometría (método Folin Ciocalteu). El contenido total de polifenoles se situó entre 1,98 g GAE/100 g y 4.19 g GAE/100 g mientras que el contenido de cafeína se situó entre 1.89 g/100 g y 3.05 g/100 g. Una gran variabilidad se observó con respecto al contenido de ácido clorogénico en las pruebas de café analizadas, contenido que se situó entre 0.6 y 2.32 g/100 g. Abstract in english In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were pr [...] eviously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  11. Extemporaneous clobazam suspensions for paediatric use prepared from commercially available tablets and pure drug / Suspensiones extratemporáneas de clobazam para uso pediátrico preparadas a partir de tabletas disponibles comercialmente y fármaco puro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Buontempo; M. A., Moretton; E., Quiroga; D. A., Chiappetta.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Dos suspensiones orales acuosas de clobazam para uso pediátrico (5 mg/ml) fueron evaluadas para determinar su estabilidad fisicoquimica bajo diferentes condiciones de almacenamiento. Métodos: Las formulaciones fueron conservadas a 4 y 25 ºC y el contenido de clobazam fue determinado median [...] te Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Performance. Cada una de las muestras fue analizada por triplicado a diferentes tiempos (0, 7, 14, 28 y 56 días). Resultados: Las suspensiones fueron formuladas satisfactoriamente a partir del principio activo puro y de comprimidos disponibles comercialmente. En ambos casos, las muestras presentaron una adecuada estabilidad física. El clobazam fue químicamente estable en las suspensiones acuosas durante los 56 días de duración del estudio a las dos temperaturas elegidas para su conservación. Conclusiones: Todas las formulaciones orales líquidas formuladas y evaluadas en este estudio pueden ser conservadas a 4 y 25 ºC por al menos 56 días. Abstract in english Objective: Two clobazam aqueous suspensions for paediatric oral usage (5 mg/ml) were investigated to determinate its physicochemical stability under different storage conditions. Method: Formulations were stored at 4 and 25 ºC and the clobazam content was determined by High Performance Liquid Chroma [...] tography. Each sample was analyzed by triplicate at different time points (0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days). Results: Liquid suspensions were successfully formulated from pure drug and commercially available tablets. In both cases, samples showed suitable physical stability. Clobazam was chemically stable in aqueous suspension during the 56 days of the study at the two storage temperatures. Conclusions: All the tried oral liquid formulations can be conserved at 4 and 25 ºC at least 56-day period.

  12. Optimization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Leondes, Cornelius T

    1997-01-01

    Optimization Techniques is a unique reference source to a diverse array of methods for achieving optimization, and includes both systems structures and computational methods. The text devotes broad coverage toa unified view of optimal learning, orthogonal transformation techniques, sequential constructive techniques, fast back propagation algorithms, techniques for neural networks with nonstationary or dynamic outputs, applications to constraint satisfaction,optimization issues and techniques for unsupervised learning neural networks, optimum Cerebellar Model of Articulation Controller systems, a new statistical theory of optimum neural learning, and the role of the Radial Basis Function in nonlinear dynamical systems.This volume is useful for practitioners, researchers, and students in industrial, manufacturing, mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering.Key Features* Provides in-depth treatment of theoretical contributions to optimal learning for neural network systems* Offers a comprehensive treatmen...

  13. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  14. Evaluación del uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles para el perfil de medicina transfusional / Evaluation of the use of databases available for students and faculty of the transfusion medicine profile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Iris, Valdespino Alberti; Tania, García Peralta; Raquel, Levón Herrera; Mariela, Forrellat Barrios.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las habilidades en el uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles en la Red del Sistema Nacional de Salud y establecer estrategias a partir de los resultados alcanzados, se aplicó una encuesta de competencias informacionales a 7 profesores y 11 estudiantes de la carrera [...] Licenciatura en Tecnología de la Salud, en el perfil Medicina Transfusional, en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Enrique Cabrera". La encuesta identificó el estado del conocimiento sobre búsquedas bibliográficas, la utilización de las fuentes de información y el acceso a las tecnologías de la información. Se tuvieron en cuenta los aspectos éticos, y se protegió en todo momento la identidad de los entrevistados. Los resultados de la experiencia demuestran que la mayoría de los profesores conocen y usan las bases de datos PUBMED e HINARI, de ellos 16,7 % requiere del apoyo de un especialista; los alumnos tienen un total desconocimiento de las bases de datos cuya consulta facilita Infomed. Los docentes y los alumnos desconocen la existencia de la base de datos DYNAMED, mientras que el buscador más conocido y visitado por estos es Google. Se concluye que existe una deficiente competencia informacional. A partir de los resultados alcanzados se recomienda desarrollar habilidades mediante talleres y otras actividades curriculares de alfabetización informacional. Abstract in english The paper aims to explore the students' and faculty's abilities in the use of data bases available in the Health System Network. An informational competence survey to 7 teachers and 11 students of the Health Technologies program (Transfusional Medicine branch) was applied in "Enrique Cabrera" Facult [...] y of Medicine. The survey identified the knowledge about bibliography search and usage of information sources. Ethics procedures, such as anonymity, were followed. The results show that most of the professors know and use the data bases PUBMED e HINARI. 16.7 % of them require the help of a specialist. On the other hand, students showed total ignorance of the data bases available in Infomed. Teachers and students do not use nor know DYNAMED database; meanwhile the more visited search engine is Google. We can conclude that there is a deficient informational competence so we recommend developing information related abilities through workshops and other curricula activities.

  15. Estudio biofarmacéutico comparativo de marcas comerciales de tabletas de ciprofloxacino disponibles en el mercado colombiano / A comparative biopharmaceutical study of brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis A., Franco-Ospina; Germán E., Matiz-Melo; Indira B., Pájaro-Bolívar.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la equivalencia biofarmacéutica de marcas comerciales de Ciprofloxacino 500 mg disponibles en el mercado colombiano. Métodos: Se tomaron 12 productos comerciales de Ciprofloxacino tabletas 500 mg, adquiridos en droguerías y farmacias de cuatro de las principales ciudades del paí [...] s, a los cuales se les realizaron los siguientes ensayos: Identificación del principio activo por HPLC, contenido de ingrediente activo, uniformidad de dosificación, pruebas de desintegración y disolución; además se compararon los perfiles de disolución de los productos frente a uno tomado como referencia. Los resultados se analizaron a fin de establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas y posible intercambiabilidad entre los productos evaluados. Resultados: El análisis comparativo de los productos, permitió evidenciar marcadas diferencias en cuanto a la liberaciónin vitrodel principio activo, con uno de los productos incumpliendo este importante parámetro de calidad. Todos los productos evaluados cumplen con las especificaciones oficiales de identificación y valoración del principio activo, uniformidad de dosificación y tiempo de desintegración. En cuanto a la cinética de disolución se encontraron diferencias entre las formulaciones, con productos de deficiente Eficiencia de Disolución (ED) y que a pesar de cumplir con la especificación a Q30, se disuelven muy lentamente. Conclusiones: Once productos cumplen con todas las especificaciones establecidas en la USP-33/NF28. Los resultados de este trabajo constituyen un valioso aporte para en un futuro cercano y en función de las políticas nacionales, poder establecer bioequivalencia entre estos productos. Abstract in english Objective: Determining the biopharmaceutical equivalency of 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market (i.e. comparing different trademarks). Methods: Twelve commercial 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets were obtained from drugstores and pharmacies in Colombia’s four major cities. They [...] were submitted to the following assays: HPLC identification of active ingredients, active ingredient content, dose uniformity, disintegration and dissolution tests and comparing the products’ dissolution profiles to that of the innovator. The results were analyzed to establish statistically significant differences and possible inter-changeability between the products being tested. Results: Comparative analysis of the products revealed marked differences regardingin vitrorelease of the active principle (one product failing this important quality parameter). All the products tested here complied with the official specifications for identifying and assaying the active principle, dosage unit uniformity and the disintegration test. Regarding dissolution kinetics, differences were found between formulations as some products had poor dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolved very slowly despite complying with the Q30specification. Conclusions: 11 products complied with USP33-NF28specifications (guidelines on specifications for impurities in antibiotics). This work has made a valuable contribution towards establishing these products’ bioequivalence in the near future regarding national policy.

  16. Estudio biofarmacéutico comparativo de marcas comerciales de tabletas de ciprofloxacino disponibles en el mercado colombiano / A comparative biopharmaceutical study of brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis A, Franco-Ospina; Germán E, Matiz-Melo; Indira B, Pájaro-Bolívar.

    2012-08-15

    Full Text Available ObjetivoDeterminar la equivalencia biofarmacéutica de marcas comerciales de Ciprofloxacino 500 mg disponibles en el mercado colombiano. MétodosSe tomaron 12 productos comerciales de Ciprofloxacino tabletas 500 mg, adquiridos en droguerías y farmacias de cuatro de las principales ciudades del país, a [...] los cuales se les realizaron los siguientes ensayos: Identificación del principio activo por HPLC, contenido de ingrediente activo, uniformidad de dosificación, pruebas de desintegración y disolución; además se compararon los perfiles de disolución de los productos frente a uno tomado como referencia. Los resultados se analizaron a fin de establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas y posible intercambiabilidad entre los productos evaluados. ResultadosEl análisis comparativo de los productos, permitió evidenciar marcadas diferencias en cuanto a la liberaciónin vitrodel principio activo, con uno de los productos incumpliendo este importante parámetro de calidad. Todos los productos evaluados cumplen con las especificaciones oficiales de identificación y valoración del principio activo, uniformidad de dosificación y tiempo de desintegración. En cuanto a la cinética de disolución se encontraron diferencias entre las formulaciones, con productos de deficiente Eficiencia de Disolución (ED) y que a pesar de cumplir con la especificación a Q30, se disuelven muy lentamente. ConclusionesOnce productos cumplen con todas las especificaciones establecidas en la USP-33/NF28. Los resultados de este trabajo constituyen un valioso aporte para en un futuro cercano y en función de las políticas nacionales, poder establecer bioequivalencia entre estos productos. Abstract in english ObjectiveDetermining the biopharmaceutical equivalency of 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market (i.e. comparing different trademarks). MethodsTwelve commercial 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets were obtained from drugstores and pharmacies in Colombia’s four major cities. They wer [...] e submitted to the following assays: HPLC identification of active ingredients, active ingredient content, dose uniformity, disintegration and dissolution tests and comparing the products’ dissolution profiles to that of the innovator. The results were analyzed to establish statistically significant differences and possible inter-changeability between the products being tested. ResultsComparative analysis of the products revealed marked differences regardingin vitrorelease of the active principle (one product failing this important quality parameter). All the products tested here complied with the official specifications for identifying and assaying the active principle, dosage unit uniformity and the disintegration test. Regarding dissolution kinetics, differences were found between formulations as some products had poor dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolved very slowly despite complying with the Q30specification. Conclusions11 products complied with USP33-NF28specifications (guidelines on specifications for impurities in antibiotics). This work has made a valuable contribution towards establishing these products’ bioequivalence in the near future regarding national policy.

  17. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  18. Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido, R.; Wood, C. D.; Leaver, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA) por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usando la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994). Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a ...

  19. Dating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter, all methods for dating of earthen materials such as rock and minerals, and archaeological object of interest are discussed. It also covers basic principal including basic facilities, the methodology and time range applicable to the technique. The topics discussed are 1) Relative dating methods (dendochronology and hydration); 2) Radiometric dating - primary natural radionuclide as nuclear clock, equilibrium ruptured, secondary natural radionuclide i.e radiocarbon dating, tritium dating; 3) Radiation effect dating - radiation damage dating, thermoluminescence dating, fission track dating; 4) Choice of dating techniques

  20. Informações médicas na internet afetam a relação médico-paciente? / Does the information currently available on the Internet affect the physician-patient relationship? / ¿Las informaciones médicas disponibles en la Internet pueden afectar la relación médico-paciente?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elisa Quaresma, Coelho; Augusto Quaresma, Coelho; José Eduardo Dias, Cardoso.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar o impacto, sobre a relação médico-paciente, das informações disponíveis na internet. Foram aplicados questionários para 221 pacientes e 84 médicos, seguidos de análise descritiva dos dados, bem como incluídos pacientes com fácil acesso à internet e médicos que os atendem [...] . A pesquisa, feita pelo paciente, muitas vezes resultou em pacientes melhor informados. Relevante número de pacientes se sentiu preocupado pela falsa impressão de portar males descritos na internet. Alguns recorreram à automedicação, modificação da prescrição médica ou, mesmo, à troca de profissional. Não é infrequente ocorrer prejuízo ao tratamento e à relação médico-paciente relacionado às informações obtidas e seu entendimento pelo paciente. Conclui-se que ao potencial "iatrogênico" da internet se contrapõe sua capacidade de difundir importantes informações à população. A certificação de sites por entidade reguladora, gerando qualidade de informação e menor "iatrogenia", associada à orientação, poderia ser útil para aperfeiçoar a relação médico-paciente. Abstract in spanish Este artículo pretende evaluar el impacto de la información disponible en la Internet acerca de la relación médico-paciente. Cuestionarios fueron administrados a 221 pacientes y a 84 médicos, seguidos de análisis descriptivo de los datos. Los pacientes con fácil acceso a internet y los médicos que l [...] os atienden fueron incluidos en el estudio. La búsqueda realizada por el paciente, a menudo resultó pacientes mejor informados. Un relevante número de los pacientes se sintió preocupado por la falsa impresión de tener las enfermedades descritas en la Internet. Algunos recurrieron a la automedicación, la modificación de la prescripción médica o aun el cambio de los profesionales. No es infrecuente existir perjuicio al tratamiento y a la relación médico-paciente gracias a la información obtenida por el paciente y su comprensión de ella. A la conclusión se verifica que el potencial "iatrogénico" de la Internet se opone a su capacidad de difundir informaciones importantes a la población. La certificación de sitios web por institución reguladora, proporcionando mejor calidad de la información y reducción de "iatrogenia", asociada a la orientación, podría ser útil para perfeccionar la relación médico-paciente. Abstract in english This article evaluates the impact of information available on the internet over the physician-patient relationship. The questionnaires were applied to 221 patients and 84 physicians followed by a descriptive data analysis. Patients with easy access to the internet and doctors who consult these peopl [...] e were included in the study. The research when done by the patient often resulted in better informed patients. A significant number of patients said they felt worried about having a false impression of having diseases described on the internet. Some have resorted to self-medication, modification of the prescription or even the exchange of the attending professional. Not infrequently there is damage to treatment and doctor-patient relationship due to information obtained by the patient and their understanding of them. At conclusion the "iatrogenic" potential of the internet is opposed to its ability to disseminate important information to the people. Certification of sites by regulatory authorities, improving information quality and reducing "iatrogenic", associated with the guidance of doctors, could be useful to improve the doctor-patient relationship.

  1. A Study of Solid Particles Feeding Tehnic by Fluidization Une technique d'alimentation en particules solides par fluidisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolignier J.-C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of heterogeneous reactions in a drop tube furnace, at a laboratory scale, needs a continuous feeding and dispersing technic to yield mass flow rates as low as 1 g/h. In the present work, a solution based on fluidization, is proposed. A mixture of lime and sand is fluidized at a superficial velocity higher than the free fall velocity of the lime particles which are therefore carried over by the fluidizing gas stream out of the bed. The effects of various parameters such as the particles diameter, the lime content in the solid mixture, the height of the fluidized bed and the gas fluidizing velocity, on the flow have been investigated. The operating conditions leading to the obtention of a constant solid rate have been optimized. A simple method of evaluating the mass of the evacuated and dispersed lime particles have been developed, and satisfactory results were obtained. L'étude des réactions hétérogènes dans un four à chute à l'échelle du laboratoire nécessite l'utilisation d'une technique d'alimentation et de dispersion afin de débiter des masses de solides autour de 1 g/h. Dans ce présent travail, une technique basée sur la fluidisation est proposée. Un mélange de chaux et de sable est fluidisé à une vitesse superficielle plus élevée que la vitesse terminale de chute des particules de chaux, qui par conséquent sont transportées hors du lit. L'influence des divers paramètres tels que le diamètre des particules, le pourcentage de chaux dans le mélange, la hauteur du lit et la vitesse de fluidisation du gaz sur l'écoulement ont été étudiés. Les conditions opératoires permettant d'obtenir des débits de solides constants ont été optimisées. Une méthode relativement simple permettant d'évaluer la quantité de solide évacuée a été développée et des résultats satisfaisants ont été obtenus.

  2. Nanofabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page from Foothill-De Anza Community College describes a course on nanoscience for those who need an introduction to the subject. This course is the fifth in a five course series that leads to a certificate in nanoscience, nanotechnology, and nanomaterials engineering. Students will obtain a survey of fabrication techniques as well as "hands-on experience creating thin film materials, and quality control 'shadowing' in a clean energy technology fabrication facility." The projects required by the class are also described.

  3. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet

  4. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  5. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  6. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, ? detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  7. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

  8. Rehabilitative techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with neuro-ophthalmological diseases at different levels of the afferent visual pathways with special regard to visual field defects, their functional impact, and their rehabilitation. The nature of these impairments and their significance for activities of daily living can be quite varied; an exact assessment of the residual function is required to determine specific rehabilitation approaches. Rehabilitation aims to compensate for the visual deficits by means of specific training and visual aids. Visual field defects in the center cause reading disability. Preconditions for reading are a sufficient size of the reading visual field or perceptual span and sufficient resolution of the retinal area used for reading. In central scotoma, as in macular or optic nerve disease, reading ability can be regained by eccentric fixation plus text magnification. In hemianopia, reading depends on the amount of sparing in the center, the side of the defect, and adaptive strategies. Field defects in the periphery cause orientation and mobility problems. In constricted fields, tactile training with a cane is indicated; in hemianopia, explorative saccadic training is effective. With the appropriate technique, rehabilitation can be very successful, and quality of life can be regained in most patients. PMID:21601070

  9. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectrometry and many of them home-built: electrostatic ion storage devices, accelerator mass spectrometers (i.e., sector instruments), reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and ion traps. The experimental results presented in this volume were obtained with such instruments. Detection schemes are detailed, both for the identification of neutral products and charged ones. In delayed dissociation experiments, prompt dissociation is a problem as all the fragmentation is then not sampled; an example is photo-induced electron transfer to an ammonium group and subsequent hydrogen loss. A way to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.

  10. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or enriching it with oxygen. Several examples are given of the influence of these operational parameters on possible fuel savings.

  11. L'opération de la Carte du Ciel dans les contextes institutionnel et technique de l'astronomie française à la fin du XIXe siècle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guet Tully, F.; Sadsaoud, H.; de La Noë, J.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre analyse le contexte institutionnel français dans lequel naît la Carte du Ciel. Dans les années 1880, le régime républicain réorganise totalement la recherche astronomique. À Paris, l'instrumentation est totalement renouvelée sous l'impulsion de Maurice Loewy. En province, les efforts de décentralisation permettent un accroissement significatif des arsenaux techniques de Marseille et Toulouse, ainsi que l'édification des établissements de Besançon, Lyon et Bordeaux. À Alger, la station astronomique créée sous le second Empire est transformée en un observatoire particulièrement dynamique grâce à l'implication de Charles Trépied. Ce panorama des établissements astronomiques permet de cerner les enjeux institutionnels et scientifiques qui concourent à l'engagement des observatoires de Paris, Bordeaux, Toulouse et Alger dans l'entreprise de la Carte du Ciel.

  12. An improved method for quick evaluation of at least one petroleum characteristic of a rock sample; application to a deposit containing heavy oils; Methode amelioree permettant l`evaluation rapide d`au moins une caracteristique petroliere d`un echantillon de roche; application a un gisement comportant des huiles lourdes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabelsi, K.; Espitalie, J.

    1996-01-12

    An improvement to the previously developed Rock-Eval technique, is presented, which allows the quick evaluation of the petroleum characteristics of a reservoir rock sample: the sample is heated in a non oxidizing atmosphere with several temperature increase stages, leading to three values which are representative of the quantity of light or heavy hydrocarbons that are contained in the sample. (authors) 6 refs.

  13. KDD Techniques: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Kumar; Dr. Rajesh Verma

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in database (KDD) emerged as an efficient solution to assist user in extracting information and knowledge from rapidly growing data. KDD is composed of with the development of methods and techniques for converting data to information to knowledge. There are many different approaches that are classified as KDD techniques. Statistical techniques, probabilistic techniques, classification techniques etc. are the different techniques used for KDD. This paper gives the overview ...

  14. Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles / Pediculus capitis: Available therapies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROBERTO P, ROSSO A; M. SOLEDAD, RAMÍREZ G; MARISA, TORRES H.

    Full Text Available Pediculosis es la infestación del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a más de 15% de la población general y a más de 30% de la población infantil. Los fármacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero ha [...] sta 20% de la población se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos compuestos activos, entre ellos: lindano, derivados piretroides, crotamitón, tiabendazol, malatión, carbaryl y cotrimoxazol. De cada uno, se discute el mecanismo de acción, características farmacológicas, efectividad y efectos adversos Abstract in english Head lice infestation is very common. It is one of most frequent diseases in the childhood. In 1996, 15% of the people in the world and 30% of infant were infected. The drugs used at the moment are very effective but the people get reinfested after two months, so to avoid it, it is important to trea [...] t all contacts. There are different active compounds like lindane, pyrethins, crotamiton, thiabendazole, malathion, carbaryl and sulpha/trimethoprim. For each of these, we discuss their action, pharmacology characteristics, effectiveness and adverse effects.

  15. Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles Pediculus capitis: Available therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO P ROSSO A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediculosis es la infestación del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a más de 15% de la población general y a más de 30% de la población infantil. Los fármacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero hasta 20% de la población se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos compuestos activos, entre ellos: lindano, derivados piretroides, crotamitón, tiabendazol, malatión, carbaryl y cotrimoxazol. De cada uno, se discute el mecanismo de acción, características farmacológicas, efectividad y efectos adversosHead lice infestation is very common. It is one of most frequent diseases in the childhood. In 1996, 15% of the people in the world and 30% of infant were infected. The drugs used at the moment are very effective but the people get reinfested after two months, so to avoid it, it is important to treat all contacts. There are different active compounds like lindane, pyrethins, crotamiton, thiabendazole, malathion, carbaryl and sulpha/trimethoprim. For each of these, we discuss their action, pharmacology characteristics, effectiveness and adverse effects.

  16. Formation sécurité : places disponibles dans les sessions de juin

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    Il reste des places dans les formations sécurité suivantes. Pour les mises à jour et les inscriptions, veuillez vous reportez au catalogue des formations sécurité. Safety in Cryogenics level 1, 14 juin, en anglais, 3 heures, 9h00 – 12h00 (5 places) Radiological Protection, 18 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Radiological Protection, 22 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 08h30 – 12h30 (15 places) Sécurité Radiologique, 22 juin, en français, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Conduite de chariots élévateurs, 24-25 juin, en français, 2 jours, 8h00 – 17h30 (3 places) 

  17. El blog Cancer Currents está ahora disponible en español

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como parte de nuestros esfuerzos para que pacientes, proveedores de servicios médicos e investigadores cuenten con información oportuna, fidedigna y científica sobre el cáncer, ahora ofrecemos en español artículos selectos del blog Cancer Currents.

  18. Special radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special radiographic techniques refer to NDT techniques that are specially designed for applications that cannot performed with commonly available NDT techniques. The techniques are considered special due to the various reasons. For example the specialty of neutron and electron radiography lies on the type of radiation used to expose the inspected specimens, rather than x- and ? - rays as in common NDT techniques. On the other hand the other special radiographic techniques may distinct from common NDT in the way the detection of traverse radiation are accomplished. The special radiographic technique may be applied for inspection of material such as thinner specimen or specimen constituted of light elements. The special radiographic techniques profoundly discussed in this chapter include neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and autoradiography. The subject discussed are basic set-up and principle, the source and the application for each techniques

  19. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  20. Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras / Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Pulido; C. D., Wood; J.D., Leaver.

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA) por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usan [...] do la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994). Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979). La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g) fue mayor (P Abstract in english An experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD) and simulated grazing samples (FA), at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data coll [...] ected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P

  1. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  3. Persian fencing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are repro...

  4. Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome; Proteomique fonctionnelle dediee aux Metalloproteases Matricelles (MMPs): developpement d'une methode extremement sensible permettant la detection des formes actives des MMPs dans des proteomes complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, A

    2007-07-15

    The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows us to identify active forms of gelatinases (M.M.P.-2 and -9) in an indirect manner by comparing the results of tumour samples treated with the photoaffinity probe and the results of tumour samples analysed in zymography. These studies indicate that the protein expression levels of active forms of M.M.P. are extremely low (fmoles) and do not permit any characterisation of those forms of M.M.P. by mass spectrometry, constituting a genuine challenge which can be approached by the development of new photoaffinity probes incorporating a biotin-group. The example of this class of proteins expressed in very low abundance under active form implicates to grant efforts to develop new strategies allowing the capture of the targeted proteins. (author)

  5. Description of monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section describes the variety of techniques that are available to collect data for monitoring operating environments. These techniques include data collection on a discrete time basis, on a cumulative time basis, or by peak parameter value and are discussed in this section. The Summary provides a listing of the costs, advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques

  6. Nuclear techniques applications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Nuclear Techniques Application Program is to promote the developments of radionuclide production techniques. It discusses as well, the use of nuclear techniques on research related to Environment, Health, Biology, Agronomy and cattle raising, and Industry. (A.C.A.S.)

  7. Low current beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10-15 A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs

  8. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These “Quality Attribute Techniques” target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  10. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  11. Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt / Validation des nécessaires permettant de tester ponctuellement la teneur en iode du sel: expériences indiennes / Validación de kits de determinación in situ del contenido de yodo de la sal: experiencia en la India

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chandrakant S., Pandav; Narendra K., Arora; Anand, Krishnan; Rajan, Sankar; Smita, Pandav; Madhu G., Karmarkar.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos por carencia de yodo son un grave problema de salud pública, y la yodación de la sal es la intervención más empleada para eliminarlos. Sin embargo, es fundamental vigilar regularmente el contenido de yodo de la sal para asegurar el éxito y la sostenibilidad de esa intervención. El mét [...] odo empleado tradicionalmente para medir el contenido de yodo, la valoración yodométrica, plantea problemas relacionados con su accesibilidad y costo. Los kits más recientes para análisis in situ son baratos, apenas exigen adiestramiento, y permiten obtener resultados inmediatos. Partiendo de los datos aportados por estudios de evaluación de la disponibilidad de sal yodada en dos Estados de la India, Madhya Pradesh y el Territorio de Delhi, procedimos a analizar la utilidad del kit sobre el terreno. En Delhi se obtuvieron muestras de sal de 30 escuelas, empleando para ello la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados del Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (EPI). Las mediciones del contenido de yodo mediante el kit fueron efectuadas por un solo observador. Las muestras de sal de Madhya Pradesh procedían de 30 conglomerados rurales y 30 urbanos, identificados mediante la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados del EPI a partir de datos censales. En cada grupo, se obtuvieron muestras de sal a partir de 10 hogares seleccionados al azar y de todos los minoristas. Los 15 investigadores participantes en el estudio calcularon el contenido de yodo de las muestras de sal empleando el kit sobre el terreno. Todas las muestras se llevaron al laboratorio central de Delhi, donde el contenido de yodo se determinó mediante la valoración yodométrica como método de referencia. El grado de coincidencia entre los niveles obtenidos con el kit y los obtenidos mediante la valoración disminuyó paralelamente al aumento del número de observadores. Aunque la sensibilidad no se vio demasiado afectada por el aumento del número de observadores (93,3% para un solo observador, y 93,9% para varios observadores), la especificidad disminuyó pronunciadamente (90,4% para un solo observador, y 40,4% para varios observadores). Considerando la baja especificidad y el número consiguientemente elevado de falsos positivos obtenidos cuando lo usaron varios observadores (« condiciones reales »), cabe concluir que el kit tendía a sobreestimar sistemáticamente la disponibilidad de sal yodada. Puesto que esa sobreestimación podría conducir a la complacencia, mientras no se disponga de una alternativa válida debería seguirse utilizando el método de valoración para controlar el contenido de yodo de la sal en todos los niveles, desde el productor hasta el consumidor, a fin de garantizar la eficacia del programa. Abstract in english Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditiona [...] l method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samples in the field using the kit. All the samples were brought

  12. Gestion Dynamique des Services Techniques pour Modele a Composants

    OpenAIRE

    He?rault, Colombe; Lecomte, Sylvain

    2004-01-01

    Les nouvelles applications étant destinées à des environnements de plus en plus hétérogènes, il est indispensable de proposer des solutions de développement qui répondent au mieux aux besoins d'adaptation des nouveaux services. La programmation par composants répond en partie à cela, en permettant d'interchanger les briques logiciels afin de fournir la version d'un composant la plus adaptée à son contexte d'exécution. Néanmoins, la plupart des implantation industrielles des mod?...

  13. The relationship between available P and selected biological properties in the rhizosphere of ten crop species under glasshouse conditions Relación entre el P disponible y algunas propiedades biológicas en la rizosfera de diez especies vegetales cultivadas en invernadero Relação entre o P disponível e um conjunto de propriedades biológicas selecionadas na rizosfera de dez espécies vegetais cultivadas em estufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cultivation of 10 agronomic plant species on selected biological activities and bioavailability of phosphorus (P in different sampling zones. The lowest available P was measured in the planted soil with Solanum lycopersicum. Helianthus annuus, Zea mays and Phasaeolous vulgaris had a relatively larger effect on the decrease of available P in the rhizosphere soil and in the soil adhering to the root mats. S. lycopersicum and P. vulgaris had the highest P concentration (> 980 mg kg-1 and H. annuus and Z. mays had the highest P uptake (17.62 mg pot-1 and 13.13 mg pot-1, respectively. The mean soil microbial biomass P (MBP was significantly high in the rhizophere soil and in the soil adhering to root mats of T. aestivum, Z. mays, S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum (> 16 mg kg-1. The mean spore numbers of glumales (SNG were significantly high in the rhizophere soil and in the soil adhering to root mats of P. vulgaris, S. lycopersicum, T. aestivum and Z. mays (> 167 N/10 g soil. The negative correlations of available P and soluble P with soil biological properties like SNG and alkaline phosphatase activity and the positive correlation with soil pH shows the importance of rhizomicroorganisms and glumales on P nutrition by plants in calcareous soil. Thus rhizosphere acidification of calcareous soil may not be as important as the improvement of biological properties in P uptake and acquisition by plants.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del cultivo de 10 especies de plantas vegetales sobre determinadas actividades biológicas y sobre la biodisponibilidad de fósforo (P en diferentes zonas de muestreo. El valor más bajo de P disponible se midió en el suelo con Solanum lycopersicum. Helianthus annuus, Zea mays y Phasaeolous vulgaris tuvieron un efecto relativamente mayor sobre la disminución de P disponible en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces. S. lycopersicum y P. vulgaris presentaron la concentración de P más elevada (> 980 mg kg-1 y H. annuus y Z. mays fueron las especies que mostraron una mayor asimilación de P (17,62 mg maceta-1 y 13,13 mg maceta-1, respectivamente. El contenido medio de P en la biomasa microbiana del suelo (MBP fue significativamente elevado en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces de T. aestivum, Z. mays, S. tuberosum y S. lycopersicum (> 16 mg kg-1. La media del número de esporas de glomales (SNG presentó valores elevados en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces de P. vulgaris, S. lycopersicum, T. aestivum y Z. mays (> 167 N/10 g suelo. Las correlaciones negativas entre el P disponible y soluble con propiedades biológicas del suelo, como el SNG y la actividad fosfatasa alcalina, así como la correlación positiva con el pH del suelo, pusieron de manifiesto la importancia de los microorganismos de la rizosfera y de los glomales sobre la nutrición fosfatada de especies vegetales en suelos calizos. Así, la acidificación de la rizosfera en suelos calizos podría no ser un fa

  14. Semiconductor Modeling Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Xavier, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This book describes the key theoretical techniques for semiconductor research to quantitatively calculate and simulate the properties. It presents particular techniques to study novel semiconductor materials, such as 2D heterostructures, quantum wires, quantum dots and nitrogen containing III-V alloys. The book is aimed primarily at newcomers working in the field of semiconductor physics to give guidance in theory and experiment. The theoretical techniques for electronic and optoelectronic devices are explained in detail.

  15. Plant Tissue Culture Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorraine Mineo (Lafayette College; )

    1989-06-06

    Plant tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of plant science. Currently, tissue-cultured plants that have been genetically engineered provide insight into plant molecular biology and gene regulation. Plant tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied plant science, including plant biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied plant science.

  16. Laser induced pyrolysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of laser pyrolysis techniques to the problems of chemical analysis is discussed. The processes occurring during laser pyrolysis are first briefly reviewed. The problems encountered in laser pyrolysis gas chromatography are discussed using the analysis of phenanthrene and binary hydrocarbons. The application of this technique to the characterization of naturally occurring carbonaceous material such as oil shales and coal is illustrated

  17. Communication Analysis modelling techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Espan?a, Sergio; Gonza?lez, Arturo; Pastor, O?scar; Ruiz, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we ref...

  18. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  19. Analog signal isolation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application

  20. Ecocardiografía de contraste: historia, características de las microburbujas y técnicas instrumentales / Contrast echocardiography: history, micro bubble characteristics and instrumental techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Cubides; Gustavo, Restrepo; Dagnóvar, Aristizábal; Ana, Múnera.

    2006-04-22

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe la historia de la ecocardiografía de contraste, las características físicas de las microburbujas de los agentes de contraste, las principales herramientas instrumentales (índice mecánico, foco y enfoque, número de imágenes por segundo) y las técnicas ecocardiográficas (segunda [...] armónica, armónica de fusión, segunda armónica de pulso invertido, imagen intermitente, angio y densitometría acústica) actualmente disponibles para uso clínico. Abstract in english This article describes the history of contrast echocardiography, the physical characteristics of the contrast agents’ micro bubbles, the main instrumental tools (mechanical index, focus and focusing, frame rate), and the echocardiography techniques (second harmonic imaging, fusion harmonic, power pu [...] lse inversion imaging, triggered imaging, intermittent harmonic power Doppler, color power angio and acoustic densitometry), actually available for clinical use.

  1. Ecocardiografía de contraste: historia, características de las microburbujas y técnicas instrumentales Contrast echocardiography: history, micro bubble characteristics and instrumental techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cubides

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe la historia de la ecocardiografía de contraste, las características físicas de las microburbujas de los agentes de contraste, las principales herramientas instrumentales (índice mecánico, foco y enfoque, número de imágenes por segundo y las técnicas ecocardiográficas (segunda armónica, armónica de fusión, segunda armónica de pulso invertido, imagen intermitente, angio y densitometría acústica actualmente disponibles para uso clínico.This article describes the history of contrast echocardiography, the physical characteristics of the contrast agents’ micro bubbles, the main instrumental tools (mechanical index, focus and focusing, frame rate, and the echocardiography techniques (second harmonic imaging, fusion harmonic, power pulse inversion imaging, triggered imaging, intermittent harmonic power Doppler, color power angio and acoustic densitometry, actually available for clinical use.

  2. Reversible Data Hiding Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dhananjay Yadav; Vipul Singhal; Devesh Kumar Bandil

    2012-01-01

    Reversible data hiding is a technique that is used to hide data inside an image. The data is hidden in such a way that the exact or original data is not visible. The hidden data can be retrieved as and when required. There are several methods that are used in reversible data hiding techniques like Watermarking, Lossless embedding and encryption. In this paper we present a review of reversible watermarking techniques and show different methods that are used to get reversible data hiding techni...

  3. Interpretation Techniques Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The processes, algorithms and procedures for extraction and interpretation of ERTS-1 data are discussed. Analysis of data acquired temporally is possible through geometric correction, correlation, and registration techniques. The powerful techniques in image enhancement developed for the lunar and planetary programs are valuable for Earth Resources Survey programs. There is evidence that both optical and digital methods of spatial information extraction can provide valuable sources of data information the ERTS system. The techniques available, even for a limited number of bands and limited resolution can be effectively used to extract much of the information required by resource managers.

  4. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  5. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  6. Guía para el tratamiento de lactantes con alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca: Ficha comparativa de las fórmulas especiales disponibles en el mercado español Guideline for the treatment of infants with allergy to cow milk proteins: comparative data sheet of the specific formulae available on the Spanish market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Goicoechea Manzanares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca (APLV es una enfermedad de elevada incidencia y prevalencia. Su tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de las proteínas de la leche de vaca de la dieta, mediante lactancia materna exclusiva y, en caso de uso de fórmulas adaptadas, con el uso de fórmulas especiales, como fórmulas derivadas de proteínas lácteas altamente hidrolizadas, de fórmulas derivadas de proteínas vegetales o de fórmulas elaboradas a partir de aminoácidos biosintéticos (fórmulas elementales. Estas fórmulas suponen un coste económico considerable y un importante campo comercial para las industrias alimentaria y farmacéutica. Dado el continuo avance científico y técnico, son muchas las modificaciones que se presentan en la elaboración de dichas fórmulas y en las normas para su correcto manejo y muy numerosas las publicaciones sobre diferentes aspectos relativas a las mismas.
    En el presente trabajo pretendemos revisar las últimas modificaciones debidas a los nuevos conocimientos y a la experiencia clínica acumulada sobre prevención y tratamiento de la APLV. Además, se revisa la importancia de los aspectos nutricionales en todos los lactantes y niños pequeños que reciben fórmulas alimentarias especiales y dietas de exclusión y se presentan las principales características compositivas de las fórmulas disponibles en el mercado español y las recomendaciones de los organismos reguladores.

    Allergy to cow milk proteins (ACMP is a disease having high incidence and prevalence. Its treatment consists in the elimination of cow milk proteins, using maternal breastfeeding exclusively and, in the case of adapted formulae, with the use of special formulae such as highly hydrolyzed lactic protein derived formulae, vegetables protein derived formulae or formulae elaborated from biosynthetic aminoacids (Elemental formulae. These formulae entail a considerable financial cost and provide an important commercial field for the food and drug industry. Given the continuous scientific and technical advance, there are many modifications that occur in the elaboration of these formulae and on the guidelines for their correct handling and there are many publications on the different aspects of them. In the present work, we have aimed to review the recent modifications due to the newer knowledge and clinical experience accumulated on prevention and treatment of ACMP. In addition, the importance of the nutritional aspects in all infants and small children who receive special feeding formulae and diets of exclusion and that have the principle

  7. Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pulido

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usando la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994. Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979. La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g fue mayor (PAn experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD and simulated grazing samples (FA, at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data collected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P<0.05 from herbage mass samples than simulated grazing samples at 12, 21, and 27 hours of incubation (161.7 v/s 150.6, s.e.d.= 4.23; 217.6 v/s 209.2, s.e.d.= 3.65; and 242.1 v/s 234.7, s.e.d.= 3.34, respectively. However, after 27 hours of incubation, no significant effect (P0.05 of type of sample, either on the amount of gas produced or on the kinetic of fermentation, were found. The dry matter disappearance after 96 hours of incubation was significantly lower (P<0.05 for herbage mass samples compared with simulated grazing samples (0.908 v/s 0.873, s.e.d.= 0.005, but with no effect of sward height (P0.05. These findings show the benefits of complementing in vitro gas production measurements with post digestion residue determinations to improve the knowledge on the nutritive value of feed fermented in the rumen

  8. Symbolic rewriting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Weispfenning, Volker; Grabmeier, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Symbolic rewriting techniques are methods for deriving consequences from systems of equations, and are of great use when investigating the structure of the solutions. Such techniques appear in many important areas of research within computer algebra: • the Knuth-Bendix completion for groups, monoids and general term-rewriting systems, • the Buchberger algorithm for Gröbner bases, • the Ritt-Wu characteristic set method for ordinary differential equations, and • the Riquier-Janet method for partial differential equations. This volume contains invited and contributed papers to the Symbolic Rewriting Techniques workshop, which was held at the Centro Stefano Franscini in Ascona, Switzerland, from April 30 to May 4, 1995. That workshop brought together 40 researchers from various areas of rewriting techniques, the main goal being the investigation of common threads and methods. Following the workshops, each contribution was formally refereed and 14 papers were selected for publication.

  9. Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides information on various classroom assessment techniques (CATs) such as primary trait analysis, using anonymous assessments, goal ranking and matching, self assessment, active learning, transfer and applied learning, and group work assessment.

  10. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  11. Telephone Survey Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Carol D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using the telephone to obtain data. Includes telephone interview techniques, ethical practices, use of precontact letters, preparing questions, and recording answers. Presents current and potential uses of telephone interviewing by home economics researchers. (JOW)

  12. Multidisciplinary design optimisation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Tovar; Nelson Arzola de la Peña; Alexander Gómez Cassab

    2010-01-01

    Design optimisation of a multidisciplinary prolect in engineering involves the decomposition of a system into disciplines and the subsequent association of their contributions. This work was aimed at presenting the most common decomposition and association techniques currently used in multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO). Amongst the decomposition techniques this work includes hierarchical and non-hierarchical approaches as well as the most popular numerical procedures. The associat...

  13. Techniques Enabling Generator Refactoring

    OpenAIRE

    Krahn, Holger; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents our approach to use refactoring techniques together with code generation. Refactoring is particularly useful if not only the generated classes but also the generator itself can be adapted in an automatic fashion. We have developed a simple demonstration prototype to illustrate this. The demonstration is based on a special technique where the template for the code generation is defined as compilable source code. The directives to ll out this template proto...

  14. Techniques of Radio Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the techniques of radio astronomy. This study began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cosmos, but the period of rapid progress began fifteen years later. From then to the present, the wavelength range expanded from a few meters to the sub-millimeters, the angular resolution increased from degrees to finer than milli arc seconds and the receiver sensitivities have improved by large factors. Today, the technique of apertu...

  15. Memory Profiling Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Faur, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Memory pro?ling is an important technique which aids program optimization and can even help tracking down bugs. The main problem with the current memory pro?ling techniques and tools is that they slow down the target software considerably therefore making them inadequate for mainline integration. Ideally, the user would be able to monitor memory consumption without having to worry about the rest of the software being a?ected in any way. This thesis provides a comparison of existing tech...

  16. Certification extends Termination Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sternagel, Christian; Thiemann, Rene?

    2012-01-01

    There are termination proofs that are produced by termination tools for which certifiers are not powerful enough. However, a similar situation also occurs in the other direction. We have formalized termination techniques in a more general setting as they have been introduced. Hence, we can certify proofs using techniques that no termination tool supports so far. In this paper we shortly present two of these formalizations: Polynomial orders with negative constants and Arctic...

  17. Techniques of hepatic resection

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Robert J.; Solomon, Naveenraj L.

    2012-01-01

    Liver resections are high risk procedures performed by experienced surgeons. The role of liver resection in malignant disease has changed over the last 100 years with great improvement in morbidity, mortality and long term survival. New understanding in liver anatomy, improved perioperative care, anesthesia techniques, and technological advances has improved this aspect of patient care. With improved techniques, patients previously considered unresectable have an opportunity to undergo curati...

  18. Techniques of Male Circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahab-ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the rea...

  19. Techniques for colorectal anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik-Hong Ho, Mohamed Ahmed Tawfik Ashour

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety aspects of anastomosis and alternatives to hand-sewn and stapled techniques are being sought. Here, we review alternative anastomotic techniques used to fashion bowel anastomosis. Compression anastomosis using compression anastomotic clips, endoluminal compression anastomotic rings, AKA-2, biofragmental anastomotic rings, or Magnamosis all involve the concept of creating a sutureless end-to-end anastomosis by compressing two bowel ends together, leading to a simultaneous necrosis and healing process that joins the two lumens. Staple line reinforcement is a new approach that reduce the drawbacks of staplers used in colorectal practice, i.e. leakage, bleeding, misfiring, and inadequate tissue approximation. Various non-absorbable, semi or fully absorbable materials are now available. Two other techniques can provide alternative anastomotic support to the suture line: a colorectal drain and a polyester stent, which can be utilized in ultra-low rectal excision and can negate the formation of a defunctioning stoma. Doxycycline coated sutures have been used to overcome the post-operative weakness in anastomosis secondary to rapid matrix degradation mediated by matrix metalloproteinase. Another novel technique, the electric welding system, showed promising results in construction of a safe, neat, smooth sutureless bowel anastomosis. Various anastomotic techniques have been shown to be comparable to the standard techniques of suturing and stapling. However, most of these alternatives need to be accepted and optimized for future use.

  20. Techniques for colorectal anastomosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yik-Hong Ho, Mohamed Ahmed Tawfik Ashour

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety asp...

  1. Techniques for colorectal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yik Hong; Ashour, Mohamed Ahmed Tawfik

    2010-04-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety aspects of anastomosis and alternatives to hand-sewn and stapled techniques are being sought. Here, we review alternative anastomotic techniques used to fashion bowel anastomosis. Compression anastomosis using compression anastomotic clips, endoluminal compression anastomotic rings, AKA-2, biofragmental anastomotic rings, or Magnamosis all involve the concept of creating a sutureless end-to-end anastomosis by compressing two bowel ends together, leading to a simultaneous necrosis and healing process that joins the two lumens. Staple line reinforcement is a new approach that reduce the drawbacks of staplers used in colorectal practice, i.e. leakage, bleeding, misfiring, and inadequate tissue approximation. Various non-absorbable, semi or fully absorbable materials are now available. Two other techniques can provide alternative anastomotic support to the suture line: a colorectal drain and a polyester stent, which can be utilized in ultra-low rectal excision and can negate the formation of a defunctioning stoma. Doxycycline coated sutures have been used to overcome the post-operative weakness in anastomosis secondary to rapid matrix degradation mediated by matrix metalloproteinase. Another novel technique, the electric welding system, showed promising results in construction of a safe, neat, smooth sutureless bowel anastomosis. Various anastomotic techniques have been shown to be comparable to the standard techniques of suturing and stapling. However, most of these alternatives need to be accepted and optimized for future use. PMID:20355239

  2. [Local flap technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, G I

    2013-01-01

    The new local flap technique based on cutting out valve flaps combining with the principle of acute dermatension is presented in this article. The method is offered as alternative to plasty with transposed triangular flaps or Z-plasty and it allows to excise pathological scars, provides good esthetic results. On the basis of this technique some methods of eliminating post burn deformities of face, neck, mammary glands, extremities joints, hand and fingers are offered. PMID:24003722

  3. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  4. Microscale diagnostic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Kenny

    2005-01-01

    Microscale Diagnostic Techniques highlights the most innovative and powerful developments in microscale diagnostics. It provides a resource for scientists and researchers interested in learning about the techniques themselves, including their capabilities and limitations. The fields of Micro- and Nanotechnology have emerged over the past decade as a major focus of modern scientific and engineering research and technology. Driven by advances in microfabrication, the investigation, manipulation and engineering of systems characterized by micrometer and, more recently, nanometer scales have becom

  5. Multiple Antenna Technique (MIMO)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibn Azad, Muhammad Razin

    2012-01-01

    In the wireless communication field, multiple antennas are gaining increased interests because of their dramatic increase in capacity and speed of data transmissions. The purpose of this thesis is to give a brief look into multiple antenna techniques with the main focus on MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output). Basic principles of the entire popular multiple antenna techniques are briefly discussed here. For better understanding of multiple antennas, basic parameters and antenna mechanis...

  6. Une Chaine de Mesure Permettant de Caracteriser la Performance en Voile

    CERN Document Server

    Iachkine, Paul; Roncin, Kostia; Kobus, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental set-up and the analysis tools developed for the performance evaluation in sailing. The measurement system is composed of sensors for the position and attitude of the sail boat, sensors for the wind measurement and some tools for the coach.

  7. Descriptions de scènes multimédia : représentations et optimisations

    OpenAIRE

    Concolato, Cyril

    2007-01-01

    Avec les progrès technologiques en matière de débits disponibles et la diversification des média disponibles, l'enjeu est maintenant de diffuser aux utilisateurs des médias de qualité dans une présentation cohérente, attractive et interactive, qu'elle soit destinée au monde de la télévision numérique, de l'Internet ou de la téléphonie mobile. Les descriptions de scènes multimédia tentent de répondre à ce pari. Le pari consiste en effet à développer des technologies permett...

  8. Application d'une technique de modelisation aerodynamique conceptuelle sur la simulation d'un pilote automatique a commande optimale pour un avion d'affaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollender-Moreau, Olivier

    Ce document présente, dans le cadre d'un contexte conceptuel, une méthode d'enchaînement servant à faire le lien entre les différentes étapes qui permettent de réaliser la simulation d'un aéronef à partir de ses données géométriques et de ses propriétés massiques. En utilisant le cas de l'avion d'affaires Hawker 800XP de la compagnie Hawker Beechcraft, on démontre, via des données, un processus de traitement par lots et une plate-forme de simulation, comment (1) modéliser la géométrie d'un aéronef en plusieurs surfaces, (2) calculer les forces aérodynamiques selon une technique connue sous le nom de Vortex Lattice Method, (3) construire un modèle de vol servant à la simulation des aéronefs pour leur enveloppe de vol en ajoutant des fonctions supplémentaires, (4) construire un modèle de turbosoufflante simplifié, (5) développer un algorithme d'équilibre (trim) du mouvement longitudinal, (6) développer des algorithmes de contrôle à commande moderne, (7) développer certaines fonctions d'un système de pilotage automatique, et (8) rassembler le tout sous une même plate-forme de simulation. Afin de supporter ce travail, une application publique Matlab, connue sous le nom de Tornado, est utilisée conjointement avec d'autres fonctions pour la conception du modèle de vol aérodynamique. D'ailleurs, il sera démontré que le modèle de vol, quoiqu'il soit quand même crédible, ne concorde pas tout à fait avec les données de référence. Par contre, puisque le modèle des moteurs fonctionne bien, que l'algorithme d'équilibrage du mouvement longitudinal fonctionne bien et que les pôles des systèmes dynamiques concordent avec la littérature, les tests dynamiques effectués au sein de la plate-forme de simulation permettent d'obtenir des résultats fonctionnels et crédibles. D'ailleurs, deux systèmes d'augmentation de la stabilité basés sur la méthode de contrôle moderne LQR et couvrant l'enveloppe de vol de l'aéronef via un système d'ordonnancement des gains sont implémentés respectivement selon les mouvements longitudinal et latéral. Ces fonctions fonctionnent bien et permettent de rencontrer les qualités de vol requises pour un avion d'affaires. Finalement, certaines fonctions concernant un système de pilotage automatique sont implémentées. Dans le cas du mouvement latéral, ces fonctions sont basées sur les méthodes de contrôle modernes et couvrent la totalité de l'enveloppe de vol; mais en ce qui concerne le mouvement longitudinal, elles sont basées sur des algorithmes d'équilibre difficile à gérer pour implémenter sur toute l'enveloppe de vol, c'est pourquoi les tests présentés sont limités à des scénarios bien précis. Dans les deux cas, les essais effectués donnent d'assez bons résultats.

  9. Handbook of laboratory techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

  10. Communication Analysis modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we refer to business activities as communicative events. Message Structures is a technique based on structured text that allows specifying the messages associated to communicative events. Event Specification Templates are a means to organise the requirements concerning a communicative event. This report can be useful to analysts and business process modellers in general, since, according to our industrial experience, it is possible to apply many Communication Analysis concepts, guidelines and criteria to other business process modelling notation...

  11. Biodosimetry using dicentric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry, based on the analysis of solid stained dicentric chromosomes, has been used since the mid 1960, to estimate the absorbed dose immediately following a radiation accident. The dicentric is the main aberration used for biodosimetry. It is an exchange between the centromeric pieces of two broken chromosomes, which in its complete form is accompanied by a fragment composed of the acentric pieces of these chromosomes. Dicentric technique in chromosome aberration analysis is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetry technique, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeter have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by equivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual working lifetime. This paper aims at presenting a method based on the analysis of chromosomal aberration using dicentric technique for biological dosimetry. (Author)

  12. Current techniques in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper represents a literature survey of current techniques in mammography. The major objection to the otherwise acceptable methods in widespread use are the radiation doses given the patient, particularly the asymptomatic patient. Even using current techniques which involve x-raying the breast, all women over 50 should have yearly exams for the earliest possible cancer detection and hence improved diagnosis. It is for asymptomatic women under 50 that the risk versus benefit issue becomes controversial. Strong efforts are being made to reduce or eliminate this dose. Current methods in widespread clinical use and experimental methods are briefly covered, and the recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (released July 1980) are stressed. The current experimental techniques which include NMR, ultrasound, thermography, computer tomography, heavy particle radiography and ionography are capsulized

  13. Vibrating wire alignment technique

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Long, Wang; lei, Wu; Chun-Hua, Li

    2013-01-01

    Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibrating wire alignment technique, including vibrating wire model analysis, system frequency calculation, wire sag calculation and the relation between wire amplitude and magnetic induction intensity. On the basis of model analysis this article will introduce the alignment method which based on magnetic field measurement and the alignment method which based on amplitude and phase measurement. Finally, some basic questions will be discussed and the solutions will be given.

  14. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components (bioactive food components or as an emulsifying technique. Pulsed electrical field can be effective in microorganisms destruction, as well as a pretreatment to drying. Some of these techniques has already found its application in food industry of several high industry developed countries.

  15. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  16. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer) into production processes represents an important limitation of this approach. Surface sampling techniques provide a measure of workplace chemical contamination. Wipe sampling has been used extensively, but is susceptible to high variability. Surface sampling requires definition of dermal transfer coefficients for specific work activities. A preliminary dermal exposure sampling strategy which addresses such issues as sampling method, representativeness and sample duration is proposed. Despite the limitations of current assessment techniques, it appears feasible to consider developing dermal occupational exposure limits (DOELs) for selected workplaces and chemical agents. Initial development of DOELs would be most practical where dermal exposure is from surface contact primarily, and where the work closely follows a routine. Improvement in the techniques of dermal exposure assessment is an important goal for occupational hygiene research, and is likely to lead to better health for worker populations. PMID:8304685

  17. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  18. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out

  19. Precision energy measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a technique that was recently successfully tested at SLAC, it is possible to open the slits to ?p/p = +-0.5% and measure the energy centroid of each beam pulse with a precision of +-0.01%. With +-0.5% slits, nearly 100% of the beam is transmitted from the linear accelerator to the target. The technique depends on the fact that the path length through bending magnets in the beam switchyard (BSY) depends on energy. An estimate of resolution is given, and long term stability, phase measurement electronics, and experimental tests are discussed

  20. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data structures used in computations.

  1. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  2. Neutron techniques in Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential part of Safeguards is the ability to quantitatively and nondestructively assay those materials with special neutron-interactive properties involved in nuclear industrial or military technology. Neutron techniques have furnished most of the important ways of assaying such materials, which is no surprise since the neutronic properties are what characterizes them. The techniques employed rely on a wide selection of the many methods of neutron generation, detection, and data analysis that have been developed for neutron physics and nuclear science in general

  3. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  4. Millimicrosecond pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ian A D

    1959-01-01

    Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

  5. Digital and Field Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanne Fortner

    2003-11-30

    The purpose of this module is to demonstrate the instruments and field techniques used to collect data on the physical parameters of lakes and oceans. Characteristics that were measured included turbidity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, current speed and direction, wind speed and direction, pH, and bottom sediment characteristics. Lab exercise ideas are provided, but actual lab activities will depend on the frequency, time period, and quality of data collection. A lab exercise is provided to show how the collected field data were imported into Excel spreadsheet format and mapped. Techniques for using the collected field data to prepare spatial maps of water characteristics are also provided.

  6. Nonenhanced MR angiography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Especially in regard to the potential risks for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) following the administration of Gadolinium-based contrast material, nonenhanced MR angiography (MRA) methods are becoming ever more important. Besides well-established time-of-flight (TOF) and phase-contrast (PC) MRA, alternative imaging techniques based on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences are increasingly used in combination with or without arterial spin labeling (ASL) strategies. This article provides an overview of the principles and clinical values of different nonenhanced MRA techniques. In addition, recent nonenhanced MRA developments are presented. (orig.)

  7. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  8. LDAP Injection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Maria ALONSO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of databases accessed only by some applications has made code injection attacks an important threat to almost any current system. If one of these applications accepts inputs from a client and executes these inputs without first validating them, the attackers are free to execute their own queries and therefore, to extract, modify or delete the content of the database associated to the application. In this paper a deep analysis of the LDAP injection techniques is presented. Furthermore, a clear distinction between classic and blind injection techniques is made.

  9. Computerized tomography: Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is an introduction to the physical and technical fundamentals of computerized tomography. The measuring and imaging mechanisms of the various CT techniques are described with a view to relevant medical perspectives and potential side effects. Particular regard is given to magnetic resonance tomography. (orig./MG)

  10. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy Technical University of Denmark,

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations.

  11. Translation and Interpretation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahan, Elizabeth Welt

    1978-01-01

    Three techniques used in the training of translators and interpreters at the Monterey Institute which may be suitable for advanced language study are conceptualization, stylistic transposition, and sight translation. Language students may acquire the cultural and social ambiance of the target language through such training. (SW)

  12. Summary of Observational Techniques.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubský, Pavel

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2012 - (Richards, M.), s. 557-561 ISBN 9781107019829. ISSN 1743-9213. - (Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. IAU S282). [Symposium of the International Astronomical Union /282./. Tatranská Lomnica (SK), 18.07.2011-22.07. 2011] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : observational techniques * binary stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Structural Geology Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutch, Steven

    The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.

  14. Hemodynamic monitoring: noninvasive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given of a symposium dealing with new, noninvasive methods that have potential application to perioperative evaluation and monitoring. These include echocardiography, systolic time intervals, and radionuclide imaging techniques. Basic principles and important applications of each method are discussed

  15. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  16. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  17. Inspection techniques at Hunterston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; Hunterston 'A' Magnox reactors ISI development; assessed components (core restraint system, etc.); inspection and monitoring equipment (design and development); internal inspection and monitoring (TV surveys; thermocouple installation; techniques for monitoring freedom of temperature compensating unit; uses of linear transducers; metal sampling; metal temperature measurement; vibration monitoring; still photography); summary. (U.K.)

  18. Estudio sobre la pertinencia del uso de las normas disponibles del Raven en adultos mayores chilenos / Study on the relevance of using available norms Raven in Chileans older adults / Estudo sobre a pertinência da utilização das normas disponíveis de Raven em idosos chilenos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Alarcón Paz; Vanessa, Díaz Valenzuela; Jacqueline, Hernández Rosales; Claudia, Estrada Goic.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da inteligência na população idosa tem aumentado sua importância devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida. Este estudo está centrado na relevância das normas disponíveis para o teste de Matrizes Progressivas de Raven para essa população. Foram utilizadas as normas de Colchester (1942, ci [...] tado por Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), as mais completas disponíveis. Participaram 102 idosos voluntários (com idade superior a 60 anos). O desenho do estudo foi não experimental transversal correlacional. Os resultados indicam que as normas são pouco exigentes para esse grupo e que existem diferenças significativas entre os adultos da terceira e quarta idade, privilegiando o primeiro grupo. O índice de discrepância mostrou alta sensibilidade, indicando que a distribuição de pontuações esperadas não corresponde a da população em geral. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à necessidade de atualização das normas e da consideração das novas características desse período vital. Abstract in spanish La evaluación de la inteligencia en población adulto mayor ha aumentado su relevancia debido al incremento de la esperanza de vida. Este estudio centra su interés en la pertinencia de normas disponibles para el Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven para dicha población. Se utilizaron normas de Colch [...] ester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), las más completas existentes. Participaron 102 adultos mayores voluntarios (más de 60 años). El diseño fue no experimental transversal correlacional. Los resultados indican que las normas resultan poco exigentes para ese grupo y que existen diferencias significativas entre los adultos de la tercera y cuarta edad, privilegiando a los del primer grupo. El índice de discrepancia mostró alta sensibilidad, indicando que la distribución de puntajes esperados no se corresponde al de la población general. Se discuten los resultados en torno a la necesidad de actualización de las normas y la consideración de las nuevas características de este periodo vital. Abstract in english The assessment of intelligence in the elderly population has increased its importance in terms of increased life expectancy. The present study focuses its interest on the relevance of available norms for Raven Progressive Matrices Test in the evaluation of elderly population. Standards were used Col [...] chester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), the most comprehensive available. The non-probability sample involved 102 elderly (aged over 60 years old) who were volunteers. The study used a non-experimental cross-correlation design. The results indicate that the current norms are not very demanding for the aging population, and that there are significant differences between adults of the third and fourth age, better for the first group. Moreover, the discrepancy index showed high sensitivity, indicating that the expected distribution of scores does not correspond to the general population. Results are discussed regarding the need to update the norms and the consideration of the new features involved in this vital period.

  19. The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence / Efficacité des politiques de réduction des acides gras trans alimentaires: une revue systématique des données probantes / La eficacia de las estrategias para reducir las grasas trans en la dieta: examen sistemático de los datos disponibles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shauna M, Downs; Anne Marie, Thow; Stephen R, Leeder.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar sistemáticamente los datos disponibles sobre la eficacia de las estrategias (incluida la autorregulación) dirigidas a reducir los ácidos grasos de tipo trans (AGT) de producción industrial en los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las bases de datos Medline, Embase y Cinahl para id [...] entificar artículos revisados por expertos en los que se estudiara el efecto de las estrategias acerca de las grasas trans. Además, también se buscaron artículos de literatura gris en las primeras 20 páginas de resultados de Google. Los estudios se incluyeron cuando: (i) se trataba de un estudio empírico que se desarrolló en un entorno del «mundo real» (esto es, se excluyeron estudios de modelamiento); (ii) se examinaba una estrategia relacionada con los AGT que incluyera, por ejemplo, etiquetado, límites voluntarios o prohibiciones; y (iii) se examinaba el efecto de una estrategia sobre los niveles de AGT en los alimentos, la dieta de las personas, la sangre o la leche materna. RESULTADOS: Veintiséis artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. De ellos, cinco incluyeron una autorregulación voluntaria; ocho, sólo etiquetado; cuatro, etiquetado y límites voluntarios; cinco, prohibiciones locales y cuatro, prohibiciones nacionales. En su conjunto, todas las estrategias redujeron el nivel de AGT en los alimentos. Por regla general, los niveles de grasas saturadas aumentaron o disminuyeron según el tipo de producto, y el contenido total de grasa permaneció estable. Las prohibiciones locales y nacionales resultaron ser las más eficaces a la hora de eliminar los AGT de los alimentos, mientras que el etiquetado obligatorio y los límites voluntarios obtuvieron resultados variados, dependiendo, en su mayor parte, de la categoría de alimento. CONCLUSIÓN: Las estrategias dirigidas a la reducción del contenido de AGT en los alimentos estuvieron asociadas a reducciones significativas de los niveles de AGT sin un aumento del contenido total en grasas. Estas estrategias son factibles, viables y pueden tener un efecto sobre la salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of policies, including self-regulation, aimed at reducing industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food. METHODS: The Medline, Embase and Cinahl databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles examining the effect [...] of TFA policies. In addition, the first 20 pages of Google searches were examined for articles from the grey literature. A study was included if: (i) it was empirical and conducted in a "real-world" setting (i.e. modelling studies were excluded); (ii) it examined a TFA policy involving, for example, labelling, voluntary limits or bans; and (iii) it examined a policy's effect on TFA levels in food, people's diets, blood or breast milk. FINDINGS: Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 involved voluntary self-regulation; 8, labelling alone; 4, labelling and voluntary limits; 5, local bans and 4, national bans. Overall, the TFA content of food decreased with all types of policy intervention. In general, saturated fat levels increased or decreased, depending on the product type, and total fat content remained stable. National and local bans were most effective at eliminating TFAs from the food supply, whereas mandatory TFA labelling and voluntary TFA limits had a varying degree of success, which largely depended on food category. CONCLUSION: Policies aimed at restricting the TFA content of food were associated with significant reductions in TFA levels, without increasing total fat content. Such policies are feasible, achievable and likely to have an effect on public health.

  20. A Importância da Literatura Cinzenta Disponível na Internet para as Áreas de Ciências Contábeis e Administração de EmpresasThe Importance of the Gray Literature in the Internet for the Accounting and Business Administration AreasLa Importancia de la Literatura Gris Disponible en Internet para las Áreas de Ciencias Contables y Administración de Empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÔRTES, Pedro Luiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste trabalho analisa as principais características da literatura cinzenta, avaliando o uso de algumas das fontes potencialmente úteis para os docentes e discentes das áreas de administração de empresas e ciências contábeis, além de considerar novas formas de difusão do conhecimento científico propiciado pelos open-archives, pre-prints e open-access.Apesar de restrições manifestadas pela comunidade acadêmica quanto ao uso desse tipo de referência, em muitos casos, ela constitui a única fonte primária de informação disponível sobre determinados temas, ampliando sua importância para as ciências sociais aplicadas. Adicionalmente, há que se considerar que as facilidades propiciadas pela Internet têm levado a um crescimento do uso de referências não convencionais, especialmente sob a forma de relatórios, estudos setoriais e evolu??ão de índices e indicadores, ajudando a fundamentar análises e trabalhos acadêmicos. Verifica-se também que textos, apresentações e interações eletrônicas com grupos e fóruns on-line de debate têm possibilitado uma troca profícua de informações, colaborando de maneira significativa para a evolução do conhecimento em ciências contábeis e administração de empresas. Essas formas de difusão também são analisadas neste trabalho.ABSTRACTThis work analyzes the characteristics of gray literature, evaluating the use of this useful information source for teachers, students and researches of business administration and accounting. Moreover, it studies new kinds of diffusion of the scientific knowledge with the use of open archives, preprints and open-access bases. Although we found restrictions of some academics communities, the use of this kind of reference have been growing, justifying its importance. In many cases, it is the only primary information source about some subjects. The Internet has led to increase of the gray literature uses, such as reports and studies. Websites, electronic presentations and interactions with on-line groups have made possible the exchange of more information, allowing the evolution of the knowledge in accounting and business administration. This kind of diffusion also is analyzed in this work.RESUMENEste trabajo analiza las principales características de la literatura gris, para evaluar el uso de algunas de las fuentes potencialmente útiles para los docentes y discentes de las áreas de administración de empresas y ciencias contables, además de considerar nuevas formas de difusión del conocimiento científico propiciado por los open-archives, pre-prints y open-access. A pesar de las restricciones expuestas por la comunidad académica sobre el uso de este tipo de referencia, en muchos casos, ella constituye la única fuente primaria de información disponible sobre determinados temas, y su importancia se amplía en las ciencias sociales aplicadas. Hay que considerar además que las facilidades que la Internet ofrece suscitó el crecimiento del uso de referencias no convencionales, especialmente los informes, estudios sectoriales y evolución de índices e indicadores, que ayudan a fundamentar análisis y trabajos académicos. Se observa también que textos, presentaciones e interacciones electrónicas con grupos y fórum on-line de debates posibilitaron un intercambio proficuo de informaciones, que colaboran de manera significativa para la evolución del conocimiento en ciencias contables y administración de empresas. Estas formas de difusión también se analizan en este trabajo.

  1. Análise de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica disponíveis na BVS-PSI Brasil / Thesis and dissertations analysis in psychological assessment available in the BVS-PSI Brasil / Análisis de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica disponibles en la BVS-PSI Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo, Joly; Arthur de Almeida, Berberian; Regina Gioconda de, Andrade; Tatiana Cristina, Teixeira.

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou verificar a produção científica de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica no Brasil, disponíveis na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil). Foram analisados 141 resumos de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica referentes a estudos que tinham [...] avaliação psicológica, psicometria, validade, precisão e testes psicológicos como palavras-chave. Os resultados revelaram que 54,6% dos resumos eram de dissertações de mestrado, 43,3%, de teses de doutorado, e 2,1% eram de teses de pós-doutorado. Destes, 19,15% foram defendidos em Universidades estabelecidas na Região Sul do País, 80,14%, no Sudeste, e 0,71%, no Nordeste. Pode-se constatar que maior concentração da produção científica de avaliação psicológica fica na Região Sudeste. Verificou-se que 60,3% tinham por objetivo buscar parâmetros psicométricos, e 27,7% tinham a finalidade de utilizar os testes para validar protocolos de intervenção, descrever habilidades específicas e estudar relações entre variáveis, e constituem a maioria dos estudos transversais. Os construtos mais estudados são a personalidade e a inteligência, e as áreas de aplicação em que se utiliza mais avaliação psicológica são a clínica e a escolar, de acordo com os resultados do presente estudo. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la producción científica de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica en Brasil, disponibles en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud de Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil). Fueron analizados 141 resúmenes de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica referen [...] tes a estudios que tenían evaluación psicológica, psicometría, validez, precisión y testes psicológicos como palabras-clave. Los resultados revelaron que 54,6% de los resúmenes eran de disertaciones de maestrazgo, 43,3%, de tesis de doctorado, y 2,1% eran de tesis de post-doctorado. De éstos, 19,15% fueron defendidos en Universidades establecidas en la Región Sur del País, 80,14%, en el Sudeste, y 0,71%, en el Nordeste. Se puede constatar que la mayor concentración de la producción científica de evaluación psicológica está localizada en la Región Sudeste. Se verificó que 60,3% tenían por objetivo buscar parámetros psicométricos, y 27,7% tenían la finalidad de utilizar los testes para validar protocolos de intervención, describir habilidades específicas y estudiar relaciones entre variables, y constituyen la mayoría de los estudios transversales. Los constructos más estudiados son la personalidad y la inteligencia, y las áreas de aplicación en la que se utiliza más evaluación psicológica son la clínica y la escolar, de acuerdo con los resultados del presente estudio. Abstract in english The present study aimed to verify the scientific production of the thesis and dissertations in psychological assessment in Brazil, all which are from the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (BVS-Psi Brasil). 141 theses’ and dissertations’ abstracts that referred to studies with psychological asses [...] sment, psychometric, validity, reliability and psychological tests as keywords were analyzed. The results showed that 54,6% of the abstracts were from Masters’ dissertations, 43,3% of PhD’s thesis and 2,1% were from post-doctoral thesis. 19,15% of the studies were defended in universities established in the south region of the country, 80,14% in the southeast and 0,71% in the northeast region. It can be seen that most of the scientific production in psychological assessment comes from the southeast region. It was verified that 60,3% were aimed to search psychometrics parameters and 27,7% had the purpose of using the test to validate intervention protocols, describe specific abilities and study relations between variables, being most of them from transversal studies. The constructs most studied are personality and intelligence and the clinic and the school are the areas of application where the psychological assessment is most used, ac

  2. Análise de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica disponíveis na BVS-PSI Brasil Análisis de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica disponibles en la BVS-PSI Brasil Thesis and dissertations analysis in psychological assessment available in the BVS-PSI Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou verificar a produção científica de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica no Brasil, disponíveis na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil. Foram analisados 141 resumos de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica referentes a estudos que tinham avaliação psicológica, psicometria, validade, precisão e testes psicológicos como palavras-chave. Os resultados revelaram que 54,6% dos resumos eram de dissertações de mestrado, 43,3%, de teses de doutorado, e 2,1% eram de teses de pós-doutorado. Destes, 19,15% foram defendidos em Universidades estabelecidas na Região Sul do País, 80,14%, no Sudeste, e 0,71%, no Nordeste. Pode-se constatar que maior concentração da produção científica de avaliação psicológica fica na Região Sudeste. Verificou-se que 60,3% tinham por objetivo buscar parâmetros psicométricos, e 27,7% tinham a finalidade de utilizar os testes para validar protocolos de intervenção, descrever habilidades específicas e estudar relações entre variáveis, e constituem a maioria dos estudos transversais. Os construtos mais estudados são a personalidade e a inteligência, e as áreas de aplicação em que se utiliza mais avaliação psicológica são a clínica e a escolar, de acordo com os resultados do presente estudo.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la producción científica de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica en Brasil, disponibles en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud de Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil. Fueron analizados 141 resúmenes de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica referentes a estudios que tenían evaluación psicológica, psicometría, validez, precisión y testes psicológicos como palabras-clave. Los resultados revelaron que 54,6% de los resúmenes eran de disertaciones de maestrazgo, 43,3%, de tesis de doctorado, y 2,1% eran de tesis de post-doctorado. De éstos, 19,15% fueron defendidos en Universidades establecidas en la Región Sur del País, 80,14%, en el Sudeste, y 0,71%, en el Nordeste. Se puede constatar que la mayor concentración de la producción científica de evaluación psicológica está localizada en la Región Sudeste. Se verificó que 60,3% tenían por objetivo buscar parámetros psicométricos, y 27,7% tenían la finalidad de utilizar los testes para validar protocolos de intervención, describir habilidades específicas y estudiar relaciones entre variables, y constituyen la mayoría de los estudios transversales. Los constructos más estudiados son la personalidad y la inteligencia, y las áreas de aplicación en la que se utiliza más evaluación psicológica son la clínica y la escolar, de acuerdo con los resultados del presente estudio.The present study aimed to verify the scientific production of the thesis and dissertations in psychological assessment in Brazil, all which are from the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (BVS-Psi Brasil. 141 theses’ and dissertations’ abstracts that referred to studies with psychological assessment, psychometric, validity, reliability and psychological tests as keywords were analyzed. The results showed that 54,6% of the abstracts were from Masters’ dissertations, 43,3% of PhD’s thesis and 2,1% were from post-doctoral thesis. 19,15% of the studies were defended in universities established in the south region of the country, 80,14% in the southeast and 0,71% in the northeast region. It can be seen that most of the scientific production in psychological assessment comes from the southeast region. It was verified that 60,3% were aimed to search psychometrics parameters and 27,7% had the purpose of using the test to validate intervention protocols, describe specific abilities and study relations between variables, being most of them from transversal studies. The constructs most studied are personality and intelligence and the clinic and the school are the areas of application where the psychological assessment is most used, according to the study’s results.

  3. Eficácia das vacinas comercialmente disponíveis contra a infecção pelo papilomavírus em mulheres: revisão sistemática e metanálise / Efficacy of commercially available vaccines against HPV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis / Eficacia de las vacunas disponibles en el mercado contra la infección por papilomavirus en mujeres: revisión sistemática y metaanálisis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Cristina Fonseca de, Araujo; Rosângela, Caetano; Jose Ueleres, Braga; Frances Valéria, Costa e Silva.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Infecção persistente por HPV é condição necessária para ocorrência de câncer do colo de útero. Visando a reduzir sua incidência, foram desenvolvidas vacinas profiláticas contra HPV, existindo duas formulações comercialmente disponíveis: bivalente (subtipos 16 e 18) e quadrivalente (6, 11, 16 e 18). [...] Realizou-se uma metanálise da eficácia dessas vacinas em mulheres, com foco na avaliação estratificada por desfechos clínicos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) publicados entre 2000 e 2009 foram identificados com base em busca no MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane e LILACS, e avaliados por dois revisores independentes. Seis ECR foram incluídos na metanálise. As vacinas reduziram o risco de ocorrência de lesões precursoras da neoplasia, com eficácia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para NIC 2 e 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para NIC 3, nas análises por protocolo. As eficácias nas análises por intenção de tratar foram menores: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) e 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para avaliação de sua eficácia sobre a incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo de útero são necessários estudos com maior tempo de seguimentos. Abstract in spanish La infección persistente por VPH es una condición necesaria para la aparición de cáncer del cuello del útero. Con el fin de reducir la incidencia se han desarrollado vacunas profilácticas contra el VPH, existiendo dos formulaciones disponibles comercialmente: bivalentes (tipos 16, 18) y tetravalente [...] (6, 11, 16 y 18). Se realizó un meta-análisis de la eficacia de estas vacunas en las mujeres, centrándose en la evaluación estratificada por los resultados clínicos. Se identificaron ensayos controlados aleatorios (ECA) publicados entre 2000 y 2009 en las basis MEDLINE, LILACS y Cochrane Library, y evaluados por dos revisores independientes. Seis ECA fueron incluidos. La vacuna reduce el riesgo de las lesiones precursoras del cáncer, con una eficacia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para CIN 2 y 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para CIN 3, en el análisis por protocolo. La eficiencia en el análisis por intención de tratar fue menor: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) y 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para evaluar su efectividad en la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer cervical, se necesitan estudios con un seguimiento más prolongado. Abstract in english Persistent HPV infection is a necessary condition for the occurrence of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been developed to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Two vaccines are commercially available: bivalent (types 16, 18) and quadrivalent (6, 11, 16 and 18). This study aimed to [...] perform a systematic review and metaanalysis of the HPV vaccines' efficacy in women, focusing its performance stratified by clinical outcomes. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published between 2000 and 2009 were identified from searches of MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library, and evaluated by two independent reviewers. Six RCT were selected. The vaccines reduced the risk of precursor lesions of cervical cancer, presenting efficacy of 97% (95%CI: 90-99) for CIN 2 and 96% (95%CI: 89-99) for CIN 3, in the per protocol analysis. The efficacies in the analysis by intention to treat were smaller: 63% (95%CI: 52-71) and 42% (95%CI: 26-55), respectively. In order to evaluate its effectiveness on the incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer, longer-term studies will be needed.

  4. Eficácia das vacinas comercialmente disponíveis contra a infecção pelo papilomavírus em mulheres: revisão sistemática e metanálise / Efficacy of commercially available vaccines against HPV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis / Eficacia de las vacunas disponibles en el mercado contra la infección por papilomavirus en mujeres: revisión sistemática y metaanálisis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Cristina Fonseca de, Araujo; Rosângela, Caetano; Jose Ueleres, Braga; Frances Valéria, Costa e Silva.

    Full Text Available Infecção persistente por HPV é condição necessária para ocorrência de câncer do colo de útero. Visando a reduzir sua incidência, foram desenvolvidas vacinas profiláticas contra HPV, existindo duas formulações comercialmente disponíveis: bivalente (subtipos 16 e 18) e quadrivalente (6, 11, 16 e 18). [...] Realizou-se uma metanálise da eficácia dessas vacinas em mulheres, com foco na avaliação estratificada por desfechos clínicos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) publicados entre 2000 e 2009 foram identificados com base em busca no MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane e LILACS, e avaliados por dois revisores independentes. Seis ECR foram incluídos na metanálise. As vacinas reduziram o risco de ocorrência de lesões precursoras da neoplasia, com eficácia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para NIC 2 e 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para NIC 3, nas análises por protocolo. As eficácias nas análises por intenção de tratar foram menores: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) e 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para avaliação de sua eficácia sobre a incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo de útero são necessários estudos com maior tempo de seguimentos. Abstract in spanish La infección persistente por VPH es una condición necesaria para la aparición de cáncer del cuello del útero. Con el fin de reducir la incidencia se han desarrollado vacunas profilácticas contra el VPH, existiendo dos formulaciones disponibles comercialmente: bivalentes (tipos 16, 18) y tetravalente [...] (6, 11, 16 y 18). Se realizó un meta-análisis de la eficacia de estas vacunas en las mujeres, centrándose en la evaluación estratificada por los resultados clínicos. Se identificaron ensayos controlados aleatorios (ECA) publicados entre 2000 y 2009 en las basis MEDLINE, LILACS y Cochrane Library, y evaluados por dos revisores independientes. Seis ECA fueron incluidos. La vacuna reduce el riesgo de las lesiones precursoras del cáncer, con una eficacia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para CIN 2 y 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para CIN 3, en el análisis por protocolo. La eficiencia en el análisis por intención de tratar fue menor: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) y 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para evaluar su efectividad en la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer cervical, se necesitan estudios con un seguimiento más prolongado. Abstract in english Persistent HPV infection is a necessary condition for the occurrence of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been developed to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Two vaccines are commercially available: bivalent (types 16, 18) and quadrivalent (6, 11, 16 and 18). This study aimed to [...] perform a systematic review and metaanalysis of the HPV vaccines' efficacy in women, focusing its performance stratified by clinical outcomes. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published between 2000 and 2009 were identified from searches of MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library, and evaluated by two independent reviewers. Six RCT were selected. The vaccines reduced the risk of precursor lesions of cervical cancer, presenting efficacy of 97% (95%CI: 90-99) for CIN 2 and 96% (95%CI: 89-99) for CIN 3, in the per protocol analysis. The efficacies in the analysis by intention to treat were smaller: 63% (95%CI: 52-71) and 42% (95%CI: 26-55), respectively. In order to evaluate its effectiveness on the incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer, longer-term studies will be needed.

  5. Caracterización por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas del thinner comercialmente disponible en la ciudad de Cartagena / Characterization by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Commercially Available Thinner in the City of Cartagena / Caracterização por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas do Tíner comercialmente disponível na cidade de Cartagena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson, Maldonado; Katia, Noguera; Jesús, Olivero.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O Tíner é um dos produtos de maior utilização na indústria das pinturas, lubrificantes e colas. Sua composição é variável conforme a seu uso e qualidade. No entanto, a exposição crônica é uma preocupação devido a que pode afetar órgãos principais tais como pulmões, fígados, rins e glândulas suprarre [...] nais. Neste estudo foi caracterizada a composição de várias amostras de Tíner, disponíveis comercialmente na cidade de Cartagena. Doze amostras de Tíner foram recoletadas em diferentes lojas e analisadas por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (GC/MS). Os resultados mostraram que não só a composição, más também a distribuição relativa dos componentes presentes nas amostras são variáveis. Trinta e dois compostos foram detectados, entre os que se encontram: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno e etilbenceno, com frequências de aparição de 91.7, 66.7, 75.0 e 66.7%, respectivamente. O desconhecimento do risco de intoxicação, gerado ao manipular este tipo de misturas, pode ser a causa de muitos dos problemas de saúde em pessoas expostas ao Tíner, tanto nas atividades laborais quanto domésticas. Uma mineração de dados mostrou a associação potencial entre os componentes do Tíner e manifestações clínicas, as quais incluem dano renal e hepático, perda de cabelo, alterações hematológicas, dermatite, ansiedade e problemas de equilíbrio, entre outras. Em conclusão, o Tíner possui grande variabilidade tanto em seus componentes quanto na proporção relativa dos mesmos. Os efeitos prejudiciais na saúde por exposição direta ou indireta a estes componentes têm sido amplamente descritos na literatura. Abstract in spanish El thinner es uno de los productos de mayor utilización en la industria de las pinturas, lubricantes y pegamentos. Su composición es variable de acuerdo con su uso y calidad. Sin embargo, la exposición crónica es una preocupación debido a que puede afectar órganos principales tales como pulmones, hí [...] gado, riñón y glándulas suprarrenales. En este estudio fue caracterizada la composición de varias muestras de thinner, disponibles comercialmente en la ciudad de Cartagena, que fueron recolectadas en diferentes almacenes y analizadas por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Los resultados mostraron que no solo la composición, sino también la distribución relativa de los componentes presentes en las muestras son variables. Treinta y dos compuestos fueron detectados, entre los que se encuentran: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno y etilbenceno, con frecuencias de aparición de 91,7%, 66,7%, 75,0% y 66,7%, respectivamente. El desconocimiento del riesgo de intoxicación, generado al manipular este tipo de mezclas, puede ser la causa de muchos de los problemas de salud en personas expuestas al thinner, tanto en actividades laborales como domésticas. Una minería de datos mostró la asociación potencial entre los componentes del thinner y manifestaciones clínicas, las cuales incluyen daño renal y hepático, pérdida de cabello, alteraciones hematológicas, dermatitis, ansiedad y problemas de equilibrio, entre otras. En conclusión, el thinner posee gran variabilidad tanto en sus componentes como en la proporción relativa de los mismos. Los efectos perjudiciales en la salud por exposición directa o indirecta a estos componentes han sido ampliamente descritos en la literatura. Abstract in english Thinner is a widely used product in the industry of paints, lubricants and adhesives. Its composition varies according to its use and quality. However, its chronic exposure is a concern, because it can affect major organs such as lungs, liver, kidney and the adrenal glands. This study characterizes [...] the composition of several thinner samples commercially available in the city of Cartagena. Twelve samples were collected in different stores, these were then analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that not only the composition but also the rel

  6. Analysis and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology associated with the use of organic coolants in nuclear reactors depends to a large extent on the determination and control of their physical and chemical properties, and particularly on the viability, speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy (depending on the intended usage) of the methods employed in detection and analytical determination. This has led to the study and development of numerous techniques, some specially designed for the extreme conditions involved in working with the types of product in question and others adapted from existing techniques. In the specific case of polyphenyl and hydropolyphenyl mixtures, which have been the principal subjects of study to date and offer greatest promise, the analytical problems are broadly as follows: Composition of initial product or virgin coolant composition of macro components and amounts of organic and inorganic impurities; Coolant during and after operation. Determination of gases and organic compounds produced by pyrolysis and radiolysis (degradation and polymerization products); Control of systems for purifying and regenerating the coolant after use. Dissolved pressurization gases; Detection of intermediate products during decomposition; these are generally very unstable (free radicals); Degree of fouling and film formation. Tests to determine potential formation of films; Corrosion of structural elements and canning materials; Health and safety. Toxicity, inflammability and impurities that can y, inflammability and impurities that can be activated. Although some of the above problems are closely interrelated and entail similar techniques, they vary as to degree of difficulty. Another question is the difficulty of distinguishing clearly between techniques for determining physical and physico-chemical properties, on one hand, and analytical techniques on the other. Any classification is therefore somewhat arbitrary (for example, in the case of dosimetry and techniques for determining mean molecular weights or electrical conductivity). For any analytical technique to be efficient two pre-requisites must be met: The sample must be truly representative; and the results must be available at the time when required. The papers mentioned here are PL-194/3, PL-194/4, PL-194/6, PL-194/7, PL-194/8 and PL-194/11, of which abstracts are given in Section III

  7. Autocontrol technique of combined centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design characteristic of the autocontrol technique of the combined centrifuge is introduced. Digital technique, vary structure control and interface technique, graphical display techniques, digital communication technique as well as electronic technique are applied in the course of research. Automation in the operation of large scale combined centrifuges and the course of combined test has been realized and it can coordinate with other systems of status monitoring, data collecting and centrifugal force-aerodynamic force matched load automatically

  8. Enseignement technique/Technical Training

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Bureautique et techniques administratives/Office Automation & Administrative Techniques - Premiers pas/Getting started - E-Mail - Management Tools - WWW - Applications bureautiques/Office applications

  9. Laser techniques in luminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers the following: laser fluorescence and ionization techniques for combustion; fluorescence spectroscopy for DNA analysis; techniques and applications of two-photon spectroscopy of inorganic solids

  10. Laser techniques in luminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Eastwood, D.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following: laser fluorescence and ionization techniques for combustion; fluorescence spectroscopy for DNA analysis; techniques and applications of two-photon spectroscopy of inorganic solids.

  11. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutanlop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among the scientists of the country to use this technique. The NA and BTD provides service to outside users for research and development purpose and many scientists have availed of this service. (author)

  12. Techniques de hacking

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

  13. Exoplanet Detection Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra A; Laughlin, Greg P; Macintosh, Bruce; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Sahlmann, Johannes; Yee, Jennifer C

    2015-01-01

    We are still in the early days of exoplanet discovery. Astronomers are beginning to model the atmospheres and interiors of exoplanets and have developed a deeper understanding of processes of planet formation and evolution. However, we have yet to map out the full complexity of multi-planet architectures or to detect Earth analogues around nearby stars. Reaching these ambitious goals will require further improvements in instrumentation and new analysis tools. In this chapter, we provide an overview of five observational techniques that are currently employed in the detection of exoplanets: optical and IR Doppler measurements, transit photometry, direct imaging, microlensing, and astrometry. We provide a basic description of how each of these techniques works and discuss forefront developments that will result in new discoveries. We also highlight the observational limitations and synergies of each method and their connections to future space missions.

  14. Monte Carlo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The course of ''Monte Carlo Techniques'' will try to give a general overview of how to build up a method based on a given theory, allowing you to compare the outcome of an experiment with that theory. Concepts related with the construction of the method, such as, random variables, distributions of random variables, generation of random variables, random-based numerical methods, will be introduced in this course. Examples of some of the current theories in High Energy Physics describing the e+e- annihilation processes (QED, Electro-Weak, QCD) will also be briefly introduced. A second step in the employment of this method is related to the detector. The interactions that a particle could have along its way, through the detector as well as the response of the different materials which compound the detector will be quoted in this course. An example of detector at LEP era, in which these techniques are being applied, will close the course. (orig.)

  15. Network acceleration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  16. Endoscopic thyroidectomy: Our technique

    OpenAIRE

    Puntambekar Shailesh; Palep Reshma; Patil Anjali; Rayate Neeraj; Joshi Saurabh; Agarwal Geetanjali; Joshi Milind

    2007-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is widely employed for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Several minimal access approaches to the thyroid gland have been described. The commonly performed surgeries have been endoscopic lobectomies. We have performed endoscopic total thyroidectomy by the anterior chest wall approach. In this study, we have described our technique and evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of this procedure. Materials and Methods: From June 2005 to August 2006, 15 cases of endosc...

  17. Radiation techniques improve rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice is the staple diet for roughly half of mankind. Higher yields and better grain quality, therefore, are of global importance. Plant breeders have demonstrated in recent years that by improving the genetic component, and appropriate application of good agronomic techniques, yields can be multiplied. The genetic potential with regard to other important characters like, early ripening, nutritional value, milling and cooking quality, disease resistance, etc. is still to be exploited. (author)

  18. Parallel MATLAB Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Samsi, Siddharth; Gadepally, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we show why parallel MATLAB is useful, provide a comparison of the different parallel MATLAB choices, and describe a number of applications in Signal and Image Processing: Audio Signal Processing, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Processing and Superconducting Quantum Interference Filters (SQIFs). Each of these applications have been parallelized using different methods (Task parallel and Data parallel techniques). The applications presented may be considered ...

  19. Visual Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Keim, Daniel A.; Ward, Matthew O.

    2002-01-01

    Never before in history has data been generated at such high volumes as it is today. Exploring and analyzing the vast volumes of data has become increasingly difficult. Information visualization and visual data mining can help to deal with the flood of information. The advantage of visual data exploration is that the user is directly involved in the data mining process. There are a large number of information visualization techniques that have been developed over the last two decades to suppo...

  20. VOICE TRANSFORMATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Prakash Katule, B. V. Pathak

    2013-01-01

    Voice transformation is one of the applications in speech processing which involves modification of speech signal of source speaker to a target speaker. This paper describes new techniques for generating speaker-dependent pitch contours for particular short sentences. Here speech signal of source speaker is Neutral speech and speech signal of target speaker is Angry speech. We have proposed 2 transformation algorithms for emotion conversion. The proposed algorithms starts with pitch tracking ...

  1. Novel particle sizing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Two novel approaches to particle size measurement are investigated; these are designated as Particle Movement Displacement Distribution (PMDD) method and Separated Multiple Image Technique (SMIT). An advantage of these methods compared with the established particle sizing methods of Static Light Scattering (SLS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) is that PMDD and SMIT do not suffer from the intensity weighting problem that affects SLS and DLS. The performance of the PMDD method is examine...

  2. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Lubrano, E.; Spadaro, A.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA) include radiography, ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis) with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes). US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In...

  3. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David V. (Pittsburgh, PA); Baranwal, Rita (Glenshaw, PA)

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  4. Advanced Techniques in {XSLT}

    OpenAIRE

    Hufflen, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    This talk focuses on some advanced techniques used within XSLT, such as sort procedures, keys, interface with identifier management, and priority rules among templates matching an XML node. We recall how these features work and propose some examples, some being related to bibliography styles. A short comparison between XSLT and nbst, the language used within MlBibTeX for bibliography styles, is given, too.

  5. COMPUTER ASSISTED AUDIT TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    ION LUNGU; TEODORA V?TUIU

    2007-01-01

    Today, the environment based on informatics influences continuously auditors’ work, because it creates new opportunities and new risks, additional rules in what concerns security, fairness and acceptable margin of error. The growth of the systems’ complexity, especially the informatics accounting Systems of ERP type (Enterprise Resource Planning), so as the large volume of transactions registered at present have lead to the replacement of the „manual”, classic audit techniques with modern tec...

  6. Forming techniques and procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronde-Oustau, F.

    1980-09-01

    Several forming techniques are discussed including: (1) cooling stamping and swaging tools by the "Caloduc' methods; (2) non-burr stamping (stamping in a closed die); (3) continuous casting; (4) orbital forging; and (5) plastic deformation and spheroidal graphite iron. In addition, the subject of superplasticity is discussed in some detail, and brief consideration is given to precision forging, forging die castings, sintered forging, squeeze casting, ausforming, magnetoforming, and ultrasonic forming.

  7. Management of science technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book mentions change of environment and management of technique, business environment in information age technology and management such as classification of technology, innovation of technology and meaning of technology management, item innovation and technology about meaning of item development, innovation and item development, creation of item concept and item development, process of product innovation, product activity, product innovation product innovation and technology, development of product innovation, technology and marketing innovation, innovation of skill of marketing information system and globalization.

  8. Personal knowledge techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Nicholas Ross

    2003-01-01

    Work towards the development of a new computer-assisted methodology for psychological study and intervention is described. This is referred to as the Personal Knowledge Methodology since it focuses on the elicitation and presentation of personal knowledge. Personal knowledge includes the knowledge individuals have of their life history, their behaviours, their moods, their relationships, their ambitions, and so on. Principles and techniques used in Knowledge Engineering form the basis of the ...

  9. Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

  10. Anaerobic treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This practical and theoretical guide presents the current state of knowledge in anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents with a high organic pollutant load and sewage sludges resulting from the treatment of municipal and industrial waste water. Starting from the microbiological bases of anaerobic degradation processes including a description and critical evaluation of executed plants, the book evolves the process-technical bases of anaerobic treatment techniques, derives relative applications, and discusses these with reference to excuted examples. (orig./UWA). 232 figs

  11. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  12. Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the modern point of view, audit takes intoaccount especially the information systems representingmainly the examination performed by a professional asregards the manner for developing an activity by means ofcomparing it to the quality criteria specific to this activity.Having as reference point this very general definition ofauditing, it must be emphasized that the best known segmentof auditing is the financial audit that had a parallel evolutionto the accountancy one.The present day phase of developing the financial audithas as main trait the internationalization of the accountantprofessional. World wide there are multinational companiesthat offer services in the financial auditing, taxing andconsultancy domain. The auditors, natural persons and auditcompanies, take part at the works of the national andinternational authorities for setting out norms in theaccountancy and auditing domain.The computer assisted audit techniques can be classified inseveral manners according to the approaches used by theauditor. The most well-known techniques are comprised inthe following categories: testing data techniques, integratedtest, parallel simulation, revising the program logics,programs developed upon request, generalized auditsoftware, utility programs and expert systems.

  13. Potentiel de production de biogaz à partir de résidus agricoles ou de cultures dédiées en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Almansour, Jean-François Bonnet et Manuel Heredia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Et si on destinait une part importante des résidus agricoles à la production de biogaz ? Encore faut-il évaluer les ressources mobilisables, les taux de résidus disponibles, les moyens de collecte permettant la production ainsi que les rendements envisageables en fonction des cultures utilisées. L'étude présentée ici laisse entrevoir un potentiel important largement sous-estimé.

  14. Coding techniques for Vlasov simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review article summarizes coding techniques of Vlasov simulations for fusion plasmas. Numerical methods, parallelization models, and optimization techniques are explained both for local flux tube and global gyrokinetic Vlasov (or Eulerian) codes. Advanced coding techniques such as the shared cache optimization on multi-core platforms and the communication overlap techniques are also presented. (J.P.N.)

  15. Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 2): Transferencias nerviosas intraplexuales / Nerve Reconstruction Techniques in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Surgery (Part 2): Intraplexal nerve transfers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; D., Robla-Costales; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nervio [...] sa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc., para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En una primera entrega se analizaron las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales; este trabajo viene a complementar al anterior revisando las transferencias intraplexuales, y así completando el análisis de las transferencias nerviosas disponibles en la cirugía del plexo braquial. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in rec

  16. Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collabora- tion avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  17. Endoscopic thyroidectomy: Our technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puntambekar Shailesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive surgery is widely employed for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Several minimal access approaches to the thyroid gland have been described. The commonly performed surgeries have been endoscopic lobectomies. We have performed endoscopic total thyroidectomy by the anterior chest wall approach. In this study, we have described our technique and evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of this procedure. Materials and Methods: From June 2005 to August 2006, 15 cases of endoscopic thyroidectomy were done at our institute. Five patients were male and 10 were female. Mean age was 45 years. (Range 23 to 71 years. Four patients had multinodular goiter and underwent near-total thyroidectomy; four patients had follicular adenoma and underwent hemithyroidectomy. Out of the seven patients of papillary carcinoma, four were low-risk and so a hemithyroidectomy was performed while three patients in the high risk group underwent total thyroidectomy. A detailed description of the surgical technique is provided. Results : The mean nodule size was 48 mm (range 20-80 mm and the mean operating time was 85 min (range 60-120 min. In all cases, the recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified and preserved intact, the superior and inferior parathyroids were also identified in all patients. No patients required conversion to an open cervicotomy. All patients were discharged the day after surgery. All thyroidectomies were completed successfully. No recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies or postoperative tetany occurred. The postoperative course was significantly less painful and all patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Conclusions : It is possible to remove large nodules and perform as well as total thyroidectomies using our endoscopic approach. It is a safe and effective technique in the hands of an appropriately trained surgeon. The patients get a cosmetic benefit without any morbidity.

  18. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  19. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  20. Multimodality imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sopena, Ramón; Bartumeus, Paula; Sopena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In multimodality imaging, the need to combine morphofunctional information can be approached by either acquiring images at different times (asynchronous), and fused them through digital image manipulation techniques or simultaneously acquiring images (synchronous) and merging them automatically. The asynchronous post-processing solution presents various constraints, mainly conditioned by the different positioning of the patient in the two scans acquired at different times in separated machines. The best solution to achieve consistency in time and space is obtained by the synchronous image acquisition. There are many multimodal technologies in molecular imaging. In this review we will focus on those multimodality image techniques more commonly used in the field of diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, PET-CT) and new developments (as PET-MR). The technological innovations and development of new tracers and smart probes are the main key points that will condition multimodality image and diagnostic imaging professionals' future. Although SPECT-CT and PET-CT are standard in most clinical scenarios, MR imaging has some advantages, providing excellent soft-tissue contrast and multidimensional functional, structural and morphological information. The next frontier is to develop efficient detectors and electronics systems capable of detecting two modality signals at the same time. Not only PET-MR but also MR-US or optic-PET will be introduced in clinical scenarios. Even more, MR diffusion-weighted, pharmacokinetic imaging, spectroscopy or functional BOLD imaging will merge with PET tracers to further increase molecular imaging as a relevant medical discipline. Multimodality imaging techniques will play a leading role in relevant clinical applications. The development of new diagnostic imaging research areas, mainly in the field of oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry, will impact the way medicine is performed today. Both clinical and experimental multimodality studies, in humans and animals, will have to demonstrate an efficient use of the imaging information provided by the modalities to affect the future of medical imaging. PMID:20812286

  1. Instrumentation and counting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma sample counters, liquid scintillation sample counters, gamma ray external counters (surface counters or probes), and imaging equipment in the form of scintillation camera and rectilinear scanner are discussed in relation to haematological in vitro and in vivo techniques. Only two types of emission from radionuclides used in haematology are considered, gamma-(or gamma-like) emissions from 15 keV to 1500 keV, and beta emissions. Generally speaking, gamma ray emissions are counted or imaged using NaI(T1) detector and the beta emitters are counted with liquid scintillation detectors. (UK)

  2. DNA Microarray Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakare SP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

  3. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  4. Infiltration technique modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Dairon, Jonathan; Gaillard, Yves; Tissier, Jean-Charles; Balloy, David; Degallaix, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Casting techniques, which consist in infiltrating a porous network by a metal, enable to make cheap metal foams with very regular cell shape. To make a right foamed part, the pouring device has to be sized with a number of gates sufficient to fill completely the porous network before metal solidification. Nevertheless, the number of gates must be as low as possible for economical reasons. As a consequence, it is necessary to estimate the length of network that can be infiltrated from one gate...

  5. Monopulse principles and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Samuel M

    2011-01-01

    Monopulse is a type of radar that sends additional information in the signal in order to avoid problems caused by rapid changes in signal strength. Monopulse is resistant to jamming which is one of the main reasons it is used in most radar systems today. This updated and expanded edition of an Artech House classic offers you a current and comprehensive treatment of monopulse radar principles, techniques, and applications. The Second Edition features two brand new chapters, covering monopulse countermeasures and counter-countermeasures and monopulse for airborne radar and homing seekers.This es

  6. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubrano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  7. Image Improvement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, R. A.

    1997-05-01

    Over the last decade, a repertoire of techniques have been developed and/or refined to improve the quality of high spatial resolution solar movies taken from ground based observatories. These include real time image motion corrections, frame selection, phase diversity measurements of the wavefront, and extensive post processing to partially remove atmospheric distortion. Their practical application has been made possible by the increasing availability and decreasing cost of large CCD's with fast digital readouts and high speed computer workstations with large memories. Most successful have been broad band (0.3 to 10 nm) filtergram movies which can use exposure times of 10 to 30 ms, short enough to ``freeze'' atmospheric motions. Even so, only a handful of movies with excellent image quality for more than a hour have been obtained to date. Narrowband filtergrams (about 0.01 nm), such as those required for constructing magnetograms and Dopplergrams, have been more challenging although some single images approach the quality of the best continuum images. Some promising new techniques and instruments, together with persistence and good luck, should continue the progress made in the last several years.

  8. [Neuromodulation - new techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, K; van Ophoven, A

    2015-03-01

    Neuromodulative procedures have become an inherent component in the therapy of functional urinary bladder and pelvic floor function disorders. Sacral neuromodulation has been used in Germany for more than 20 years and reresents the standard neuromodulative therapy. Technical improvements in the field of test stimulation and the phasing out of the large pulse generator models represent current changes with the resulting advantages and disadvantages. Pudendal neuromodulation (PNM) has been known for many years as a procedure for treatment of chronic diseases of the urinary bladder and the lesser pelvis and is predominantly used as second-line neuromodulative therapy; however, for pelvic pain syndromes and in particular for pudendal neuralgia, it represents a promising minimally invasive first-line therapy. Due to the technically demanding puncture procedure, PNM has so far only been used in Germany in specialized centers. Through the development of new operation techniques, the prerequisites for a wider multicentric use, with the future aim of approval of the procedure, have been achieved. External transdermal pudendal neuromodulation is a promising therapeutic approach and after further testing in randomized studies could find an application as a conservative step before minimally invasive pudendal neuromodulation. Although the technique of laparoscopic electrode placement on neural structures of the lesser pelvis is technically attractive, it predominantly finds a monocentric use and must in due course be critically compared with established minimally invasive procedures. PMID:25784446

  9. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  10. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  11. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

  12. ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S) FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Akwasi Asamoah; Charles Antwi-Boasiako; Kwasi Frimpong-Mensah

    2013-01-01

    : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effecti...

  13. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid nitrogen operations include cutting of both soft and hard materials. While the laser will not cut materials, it can be used to roughen surfaces and to remove other materials from the substrate including oil, grease, and mold. The space program can benefit from several of these applications with the need for precise removal of coatings and other organic compounds in areas adjacent to sensitive space flight hardware. Significant advantages are evident when comparing liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations over current techniques of media blasting and sanding.

  14. Aplicación de las técnicas de biología molecular en oncología oral Application of molecular biology techniques in oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López-Durán

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de revisión se propone exponer las principales técnicas de biología molecular disponibles actualmente para los investigadores, en el campo del cáncer y precáncer oral, clasificadas según el tipo de material biológico del que se disponga para iniciar la investigación. Éste puede ser ADN, ARN o proteínas. La explicación de cada técnica comprenderá una breve sistemática del proceso, así como sus ventajas, inconvenientes y estado de actividad actual. Todo ello con la finalidad de esclarecer las aplicaciones, pronto indispensables, de las técnicas más destacadas, en el diagnóstico precoz, pronóstico y tratamiento individualizado del carcinoma oral. Entre las técnicas más útiles en este proceso se encuentran: la electroforesis en gel, las técnicas de hibridación, la tecnología microarray, los biochips, la PCR convencional, la cuantitativa o la transcriptasa inversa, las técnicas de Southern, Northern y Western blot, la secuenciación de ADN, la clonación de genes, la inmunohistoquímica, el ensayo ELISA y la citometría de flujo. Destacan en particular por su gran utilidad, la tecnología microarray, los biochips y la PCR.This article summarizes the main techniques in the area of molecular biology that are available for the investigation of oral cancer and precancer. They have been classified depending on the biological material we expect to analyze, which can be DNA, RNA or proteins. The explanation for each technique includes a brief description of its basics, as well as some advantages, drawbacks and current use of the technique. Our aim is to throw light on the applications of these techniques, soon indispensable for most studies, in the early diagnosis, prognosis and individualized treatment of oral carcinoma. The most useful techniques for this objective are nowadays: gel electrophoresis, hybridation, microarray technology, biochips, PCR (conventional, quantitative or reverse transcriptase, Southern, Northern and Western blot studies, DNA sequenciation, cloning, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and flow citrometry. Some techniques that deserve a special mention due to their greater usefulness in the area of oral cancer are microarray technology, biochips and PCR.

  15. Data flow modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavi, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    There have been a number of simulation packages developed for the purpose of designing, testing and validating computer systems, digital systems and software systems. Complex analytical tools based on Markov and semi-Markov processes have been designed to estimate the reliability and performance of simulated systems. Petri nets have received wide acceptance for modeling complex and highly parallel computers. In this research data flow models for computer systems are investigated. Data flow models can be used to simulate both software and hardware in a uniform manner. Data flow simulation techniques provide the computer systems designer with a CAD environment which enables highly parallel complex systems to be defined, evaluated at all levels and finally implemented in either hardware or software. Inherent in data flow concept is the hierarchical handling of complex systems. In this paper we will describe how data flow can be used to model computer system.

  16. Hymenoptera marking technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. M., Pereira; J., Chaud-Netto.

    Full Text Available In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment ther [...] e are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

  17. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  18. Techniques virales avancées

    CERN Document Server

    Filiol, Éric

    2007-01-01

    Cet ouvrage traite de techniques avancées de la virologie informatique selon une double perspective: l'analyse de la défense antivirale et les différentes phases d'une attaque à l'aide d'un code malveillant. Le point de vue adopté est celui de l'attaquant dans la mesure où c'est le seul qui permet réellement à celui qui a la responsabilité de défendre un système, de comprendre ce qui peut se passer et d'envisager les solutions à mettre en œuvre. L'approche retenue fait intervenir l'utilisation de systèmes booléens originaux, la théorie de la complexité et la théorie de la calculabilité. À part

  19. New vitrification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has developed a new direct-induction cold-crucible glass melting technique to the industrial stage. Process equipment is no longer subject to previous limitations on the glass melting temperature and capacity, making it possible in future facilities to vitrify not only high-level but also low- and intermediate-level liquid wastes. In the new vitrification facilities the liquid evaporation capacity has been increased by adding a head-end concentration step prior to calcining, and by increasing the calciner evaporation capacity. Vitrification furnace performance has been enhanced by increasing the melting capacity as well as the melting temperature to produce a wider range of glass formulations. Consequently, liquid waste vitrification now includes two types of facilities for high-level wastes and for low-to intermediate-level wastes

  20. Nuclear techniques in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear physics has played a large role in medical treatment and diagnosis, from the technologies used in nuclear physics experiments to nuclear reactions. Particle detector technology from experimental nuclear and particle physics is the basis of the various tomographic imaging modalities such as: the radioactive tracers used in nuclear medicine result from neutron induced reactions using nuclear reactor facilities; cyclotron production of short-lived isotopes which allows metabolism of brain and cardiac tissue to be measured; in-vivo neutron activation analysis which allows the measurement of trace elements in the body. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate some of those techniques such as, particle-beam treatments, neutron activation analyses, magnetic resonance imaging, and the physics involved. 5 figs., 1 tab., ills

  1. Micro- and Nanofabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermon, C.

    This chapter is intended to give readers a brief overview of the numerous techniques involved in the fabrication of small magnetic devices. Until recently there has been a wide distinction between semi-conductor engineering and metallic and magnetic devices fabrication, the main reason being due to the huge investments in terms of money and manpower devoted to semiconductors rather than real technical limitations. With the advent of spin electronics, the number of metal and magnetic devices are increasing and in some instances, semiconductor and magnetic device fabrication have started to merge and are currently the topic of intensive research in some areas (e.g. in MRAMs). In the future it is anticipated, that metal and magnetic devices will be further employed at an accelerated pace in the electronics and computing sectors due to their inherent advantages, e.g. smaller, faster, more powerful non-volatile memories.

  2. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  3. Nondestructive Acoustic Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Volker

    Acoustic imaging techniques are used in the field of nondestructive testing of technical components to measure defects such as lack of side wall fusion or cracks in welded joints. Data acquisition is performed by a remote-controlled manipulator and a PC for the mass storage of the high-frequency time-of-flight data at each probe position. The quality of the acoustic images and the interpretation relies on the proper understanding of the transmitted wave fronts and the arrangement of the probes in pulse-echo mode or in pitch-and-catch arrangement. The use of the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique allows the depth-dependent resolution to be replaced by a depth-independent resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio to be improved. Examples with surface-connected cracks are shown to demonstrate the improved features. The localization accuracy could be improved by entering 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional reconstructed data into the environment of a 3-dimensional CAD drawing. The propagation of ultrasonic waves through austenitic welds is disturbed by the anisotropic and inhomogeneous structure of the material. The effect is more or less severe depending upon the longitudinal or shear wave modes. To optimize the performance of an inspection software tool, a 3-dimensional CAD-Ray program has been implemented, where the shape of the inhomogeneous part of a weld can be simulated together with the grain structure based on the elastic constants. Ray-tracing results are depicted for embedded and for surface-connected defects.

  4. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy; Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction; Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other; Deriving contours for planning teletherapy; Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit; Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs; Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  5. Geological data integration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

  6. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy. Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction. Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other. Deriving contours for planning teletherapy. Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit. Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs. Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  7. Survey of Nearest Neighbor Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Bhatia; Vandana

    2010-01-01

    The nearest neighbor (NN) technique is very simple, highly efficient and effective in the field of pattern recognition, text categorization, object recognition etc. Its simplicity is its main advantage, but the disadvantages can't be ignored even. The memory requirement and computation complexity also matter. Many techniques are developed to overcome these limitations. NN techniques are broadly classified into structure less and structure based techniques. In this paper, we ...

  8. Steganalysis: Detecting LSB Steganographic Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Sanyal, Sugata

    2014-01-01

    Steganalysis means analysis of stego images. Like cryptanalysis, steganalysis is used to detect messages often encrypted using secret key from stego images produced by steganography techniques. Recently lots of new and improved steganography techniques are developed and proposed by researchers which require robust steganalysis techniques to detect the stego images having minimum false alarm rate. This paper discusses about the different Steganalysis techniques and help to un...

  9. Comparison of some classification techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, P. L.; Duran, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    The so-called table look-up classification procedure and a modification of it are discussed. These and several other classification techniques are evaluated and simulation results comparing some of the techniques are displayed. Indications are that the table look-up technique is quite useful in classifying large sets of data, such as in remote sensing data analysis.

  10. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  11. Improved Search Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  12. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  13. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  14. Sample preparation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, W A; Hill, V A

    1993-12-01

    Evidentiary false positives are caused by passive exposure to drugs in the environment rather than by active use of drugs. The avoidance of such positives is essential for both hair and urine analysis. Hair analysis enjoys the advantage over urinalysis in having a number of approaches for making this distinction. These include: methylene blue staining of the hair specimen for selecting the appropriate wash solvent; application of hair digestion techniques for the complete release of chemically unaltered analytes; the determination of three diagnostic ratios from wash and digestion data; the measurement of metabolite:drug ratios; the use of cut-off levels setting the limits for passive endogenous drug exposure; reproducibility of results (including segmental analysis) with a newly collected hair specimen; and the reporting of results as either negative, positive, or contaminated. Our sample preparation procedures have been effectively applied to the analyses of nearly 200,000 specimens, i.e. to approximately one million drug analyses for cocaine, opiates, methamphetamine, phencyclidine or marijuana. On the basis of this experience we conclude that hair analysis is a safe and effective method for workplace drug testing. PMID:8138215

  15. Survey of Nearest Neighbor Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    The nearest neighbor (NN) technique is very simple, highly efficient and effective in the field of pattern recognition, text categorization, object recognition etc. Its simplicity is its main advantage, but the disadvantages can't be ignored even. The memory requirement and computation complexity also matter. Many techniques are developed to overcome these limitations. NN techniques are broadly classified into structure less and structure based techniques. In this paper, we present the survey of such techniques. Weighted kNN, Model based kNN, Condensed NN, Reduced NN, Generalized NN are structure less techniques whereas k-d tree, ball tree, Principal Axis Tree, Nearest Feature Line, Tunable NN, Orthogonal Search Tree are structure based algorithms developed on the basis of kNN. The structure less method overcome memory limitation and structure based techniques reduce the computational complexity.

  16. Aplicación de las técnicas de biología molecular en oncología oral / Application of molecular biology techniques in oral cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., López-Durán; J., Campo-Trapero; J., Cano-Sánchez; R., Díez-Pérez; A., Bascones-Martínez.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de revisión se propone exponer las principales técnicas de biología molecular disponibles actualmente para los investigadores, en el campo del cáncer y precáncer oral, clasificadas según el tipo de material biológico del que se disponga para iniciar la investigación. Éste puede ser ADN [...] , ARN o proteínas. La explicación de cada técnica comprenderá una breve sistemática del proceso, así como sus ventajas, inconvenientes y estado de actividad actual. Todo ello con la finalidad de esclarecer las aplicaciones, pronto indispensables, de las técnicas más destacadas, en el diagnóstico precoz, pronóstico y tratamiento individualizado del carcinoma oral. Entre las técnicas más útiles en este proceso se encuentran: la electroforesis en gel, las técnicas de hibridación, la tecnología microarray, los biochips, la PCR convencional, la cuantitativa o la transcriptasa inversa, las técnicas de Southern, Northern y Western blot, la secuenciación de ADN, la clonación de genes, la inmunohistoquímica, el ensayo ELISA y la citometría de flujo. Destacan en particular por su gran utilidad, la tecnología microarray, los biochips y la PCR. Abstract in english This article summarizes the main techniques in the area of molecular biology that are available for the investigation of oral cancer and precancer. They have been classified depending on the biological material we expect to analyze, which can be DNA, RNA or proteins. The explanation for each techniq [...] ue includes a brief description of its basics, as well as some advantages, drawbacks and current use of the technique. Our aim is to throw light on the applications of these techniques, soon indispensable for most studies, in the early diagnosis, prognosis and individualized treatment of oral carcinoma. The most useful techniques for this objective are nowadays: gel electrophoresis, hybridation, microarray technology, biochips, PCR (conventional, quantitative or reverse transcriptase), Southern, Northern and Western blot studies, DNA sequenciation, cloning, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and flow citrometry. Some techniques that deserve a special mention due to their greater usefulness in the area of oral cancer are microarray technology, biochips and PCR.

  17. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  18. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  19. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  20. ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwasi Asamoah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

  1. Practical hacking techniques and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Examining computer security from the hacker''s perspective, Practical Hacking Techniques and Countermeasures employs virtual computers to illustrate how an attack is executed, including the script, compilation, and results. It provides detailed screen shots in each lab for the reader to follow along in a step-by-step process in order to duplicate and understand how the attack works. It enables experimenting with hacking techniques without fear of corrupting computers or violating any laws.Written in a lab manual style, the book begins with the installation of the VMware® Workstation product and guides the users through detailed hacking labs enabling them to experience what a hacker actually does during an attack. It covers social engineering techniques, footprinting techniques, and scanning tools. Later chapters examine spoofing techniques, sniffing techniques, password cracking, and attack tools. Identifying wireless attacks, the book also explores Trojans, Man-in-the-Middle (MTM) attacks, and Denial of S...

  2. Electronic Payment Fraud Detection Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Al-khatib, Adnan M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the fraudulent transactions that occur in electronic payment systems. We evaluate various techniques that can be used in detecting fraudulent transactions of card-not-present payment systems. The presented evaluation based on the literature, and from our own studies for these techniques. It provides a basis for exploring the common ground between techniques and for analyzing experimental studies and scenarios in practice.

  3. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØtter-Jensen, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  5. Background Subtraction Techniques-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti,; Tejinder Thind,

    2013-01-01

    Background subtraction approach is used to detect the moving object from background. Different methods have been proposed to detect object motion by using different background subtraction techniques over recent years. Each technique has its own benefits and limitations such as some techniques can only applied for static background and some for dynamic backgrounds. This paper provides review of main methods used to detect foreground object with its merits and demerits. It would help the resear...

  6. Search Techniques for Code Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gvero, Tihomir

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation explores techniques that synthesize and generate program fragments and test inputs. The main goal of these techniques is to improve and support automation in program synthesis and test input generation. This is important because performing those processes manually is often tedious, time consuming and error prone. The main challenge that these techniques face is exploring the search space in efficient and scalable ways. In the first part of the dissertation, we present tools ...

  7. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Tilp; Michael Rindler

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Si...

  8. Informationization nuclear apparatus communication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explains the request of communication ability in nuclear technique application area. Based on the actuality of nuclear apparatus communication ability, and mainly combining with the development of communication technique, the authors analyzes the application trend of communication technique applying in nuclear apparatus, for the apparatus and system needing communication ability, they need selecting suitable communication means to make them accomplish the task immediately and effectively. (authors)

  9. Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Atilla Alpay; Suat Hayri Ugurbas; Berktug Erdogan

    2009-01-01

    Atilla Alpay, Suat Hayri Ugurbas, Berktug ErdoganDepartment of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TurkeyPurpose: To compare various techniques of pterygium surgery including bare sclera, intraoperative mitomycin C application, conjunctival flap reconstruction, and conjunctival autografting technique.Methods: This study is designed to compare 4 currently used techniques in order to determine the complication and recurrence rates after pterygium exis...

  10. The Delphi technique: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C M

    1987-11-01

    The development of the Delphi technique, as a survey method of research, and examples of its use are described. The technique's key characteristics, anonymity, use of experts and controlled feedback, are examined. The method's usefulness in structuring group communication for the discussion of specific issues and as an aid to policy making is discussed in the light of the technique's perceived drawbacks and limitations. PMID:3320139

  11. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2006-01-01

    Only book on Permanent Scatterer technique of radar interferometryExplains the Permanent Scatterer technique in detail, possible pitfalls, and details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS techniqueThe use of Permanent Scatterer allows very precise measurements of the displacement of hundreds of points per square kilometerDescribes the only technique currently able to perform displacement measurements in the past, utilizing the ERS satellite data archive using data acquired from 1992-presentShows how to interpret

  12. Optical techniques in regenerative medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, tissue engineers largely rely on destructive and time-consuming techniques that do not allow in situ and spatial monitoring of tissue growth. Furthermore, once the therapy is implanted in the patient, clinicians are often unable to monitor what is happening in the body. To tackle these barriers, optical techniques have been developed to image and characterize many tissue properties, fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, and characterize the properties of the scaffolds. Optical Techniques in Regenerative Medicine illustrates how to use optical imaging techniques and

  13. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  14. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  15. Algorithms Design Techniques and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alsuwaiyel, M H

    1999-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential part of every scientific discipline. It has two components: (1) problem identification and formulation, and (2) solution of the formulated problem. One can solve a problem on its own using ad hoc techniques or follow those techniques that have produced efficient solutions to similar problems. This requires the understanding of various algorithm design techniques, how and when to use them to formulate solutions and the context appropriate for each of them. This book advocates the study of algorithm design techniques by presenting most of the useful algorithm desi

  16. Visualization Techniques in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Viet Nga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is an established methodology in scientific computing. It has been used in many fields because of its strong capability in large data management and information display. However, its applications in power systems, especially in Smart Grid are still in infancy stage. Besides, while there were a lot of researches working on visualizing data in transmission power system, the study on displaying distribution power system data was limited. Therefore, in this paper, author proposed some techniques to visualize the Smart Grid data at distribution. They are classified in three categories, which are low dimensional techniques, multivariate high dimensional techniques and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.

  17. Non-contact ultrasound techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-contact ultrasound plays significant role in material characterisation and inspection. Unlike conventional ultrasonic techniques, non-contact ultrasonic is mostly applicable to areas where the former has its weaknesses and limitations. It is interesting to note that the non-contact ultrasonic technique has an important significant application in industry. The technique is signified by the fact that the object to be inspected is further away from the ultrasonic source, no couplant is needed and inconsistent pressure between the transducer and the specimen can be eliminated. The paper discusses some of the non-contact ultrasound technique and its applications. (Author)

  18. Diagnostic tests in HIV management: a review of clinical and laboratory strategies to monitor HIV-infected individuals in developing countries / Tests diagnostiques et prise en charge des infections à VIH: revue des méthodes cliniques et analytiques permettant le suivi des personnes contaminées dans les pays en développement / Pruebas diagnósticas en el manejo de la infección por VIH: estudio de las estrategias clínicas y de laboratorio empleadas para controlar a las personas infectadas por el VIH en los países en desarrollo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    April D, Kimmel; Elena, Losina; Kenneth A, Freedberg; Sue J, Goldie.

    2006-07-10

    Full Text Available Realizamos una revisión sistemática de la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas como medio de seguimiento clínico y de laboratorio de las personas infectadas por el VIH en los países en desarrollo. La información sobre pruebas diagnósticas reunida a partir de bases de datos computadorizadas, de las p [...] ublicaciones y de Internet se clasificó como clínica (información sobre los pacientes distinta de los datos de laboratorio), inmunológica (información sobre pruebas inmunológicas) o virológica (información sobre pruebas virológicas). De los 51 estudios seleccionados para la revisión, 28 evaluaron pruebas inmunológicas, 12 pruebas virológicas, y 7 pruebas clínicas e inmunológicas. Los métodos de evaluación de la eficacia fueron principalmente la sensibilidad y la especificidad en el caso de las pruebas clínicas, y los coeficientes de correlación en el caso de las pruebas inmunológicas y virológicas. Entre las primeras, la mayoría de las medidas de eficacia de las pruebas revelaron una sensibilidad superior al 70% y una especificidad superior al 65%. En la categoría de pruebas inmunológicas, los coeficientes de correlación oscilaron entre 0,54 y 0,99 para diferentes técnicas de recuento de CD4, mientras que la correlación (r) entre los recuentos de CD4 y de linfocitos totales se situó entre 0,23 y 0,74. En cuanto a las pruebas virológicas, los coeficientes de correlación para diferentes técnicas de cuantificación del ARN del VIH fueron de entre 0,54 y 0,90. A la hora de realizar nuevas investigaciones en el futuro, será necesario consensuar el diseño de los estudios, y reunir y notificar datos de utilidad para las instancias decisorias. Recomendamos clasificar la información en categorías clínicamente pertinentes, utilizar una definición coherente de enfermedad en todos los estudios, y proporcionar medidas tanto de asociación como de exactitud. Abstract in english We conducted a systematic review on the performance of diagnostic tests for clinical and laboratory monitoring of HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Diagnostic test information collected from computerized databases, bibliographies and the Internet were categorized as clinical (non-laborato [...] ry patient information), immunologic (information from immunologic laboratory tests), or virologic (information from virologic laboratory tests). Of the 51 studies selected for the review 28 assessed immunologic tests, 12 virologic tests and seven clinical and immunologic tests. Methods of performance evaluation were primarily sensitivity and specificity for the clinical category and correlation coefficients for immunologic and virologic categories. In the clinical category, the majority of test performance measures was reported as >70% sensitive and >65% specific. In the immunologic category, correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.99 for different CD4 count enumeration techniques, while correlation for CD4 and total lymphocyte counts was between r = 0.23 and r = 0.74. In the virologic category, correlation coefficients for different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) quantification techniques ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.90. Future research requires consensus on designing studies, and collecting and reporting data useful for decision-makers. We recommend classifying information into clinically relevant categories, using a consistent definition of disease across studies and providing measures of both association and accuracy.

  19. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    Provost David L. Potter of George Mason University chaired a joint task force and presented a report entitled ``Powerful Partnerships : A Shared Responsibility for Learnin'' in June 1998. The main goal is to make a difference in the quality of student learning. Further, it is important to assess this difference and document it. Clifford O. Young, Sr., & Laura Howzell Young of California State University, San Bernardino argue that a new paradigm for assessment, a learning paradigm, must be constructed to measure the success of new kinds of educational practices. Using two survey instruments, the Instruction Model Learning Model Questionnaire (IMLMQ) and the Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness (SETE), they compared students' responses to the course when taught with traditional methods and with interactive methods. The results suggest that neither instrument effectively measures the kinds of learning promoted under the new paradigm. Linn, Baker, & Dunbar recommend that these newer assessment practices should be more authentic, that is, to involve students in the actual or simulated performance of a task or the documentation of the desired competency in a portfolio. Cerbin says that one of the most unfortunate consequences of a summative emphasis is that it inhibits open and productive discussions about teaching; in essence, it marginalizes the types of activity that could lead to better teaching (Cerbin, 1992). William Cerbin, who is the Director of the Center for Effective Teaching and learning, University Assessment Coordinator, and Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse is a recognized expert in the areas of cognition, language, and development. Edgerton, Hutchings, & Quinlan indicate that Teaching Portfolios may contain evidence of students' learning, but such information is optional, and when included, it may be only one of many pieces of material. Seldin, also supports this and stresses that the interplay between the instructor and the learner should be carefully observed and monitored. Forrest says that Student Portfolios, which document learning in more detail, seldom reveal how teaching contributes to students' progress. Cerbin further indicates that a course portfolio is essentially, a like a manuscript of scholarly work in progress. In this example, it is a work that explains what, how, and why students learn or do not learn in a course. In this paper, the author reports on a dozen techniques that could perhaps be used to document assessment of student learning. References : Cerbin, W. (1993). Fostering a culture of teaching as scholarship. The Teaching Professor, 7(3), 1-2. Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P., & Quinlan, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: Capturing the scholarship in teaching. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Forrest, A. (1990). Time will tell: Portfolio-assisted assessment of general education. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Linn, R., Baker, E., & Dunbar, S. (1991). Complex, Performance-based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Educational Researcher, 20 (8), 15-21. Narayanan, M. (2003). Assessment in Higher Education: Partnerships in Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio. Bolton, MA: Anker. Young, C. O., Sr., & Young, L. H. (1999). Assessing Learning in Interactive Courses. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10 (1), 63-76.

  20. Utilidad de las técnicas de imagen en el hiperparatiroidismo secundario / Usefulness of imaging techniques in secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Vicente, Torregrosa; I., Félez; D., Fuster.

    Full Text Available En los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica que desarrollan hiperparatiroidismo secundario (HPTS), las técnicas de imagen pueden ser de utilidad, fundamentalmente para valorar la localización, el tamaño y el funcionalismo de las glándulas paratiroides. Esta revisión valora las técnicas de imagen d [...] e las que se dispone actualmente para evaluar las glándulas paratiroides en el contexto del HPTS. Se hace referencia a: 1) ecografía cervical (modo B, Doppler, Doppler-color y power-Doppler); 2) estudios gammagráficos (talio, 99mTc-MIBI y 99mTc-tetrofosmin), incluyendo técnicas especiales de adquisición de imágenes (Pinhole, SPECT); 3) estudios PET (tomografía por emisión de positrones); 4) tomografía computarizada (TC) y resonancia magnética, y 5) escáneres híbridos (SPECT/TC y PET/TC). Nuestra recomendación es practicar, en todos los pacientes con HPTS que no responden inicial y fácilmente al tratamiento médico, una gammagrafía con 99mTc-MIBI que puede complementarse con un Eco-Doppler color. Si la gammagrafía es positiva y, tras gradación de la intensidad de captación, alguna de las glándulas (no ectópicas) presenta un índice intenso, aunque se puede intentar intensificar el tratamiento, debería pensarse en la realización de una paratiroidectomía. Si la gammagrafía es positiva y, tras gradación de la intensidad de captación, ninguna de las glándulas (no ectópicas) presenta un índice intenso, debería intentarse la intensificación del tratamiento, y si no existe buena respuesta, considerar la paratiroidectomía. Si la gammagrafía es negativa, debería practicarse un PET si se dispone de dicha prueba. En caso de no disponer de PET, lo aconsejable sería realizar una resonancia magnética. Abstract in english For patients with chronic renal failure who develop secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), imaging techniques can be useful, especially to evaluate the location, size and functional status of parathyroid glands. This review analyzes all available imaging procedures in the context of SHPT. We evaluate [...] : 1) Cervical ultrasound (B-mode, Doppler, colour-Doppler and power-Doppler), 2) Scintigraphic studies (Tallium, 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-tetrofosmin), including non-standard image acquisition techniques (Pinhole, SPECT), 3) Positron emission tomography (PET), 4) Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 5) hybrid scanners (SPECT/CT and PET/CT). Our recommendation is that SHPT patients who are initially non responders to medical therapy should be investigated using parathyroid scintigraphy and cervical ultrasound. 99mTc-MIBI uptake can be graded in a semiquantitative scale. Intense uptake indicates a low probability of success using medical treatment and parathyroidectomy should be considered. A moderate to faint uptake indicates that a more intensive medical therapy would probably be beneficial. In the case of no uptake of 99mTc-MIBI, PET should be performed. Where this is not available, MRI could be a possible alternative.

  1. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

    CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT…

  2. Resiliency Techniques in School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen; Gilroy, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    School psychologists can help build resilience in youth in many ways. This article offers a list of some easy techniques to use when working with individuals or groups, most based on basic cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) techniques. They include: (1) Emotional awareness; (2) Emotional Regulation; (3) Cognitive Flexibility; (4) Self-efficacy; and…

  3. Coding techniques of MHD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present chapter, coding techniques of parallel computing in MHD simulation are discussed. They include parallelization of computer codes in the finite difference method and techniques for acceleration of 3D Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorism. (J.P.N.)

  4. Software Testing Techniques and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Isha,; Sunita Sangwan

    2014-01-01

    Software testing provides a means to reduce errors, cut maintenance and overall software costs. Numerous software development and testing methodologies, tools, and techniques have emerged over the last few decades promising to enhance software quality. This paper describes Software testing, need for software testing, Software testing goals and principles. Further it describe about different Software testing techniques and different software testing strategies.

  5. Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Première partie : Présentation théorique des trois techniques Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part One : Theoretical Description of Three Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les techniques de diffusion, des rayons X, des neutrons et de la lumière, jouent un rôle très important pour la compréhension des milieux colloïdaux. Peu d'articles de la littérature s'attachent à présenter conjointement les trois méthodes. Nous avons, dans la première partie de cet article, détaillé les principes théoriques en insistent tout particulièrement sur les spécificités de chacune. Après les rappels concernant la diffusion par les systèmes dilués, nous nous sommes intéressés aux systèmes concentrés pour lesquels les entités diffusantes sont en interaction. Les milieux dispersés montrent souvent une certaine polydispersité que l'on cherche à mesurer; les techniques de diffusion permettent cette mesure. Nous terminerons cette revue par une description des appareillages utilisés. La deuxième partie de cet article concernera une large illustration des possibilités de ces méthodes d'analyse à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux, sur la base de travaux effectués à I'IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole ou dans de nombreux laboratoires de recherche extérieurs. This article aims to describe X-ray, neutron and light scattering techniques with emphasis on their specific nature and their scope of application. Indeed, whereas light diffusion has been used for a long time in research laboratories, in particular for characterizing polymers in solution, small angle X-ray scattering has been the subject of renewed interest in recent years. Neutron scattering, which is obviously more difficultly accessible, has proven to be extremely useful for studying various systems for which light and X-ray scattering remain relatively powerless. Whereas there is an abundant literature concerning various applications of the three methods, it should be noted that only a few articles have attempted to describe all three techniques at the same time. In this article we have tried to make up for this lack, and as such it was indispensable for us to review the basic theoretical principles, and especially radiation-matter interaction. This should clearly highlight the fields of application and the specific features of each method together with the information that can be obtained about colloidal systems. This article is divided into two general parts : (1 a description of the theoretical principles, including a joint description of the specific features of the three types of radiation - light, X rays and neutrons, and (2 a bibliographic review, not an exhaustive one, based on the extensive work done at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP or in outside research laboratories, and concerning the characterizing of colloidal systems. Part One is divided into several chapters. First of all we review the physical laws governing the interaction of radiation with matter. X-ray or light photons are electromagnetic waves characterized by a very different wavelength, which is close to one angstrom for X rays and to about 6000 angstroms for light. Neutrons are moving particles having a wavelength of several angstroms. X rays interact solely with electrons from atoms, while neutrons interact with the nuclei of these same atoms. When a light wave passes through a diffusing medium, it creates a dipole that will radiate an electromagnetic field proportional to the polarizability of the medium. The diffused intensity or scatter cross-section appears as the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function gamma(x. This intensity contains all information about the nature, geometry and size of the diffusing entities contained in the medium. All these characteristic magnitudes of the colloid can be deduced from the experiment when the particles are homogeneous, identical and uncorrelated. This last qualification reveals the presence of particles that are very similar to one another, possibly in the form of more or less compact aggregates. We also refer to interactions among particles, which will be negligible if the diffusing entities are very far away, i. e. when a dilute system is present. The magnitudes that char

  6. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  7. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  8. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asraf Mansor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell’s electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA. In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell’s electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

  9. Murine heterotopic heart transplant technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenter, Robert J; Grazia, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    It is now over forty years since this technique was first reported by Corry, Wynn and Russell. Although it took some years for other labs to become proficient in and utilize this technique, it is now widely used by many laboratories around the world. A significant refinement to the original technique was developed and reported in 2001 by Niimi. Described here are the techniques that have evolved over more than a decade in the hands of three surgeons (Plenter, Grazia, Pietra) in our center. These techniques are now being passed on to a younger generation of surgeons and researchers. Based largely on the Niimi experience, the procedures used have evolved in the fine details - details which we will endeavor to relate here in such a way that others may be able to use this very useful model. Like Niimi, we have found that a video aid to learning is a priceless resource for the beginner. PMID:25046118

  10. Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006

    - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium, Bât 593 Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collaboration avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  11. L'addiction en milieu professionnel : quelles techniques de confirmation après l'immunoanalyse ? Workplace drug testing: which technique to use after immunoassay ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goullé Jean-Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Les analyses de confirmation concernant les conduites addictives en milieu professionnel sont pratiquées, soit en seconde intention après dépistage urinaire par immunoanalyse, ou d'emblée lorsqu'il n'existe pas d'immunoessal Pour les principales familles de stupéfiants (cannabis, opiacés, cocaïne, amphétamines, en cas de positivité lors du dépistage par immunoanalyse, la ou les substances dont la présence est suspectée lors de l'immunoessai doivent être formellement identifiées par Chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse. Cette analyse permet d'établir un profil d'exposition, et le plus souvent de conclure, soit à une conduite toxicophile, soit à une prise thérapeutique, soit à une interférence lors de l'immunoanalyse. Les méthodes dites de confirmation peuvent également être mises en oeuvre lorsque l'immunoanalyse est négative en raison d'une sensibilité insuffisante comme c'est le cas par exemple avec certaines benzodiazépines. Pour ces recherches, chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à une détection par barrette de diodes et chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à la spectrométrie de masse sont les techniques de choix. Enfin, en l'absence d'immunoessal disponible, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse permet de mettre en évidence un certain nombre de molécules parmi lesquelles on trouve des médicaments, ou des produits dopants comme les stéroïdes anabolisants. Enfin la chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à une détection par barrette de diodes peut-être mise en oeuvre pour d'autres médicaments appartenant à la classe des substances psychoactives. Professional workplace addiction testing is performed either to validate urine positive screening immunoassay or directly in the absence of immunoassay. As regards the main drugs of abuse (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines positive results must be confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Exposure, an addiction, or a therapeutic pattern, in most cases, may then be concluded. Confirmation techniques have also to be carried out, when immunoassay is not sensitive enough, ie. for some benzodiazepines. For these exposures, liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector or to a mass detector, are the optimal techniques. However, when immunoassay is not available, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is useful for many substances, as doping agent like anabolic steroids. Liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector is also the method of choice for most psychoactive drugs.

  12. Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Alpay

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Atilla Alpay, Suat Hayri Ugurbas, Berktug ErdoganDepartment of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TurkeyPurpose: To compare various techniques of pterygium surgery including bare sclera, intraoperative mitomycin C application, conjunctival flap reconstruction, and conjunctival autografting technique.Methods: This study is designed to compare 4 currently used techniques in order to determine the complication and recurrence rates after pterygium exision. Included in the study were 77 eyes from 60 patients. Bare sclera technique was used to treat 21 primary pterygia; mitomycin C was used to treat 20 (16 primary, 4 recurrent pterygia; 18 (17 primary, 1 recurrent pterygia were treated by conjuntival flap reconstruction; and 18 (9 primary, 9 recurrent pterygia were treated by conjunctival autografting technique. All patients who underwent surgery were followed up for between 6 months and 2 years.Results: Eight recurrences (38.09% were observed in the bare sclera group whereas there were 5 (25% recurrences in the mitomycin C group. In the conjunctival flap reconstruction group, 6 (33.33% recurrences were detected. In the conjunctival autografting group, 3 recurrences were  observed. There were no major complications threatening visual ability in the surgical patients.Conclusion: A comparison of the groups demonstrated that the recurrence rate was highest in the bare sclera group, and lowest in conjunctival autografting and mitomycin C treatment groups respectively. Although the conjunctival autografting technique is a more difficult and time consuming technique than the others, cosmetic and surgical results were found to be superior. We advise conjunctival autografting for the treatment of pterygium in view of the high recurrence rates of other techniques, and the possible complications of mitomycin C treatment for benign disease.Keywords: pterygium, comparing, techniques, mitomycin C

  13. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  14. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    2001-01-01

    The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.

  15. Statistical Techniques for Project Control

    CERN Document Server

    Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    A project can be simple or complex. In each case, proven project management processes must be followed. In all cases of project management implementation, control must be exercised in order to assure that project objectives are achieved. Statistical Techniques for Project Control seamlessly integrates qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques for project control. It fills the void that exists in the application of statistical techniques to project control. The book begins by defining the fundamentals of project management then explores how to temper quantitative analysis with qualitati

  16. Advanced techniques of information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in applications of knowledge engineering, fuzzy logic and neural network are reviewed, and applicability of these techniques to assistance of nuclear data evaluation is discussed in this paper. The main obstacle to the development of practical knowledge-based systems for assisting execution of tasks in nuclear data evaluation is the lack of dependable techniques for extracting and documenting expertise of specialists of the task. The potentiality and importance of fuzzy logic and neural network in mitigating this difficulty of knowledge acquisition are demonstrated by simple examples. Combined usage of these new techniques together with the conventional numerical algorithms is recommended to meet the technical needs. (author)

  17. Food physics and radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  18. Food Physics and Radiation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  19. SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATION – DIRECT TABLETTING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Pradnya B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct tabletting technique is the modern and the most efficient process used in tablet manufacturing and has been successfully employed for various poorly soluble and poorly compressible drugs. Spherical agglomeration is particle engineering technique which involves the transformation of fine crystals into spherical shape particles which enhances the powder properties such as particle size, shape, flow properties, solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical drug substances. This technique can also be applied to sustain the drug release from solid dosage forms. The present article is on the detailed comprehensive review about advantages and disadvantages, mechanism, different manufacturing methods of spherical agglomerates and characterization of spherical agglomerates.

  20. Physical simulations using centrifuge techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centrifuge techniques offer a technique for doing physical simulations of the long-term mechanical response of deep ocean sediment to the emplacement of waste canisters and to the temperature gradients generated by them. Preliminary investigations of the scaling laws for pertinent phenomena indicate that the time scaling will be consistent among them and equal to the scaling factor squared. This result implies that this technique will permit accelerated-life-testing of proposed configurations; i.e, long-term studies may be done in relatively short times. Presently, existing centrifuges are being modified to permit scale model testing. This testing will start next year

  1. Multicoincidence techniques in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''multicoincidence technique'' results from the combination of two experimental methods which are widely developed in atomic physics, namely the ''position sensitive detection'' and the coincidence technique. This new technique which actually consists in taking coincidence data in several channels, simultaneously, combines the advantage of both methods reduction of data acquisition time and more accurate identification of the various processes occurring in a collision. The purpose of this paper is to describe the electronic devices developed by various authors and to compare their relative performances and limitations. Applications to atomic collisions are exemplified. (Auth.)

  2. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  3. Experimental techniques and measurement accuracies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.; DiIorio, G.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H.

    1985-02-01

    A brief description of the experimental tools available for fusion neutronics experiments is given. Attention is paid to error estimates mainly for the measurement of tritium breeding ratio in simulated blankets using various techniques.

  4. Consistency Techniques for Hybrid Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Bottalico, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to show consistency techniques methods and hybrid stochastic/deterministic models to describe biochemical systems and their behaviour through the ordinary differential equations.

  5. SECURING WMN USING HONEYPOT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available WMN has been a field of active research in the recent years. Lot of research has focused various routing mechanism but very little effort has been made towards attack detection or intrusion detection. Inthis paper, we propose an attack detection approach for wireless mesh network using Honeypot technique. A Honeypot is a security resource whose value lies in being probed, attacked or compromised. A honeypot is designed to interact with attackers to collect attack techniques and behaviors. A collection of such Honeypots laid to effectively trap the attacker is called a Honeynet. In our paper, we propose ahoneynet, that is able to trap the attackers by analyzing their attacking techniques and thereby sending the logs to a centralized repository to analyze those logs so as to better understand the technique used for attacking.

  6. Innovative Imaging Spectrometer Calibration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrien, T.; Chovit, C.; Eastwood, M.

    1995-01-01

    A laboratory calibration of the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) allowed experimentation with several innovative calibration techniques that would improve calibration accuracy, provide independent checks for systematic errors, and reduce the time required to collect a calibration data set.

  7. Radiotracer techniques in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive tracers particularly short-lived radioisotopes frequently offers advantages over conventional methods of analyses. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. Essentially, radiotracer techniques offer a safe, cost effective and powerful tool in the assessment, management and protection of water resources. The Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria of late has been offering consultancy services to some industries in the area of radiotracer technique. The first nuclear reactor in Nigeria, the MNSR, is expected to be commissioned in the Centre very soon. Many short-lived radioisotopes such as Cu-64, Ga-72, Br-82, Hg-197 etc which are very important in hydrological studies can be produced by the MNSR facility. This article reports on the basic principles of the technique and its roles in hydrology

  8. Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 1): Transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales / Nerve reconstruction techniques in traumatic brachial plexus surgery (Part 1): Extraplexal nerve transfers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los años '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia n [...] erviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc, para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En esta primera parte se analizan las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales, para luego hacer lo propio con las intraplexuales, en una segunda entrega. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexus traumatic injuries, the present article has been written in order to clarify the concerne

  9. Optimization Techniques on Riemannian Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Steven Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The techniques and analysis presented in this paper provide new methods to solve optimization problems posed on Riemannian manifolds. A new point of view is offered for the solution of constrained optimization problems. Some classical optimization techniques on Euclidean space are generalized to Riemannian manifolds. Several algorithms are presented and their convergence properties are analyzed employing the Riemannian structure of the manifold. Specifically, two apparently ...

  10. A compendium of modelling techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, J.

    2010-01-01

    This Integration Insight provides a brief overview of the most popular modelling techniques used to analyse complex real-world problems, as well as some less popular but highly relevant techniques. The modelling methods are divided into three categories, with each encompassing a number of methods, as follows: 1) Qualitative Aggregate Models (Soft Systems Methodology, Concept Maps and Mind Mapping, Scenario Planning, Causal (Loop) Diagrams), 2) Quantitative Aggregate Models (Function fitting a...

  11. Speaker and Language Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cumani, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    In this work we give an overview of different state-of-the-art speaker and language recognition systems. We analyze some techniques to extract and model features from the acoustic signal and to model the speech content by means of phonetic decoding. We then present state-of-the-art generative systems based on latent variable models and discriminative techniques based on Support Vector Machines. We also present the author's contributions to the field. These contributions cover the different to...

  12. Advanced Techniques of Stress Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tataru, Simion; Baran, Daniela; Lozici-branzei, Dorin

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to check the stress analysis technique based on 3D models also making a comparison with the traditional technique which utilizes a model built directly into the stress analysis program. This comparison of the two methods will be made with reference to the rear fuselage of IAR-99 aircraft, structure with a high degree of complexity which allows a meaningful evaluation of both approaches. Three updated databases are envisaged: the database having the idealized model obtained u...

  13. Experimental technique of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented that the classifications, structures and components of neutron reflectometer (NR), as well s functions and parameters of each components, detailed characters of NR facility 'PRN-2M'. Based on the practical experiments, the basic experimental techniques, the measurement and the related experimental settings are described, including the choice of experimental conditions, adjustments of polarized neutron beam line, basic experimental technique and approach of measurement. The above can be an instruction for NR experiments and a reference for NR construction. (authors)

  14. Analogue micropower FET techniques review

    OpenAIRE

    Vilches, A; Loga, R; Michelakis, K; Fobelets, K; Papavasiliou, C; Haigh, D.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed introduction to published analogue circuit design techniques using Si and Si/SiGe FET devices for very low-power applications is presented in this review. The topics discussed include sub-threshold operation in FET devices, micro-current mirrors and cascode techniques, voltage level-shifting and class-AB operation, the bulk-drive approach, the floating-gate method, micropower transconductance-capacitance and log-domain filters and strained-channel FET technologies.

  15. Computational Techniques in Manufacturing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mádl; ?ermák, J.; M. Vrabec

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturing processes are complex and therefore difficult to plan by software. The present state in computational techniques in manufacturing technology as well as software applications at the Department of Manufacturing Technology of CTU in Prague are discussed in this article. Computational techniques may help to solve many manufacturing problems as such programs in the field of process planning have been developed. However, due to the complexity of manufacturing processes, complete plann...

  16. Selected manufacturing techniques of nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    R. Nowosielski; D. Szewieczek; Baron, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Enabling nanofabrication techniques as tools for experiments to understand the underlying scienceand engineering in the nanometer scale are required. This paper is a resume a range of technology andcharacterization tools relevant for nanoeletronics devices.Design/methodology/approach: An overview on bottom – up and bottom – down fabrication techniques arepresented in this paper. As an alternative to the continually increasing cost of nanotechnology for manufacturingelectronic dev...

  17. A disposition of interpolation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Knotters, M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A large collection of interpolation techniques is available for application in environmental research. To help environmental scientists in choosing an appropriate technique a disposition is made, based on 1) applicability in space, time and space-time, 2) quantification of accuracy of interpolated values, 3) incorporation of ancillary information, and 4) incorporation of process knowledge. The described methods include inverse distance weighting, nearest neighbour methods, geostatistical inte...

  18. Survey on Spam Filtering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Nazirova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years spam became as a big problem of Internet and electronic communication. There developed a lot of techniques to fight them. In this paper the overview of existing e-mail spam filtering methods is given. The classification, evaluation, and comparison of traditional and learning-based methods are provided. Some personal anti-spam products are tested and compared. The statement for new approach in spam filtering technique is considered.

  19. Highly reliable TOFD UT Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high performance of the time of flight diffraction technique (TOFD) with regard to the detection capabilities of weld defects such as crack, slag, lack of fusion has led to a rapidly increasing acceptance of the technique as a pre?service inspection tool. Since the early 1990s TOFD has been applied to several projects, where it replaced the commonly used radiographic testing. The use of TOM lead to major time savings during new build and replacement projects. At the same time the TOFD technique was used as base line inspection, which enables monitoring in the future for critical welds, but also provides documented evidence for life?time. The TOFD technique as the ability to detect and simultaneously size flows of nearly any orientation within the weld and heat affected zone. TOM is recognized as a reliable, proven technique for detection and sizing of defects and proven to be a time saver, resulting in shorter shutdown periods and construction project times. Thus even in cases where inspection price of TOFD per welds is higher, in the end it will result in significantly lower overall costs and improve quality. This paper deals with reliability, economy, acceptance criteria and field experience. It also covers comparative study between radiography technique Vs. TOFD. (Author)

  20. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punia Supriya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Techniques of intragastric laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Claudius; Nedelcu, Marius; Ogiso, Satoshi; Aloia, Thomas A; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Gayet, Brice

    2015-01-01

    Benign or pre-cancerous lesions and foreign bodies of the stomach not amendable to endoscopic removal often require extensive surgery to address a process that does not necessitate lymph node sampling or formal gastrectomy. These lesions are particularly difficult to address endoscopically when located at the esophagogastric junction as a retroflexed view is needed. From its first description in 1995, intragastric laparoscopic surgery has evolved with respect to both technological advancements and tactical innovations. Here we report the development of four distinct techniques of laparoscopic intragastric surgery which we have developed over time and applied in 11 patients. These techniques consist of a (1) combined gastroscopic/laparoscopic approach when minimal manipulation of the lesion is needed, (2) multiport resection which provides optimal triangulation and allows for resection of more complex lesions, (3) stapled removal of broad-based lesions, and (4) single access technique with the device placed directly through the abdominal wall into the stomach. The techniques expand the surgeon's armamentarium to address more complex intragastric processes safely, while the typical postoperative benefits of minimal access surgery such as fast recovery time and less pain are preserved. As we gain greater experience with intragastric laparoscopic surgery, this technique holds the promise of becoming a standard surgical technique for benign lesions for which it is oncologically safe to perform a limited resection. PMID:25106714

  2. Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.RAVI TEJA#1 , R.R.V.S.S.ABHISHEK *2 , P.RAM MANINTH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sciences. This paper mainly discusses about the human face recognition with the help of different tactics and techniques like “Eigen faces for Recognition” and “Feature Based Recognition: Elastic Bunch Graph Matching”. The scanning technique such as 4-D laser scanning is still under discussion since for recognition technique it is necessary, The real world is CCTV technology and similarity between the human and computer recognition.This technology is outstanding in the capturing image of faces such as criminal investigation, terrorists identification, medical purposes like plastic surgery .It provides almost security and reliability compared to the other techniques. In future this technology will be the most convenient and secure technique. This will over through all the current security traits and become a efficient security measure

  3. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (?(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  4. Cementing techniques in hip resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M; Kowalski, R S Z; Watkins, N D; Briscoe, A; New, A M R

    2006-02-01

    The subject of the cementing technique in hip resurfacing has been poorly studied to date. The hip resurfacing prosthesis is unique in the family of cemented prostheses because the cement mantle is blind (hidden underneath the implant) and is radiographically obscured. This presents an immediate challenge to the surgeon at the time of surgery, but also has a longer-term implication in terms of lack of post-operative clinical observation. This should be compared with total hip replacement or total knee replacement where the cement mantle can at least be partially observed both intra- and post-operatively. With this in mind, the objective of this review is, firstly, to understand the cement mantles typically achieved in current clinical practice and, secondly, to identify those factors affecting the cement mantle and to consolidate them into an improved and reproducible cementing technique. The outcome of this work shows that the low-viscosity technique can commonly lead to excessive cement penetration in the proximal femoral head and an incompletely seated component, whereas a more consistent controlled cement mantle can be achieved with a high-viscosity cementing technique. Consequently, it is recommended that a high-viscosity technique should be used to minimize the build-up of excessive cement, to reduce the temperature created by the exothermic polymerization, and to help to ensure correct seating of the prosthesis. A combination of these factors is potentially critical to the clinical success of some articular surface replacement (ASR) procedures. It is important to note that we specifically studied the DePuy ASR system; therefore only the general principles (and not the specifics) of the cementing technique may apply to other resurfacing prostheses, because of differences in internal geometry, clearance, and surgical technique. PMID:16669398

  5. Modified technique in treating recurrent priapism: a technique report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent ischemic priapism is a problem in clinical treatment. Most of the cases require more invasive surgery to shunt the blood stasis. We introduce a modified technique in treating recurrent ischemic priapism. The technique described is applied to acute ischaemic priapic episodes in patients with a history of stuttering priapism. It was carried out by a Winter's shunt combined with a continuous cavernosal irrigation system. Priapism was effectively resolved on the patients without recurrence. The four patients who received this treatment recovered most sexual function after 6 months follow-up.

  6. Ride quality research techniques: Section on general techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Information is gathered about the methods currently used for the study of ride quality in a variety of transportation modes by a variety of research organizations, including universities, Federal agencies, contracting firms, and private industries. Detailed descriptions of these techniques and their strengths and weaknesses, and identifying the organizations using such methods are presented. The specific efforts of the Group's participants, as well as a variety of feasible approaches not currently in use, are presented as methodological alternatives under the three basic factors which must be considered in ride quality studies: research techniques, research environments, and choice of subjects.

  7. New Fire Protection Inspection Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fire Protection system being one of the most important safety systems in a Nuclear Power Plant needs to be fully operational and reliable. The system is mostly made of carbon pipes and valves, filled with water, which is not subject to any special chemistry treatment. However, it is most vulnerable to corrosion - a very important degradation mechanism, which behaves unpredictable. Since the system is also one of the biggest systems in the plant, it is difficult to predict the exact location of the defect. The best known preventive action is inspection but unfortunately, it is impossible to inspect the whole system with a classic Ultrasonic Technique. In recent years, computer-assisted inspection techniques have improved significantly. Other industries, e.g. petroleum industry started to apply a very effective tool called Guided Waves for permanent corrosion monitoring of large portions of straight carbon pipes under insulation. At KRSKO NPP, we applied this technique to inspect the Fire Protection pipes. The results have met our expectations. Following an overview of pipe condition, the inspection results showed parts of pipes, some of which will have to be either closely monitored or replaced in the future. The new inspection technique can increase the system's reliability and therefore might be applied as the standard inspection technique for Fire Protection system Inspection Program.(author).

  8. Dating techniques in fault investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining the time of most recent fault movement is an important part of assessing a possible site for a nuclear power plant. The purpose of this paper is not to present research information but to provide a practical guide to some of the dating techniques available to the engineering geologist working on nuclear power plant siting. Emphasis is placed on the practical aspects, such as usable minerals, conditions necessary for them to yield correct dates, degree of accuracy, sample collection, sample size, and sample packaging. In this paper, the usual geologic field techniques are taken for granted (such as those used in stratigraphy, paleontology, and structural analysis) for assessing fault history. Laboratory techniques used in conjunction with or supplemental to field methods are discussed. The specific radiometric methods discussed are 14C(carbon-14), fission track, K-Ar (potassium-argon), thermoluminescense, Rb-Sr (rubidium-strontium), and U-Th (uranium-thorium). Racemization of amino acids, paleomagnetism, and fluid-inclusion techniques are the nonradiometric methods that are discussed. Our experiences with some of these techniques are described as well

  9. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (?²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  10. Mutation techniques in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the use of mutation techniques for generating and selecting desired genetic variation in crop and model plant species has significantly increased over the past decade. This was mainly due to: (1) successful application of in vivo mutation techniques in the breeding of new, improved crop varieties; (2) new opportunities for induced mutation using in vitro techniques for improving vegetatively propagated crops; (3) emerging possibilities for applying in vitro selection of mutagenized cells and tissues; (4) increasing application of doubled haploids (DHs) for the rapid selection and shortening of the breeding cycle of improved varieties from desired mutants, and for the development of F1 performing DH lines from heterotic hybrids; (5) advancement of rapid, often non-destructive, mass screening methods; (6) enhanced demand for morphological, developmental and biochemical mutants of various species for studies on the molecular genetics of plant differentiation and development or on plant physiology; (7) wider availability of gene transformation technology that allows the transfer of desired mutated genes from model or other plant species to the desired crop plant (shuttle mutagenesis); and (8) application of mutation techniques for generating DNA polymorphism and for mapping particular genes. An overview of the results of applying mutation techniques for crop improvement is given. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs tabs

  11. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

  12. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.

  13. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projections of charged particle beam current density (profiles) are frequently used as a measure of beam position and size. In conventional practice only two projections, usually horizontal and vertical, are measured. This puts a severe limit on the detail of information that can be achieved. A third projection provides a significant improvement. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) uses three or more projections to reconstruct 3-dimensional density profiles. At the 200 MeV H-linac, we have used this technique to measure beam density, and it has proved very helpful, especially in helping determine if there is any coupling present in x-y phase space. We will present examples of measurements of current densities using this technique

  14. Ultrasonic techniques validation on shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the results obtained in several international RRT during the 80's, it has been necessary to prove the effectiveness of the NDT techniques. For this reason it has been imperative to verify the goodness of the Inspection Procedure over different mock-ups, representative of the inspection area and with real defects. Prior to the revision of the inspection procedure and with the aim of updating the techniques used, it is a good practice to perform different scans on the mock-ups until the validation is achieved. It is at this point, where all the parameters of the inspection at hands are defined; transducer, step, scan direction,... and what it's more important, it will be demonstrated that the technique to be used for the area required to inspection is suitable to evaluate the degradation phenomena that could appear. (Author)

  15. Understanding PSK demodulation techniques. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steber, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    Phase-shift keying (PSK) techniques in general and aspects of carrier recovery have been discussed in the first part of this article. The second part is concerned with symbol timing recovery (STR) and channel filtering. All STR techniques considered are data-derived, and only suboptimal techniques are discussed. A typical STR circuit in an uncoded PSK system includes a nonlinear element and a narrowband filter. The nonlinear element can take many forms, such as a differentiator, a squarer, a delay-and-multiply circuit, or a threshold detector. The last major factor degrading demodulator performance is intersymbol interference (ISI). This term is used to describe pulse smearing between time slots in a band-limited channel. Attention is given to the idealized impulse response at the output of the data channel, the raised cosine family commonly used for channel filtering, the approximation of the required amplitude response, and the testing of channel filters for ISI.

  16. Clinical application of neuroendoscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Wang, C; Liu, P; Gao, X

    2000-01-01

    We treated 126 patients with different neurosurgical diseases by performing endoscopic neurosurgery, endoscopy-controlled microneurosurgery and endoscopy-assisted microneurosurgery. The indications were intracranial cysts in 51 patients, brain cysticercosis in 10 patients, hydrocephalus in 31 patients, and epidermoid cysts in 34 patients. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 24 months (mean follow-up duration 9 months). After operation, 115 of 126 patients had improvement in their initial symptoms, 7 had no change and 4 developed complications, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intraventricular hemorrhage, and transient cardiopulmonary dysfunction. It is concluded that (1) neuroendoscopic techniques show a distinct value in the treatment of deep-seated, intracranial diseases, or ventricle and cistern lesions; (2) neuroendoscopic techniques play an important role in microneurosurgery and consequently improve surgical quality; (3) the benefits of neuroendoscopic techniques include less surgical manipulation and trauma, milder postoperative reaction, decreased expenses and shortened hospitalizations. PMID:11740182

  17. Overview of leak testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past ten years leak testing techniques have gained greater importance as a powerful non-destructive testing tool particularly in nuclear, space, petro-chemical, fertilizer and chemical industries. Leak for various reasons is an undesirable feature in a component or system, still leaks do occur in practice and can some-times cause significant loss in terms of both money and human life. Hence it is essential that leaks are effectively detected and remedial measures to plug the leaks are taken sufficiently in advance. Over the years more than twenty different leak test methods have been developed with different detection sensitivities. In this article commonly used leak-detection methods have been described with emphasis to Helium leak detection technique which is one of the most widely used techniques today

  18. Evaluation of standard watermarking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Enrico; Autrusseau, Florent; Le Callet, Patrick; Campisi, Patrizio

    2007-02-01

    In the last decade digital watermarking techniques have been devised to answer the ever-growing need to protect the intellectual property of digital still images, video sequences or audio from piracy attacks. Because of the proliferation of watermarking algorithms and their applications some benchmarks have been created in order to help watermarkers comparing their algorithms in terms of robustness against various attacks (i.e. Stirmark, Checkmark). However, no equal attention has been devoted to the proposition of benchmarks tailored to assess the watermark perceptual transparency. In this work, we study several watermarking techniques in terms of the mark invisibility through subjective experiments. Moreover, we test the ability of several objective metrics, used in the literature mainly to evaluate distortions due to the coding process, to be correlated with subjective scores. The conclusions drawn in the paper are supported by extensive experimentations using both several watermarking techniques and objective metrics.

  19. Four Flaps Technique for Neoumbilicoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Taek; Kwon, Chan; Rhee, Seung Chul; Cho, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    The absence or disfigurement of the umbilicus is both cosmetically and psychologically distressing to patients. The goal of aesthetically pleasing umbilical reconstruction is to create a neoumbilicus with sufficient depth and good morphology, with natural-looking superior hooding and minimal scarring. Although many reports have presented techniques for creating new and attractive umbilici, we developed a technique that we term the "four flaps technique" for creating a neoumbilicus in circumstances such as the congenital absence of the umbilicus or the lack of remaining umbilical tissue following the excision of a hypertrophic or scarred umbilicus. This method uses the neighboring tissue by simply elevating four flaps and can yield sufficient depth and an aesthetically pleasing shape with appropriate superior hooding.

  20. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications are presented in this standard. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. This document should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology: it generally connotes quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this document. The basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends along with relevant examples are presented.

  1. Radioisotope laboratory techniques. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: elements of nuclear physics; properties of radiations; production of radioisotopes; introduction to health physics; the laboratory; hazard control; decontamination and disposal of waste; laboratory apparatus; the statistics of counting; gas-filled radiation detectors; solid scintillators; liquid scintillation counting; sample preparation in liquid scintillation counting; high resolution gamma spectroscopy; factors influencing detection efficiency; the choice of counting equipment; special counting techniques; feasibility; radioactive techniques in analysis; autoradiography and gamma radiography; applications of radioisotopes and radiation. (U.K.)

  2. Techniques to Teach Communication Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataollah Maleki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Second language learners encounter communication problems when they attempt to use the target language. One way to overcome the problems is using effective strategies. Thus, L2 learners can benefit from teaching communication strategies to use them effectively. However, teaching and teachability of CS is a controversial issue. In this paper, it is discussed that teaching CS is useful and feasible and that techniques can be introduced to teach them. It is claimed that the Bottom-Up Approach is the framework within which such techniques can be put to use and create an atmosphere of easy communication and learning.

  3. Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

  4. Physics aids new medical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays, fundamental physics has been a source of ideas for radiography and medical imaging. A new imaging method firmly rooted in particle physics was chosen by Time magazine as one of its "Inventions of the Year 2000". The award-winning invention in the medical science category was a scanner that combined the advantages of computer tomography with positron emission tomography. The use of these techniques, which depend on detecting and analysing electromagnetic radiation (X-rays or gamma rays respectively), show that detection techniques from particle physics have made, and continue to make, essential contributions to medical science. (0 refs).

  5. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they can overcome problems within this area of study.  

  6. Improved Klett lidar inversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, William J.; Cooper, Alfred W.; Regush, M. M.

    1994-06-01

    Realistic inversions of lidar signals for extinction using the Klett technique must take into account both the theoretical limitations of the inversion and the experimental constraints of the hardware. A simple test of the Klett inversion algorithm s19 is performed with and without experimental limitations and uncertainties. The effect of limited accuracy in the digitization of the lidar return and limited dynamic range is presented. A simplified technique for detecting clouds in the presence of low visiblity is developed, and some limitations are presented.

  7. Molten salt techniques. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents information on the following topics: molten salts in context; halides and methods of purification; specific methods for the preparation of halide melts; techniques for handling and experimentation with halide melts; haloaluminates; room-temperature alkylpyridinium haloaluminate melts; hydroxides; properties of practical interest for alkali and alkaline-earth metal hydroxides; influence of the components of air on the properties of molten hydroxides; containers and preparation of the melts; electrochemical techniques; analysis of water and of oxygen containing species; molten sulfates; ionized organic salts and their preparation and stability; and molten salts with organic anions and cations

  8. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cacciamano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  9. Data Mining Concepts and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jiawei; Pei, Jian

    2011-01-01

    The increasing volume of data in modern business and science calls for more complex and sophisticated tools. Although advances in data mining technology have made extensive data collection much easier, it's still always evolving and there is a constant need for new techniques and tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge. Since the previous edition's publication, great advances have been made in the field of data mining. Not only does the third of edition of Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques continue the tradition of equipping you with an understandin

  10. Contoured technique for lentigo maligna

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monica Jidid, Mateus; Violeta Duarte, Tortelly; Carlos Baptista, Barcaui; Carla Araujo, Jourdan; Tassiana, Simão; Juan Manuel Piñeiro, Maceira.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The surgical approach to lentigo maligna is a challenge to dermatologists, given the difficulty of clinical delimitation of borders. We report here a case of a 69-year-old female patient presenting with brownish macules on her face, since 1 [...] 0 years ago, with histopathological diagnosis of lentigo maligna. The surgical management employed was excision of visible borders with the contoured technique and immediate submission of these borders for histopathological analysis before complete excision of the tumor. This technique is a variant of staged excision, with lower rates of recurrence and acceptable aesthetic results.

  11. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)

  12. Cuban agriculture and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of nuclear techniques to agriculture emerged in Cuba at the end of the 60s. At the beginning only few researchers used these techniques for stimulating or mutational purposes. At the end of the 80 s systematic research began for its possible application to existing agricultural problems among which we can highlight radiomutable genesis and the determination of diagnostic damage of seeds by x-rays, plant nutrition and soil fertility, efficient water use, animal nutrition, reproduction and health as well as pest control

  13. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of techniques for recombinant incorporation of selenium and subsequent purification and crystallization of the resulting labelled protein. Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included

  14. Imaging techniques: State and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical progress has produced a variety of novel imaging techniques (digital projection radiography, X-ray-transmission computed tomography, sonography, single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), and has enormously extended the diagnostic possibilities in industrialized countries. Further technological developments will be considered under three aspects: (1) improvement of current imaging procedures and opening-up of new applications, (2) introduction of new imaging techniques, (3) progressive use of computer technology in imaging diagnostics [digital image generation, image processing, image archiving and communication systems (PACS)]. Finally, several consequences emerging from these aspects will be discussed. (author)

  15. Modelisation DU Signal Radar EN Milieu Stratifie et Evaluation de Techniques de Mesure de L'humidite DU Sol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Johanne

    La presente etude se penche sur des problemes relies a l'echantillonnage de l'humidite de sol et a l'estimation du signal radar sur sols nus. Le travail se divise en deux volets. Le volet 1 evalue trois techniques de mesure de l'humidite du sol (gravimetrie, reflectometrie temporelle et sonde dielectrique) et deux protocoles d'echantillonnage. Dans le volet 2, un modele de simulation du signal en milieu stratifie est developpe, et les estimes de signal obtenus sont compares aux estimes bases uniquement sur une valeur moyenne d'humidite du sol prise sur une profondeur fixe d'echantillonnage. Les differences entre les deux estimes dependent de la frequence et du choix judicieux de la profondeur d'echantillonnage; elles sont plus importantes aux faibles angles et en polarisation HV, puis VV. Le modele de simulation a aussi ete utilise pour etudier la profondeur de penetration du signal et en deduire la profondeur optimale d'echantillonnage en tenant compte des caracteristiques du signal. Une variation de 25 ^circ de l'angle d'incidence a peu d'effet sur la profondeur de penetration en bande Ku; l'ecart reste inferieur ou egal a 0,5 cm en bande C mais peut atteindre 1,3 cm en bande L. L'impact de la polarisation est nul en bande Ku mais croi t avec l'angle d'incidence en bande C et L. A 50^circ, il est, en moyenne de 1 cm en bande C et de 2 cm en bande L. En polarisation VV, la profondeur croi t avec une augmentation de l'angle alors que l'effet est inverse en polarisation HH. Deux methodes pour estimer la profondeur d'echantillonnage en conditions operationnelles sont presentees. Lorsqu'on inverse un modele pour estimer l'humidite du sol a partir du signal, ces methodes permettent aussi d'estimer l'epaisseur de sol representee par l'humidite ainsi estimee.

  16. Modélisation et conception d'outils robotises et de techniques de fraisage pour l'arthroplastie total du genou

    OpenAIRE

    Plaskos, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    La chirurgie assistée par ordinateur a amené une valeur ajoutée significative aux interventions médicales, en fournissant des outils de mesures permettant au chirurgien de quantifier et contrôler leurs gestes. En orthopédie et notamment pour la pose de prothèse totale de genou (PTG), la chirurgie assistée par ordinateur a réduit de manière significative les variations d'alignement et de position, paramètres directement corrélés aux échecs précoces nécessitant une chirurgie de ...

  17. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

    2011-10-01

    This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a wide spectrum of technological areas, such as medical imaging, pharmaceutical industry, analytical instrumentation, aerospace, remote sensing, lidars and ladars, surveillance, national defense, corrosion imaging and monitoring, sub-terrestrial and marine imaging. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios, and demanding design parameters such as speed, signal-to-noise ratio, high specificity, high contrast and spatial resolution, high-scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environment, necessitate the development of a multifunctional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, operating on diverse detection and imaging principles. Finally, pattern recognition and image processing algorithms can significantly contribute to enhanced detection and imaging, including object classification, clustering, feature selection, texture analysis, segmentation, image compression and color representation under complex imaging scenarios, with applications in medical imaging, remote sensing, aerospace, radars, defense and homeland security. We feel confident that the exciting new contributions of this special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques will appeal to the technical community. We would like to thank all authors as well as all anonymous reviewers and the MST Editorial Board, Publisher and staff for their tremendous efforts and invaluable support to enhance the quality of this significant endeavor.

  18. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  19. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

  20. A measurement technique for hydroxyacetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C{double{underscore}bond}CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NOx. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water, the authors developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one they reported earlier, namely, derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, they adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island, New York. The authors report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  1. Biomedical engineering and rehabilitation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors outline the programmes set up by the ORIS for the development of biomaterials and rehabilitation products using the radiochemical techniques. They then discuss the development of instruments designed to make the handling and use of radioactive isotopes easier for users

  2. BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

  3. Otoplasty – techniques, characteristics and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumann, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The protruding ear as a minor ear abnormality is found in approx. 5% of the German population and may give rise to serious emotional problems in children and also in adults. In general, the procedure used for the surgical correction of protruding ears (otoplasty is a combination of incision, scoring and suture techniques. The choice of the surgical procedure is based on the severity of the ear abnormality and the individual characteristics of the auricular cartilage. In children up to the age of ten years, a soft, elastic or easily pliable auricular cartilage is often still present. In this situation, gentle suture techniques, such as a suturing technique described by Mustardé, are frequently enough to achieve a cosmetically good and lasting result. In adults, the auricular cartilage has already become stiff. Therefore, a combination of incision, scoring and suture techniques is usually required. Apart from reducing the cephaloauricular angle to 15-20°, emphasis on the antihelical fold and a smooth rim of the helix without interruption of the contour are desirable outcomes of this operation. Occasionally, surgical fixation (lobulopexy may be required to treat protruding lobules or, in rare cases, an additional conchal reduction may become necessary in cases of conchal hyperplasia. Since postoperative complications can often result in severe auricular deformities, as a matter of principle, each ear should be analysed individually regarding its problem areas, and the surgical approach that causes the least injury to the cartilage should be used.

  4. Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

  5. Advances of the IBIC technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breese, M.B.H.; Laird, J.S.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique has been used for a wide variety of analytical applications in the study of semiconductor materials. This paper briefly reviews these uses and identifies those areas which require further development in order to facilitate the more widespread use of the IBIC method. Progress towards implementing these improvements is discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Remote sensing data processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient digital techniques are presented for processing remote sensing images and data, Digital transformations, digital filtering, local space operators, data compression, pattern recognition and geometrical transformations are in particular described to obtain useful environmental maps and data. A special processing procedure to integrate images and data given by different remote sensing systems is also presented. Next future trends are finally outlined

  7. Berko's Wug-Technique Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata

    Berko's Wug-Technique, using invented words to test linguistic knowledge, has been used with a wide range of age groups, and test results have been treated identically when obtained from children who controlled fully the construction in question in their spontaneous speech or from children just acquiring it. A study of seven-year-old and…

  8. Advances phase-lock techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, James A

    2008-01-01

    From cellphones to micrprocessors, to GPS navigation, phase-lock techniques are utilized in most all modern electronic devices. This high-level book takes a systems-level perspective, rather than circuit-level, which differentiates it from other books in the field.

  9. Survey of Biochemical Separation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Melanie R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is illustrated that exposes students to wide range of separation techniques in one laboratory program and provides a nice complement to a project-oriented program. Students have learned the basic principles of syringe filtration, centricon, dialysis, gel filtration and solid-phase extraction methodologies and have got…

  10. Techniques in carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular carotid artery interventions are unforgiving of mistakes and poor technique. The approach should be team based where all members of the team are experienced and know their jobs perfectly. This, combined with a deep knowledge of the equipment and the anatomy will reduce complications to a minimum. Patient selection and the experience of knowing how to 'get out of jail' are also vital

  11. Counselling Techniques for Outdoor Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Michelle; Chase, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Outdoor leaders need counseling skills to deal with interpersonal conflicts that arise within a group and to facilitate participant growth and change. Person-centered counseling, reality therapy counseling, and behavioral counseling are discussed, as well as how various techniques from each can be used to the benefit of the leader and the group.…

  12. A synopsis of resampling techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bootstrap is a computer intensive technique of resampling with replacement, which can be applied in many statistical analytical tests. The article describes the most frequent situations where bootstrap resampling can be applied in thoracic surgical research: variable selection for multivariable regression analysis, internal validation of regression equations, model validation. Practical examples for programming bootstrap in commercially available statistical software are finally reported.

  13. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    . Ramageri; Bharati M.

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

  14. ELONGATION CUTOFF TECHNIQUE: PARALLEL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Korchowiec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the elongation cutoff technique (ECT substantially speeds up thequantum-chemical calculation at Hartree-Fock (HF level of theory and is especially wellsuited for parallel performance. A comparison of ECT timings for water chains with thereference HF calculations is given. The analysis includes the overall CPU (central processingunit time and its most time consuming steps.

  15. New techniques in digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art presentation of important advances in the field of digital holography, detailing advances related to fundamentals of digital holography, in-line holography applied to fluid mechanics, digital color holography, digital holographic microscopy, infrared holography, special techniques in full field vibrometry and inverse problems in digital holography

  16. A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Justin M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.

  17. A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    John Justin M; Manimurugan S

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their sec...

  18. Ride quality research techniques: Section on scaling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Scaling techniques appropriate for the measurement of ride quality subjective responses are evaluated. The major focal points of interest are summarized in succeeding paragraphs as follow: (1) scope of scaling, (2) goal of scaling, (3) category scales; including polarity, scalar points, and whether the scale is discrete or continuous in nature, (4) need and use of adjectives and/or adverbs, (5) role and use of magnitude estimation, (6) multiple response measures; and (7) related topics.

  19. Translumbar aortography by catheter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    400 examinations performed during the last three years by TLA (only catheter technique) were subjected to critical analysis and studied particularly in respect to the rate of complications. We observed 13 complications (3.25%) of moderate severity, including 3 large hematomas (documented by CT), 3 paravasations and 7 dissections, but no fatal complication. Two (0.5%) of these complications had clinical evidence. The advantages of the catheter technique of TLA are described. Injections through rigid metal cannula should be avoided because of the high incidence of complications (mainly the increased risk of dissection). Downstream injection resulted in excellent visualization of peripheral occluding vascular disease. Upstream injection should be preferred to demonstrate the major abdominal arteries as well as supraceliac collateral circulation in the case of high Leriche syndrome. The low or intermediate puncture of the aorta is preferable to facilitate caudad direction of the catheter and to diminish the risk of damaging other vessels or puncturing an organ. (orig.)

  20. Techniques for Quantifying Phytoplankton Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The biodiversity of phytoplankton is a core measurement of the state and activity of marine ecosystems. In the context of historical approaches, we review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, high-throughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whose breadth is not fully constrained. Other molecular tools—such as fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization—have provided additional insight into the dynamics of this diversity in the context of environmental variability. Techniques for characterizing the functional diversity of community structure through targeted or untargeted approaches based on RNA or protein have also greatly advanced. A wide range of techniques is now available for characterizing phytoplankton communities, and these tools will continue to advance through ongoing improvements in both technology and data interpretation.

  1. Data mining concepts and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jiawei

    2005-01-01

    Our ability to generate and collect data has been increasing rapidly. Not only are all of our business, scientific, and government transactions now computerized, but the widespread use of digital cameras, publication tools, and bar codes also generate data. On the collection side, scanned text and image platforms, satellite remote sensing systems, and the World Wide Web have flooded us with a tremendous amount of data. This explosive growth has generated an even more urgent need for new techniques and automated tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge.Like the first edition, voted the most popular data mining book by KD Nuggets readers, this book explores concepts and techniques for the discovery of patterns hidden in large data sets, focusing on issues relating to their feasibility, usefulness, effectiveness, and scalability. However, since the publication of the first edition, great progress has been made in the development of new data mining methods, systems, and app...

  2. Techniques for integrating -omics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akula, Siva Prasad; Miriyala, Raghava Naidu; Thota, Hanuman; Rao, Allam Appa; Gedela, Srinubabu

    2009-01-01

    The challenge for -omics research is to tackle the problem of fragmentation of knowledge by integrating several sources of heterogeneous information into a coherent entity. It is widely recognized that successful data integration is one of the keys to improve productivity for stored data. Through proper data integration tools and algorithms, researchers may correlate relationships that enable them to make better and faster decisions. The need for data integration is essential for present -omics community, because -omics data is currently spread world wide in wide variety of formats. These formats can be integrated and migrated across platforms through different techniques and one of the important techniques often used is XML. XML is used to provide a document markup language that is easier to learn, retrieve, store and transmit. It is semantically richer than HTML. Here, we describe bio warehousing, database federation, controlled vocabularies and highlighting the XML application to store, migrate and validate -omics data. PMID:19255651

  3. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  4. Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

  5. Simulation techniques for cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dolag, K; Schindler, S; Diaferio, A; Bykov, A M

    2008-01-01

    Modern cosmological observations allow us to study in great detail the evolution and history of the large scale structure hierarchy. The fundamental problem of accurate constraints on the cosmological parameters, within a given cosmological model, requires precise modelling of the observed structure. In this paper we briefly review the current most effective techniques of large scale structure simulations, emphasising both their advantages and shortcomings. Starting with basics of the direct N-body simulations appropriate to modelling cold dark matter evolution, we then discuss the direct-sum technique GRAPE, particle-mesh (PM) and hybrid methods, combining the PM and the tree algorithms. Simulations of baryonic matter in the Universe often use hydrodynamic codes based on both particle methods that discretise mass, and grid-based methods. We briefly describe Eulerian grid methods, and also some variants of Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods.

  6. Computer animation algorithms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Parent, Rick

    2001-01-01

    Whether you''re a programmer developing new animation functionality or an animator trying to get the most out of your current animation software, Computer Animation: Algorithms and Techniques will help work more efficiently and achieve better results. For programmers, this book provides a solid theoretical orientation and extensive practical instruction-information you can put to work in any development or customization project. For animators, it provides crystal-clear guidance on determining which of your concepts can be realized using commercially available products, which demand custom programming, and what development strategies are likely to bring you the greatest success.* Expert instruction from a pace-setting computer graphics researcher.* Provides in-depth coverage of established and emerging animation algorithms.* For readers who lack a strong scientific background, introduces the necessary concepts from mathematics and physics.* Illustrates advanced programming techniques with highly detailed worki...

  7. Nuclear techniques in food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination

  8. Releasable suture technique for trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Pushpa

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of the releasable suture technique on immediate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP. Nine eyes of nine patients with glaucoma had trabeculectomy with a releasable suture. In the six eyes that did not receive antimitotics, the suture was released by the fifth postoperative day; in the others suture release was delayed up to the fourteenth day. Of the nine patients, one had an acceptable postoperative IOP and did not need suture release; in another the suture broke and could not be released. In the remaining seven patients, the difference between the pre-release and post-release IOP was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The complications of this technique include failed suture release, subconjunctival hematoma and a distinctive "windshield wiper" keratopathy.

  9. Graph partitioning advance clustering technique

    CERN Document Server

    Madhulatha, T Soni

    2012-01-01

    Clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, Clustering is the process of grouping the data into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters. Dissimilarities are assessed based on the attribute values describing the objects. Often, distance measures are used. Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique, where interesting patterns and structures can be found directly from very large data sets with little or none of the background knowledge. This paper also considers the partitioning of m-dimensional lattice graphs using Fiedler's approach, which requires the determination of the eigenvector belonging to the second smallest Eigenvalue of the Laplacian with K-means partitioning algorithm.

  10. Physical simulations using centrifuge techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centrifuge techniques offer a method for doing physical simulations of the long-term mechanical response of deep ocean sediment to the emplacement of waste canisters and to the temperature gradients generated by them. Theoretical investigations of the scaling laws for pertinent phenomena indicate that the time scaling will be consistent among them and equal to the scaling factor squared. This result implies that this technique will permit accelerated-life-testing or proposed configurations; i.e., long-term studies may be done in relatively short times. Medium-scale simulation experiments that are designed to investigate the mechanical response of the sediment are currently in progress. Large-scale simulations can be started in the near future with the completion of the modifications to the Sandia-25 centrifuge

  11. Planning Technique in Maxillofacial Plasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. Muraev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have represented a new method of computer planning in surgical management of posttraumatic and congenital deformities of facial skeleton using individual tetrapolyfluoroethylene implants for contour plasty. There have been developed the technique of preoperative planning enabling to recover the symmetry of a deformed area using a computer 3D-model, and based on the obtained data — to produce individual implants for contour plasty. There have been received positive results of the technique in clinical use in patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities. Computer planning promotes accurate planning and reliable prognosis of the management results due to an individual implant used for contour facial plasty, which requires correction. Conclusion. Computer planning and CAD/CAM-production of an individual implant enables to correct deformities and recover facial symmetry and esthetics in patients with posttraumatic and congenital distortions of face.

  12. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  13. Pinch Technique: Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Binosi, D; 10.1016/j.physrep.2009.05.001

    2009-01-01

    We review the theoretical foundations and most important physical applications of the Pinch Technique (PT). This method allows the construction of off-shell Green's functions in non-Abelian gauge theories that are independent of the gauge-fixing parameter and satisfy ghost-free Ward identities. We first present the diagrammatic formulation of the technique in QCD, deriving at one loop the gauge independent gluon self-energy, quark-gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex, together with their Abelian Ward identities. The generalization to theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking is carried out in detail, and the connection with the optical theorem and the dispersion relations are explained within the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. The equivalence between the PT and the Feynman gauge of the Background Field Method (BFM) is elaborated, and the crucial differences between the two methods are critically scrutinized. The Batalin-Vilkovisky quantization method and the general formalism of algebraic renorma...

  14. Non-perturbative Pinch Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Binosi, D; Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present the non-perturbative implementation of the pinch technique. In particular, in the context of scalar QED, we derive the pinch technique self-energies and vertices directly from the Schwinger-Dyson equations. After reviewing the perturbative construction, we discuss in detail the general methodology and the basic field-theoretic ingredients necessary for the completion of this task. The construction requires the simultaneous treatment of the equations governing the scalar self-energy and the fundamental interaction vertices. The resulting non-trivial rearrangement of terms generates dynamically the Schwinger-Dyson equations for the corresponding Green's functions of the background field method. The proof relies on the extensive use of the all-order Ward-identities satisfied by the full vertices of the theory and by the one-particle-irreducible kernels appearing in the usual skeleton expansion. The Ward identities for these latter quantities are derived formally, and several subtleties...

  15. Optimal processing techniques for SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David; Cook, Rod; McConnell, Ian; Oliver, Christopher J.

    1998-12-01

    In the history of SAR image processing, many algorithms have been proposed to tackle the problems of segmentation, classification and edge detection. They are typically heuristic in basis, and more successful on some types of imagery than others. With the development of global optimization methods it has now become possible to produce optimal techniques; that is, those which can genuinely achieve the optimal solution of the posed problem. The problem is characterized by an objective function and the chosen optimization technique. The most successful and wide-spread method has been simulated annealing and we detail its application in the fields of segmentation and classification. In particular, we detail how to optimally quantify the relationship between competing terms within the objective function. The performance of the resulting algorithm on various SAR imagery is given.

  16. Visualization techniques for parallel coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Visualization plays a key role in knowledge discovery, visual data exploration, and visual analytics. Static images are an effective tool for visual communication, summarization, and pattern extraction in large and complex datasets. Only together with human-computer-interaction techniques, visual interfaces enable an analyst to explore large information spaces and to drive the whole analytical reasoning process. Scatterplots and parallel coordinates are well-recognized visualization techni...

  17. Homogenization Techniques for Periodic Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Guenneau, Sébastien; Craster, Richard; Antonakakis, Tryfon; Cherednichenko, Kirill; Cooper, Shane

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a selection of mathematical techniques and results that suggest interesting links between the theory of gratings and the theory of homogenization, including a brief introduction to the latter. By no means do we purport to imply that homogenization theory is an exclusive method for studying gratings, neither do we hope to be exhaustive in our choice of topics within the subject of homogenization. Our preferences here are motivated most of all by ou...

  18. Techniques for effective vocabulary selection

    CERN Document Server

    Venkataraman, A; Venkataraman, Anand; Wang, Wen

    2003-01-01

    The vocabulary of a continuous speech recognition (CSR) system is a significant factor in determining its performance. In this paper, we present three principled approaches to select the target vocabulary for a particular domain by trading off between the target out-of-vocabulary (OOV) rate and vocabulary size. We evaluate these approaches against an ad-hoc baseline strategy. Results are presented in the form of OOV rate graphs plotted against increasing vocabulary size for each technique.

  19. Techniques of facial nerve block.

    OpenAIRE

    Schimek, F.; Fahle, M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure w...

  20. Suprachoroidal Buckling: Technique and Indications

    OpenAIRE

    El Rayes, Ehab N.; Elborgy, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    The authors herein report the feasibility of suprachoroidal buckling (SCB) procedure as a new approach for treating different forms of retinal detachment (RD) by creating suprachoroidal indentation (buckling effect). With this technique, specially designed devices, i.e. a catheter or cannula, are guided in the suprachoroidal space to reach the target area. Then, a suprachoroidal filler (long lasting hyaluronic acid) is injected to indent the choroid creating SCB, thereby closing retinal tears...

  1. A MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR HYDROXYACETONE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLOTZ,P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C=CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NO{sub x}. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water (it's Henry's law constant being {approx}2 x 10{sup 4} M atm{sup -1} at 20 C, Zhou and Lee, unpublished data), we developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one we reported earlier (Lee and Zhou, 1993), namely, based on derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, we adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island (LI), New York. We report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  2. Multiscale techniques for parabolic equations

    OpenAIRE

    Ma?lqvist, Axel; Persson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We use the local orthogonal decomposition technique to derive a generalized finite element method for linear and semilinear parabolic equations with spatial multiscale diffusion coefficient. We consider nonsmooth initial data and a backward Euler scheme for the temporal discretization. Optimal order convergence rate, depending only on the contrast, but not on the variations in the diffusion coefficient, is proven in the $L_\\infty(L_2)$-norm. We present numerical examples, wh...

  3. Intermittent Drug Techniques for Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, Stephanie; Joshi, Kajal; Mansour, Mouhamad; Adams, Clive E.

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent drug techniques refer to the “use of medication only during periods of incipient relapse or symptom exacerbation rather than continuously.” The aim is to reduce the risk of adverse effects of antipsychotics by “reducing long-term medication exposure for patients who are receiving maintenance treatment while limiting risk of relapse,” with a further goal of improving social functioning resulting from the reduction of antipsychotic-induced side effects. We reviewed the effe...

  4. Performance Comparison of Clustering Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sambourou Massinanke; Lu Zhimao

    2014-01-01

    Data mining consists to extracting or “mining” information from large quantity of data. Clustering is one of the most significant research areas in the domain of data mining. Clustering signifies making groups of objects founded on their features where the objects of the same groups are similar and those belonging in different groups are not similar. This study reviews two Clustering Algorithms of the representative clustering techniques: K-modes and K-medoids algorithms. The two algorith...

  5. Image Compression Techniques: A Review?

    OpenAIRE

    Sonal Chawla,; Meenakshi Beri; Ritu Mudgil?

    2014-01-01

    Image compression is the application of data compression on digital images. The objective is to reduce redundancy of the image data in order to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form. This paper gives review of types of images and its compression techniques. An image, in its original form, contains huge amount of data which demands not only large amount of memory requirements for its storage but also causes inconvenient transmission over limited bandwidth channe...

  6. Anesthesia techniques for carotid endarterectomy

    OpenAIRE

    DINKO TONKOVI?; DANIJELA BANDI?-PAVLOVI?; ROBERT BARONICA; TAJANA ZAH-BOGOVI?; SANJA SAKAN; ELONORA GOLUŽA; ŽELJKO DRVAR

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the modern countries. Mainstay treatment for stroke prevention is carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients scheduled for surgery often have many associate systemic illnesses that pose a risk of perioperative cardiac and neurological complications. Detailed preoperative evaluation of neurological and cardiac function with optimization of the systemic illnesses therapy is obligatory. Ideal anesthesiology technique should provide adequate analgesia, ...

  7. Techniques to Teach Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ataollah Maleki

    2010-01-01

    Second language learners encounter communication problems when they attempt to use the target language. One way to overcome the problems is using effective strategies. Thus, L2 learners can benefit from teaching communication strategies to use them effectively. However, teaching and teachability of CS is a controversial issue. In this paper, it is discussed that teaching CS is useful and feasible and that techniques can be introduced to teach them. It is claimed that the Bottom-Up Approach is...

  8. CRITICAL REVIEW OF CRYPTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES?.

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyalakshmi.L; Mohanarathinam, A.; Jayanthi, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of data are being communicated over different channels - both public and private. The volume is getting increased exponentially and continuously day by day. Though more and more ways of protecting the data are also underway, this creates a problem of Security to those concerned with the data - particularly the sender, and receiver. This problem is further aggravated with the advent of high speed computing, parallel technologies, etc. Selection of the right technique for encrypti...

  9. Study Of Multimedia Watermarking Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gosavi, Chhaya S.; Warnekar, C. S.

    2010-01-01

    With the recent burgeoning of networked multimedia systems, techniques are needed to prevent illegal copying / forgery in distributed digital audio/ visual/text document. It may be also desirable to determine where and by how much the multimedia file has been changed from the original due to attacks. This is attributed to increasing instances of hacking during digital communication Digital watermarking has been proposed as a solution to the above problem to protect multimedia document. There ...

  10. Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Guillet, Jean Paul; Recur, Benoi?t; Frederique, Louis; Bousquet, Bruno; Canioni, Lionel; Manek-ho?nninger, Inka; Desbarats, Pascal; Mounaix, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Terahertz and millimeter waves penetrate various dielectric materials, including plastics, ceramics, crystals, and concrete, allowing terahertz transmission and reflection images to be considered as a new imaging tool complementary to X-Ray or Infrared. Terahertz imaging is a well-established technique in various laboratory and industrial applications. However, these images are often two-dimensional. Three-dimensional, transmission-mode imaging is limited to thin samples, due to the absorptio...

  11. Improving requirements with NLP techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rago, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Elaborating “good” requirements specifications is an important factor for the success of a software project. Requirements are normally expressed using textual descriptions in natural language, but not without problems. Some requirements documentation techniques, such as use cases specifications, often focus on functionality and leave many concerns understated in the text and scattered through several documents. These concerns, commonly known as crosscutting or architecturally-relevant con...

  12. Evolutionary Techniques for Reverse Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Shubhashis Kumar Shil; Samira Sadaoui; Malek Mouhoub

    2013-01-01

    Winner determination is one of the main challenges in combinatorial auctions. However, not much work has been done to solve this problem in the case of reverse auctions using evolutionary techniques. This has motivated us to propose an improvement of a genetic algorithm based method, we have previously proposed, to address two important issues in the context of combinatorial reverse auctions: determining the winner(s) in a reasonable processing time, and reducing the procurement cost. In...

  13. Thyroid Ultrasonography: Pitfalls and Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seon Hyeong; Kim, Eun-kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwak, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography (US) plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of thyroid-related diseases. The aim of this article was to illustrate various pitfalls that can occur in utilizing thyroid US and techniques to prevent them. In this article, we present cases demonstrating the common pitfalls associated with US equipment, performance, normal thyroid structures, misinterpretations, and surrounding structures. Knowledge of these areas is essential to avoid misdiagnosis or improper di...

  14. Processing techniques applying laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements for the processing of nuclear energy equipment include high precision, low distortion, and low heat input. Toshiba has developed laser processing techniques for cutting, welding, and surface heat treatment of nuclear energy equipment because the zone affected by distortion and heat in laser processing is very small. Laser processing contributes to the manufacturing of high-quality and high-reliability equipment and reduces the manufacturing period. (author)

  15. [Encryption technique for linkable anonymizing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2004-06-01

    Linkage of different records such as health insurance claims or medical records for the purpose of cohort studies or cancer registration usually requires matching with personal names and other personally identifiable data. The present study was conducted to examine the possibility of performing such privacy-sensitive procedures in a "linkable anonymizing" manner using encryption. While bidirectional communication entails encryption and deciphering, necessitating both senders and receivers sharing a common secret "key", record linkage entails only encryption and not deciphering because researchers do not need to know the identity of the linked person. This unidirectional nature relieves researchers from the historical problem of "key sharing" and enables data holders such as municipal governments and insurers to encrypt personal names in a relatively easy manner. The author demonstrates an encryption technique using readily available spread-sheet software, Microsoft Excel in a step-by-step fashion. Encoding Chinese characters into the numeric JIS codes and replacing the codes with a randomly assigned case-sensitive alphabet, all names of Japanese nationals will be encrypted into gibberish strings of alphabet, which can not be deciphered without the secret key. Data holders are able to release personal data without sacrificing privacy, even when accidental leakage occurs and researchers are still able to link records of the same name because encrypted texts, although gibberish, are unique to each name. Such a technical assurance of privacy protection is expected to satisfy the Privacy Protection Act or the Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Research and enhance public health research. Traditional encryption techniques, however, cannot be applied to cancer or stroke registration, because the registrar receives reports from numerous unspecified senders. The new public key encryption technique will enable disease registry in a linkable anonymizing manner. However various technical problems such as complexity, difficulties in registrar inquiries and risk of code-breaking make the encryption technique unsuitable for disease registry in the foreseeable future. PMID:15296025

  16. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  17. Electromigration techniques theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

  18. Imaging for new radiotherapy techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Schlemmer, H. -p

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy could be considerably improved by the recent development of three-dimensional intensity-modulated radiation therapy. This technique allows the concept of so-called dose painting or adaptive dose distribution to be implemented with improved aligning of the dose distribution along the complex geometric arrangements of the tumour and the surround healthy critical structures. This enables the radiation dose in the tumour to be increasingly enhanced while sparing the normal tissue. Fu...

  19. Groundwater Solution Techniques: Environmental Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kawi BIDIN; Ahmad Zaharin ARIS; Abdullah, Mohd Harun; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater models provide a scientific tool for various groundwater studies which include groundwater flow, solute transport, heat transport and deformation. However, without a good understanding of a model, modeling studies are not well designed or the model does not represent the natural system which being modeled long term effects may results. Thus, this review has focused and reviewed the types of solution techniques in terms of advantages and limitations. The findings are vital to impro...

  20. Tracing Technique for Blaster Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zaki M; Faizal M. A.; Shahrin S.; Robiah Y.; Siti Rahayu S.; Irda R.

    2009-01-01

    Blaster worm of 2003 is still persistent, the infection appears to have successfully transitioned to new hosts as the original systems are cleaned or shut off, suggesting that the Blaster worm, and other similar worms, will remain significant Internet threats for many years after their initial release. This paper is to propose technique on tracing the Blaster attack from various logs in different OSI layers based on fingerprint of Blaster attack on victim logs, attacker logs...

  1. Data mining and visualization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Whitney, Paul (Richland, WA); Thomas, Jim (Richland, WA)

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  2. An Effective Fingerprint Verification Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gogoi, Minakshi; Bhattacharyya, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method for fingerprint verification based on a data mining technique called minutiae clustering and a graph-theoretic approach to analyze the process of fingerprint comparison to give a feature space representation of minutiae and to produce a lower bound on the number of detectably distinct fingerprints. The method also proving the invariance of each individual fingerprint by using both the topological behavior of the minutiae graph and also...

  3. A Technique: Examining the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive therapy is based on the realistic epistemology which exerts that there is an objective reality beyond human experience. Cognitive models of psychopathology stipulate that the processing of external event or internal stimuli is biased and therefore systematically distorts the individual’s construction of his or her experiences, leading to a variety of cognitive errors. These distorted cognitions predispose or perpetuates mental disorders. If this bias that is also manifested in the automatic thoughts during specific instances can be attenuated by weakening the belief in these thoughts, it may lead into change in the accompanying emotion and dysfunctional behaviour. Objective: The aim of this review is to describe the basic technique of cognitive therapy namely “examining the evidence” and also present the clinical application of this technique. In order to perform this technique, first situation must be detailed. Then assessed emotion is graded according to its severity. After that, key automatic thought must be identified and phrased accordingly. After grading belief in the thought, evidence for and against the thought can be generated using appropriate questioning. In the end by using this evidence, the belief in the automatic thought and the emotion must be reviewed. Examining the evidence can also be used as a homework assignment to be done between sessions. In this text, steps of examining the evidence, which questions to be asked, and the points that must be attendant is reviewed and a sample interview is included. Conclusion: By its empirical nature “examining the evidence” is the most valuable technique of cognitive therapy and when it is applied properly long lasting change can occur in clients

  4. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  5. Text Steganography Techniques: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Rani, Jyoti Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Steganography has been in use since the presence of secret messages and this use has gained popularity as the internet became well-liked. Text steganography is a sub part of steganography that hides the message behind other cover text file. Moreover, hiding the text behind HTML coding of web pages makes the detection of steganography impractical as web pages are a fundamental building blocks of the internet. This paper reviews some of most common text steganography techniques that mainly focu...

  6. Full scale lightning test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walko, L. C.; Schneider, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A test technique was developed for applying a full scale mean value (30 kiloampere peak) simulated lightning return stroke current on a complete flight ready aircraft to assess the threat of lightning to aircraft electrical circuits. A computer-aided generator design was used to establish the parameters of the test system. Data from previous work done on development of low inductance current paths determined the basic system configuration.

  7. New techniques in liver surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jersenius, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    The development of liver surgery has a long history and through the years, much knowledge has been gathered concerning various aspects of the liver. The exploration and understanding of liver anatomy and liver regeneration and development of surgical techniques are important landmarks. Liver surgery today is a demanding field in which accumulated knowledge has fused with modern perioperative care to the benefit of the patients. In recent years simultaneous developments in ra...

  8. Optimization of the filter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique of the resonant filtering is used in the Moessbauer spectroscopy for receiving polarized radiation. Two main contributions suppress the filter quality: unwanted small absorption line located at the resonance energy and large unwanted absorption line located far from the resonance energy. Both contributions can be parametrized by a single small parameter r. The optimal effective thickness is proportional to 1 / r2, while the departure of the maximum polarization degree from the unity is proportional to r.

  9. TBI technique with long SAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the physical and technical situation of total body irradiation (TBI) for long SAD and a 6 MV X-rays. In principle this paper consists of the following points: physical characteristics of 6 MV X-rays; basic TBI dosimetry; dose distribution in the phantom; compensating method for inhomogeneity; practical TBI technique; in vivo dosimetry of the oesophagus. For TBI, it is very important to have uniformity of the three-dimensional dose distribution in the whole body. TBI technique is performed by AP/PA opposing fields, bilateral opposing fields and four fields (combined AP/PA and bilateral opposing fields). As a result of measured dose distribution in the phantom, four fields with compensators is the best TBI technique, indicating unaccuracy dose of ±10%. It is impossible to deliver a dose uniformity of ±10% for bilateral fields. For TBI dosimetry, it needs to measure for the phantom size needs to be measured to achieve the full scattering conditions, but the phantom size for dosimetry is practically suitable for use of a minimum dimension of 30 x 30 x 30 cm3. Compensating methods are used to give homogeneous dose to different thick bodys and inhomogeneities. We use tissue-equivalent bolus and compensator such as lead or copper. For in vivo measurement, expected dose ratio in the oesophagus is 0.947±0.044 for four fields, 0.994±0.025 for AP/PA fields, and 0.987±0.077 for the bilateral fields. The unaccuracy of irradiation doses are less than 5% f irradiation doses are less than 5% for various TBI. In the future, TBI technique should be established the best irradiated method that the uncertainty dose is delivered within ±5%. (author)

  10. Biometric Recognition Techniques A Review

    OpenAIRE

    SHWETA GAUR; Shah, V. A.; MANISH THAKKER

    2013-01-01

    In today?s world automation is encompassing virtually every walk of life and human control functions are delegated to technical equipment. No doubt this results in emerging requirement of highly reliable personal identification system for authenticated access of resources and to reject imposters. Traditional password based verification systems can be easily hacked when a password is divulged to an unauthorized user. A number of biometric techniques have been proposedfor personal identificat...

  11. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M

    2011-01-01

    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  12. Operational dose rate visualization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the gamma ray dose rate in the vicinity of a radiation source can be greatly aided by the use of recent state-of-the-art visualization techniques. The method involves calculating dose rates at thousands of locations within a complex geometry system. This information is then processed to create contour plots of the dose rate. Additionally, when these contour plots are created, animations can be created that dynamically display the dose rate as the shields or sources are moved

  13. Synchrotron radiation - characteristics and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the unique features of Synchrotron Radiation Sources (SRS), with emphasis on the Daresbury SRS (United Kingdom). The properties of this radiation are described with respect to intensity, tuneability, collimation, polarisation, and time structure. The basic instrumentation of the SRS is outlined. The techniques employing the radiation, are discussed, particularly x-ray scattering, spectroscopy and UV photoemission. Future prospects for the SRS are briefly summarized. (U.K.)

  14. Video Compression Techniques: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay; Mahesh Prasad Parsai

    2014-01-01

    This article presents, the review of various compression algorithms used for the video compression. The video compression has become a basic requirement in the modern digital scenario. The video compression is started with the Motion JPEG and Motion JPEG2000. In which the each frame is consider as a picture for the JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression respectively. But these techniques do not use the video compression at all. Video signal has high temporal redundancies due to the high correlation b...

  15. Survey on FPGA Routing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Nagalakshmi Venugopal; Manimegalai, R.

    2012-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a programmable integrated circuit, has gained great popularity in the circuit design. Routing is an important part of FPGA design step which determines therouting in horizontal and vertical channels of FPGA. In this paper, a number of routing techniques are reviewed. FPGA routing can be achieved in various approaches like based on geometric routing, andbased on Boolean Satisfiability. The algorithms based on geometric routing are proved to be efficient al...

  16. Stereoscopic radiography techniques and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns novel techniques and apparatus for taking three-dimensional diagnostic x-ray pictures. One or more pictures are taken through a grid, which is moved relative to the film cassette, concomitantly with motion of the platform on which the patient is placed. The resulting laminographic image, when viewed through a lenticular screen, gives a three-dimensional x-ray picture. (N.D.H.)

  17. Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    P Ravi Teja, R. R. V. S. S. Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sci...

  18. Apheresis techniques and cellular immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J W

    1997-08-01

    Significant advances have been made in the capabilities to remove white blood cells (WBCs) from blood by both centrifugal and filtration techniques. New techniques have applications for both donor products (and their effects upon the recipients) and for selected disease therapeutics. The immunomodulatory effects of donor WBCs may be therapeutic, e.g., granulocytes harvested by apheresis may be used for the treatment of sepsis, or mononuclear cells collected by apheresis for peripheral blood progenitor (stem) cell transplantation or graft versus leukemia effect. In contrast, WBCs are removed from many transfusable components to decrease the immune effects in recipients. This has been accomplished primarily by the use of leukoreduction filters although newer adaptations of centrifugal equipment allow for the reduction of WBCs to target range of centrifuge has been used for treatment of the effects due to elevated levels of WBCs or platelets. More specific cellular immunotherapy has included lymphocytapheresis for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Various mononuclear cell fractions collected by apheresis have been used for lymphokine activated killer cells (LAK) and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) cell therapy or autologous stem cell transplantation. The development of WBC adsorbent filters for therapeutic use has evolved as nonspecific filter materials have been demonstrated to show selective WBC removal, and filter columns permit therapeutic reductions in WBCs using online filtration therapy. Specific adsorption techniques, e.g., CD-34 selection, are in use in vitro and indicate directions for further developments in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:10225738

  19. Control technique for planetary rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Ichiro; Kubota, Takashi; Adachi, Tadashi; Saitou, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Sinya

    1994-01-01

    Beginning next century, several schemes for sending a planetary rover to the moon or Mars are being planned. As part of the development program, autonomous navigation technology is being studied to allow the rover the ability to move autonomously over a long range of unknown planetary surface. In the previous study, we ran the autonomous navigation experiment on an outdoor test terrain by using a rover test-bed that was controlled by a conventional sense-plan-act method. In some cases during the experiment, a problem occurred with the rover moving into untraversable areas. To improve this situation, a new control technique has been developed that gives the rover the ability of reacting to the outputs of the proximity sensors, a reaction behavior if you will. We have developed a new rover test-bed system on which an autonomous navigation experiment was performed using the newly developed control technique. In this outdoor experiment, the new control technique effectively produced the control command for the rover to avoid obstacles and be guided to the goal point safely.

  20. Computational intelligence techniques in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Ghali, Neveen I

    2013-12-01

    Computational intelligence (CI) is a well-established paradigm with current systems having many of the characteristics of biological computers and capable of performing a variety of tasks that are difficult to do using conventional techniques. It is a methodology involving adaptive mechanisms and/or an ability to learn that facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments, such that the system is perceived to possess one or more attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery, association and abstraction. The objective of this article is to present to the CI and bioinformatics research communities some of the state-of-the-art in CI applications to bioinformatics and motivate research in new trend-setting directions. In this article, we present an overview of the CI techniques in bioinformatics. We will show how CI techniques including neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief network, fuzzy logic, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems and support vector machines, could be successfully employed to tackle various problems such as gene expression clustering and classification, protein sequence classification, gene selection, DNA fragment assembly, multiple sequence alignment, and protein function prediction and its structure. We discuss some representative methods to provide inspiring examples to illustrate how CI can be utilized to address these problems and how bioinformatics data can be characterized by CI. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are also presented and an extensive bibliography is included. PMID:23891719

  1. Lead Extraction: "Drag Through" Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop K. Gupta

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of extraction techniques of chronic pacemaker and defibrillator leads is to present an approach that is successful in extracting all leads and minimizes or eliminates complications. To extract a chronically implanted intravascular device, the device must be separated from the encapsulating inflammatory tissue. Three ablation techniques are currently used: mechanical, laser and electrosurgical. Indirect traction is traction applied by an instrument such as a snare passed into the heart, usually through a femoral vein. The lead is entrapped in the snare, and pulling or pushing applies traction. 1,2 The safety of this technique is enhanced by the ability to avoid those problems associated with the binding sites in the superior veins and right atrium. Indirect traction is more successful than direct traction. Countertraction is a method of safely extracting an electrode entrapped in fibrous tissue at the electrode-myocardial interface. It is defined as the countering of the traction on the lead by a sheath. A sheath of slightly larger diameter is passed over the lead to a point about 1 cm from the heart wall. Traction is applied on the lead, pulling the myocardial wall to the edge of the sheath, which counters the traction. Because only the scar tissue is present between the sheath and the heart wall, cardiac tissue is not in jeopardy.

  2. Soil-gas surveying techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrin, D.L.; Kerfoot, H.B.

    1988-07-01

    Delineation and remediation of subsurface contamination have become a major focus of environmental science during the past five years. Conventional technologies available for subsurface investigations always will be required to confirm and monitor subsurface contamination; however, quicker and less expensive techniques are useful for preliminary site evaluations. Soil-gas surveying is a technique that is applicable to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under a variety of geologic and hydrologic settings. The most common uses of soil-gas data include planning monitoring well networks and defining plume boundaries for remedial action. Preliminary screening techniques are effective in selecting locations for detailed sampling and analysis. Site investigators can use results from a preliminary soil-gas survey to drill monitoring wells at locations within the boundaries of a VOC volume. Soil-gas investigations also can be used to identify sources of VOCs and to distinguish between soil and groundwater contamination. Chemical analysis of soil gases has recently been used to monitor solvent and fuel leaks from underground storage tanks. In order to effectively design soil-gas surveys and interpret their results, the subsurface transport and fate of VOCs must be understood. These phenomena can have a profound impact on the presence and concentrations of VOCs in the soil atmosphere. Physical, chemical, and microbiological processes can be important in determining VOC concentrations in soil gas.

  3. Nuclear techniques in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear technology plays an integral part in research to improve the health and productivity of animals. The use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in animal agriculture is briefly reviewed. The radioimmunoassay techniques give the opportunity of measuring and following precisely hormonal patterns in animals over the reproductive cycle. Simply by analysing a sample of blood, milk, or other body fluid, minute hormone concentrations can be assayed and the reproductive status of the animal assessed. The radioimmunoassay procedure uses antigens which are isotopically labelled, usually with 125I, and antibodies specifically developed for each hormone. The onset of sexual maturity, of oestrus, or the influence of environmental, nutritional or other factors on the reproductive state of an animal can be studied. An example of the use of the radioimmunoassay technique is illustrated in the coordinated research program of the IAEA which focuses on improving domestic buffalo production. Nuclear techniques, particularly the use of stable and radioactive tracers are providing important insights into the functioning of the digestive system of ruminants, its qualitative dynamics and metabolism. For assessing the products of the rumen, particularly volatile fatty acids which become an energy source, and microbial proteins which become a protein source for the animal, materials labelled with 14C, 3H, 35S, 15N and 3235S, 15N and 32P are used. As an illustrative example, the results of one study of nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein and rumen bypass protein synthesis in cattle are shown

  4. NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR IMAGE DENOISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Gupta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the field of image processing grew from electrical engineering as an extension of the signal processing branch. The massive amount of data required for images is a primary reason for the development of many sub areas ithin the field of computer imaging such as image segmentation and compression. Whatever may be the way of transmission, the data tends to get noisy and thereby the further processing does not lead to good results. Hence, it is very essential to keep the data close to originality. The prime focus of this paper is related to the pre processing of an image. The preprocessing being worked upon is the denoising of images. In this paper, a new threshold estimation technique has been presented along with the standard thresholding and filtering techniques. And a comparative analysis of different denoising methods has been carried out very efficiently. The simulation results show that the proposed threshold estimation technique has superior features compared to conventional methods. This makes it an efficient method in image denoising applications; it can also remove the noise and retain the image details better.

  5. Gas Well Testing Analysis Using Finite-Difference Models and Optimization Techniques Analyse d'essais de puits de gaz par des modèles utilisant la méthode des différences finies et par des techniques d'optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darderes E. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In reservoir engineering studies of gas fields, three important parameters are needed: the permeability-thickness product, the skin factor, and the inertial-turbulent factor. Several methods have been proposed to determine these parameters from gas well tests. The most powerful one is the pseudo-steady state analysis, where a linear dependence on a semilogarithmic plot is found between the real gas pseudo-pressure and time. Another one is the type-curve matching. Both have drawbacks because they can be rigorously applied only to specific cases. An automated type-curve match, which provides a general method to analyze well test data, is presented in this paper. It is based on the adjustment of a numerical model to gas well test data, by means of optimization techniques. The numerical model is the solution of the second order strongly non-linear partial differential equation which rules the radial flow of real gases towards a well. The differential equation is solved by finite-differences, taking into account the variation of gas properties with pressure. In order to simulate any gas well test, appropriate initial and boundary conditions are imposed. The least squares method is used to minimize residual differences between actual pressures measured during test and computed pressures. Two optimization techniques are applied to obtain the best estimate of parameters that minimize the sum of the square of the residuals: the univariate method of Fibonacci [1] and the multivariate method of Marquardt [1, 2]. This procedure is applied to a single-rate and a two-rate drawdown test. Numerical results showed excellent agreement with well test data. Les études de gisements de gaz rendent indispensables la connaissance de trois paramètres importants : la capacité de flux (produit de la perméabilité par l'épaisseur de la couche productrice, l'effet de peau et le facteur d'inertie et de turbulence. On connaît plusieurs méthodes pour déterminer ces paramètres à partir d'essais de puits de gaz. Une des plus performantes est l'analyse du régime pseudo-permanent pour lequel on trouve, sur un graphique semi-logarithmique, une relation linéaire entre la pseudo-pression d'un gaz réel et le temps. Une autre méthode est l'ajustement à des courbes types. Les deux méthodes présentent l'inconvénient de ne pouvoir être rigoureusement appliquées qu'à des cas spécifiques. Cet article expose une méthode générale permettant d'analyser les données des essais de puits par ajustement automatisé des courbes types. Elle est basée sur le meilleur accord d'un modèle numérique avec les données obtenues dans les essais de puits de gaz grâce à des techniques d'optimisation. Le modèle numérique fournit la solution d'une équation différentielle à dérivées partielles du 2e ordre et fortement non linéaire qui régit le flux radial des gaz réels vers un puits de production. L'équation différentielle est résolue par la méthode des différences finies en tenant compte des variations des propriétés des gaz avec la pression. Pour simuler n'importe quel type d'essais de puits de gaz, on impose des conditions initiales et aux limites appropriées. On minimise les différences résiduelles entre les pressions réelles mesurées pendant l'essai et les pressions calculées par la méthode des moindres carrés. On utilise deux techniques d'optimisation pour obtenir la meilleure estimation des paramètres qui minimisent la somme des carrés des résidus : la méthode monovariante de Fibonacci [1] et la méthode polyvariante de Marquardt [1, 2]. On applique ce mode opératoire à des essais de puits menés à un débit constant et à deux débits constants. Les résultats numériques concordent très bien avec les données des essais de puits.

  6. Adaptation des techniques de forage à la recherche et à l'équipement des stockages souterrains de gaz naturel Adapting Drilling Techniques to the Search for and Equipment of Underground Natural-Gas Storage Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandin J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour répondre à la modulation annuelle de la consommation de gaz, le Gaz de France a décidé, il y a une trentaine d'années, de stocker du gaz, soit dans des nappes aquifères, soit dans des cavités salines. La recherche de structures géologiques aptes à recevoir ce gaz, la réalisation et l'équipement de puits d'exploration ou d'exploitation, l'entretien de ces puits et le contrôle des stockages ont été confiés au Département réservoirs souterrains de la Direction des études et techniques nouvelles. Les phases d'exploration et de développement d'un stockage souterrain nécessitent le forage de puits du type pétrolier. Ces sondages permettent, d'une part la récupération d'un maximum de renseignements concernant les différentes couches géologiques traversées et l'évaluation de leur aptitude à stocker le gaz, et d'autre part, d'assurer une exploitation optimale et fiable du stockage dans les meilleures conditions de sécurité. La pratique acquise dans l'exécution de ces forages par le Gaz de France lui a permis d'adapter aux stockages souterrains de nombreuses techniques des forages pétroliers. Parallèlement des procédés originaux ont pu être mis au point pour répondre à certaines exigences particulières du forage des puits de réservoirs souterrains, notamment à celles concernant le bon calibrage du trou foré ou la qualité des cimentations des cuvelages. L'article présente l'ensemble de ces adaptationset pratiques originales; bien que ne prétendant rien d'autre qu'apporter une contribution au chapitre problèmes particuliers des forages pour stockages souterrains de la technique pétrolière, certaines de celles-ci devraient pouvoir, en retour, trouver des applications intéressantes dans les forages pétroliers de moyenne profondeur. About 30 years ago and with a view to keep pace with the annual variation of gas consumption, Gaz de France decided to store gas in either aquifer layers or salt cavities. The search for geological structures suitable for holding this gas, the drilling and equipment of exploration or production wells, their maintenance and the controlling of such storage facilities were entrusted to the Underground Reservoirs Department of the Service for Research and New Technologies. The exploration and development phases of an underground storage facility require the drilling of petroleum-type wells. Such boreholes are used to recover the maximum amount of information concerning the different geological layers crossed and to assess their suitability for storing gas. At the same time, they must be capable of ensuring the optimal and reliable exploitation of the storage facilities under the best possible safety conditions. The practical drilling experience acquired by Gaz de France enabled it to adapt many petroleum drilling techniques to underground storage facilities. At the same time, original procedures were developed to cope with various specific requirements inherent to drilling wells into underground reservoirs, particularly requirements concerning the proper sizing of boreholes and casing cementation quality. This article describes all these adaptations and original developments. Primarily a contribution to the field of Specific Problems in Boreholes for Underground Storage Facilitiesamong petroleum technologies, some of these developments should in turn result in interesting applications in medium-depth oil and gas wells.

  7. EDITORIAL: Imaging systems and techniques Imaging systems and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George; Nikita, Konstantina; Pastorino, Matteo; Karras, Dimitrios

    2009-10-01

    The papers in this special issue focus on providing the state-of-the-art approaches and solutions to some of the most challenging imaging areas, such as the design, development, evaluation and applications of imaging systems, measuring techniques, image processing algorithms and instrumentation, with an ultimate aim of enhancing the measurement accuracy and image quality. This special issue explores the principles, engineering developments and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, and encourages broad discussion of imaging methodologies, shaping the future and identifying emerging trends. The multi-faceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment and technological evolution. There is an urgent need to address new problems, which tend to be either static but complex, or dynamic, e.g. rapidly evolving with time, with many unknowns, and to propose innovative solutions. For instance, the battles against cancer and terror, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, management of natural resources and environmental monitoring are some of the areas that need to be addressed. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios and demanding design parameters, e.g. speed, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), specificity, contrast, spatial resolution, scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environments, necessitate the development of a multi-functional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, and operation on diverse detection and imaging principles. Efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level present another important research area. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, and using high-resolution, high-selectivity nano-imaging methods, quantum dots, nanoparticles, biomarkers, nanostructures, nanosensors, micro-array imaging chips and nano-clinics for optical diagnostics and targeted therapy, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. These techniques can also be used to provide efficient drug delivery for treatment of other diseases, with increased sensitivity and specificity. Similarly, enhanced stand-off detection, classification, identification and surveillance techniques, for comprehensive civilian and military target protection and enhanced space situational awareness can open new frontiers of research and applications in the defence arena and homeland security. For instance, the development of potential imaging sensor architectures, enhanced remote sensing systems, ladars, lidars and radars can provide data capable of ensuring continuous monitoring of various imaging/physical/chemical parameters under different operating conditions, using both active and passive detection principles, reconfigurable and scalable focal plane array architectures, reliable systems for stand-off detection of explosives, and enhanced airport security. The above areas pose challenging problems to the technical community and indicate an ever-growing need for innovative and auspicious solutions. We would like to thank all authors for their valuable contributions, without which this special issue would not have become reality.

  8. REDVET y RECVET están disponibles desde la biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos artículos publicados en REDVET y en RECVET son inmediatamente accesibles desde la Biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia, con sede en Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia, Suramérica, donde las dos revistas científicas editadas por Veterinaria Organización aparece en el área de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia junto a la Bases de datos bibliográficas de la Biblioteca Agropecuaria de Colombia (BAC del Centro Internacional de Agricultura tropical (CIAT y la Biblioteca de la FAO (Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación.

  9. Recursos disponibles para la recuperación de información sobre salud en Internet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Guillermo, Elizondo Herrera.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El Internet se ha convertido en un fenómeno social en nuestros tiempos y en un apoyo vital para el desarrollo de las investigaciones en salud.El hecho de que es una herramienta para recuperar información e investigar no se discute.Las ciencias de la información avanzan a grandes pasos y los profesio [...] nales en salud que se apoyan o tienen contacto con la realidad de Internet,encuentran difícil seguir este paso,lo que disminuye la efectividad y eficiencia con que se utiliza este recurso.Motivado en los hechos previos,se realizó una revisión de algunos recursos encontrados en la red de redes,Internet,y se plantea una estrategia de búsqueda de información para recuperarla en un motor de búsqueda y,así,resolver las preguntas clínicas diarias.En especial,se focaliza la revisión del tema sobre los motores de búsqueda Pubmed y Google.Basado inicialmente en la construcción de una pregunta para hallar información mediante la metodología PICO,el profesional se orienta para definir los términos de búsqueda que le permitirán recuperar información con varios niveles de rigurosidad científica y aplicable a varias latitudes.Finalmente,se comentan algunas limitaciones que existen en torno a la recuperación de información y las oportunidades que ofrecen las iniciativas para la Web semántica.

  10. Bioensayo microbiano para estimar los nutrimentos disponibles en los abonos organicos: calibracion en el campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se demostr6 recientemente que el aumento nude la biomasa microbiana en una mezcla de sue- calo: abono organico (9:1, suplementada con gluco- sa como fuente de carbono, fue proporcional al crecimiento de una planta indicadora (sorgo cre- cida en el mismo sustrato. En la presente investi- gaci6n se determina si este bioensayo es de utili- dad como gufa en la fertilizaci6n de los cultivos con abonos organicos, mediante la siembra en el campo de chile dulce (Capsicum annuum L. y to- mate (Lycopersicum esculentum L. como plantas indicadoras. Los tratamientos consistieron de sue- 10 solo 0 en mezcla con 10% de abonos organicos amende contenido de nutrimentos contrastante a saber: pollinaza (CM, compost (C, bocashi (B, vermi- macompost (V y broza de cafe (Br. En el bioensa- vermicomyo microbiano se utiliz6 un disefio de bloques randocompletos al azar con 6 repeticiones, la biomasa microbiana (BM se midi6 2 dfas despues de in- cubar con glucosa. En los ensayos de campo las plantas indicadoras se sembraron en un disefio de bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. En chile dulce se midi6 el peso seco (600 C de la comparte aerea de la planta (PSC y el peso fresco de frutos verdes (PFF a los 97 dfas despues de la Microsiembra. El peso seco de la parte aerea de las amendplantas de tomate (PST fue medido a los 32 dfas. Los abonos organicos CM, C y B indujeron la mayor BM y tambien el mayor PSC, PFF Y PST, indicaci6n de que fueron los de mayor y mas in- mediato suministro de nutrimentos, contrario al y Br que mostraron los valores mas bajos para es- tas variables (P<0.05. Estos 2 abonos, respecto vatratamiento de CM presentaron 3 y 5 veces menos BM y 2 Y 4 veces menos biomasa aerea, respecti- vamente (P<0.05. Las correlaciones altas obteni- codas entre la BM y el PSC (r=0.87 y entre la BM y el PST (r= 0.93, permiten concluir que bioensayo microbiano es un metoda promisorio para pronosticar el suministro de nutrimentos orlos abonos organicos a los cultivos bajo condicio- determines de campo y en consecuencia puede ser una excelente gufa en su dosificaci6n.

  11. Soil water regime analysis in spruce ecosystem in relation to its disponibility towards drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Tužinský

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Climatic changes, especially increase in the air temperature, decrease of precipitation totals and increase in potential evapotranspiration can be observed at high altitudes, too. This results in alternation of variously long humid and dry periods, which in case of the mountain spruce stands reduces or even disables the transport of available water and nutrients for plants.Moisture regime with a very good available water supply is generally limited only to winter season and for a short time to the beginning of the vegetation season, too. The greatest changes in moisture can be observed especially in summer (July, August.In case of dry and warm periods occurrence, in consequence of increased evapotranspiration (>5 mm.day-1, mainly in the process of water use by trees, the intensive loss in the soil water in a relatively short time can be observed. Consequently, the hydropedological cycles with limited available water storage take part. The biggest danger threatens the spruce resulting from the insufficient available water supply in the upper layers of the soil, where the occurrence of sucking roots is the highest. In the case of a long contact loss of roots and capillary water the physiological weakening, worsening of the health conditions or even liquidation of the spruce stands can be observed.

  12. Perfil nutricional y microbiológico de los embutidos de soya disponibles en Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Monge; María Laura, Arias; Thelma, Alfaro; Manuel, Jiménez.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la calidad nutricional y microbiológica de 80 muestras de embutidos de soya (50% mortadela y 50% salchicha). El promedio de proteína en la mortadela fue de 17,5g/100 g y en la salchicha 20g/100g. El contenido de grasa total fue de 5.5g/100g para ambos productos; no obstante, se hallaron d [...] iferencias altamente significativas (0.0000) en el contenido de los diferentes ácidos grasos entre ambos productos y en las muestras de un mismo producto dependiendo de la industria que los elaborara. Las mayores diferencias se evidenciaron en los niveles de ácido palmítico (C16:0), ácido oleico (C18:1) y ácido linoleico (C18:2). En ninguna muestra se evidenció la presencia de colesterol. El índice de aterogenicidad promedio para mortadela fue 0.55 y para salchicha 0.59. El consumo de 25 gramos de proteína de soya derivada de estos embutidos puede generar aportar entre el 20-90% de la cantidad de ácidos grasos saturados recomendada por día. Así mismo, puede brindar entre el 12-70% de la cantidad de ácidos graso s poliinsaturados recomendada por día. Estas variaciones responden a las importantes diferencias en la especiación de ácidos grasos evidenciadas según la marca del producto. El 20% de los embutidos estudiados mostraron niveles de coliformes totales> 10(4)/g, lo cual fue más frecuente en la salchicha. El 60% de las muestras de este embutido y el 10% de las muestras de mortadela mostraron niveles de psicrótrofos > 10(6)/g. En ninguna de las muestras se evidenció Escherichia coli y en el 5% Clostridium perfringens en niveles mayores a 10²/g. Los resultados señalan la urgente necesidad de implementar un sistema de control de calidad de los embutidos de soya, antes que las autoridades de salud consideren respaldar las campañas nutricionales que promuevan el consumo de los mismos. Abstract in english Nutritional and microbiological profile of soy bean sausages available in Costa Rica. The nutritional and microbiological quality of 80 soybean sausage samples (50% frankfurter and 5% sausage mortadela) was studied. On average, the protein content was 17 ,5g/100g in sausage mortadela and 20g/100g in [...] frankfurter.the mean total fat content was 5,5g/100g for both products. However when products of different manufacture industries were compared, a highly significant difference (p= 0,0000) in the fatty acids speciation between both groups and between samples of the same product were found. Bigger differences were found in the content of palmitic acid(C16:0), oleic acid (C18:l) and linoleic acid (C18:2). Cholesterol was not detected in samples analyzed. On average the atherogenicity index was 0,55 for sausage mortadela and 0,59 for frankfurter. A consumption of 25 grams of soybean protein from these sausages can bring an intake of saturated fatty acids between 20-90% of the daily recommendation. Likewise, they can supply between 12-70% of the recommended daily polyunsaturated fattly acids. These variations are owing to the big difference in fatty acids speciation in each sausage brand. Around 20% of soybean sausages studied showed total coliform levels above l0(4)/g, being more frequent in sausage mortadela. Also 60% of this product and 10% of frankfurters showed psychrotroph levels of 10(6)/g. Clostridium perfringens, in levels above 10²/g was evidenciated in 5% of samples, Escherichia coli was not isolated from them. The findings of this study suggest the urgent need for implementing a quality control system for soybean sausages, before national health authorities consider to support nutritional campaings that promote their consumption.

  13. Gestion communale du patrimoine arboré non forestier : aperçu des moyens disponibles

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R.; Toussaint A.; Campanella B.; Empain C.

    2008-01-01

    Urban tree management in walloon municipalities: overview of available means. A survey has been sent in 2006 to the 262 municipalities from Wallonia concerning their green areas management and particularly focused on local arboricultural heritage. The questionnaire was structured by 3 themes: (1) the managed heritage, (2) economical and technical means available for municipalities, (3) available management tools. Fifty-three answers have been gathered which represent 20.2%. This enquiry gives...

  14. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE EN SUELO ABONADO CON ESTIÉRCOL BOVINO EN MAÍZ FORRAJERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Salazar-Sosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en la Región Lagunera, la cual se localiza en la parte central de la porción norte de México. Se encuentra ubicada en los meridianos 102° 22' y 104° 47' O, y los paralelos 24° 22' y 26° 23' N; la altitud es de 1139 m. Los trabajos se realizaron en el campo agrícola experimental de la Facultad de Agricultura y Zootecnia, División de Estudios de Posgrado de la Universidad Juárez del estado de Durango. El objetivo fue determinar la mejor dosis de estiércol para la producción de maíz (Zea mays L. y maíz asociado con soya (Glycine max L., así como medir la lixiviación de los nitratos a través del perfil del suelo. Los tratamientos de estiércol probados en el estudio fueron 0, 40, 80, 120 y 160Mg ha-1 de estiércol y un testigo químico de 100-150-00 (N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1 aplicados durante cinco años en forma consecutiva. Los resultados indican que hubo mejor respuesta en el tratamiento de 120 seguido del de 160 Mg ha-1, con una producción superior a los 100 Mg ha-1 de forraje verde. Las concentraciones de nitratos en el perfil del suelo muestran diferentes cantidades en cada tratamiento de estiércol, sin embargo, en todos se aprecia una tendencia a la baja en las profundidades de 180 y 210 cm con valores desde 330 mg kg-1 en el primer estrato de 0 a 30 cm hasta menos de 100 mg kg-1 a una profundidad de 150 cm. El amonio tiene su máxima concentración en los primeros 30 cm de profundidad con 20 mg kg-1 luego baja hasta 10 en el resto del perfil. La materia orgánica (MO alcanzó hasta 6% en los primeros 30 cm de profundidad para luego decrecer a 1.5 en el siguiente estrato (30-60 y continuó bajando conforme se incrementó la profundidad. La conductividad eléctrica también siguió esta tendencia solo que los valores más altos llegan hasta 13 dS m-1 en el estrato 0-15 cm de profundidad, luego bajó a dos conforme aumentó la profundidad.

  15. Incremental Conductance MPPT Technique FOR PV System

    OpenAIRE

    Srushti R Chafle, Uttam B. Vaidya

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays solar energy has great importance. Because it is easily available resource for energy generation. But the only problem is efficiency of solar system. And to increase its efficiency many MPPT techniques are used. Large number of papers were published on Maximum Power Point techniques (MPPT). And therefore many techniques are available for use. These techniques differs in many aspects. Incremental conductance is one of the important technique in this system and because of its higher st...

  16. Personalization techniques and recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Uchyigit, Gulden

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the Internet has resulted in huge amounts of online information, a situation that is overwhelming to the end users. To overcome this problem, personalization technologies have been extensively employed. The book is the first of its kind, representing research efforts in the diversity of personalization and recommendation techniques. These include user modeling, content, collaborative, hybrid and knowledge-based recommender systems. It presents theoretic research in the context of various applications from mobile information access, marketing and sales and web services,

  17. Averaging techniques for OCT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkulmowski, Maciej; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-04-22

    State-of-the-art Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for the acquisition of up to millions of spectral fringes per second. This large amount of data can be used to improve the quality of structural tomograms after effective averaging. Here, we compare three OCT image improvement techniques: magnitude averaging, complex averaging, and spectral and time domain OCT (STdOCT). We evaluate the performance for images on both linear and logarithmic intensity scales and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We propose the use of the STdOCT approach as it offers the best advantages. Applications to in vivo imaging and speckle reduction are presented. PMID:23609683

  18. Intraoperative irradiation techniques and results

    CERN Document Server

    Gunderson, Leonard L; Calvo, Felipe A

    2011-01-01

    The rationale for using intraoperative irradiation (IORT) is based on the realization that tolerable doses of external beam radiation are often insufficient to achieve control of locally advanced malignancies. In these instances, the IORT component of treatment becomes the optimal conformal technique of irradiation, since dose-limiting organs or structures can either be surgically displaced or protected by placement of lead shielding. This fully revised and expanded second edition is of interest to those with intraoperative electron (IOERT) capabilities, high-does-rate brachytherapy (HDR-IORT)

  19. Study on Image Steganography Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri, C.; Kalpana, V.

    2013-01-01

    Steganography is a secret Communication to hide the secret Data. It is an invisible communication that hides data like text, image, and audio, video etc .The secret message is inserted into the image files. The image files can use stego-key to hide the data and the resultant image is called as stego-image. This is most important for the internet users to share their secret data in an efficient manner. Steganography plays an important role in defence. Various steganographic techniques areanaly...

  20. Improved Lattice Renormalization Group Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, Gregory; Cheng, Anqi; Hasenfratz, Anna; Schaich, David

    2013-01-01

    We compute the bare step-scaling function $s_b$ for SU(3) lattice gauge theory with $N_f = 12$ massless fundamental fermions, using the non-perturbative Wilson-flow-optimized Monte Carlo Renormalization Group two-lattice matching technique. We use a short Wilson flow to approach the renormalized trajectory before beginning RG blocking steps. By optimizing the length of the Wilson flow, we are able to determine an $s_b$ corresponding to a unique discrete $\\beta$ function, aft...

  1. Measurement Techniques for Clock Jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Schlesinger, Adam

    2012-01-01

    NASA is in the process of modernizing its communications infrastructure to accompany the development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to replace the shuttle. With this effort comes the opportunity to infuse more advanced coded modulation techniques, including low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that offer greater coding gains than the current capability. However, in order to take full advantage of these codes, the ground segment receiver synchronization loops must be able to operate at a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than supported by equipment currently in use.

  2. EPR techniques for space biodosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Hayes, R.; Kenner, G.; Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.

    1996-12-31

    Retrospective dosimetry of tooth enamel has become an increasingly complex and difficult discipline to undertake while still attaining accuracy. The paper provides a review of the major obstacles, advances and pertinent phenomenon associated with low level retrospective dosimetry of human tooth enamel. Also covered is the many sources of error in EPR dosimetry, their potential solutions, as well as the different analysis and scanning techniques in use with their prospective pros and cons. Prospective directions for new approaches, methods, and instruments are also reviewed.

  3. Negotiation Techniques (That Really Work!)

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffman, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Sales is all about negotiation. Price. Delivery. Terms. And every day, salespeople leave money on the table. They just don't have the skills to get what they want. Now Stephan Schiffman, drawing on years of experience, shows you how to nail the sale, hit quotas, and boost the bottom line. Schiffman-style negotiation is all about getting the best deal. And he outlines specific techniques to get there. Things can be tough out there. But with Schiffman's negotiation skills in your pocket, you can do battle and win.

  4. Tracing Technique for Blaster Attack

    CERN Document Server

    S., Siti Rahayu; S., Shahrin; A., Faizal M; M, Mohd Zaki; R, Irda

    2009-01-01

    Blaster worm of 2003 is still persistent, the infection appears to have successfully transitioned to new hosts as the original systems are cleaned or shut off, suggesting that the Blaster worm, and other similar worms, will remain significant Internet threats for many years after their initial release. This paper is to propose technique on tracing the Blaster attack from various logs in different OSI layers based on fingerprint of Blaster attack on victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. The researchers intended to do a preliminary investigation upon this particular attack so that it can be used for further research in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  5. Text Summarization using Clustering Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali R. Deshpande #1 , Lobo L. M. R. J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A summarization system consists of reduction of a text document to generate a new form which conveys the key meaning of the contained text.Due to the problem of information overload, access to sound and correctly-developed summaries is necessary. Text summarization is the most challenging task in information retrieval. Data reduction helps a user to find required information quickly without wasting time and effort in reading the whole document collection. This paper presents a combined approach to document and sentence clustering as an extractive technique of summarization

  6. Experimental techniques in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of experimental techniques involving wide varieties of nuclear radiation detection methods are required to carry out research in different areas of nuclear physics. The progress in the design and operation of nuclear radiation detectors in various applications has been very rapid and a periodic review in this field is always appropriate. The present report, while dealing with the general principles of particle and radiation detection using conventional detectors of gas, scintillator and semiconductor types, also gives an update of the recent developments in sophisticated detector systems which are built to meet the requirements of present day nuclear physics experiments. (author)

  7. An Effective Fingerprint Verification Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoi, Minakshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method for fingerprint verification based on a data mining technique called minutiae clustering and a graph-theoretic approach to analyze the process of fingerprint comparison to give a feature space representation of minutiae and to produce a lower bound on the number of detectably distinct fingerprints. The method also proving the invariance of each individual fingerprint by using both the topological behavior of the minutiae graph and also using a distance measure called Hausdorff distance.The method provides a graph based index generation mechanism of fingerprint biometric data. The self-organizing map neural network is also used for classifying the fingerprints.

  8. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  9. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  10. Liquid wastes. Membrane separation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEA Cadarache laboratory is involved in researches concerning applications of membrane techniques for ionic, molecular and particulate separation: reverse osmosis, nano-filtration, ultrafiltration, and micro-filtration. Non-nuclear applications are related to various industries (mechanics, paper, food, textile, surface treatment, etc.). Nuclear applications in the field of liquid waste decontamination, concern the concentration of mineral suspension and the control of their salinity through micro-filtration, as well as the radiochemical decontamination of highly or medium saline effluents through nano-filtration

  11. Development of applied optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report resents the status of researches on the applications of lasers at KAERI. A compact portable laser fluorometer detecting uranium desolved in aqueous solution was built. The laser-induced fluorescence of uranium was detected with a photomultiplier tube. A delayed gate circuit and an integrating circuit were used to process the electrical signal. A small nitrogen laser was used to excite uranium. The detecting limit is about 0.1 ppb. The effect of various acidic solutions was investigated. Standard addition technique was incorporated to improve the measuring accuracy. This instrument can be used for safety inspection of workers in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (Author)

  12. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  13. Analytical techniques in radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation processing which applies gamma, X rays , or fast electrons for inducing the changes in the material's chemical, physical of biological properties has been introduced in many fields. Quite a few applications are related to the health and environmental protection. Sterilization of health-care products and food irradiation belongs to the first group. The second covers flue gas and wastewater treatment .Radiation sterilization or food irradiation plants are in regular operation in many countries all over the world. Their role in medical hygiene, food borne diseases control, tissue banking can not be overestimated.Quality control is a very important issue concerning these processes; dosimetry, microbiology, content of pollutants and radiolytic products are all based on physico-chemical and biological analyses . Since the changes are very small and concentration of investigated substances very low, advanced or special development methods have to be applied. They concern photometry, ESR, luminescence and others. Regarding environmental protection, first introduced limits for emission of pollutants concerned gram quantities. Nowadays emission limits for sulphur and nitrogen oxides, small diameter particulate (smaller than 2.5 or 10 microns) are given in milligrams, while concentrations of heavy metals (including mercury) or poly aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e. dioxins) are in nanograms even. Therefore, monitoring techniques are of the biggest importance for iniques are of the biggest importance for implementation of radiation technologies for environment conservation. Two industrial plants for flue gas purification at coal fired power stations are in operation. The monitoring system for ppm's quantities of nitrogen and sulphur oxide, ammonium, ozone are substantial components of the system. The by-product being used as a fertilizer is controlled for composition and heavy metal content. The technology can be used for VOC and PAH (dioxins) control as well, HCPL/MS techniques should be used in this case and sampling is quite a sophisticated procedure. Stable isotope tracers are utilized to investigate process mechanism as well. Wastewater pollutants treatment plant using electron accelerator as a source of radiation has been constructed as well. HCLP/MS and other techniques are used to record performance of the plant. Solutions presented in the paper are the example of the role which analytical techniques play in modern technology development. (author)

  14. Monitoring techniques for airborne radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring techniques for airborne radioiodine, based on the findings at JAERI and the works elsewhere are described: 1) Properties of the airborne radioiodine encountered in radiation work. 2) Performance of the iodine sampler consisting of a cellulose asbestos filter paper and a charcoal-loaded filter paper or charcoal cartridges, or the three. 3) Improvement of the sampler by use of charcoal impregnated with chemicals such as triethylenediamine (TEDA) or by dehumidification through heating the sampling air. 4) Practices of the monitoring in radiation protection. Problems in environmental monitoring of the airborne radioiodine from a light water power reactors and fuel reprocessing plants are also presented. (auth.)

  15. Measurements techniques for transportation noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The noise from transport systems (roads, railways and aircraft) are increasing more and more both in space and in time and, therefore, they are still the major factor responsible for environmental noise pollution. The population exposed to transport noise is also increasing, and the corresponding health effects on people (i.e. annoyance and sleep disturbance) become more severe. Due to this current situation international and national legislation has been issued and implemented to reduce the harmful effects of such noise. This paper describes the techniques prescribed by recent Italian legislation to measure road, railway and aircraft noise. (author)

  16. Binaural localization and separation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Viste, Harald

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Based on binaural signals, i.e. the signals observed at the two ears, a listener can localize and recognize different sound sources and then focus on one of these. For decades, researchers have tried to invent a machine that can do the same under similar conditions. Despite all the efforts, the human auditory system is, by far, superior to any machine that has been devised. The topic of this thesis is computational techniques for the localization and separation of sources in binaural...

  17. Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirovski, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

  18. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  19. Scalable intelligent electronic catalogs

    OpenAIRE

    Torrens Arnal, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Le monde d'aujourd'hui est rempli de systèmes d'information qui rendent disponibles d'énormes quantités de données. Cet incroyable quantité d'information surpasse clairement l'utilisateur d'Internet. C'est pourquoi des outils intelligents permettant d'identifier les informations pertinentes sont nécessaire pour pouvoir aider les personnes à trouver l' information adéquate. De plus, la plupart des systèmes sont finalement utilisés non seulement pour trouver de l'information mais éga...

  20. Coherent Time Modeling of semi-Markov Models with Application to Real-Time Audio-to-Score Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Cuvillier, Philippe; Cont, Arshia

    2014-01-01

    Ce papier propose une nouvel éclairage sur la question de la modélisation des durées dans les algorithmes de reconnaissance, lorsque les événements reconnus sont inférés à partir de signaux temporels au moyen d'un modèle probabiliste. Si une connaissance a priori sur la durée nominale des événements est disponible, les modèles de Markov et de semi-Markov cachés permettent de choisir en fonction les distributions de durées de chaque événement, mais laissent ce choix complètem...

  1. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR OFDM USING CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Elangovan,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has recently been applied in wireless communication systems due to its high data rate transmission capability with high bandwidth efficiency and its robustness to multi-path delay. Fading is the one of the major aspect which is considered in the receiver. To cancel the effect of fading, channel estimation and equalization procedure must be done at the receiver before data demodulation. Many channel estimation and equalization algorithms are studied in the literatures. This projectmainly deals with pilot based channel estimation techniques for OFDM communication over frequency selective fading channels. Mainly three prediction algorithms are used in the equalizer to estimate the channel responses namely, Least Mean Square (LMS, Normalized LMS (NLMS and Recursive Least Square (RLS algorithm. These three algorithms are considered in this work and their performances are statistically compared by using computer simulations.

  2. Radionuclide tracer techniques in haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first two chapters cover the basic properties of radionuclides and the instrumentation currently used for their detection and measurement. The body of the book includes chapters on the measurement of blood volume and of cell survival, ferrokinetic studies (59Fe, 55Fe, and 52Fe are discussed), the use of external counters and of imaging techniques; a chapter on absorption, loss and clearance studies includes a discussion of vitamin B12 and iron absorption. Throughout, the theory, practice, interpretation and clinical usefulness of each test is discussed and sufficient practical detail is included to allow the book to be used as a laboratory workbook. Appendices include descriptions of 51Cr labelling of red cells, heat-damaged red cells and platelets, sup(99m)Tc labelling of red cells and heat-damaged red cells, 111In labelling of platelets, Indium and Iron labelling of transferrin, a derivation of Dornhorst's equation for cell survival, calibration of imaging equipment, and radioassay techniques. (U.K.)

  3. Time resolved techniques: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron sources provide exceptional opportunities for carrying out time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. The high intensity, high angular resolution, and continuously tunable energy spectrum of synchrotron x-ray beams lend themselves directly to carrying out sophisticated time-resolved x-ray scattering measurements on a wide range of materials and phenomena. When these attributes are coupled with the pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources, entirely new time-resolved scattering possibilities are opened. Synchrotron beams typically consist of sub-nanosecond pulses of x-rays separated in time by a few tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds so that these beams appear as continuous x-ray sources for investigations of phenomena on time scales ranging from hours down to microseconds. Studies requiring time-resolution ranging from microseconds to fractions of a nanosecond can be carried out in a triggering mode by stimulating the phenomena under investigation in coincidence with the x-ray pulses. Time resolution on the picosecond scale can, in principle, be achieved through the use of streak camera techniques in which the time structure of the individual x-ray pulses are viewed as quasi-continuous sources with ?100--200 picoseconds duration. Techniques for carrying out time-resolved scattering measurements on time scales varying from picoseconds to kiloseconds at present and proposed synchrotron sources are discussed and examples of time-resolved studies are cited. 17 refs., 8 figs

  4. New Techniques in Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas Okkels

    2014-01-01

    Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher potential performance than any existing facility, however in order to use this pulse structure optimally many existing neutron scattering instruments will need to be redesigned. This defense will concentrate on the design and optimization of the inverse time-of-flight cold neutron spectrometer CAMEA. The instrument is ideally suited for solid state experiments with extreme sample environments such as large pressures and strong magnetic fields. CAMEA combines the time-of-flight technique to determine the energy of the incoming neutrons with a complex multiplex backend that will analyse and detect an unprecedented large fraction of neutrons scattered in the horizontal plane. Together with the ESS source this will produce an instrument that promises several orders of magnitude higher performance than the best currently existing neutron spectrometers. The design of CAMEA involved kinematic calculations, simulations and prototyping to optimize the instrument and ensure that it will deliver the predicted performance when constructed. During the design a new prismatic analyser concept that can be of interest to many other neutron spectrometers was developed. The design work was compiled into an instrument proposal for the European Spallation Source, and approved for construction. CAMEA will thus be constructed in Copenhagen as a Swiss-Danish contribution to ESS.

  5. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design

  6. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal

    2011-05-31

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  7. Video Compression Techniques: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Zaidan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new comparative study of video compression techniques was presented. Due to the rapid developments in internet technology and computers, popularity of video streaming applications is rapidly growing. Therefore today, storing and transmitting uncompressed raw video requires large storage space and network bandwidth. Special algorithms which take these characteristics of the video into account can compress the video with high compression ratios. This study demonstrates the representative efforts on video compression and presents the properties and limitations of: H.261, H.263, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, MPEG-7 and H.264. However, we show that H.264 entails significant improvements in coding efficiency, latency, complexity and robustness. It provides new possibilities for creating better video encoders and decoders that provide higher quality video streams at maintained bit-rates (compared to previous standards, or, conversely, the same quality video at a lower bit-rate Hence, appropriate video compression techniques that meet video applications requirements have to be selected.

  8. The Tokai NPP decommissioning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and started decommissioning from December 2001 as a pioneer of NPP decommissioning. This article presented current state of Tokai NPP decommissioning technique. As the second stage of decommissioning works, removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) were started from 2006 by jacking down method with decommissioning data accumulated. Each heat exchanger was divided into top head, seven 'tears' of shell and bottom head. Each 'tear' was out and separated into a cylinder, and then divided into two by remote-operated cutting equipment with manipulators for gas cutting and motor disk cutting under monitoring works by fixed and mobile cameras. Divided 'tear' was further cut into center baffle plate, heat transfer tubes and fine pieces of shell. Cutting works would produce radioactive fine particles, which were filtered by temporary ventilation equipment with exhaust fan and filters. Appropriate works using existing technique combined and their rationalization were important at this stage. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Selected manufacturing techniques of nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Enabling nanofabrication techniques as tools for experiments to understand the underlying scienceand engineering in the nanometer scale are required. This paper is a resume a range of technology andcharacterization tools relevant for nanoeletronics devices.Design/methodology/approach: An overview on bottom – up and bottom – down fabrication techniques arepresented in this paper. As an alternative to the continually increasing cost of nanotechnology for manufacturingelectronic devices, new strategies are examined in research, which are based on basic principles of physics andchemistry. For example, molecular self-organization mechanisms are developed in order to manufacture welldefinednanostructures with desired properties.Findings: This paper includes description of three methods of production nanolayers and monolayers molecularself-organization, Langmuir – Blodget films and Nanoimprint Lithography.Research limitations/implications: The most extreme approach is to build nanostructures atom by atomwith the help of scanning tunneling microscope at low temperatures. This is very slow method to buildnanostructures, usually a couple of hours. An alternative approach for the formation of nanostructures is self– organization of atoms.Practical implications: The greatest advantage of litographic patterning is very large variety of differentstructures which can be defined by lithographic methods, Langmuir – Blodget (LB films is another unpopularmethod to produce nanomaterials.Originality/value: Materials engineering technology stands today at the edge of a huge challenge: produce cheapnanomaterials for nanoelectronics. Building materials from the bottom up requires a multidisciplinary approach.This arena is unquestionably in the nano-dimension, where all fields of science and engineering meet.

  10. Techniques for transvenous leads extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, M G; Soldati, E; De Lucia, R; Marzilli, M

    2007-12-01

    The number of implanted cardiac pacing and defibrillating devices is currently increasing, leading to an increasing number of device-related complications, due to either malfunction or infection. Removal of the whole system, including the leads, was proven to be the most effective therapy. At present the importance of transvenous lead extraction is consequently increased. In order to remove pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) leads, they have to be made free from any binding site from the entry in the vein to the tip. Different techniques, including mechanical dilation, powered dilation and intravascular approaches have been developed over the last years and are currently available. Results reported in the literature show a significant success rate (ranging between 90% and 98% of the leads) and a reduced incidence of serious complications (1% to 3% in different series) in selected centres. The extraction procedures are complex and life-threatening complications may always occur, suggesting the need of trained and experienced operators as well as the availability of a surgical standby. At present indications to removal are restricted to infection or to damage of the leads inducing serious risk for the patients; the availability of a more effective and safe technique will probably spread indications to most of abandoned leads. PMID:18091645

  11. Remote and unattended monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years, there has been a tremendous growth in the number of unattended assay and monitoring systems in the field. These systems have enabled reduced presence of inspectors while increasing the verification coverage. As part of the Strengthened safeguards System and in particular as part of the measures to improve the cost-effectiveness of safeguards, the possibility of remote transfer of authenticated and encrypted video surveillance, seals and radiation sensor data via telephone or special satellite links have been demonstrated and the necessary arrangements and infrastructure have been prepared. The evaluation of field trials of the remote monitoring systems have shown that the systems are effective in monitoring events of safeguards relevance in near real times. The systems are competitive from a cost standpoint when compared to current methods. The reduction of inspection efforts can be realized by application of remote monitoring technique with scheduled inspections and more effectively with the short notice or unannounced random inspections. It is expected that, upon completion of the necessary arrangements with the Member States authorities, the safeguards department will implement the technique widely before the year 2000

  12. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  13. UML-ising formal techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrner, Dines; George, Chris W.

    2004-01-01

    This invited paper presents a number of correlated specifications of example railway system problems. They use a variety of partially or fully integrated formal specification. The paper thus represents a mere repository of what we consider interesting case studies. The existence of the Unified Modeling Language [10,67,36,20] has caused, for one reason or another, the research community to try formalise one or another facet of UML. In this paper we report on another way to achieve what UML attempts to achieve: Broadness of application, convenience of notation, and multiplicity of views. Whether these different UML views are unified, integrated, correlated or merely co-located is for others to dispute. We also seek to support multiple views, but are also in no doubt that there must be sound, well defined relations between such views. We thus report on ways and means of integrating formal techniques such as RAISE (RSL) [58,59], Petri Nets [56,62,37,61,411, Message and Live Sequence Charts [42,43,44,64,13], Statecharts [23,24,26,27], RAISE with Timing (TRSL) [18,45,461, and TRSL with Duration Calculus (79,30]. In this way one achieves a firm foundation for combined uses of these formal development techniques, one that can be believably deployed for as wide a spectrum, or even a wider spectrum of software (and hardware) development, as, respectively than UML.

  14. Advanced Techniques of Stress Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion TATARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to check the stress analysis technique based on 3D models also making a comparison with the traditional technique which utilizes a model built directly into the stress analysis program. This comparison of the two methods will be made with reference to the rear fuselage of IAR-99 aircraft, structure with a high degree of complexity which allows a meaningful evaluation of both approaches. Three updated databases are envisaged: the database having the idealized model obtained using ANSYS and working directly on documentation, without automatic generation of nodes and elements (with few exceptions, the rear fuselage database (performed at this stage obtained with Pro/ ENGINEER and the one obtained by using ANSYS with the second database. Then, each of the three databases will be used according to arising necessities.The main objective is to develop the parameterized model of the rear fuselage using the computer aided design software Pro/ ENGINEER. A review of research regarding the use of virtual reality with the interactive analysis performed by the finite element method is made to show the state- of- the-art achieved in this field.

  15. Investigation progress of early diagnostic techniques of malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the early diagnosis in malignant tumor, this paper reviews the progress of study of early diagnostic techniques including molecular biological techniques, biological chip techniques, immunoassay techniques, flow-cytometry techniques and medical imaging techniques

  16. Measuring thermal neutron flux by radioactivation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method defines a general procedure for determining an unknown thermal neutron-flux density by neutron activation techniques. The method is presented so that the user may adapt to his particular situation the fundamental procedures of the following techniques: technique using pure cobalt metal and cobalt-aluminum alloy; standard foil technique using pure gold; and secondary standard foil techniques using pure indium, indium-aluminum alloy, and dysprosium-aluminum alloy. The techniques are limited to measurement at room temperatures, but special problems encountered when making thermal-neutron flux measurements in high-temperature environments are discussed

  17. Digital Image Steganography: Substitution techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asst. Prof. Arshi Riyaz, Asst. Prof. Jyoti Vyas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As the development of internet takes place, variety of digital data (text, video, images and audio transmits to worldwide society. Problem may arise that the confidential data can be stolen or hacked in many ways. To protect the contents from interceptors' attention, the image hiding technology thus emerged. Steganography is the art and science of hiding information by embedding secret messages within other, seemingly harmless media. Steganography essentially does is exploit human perception, human senses are not trained to look for files that have information hidden inside of them, although there are programs available that can do what is called Steganolysis. In this paper we present spatial technique which is also known as Substitution method. In this method message bits are embedded into different bits of the pixel grey level values, resulting in increased robustness. The robustness would be increased against those attacks which try to reveal the hidden message and also some unintentional attacks like noise addition as well.

  18. Improved techniques for Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are going to discuss content based image retrieval system considering multiple features as color, texture, shape and spatial features to overcome the drawbacks of traditional text based image retrieval and previous content based image retrieval system which considered only single or double features for matching similarity between images. Here we apply a sequence of algorithms for extracting color, texture, shape and spatial features in CBIR for more accurate results, color feature vectors and clusters are formed using statistical color moments along with hierarchical and K-means clustering technique and for texture feature extraction Gabor wavelets algorithm is implemented and on these featuresextracted images shape features are extracted by implementing invariant moments then on this result images spatial feature is computed using the concept of quad tree decomposition and now on retrieved images relevance feedback analysis is performed for automatic indexing of images for future.

  19. New techniques in systems neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the recent explosion of experimental tools in neuroscience that now make it possible to manipulate, record, and understand neuronal activity within the intact brain, and which are helping us to learn how the many neurons that comprise a network act together to control behavior. Leaders in the field discuss the latest developments in optogenetics, functional imaging, circuit mapping, and the application of these tools to complex biological problems. New Techniques in Systems Neuroscience Explores cutting-edge methodological developments and their biological motivations Covers state-of-the-art advances in optogenetics, imaging, circuit mapping, and the molecular characterization of individual neurons Describes key examples of how these methods have been applied in different model organisms Is appropriate for experts and those just entering the field alike.

  20. Optimization Techniques To Record Deduplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangarajan Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate record detection is important for data preprocessing and cleaning. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC is one of the most recently introduced algorithms based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. Our approach to duplicate detection is the use of ABC algorithm for generating the optimal similarity measure to decide whether the data is duplicate or not. In the training phase, ABC algorithm is used to generate the optimal similarity measure. Once the optimal similarity measure obtained, the deduplication of remaining datasets is done with the help of optimal similarity measure generated from the ABC algorithm. We have used Restaurant and Cora datasets to analyze the proposed algorithm and the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared against the genetic programming technique with the help of evaluation metrics.