WorldWideScience
 
 
1

ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Places disponibles*/Places available **  

CERN Multimedia

* Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) Plannification de projet avec MS-Project/Project Scheduling with MS-Project : 2 sessions : 23.10 & 4.11.03 and 18 &25.11.03 (2 jours/2 days - langue à définir/language to be defined) AutoCAD 2002 ? Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11...

2003-01-01

2

Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l’enseignement de la thermodynamique technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [Français] Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé DiagSim capable d’estimer les propriétés d’un corps pur et de tracer n’importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés. [English] The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This technology tool is particularly useful when teaching engineering students the basic concepts of technical thermodynamics.

Jean-Noël Jaubert

2005-01-01

3

Técnicas disponibles de monitorización hemodinámica: Ventajas y limitaciones Techniques available for hemodynamic monitoring: Advantages and limitations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El catéter de la arteria pulmonar (CAP ha constituido una herramienta fundamental para la monitorización hemodinámica en las unidades de cuidados intensivos durante los últimos 40 años. Durante este período de tiempo ha sido ampliamente usado en pacientes críticos para el diagnóstico y como guía del tratamiento, ayudando a los clínicos a entender la fisiopatología de muchos procesos hemodinámicos. Sin embargo, en los últimos años la utilidad del CAP ha sido sometida a un intenso debate. Paralelamente, los avances tecnológicos han permitido el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas, menos invasivas, para la monitorización cardiovascular. Esta puesta al día pretende dar a los clínicos una visión de los parámetros hemodinámicos que aportan los distintos métodos disponibles, considerando que es fundamental comprender tanto su potencial utilidad clínica como sus limitaciones para un uso eficaz de la información que proporcionan.The pulmonary artery catheter has been a key tool for monitoring hemodynamic status in the intensive care unit for nearly 40 years. During this period of time, it has been the hemodynamic monitoring technique most commonly used for the diagnosis of many clinical situations, allowing clinicians to understand the underlying cardiovascular physiopathology, and helping to guide treatment interventions. However, in recent years, the usefulness of pulmonary artery catheterization has been questioned. Technological advances have introduced new and less invasive hemodynamic monitoring techniques. This review provides a systematic update on the hemodynamic variables offered by cardiac output monitoring devices, taking into consideration their clinical usefulness and their inherent limitations, with a view to using the supplied information in an efficient way.

M.L. Mateu Campos

2012-09-01

4

Técnicas disponibles de monitorización hemodinámica: Ventajas y limitaciones / Techniques available for hemodynamic monitoring: Advantages and limitations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El catéter de la arteria pulmonar (CAP) ha constituido una herramienta fundamental para la monitorización hemodinámica en las unidades de cuidados intensivos durante los últimos 40 años. Durante este período de tiempo ha sido ampliamente usado en pacientes críticos para el diagnóstico y como guía de [...] l tratamiento, ayudando a los clínicos a entender la fisiopatología de muchos procesos hemodinámicos. Sin embargo, en los últimos años la utilidad del CAP ha sido sometida a un intenso debate. Paralelamente, los avances tecnológicos han permitido el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas, menos invasivas, para la monitorización cardiovascular. Esta puesta al día pretende dar a los clínicos una visión de los parámetros hemodinámicos que aportan los distintos métodos disponibles, considerando que es fundamental comprender tanto su potencial utilidad clínica como sus limitaciones para un uso eficaz de la información que proporcionan. Abstract in english The pulmonary artery catheter has been a key tool for monitoring hemodynamic status in the intensive care unit for nearly 40 years. During this period of time, it has been the hemodynamic monitoring technique most commonly used for the diagnosis of many clinical situations, allowing clinicians to un [...] derstand the underlying cardiovascular physiopathology, and helping to guide treatment interventions. However, in recent years, the usefulness of pulmonary artery catheterization has been questioned. Technological advances have introduced new and less invasive hemodynamic monitoring techniques. This review provides a systematic update on the hemodynamic variables offered by cardiac output monitoring devices, taking into consideration their clinical usefulness and their inherent limitations, with a view to using the supplied information in an efficient way.

M.L., Mateu Campos; A., Ferrándiz Sellés; G., Gruartmoner de Vera; J., Mesquida Febrer; C., Sabatier Cloarec; Y., Poveda Hernández; X., García Nogales.

5

EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research pretends to show the degree of semantic merging between the available lexis of Spanish and Catalan from Valencia in 2nd year baccalaureate students. The global inter-linguistic compatibility for speakers of both linguistic communities in the seventeen semantic groups studied will show the high level of coincidence in both languages in contact. This is due to the fact that the lexis used in specifi c communicative situations is similar in both.

El presente trabajo pretende mostrar el grado de convergencia semántica entre el léxico disponible del español y del catalán de Valencia en los estudiantes de segundo de bachillerato. La compatibilidad global interlingüística de los hablantes de ambas comunidades lingüísticas en los diecisiete campos semánticos mostrará un alto nivel de coincidencia en las dos lenguas en contacto. Esto se debe a que el léxico usado en situaciones comunicativas concretas es similar en las diferentes lenguas de cultura.

M.ª Begoña Gómez Devís

2010-10-01

6

EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende mostrar el grado de convergencia semántica entre el léxico disponible del español y del catalán de Valencia en los estudiantes de segundo de bachillerato. La compatibilidad global interlingüística de los hablantes de ambas comunidades lingüísticas en los diecisiete campos semánticos mostrará un alto nivel de coincidencia en las dos lenguas en contacto. Esto se debe a que el léxico usado en situaciones comunicativas concretas es similar en las diferentes lenguas de cultura.The present research pretends to show the degree of semantic merging between the available lexis of Spanish and Catalan from Valencia in 2nd year baccalaureate students. The global inter-linguistic compatibility for speakers of both linguistic communities in the seventeen semantic groups studied will show the high level of coincidence in both languages in contact. This is due to the fact that the lexis used in specifi c communicative situations is similar in both.

M.ª Begoña Gómez Devís

2010-10-01

7

Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente. El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8, sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar.

Sansores Raúl H

2002-01-01

8

Exploitation des données "disponibles à froid" pour améliorer le démarrage à froid dans les systèmes de filtrage d'information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dans les systèmes de filtrage d'information, les utilisateurs reçoivent des documents que leur recommande le système sur la base de leurs profils et/ou de leurs communautés, mais le problème du " démarrage à froid " conduit à des performances très pauvres pour les nouveaux utilisateurs. Nous améliorons ici les techniques classiques de démarrage à froid en exploitant les données " disponibles à froid " (par exemple âge, profession, lieu de résidence, etc.) afin d'associer autom...

Nguyen, An-te; Denos, Nathalie; Berrut, Catherine

2006-01-01

9

RESEÑA DEL SOFTWARE DISPONIBLE EN COLOMBIA PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS EN CADENAS DE ABASTECIMIENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La gestión de los diferentes tipos de inventario a lo largo de una cadena de abastecimiento es un problema complejo que, en la mayoría de los casos de la industria colombiana e internacional, se aborda mediante la implementación de herramientas de software. Sin embargo, la decisión de implementar dichas herramientas está en muchos casos limitada por la capacidad financiera para invertir en ellas y por el desconocimiento de la oferta de software disponible en Colombia. Este artículo presenta una reseña del software disponible en Colombia para la gestión de inventarios con el fin de brindar a las empresas que se enfrentan a la decisión de implementar un software, una herramienta de soporte que indique cuál es la oferta en Colombia y cuáles son las características de los sistemas disponibles. Para esto se presenta primero el estado del arte, en el cual se identifica el resultado de la revisión de la literatura y el uso de las herramientas de software en la industria colombiana. Seguidamente se presenta la caracterización de los productos de software disponibles en el país. Dicha caracterización permite identificar la configuración general de los productos, los módulos de gestión con los que cuenta, las opciones de integración con otras herramientas informáticas, y la información general de precios e instalación. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones del estudio y las futuras oportunidades de investigación.

DIANA PATRICIA JARAMILLO

2009-01-01

10

Recursos disponibles para la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de futbolistas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La retirada deportiva es a menudo una etapa de crisis que requiere exigencias y ciertos ajustes a nivel ocupacional, financiero, social y psicológico (Cury, Ferreira y Leite de Barros, 2008. En línea con las contribuciones recientes al tema de la retirada deportiva y la posterior empleabilidad, el presente trabajo pretende analizar de modo descriptivo los recursos disponibles para hacer frente a la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de los jugadores profesionales de un club de fútbol. Para ello se ha elaborado el Cuestionario para el Diagnóstico de la Empleabilidad en Deportistas de Élite. Los resultados indican que para hacer frente de forma adaptativa a la retirada deportiva los futbolistas del club necesitan instaurar una conciencia de futuro, planificar su retirada deportiva, ahorrar y formarse, y por otro lado, se debe fortalecer el capital humano acumulado, apoyo social percibido y habilidades, estrategias y capacidades adquiridas tras la práctica deportiva.

Macarena Lorenzo Fernu00E1ndez

2012-01-01

11

Fósforo disponible en suelos agrícolas de la región Pampeana y ExtraPampeana argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenLa respuesta de los cultivos a la aplicación de fósforo (P depende del nivel de disponible (P-Bray en el suelo. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar la distribución de la concentración de P-Bray en suelos agrícolas de la región Pampeana y ExtraPampeana argentina mediante la confección de mapas de P-Bray y la comparación de estos con los resultados de un relevamiento realizado en 1980. Otro objetivo fue comparar la eficiencia de predicción (EP de dos métodos de interpolación: 1 el método inversa de la distancia ponderada (IDP y 2 el Kriging ordinario (KO. Se trabajó con 34.328 muestras del estrato superficial del suelo (0-20 cm, provenientes de laboratorios privados y oficiales (INTA, extraídas en 2005 y 2006. Ambos métodos de interpolación produjeron mapas similares y valores de EP que oscilaron del 64 al 66%. Los niveles de P-Bray en suelos fueron inferiores o iguales a 15 mg kg-1 en la provincia de Buenos Aires, este de La Pampa, sudeste de Córdoba y sur de Santa Fe (aproximadamente 15.227.000 ha, donde la disponibilidad de P podría limitar la producción de los cultivos en esta área. Por su parte, los suelos con concentraciones mayores a 15 mg kg-1 cuparon el 45% del área (aproximadamente 12.774.000 ha, los que se ubicaron principalmente en la región ExtraPampeana. La disminución de la concentración de P disponible en los últimos 25 años fue más importante hacia el oeste y norte que en el sur de la región Pampeana.AbstractCrop response to applied phosphorus (P depends on soil available P (P-Bray. The objectives of this work were to determine P-Bray distribution in agricultural soils of the within the pampean and out of the pampean region of Argentina, to map P-Bray oncentration and to compare the current values with those of soil sampling carried out in 1980. Another objective was to compare the prediction efficiency (EP of two interpolation methods: 1 inverse distance weighting (IDW and 2 ordinary Kriging method (KO. This work was carried out with 34.328 soil samples of surface layer (0-20 cm, coming from private and official laboratories (INTA, collected in 2005 and 20 6. The interpolation methods produced similar maps and EP values that ranged from 64 to 66%. Soil P-Bray levels were lower or equal to 15 mg kg-1 in the Buenos Aires province, east of La Pampa, southeast of Córdoba and south of Santa Fe (approximately 15.227.000 ha, and therefore, P availability could limit crop production in this area. On the other hand, soils with available P concentrations higher than 15 mg kg-1 occupied 45% of the area (approximately 12.774.000 ha, and these soils were located mainly out of the pampean region. The decrease of available P concentration in the last 25 years was more important in the west and north than in the south of the pampean region.

ANGELINI, H.

2012-04-01

12

Degradabilidad ruminal del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica degradativa de forrajes, en muestras de una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., manejadas a dos alturas de pradera, alta y baja. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo (FD y en forraje aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo (FS. La degradabilidad ruminal se estudió usando la técnica de las bolsas de dacrón y los datos fueron ajustados a una ecuación exponencial. La fracción soluble (g/kg MS, de la materia seca (MS (299 v/s 351, s.e.d.= 5,4, de la materia organica (MO (304 v/s 376, s.e.d.= 3,3 y del nitrógeno (250 v/s 301, s.e.d.= 6,4, fueron significativamente mayores (P<0,05 en muestras de FS que en muestras de FD. La degradabilidad potencial (g/kg MS de MS, MO y nitrógeno, fue significativamente mayor (P<0,05 en las muestras de FS, que en las muestras de FD. La degradabilidad efectiva fue mayor en las muestras de FS, que en las muestras de FD, tanto para la MS (474 v/s 508, s.e.d.= 13,0, MO (490 v/s 529, s.e.d.= 11,6 y nitrógeno (351 v/s 419, s.e.d.= 10,0. Respecto del factor altura, sólo se encontró un efecto significativo en la degradabilidad efectiva en el nitrógeno, en favor de la altura baja (365 v/s 406, s.e.d.= 10,0.

PULIDO RUBÉN

2000-01-01

13

Determinantes de salud y políticas públicas: identificación de indicadores de problemas de salud y factores asociados, basada en datos disponibles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La planeación en salud requiere de información, que está disponible, pero que no siempre se utiliza. Aunque los sistemas de información en salud aparecieron hace más de tres décadas, las decisiones del sector se dirigen al manejo de enfermedad y no a modificar los factores que la genera. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la utilidad de datos disponibles en los diferentes sectores, para identificar grupos de población con características similares, asociadas con problemas de salud e identificar marcadores sencillos que orienten la toma de decisiones para solucionarlos. Métodos: Estudio ecológico. Se identificaron, recolectaron y procesaron datos de instituciones públicas y privadas y de estudios recientes. La asociación y correlación entre las diferentes variables permitió identificar aquellas con capacidad para discriminar grupos de población con problemas similares. Resultados: El estrato de vivienda mostró asociación significante con la mayoría de variables y se utilizó para dividir los barrios de la ciudad en cuatro conglomerados. Los barrios pertenecientes a estratos más bajos mostraron deficiencias en vivienda y educación, mayor proporción de población menor de 18 años, promedio de edad de muerte menor, menor estatura y mayor mortalidad perinatal y por accidentes y violencia. En los barrios de nivel medio y alto, se encontraron mejores condiciones de vivienda y tumores y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles como las principales causas de muerte. La conexión a servicios públicos fue similar en los hogares de todos los estratos, excepto el teléfono. El promedio ponderado por estrato y por barrio explica más de 80% de la varianza para la mayoría de las variables analizadas. Se propone que este indicador, disponible en forma permanente, se emplee como instrumento para planes locales de desarrollo, con validaciones periódicas a fin de evaluar su capacidad en el tiempo.

Elsa Patricia Muñoz

2007-09-01

14

Generadores de radiofrecuencia disponibles en el mercado español RF generators available in the spanish market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En España se ha producido un incremento en la realización de Técnicas de Radiofrecuencia (RF, como muestra la reciente encuesta publicada en la Revista Española del Dolor. Desde el Grupo de Interés de la Sociedad Española hemos querido difundir la RF mediante la realización de cursos. Una pregunta repetida en los cursos era ¿Qué "aparatos de RF" existen? En el presente artículo no hemos querido valorar cuáles eran mejores o peores, sino describir sus características técnicas más relevantes. Objetivos: analizar los diferentes generadores de ondas de radiofrecuencia presentes en el mercado español.There has been an important increase in radiofrequency procedures in Spain during the past five years. The Spanish Society RF Interest Group has always wanted to spread the use of RF techniques among pain practitioners. In this paper we analyze the different RF generators available in the spanish market, with their most relevant technical features.

J. de Andrés

2012-06-01

15

Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se realizó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red.The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Google, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

Elizabeth Ramos Sánchez

2004-04-01

16

Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se real [...] izó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red. Abstract in english The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Googl [...] e, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

Ramos Sánchez, Elizabeth.

17

Agua disponible en monocultivo de soja con cultivos de cobertura y barbechos reducidos en la región semiárida y subhúmeda Pampeana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En ambientes subhúmedos y semiáridos el principal factor de pérdida de agua desde la superficie del suelo es la evaporación. Este proceso puede ser reducido utilizando cultivos de cobertura (CC) que al aumentar la transpiración, reasignan el agua potencialmente evaporada al flujo transpiratorio de l [...] as plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la dinámica del agua bajo los sistemas de cultivo (SC) de soja continua con CC y barbechos de duración reducida. Se estudiaron cuatro CC y tres momentos de secado en un Hapludol y en un Haplustol, evaluando la lámina de agua disponible (LAD) durante dos años. Para el Hapludol, en general, la LAD a la siembra de soja fue mayor o igual en los SC con CC que bajo monocultivo de soja. En el Haplustol sólo en el SC con CC centeno secado tardío la LAD fue mayor al sistema de soja continua. Se concluye que la dinámica hídrica bajo monocultivo de soja es afectada por la inclusión de CC, siendo el centeno la especie mejor adaptada a estos ambientes. Abstract in english In subhumid and semiarid environments, the main factor affecting water loss from the soil surface is evaporation. This process can be reduced by using cover crops (CC) that increase transpiration and potentially reallocate evaporated water to plant transpiration. The aim of this work was to study th [...] e water dynamics under cropping systems (SC) with continuous soybean in two soil great groups, four CC and three fallow lengths. We studied four CC and three drying times under two soils, a Haplustol and a Hapludol, evaluating the available water depth (LAD) for two years. For the Hapludol, in general, the LAD at soybean planting rotated with CC was greater than or equal to the SC under continuous soybean. In the Haplustol, the LAD at soybean planting was greater only in the SC with the late-dried CC rye when compared to the continuous soybeans SC. We conclude that the water dynamics under continuous soybean is affected by the inclusion of CC, where rye is the best species adapted to these environments.

Patricia Fabiana, Carfagno; Maximiliano Joaquín, Eiza; Alberto, Quiroga; Francisco, Babinec; Celio, Chagas; Roberto, MIchelena.

18

LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: • Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. • Determinar la incidencia del factor tipo de establecimiento educacional en la disponibilidad léxica del inglés como segunda lengua en los alumnos que componen la muestra.The present work is a transectional correlational study among students who learn English as a second language, across the Eight Region at the formal learning schools in Chile. The linguistic level of the available lexicon was explored among samples of students from different secondary schools. The research was planned in terms of general objectives: • Describe the available lexicon produced by students of English as L2 (second language, from different schools. • Know the incidence of the variable type of school in English lexicon availability, produced by students included in the sample.

Patricia Germany G

2000-01-01

19

LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA / Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos ed [...] ucacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: ? Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. ? Determinar la incidencia del factor tipo de establecimiento educacional en la disponibilidad léxica del inglés como segunda lengua en los alumnos que componen la muestra. Abstract in english The present work is a transectional correlational study among students who learn English as a second language, across the Eight Region at the formal learning schools in Chile. The linguistic level of the available lexicon was explored among samples of students from different secondary schools. The r [...] esearch was planned in terms of general objectives: ? Describe the available lexicon produced by students of English as L2 (second language), from different schools. ? Know the incidence of the variable type of school in English lexicon availability, produced by students included in the sample.

Germany G, Patricia; Cartes E, Ninette.

20

ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE / PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 3 [...] 0 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temperatura. Al finalizar el estudio, la cantidad de lisina disponible remanente fue de 38,5% (a 25°C); 15,3 % (a 30°C) y 14,1% (a 35°C). La cinética de la reacción de deterioro fue de orden uno, dependiente de la temperatura de almacenamiento, según la ecuación de interrelación de Arrhenius, con un valor de energía de activación de 15,17 kcal/mol, por lo que cae dentro del rango de las reacciones de oxidación de lípidos. De acuerdo a las características del producto [contenido de lípidos (17,5%), proteínas (17,3%) y una actividad de agua de 0,46], la disminución de lisina pudiera ser explicada por la interacción de productos de oxidación de lípidos con proteínas. Considerando un valor de 0,422g lis/100g producto como punto crítico, se predijo la vida útil del producto a temperaturas diferentes a las evaluadas. Condiciones de almacenamiento por debajo de 30°C, garantizan un mayor período de vida útil: hasta 9 meses a 15°C, 6 meses a 20°C y 3 meses a 28°C, en función del indicador de deterioro evaluado. Abstract in english This study estimated the shelf life of a dietary formula for children with diarrhea, using the decrease of available lysine as an indicator of deterioration. Product samples were packaged in multilaminal pouches (paper-plastic-foil) and stored at 25, 30 and 35°C, for two months. The available lysine [...] was measured weekly and the reaction of deterioration kinetics and its relationship with temperature was calculated. At the end of the study, the remainder of available lysine was of 38.5 (at 25°C), 15.3 (at 30°C) and 14.1% (at 35°C).The findings of the study indicated a first order reaction kinetics, dependent on the storage temperature based on the Arrhenius approach, with an activation energy of 15.17 kcal/mol, falling within the lipid oxidation range. According to the product characteristics [lipids content (17.5%), protein (17.3%) and water activity of 0.46], the decrease of available lysine could be explained by the interaction between lipid oxidation products and proteins. Based on a critical value of 0.422 g lysine/100g product, the product shelf life was predicted at temperatures different from those of experimental conditions. At temperatures below 30°C, the shelf life would be extended up to 9 months at 15°C, 6 months at 20°C and 3 months at 28°C, as a function of the chosen indicator.

Alexia, TORRES; Marisa, GUERRA; Yrelur, ROSQUETE.

 
 
 
 
21

Hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad: evidencia disponible diagnóstica y terapéutica / Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the preterm infant: current evidence in diagnosis and treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hemorragia de la matriz germinal y la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica son las complicaciones neuroquirúrgicas más frecuentes en los pacientes recién nacidos pretérmino91. La incidencia de estas complicaciones es muy variable según las series consultadas19,36,47,56,61,71,93, pero su prevalencia está e [...] n cualquier caso en aumento debido tanto a la mayor incidencia de embarazos múltiples y partos prematuros en relación al avance de las nuevas técnicas de fertilización, como a la mayor supervivencia de estos pacientes merced a los recientes avances en los cuidados perinatales85. En este contexto resulta esencial disponer de un conocimiento preciso y concreto de las recomendaciones diagnósticas y terapéuticas en referencia a esta entidad. Sin embargo, la evidencia disponible al respecto es a menudo fragmentada e incompleta. El objetivo de la presente revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de los principales aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad. Para ello se ha solicitado a los miembros del grupo de trabajo de Neurocirugía Pediátrica de la Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía que revisen las cuestiones más relevantes en referencia a esta patología. Esto supone el primer paso para la elaboración de una guía clínica común para el tratamiento de las complicaciones asociadas a la hemorragia intra y periventricular del prematuro. Abstract in english Intraventricular haemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus are the most important neurological complications in preterm infants during the neonatal period91. The prevalence of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage widely varies depending on the population of study19,36,47,56,61,71,93, but [...] it is in any case increasing due both to the higher incidence of multiple and preterm deliveries as well as the longer survival of preterm infants favoured by recent advances in perinatal care85. It is therefore of the utmost convenience to be familiar with the most important clinical evidence regarding this entity. However, the available evidence is often incomplete and piecemeal. The objective of the present review is to summarise the main diagnostic and therapeutic points regarding preterm-related posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. The participants of the working-group in Pediatric Neurosurgery of the Spanish Society of Neurosurgery were asked to write these recommendations down. This hopefully represents the first step towards the definition of a clinical guide in the treatment of complications related to periventricular hemorrhage of the preterm infants.

C., Bravo; P., Cano; R., Conde; M., Gelabert; P., Pulido; B., Ros; P., Miranda.

22

Recursos disponibles para la protección de mujeres migrantes en tránsito por Tamaulipas / Resources available (few) for the protection of migrant women transit by Tamaulipas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La labor del gobierno mexicano en materia de política migratoria es una estrategia para administrar el flujo de migrantes en tránsito rumbo a Estados Unidos, no para salvaguardar su integridad y derechos, menos aún está diseñada para proteger a las mujeres. En esa medida, el interés de este artículo [...] es hacer evidentes los escasos recursos de protección disponibles para migrantes y la ausencia de perspectiva de género en los recursos de apoyo para mujeres en tránsito por México. A través de entrevistas a autoridades y organismos sociales en la frontera de Tamaulipas y con base en el enfoque del modelo ecológico, se evaluaron los recursos de la política pública mexicana como elementos amortiguadores para los migrantes, frente a riesgos y elementos de vulnerabilidad de la mujer en tránsito. Abstract in english The work of the Mexican government immigration policy is a strategy to manage the flow of migrants in transit heading for the U.S., not to safeguard their integrity and rights, much less is designed to protect women. To that extent, the interest is to make clear the limited resources available for m [...] igrant protection and the absence of a gender perspective in support resources for women in transit through Mexico. Through interviews with authorities and social organizations on the border of Tamaulipas, and based on the ecological model approach, were evaluated the resources of Mexican public policy as damping elements for migrants face risks and vulnerability elements woman in transit.

Rocío, Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Blanca Delia, Vázquez Delgado.

23

Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseignement technique  

CERN Multimedia

Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

2004-01-01

24

Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseigement technique  

CERN Multimedia

Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

2004-01-01

25

Techniques de contrôles non destructifs  

CERN Multimedia

La construction du LHC et des expériences nécessite un contrôle permanent de la qualité de la matière première utilisée et des assemblages par soudage, brasage ou collage des divers composants. Pour la vérification des matériaux et des assemblages de fabrication, il est souvent hors de question de recourir à des méthodes qui altéreraient les parties à contrôler. Les techniques de Contrôles Non Destructifs (CND), dont celles les plus employées au CERN font intervenir la transmission d'ondes sonores (contrôle par ultrasons) ou de rayons pénétrants (radiographie X ou gamma), représentent un moyen de détection souvent quantitatif de défauts applicable au contrôle qualité de production. Ces deux techniques complémentaires nous permettent de déceler des discontinuités (dans la matière de base, fissuration ou dédoublement, manque de compacité... ; dans les assemblages, présence d'inclusions, manque de brasure ou de fusion dans les joints soudés, cavités...). Après un bref aperçu de...

Dalin, J M

2004-01-01

26

Grado de acidez y potencial erosivo de las bebidas energizantes disponibles en Chile / Acidity and erosive potential of energy drinks available in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde hace una década están disponibles en el mercado nacional, tanto bebidas como otros productos energéticos. Su popularidad ha ido en aumento, sin embargo su consumo no está exento de riesgos. La cafeína es el ingrediente activo principal de estas bebidas y el consumo excesivo puede llegar a caus [...] ar alteraciones en la salud general. Mucha gente las bebe a diario sin estar consciente del daño potencial que puede significar para su salud y sus dientes, especialmente en el caso de niños y adolescentes. En Chile, la acidez de estas bebidas es desconocida. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el pH de las bebidas energéticas presentes en el mercado chileno, estableciendo su potencial erosivo sobre los dientes. Metodología: La muestra quedó formada por 8 diferentes bebidas energéticas disponibles en Chile. El pH fue evaluado con un pHmetro calibrado (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH/Ion 510) a 4°C y 17°C. Los resultados obtenidos fueron registrados y analizados estadísticamente. Resultados: El rango de pH osciló entre 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) y 3.30 (Red Bull). El promedio fue 2.88 a 4°C y 2.89 a 17°C. Conclusiones: Todas las muestras estudiadas tuvieron pH ácido, haciendo de ellas bebidas potencialmente erosivas para los dientes. Los valores de pH fueron menores a 4°C que a 17°C, pero sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0.05). Abstract in english For a decade, energy drinks and other energy products have been available in the national market, and their popularity has increased. The consumption is not risk free, though. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in these drinks and an excessive consumption may be dangerous for general health. Man [...] y people drink them daily without being aware of the potential risk they pose on their health and teeth, especially on children and adolescents. Currently, the acidity of those beverages is unknown in Chile. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pH of energy drinks, and correlate it with their erosive potential on teeth. Methodology: 8 different energy drinks available in Chile constituted the sample. pH was measured with a calibrated digital pHmeter (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH / Ion 510) at 4°C and 17°C. The results obtained were registered and statistically analyzed. Results: pH values ranged from 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) to 3.30 (Red Bull) the mean pH was 2.88 and 2.89, at 4°C and 17°C respectively. Conclusions: All of the beverages showed low pH, which makes them potentially erosive for hard dental tissue. The pH values were lower at 4°C than at 17°C, but without statistical significance (p>0.05).

MC, Fresno; P, Angel; R, Arias; A, Muñoz.

27

Validación de la metodología para la determinación cuantitativa de plomo en tintes cosméticos disponibles en el mercado nacional por espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se validó la metodología analítica para determinar cuantitativamente plomo en tintes cosméticos disponibles en el mercado nacional, por el método de espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama. Las muestras se digirieron por digestión húmeda con HNO3 al 65 % m/men horno de microondas; el porcentaje de recuperación para la digestión de muestras de 0,25 g y 0,45 g en 5,00 mL fue de 100,5±0,5. El ámbito de linealidad óptimo fue del límite de detección a 5,0 mg/L con un coeficiente de correlación de 0,9998.Los límites de detección y los límites de cuantificación determinados gráficamente por el método de corredor de errores para regresión lineal fueron de 0,12 ±0,02 mg/L y 0,21±0,02 mg/L, respectivamente. Se evaluó la precisión determinando la repetitividad como desviación estándar de 5 réplicas de un tinte positivo para plomo, de acuerdo con la definición de la ISO,2?2*?, y se obtuvo un valor de 2,3. La veracidad se determinó por medio de los porcentajes de recuperación evaluados, agregando alícuotas de patrones de plomo a muestras de tinte y comparándolo con muestras de igual masa a las que no se les realizó adición. Las muestras de tintes se obtuvieron en puestos de venta, tales como farmacias, suplidoras de belleza,supermercados, centros de ventas de productos naturales y el mercado central de San José. De los tintes analizados, de marca Youthair, de fabricación norteamericana, Doni, Mont D’Or, Matador y Siempre Joven, producidos localmente, contienen acetato de plomo como ingrediente activo

Paulina Silva Trejos

2008-04-01

28

EVALUACIÓN DE LOS PARAMETROS DE CALIDAD PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE FOSFORO DISPONIBLE EN SUELOS / QUALITY PARAMETERS EVALUATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AVAILABLE PHOSPHOROUES IN SOILS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la actualidad existen varios procedimientos para la determinación de fósforo disponible en suelos, en donde el fósforo es cuantificado por métodos colorimétricos por medio del desarrollo de un complejo coloreado azul (ácido fosfomolíbdico); en uno, el color se presenta al utilizar como agente red [...] uctor ácido ascórbico y en el otro al emplear cloruro estannoso; ambos métodos utilizan la misma solución extractora de Bray II, cuya importancia radica en que presenta una muy buena correlación con la respuesta de cultivos en suelos ácidos, como lo son la mayoría de suelos de Colombia. Al comparar las dos metodologías se encontró que el método más sensible y con los mejores límites de detección y cuantificación para la determinación de fósforo es el que utiliza como agente reductor ácido ascórbico y tartrato de antimonio y potasio. También se observó al evaluar la precisión del sistema y del método que, tanto los coeficientes de variación, como las desviaciones estándar, fueron menores en este método, por tanto se considera como el método más preciso para la determinación de fósforo. Abstract in english There are some colorimetric procedures for determining available phosphorous in soils, and phosphorous is evaluated by means of a blue complex (phosphomolibdic acid); in one of the methods, color appear when ascorbic acid is used as reductor agent, and in the other when stannous chloride is used. Bo [...] th methods use the same extractive solution Bray II due to its good response for acid soil cultures, like most Colombian soils are. When the two methodologies were compared it was found that the most sensible method and with the best limit of detection and quantification was the one that uses ascorbic acid, antimonioum and potassium tartrate. Its variation coefficients and standard deviation were lower, and for this reason it is considered as the most precise method for phosphorous determination.

Johnbrynner, García Galvis; María Inés, Ballesteros.

2006-06-03

29

Niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible en gallinas durante 48 semanas en postura / Levels of calcium and available phosphorus in laying hens during 48 weeks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un experimento para evaluar niveles de calcio (Ca) y fósforo disponible (Pd) en gallinas. Se utilizaron 300 gallinas Leghorn Hy-line W36 y se alimentaron con cinco tratamientos, tomando en cuenta los niveles óptimos de encontrados en la literatura. Las dietas fueron: T1, 4.34% Ca y 0.18% [...] Pd; T2, 4.34% Ca y 0.23% Pd; T3, 4.62% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T4, 4.62% Ca y 0.23% Pd y T5, 3.25% Ca y 0.25% Pd. Se midió consumo de alimento, consumo de Ca y de Pd, conversión alimenticia, número de huevos, masa de huevo, peso del huevo, gravedad específica y porcentaje de cascarón. Para número de huevos, masa de huevo, consumo de alimento, conversión alimenticia y peso de huevo, no se encontraron diferencias entre tratamientos (P>0.05). Se observó mayor consumo de Ca (P Abstract in english An experiment was conducted to evaluate levels of calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (AP) in hens. For this study 300 Leghorn Hy-line W36 hens were used. Five treatments were evaluated, level of Ca and AP in the diet: T1, 4.34 and 0.18%; T2, 4.34 and 0.23%; T3, 4.62 and 0.18%; T4, 4.62 and 0.23% [...] and T5, 3.25 and 0.25% (control). The experiment lasted 48 wk. It was measured feed, Ca and AP consumption, number of eggs, egg mass, feed conversion, egg weight, specific gravity and percentage of eggshell. In feed consumption, number of eggs, egg mass, feed conversion and egg weight, there were no differences among treatments (P>0.05). Higher consumption of calcium (P

Gutiérrez Arenas, Diana Angélica; Cuca García, Juan Manuel; Pró Martínez, Arturo; Becerril Pérez, Carlos Miguel; Figueroa Velasco, José Luis.

30

Evaluación del fósforo disponible mediante tres métodos en distintos suelos y manejos productivos Evaluation of phosphorus available by three methods in different soils and productive managements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El fósforo (P es un nutriente de baja solubilidad y movilidad en los suelos, que se encuentra generalmente en situaciones de deficiencia para el crecimiento vegetal, y sólo puede ser repuesto mediante la fertilización. Debido a la variabilidad en la evaluación de la disponibilidad de P en el suelo, se realizó este trabajo con el objetivo de: a comparar entre sí dos de los métodos más comunes de evaluación de disponibilidad de P del suelo (Bray I y Olsen, y el método de la tirita de papel de filtro embebida en óxido de hierro (Strip; b estimar cual de los métodos se relaciona mejor con algunas variables vegetales ante distintas condiciones de manejo y tipos de suelos. Se estudiaron suelos de los órdenes Entisol, Alfisol y Vertisol de la provincia de Corrientes en condición natural o cultivado con Citrus, arroz o pasturas, respectivamente. Se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas y químicas, verificando la similitud textural entre los suelos Testigos y Cultivados. Se realizó un ensayo en invernadero de cada uno de los seis suelos con once niveles de P (entre 0-200 mg P por kg de suelo y luego se los incubó durante 25 días a 28 °C. Al finalizar la incubación se determinó el P disponible mediante los procedimientos recomendados para los métodos de Bray I, Olsen y Strip. Se sembró "rye grass" (Lolium perenne que se cosechó a los 45 días de la siembra para cuantificar la materia seca aérea y análisis de P en tejido. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que todos los métodos de evaluación de la disponibilidad de P del suelo describieron de manera adecuada y significativa las relaciones entre MS (R² entre 0,35 a 0,95, y valores extremos para el Vertisol y el Entisol, %P (con R² entre 0,92 y 0,95 y P absorbido (R² entre 0,93 y 0,96 y con muy pocas diferencias entre los suelos con el P extractado por los tres métodos. Sin embargo, la bondad de los ajustes fue diferente entre suelos, extractantes y manejos productivos, y sugieren la existencia de una interacción tripartita que arroja diferentes resultados en el valor final del P disponible. Se concluye que, no necesariamente el método más sencillo en la evaluación de P disponible para el vegetal es el que mejor refleja la relación con la materia seca o con la concentración del P en el tejido.Phosphorus is a nutrient with low soil solubility and mobility and may present limited availability for plant growth. One way to increase phosphorus availability in soil is by fertilization. Due to the variability in the evaluation of phosphorus availability in soil, the study was carried out with the following objectives: a to compare two of the most common soil available P methods (Bray I and Olsen, and the iron oxide impregnated filter paper method (Strip; b to evaluate which of the methods is better related to some plant variables under different managements and soil conditions. The soils selected from Corrientes Province were: 1 Entisol: natural soil as a control and cultivated with Citrus, 2 Alfisol: control and cultivated with rice, 3 Vertisol: control and cultivated with pastures. Physical and chemical soil properties indicated that soils from the same order differed in the textural composition, despite having similar chemical properties, suggesting that the differences among soils can be ascribed to cultivation. In addition, a greenhouse pot trial was conducted.Six soils were fertilized with eleven levels of P (0-200 mg P kg-1 and then incubated during 25 days at 28 °C. After incubation, soil samples were analyzed for P by the Olsen, Bray I and Strip methods. Rye grass was grown in pots during 45 days and the shoot dry matter was harvested and its P content analyzed. The results obtained in this work suggest that the three studied methods of P availability in soils described adequately and significantly the relationship between extracted P and dry matter yield (R² between 0.35 for the Vertisol and 0.95, for the Entisol, % P (R² between 0.92 and 0.95 and absorbed P (R² between 0.93 and 0.96. Nevertheless, th

Carolina Fernández López

2008-07-01

31

Définition d'un profil multidimensionnel de l'utilisateur : Vers une technique basée sur l'interaction entre dimensions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La personnalisation d'un processus d'accès à l'information a pour objectif de délivrer à l'utilisateur une information appropriée à ses préférences, ses centres d'intérêts ou plus globalement son profil. Ce papier présente une technique de construction du profil de l'utilisateur qui s'inscrit dans une approche statistique utilisant le comportement de l'utilisateur comme source permettant de prédire implicitement son modèle. Cette technique s'articule plus particulièrement sur l'...

Tamine, Lynda; Bahsoun, Wahiba

2006-01-01

32

Development and application of UV-visible and mid-IR differential absorption spectroscopy techniques for pollutant trace gas monitoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La représentativité spatiale est un critère de qualité important pour la mesure des gaz trace, particulièrement pour les mesures destinées au contrôle des normes de la qualité de l'air et pour la validation des modèles de qualité de l'air. Les techniques spectroscopiques à trajet optique ouvert remplissent pleinement ce critère. Elles permettent de mesurer des espèces chimiques sur la longueur d'un chemin optique allant d'une centaine de mètres à plusieurs kilomètres. Ce trava...

2005-01-01

33

La réparation sphinctérienne directe: points techniques, indications et résultats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L'incontinence anale est un handicap physique, psychique et social majeur qui a de nombreuses causes différentes. Les méthodes actuellement disponibles pour améliorer les symptômes de cette incontinence sont les méthodes médicales et de rééducation d'une part et les méthodes chirurgicales d'autre part. Quatre techniques chirurgicales répondent à ces objectifs pour la plupart des malades: la sphinctérorraphie, la neuromodulation des racines sacrées, et les deux techniques de subst...

Laalim, Said Ait; Hrora, Abdelmalek; Raiss, Mohammed; Ibnmejdoub, Karim; Toughai, Imane; Ahallat, Mohammed; Mazaz, Khalid

2013-01-01

34

Nonlinear optimization-based control techniques applied to cement grinding and polymerization processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Durant ces dernières années, l’intérêt pour les techniques de commande basées sur l’optimisation augmente en raison, d’une part de la compétitivité et des réglementations accrues dans le milieu industriel, et d’autre part de la puissance de calcul disponible aujourd’hui pour leur mise en œuvre efficace.

Lepore, Renato

2006-01-01

35

Manejo de la pancreatitis aguda: guía de práctica clínica basada en la mejor información disponible Management of acute pancreatitis: clinical practice guideline based on the best available evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El tratamiento de la pancreatitis aguda ha variado en el transcurso de los últimos años. La mayoría de los pacientes que cursan con pancreatitis aguda leve, sobrevive sin mayores complicaciones; por el contrario, aquellos con pancreatitis aguda grave presentan un curso incierto y, con respecto a su morbimortalidad, la infección pancreática es el factor de riesgo más importante. Los avances en el diagnóstico por imágenes y el desarrollo de la radiología intervencionista, han revolucionado el tratamiento quirúrgico.The management of acute pancreatitis has evolved significantly over the last few years. Currently, most patients with acute pancreatitis survive without complications. Severe acute pancreatitis show bizarre evolution and the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality is infection of the pancreatic necrosis. Advances in diagnostic imaging and minimally invasive techniques in surgery and radiology have revolutionized the surgical management of this disease.

Julio Alberto Nieto

2010-06-01

36

Manejo de la pancreatitis aguda: guía de práctica clínica basada en la mejor información disponible / Management of acute pancreatitis: clinical practice guideline based on the best available evidence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El tratamiento de la pancreatitis aguda ha variado en el transcurso de los últimos años. La mayoría de los pacientes que cursan con pancreatitis aguda leve, sobrevive sin mayores complicaciones; por el contrario, aquellos con pancreatitis aguda grave presentan un curso incierto y, con respecto a su [...] morbimortalidad, la infección pancreática es el factor de riesgo más importante. Los avances en el diagnóstico por imágenes y el desarrollo de la radiología intervencionista, han revolucionado el tratamiento quirúrgico. Abstract in english The management of acute pancreatitis has evolved significantly over the last few years. Currently, most patients with acute pancreatitis survive without complications. Severe acute pancreatitis show bizarre evolution and the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality is infection of the [...] pancreatic necrosis. Advances in diagnostic imaging and minimally invasive techniques in surgery and radiology have revolutionized the surgical management of this disease.

Nieto, Julio Alberto; Rodríguez, Samuel Jesús.

37

Control de admisión para redes móviles AD HOC con base en estimación de ancho de banda disponible / Control of admission for AD HOC mobile network based on estimates available bandwidth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los algoritmos de control de admisión en redes alambradas pueden monitorear el tráfico sobre cada uno de los enlaces punto-a-punto con el fin de determinar el ancho de banda disponible para los flujos a lo largo de diferentes rutas y basar su decisión en la diferencia entre el ancho de banda disponi [...] ble y el ancho de banda requerido. Infortunadamente, esto no es posible en una red móvil ad hoc (MANET) por varias razones, entre las que se destacan dos: (1) en la MANET, una transmisión entre dos nodos adyacentes consume el ancho de banda de muchos nodos vecinos, lo cual dificulta la estimación del ancho de banda disponible. (2) Un nodo que se admite tiene un efecto sobre la red que va mucho más allá de reducir el ancho de banda disponible en una cantidad previsible; al contrario, puede afectar la distribución espacial de los flujos existentes así como las probabilidades de colisión. En estas condiciones, no es fácil para un algoritmo de control de admisión determinar la magnitud de los flujos que deben ser admitidos para aprovechar los recursos de comunicación sin saturar la red. Este es un artículo de reflexión en el que discutimos algunos de los principales aspectos asociados con la interacción entre estos dos problemas fundamentales y proponemos un nuevo enfoque de investigación al respecto. Abstract in english The admission control algorithms in wired networks can monitor traffic on each of the links point-to-point in order to determine the available bandwidth for the flows along different routes and base their decision the difference between the available bandwidth and the bandwidth required. Unfortunate [...] ly, this is not possible in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) for several reasons, among which two stands out: (1) In the MANET, a transfer between two adjacent nodes consumes the bandwidth of many neighbors, which difficult to estimate the available bandwidth. (2) A node that supports has an effect on the network that goes far beyond reducing the bandwidth available in a predictable amount, on the contrary, it can affect the spatial distribution of existing flows and the likelihood of collision. In these conditions, it is easy for an admission control algorithm to determine the magnitude of the flows should be admitted to exploit the resources of communication without saturating the network. This is a refection article where we discuss some major issues associated with the interaction between these two fundamental problems and propose a new approach to investigation.

Alzate, Marco A; Támara, Leydi J.

38

Lutte contre les cercosporioses du bananier aux Antilles françaises - Évaluation et amélioration des techniques disponibles d’épandage aérien et terrestre Fighting Banana Sigatoka diseases in the French West Indies - Evaluation and improvement of available aerial and ground treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optimiser les traitements aériens et trouver des solutions alternatives terrestres sont les objectifs du projet de recherche Optiban, afin d’aider les acteurs de la filière antillaise de production de bananes à lutter efficacement contre les maladies du bananier tout en respectant les réglementations et en préservant l’environnement. Focus sur les différents travaux engagés et les premiers résultats des études.Banana growers in the French West Indies have to face a major stake today: to fight effectively against the Sigatoka diseases (the yellow one for years and the black one since the end of 2010, while respecting regulations on aerial application and protected areas. The Optiban project was launched in 2008 to improve aerial application and find ground alternative solutions, which have to be efficient and to meet the expectations of the industry.

CARRÉ, Maÿlis ; COTTEUX, Éric ; ROMBAUT, Marc ; GRIMBUHLER, Sonia ; DIDELOT, Dominique

2011-06-01

39

Los principios pedagógicos en cursos de actualización docente disponibles en la web / Pedagogical principles in teacher training courses available on the web  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Una de las necesidades de cualquier docente es mantenerse al día en relación con las técnicas y procedimientos pedagógicos que potencien el desarrollo del aprendizaje en sus alumnos. Para satisfacer esta necesidad, en los últimos años han surgido diversas plataformas educativas que usan las tecnolog [...] ías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) para actualizar docentes en ejercicio a distancia por medio de cursos basados en la web. Sin embargo, estos desarrollos requieren de un estudio detallado de los procedimientos para diseñar e implementar cursos en línea de manera que se produzca una educación de calidad. En este trabajo se presentan los "principios de la buena práctica pedagógica" propuestos por Chickering y Gamson (1987, 1991) para la educación presencial y se analiza su aplicación a los ambientes de aprendizaje a distancia. Además, se presentan y analizan las estrategias instruccionales y los recursos tecnológicos que se pueden usar para desarrollar cursos dictados a distancia, basados en los principios pedagógicos de Chickering y Gamson y dirigidos a docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Los principios utilizados fueron: a) el contacto entre estudiantes y profesores, b) la cooperación entre los estudiantes, c) el aprendizaje activo, d) la retroalimentación a tiempo, e) el uso apropiado del tiempo, f) las altas expectativas del estudiante, y g) el respeto a los estilos de aprendizaje. Se ilustra cada principio con ejemplos de recursos tecnológicos y estrategias instruccionales usados en un curso de postgrado impartido de manera mixta (presencial y a distancia). Abstract in english One of the needs of any teacher is to keep up to date in relation to the pedagogical techniques and procedures that promote the development of learning in the students. To satisfy this need, several educational platforms have emerged in the last years that make use of information and communication t [...] echnologies (ICT) to update in-service teachers through distance education. Yet, these developments require a detailed study of the procedures to design and implement on-line courses so they produce quality education. In this paper, the "principles of good practice", proposed by Chickering and Gamson (1987, 1991) for face to face instruction, are presented and an analysis is made of their application to distance learning environments. Also, instructional strategies and technological resources which can be used to develop distance education courses, using Chickering and Gamson’s pedagogical principles and aimed at foreign language teachers, are presented and analyzed. The principles used were a) the contact between students and teachers, b) the cooperation of students, c) active learning, d) feedback on time, e) the appropriate use of time, f) the high expectations of students, and g) the respect for learning styles. Each of these principles is illustrated with examples of technological resources used in a graduate course taught partly face to face and partly at distance.

Javier, García-Calvo.

40

Determinantes de salud y políticas públicas: identificación de indicadores de problemas de salud y factores asociados, basada en datos disponibles / Health and public policy determinants: selection of indicators for health problems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La planeación en salud requiere de información, que está disponible, pero que no siempre se utiliza. Aunque los sistemas de información en salud aparecieron hace más de tres décadas, las decisiones del sector se dirigen al manejo de enfermedad y no a modificar los factores que la gener [...] a. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la utilidad de datos disponibles en los diferentes sectores, para identificar grupos de población con características similares, asociadas con problemas de salud e identificar marcadores sencillos que orienten la toma de decisiones para solucionarlos. Métodos: Estudio ecológico. Se identificaron, recolectaron y procesaron datos de instituciones públicas y privadas y de estudios recientes. La asociación y correlación entre las diferentes variables permitió identificar aquellas con capacidad para discriminar grupos de población con problemas similares. Resultados: El estrato de vivienda mostró asociación significante con la mayoría de variables y se utilizó para dividir los barrios de la ciudad en cuatro conglomerados. Los barrios pertenecientes a estratos más bajos mostraron deficiencias en vivienda y educación, mayor proporción de población menor de 18 años, promedio de edad de muerte menor, menor estatura y mayor mortalidad perinatal y por accidentes y violencia. En los barrios de nivel medio y alto, se encontraron mejores condiciones de vivienda y tumores y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles como las principales causas de muerte. La conexión a servicios públicos fue similar en los hogares de todos los estratos, excepto el teléfono. El promedio ponderado por estrato y por barrio explica más de 80% de la varianza para la mayoría de las variables analizadas. Se propone que este indicador, disponible en forma permanente, se emplee como instrumento para planes locales de desarrollo, con validaciones periódicas a fin de evaluar su capacidad en el tiempo. Abstract in english Introduction: Health planning requires information from all sectors, usually available, but not used frequently. Information systems in Health appeared more than 3 decades ago but decisions are usually taken on considerations directed to the solution of a manifestation without modification of causal [...] factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of available data to identify population groups with similar characteristics associated to health problems and to identify simple markers to serve as a basis for decisions directed to solve them. Methods: Ecological study. Data were identified, collected and collated from public institutions and from recent studies for analysis. Association and correlation among the different variables identified those with the capacity to discriminate population groups. Household socio economic stratum had a significant association with most variables and was used to divide «Barrios» in four conglomerates. Results: Lower conglomerates presented deficiencies in household and education, larger proportion of young population, lower mean death age, higher mortality caused by accidents and violence, and lower stature. Middle and higher income conglomerates had better household conditions and the principal cause of death was tumors and chronic diseases. Public services were similar for all except telephone. Weighed household stratum by neighborhood «barrio» explained more that 80% of variance for most variables. It is proposed that this marker, available and easy to obtain, the instrument to define local development plans with periodic validations to evaluate its capacity.

Alberto, Pradilla; Álvaro, Rueda; Ligia, de Salazar; Jenny Andrea, Vélez; Elsa Patricia, Muñoz.

 
 
 
 
41

Producción de huevo, calidad del cascarón y rentabilidad en gallinas de primer ciclo con niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible / Egg production, eggshell quality and profitability of laying hens during first cycle with levels of calcium and available phosphorus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para evaluar el efecto del calcio y fósforo en la calidad del cascarón del huevo se realizó un experimento con 480 gallinas Hy-Line W-36. Se usaron tres niveles de calcio (Ca) (3.2, 4.2 y 5.2 %) y cuatro de fósforo disponible (Pd) (0.15, 0.20, 0.25 y 0.30 %). Se encontró interacción (P[...] y Pd en consumo de alimento (CAL) y masa de huevo (MH). Con el nivel de Ca de 5.2 % y de Pd (0.15 %) disminuyó el CAL (96.7 g) y MH (48.7 g). El porcentaje de postura y MH fueron menores (P Abstract in english In order to evaluate the importance of calcium and phosphorus for egg shell quality, a trial was conducted using 480 Hy-Line 36 hens in a 3*4*3 factorial arrangement to evaluate three calcium (Ca) (3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 %) and four available phosphorus (Ap) levels (0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 %) during 20 [...] to 72 wk of age). Results showed an interaction (P

Víctor Manuel, Valdés Narváez; Manuel, Cuca García; Arturo, Pro Martínez; Mariano, González Alcorta; Ma. Elena, Suárez Oporta.

42

Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054 Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007. Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnóstico de situación válido para los catálogos de la región. Plantea, además, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temática en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay.The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007 are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to Mercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Elsa E. Barber

2005-06-01

43

EVALUACIÓN ESPACIAL DEL NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE DEL SUELO EN UN CULTIVO DE PAPA cv. SPUNTA EN CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA Spatial evaluation of available soil nitrogen in a potato crop cv. Spunta in Córdoba, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Un análisis espacial del N disponible en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta es necesario a fin de hacer un diagnóstico de la práctica de fertilización localizada y aportar evidencias sobre un potencial problema de riesgo ambiental por lavado de nitratos. Con este propósito se diseñó un esquema de muestreo durante la temporada 2000 que consistió de una grilla rectangular de 3 x 10 estaciones, en dos fechas (21/03 y 14/04 y a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm. El contenido de humedad del suelo en ambas fechas resultó elevado y escasamente variable (CV 52% fue muy superior a la humedad del suelo en ambas fechas. Una comparación localizada del N disponible mostró que en el estrato superficial el contenido de N-NO3- de toda el área fue siempre superior a 7,5 mg kg-1, considerada la disponibilidad mínima para un óptimo crecimiento de los tubérculos. Entre 20 y 40 cm, en cambio, el contenido de N fue menor en ambas fechas, y la cantidad de N en la segunda se presentó por debajo de 7,5 mg kg-1 en 31% del lote. Esta distribución vertical del N-NO3-, con mayor contenido en superficie, no garantiza un consumo uniforme de N entre 0 y 40 cm. Al mismo tiempo, la mayor acumulación de N-NO3- entre 0 y 20 cm demostró que no ocurrió lixiviación en el perfil.A spatial analysis of the available N in a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta is necessary in order to make a diagnosis of the local fertilization practice and to provide evidence on a potential environmental risk problem from nitrate wash. For this purpose a sampling scheme was designed during the 2000 season that consisted of a rectangular grid of 3 x 10 stations. Samples were taken on two dates (21/3 and 14/04 and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm. The soil water content on both dates resulted to be high and hardly variable (coefficient of variation (CV 52% was much higher than the soil water content on both dates. A localized comparison of the available N showed that in the superficial stratum the content of N-NO3- of all the area was always superior to 7.5 mg kg-1, considered the minimal availability for an optimum growth of the tubers. Between 20 and 40 cm, on the other hand, the content of N was smaller on both dates, and the quantity of N of the latter was below 7.5 mg kg-1 in 31% of the area. This vertical distribution of the N-NO3-, with greater content on the surface, does not guarantee a uniform consumption of N between 0 and 40 cm. At the same time, the greater accumulation of N-NO3- between 0 and 20 cm demonstrated that leaching did not occur in the profile.

Antonio de la Casa

2003-07-01

44

Extemporaneous clobazam suspensions for paediatric use prepared from commercially available tablets and pure drug / Suspensiones extratemporáneas de clobazam para uso pediátrico preparadas a partir de tabletas disponibles comercialmente y fármaco puro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Dos suspensiones orales acuosas de clobazam para uso pediátrico (5 mg/ml) fueron evaluadas para determinar su estabilidad fisicoquimica bajo diferentes condiciones de almacenamiento. Métodos: Las formulaciones fueron conservadas a 4 y 25 ºC y el contenido de clobazam fue determinado median [...] te Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Performance. Cada una de las muestras fue analizada por triplicado a diferentes tiempos (0, 7, 14, 28 y 56 días). Resultados: Las suspensiones fueron formuladas satisfactoriamente a partir del principio activo puro y de comprimidos disponibles comercialmente. En ambos casos, las muestras presentaron una adecuada estabilidad física. El clobazam fue químicamente estable en las suspensiones acuosas durante los 56 días de duración del estudio a las dos temperaturas elegidas para su conservación. Conclusiones: Todas las formulaciones orales líquidas formuladas y evaluadas en este estudio pueden ser conservadas a 4 y 25 ºC por al menos 56 días. Abstract in english Objective: Two clobazam aqueous suspensions for paediatric oral usage (5 mg/ml) were investigated to determinate its physicochemical stability under different storage conditions. Method: Formulations were stored at 4 and 25 ºC and the clobazam content was determined by High Performance Liquid Chroma [...] tography. Each sample was analyzed by triplicate at different time points (0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days). Results: Liquid suspensions were successfully formulated from pure drug and commercially available tablets. In both cases, samples showed suitable physical stability. Clobazam was chemically stable in aqueous suspension during the 56 days of the study at the two storage temperatures. Conclusions: All the tried oral liquid formulations can be conserved at 4 and 25 ºC at least 56-day period.

Buontempo, F.; Moretton, M. A.; Quiroga, E.; Chiappetta, D. A..

45

Servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes con trastornos mentales en México / The clinical services available to children and young people with mental illnesses in México / Serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens com perturbações mentais no México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Na área da saúde, bem-estar físico e mental deveria ser uma prioridade. Porém no México na atenção de saúde mental existem restrições importantes, como o estigma social que prevalece nas doenças mentais, discriminação e violação dos direitos humanos das pessoas afetadas por estas perturbações, o núm [...] ero limitado de serviços clínicos que podem ser acessados , a falta de serviços especializados de saúde, e a tendência dos governos em ignorar esta realidade. Este artigo procura fazer uma breve revisão dos serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens mexicanos que tenham alguma perturbação mental. Abstract in spanish En el ámbito de la salud, el bienestar físico y mental debería ser una prioridad. No obstante, en México existen limitantes importantes en la atención a la salud mental, como el estigma social que prevalece hacia las enfermedades mentales, la discriminación y violación a los derechos humanos de las [...] personas afectadas por estos trastornos, el limitado número de servicios clínicos a los que se puede acceder, la falta de servicios de salud especializados, y la tendencia de los gobiernos a omitir esta realidad. En el presente artículo de tipo descriptivo pretendo hacer una breve revisión de los servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes mexicanos que padecen trastornos mentales. Abstract in english In the field of health, physical and mental well-being should be a priority. Nevertheless, in Mexico, the attention given to mental health has important limitations, such as the social stigma that prevails toward mental illnesses; the discrimination and violation of human rights of people affected b [...] y these disorders; the limited number of clinical services which can be accessed; the lack of specialized health services and the tendency of Governments to ignore this reality. This article aims to undertake a brief review of the clinical services available to Mexican children and young people that are affected by a mental disorder.

Gabriela, Zamora-Carmona.

46

Aerial and snorkelling census techniques for estimating green turtle abundance on foraging areas: A pilot study in Mayotte Island (Indian Ocean)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Le suivi de l'abondance de tortues vertes (Chelonia mydas) est nécessaire pour évaluer l'évolution et éventuellement, le risque d'extinction des populations. L'objectif de cette expérience est de comparer trois techniques d'observation permettant l'évaluation directe de l'abondance totale de tortues vertes sur les aires d'alimentation (herbiers et platiers récifaux). L'étude a été conduite à l'île de Mayotte (ouest de l'océan Indien). Les techniques testées sont le comptage sous...

2005-01-01

47

Techniques d'amélioration des performances de compression dans le cadre du codage vidéo distribué  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Le codage vidéo distribué (DVC) est une technique récemment proposée dans le cadre du codage vidéo, et qui convient surtout à une nouvelle classe d'applications telles que la surveillance vidéo sans fil, les réseaux de capteurs multimédia, et les téléphones mobiles. En DVC, une information adjacente (SI) est estimée au décodeur en se basant sur les trames décodées disponibles, et utilisée pour le décodage et la reconstruction des autres trames. Dans cette thèse, nous proposo...

Abou-elailah, Abdalbassir

2012-01-01

48

Evaluación del uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles para el perfil de medicina transfusional / Evaluation of the use of databases available for students and faculty of the transfusion medicine profile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar las habilidades en el uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles en la Red del Sistema Nacional de Salud y establecer estrategias a partir de los resultados alcanzados, se aplicó una encuesta de competencias informacionales a 7 profesores y 11 estudiantes de la carrera [...] Licenciatura en Tecnología de la Salud, en el perfil Medicina Transfusional, en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Enrique Cabrera". La encuesta identificó el estado del conocimiento sobre búsquedas bibliográficas, la utilización de las fuentes de información y el acceso a las tecnologías de la información. Se tuvieron en cuenta los aspectos éticos, y se protegió en todo momento la identidad de los entrevistados. Los resultados de la experiencia demuestran que la mayoría de los profesores conocen y usan las bases de datos PUBMED e HINARI, de ellos 16,7 % requiere del apoyo de un especialista; los alumnos tienen un total desconocimiento de las bases de datos cuya consulta facilita Infomed. Los docentes y los alumnos desconocen la existencia de la base de datos DYNAMED, mientras que el buscador más conocido y visitado por estos es Google. Se concluye que existe una deficiente competencia informacional. A partir de los resultados alcanzados se recomienda desarrollar habilidades mediante talleres y otras actividades curriculares de alfabetización informacional. Abstract in english The paper aims to explore the students' and faculty's abilities in the use of data bases available in the Health System Network. An informational competence survey to 7 teachers and 11 students of the Health Technologies program (Transfusional Medicine branch) was applied in "Enrique Cabrera" Facult [...] y of Medicine. The survey identified the knowledge about bibliography search and usage of information sources. Ethics procedures, such as anonymity, were followed. The results show that most of the professors know and use the data bases PUBMED e HINARI. 16.7 % of them require the help of a specialist. On the other hand, students showed total ignorance of the data bases available in Infomed. Teachers and students do not use nor know DYNAMED database; meanwhile the more visited search engine is Google. We can conclude that there is a deficient informational competence so we recommend developing information related abilities through workshops and other curricula activities.

Valdespino Alberti, Ana Iris; García Peralta, Tania; Levón Herrera, Raquel; Forrellat Barrios, Mariela.

49

Evaluación de algunos métodos para la extracción de zinc disponible en suelos alcalinos del Valle del Cauca Evaluation of methods to extract available zinc in alkaline soils of Cauca Valley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se determinó el contenido de zinc disponible por varios métodos de extracción y se trató de establecer en una primera aproximación el nivel crítico de este elemento, en 20 suelos alcalinos (Vertisol, Mollisol, Inceptisol y Entisol de la zona plana del Valle del Cauca. El orden de eficiencia de las ocho soluciones extractoras fue: HCL 0.1 N > EDTA 0.05 M > (NH4hC03 +EDTA > Olsen Modificado> DTPA - CaCI2- TEA = NH4HC03 DTPA = Carolina del Norte> HCl 0.05 N. Los niveles críticos de zinc en el suelo estuvieron por debajo de los siguientes valores: Olsen Modificado (1.8 ppm, (NH4hC03 + EDTA (1.8 ppm, DTPA (1.2 ppm, NH4HC03 + DTPA (1.0 ppm, EDTA 0.05 M (2.2 ppm, Carolina del Norte (1.0 ppm, HCI 0.1 N (3.0 ppm y HCI 0.05 N (0.15 ppm. En invernadero no se encontró respuesta significativa de los tratamientos (O, 4, 8, 12, 16 Y 20 kg de Zn/ha sobre el rendimiento de materia seca del híbrido 8239 de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench pero sí en la concentración y contenido foliar de zinc. La concentración de zinc en la planta, determinada por digestión húmeda con mezcla nítrico-perclórica y metanol ácido, estuvo dentro del rango normal establecido para este elemento. Se encontraron correlaciones positivas y altamente significativas entre el contenido de zinc de la planta y el contenido de zinc extraído del suelo por los métodos de Olsen Modificado, DTPA y HCI 0.1 N, los otros métodos presentaron correlaciones positivas, pero no significativas.In order to determine available zinc content using several extraction methods and trying to stablish in a first aproximation the critical level for this element, 20 alkaline soils (Vertisol, Mollisol, Inceptisol, and Entisol were collected in the Plain Zone of Cauca Valley. Eight solutions were used; their extraction order was: HCI 0.1 N> EDTA 0.05 M > (NH42CO3 + EDTA > Modified Olsen > DTPA- CaCl2 - TEA = NH4HC03 + DTPA = North Caroline > HCl0.05 N. It was found that the critical levels are bellow the following values: Olsen Modified (1.8 ppm, (NH4hCO + EDTA (1.8 ppm, DTPA (1.2 ppm, NH4HC03 + DPTA (1.0 ppm EDTA 0.05 M (2.2 ppmj. Double Acid (1.0 ppm HCl0.1 N (3.0 ppm and HCl0.05 N (0.15 ppm. In the greenhouse study it was found that the zinc application (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 kg/ha did not enhance dry matter accumulation in sorghum, hybrid 8239 (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, but it did increase the foliar concentration, determined by wet digestion using both nitric perchloric acid and acid methanol, and content of this element. The zinc concentration found in the plant was within the normal range given for this element. Significant positive correlations were found between plant zinc content and soil zinc extracted by Modified Olsen, DTP A, and HCI 0.1 N; another methods showed possitive but no significant correlations.

García O. Álvaro

1990-12-01

50

La prevención primaria con aspirina de enfermedades cardiovasculares en personas diabéticas: Revisión de las pruebas disponibles / Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases in Diabetic Patients: A Review of Currently Available Tests  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El beneficio del tratamiento con aspirina en la reducción del riesgo de infarto de miocardio, accidente vascular cerebral y muerte de origen vascular, está bien documentado en personas con enfermedad cardiovascular previa, incluido el subgrupo portador de una diabetes mellitus. Sin embargo el papel [...] de la aspirina en prevención primaria es menos claro y objeto de discusión: los resultados de los ensayos clínicos disponibles no son consistentes, aunque los meta-análisis son favorables en algunos aspectos. Parece existir una disparidad entre el tipo de beneficio (cuando se observa) y el sexo. Y en particular los resultados son contradictorios en personas diabéticas, las cuales representan un pequeño porcentaje de la muestra de población incluida en los estudios. A pesar de esto, la American Diabetes Association desde 1997, y otras sociedades científicas (incluidas varias españolas) desde tiempos más recientes, recomiendan el uso de aspirina a dosis bajas en prevención primaria en todo paciente diabético mayor de 40 años, tipo 1 o tipo 2; y en todos los menores de 40 y mayores de 21 años que presenten otro factor de riesgo cardiovascular, además de la diabetes (antecedentes familiares de enfermedad vascular, hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo, dislipidemia o albuminuria). En este trabajo se revisan los resultados de los ensayos clínicos randomizados y controlados sobre la prevención cardiovascular primaria con aspirina, en los que se podrían apoyar las directrices oficiales de la American Diabetes Association, y se llega a la conclusión de que no existen actualmente pruebas científicas suficientes para sostenerlas. Abstract in english The benefits of aspirin treatment in reducing the risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents and vascular death is well-documented among individuals having prior cardiovascular disease, including the subgroup with diabetes mellitus. The role of aspirin in primary prevention is less cle [...] ar and debatable: the results of the clinical trials currently available are not consistent, although the meta-analyses are favorable in some aspects. There seems to be a disparity between the type of benefit (when found to exist) and gender, the findings being particularly contradictory for diabetic subjects, totalling a minor percentage of the population sample included in the studies. Despite this fact, in 1997, the American Diabetes Association and more recently other scientific societies (including several Spanish societies) have been recommending the use of aspirin in low doses in primary prevention in all type 1 or type 2 diabetic patients over 40 years of age and in all those within the 21-40 age range having any other cardiovascular risk factor in addition to diabetes (family history of vascular disease, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia or albuminuria). This study reviews the findings of the randomized, controlled clinical trials on primary cardiovascular prevention with aspirin, on which the official American Diabetes Association guidelines might be based, the conclusion being reached that there is not currently sufficient scientific evidence to uphold these guidelines.

Carmen, Maciá Bobes; Aránzazu, Ronzón Fernández; Elisa, Fernández García.

51

La prevención primaria con aspirina de enfermedades cardiovasculares en personas diabéticas: revisión de las pruebas disponibles / Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients: a review of currently available aests  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El beneficio del tratamiento con aspirina en la reducción del riesgo de infarto de miocardio, accidente vascular cerebral y muerte de origen vascular, está bien documentado en personas con enfermedad cardiovascular previa, incluido el subgrupo portador de una diabetes mellitus. Sin embargo el papel [...] de la aspirina en prevención primaria es menos claro y objeto de discusión: los resultados de los ensayos clínicos disponibles no son consistentes, aunque los meta-análisis son favorables en algunos aspectos. Parece existir una disparidad entre el tipo de beneficio (cuando se observa) y el sexo. Y en particular los resultados son contradictorios en personas diabéticas, las cuales representan un pequeño porcentaje de la muestra de población incluida en los estudios. A pesar de esto, la American Diabetes Association desde 1997, y otras sociedades científicas (incluidas varias españolas) desde tiempos más recientes, recomiendan el uso de aspirina a dosis bajas en prevención primaria en todo paciente diabético mayor de 40 años, tipo 1 o tipo 2; y en todos los menores de 40 y mayores de 21 años que presenten otro factor de riesgo cardiovascular, además de la diabetes (antecedentes familiares de enfermedad vascular, hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo, dislipidemia o albuminuria). En este trabajo se revisan los resultados de los ensayos clínicos randomizados y controlados sobre la prevención cardiovascular primaria con aspirina, en los que se podrían apoyar las directrices oficiales de la American Diabetes Association, y se llega a la conclusión de que no existen actualmente pruebas científicas suficientes para sostenerlas. Abstract in english The benefits of aspirin treatment in reducing the risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents and vascular death is well-documented among individuals having prior cardiovascular disease, including the subgroup with diabetes mellitus. The role of aspirin in primary prevention is less cle [...] ar and debatable: the results of the clinical trials currently available are not consistent, although the meta-analyses are favorable in some aspects. There seems to be a disparity between the type of benefit (when found to exist) and gender, the findings being particularly contradictory for diabetic subjects, totalling a minor percentage of the population sample included in the studies. Despite this fact, in 1997, the American Diabetes Association and more recently other scientific societies (including several Spanish societies) have been recommending the use of aspirin in low doses in primary prevention in all type 1 or type 2 diabetic patients over 40 years of age and in all those within the 21-40 age range having any other cardiovascular risk factor in addition to diabetes (family history of vascular disease, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia or albuminuria). This study reviews the findings of the randomized, controlled clinical trials on primary cardiovascular prevention with aspirin, on which the official American Diabetes Association guidelines might be based, the conclusion being reached that there is not currently sufficient scientific evidence to uphold these guidelines.

Carmen, Maciá Bobes; Aránzazu, Ronzón Fernández; Elisa, Fernández García.

52

Présentation Technique - French version only  

CERN Multimedia

Tuesday 9 September PRESENTATION TECHNIQUE From 09:00 - 12:00 - bldg. 40, S2-B01 Techniques de mesure: Acquisition, analyse et présentation avec LabVIEW 7 Express National Instruments Switzerland Avec LabVIEW 7 Express, National Instruments inaugure une nouvelle ère pour la programmation graphique dans le monde de la mesure et de l'automatisation. Pour la première fois dans l'histoire de la programmation par flux de données, les antagonismes inconciliables entre la programmation et la configuration se laissent réduire au même dénominateur et sont disponibles dans un environnement de développement intégré. En outre, cette nouvelle version peut-être supportée par une plus large palette de plates-formes et de matériels cibles : de Windows, Linux ou Mac OS X jusqu'aux PDA (assistants personnels) ou aux FPGA embarqués. Avec LabVIEW 7 Express, vous disposez d'un outil logiciel, qui vous permet de construire encore plus vite, plus facilement et à moindres frais vos...

2003-01-01

53

An improved method for quick evaluation of at least one petroleum characteristic of a rock sample; application to a deposit containing heavy oils; Methode amelioree permettant l`evaluation rapide d`au moins une caracteristique petroliere d`un echantillon de roche; application a un gisement comportant des huiles lourdes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improvement to the previously developed Rock-Eval technique, is presented, which allows the quick evaluation of the petroleum characteristics of a reservoir rock sample: the sample is heated in a non oxidizing atmosphere with several temperature increase stages, leading to three values which are representative of the quantity of light or heavy hydrocarbons that are contained in the sample. (authors) 6 refs.

Trabelsi, K.; Espitalie, J.

1996-01-12

54

Determination of D-Dimers in condition of emergency: the D-Di Liatest. Threshold value in elimination of pulmonary emboli (PE); Determination en urgence des D-Dimeres: le liatest D-DI. Valeur seuil permettant d`eliminer une embolie pulmonaire (EP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several studies have shown that a low rate of D-Dimers (products of fibrin decay) measured by Elisa technique can eliminate the diagnosis of thrombo-embolic disease. However, the conventional Elisa technique is not adapted to emergency conditions. A new agglutination test of latex microparticles (D-Di Liatest) has been developed by Diagnostica Stago with a sensitivity of 100 ng/ml. Our goal was to determine the threshold of PE exclusion. Ninety six patients suspected of PE were included. The pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy (PPS), as a reference examination the positivity of which has been confirmed by clinical follow-up, has been carried out in association with the determination of plasmatic rates of D-Dimers by the techniques Elisa and Liatest based on different antibodies. A table is given containing the D-Di threshold rates obtained by these techniques. In conclusion, our results showed that the rate of D-Dimers which eliminate a PE is {<=} 500 ng/ml by Elisa and {<=} 400 ng/ml by Liatest with a VPN of 100%. However, the PPS remains necessary in 77% of cases. This work stresses the necessity of clinical validations for the new biological tests

Duet, M. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France); Soria, C. [Service de Hematologie (France); Elkarrat, D. [Service de Urgences (France); Benelhadj, S. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France); Bailliard, O.; Kedra, A.W. [Service de Explorations Founctionnelles, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Drouet, L. [Service de Hematologie (France); Mundler, O. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France)

1997-12-31

55

Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

2007-07-01

56

Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome; Proteomique fonctionnelle dediee aux Metalloproteases Matricelles (MMPs): developpement d'une methode extremement sensible permettant la detection des formes actives des MMPs dans des proteomes complexes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows us to identify active forms of gelatinases (M.M.P.-2 and -9) in an indirect manner by comparing the results of tumour samples treated with the photoaffinity probe and the results of tumour samples analysed in zymography. These studies indicate that the protein expression levels of active forms of M.M.P. are extremely low (fmoles) and do not permit any characterisation of those forms of M.M.P. by mass spectrometry, constituting a genuine challenge which can be approached by the development of new photoaffinity probes incorporating a biotin-group. The example of this class of proteins expressed in very low abundance under active form implicates to grant efforts to develop new strategies allowing the capture of the targeted proteins. (author)

David, A

2007-07-15

57

Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt / Validation des nécessaires permettant de tester ponctuellement la teneur en iode du sel: expériences indiennes / Validación de kits de determinación in situ del contenido de yodo de la sal: experiencia en la India  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los trastornos por carencia de yodo son un grave problema de salud pública, y la yodación de la sal es la intervención más empleada para eliminarlos. Sin embargo, es fundamental vigilar regularmente el contenido de yodo de la sal para asegurar el éxito y la sostenibilidad de esa intervención. El mét [...] odo empleado tradicionalmente para medir el contenido de yodo, la valoración yodométrica, plantea problemas relacionados con su accesibilidad y costo. Los kits más recientes para análisis in situ son baratos, apenas exigen adiestramiento, y permiten obtener resultados inmediatos. Partiendo de los datos aportados por estudios de evaluación de la disponibilidad de sal yodada en dos Estados de la India, Madhya Pradesh y el Territorio de Delhi, procedimos a analizar la utilidad del kit sobre el terreno. En Delhi se obtuvieron muestras de sal de 30 escuelas, empleando para ello la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados del Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (EPI). Las mediciones del contenido de yodo mediante el kit fueron efectuadas por un solo observador. Las muestras de sal de Madhya Pradesh procedían de 30 conglomerados rurales y 30 urbanos, identificados mediante la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados del EPI a partir de datos censales. En cada grupo, se obtuvieron muestras de sal a partir de 10 hogares seleccionados al azar y de todos los minoristas. Los 15 investigadores participantes en el estudio calcularon el contenido de yodo de las muestras de sal empleando el kit sobre el terreno. Todas las muestras se llevaron al laboratorio central de Delhi, donde el contenido de yodo se determinó mediante la valoración yodométrica como método de referencia. El grado de coincidencia entre los niveles obtenidos con el kit y los obtenidos mediante la valoración disminuyó paralelamente al aumento del número de observadores. Aunque la sensibilidad no se vio demasiado afectada por el aumento del número de observadores (93,3% para un solo observador, y 93,9% para varios observadores), la especificidad disminuyó pronunciadamente (90,4% para un solo observador, y 40,4% para varios observadores). Considerando la baja especificidad y el número consiguientemente elevado de falsos positivos obtenidos cuando lo usaron varios observadores (« condiciones reales »), cabe concluir que el kit tendía a sobreestimar sistemáticamente la disponibilidad de sal yodada. Puesto que esa sobreestimación podría conducir a la complacencia, mientras no se disponga de una alternativa válida debería seguirse utilizando el método de valoración para controlar el contenido de yodo de la sal en todos los niveles, desde el productor hasta el consumidor, a fin de garantizar la eficacia del programa. Abstract in english Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditiona [...] l method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of

Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Arora, Narendra K.; Krishnan, Anand; Sankar, Rajan; Pandav, Smita; Karmarkar, Madhu G..

58

Dismantling techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

1998-03-09

59

Culinary Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This website is a simple, quick reference for a variety of basic culinary techniques. It covers a wide variety of techniques that some recipes or class situations might assume are basic but in fact are not necessarily so. Techniques from preparing stock and mayonnaise, to poaching and saut�ing are included. While not designed specifically as an educational site, the technique descriptions are handy and easily found in a pinch, and act as a simple and relevant source of reference for anyone involved in the culinary arts.

2006-11-23

60

Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles Pediculus capitis: Available therapies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pediculosis es la infestación del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a más de 15% de la población general y a más de 30% de la población infantil. Los fármacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero hasta 20% de la población se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos compuestos activos, e...

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles Pediculus capitis: Available therapies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pediculosis es la infestación del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a más de 15% de la población general y a más de 30% de la población infantil. Los fármacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero hasta 20% de la población se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos compuestos activos, entre ellos: lindano, derivados piretroides, crotamitón, tiabendazol, malatión, carbaryl y cotrimoxazol. De cada uno, se discute el mecanismo de acción, características farmacológicas, efectividad y efectos adversosHead lice infestation is very common. It is one of most frequent diseases in the childhood. In 1996, 15% of the people in the world and 30% of infant were infected. The drugs used at the moment are very effective but the people get reinfested after two months, so to avoid it, it is important to treat all contacts. There are different active compounds like lindane, pyrethins, crotamiton, thiabendazole, malathion, carbaryl and sulpha/trimethoprim. For each of these, we discuss their action, pharmacology characteristics, effectiveness and adverse effects.

ROBERTO P ROSSO A

2003-01-01

62

Une Chaine de Mesure Permettant de Caracteriser la Performance en Voile  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents the experimental set-up and the analysis tools developed for the performance evaluation in sailing. The measurement system is composed of sensors for the position and attitude of the sail boat, sensors for the wind measurement and some tools for the coach.

Iachkine, Paul; Roncin, Kostia; Kobus, Jean-Michel

2010-01-01

63

Presentation Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

1992-01-01

64

Measurement techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discussion will be restricted to measurements of voltage and current. Also, although the measurements themselves should be as quantitative as possible, the discussion is rather nonquantitative. Emphasis is on types of instruments, how they may be used, and the inherent advantages and limitations of a given technique. A great deal of information can be obtained from good, clean voltage and current data. Power and impedance are obviously inherent if the proper time relationships are preserved. Often an associated, difficult-to-determine, physical event can be evaluated from the V-I data, such as a time-varying load characteristic, or the time of light emission, etc. The lack of active high voltage devices, such as 50-kV operational amplifiers, restricts measurement devices to passive elements, primarily R and C. There are a few more exotic techniques that are still passive in nature. There are several well-developed techniques for voltage measurements. These include: spark gaps; electrostatic meters; capacitive dividers; mixed RC dividers; and the electro-optic effect. Current is measured by either direct measurement of charge flow or by measuring the resulting magnetic field.

Willis, W.L.

1980-10-01

65

Bibliographical resources available in the Internet about dangerous substances and residues and their influence in the environment in the period 1975-2005 Recursos bibliográficos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias y residuos peligrosos y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The Internet has become the most used source of biomedical information. The documentation, produced by the public and private institutions, in relation with the dangerous substances that can recover in the Internet is fundamental for the prevention of this type of risks. Objective. To locate and to check the available documents in the Internet about dangerous substances, dangerous residues, including inert, and his influence in the environment in the period 1975 - 2005. Material and Method. Descriptive and cross sectional study of the results of the bibliographical searches made in the Internet, in the corresponding databases. Results. It has been recognized 162 records that expire with the requirements indicated in the pre-established methodology. Discussion. With respect to the environmental documentation present in the Internet it seems to be suitable to increase his diffusion and to improve his classification and accessibility.Introducción. Internet se ha convertido en una fuente de información biomédica cada vez más utilizada. La documentación producida por las instituciones públicas y privadas, en relación con las sustancias peligrosas que se pueden recuperar en Internet, es fundamental para la prevención de este tipo de riesgos. Objetivo. Localizar y revisar los documentos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias peligrosas, residuos peligrosos, incluyendo inertes, y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005. Material y método. Estudio descriptivo transversal de los resultados de las búsquedas bibliográficas efectuadas en Internet, en las correspondientes bases de datos. Resultados. Se han reconocido 162 registros que cumplen con los requisitos señalados en la metodología preestablecida. Discusión. Con respecto a la documentación medioambiental pre- sente en Internet, parece conveniente incrementar su difusión y mejorar su clasificación y accesibilidad.

Elena Ronda-Pérez

2008-06-01

66

Llizarov technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper illustrates the radiographic manifestations of the Ilizarov distraction technique for the correction of short and deformed limbs. The radiographs of 130 patients who underwent Ilizarov distraction at 160 sites since December 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Reasons for correction included fracture nonunion and malunion idiopathic leg length discrepancy, achondroplasia, and neurofibromatosis with tibial pseudarthrosis. Ninety patients were adults, and 40 were children. In order to assess cortical bone development during the fixation phase, CT of the regenerate bone was performed in 17 patients. Conventional tomograms were obtained in 20 patients for the evaluation of delayed or hypoplastic union at the distraction site

1990-11-25

67

Experimental techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, ? detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

2007-09-17

68

WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embedding a hidden stream of bits in a file is called Digital watermarking. The file could be an image, audio, video or text. Nowadays, a digital watermarking has many applications such as broadcast monitoring, owner identification, proof of ownership, transaction tracking, content authentication, copy control, device control and file reconstruction. It is intended to complement cryptographic processes. It is a visible or preferably invisible, identification code that is permanently embedded in the data and remains present within the data after any decryption process. The focus of this paper will detail digital watermarking for multimedia applications and covered by definition of digital watermarking, purpose, techniques and types of watermarking attacks briefly discussed.

Man Kan Dan

2012-06-01

69

Denervation techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bladder can be denervated at several levels: centrally, at the level of the sacral nerves; peripherally, on the pelvic nerves; or in the bladder, by cutting the relevant structures, by injecting substances toxic to nerves, or by hyperbaric bladder distension. These procedures target the sensory or motor nerves to weaken or to interrupt the detrusor reflex arc. Most of the procedures introduced previously, e.g. bladder trans-section by open operation, endoscopic or transvesical phenolization, hyperbaric bladder distension, and peripheral denervation of the bladder, have now been abandoned. Although some of these techniques had a high initial success rate in abolishing detrusor overactivity and in controlling incontinence, the relapse rate within 18 months approached 100%. In the early 1950s, much of the denervation surgery was performed on sacral roots and nerves. Nowadays, sacral de-afferentiation of the bladder by dorsal sacral root rhizotomy of S2-S5, using specialized techniques, either intradurally or at the conal level, has proved to be a very effective procedure for patients with spinal cord injuries and detrusor hyper-reflexia, functional low compliance and reflex incontinence, which cannot be managed by any other means. In conclusion, although in approximately 90% of patients the symptoms of an overactive bladder will be eliminated or improved by conservative methods of treatment, bladder denervation procedures still have a place in the management of these patients. In particular, with these procedures a low-pressure bladder system can be obtained and urinary continence restored in patients with complete suprasacral spinal cord lesions. PMID:11954191

Madersbacher, H

2000-05-01

70

Experimental Techniques  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectrometry and many of them home-built: electrostatic ion storage devices, accelerator mass spectrometers (i.e., sector instruments), reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and ion traps. The experimental results presented in this volume were obtained with such instruments. Detection schemes are detailed, both for the identification of neutral products and charged ones. In delayed dissociation experiments, prompt dissociation is a problem as all the fragmentation is then not sampled; an example is photo-induced electron transfer to an ammonium group and subsequent hydrogen loss. A way to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.

Wyer, Jean

2013-01-01

71

Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usando la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994. Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979. La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g fue mayor (PAn experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD and simulated grazing samples (FA, at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data collected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P<0.05 from herbage mass samples than simulated grazing samples at 12, 21, and 27 hours of incubation (161.7 v/s 150.6, s.e.d.= 4.23; 217.6 v/s 209.2, s.e.d.= 3.65; and 242.1 v/s 234.7, s.e.d.= 3.34, respectively. However, after 27 hours of incubation, no significant effect (P0.05 of type of sample, either on the amount of gas produced or on the kinetic of fermentation, were found. The dry matter disappearance after 96 hours of incubation was significantly lower (P<0.05 for herbage mass samples compared with simulated grazing samples (0.908 v/s 0.873, s.e.d.= 0.005, but with no effect of sward height (P0.05. These findings show the benefits of complementing in vitro gas production measurements with post digestion residue determinations to improve the knowledge on the nutritive value of feed fermented in the rumen

R. Pulido

1998-01-01

72

Caracterización por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas del thinner comercialmente disponible en la ciudad de Cartagena / Characterization by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Commercially Available Thinner in the City of Cartagena / Caracterização por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas do Tíner comercialmente disponível na cidade de Cartagena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O Tíner é um dos produtos de maior utilização na indústria das pinturas, lubrificantes e colas. Sua composição é variável conforme a seu uso e qualidade. No entanto, a exposição crônica é uma preocupação devido a que pode afetar órgãos principais tais como pulmões, fígados, rins e glândulas suprarre [...] nais. Neste estudo foi caracterizada a composição de várias amostras de Tíner, disponíveis comercialmente na cidade de Cartagena. Doze amostras de Tíner foram recoletadas em diferentes lojas e analisadas por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (GC/MS). Os resultados mostraram que não só a composição, más também a distribuição relativa dos componentes presentes nas amostras são variáveis. Trinta e dois compostos foram detectados, entre os que se encontram: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno e etilbenceno, com frequências de aparição de 91.7, 66.7, 75.0 e 66.7%, respectivamente. O desconhecimento do risco de intoxicação, gerado ao manipular este tipo de misturas, pode ser a causa de muitos dos problemas de saúde em pessoas expostas ao Tíner, tanto nas atividades laborais quanto domésticas. Uma mineração de dados mostrou a associação potencial entre os componentes do Tíner e manifestações clínicas, as quais incluem dano renal e hepático, perda de cabelo, alterações hematológicas, dermatite, ansiedade e problemas de equilíbrio, entre outras. Em conclusão, o Tíner possui grande variabilidade tanto em seus componentes quanto na proporção relativa dos mesmos. Os efeitos prejudiciais na saúde por exposição direta ou indireta a estes componentes têm sido amplamente descritos na literatura. Abstract in spanish El thinner es uno de los productos de mayor utilización en la industria de las pinturas, lubricantes y pegamentos. Su composición es variable de acuerdo con su uso y calidad. Sin embargo, la exposición crónica es una preocupación debido a que puede afectar órganos principales tales como pulmones, hí [...] gado, riñón y glándulas suprarrenales. En este estudio fue caracterizada la composición de varias muestras de thinner, disponibles comercialmente en la ciudad de Cartagena, que fueron recolectadas en diferentes almacenes y analizadas por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Los resultados mostraron que no solo la composición, sino también la distribución relativa de los componentes presentes en las muestras son variables. Treinta y dos compuestos fueron detectados, entre los que se encuentran: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno y etilbenceno, con frecuencias de aparición de 91,7%, 66,7%, 75,0% y 66,7%, respectivamente. El desconocimiento del riesgo de intoxicación, generado al manipular este tipo de mezclas, puede ser la causa de muchos de los problemas de salud en personas expuestas al thinner, tanto en actividades laborales como domésticas. Una minería de datos mostró la asociación potencial entre los componentes del thinner y manifestaciones clínicas, las cuales incluyen daño renal y hepático, pérdida de cabello, alteraciones hematológicas, dermatitis, ansiedad y problemas de equilibrio, entre otras. En conclusión, el thinner posee gran variabilidad tanto en sus componentes como en la proporción relativa de los mismos. Los efectos perjudiciales en la salud por exposición directa o indirecta a estos componentes han sido ampliamente descritos en la literatura. Abstract in english Thinner is a widely used product in the industry of paints, lubricants and adhesives. Its composition varies according to its use and quality. However, its chronic exposure is a concern, because it can affect major organs such as lungs, liver, kidney and the adrenal glands. This study characterizes [...] the composition of several thinner samples commercially available in the city of Cartagena. Twelve samples were collected in different stores, these were then analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The re

Wilson, Maldonado; Katia, Noguera; Jesús, Olivero.

73

The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence / Efficacité des politiques de réduction des acides gras trans alimentaires: une revue systématique des données probantes / La eficacia de las estrategias para reducir las grasas trans en la dieta: examen sistemático de los datos disponibles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Examinar sistemáticamente los datos disponibles sobre la eficacia de las estrategias (incluida la autorregulación) dirigidas a reducir los ácidos grasos de tipo trans (AGT) de producción industrial en los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las bases de datos Medline, Embase y Cinahl para id [...] entificar artículos revisados por expertos en los que se estudiara el efecto de las estrategias acerca de las grasas trans. Además, también se buscaron artículos de literatura gris en las primeras 20 páginas de resultados de Google. Los estudios se incluyeron cuando: (i) se trataba de un estudio empírico que se desarrolló en un entorno del «mundo real» (esto es, se excluyeron estudios de modelamiento); (ii) se examinaba una estrategia relacionada con los AGT que incluyera, por ejemplo, etiquetado, límites voluntarios o prohibiciones; y (iii) se examinaba el efecto de una estrategia sobre los niveles de AGT en los alimentos, la dieta de las personas, la sangre o la leche materna. RESULTADOS: Veintiséis artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. De ellos, cinco incluyeron una autorregulación voluntaria; ocho, sólo etiquetado; cuatro, etiquetado y límites voluntarios; cinco, prohibiciones locales y cuatro, prohibiciones nacionales. En su conjunto, todas las estrategias redujeron el nivel de AGT en los alimentos. Por regla general, los niveles de grasas saturadas aumentaron o disminuyeron según el tipo de producto, y el contenido total de grasa permaneció estable. Las prohibiciones locales y nacionales resultaron ser las más eficaces a la hora de eliminar los AGT de los alimentos, mientras que el etiquetado obligatorio y los límites voluntarios obtuvieron resultados variados, dependiendo, en su mayor parte, de la categoría de alimento. CONCLUSIÓN: Las estrategias dirigidas a la reducción del contenido de AGT en los alimentos estuvieron asociadas a reducciones significativas de los niveles de AGT sin un aumento del contenido total en grasas. Estas estrategias son factibles, viables y pueden tener un efecto sobre la salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of policies, including self-regulation, aimed at reducing industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food. METHODS: The Medline, Embase and Cinahl databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles examining the effect [...] of TFA policies. In addition, the first 20 pages of Google searches were examined for articles from the grey literature. A study was included if: (i) it was empirical and conducted in a "real-world" setting (i.e. modelling studies were excluded); (ii) it examined a TFA policy involving, for example, labelling, voluntary limits or bans; and (iii) it examined a policy's effect on TFA levels in food, people's diets, blood or breast milk. FINDINGS: Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 involved voluntary self-regulation; 8, labelling alone; 4, labelling and voluntary limits; 5, local bans and 4, national bans. Overall, the TFA content of food decreased with all types of policy intervention. In general, saturated fat levels increased or decreased, depending on the product type, and total fat content remained stable. National and local bans were most effective at eliminating TFAs from the food supply, whereas mandatory TFA labelling and voluntary TFA limits had a varying degree of success, which largely depended on food category. CONCLUSION: Policies aimed at restricting the TFA content of food were associated with significant reductions in TFA levels, without increasing total fat content. Such policies are feasible, achievable and likely to have an effect on public health.

Shauna M, Downs; Anne Marie, Thow; Stephen R, Leeder.

74

Eficácia das vacinas comercialmente disponíveis contra a infecção pelo papilomavírus em mulheres: revisão sistemática e metanálise / Efficacy of commercially available vaccines against HPV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis / Eficacia de las vacunas disponibles en el mercado contra la infección por papilomavirus en mujeres: revisión sistemática y metaanálisis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Infecção persistente por HPV é condição necessária para ocorrência de câncer do colo de útero. Visando a reduzir sua incidência, foram desenvolvidas vacinas profiláticas contra HPV, existindo duas formulações comercialmente disponíveis: bivalente (subtipos 16 e 18) e quadrivalente (6, 11, 16 e 18). [...] Realizou-se uma metanálise da eficácia dessas vacinas em mulheres, com foco na avaliação estratificada por desfechos clínicos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) publicados entre 2000 e 2009 foram identificados com base em busca no MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane e LILACS, e avaliados por dois revisores independentes. Seis ECR foram incluídos na metanálise. As vacinas reduziram o risco de ocorrência de lesões precursoras da neoplasia, com eficácia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para NIC 2 e 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para NIC 3, nas análises por protocolo. As eficácias nas análises por intenção de tratar foram menores: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) e 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para avaliação de sua eficácia sobre a incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo de útero são necessários estudos com maior tempo de seguimentos. Abstract in spanish La infección persistente por VPH es una condición necesaria para la aparición de cáncer del cuello del útero. Con el fin de reducir la incidencia se han desarrollado vacunas profilácticas contra el VPH, existiendo dos formulaciones disponibles comercialmente: bivalentes (tipos 16, 18) y tetravalente [...] (6, 11, 16 y 18). Se realizó un meta-análisis de la eficacia de estas vacunas en las mujeres, centrándose en la evaluación estratificada por los resultados clínicos. Se identificaron ensayos controlados aleatorios (ECA) publicados entre 2000 y 2009 en las basis MEDLINE, LILACS y Cochrane Library, y evaluados por dos revisores independientes. Seis ECA fueron incluidos. La vacuna reduce el riesgo de las lesiones precursoras del cáncer, con una eficacia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para CIN 2 y 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para CIN 3, en el análisis por protocolo. La eficiencia en el análisis por intención de tratar fue menor: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) y 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para evaluar su efectividad en la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer cervical, se necesitan estudios con un seguimiento más prolongado. Abstract in english Persistent HPV infection is a necessary condition for the occurrence of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been developed to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Two vaccines are commercially available: bivalent (types 16, 18) and quadrivalent (6, 11, 16 and 18). This study aimed to [...] perform a systematic review and metaanalysis of the HPV vaccines' efficacy in women, focusing its performance stratified by clinical outcomes. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published between 2000 and 2009 were identified from searches of MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library, and evaluated by two independent reviewers. Six RCT were selected. The vaccines reduced the risk of precursor lesions of cervical cancer, presenting efficacy of 97% (95%CI: 90-99) for CIN 2 and 96% (95%CI: 89-99) for CIN 3, in the per protocol analysis. The efficacies in the analysis by intention to treat were smaller: 63% (95%CI: 52-71) and 42% (95%CI: 26-55), respectively. In order to evaluate its effectiveness on the incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer, longer-term studies will be needed.

Silvia Cristina Fonseca de, Araujo; Rosângela, Caetano; Jose Ueleres, Braga; Frances Valéria, Costa e Silva.

75

Eficácia das vacinas comercialmente disponíveis contra a infecção pelo papilomavírus em mulheres: revisão sistemática e metanálise / Efficacy of commercially available vaccines against HPV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis / Eficacia de las vacunas disponibles en el mercado contra la infección por papilomavirus en mujeres: revisión sistemática y metaanálisis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Infecção persistente por HPV é condição necessária para ocorrência de câncer do colo de útero. Visando a reduzir sua incidência, foram desenvolvidas vacinas profiláticas contra HPV, existindo duas formulações comercialmente disponíveis: bivalente (subtipos 16 e 18) e quadrivalente (6, 11, 16 e 18). [...] Realizou-se uma metanálise da eficácia dessas vacinas em mulheres, com foco na avaliação estratificada por desfechos clínicos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) publicados entre 2000 e 2009 foram identificados com base em busca no MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane e LILACS, e avaliados por dois revisores independentes. Seis ECR foram incluídos na metanálise. As vacinas reduziram o risco de ocorrência de lesões precursoras da neoplasia, com eficácia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para NIC 2 e 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para NIC 3, nas análises por protocolo. As eficácias nas análises por intenção de tratar foram menores: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) e 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para avaliação de sua eficácia sobre a incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo de útero são necessários estudos com maior tempo de seguimentos. Abstract in spanish La infección persistente por VPH es una condición necesaria para la aparición de cáncer del cuello del útero. Con el fin de reducir la incidencia se han desarrollado vacunas profilácticas contra el VPH, existiendo dos formulaciones disponibles comercialmente: bivalentes (tipos 16, 18) y tetravalente [...] (6, 11, 16 y 18). Se realizó un meta-análisis de la eficacia de estas vacunas en las mujeres, centrándose en la evaluación estratificada por los resultados clínicos. Se identificaron ensayos controlados aleatorios (ECA) publicados entre 2000 y 2009 en las basis MEDLINE, LILACS y Cochrane Library, y evaluados por dos revisores independientes. Seis ECA fueron incluidos. La vacuna reduce el riesgo de las lesiones precursoras del cáncer, con una eficacia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para CIN 2 y 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para CIN 3, en el análisis por protocolo. La eficiencia en el análisis por intención de tratar fue menor: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) y 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para evaluar su efectividad en la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer cervical, se necesitan estudios con un seguimiento más prolongado. Abstract in english Persistent HPV infection is a necessary condition for the occurrence of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been developed to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Two vaccines are commercially available: bivalent (types 16, 18) and quadrivalent (6, 11, 16 and 18). This study aimed to [...] perform a systematic review and metaanalysis of the HPV vaccines' efficacy in women, focusing its performance stratified by clinical outcomes. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published between 2000 and 2009 were identified from searches of MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library, and evaluated by two independent reviewers. Six RCT were selected. The vaccines reduced the risk of precursor lesions of cervical cancer, presenting efficacy of 97% (95%CI: 90-99) for CIN 2 and 96% (95%CI: 89-99) for CIN 3, in the per protocol analysis. The efficacies in the analysis by intention to treat were smaller: 63% (95%CI: 52-71) and 42% (95%CI: 26-55), respectively. In order to evaluate its effectiveness on the incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer, longer-term studies will be needed.

Silvia Cristina Fonseca de, Araujo; Rosângela, Caetano; Jose Ueleres, Braga; Frances Valéria, Costa e Silva.

76

Estudio sobre la pertinencia del uso de las normas disponibles del Raven en adultos mayores chilenos Estudo sobre a pertinência da utilização das normas disponíveis de Raven em idosos chilenos Study on the relevance of using available norms Raven in Chileans older adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La evaluación de la inteligencia en población adulto mayor ha aumentado su relevancia debido al incremento de la esperanza de vida. Este estudio centra su interés en la pertinencia de normas disponibles para el Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven para dicha población. Se utilizaron normas de Colchester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, las más completas existentes. Participaron 102 adultos mayores voluntarios (más de 60 años. El diseño fue no experimental transversal correlacional. Los resultados indican que las normas resultan poco exigentes para ese grupo y que existen diferencias significativas entre los adultos de la tercera y cuarta edad, privilegiando a los del primer grupo. El índice de discrepancia mostró alta sensibilidad, indicando que la distribución de puntajes esperados no se corresponde al de la población general. Se discuten los resultados en torno a la necesidad de actualización de las normas y la consideración de las nuevas características de este periodo vital.A avaliação da inteligência na população idosa tem aumentado sua importância devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida. Este estudo está centrado na relevância das normas disponíveis para o teste de Matrizes Progressivas de Raven para essa população. Foram utilizadas as normas de Colchester (1942, citado por Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, as mais completas disponíveis. Participaram 102 idosos voluntários (com idade superior a 60 anos. O desenho do estudo foi não experimental transversal correlacional. Os resultados indicam que as normas são pouco exigentes para esse grupo e que existem diferenças significativas entre os adultos da terceira e quarta idade, privilegiando o primeiro grupo. O índice de discrepância mostrou alta sensibilidade, indicando que a distribuição de pontuações esperadas não corresponde a da população em geral. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à necessidade de atualização das normas e da consideração das novas características desse período vital.The assessment of intelligence in the elderly population has increased its importance in terms of increased life expectancy. The present study focuses its interest on the relevance of available norms for Raven Progressive Matrices Test in the evaluation of elderly population. Standards were used Colchester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, the most comprehensive available. The non-probability sample involved 102 elderly (aged over 60 years old who were volunteers. The study used a non-experimental cross-correlation design. The results indicate that the current norms are not very demanding for the aging population, and that there are significant differences between adults of the third and fourth age, better for the first group. Moreover, the discrepancy index showed high sensitivity, indicating that the expected distribution of scores does not correspond to the general population. Results are discussed regarding the need to update the norms and the consideration of the new features involved in this vital period.

Cristina Alarcón Paz

2012-12-01

77

Estudio sobre la pertinencia del uso de las normas disponibles del Raven en adultos mayores chilenos / Study on the relevance of using available norms Raven in Chileans older adults / Estudo sobre a pertinência da utilização das normas disponíveis de Raven em idosos chilenos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A avaliação da inteligência na população idosa tem aumentado sua importância devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida. Este estudo está centrado na relevância das normas disponíveis para o teste de Matrizes Progressivas de Raven para essa população. Foram utilizadas as normas de Colchester (1942, ci [...] tado por Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), as mais completas disponíveis. Participaram 102 idosos voluntários (com idade superior a 60 anos). O desenho do estudo foi não experimental transversal correlacional. Os resultados indicam que as normas são pouco exigentes para esse grupo e que existem diferenças significativas entre os adultos da terceira e quarta idade, privilegiando o primeiro grupo. O índice de discrepância mostrou alta sensibilidade, indicando que a distribuição de pontuações esperadas não corresponde a da população em geral. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à necessidade de atualização das normas e da consideração das novas características desse período vital. Abstract in spanish La evaluación de la inteligencia en población adulto mayor ha aumentado su relevancia debido al incremento de la esperanza de vida. Este estudio centra su interés en la pertinencia de normas disponibles para el Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven para dicha población. Se utilizaron normas de Colch [...] ester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), las más completas existentes. Participaron 102 adultos mayores voluntarios (más de 60 años). El diseño fue no experimental transversal correlacional. Los resultados indican que las normas resultan poco exigentes para ese grupo y que existen diferencias significativas entre los adultos de la tercera y cuarta edad, privilegiando a los del primer grupo. El índice de discrepancia mostró alta sensibilidad, indicando que la distribución de puntajes esperados no se corresponde al de la población general. Se discuten los resultados en torno a la necesidad de actualización de las normas y la consideración de las nuevas características de este periodo vital. Abstract in english The assessment of intelligence in the elderly population has increased its importance in terms of increased life expectancy. The present study focuses its interest on the relevance of available norms for Raven Progressive Matrices Test in the evaluation of elderly population. Standards were used Col [...] chester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), the most comprehensive available. The non-probability sample involved 102 elderly (aged over 60 years old) who were volunteers. The study used a non-experimental cross-correlation design. The results indicate that the current norms are not very demanding for the aging population, and that there are significant differences between adults of the third and fourth age, better for the first group. Moreover, the discrepancy index showed high sensitivity, indicating that the expected distribution of scores does not correspond to the general population. Results are discussed regarding the need to update the norms and the consideration of the new features involved in this vital period.

Cristina, Alarcón Paz; Vanessa, Díaz Valenzuela; Jacqueline, Hernández Rosales; Claudia, Estrada Goic.

78

Diagnostic tests in HIV management: a review of clinical and laboratory strategies to monitor HIV-infected individuals in developing countries / Tests diagnostiques et prise en charge des infections à VIH: revue des méthodes cliniques et analytiques permettant le suivi des personnes contaminées dans les pays en développement / Pruebas diagnósticas en el manejo de la infección por VIH: estudio de las estrategias clínicas y de laboratorio empleadas para controlar a las personas infectadas por el VIH en los países en desarrollo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Realizamos una revisión sistemática de la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas como medio de seguimiento clínico y de laboratorio de las personas infectadas por el VIH en los países en desarrollo. La información sobre pruebas diagnósticas reunida a partir de bases de datos computadorizadas, de las p [...] ublicaciones y de Internet se clasificó como clínica (información sobre los pacientes distinta de los datos de laboratorio), inmunológica (información sobre pruebas inmunológicas) o virológica (información sobre pruebas virológicas). De los 51 estudios seleccionados para la revisión, 28 evaluaron pruebas inmunológicas, 12 pruebas virológicas, y 7 pruebas clínicas e inmunológicas. Los métodos de evaluación de la eficacia fueron principalmente la sensibilidad y la especificidad en el caso de las pruebas clínicas, y los coeficientes de correlación en el caso de las pruebas inmunológicas y virológicas. Entre las primeras, la mayoría de las medidas de eficacia de las pruebas revelaron una sensibilidad superior al 70% y una especificidad superior al 65%. En la categoría de pruebas inmunológicas, los coeficientes de correlación oscilaron entre 0,54 y 0,99 para diferentes técnicas de recuento de CD4, mientras que la correlación (r) entre los recuentos de CD4 y de linfocitos totales se situó entre 0,23 y 0,74. En cuanto a las pruebas virológicas, los coeficientes de correlación para diferentes técnicas de cuantificación del ARN del VIH fueron de entre 0,54 y 0,90. A la hora de realizar nuevas investigaciones en el futuro, será necesario consensuar el diseño de los estudios, y reunir y notificar datos de utilidad para las instancias decisorias. Recomendamos clasificar la información en categorías clínicamente pertinentes, utilizar una definición coherente de enfermedad en todos los estudios, y proporcionar medidas tanto de asociación como de exactitud. Abstract in english We conducted a systematic review on the performance of diagnostic tests for clinical and laboratory monitoring of HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Diagnostic test information collected from computerized databases, bibliographies and the Internet were categorized as clinical (non-laborato [...] ry patient information), immunologic (information from immunologic laboratory tests), or virologic (information from virologic laboratory tests). Of the 51 studies selected for the review 28 assessed immunologic tests, 12 virologic tests and seven clinical and immunologic tests. Methods of performance evaluation were primarily sensitivity and specificity for the clinical category and correlation coefficients for immunologic and virologic categories. In the clinical category, the majority of test performance measures was reported as >70% sensitive and >65% specific. In the immunologic category, correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.99 for different CD4 count enumeration techniques, while correlation for CD4 and total lymphocyte counts was between r = 0.23 and r = 0.74. In the virologic category, correlation coefficients for different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) quantification techniques ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.90. Future research requires consensus on designing studies, and collecting and reporting data useful for decision-makers. We recommend classifying information into clinically relevant categories, using a consistent definition of disease across studies and providing measures of both association and accuracy.

April D, Kimmel; Elena, Losina; Kenneth A, Freedberg; Sue J, Goldie.

2006-07-10

79

La r?paration sphinct?rienne directe: points techniques, indications et r?sultats  

Science.gov (United States)

L'incontinence anale est un handicap physique, psychique et social majeur qui a de nombreuses causes différentes. Les méthodes actuellement disponibles pour améliorer les symptômes de cette incontinence sont les méthodes médicales et de rééducation d'une part et les méthodes chirurgicales d'autre part. Quatre techniques chirurgicales répondent à ces objectifs pour la plupart des malades: la sphinctérorraphie, la neuromodulation des racines sacrées, et les deux techniques de substitution que sont le sphincter artificiel et la graciloplastie dynamisée. La réparation sphinctérienne directe est la technique la plus utilisée dans le traitement chirurgical de l'incontinence anale (IA) par lésion sphinctérienne. Cette technique est envisageable chez les malades ayant une incontinence fécale en rapport avec des lésions limitées du sphincter anal externe. La technique chirurgicale est simple (myorraphie par suture directe ou en paletot) et bien codifiée. Les résultats fonctionnels sont imparfaits et se dégradent avec la durée du suivi. Une continence parfaite après réparation sphinctérienne est rarement acquise de façon durable: le malade candidat à cette approche thérapeutique doit en être averti.

Laalim, Said Ait; Hrora, Abdelmalek; Raiss, Mohammed; Ibnmejdoub, Karim; Toughai, Imane; Ahallat, Mohammed; Mazaz, Khalid

2013-01-01

80

A priori structurés pour l'apprentissage supervisé en biologie computationnelle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Les méthodes d'apprentissage supervisé sont utilisées pour construire des fonctions prédisant efficacement le comportement de nouvelles entités à partir de données observées. Elles sont de ce fait très utiles en biologie computationnelle, où elles permettent d'exploiter la quantité grandissante de données expérimentales disponible. Dans certains cas cependant, la quantité de données disponible n'est pas suffisante par rapport à la complexité du problème d'apprentissage. Heur...

Jacob, Laurent

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Aide à la Création d'Hypermédia Adaptatifs par Réutilisation des Modèles des Créateurs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Avec le développement d'internet, la personnalisation de l'accès à l'information disponible est devenue incontournable et les Systèmes Hypermédia Adaptatifs (SHA) se sont rapidement répandus. Ainsi, les SHA sont des outils permettant l'accès à l'information disponible en exploitant le profil de l'utilisateur modélisé dans un modèle de l'utilisateur. Ils nécessitent aussi un modèle du domaine pour modéliser le domaine d'application concerné. Les mécanismes d'adaptation, quant ?...

Zemirline, Nadjet

2011-01-01

82

Pulse holographic measurement techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using lasers have been increasing. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of indus...

C. J. Kim S. H. Baik S. K. Hong J. M. Kim D. H. Kim

1992-01-01

83

Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

NONE

1999-10-01

84

Ecocardiografía de contraste: historia, características de las microburbujas y técnicas instrumentales / Contrast echocardiography: history, micro bubble characteristics and instrumental techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo describe la historia de la ecocardiografía de contraste, las características físicas de las microburbujas de los agentes de contraste, las principales herramientas instrumentales (índice mecánico, foco y enfoque, número de imágenes por segundo) y las técnicas ecocardiográficas (segunda [...] armónica, armónica de fusión, segunda armónica de pulso invertido, imagen intermitente, angio y densitometría acústica) actualmente disponibles para uso clínico. Abstract in english This article describes the history of contrast echocardiography, the physical characteristics of the contrast agents? micro bubbles, the main instrumental tools (mechanical index, focus and focusing, frame rate), and the echocardiography techniques (second harmonic imaging, fusion harmonic, power pu [...] lse inversion imaging, triggered imaging, intermittent harmonic power Doppler, color power angio and acoustic densitometry), actually available for clinical use.

Cubides, Carlos; Restrepo, Gustavo; Aristizábal, Dagnóvar; Múnera, Ana.

85

RTDrift, modèle permettant d’évaluer en temps réel les risques environnementaux liés à la dérive des produits phytosanitaires  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Un modèle, RTDrift, a été développé pour estimer la contamination causée par la dérive pour les pulvérisateurs à rampe en cours de traitement. Un pulvérisateur a été équipé de capteurs pour mesurer les paramètres de la dérive dont la pression de pulvérisation, les mouvements de rampe, la vitesse et direction du vent, la température et l’humidité ainsi que la géo-localisation. Pour chaque position successive des buses, un modèle de diffusionadvection gauss...

Lebeau, Fre?de?ric; Massinon, Mathieu; Verstraete, Arnaud; Destain, Marie-france

2011-01-01

86

Réponse du film SB aux rayons X de 0,1 à 10 keV  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Une réévaluation des caractéristiques physiques du film Kodak SB et une reformulation théorique de sa réponse aux rayons X permettent de réduire à un modèle semi-empirique très maniable les résultats disponibles d'étalonnage sensitométrique entre 0,1 et 10 keV.

1988-01-01

87

Special radiographic techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Special radiographic techniques refer to NDT techniques that are specially designed for applications that cannot performed with commonly available NDT techniques. The techniques are considered special due to the various reasons. For example the specialty of neutron and electron radiography lies on the type of radiation used to expose the inspected specimens, rather than x- and ? - rays as in common NDT techniques. On the other hand the other special radiographic techniques may distinct from common NDT in the way the detection of traverse radiation are accomplished. The special radiographic technique may be applied for inspection of material such as thinner specimen or specimen constituted of light elements. The special radiographic techniques profoundly discussed in this chapter include neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and autoradiography. The subject discussed are basic set-up and principle, the source and the application for each techniques

2005-01-01

88

Investigational techniques in oncology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents a summary of investigational techniques to establish diagnosis and assist in the management of cancer patients. Newer techniques in molecular biology as applied to pathology are discussed and placed in appropriate perspective. All the latest radiological techniques, including NMR, positrone emission tomography, digital subtraction angiography together with the better established techniques of computerized tomography and conventional radiography are described. The role of interventional radiology is also elucidated. The Contents discussed are: Techniques for the Determination of Tumour Neuroendocrine Differentiation and for the Localisation of Intracellular Organelles Involved in Peptide Synthesis, Storage and Release. New Molecular Techniques in Pathological Diagnosis: Visualisation of Genes and mRNA in Human Tissue. Statistical Methods of Evaluating and Comparing Imaging Techniques. Digital Subtraction Angiography. Interventional Radiology in Oncology. Computerised Tomography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Oncology. Ultrasound Techniques in Oncology. Nuclear Medicine Techniques in Oncology. Positron Emission Tomography in Oncology. Recent Advances in Radiotherapy and Oncology and Expectations for the Future

1987-01-01

89

Surface science techniques  

CERN Multimedia

The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

Bracco, Gianangelo

2013-01-01

90

Introduction to perturbation techniques  

CERN Document Server

Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

Nayfeh, Ali H

2011-01-01

91

Nuclear techniques in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

1994-06-28

92

Application d'une technique de modelisation aerodynamique conceptuelle sur la simulation d'un pilote automatique a commande optimale pour un avion d'affaires  

Science.gov (United States)

Ce document présente, dans le cadre d'un contexte conceptuel, une méthode d'enchaînement servant à faire le lien entre les différentes étapes qui permettent de réaliser la simulation d'un aéronef à partir de ses données géométriques et de ses propriétés massiques. En utilisant le cas de l'avion d'affaires Hawker 800XP de la compagnie Hawker Beechcraft, on démontre, via des données, un processus de traitement par lots et une plate-forme de simulation, comment (1) modéliser la géométrie d'un aéronef en plusieurs surfaces, (2) calculer les forces aérodynamiques selon une technique connue sous le nom de Vortex Lattice Method, (3) construire un modèle de vol servant à la simulation des aéronefs pour leur enveloppe de vol en ajoutant des fonctions supplémentaires, (4) construire un modèle de turbosoufflante simplifié, (5) développer un algorithme d'équilibre (trim) du mouvement longitudinal, (6) développer des algorithmes de contrôle à commande moderne, (7) développer certaines fonctions d'un système de pilotage automatique, et (8) rassembler le tout sous une même plate-forme de simulation. Afin de supporter ce travail, une application publique Matlab, connue sous le nom de Tornado, est utilisée conjointement avec d'autres fonctions pour la conception du modèle de vol aérodynamique. D'ailleurs, il sera démontré que le modèle de vol, quoiqu'il soit quand même crédible, ne concorde pas tout à fait avec les données de référence. Par contre, puisque le modèle des moteurs fonctionne bien, que l'algorithme d'équilibrage du mouvement longitudinal fonctionne bien et que les pôles des systèmes dynamiques concordent avec la littérature, les tests dynamiques effectués au sein de la plate-forme de simulation permettent d'obtenir des résultats fonctionnels et crédibles. D'ailleurs, deux systèmes d'augmentation de la stabilité basés sur la méthode de contrôle moderne LQR et couvrant l'enveloppe de vol de l'aéronef via un système d'ordonnancement des gains sont implémentés respectivement selon les mouvements longitudinal et latéral. Ces fonctions fonctionnent bien et permettent de rencontrer les qualités de vol requises pour un avion d'affaires. Finalement, certaines fonctions concernant un système de pilotage automatique sont implémentées. Dans le cas du mouvement latéral, ces fonctions sont basées sur les méthodes de contrôle modernes et couvrent la totalité de l'enveloppe de vol; mais en ce qui concerne le mouvement longitudinal, elles sont basées sur des algorithmes d'équilibre difficile à gérer pour implémenter sur toute l'enveloppe de vol, c'est pourquoi les tests présentés sont limités à des scénarios bien précis. Dans les deux cas, les essais effectués donnent d'assez bons résultats.

Pollender-Moreau, Olivier

93

Drilling technique for crystals  

Science.gov (United States)

Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

1977-01-01

94

Low current beam techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10-15 A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs

1993-11-17

95

Exploring image binarization techniques  

CERN Document Server

The book focuses on an image processing technique known as binarization. It provides a comprehensive survey over existing binarization techniques for both document and graphic images. A number of evaluation techniques have been presented for quantitative comparison of different binarization methods. The book provides results obtained comparing a number of standard and widely used binarization algorithms using some standard evaluation metrics. The comparative results presented in tables and charts facilitates understanding the process. In addition to this, the book presents techniques for preparing a reference image which is very much important for quantitative evaluation of the binarization techniques. The results are produced taking image samples from standard image databases.

Chaki, Nabendu; Saeed, Khalid

2014-01-01

96

Techniques of periocular reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eyelid and periocular reconstruction is often needed in ophthalmic practice, as a result of defects created by excision of lesions or following trauma. A variety of techniques have been described for the repair of these defects. However, it is important to have a knowledge of the basic principles underlying all these techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each, so as to ensure the selection of the optimal technique in a particular case. Different authors have popularized different techniques based on individual preferences and experiences and a brief overview of the different techniques will be helpful to compare them. The articles referenced in this manuscript were looked up through PubMed by feeding the keywords ?periocular reconstruction? and ?eyelid reconstruction? and then looking for relevant cross-references. In this review, we have discussed the various techniques available and also illustrated them diagrammatically to have a quick overview of the topic.

Sharma Vidushi

2006-01-01

97

Semiconductor Modeling Techniques  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the key theoretical techniques for semiconductor research to quantitatively calculate and simulate the properties. It presents particular techniques to study novel semiconductor materials, such as 2D heterostructures, quantum wires, quantum dots and nitrogen containing III-V alloys. The book is aimed primarily at newcomers working in the field of semiconductor physics to give guidance in theory and experiment. The theoretical techniques for electronic and optoelectronic devices are explained in detail.

Xavier, Marie

2012-01-01

98

Plant Tissue Culture Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of plant science. Currently, tissue-cultured plants that have been genetically engineered provide insight into plant molecular biology and gene regulation. Plant tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied plant science, including plant biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied plant science.

Lorraine Mineo (Lafayette College;)

1989-06-06

99

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 2): Transferencias nerviosas intraplexuales / Nerve Reconstruction Techniques in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Surgery (Part 2): Intraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nervio [...] sa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc., para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En una primera entrega se analizaron las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales; este trabajo viene a complementar al anterior revisando las transferencias intraplexuales, y así completando el análisis de las transferencias nerviosas disponibles en la cirugía del plexo braquial. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the l

Robla-Costales, J.; Socolovsky, M.; Di Masi, G.; Robla-Costales, D.; Domitrovic, L.; Campero, A.; Fernández-Fernández, J.; Ibáñez-Plágaro, J.; García-Cosamalón, J..

100

Deployment of learning techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The CONNECT Integrated Project aims at enabling continuous composition of networked systems, by developing techniques for synthesizing connectors. A prerequisite for synthesis is to learn about the interaction behavior of networked peers. The role of WP4 is to develop techniques for learning models of networked peers and middleware through exploratory interaction.

Bertolino, Antonia; Calabro, Antonello; Cassel, Sofia; Chen, Yu-fang; Howar, Falk; Isberner, Malte; Jonsson, Bengt; Merten, Maik; Pelliccione, Patrizio; Steffen, Bernhard; Tivoli, Massimo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Present tunnelling techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reviews current tunneling techniques, beginning with a brief historic survey. Construction methods and operating conditions of tunneling techniques are outlined together with drilling and blasting operations; economic considerations are taken into account. Application of support material, and loading and transport of excavated material are also considered.

Koehler, H.

1985-02-01

102

Contamination Control Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

EBY, J.L.

2000-05-16

103

Analog signal isolation techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

Beadle, E.R.

1992-01-01

104

Analog signal isolation techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

Beadle, E.R.

1992-12-31

105

Microwave medical imaging using level set techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El cáncer de mama es una de las enfermedades que causan una mayor mortalidad entre las mujeres. Se estima que, sólo en Europa, una mujer es diagnosticada de esta enfermedad cada 2 minutos y medio, y que una muere cada 7 minutos y medio. Para su cura es fundamental la deteccin temprana de los pequeños tumores. Si éstos son detectados a tiempo, los tratamientos que existen hoy en da son mucho más efectivos. En consecuencia, es de fundamental disponer de tecnologías especializadas que pued...

Irishina, Natalia

2009-01-01

106

Optical techniques for industrial inspection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Surface inspection; Optical techniques for quality control; 3D vision; Spectroscopic techniques; and Optical techniques for process control.

Cielo, P.G.

1986-01-01

107

Techniques of vasectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vasectomy remains a safe and effective method of contraception for men. Many variations in surgical technique currently are used by surgeons in the United States, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Regardless of the surgical method used, the most important factor for successful vasectomy remains the experience and skill of the surgeon. The amount of evidence-based literature on the rationale for the different techniques for vasectomy remains limited. Careful study and innovation of vasectomy techniques will ensure that the most commonly performed urologic surgical procedure remain an excellent form of contraception in the future. PMID:19643233

Art, Kevin S; Nangia, Ajay K

2009-08-01

108

Disagreements around techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modern man lives in disagreement with its techniques. Technical progress is the foundation of its material and spiritual existence, but he does not like it. Specialization, difficult understanding of the technical procedures and the price that has to be paid for technical progress, have led to a deep-going enstrangement. Therefore the question: What kind of human function has our technique. It is understood as an extension and perfection of our bodily organs, in order to increase our ability to see and to hear enormously, and to intervene formatively in the existing reality. Technique is therefore an instrument of comprehensive self-realization of man. (orig./GL)

1980-10-03

109

Electrical termination techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

1976-01-01

110

Qualification of Radiographic Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper present some experience from qualification of a radiographic system, according to the Swedish code. The Swedish code, concerning qualification, follows the ENIQ procedure allowing a mix of technical justification and practical tests. The radiographic system, aimed for qualification, is a digital system using an enhanced type of x-ray camera (designed by SAQ Kontroll) and capable to detect IGSCC cracks, 5 mm deep in 60 mm trough wall. Like many others, the Swedish qualification praxis is based on experience from ultrasonic technique. There is also, for radiographic technique, demands with no relevance for digital technique i.e. for film density

1997-03-11

111

Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 - French version only  

CERN Multimedia

Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collabora- tion avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

Davide Vitè

2005-01-01

112

ELM mitigation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large edge-localized mode (ELM) control techniques must be developed to help ensure the success of burning and ignited fusion plasma devices such as tokamaks and stellarators. In full performance ITER tokamak discharges, with QDT = 10, the energy released by a single ELM could reach ?30 MJ which is expected to result in an energy density of 10–15 MJ/m2on the divertor targets. This will exceed the estimated divertor ablation limit by a factor of 20–30. A worldwide research program is underway to develop various types of ELM control techniques in preparation for ITER H-mode plasma operations. An overview of the ELM control techniques currently being developed is discussed along with the requirements for applying these techniques to plasmas in ITER. Particular emphasis is given to the primary approaches, pellet pacing and resonant magnetic perturbation fields, currently being considered for ITER

2013-07-01

113

Litho Scanning Techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

This effort continued to investigate raster processing techniques, referred to as the Automatic Feature Tracking algorithm, demonstrated to be feasible under previous contract to RADC (F30602-78-C-0313). The current effort considered methods of optimizing...

A. V. Douglas T. V. Edwards M. J. Gillotte M. L. Rapke

1981-01-01

114

Radiochemical procedures and techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is presented of the radiochemical procedures and techniques currently in use by the Chemistry Division Nuclear Chemistry Group at Argonne National Laboratory for the analysis of radioactive samples. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

115

Airway Clearance Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

... out of the lungs? Airway Clearance Techniques Coughing Chest Physical Therapy (CPT or Chest PT) or Postural Drainage & Percussion ( ... better and be less tiring. back to top Chest Physical Therapy (CPT or Chest PT) or Postural Drainage & Percussion ( ...

116

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

117

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

118

Vibrating wire alignment technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibratin...

Xiao-long, Wang; Lan, Dong; Lei, Wu; Chun-hua, Li

2013-01-01

119

Chimney technique; Schornsteintechnik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern low temperature plants or calorific value equipments are now standard in building new dwellings. However, an important part of the whole system of the combustion plant, chimney technique, is often ignored. But modern heating systems are dependent on suitable exhaust gas technique. (orig.) [Deutsch] Moderne Niedertemperaturanlagen oder Brennwertgeraete sind beim Wohnungsneubau mittlerweile Standard. Allerdings wird oft ein wesentlicher Teil des Gesamtsystems Feuerungsanlage ausser Acht gelassen: die Schornsteintechnik. Aber gerade die modernen Heizsysteme sind unabdingbar auf die passende Abgasanlagentechnologie angewiesen. (orig.)

Wollenberg, G.

1997-11-01

120

Indirect bonding technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate bracket placement is the key for the successful treatment of an orthodontic case. With indirect bonding, not only is the bracket placement more accurate but this technique also significantly reduces chairtime. In this article, the author explains use of thermal glue in an indirect bonding technique. In cases of constricted arches, a modified rapid maxillary expander can be used along with indirect bonding to reduce overall treatment time. PMID:17190232

Kothari, Ashok

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Techniques for colorectal anastomosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety aspects of anastomosis and alternatives to hand-sewn and stapled techniques are being sought. Here, we review alternative anastomotic techniques used to fashion bowel anastomosis. Compression anastomosis using compression anastomotic clips, endoluminal compression anastomotic rings, AKA-2, biofragmental anastomotic rings, or Magnamosis all involve the concept of creating a sutureless end-to-end anastomosis by compressing two bowel ends together, leading to a simultaneous necrosis and healing process that joins the two lumens. Staple line reinforcement is a new approach that reduce the drawbacks of staplers used in colorectal practice, i.e. leakage, bleeding, misfiring, and inadequate tissue approximation. Various non-absorbable, semi or fully absorbable materials are now available. Two other techniques can provide alternative anastomotic support to the suture line: a colorectal drain and a polyester stent, which can be utilized in ultra-low rectal excision and can negate the formation of a defunctioning stoma. Doxycycline coated sutures have been used to overcome the post-operative weakness in anastomosis secondary to rapid matrix degradation mediated by matrix metalloproteinase. Another novel technique, the electric welding system, showed promising results in construction of a safe, neat, smooth sutureless bowel anastomosis. Various anastomotic techniques have been shown to be comparable to the standard techniques of suturing and stapling. However, most of these alternatives need to be accepted and optimized for future use.

Yik-Hong Ho, Mohamed Ahmed Tawfik Ashour

2010-04-01

122

High current dosimetry techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of techniques for electrical measurement of high current ion beams is presented. A computer analysis of the secondary-particle current-collection schemes is made for dosimetry-cup configurations commonly used on ion implanters with electrostatic scanning. The design of a dosimetry cup for a high current implanter with mechanical scanning is discussed. Also beam monitoring techniques for uniformity measurements are reviewed. (author)

1978-08-31

123

Applying contemporary statistical techniques  

CERN Multimedia

Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

Wilcox, Rand R

2003-01-01

124

Classical Encryption Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews some of the classical encryption and modern techniques which are widely used to solve the problem in open networked systems, where information is being received and misused by adversaries by means of facilitating attacks at various levels in the communication. In this paper the proposition of building the basics of classical encryption and modern techniques and the comparison has been done between each of them.

Ramandeep Sharma; Richa Sharma; Harmanjit Singh

2012-01-01

125

Classical Encryption Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the classical encryption and modern techniques which are widely used to solve the problem in open networked systems, where information is being received and misused by adversaries by means of facilitating attacks at various levels in the communication. In this paper the proposition of building the basics of classical encryption and modern techniques and the comparison has been done between each of them.

Harmanjit Singh

2012-08-01

126

Imaging Techniques in Conservation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM) has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to moni...

Emma Marie Payne

2013-01-01

127

Modern lithography techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the development trends of modern lithography techniques. As a mainstream technique for VLSI fabricator, the optical lithography is advancing towards its resolution limitation; meantime, it faces the technical challenge from VLSI fabricating industry more and more. Today, the resolution of optical lithography is not enough to satisfy the fast development requirements of semiconductor industry even if the complex RET (Revolution enhancement techniques) are used in the optical lithography. Hence the NGL (Next generation lithography) techniques, such as XRL (X-ray lithography), SCALPEL (Scanning anger limited project electronic beam lithography), EBDW (Electronic beam direction writing), EUVL (Extreme ultraviolet lithography), and IPL (Ion beam project lithography) will be introduced into VLSI fabricator application for 100-70 nm line-width. Based on the NGL technique development trends and in view of the multiplicity of market inquiry, authors think every NGL technique will have its survival space. However, when the characteristic width of lithography advanced into nano-meter scale (? 100 nm), only the lithography imaging at atomic level will be the last winner. (authors)

2004-02-01

128

Imaging Techniques in Orthopedics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principles and limitations of current imaging modalities are described. It may help to determine the most effective radiologic technique, minimizing the cost of examination as well as the exposure to ra-diation. It is important to choose the appropriate mo-dality for specific types of orthopedic abnormalities. It is important to reemphasize that conventional ra-diography remains the most effective tool for demon-strating a bone and joint abnormality. "nUse of radiological techniques differs in evaluating the presence, type, and extent of various bone, joint, and soft-tissue abnormalities. Therefore, both the ra-diologist and orthopedic surgeon must know the in-dication for use of each technique, the limitations of a particular modality, and the appropriate imaging ap-proaches for abnormalities at specific sites. The ques-tion; "what modality should I use for this particular problem?" is frequently asked by radiologists and or-thopedic surgeons. Although numerous algorithms are available to evaluate various problems at different anatomic sites, the answer cannot always be clearly stated. "nThe choice of techniques for imaging bone and soft-tissue abnormalities is dictated not only by clinical presentation, but also by equipment availability, ex-pertise, and cost. Restriction may also be imposed by the needs of individual patients. Most of the time, the choice of imaging technique is dictated by the type of suspected abnormality. The purpose of this study was to review imaging techniques in orthopedics.

H. Zekavat

2008-01-01

129

Speciation techniques in radioecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Speciation refers to the use of different fractionation techniques by which information on radionuclide species can be obtained. Techniques fractionating species according to size and charge properties allows information on size classes and reactivity classes to be obtained. Fractionation of radionuclides should take place in situ, at site or shortly after sampling. There are some few in situ size fractionation techniques for radionuclides in waters. In sea water large capacity (tangential flow systems) is needed, while hollow fibre systems can often be applied for rivers and lakes. By interphasing chromatographic systems (ion exchange columns) with hollow fibres, in situ sampling, size and charge fractionation can be performed simultaneously. For small volume soil waters in situ suction techniques may suffer from methodological effects. Structural information on radioactive particles or colloids can be attained by using different electron microscopy techniques. Separation of radionuclide species in solid samples is still an analytical challenge. Grain size analysis and determination of radionuclides associated with the sand, silt, clay and colloidal fractions should be combined with sensitive surface analytical techniques. Reactivity studies using extraction reagents can be useful for distinguishing between reversible and irreversible (or slow reversible) kinetics processes. Repeated extractions with inert electrolytes (or by lowering pH gradually) should reflect if reversible processes (e.g. physical, electrochemical sorption) take place. In contrast, information on irreversible processes (e.g chemisorption) is obtained if strong red/ox agents are needed for dissolution of species (binding rupture). The paper will focus on available size or charge fractionation techniques which should be useful within radioecology

1998-04-01

130

MEMS metrology techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The MEMS industry currently produces over $13 billion in annual revenue, with devices in such diverse applications as blood pressure sensors, projection displays, optical switches, printers, hard drives, and gyroscopes. As production techniques improve, ever more functions may be served by MEMS, and the industry is growing at an annual rate of more than 15%. The large diversity of MEMS leads to many challenges in metrology, as each design has different critical factors which will affect its performance. Unlike traditional semiconductor devices, MEMS require characterization both in their static state and under actuation. Parameters of interest include shape, dimensions, surface roughness, sidewall angles, film thickness, residual stress, feature volumes, response times, thermal properties, resonance frequencies, stiction, environmental immunity and more. This talk will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of techniques for MEMS surface metrology. Bright- and dark-field microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact and non-contact surface profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laser Doppler vibrometry and digital holography are some of the primary techniques used to evaluate MEMS surfaces and motion. While no single technique can fully characterize all MEMS devices, or even one device under all conditions, the utility of each of the different types of instruments is increasing as they are pushed by MEMS and other industries to provide more characterization capability. With a broad understanding of the various metrology techniques available, the one or few critical instruments to measure a given class of devices will hopefully be more easily understood.

Novak, Erik

2005-01-01

131

Imaging Techniques in Conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor object condition.3D laser scanning, PTM, and CT scanning are investigated. Case studies are explored to investigate their current role in cultural heritage. The appropriateness of this role and whether it should be expanded is addressed by analysing advantages and disadvantages of the techniques, their feasibility, and risks caused to object preservation and accessibility.The results indicate that the technologies present some advantages over standard digital photography; PTM in particular is found to be an extremely useful, affordable technique. A more established role within conservation, especially for condition assessments, could be worthwhile. Use of the imaging techniques to create models for exhibition can also be advantageous; however, care must be taken to ensure that such models are used to enhance accessibility to original objects and not to replace them.

Emma Marie Payne

2013-02-01

132

Radiation techniques for acromegaly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

Minniti Giuseppe

2011-12-01

133

Newer cardiac imaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Definitive diagnosis and assessment of the severity of many cardiac diseases is accomplished by imaging techniques. The trend in recent years has been toward the development of less invasive or noninvasive imaging methods. Echocardiography and radionuclide imaging were early noninvasive techniques that have now matured and become central to cardiovascular diagnosis. During the past several years four new cardiac imaging modalities have been introduced: digital subtraction angiography, ultrafast computed x-ray tomography (cine CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and position-emission tomography (PET). These techniques, with unique and impressive capabilities, are becoming increasingly important in cardiac diagnosis and assessment. This chapter describes the salient technical features of the first three and reviews the application of each in cardiovascular diseases

1988-01-01

134

Current techniques in mammography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper represents a literature survey of current techniques in mammography. The major objection to the otherwise acceptable methods in widespread use are the radiation doses given the patient, particularly the asymptomatic patient. Even using current techniques which involve x-raying the breast, all women over 50 should have yearly exams for the earliest possible cancer detection and hence improved diagnosis. It is for asymptomatic women under 50 that the risk versus benefit issue becomes controversial. Strong efforts are being made to reduce or eliminate this dose. Current methods in widespread clinical use and experimental methods are briefly covered, and the recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (released July 1980) are stressed. The current experimental techniques which include NMR, ultrasound, thermography, computer tomography, heavy particle radiography and ionography are capsulized

1982-04-01

135

Hernioscopy: technique and indications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hernioscopy is laparoscopy traversing a hernial sac used in the course of traditional treatment for groin hernia and it may be both diagnostic or therapeutic. The technique involves dissecting the hernial sac followed by incision, and the creation of a pouch into which a trocar is passed to permit laparoscopy. Once detected an abdominal lesion can also be treated laparoscopically: adhesiotomy, debridement, biopsy etc. The indications to this technique are: strangulated hernia after reduction of the intestinal loop; contralateral diagnosis of inguinal hernia in infants; hernias accompanied by abdominal pain or subocclusive syndromes. For surgeons who adopt the traditional approach to the treatment of groin hernias this technique represents an unexpected addition to their armoury. PMID:9189817

Timsit, G

1997-01-01

136

Perfil nutricional y microbiológico de los embutidos de soya disponibles en Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la calidad nutricional y microbiológica de 80 muestras de embutidos de soya (50% mortadela y 50% salchicha). El promedio de proteína en la mortadela fue de 17,5g/100 g y en la salchicha 20g/100g. El contenido de grasa total fue de 5.5g/100g para ambos productos; no obstante, se hallaron d [...] iferencias altamente significativas (0.0000) en el contenido de los diferentes ácidos grasos entre ambos productos y en las muestras de un mismo producto dependiendo de la industria que los elaborara. Las mayores diferencias se evidenciaron en los niveles de ácido palmítico (C16:0), ácido oleico (C18:1) y ácido linoleico (C18:2). En ninguna muestra se evidenció la presencia de colesterol. El índice de aterogenicidad promedio para mortadela fue 0.55 y para salchicha 0.59. El consumo de 25 gramos de proteína de soya derivada de estos embutidos puede generar aportar entre el 20-90% de la cantidad de ácidos grasos saturados recomendada por día. Así mismo, puede brindar entre el 12-70% de la cantidad de ácidos graso s poliinsaturados recomendada por día. Estas variaciones responden a las importantes diferencias en la especiación de ácidos grasos evidenciadas según la marca del producto. El 20% de los embutidos estudiados mostraron niveles de coliformes totales> 10(4)/g, lo cual fue más frecuente en la salchicha. El 60% de las muestras de este embutido y el 10% de las muestras de mortadela mostraron niveles de psicrótrofos > 10(6)/g. En ninguna de las muestras se evidenció Escherichia coli y en el 5% Clostridium perfringens en niveles mayores a 10²/g. Los resultados señalan la urgente necesidad de implementar un sistema de control de calidad de los embutidos de soya, antes que las autoridades de salud consideren respaldar las campañas nutricionales que promuevan el consumo de los mismos. Abstract in english Nutritional and microbiological profile of soy bean sausages available in Costa Rica. The nutritional and microbiological quality of 80 soybean sausage samples (50% frankfurter and 5% sausage mortadela) was studied. On average, the protein content was 17 ,5g/100g in sausage mortadela and 20g/100g in [...] frankfurter.the mean total fat content was 5,5g/100g for both products. However when products of different manufacture industries were compared, a highly significant difference (p= 0,0000) in the fatty acids speciation between both groups and between samples of the same product were found. Bigger differences were found in the content of palmitic acid(C16:0), oleic acid (C18:l) and linoleic acid (C18:2). Cholesterol was not detected in samples analyzed. On average the atherogenicity index was 0,55 for sausage mortadela and 0,59 for frankfurter. A consumption of 25 grams of soybean protein from these sausages can bring an intake of saturated fatty acids between 20-90% of the daily recommendation. Likewise, they can supply between 12-70% of the recommended daily polyunsaturated fattly acids. These variations are owing to the big difference in fatty acids speciation in each sausage brand. Around 20% of soybean sausages studied showed total coliform levels above l0(4)/g, being more frequent in sausage mortadela. Also 60% of this product and 10% of frankfurters showed psychrotroph levels of 10(6)/g. Clostridium perfringens, in levels above 10²/g was evidenciated in 5% of samples, Escherichia coli was not isolated from them. The findings of this study suggest the urgent need for implementing a quality control system for soybean sausages, before national health authorities consider to support nutritional campaings that promote their consumption.

Monge, Rafael; Arias, María Laura; Alfaro, Thelma; Jiménez, Manuel.

137

Bioensayo microbiano para estimar los nutrimentos disponibles en los abonos organicos: calibracion en el campo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se demostr6 recientemente que el aumento nude la biomasa microbiana en una mezcla de sue- calo: abono organico (9:1, suplementada con gluco- sa como fuente de carbono, fue proporcional al crecimiento de una planta indicadora (sorgo cre- cida en el mismo sustrato. En la presente investi- gaci6n se determina si este bioensayo es de utili- dad como gufa en la fertilizaci6n de los cultivos con abonos organicos, mediante la siembra en el campo de chile dulce (Capsicum annuum L. y to- mate (Lycopersicum esculentum L. como plantas indicadoras. Los tratamientos consistieron de sue- 10 solo 0 en mezcla con 10% de abonos organicos amende contenido de nutrimentos contrastante a saber: pollinaza (CM, compost (C, bocashi (B, vermi- macompost (V y broza de cafe (Br. En el bioensa- vermicomyo microbiano se utiliz6 un disefio de bloques randocompletos al azar con 6 repeticiones, la biomasa microbiana (BM se midi6 2 dfas despues de in- cubar con glucosa. En los ensayos de campo las plantas indicadoras se sembraron en un disefio de bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. En chile dulce se midi6 el peso seco (600 C de la comparte aerea de la planta (PSC y el peso fresco de frutos verdes (PFF a los 97 dfas despues de la Microsiembra. El peso seco de la parte aerea de las amendplantas de tomate (PST fue medido a los 32 dfas. Los abonos organicos CM, C y B indujeron la mayor BM y tambien el mayor PSC, PFF Y PST, indicaci6n de que fueron los de mayor y mas in- mediato suministro de nutrimentos, contrario al y Br que mostraron los valores mas bajos para es- tas variables (P<0.05. Estos 2 abonos, respecto vatratamiento de CM presentaron 3 y 5 veces menos BM y 2 Y 4 veces menos biomasa aerea, respecti- vamente (P<0.05. Las correlaciones altas obteni- codas entre la BM y el PSC (r=0.87 y entre la BM y el PST (r= 0.93, permiten concluir que bioensayo microbiano es un metoda promisorio para pronosticar el suministro de nutrimentos orlos abonos organicos a los cultivos bajo condicio- determines de campo y en consecuencia puede ser una excelente gufa en su dosificaci6n.

Eduardo Salas

2001-01-01

138

Recursos disponibles para la recuperación de información sobre salud en Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Internet se ha convertido en un fenómeno social en nuestros tiempos y en un apoyo vital para el desarrollo de las investigaciones en salud.El hecho de que es una herramienta para recuperar información e investigar no se discute.Las ciencias de la información avanzan a grandes pasos y los profesionales en salud que se apoyan o tienen contacto con la realidad de Internet,encuentran difícil seguir este paso,lo que disminuye la efectividad y eficiencia con que se utiliza este recurso.Motivado en los hechos previos,se realizó una revisión de algunos recursos encontrados en la red de redes,Internet,y se plantea una estrategia de búsqueda de información para recuperarla en un motor de búsqueda y,así,resolver las preguntas clínicas diarias.En especial,se focaliza la revisión del tema sobre los motores de búsqueda Pubmed y Google.Basado inicialmente en la construcción de una pregunta para hallar información mediante la metodología PICO,el profesional se orienta para definir los términos de búsqueda que le permitirán recuperar información con varios niveles de rigurosidad científica y aplicable a varias latitudes.Finalmente,se comentan algunas limitaciones que existen en torno a la recuperación de información y las oportunidades que ofrecen las iniciativas para la Web semántica.

Luis Guillermo Elizondo Herrera

2005-12-01

139

DISTRIBUCIÓN DE NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE EN SUELO ABONADO CON ESTIÉRCOL BOVINO EN MAÍZ FORRAJERO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en la Región Lagunera, la cual se localiza en la parte central de la porción norte deMéxico. Se encuentra ubicada en los meridianos 102° 22' y 104° 47' O, y los paralelos 24° 22' y 26° 23' N; la altitud es de 1139 m. Los trabajos se realizaron en el campo agrícola experimental de la Facultad de Agricultura y Zootecnia, División de Estudios de Posgrado de la Universidad Juárez del estado de Durango. El objetivo fue determinar la mejor dosis de estiércol para la producción de maíz (Zea mays L. y maíz asociado con soya (Glycine max L., así como medir la lixiviación de los nitratos a través del perfil del suelo. Los tratamientos de estiércol probados en el estudio fueron 0, 40, 80, 120 y 160Mg ha-1 de estiércol y un testigo químico de 100-150-00 (N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1 aplicados durante cinco años en forma consecutiva. Los resultados indican que hubo mejor respuesta en el tratamiento de 120 seguido del de 160 Mg ha-1, con una producción superior a los 100 Mg ha-1 de forraje verde. Las concentraciones de nitratos en el perfil del suelo muestran diferentes cantidades en cada tratamiento de estiércol, sin embargo, en todos se aprecia una tendencia a la baja en las profundidades de 180 y 210 cm con valores desde 330 mg kg-1 en el primer estrato de 0 a 30 cm hasta menos de 100 mg kg-1 a una profundidad de 150 cm. El amonio tiene su máxima concentración en los primeros 30 cm de profundidad con 20 mg kg-1 luego baja hasta 10 en el resto del perfil. La materia orgánica (MO alcanzó hasta 6% en los primeros 30 cm de profundidad para luego decrecer a 1.5 en el siguiente estrato (30-60 y continuó bajando conforme se incrementó la profundidad. La conductividad eléctrica también siguió esta tendencia solo que los valores más altos llegan hasta 13 dS m-1 en el estrato 0-15 cm de profundidad, luego bajó a dos conforme aumentó la profundidad.

Enrique Salazar-Sosa

2009-01-01

140

Ficción en un blog de Internet: El autor propone, el lector infiere y dispone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La ciberescritura es todavía un enigma que sigue cambiando los principios fundamentales de la cultura escrita tradicional. Así como no hay fronteras temporales ni espaciales en la Internet, tampoco parecen existir verdades absolutas, principios irrefutables ni reglas pragmáticas formales que faciliten aún la conformación de una gramática del discurso virtual. Todo puede ser ficción o verdad en un universo en el que escritores y lectores somos discurso. Nonecesariamente hay rostros ni gestos ni otro tipo de recursos paralingüísticos, quinésicos o proxémicos que ayuden aambos participantes a entenderse mutuamente. Frente a un emisor discursivo mediado por un computador, el principiode la cooperación de Grice (1975 se potencia hacia el receptor por lo que las llamadas “máximas” pueden a vecesvolverse “mínimas” para el emisor. Este trabajo propone el análisis discursivo de una muestra de 28 comentarios interactivosincorporados por 27 ciberlectores hasta septiembre de 2009, como respuestas a la crónica bloguera de ficciónintitulada Remedios que sacan la piedra (http:barreralinares.blogspot.com, 28-02-2007. Asumiendo como baseteórica la diferencia formal y funcional entre las nociones retóricas y discursivas de ficción, realidad, verdad y verosimilitud,se postula que un cibertexto marcado expresamente por el emisor con rasgos ficcionales de humor, ironía y sarcasmo, termina adquiriendo veracidad a partir de las inferencias que los comentaristas hacen en relación con el tópico tratado. Los resultados muestran una variedad de falsas inferencias o “ciberimplicaturas” que, de acuerdo conel análisis de los comentarios, terminan cambiando la intención original de la crónica. Fenómeno que convierte untexto de “narrativa artificial” en otro de “narrativa natural” (van Dijk, 1975.

Luis Barrera

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Modern recording techniques  

CERN Document Server

As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

Huber, David Miles

2013-01-01

142

Single well techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

1983-07-01

143

Radiographic constant exposure technique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out

Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

1985-01-01

144

Wireless communications algorithmic techniques  

CERN Document Server

This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

2013-01-01

145

Simple Driving Techniques  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data structures used in computations.

Rosendahl, Mads

2002-01-01

146

Alexander Technique and Dance Technique: Applications in the Studio  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating principles from the Alexander Technique into a dance technique class can provide tools for facilitating a more coordinated use of the self. While the methodologies of Alexander Technique and dance technique may present differences, there are ways of applying the principles of Alexander within the context of a dance technique class that…

Nettl-Fiol, Rebecca

2006-01-01

147

Plastinación, una técnica moderna al servicio de la anatomía / Plastination: a modern anatomical technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La preservación y el mantenimiento de los cadáveres y especímenes anatómicos han llevado a la búsqueda de técnicas diferentes y a la utilización de sustancias distintas al formaldehído con el fin de minimizar los riesgos de exposición a vapores químicos y a agentes biológicos y de disponer de prepar [...] ados anatómicos con mayor durabilidad, conservando las características anatómicas y facilitando la docencia y la investigación en la disciplina. Una de estas técnicas es la plastinación. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos con ella en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia. Abstract in english The preservation and maintenance of anatomical specimens and corpses have created the need for new techniques and for the use of substances different from formaldehyde, in order to lessen the risks of exposure to this substance and to biological agents, and to increase the availability and durabilit [...] y of anatomical pieces preserving their characteristics in order to facilitate teaching and research. In the eighth decade of the XX century the German anatomist von Hagens patented the plastination technique that consists of replacing the water of tissues by silicones, polymers or resins. The plastination process includes four steps: fixation, dehydration, impregnating and curing. There are some difficulties in Colombia regarding the availability of acetone, polymers and silicones as well as a lack of adequate infrastructure for the plastination process; because of this we have modified the technique using other substances at different pressure and temperature conditions; we report the modifications with which we have obtained very good results.

Jiménez Mejía, Ricardo; Isaza Castro, Óscar.

148

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions. [...

Rolf Dieter, Illg.

149

The ion plating technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ion plating technique and the characteristics of the coatings are described, and the mechanisms involved are discussed. It is essentially vapour deposition on to a substrate which is the cathode of a glow discharge and the substrate has been cleaned and is maintained clean by sputtering. The source of evaporant is resistance heated. (author)

1977-06-01

150

Boundary representation modelling techniques  

CERN Document Server

Boundary representation is the principle solid modelling method used in modern CAD/CAM systems. This book includes: data structures algorithms and other related techniques, including non-manifold modelling, product modelling, graphics, disc files and data exchange, and some application related topics.

Stroud, I

2006-01-01

151

Rhinoplasty – indications and techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhinoplasty is considered to be one of the most challenging procedures in otolaryngology head and neck surgery. Meticulous planning and excellent surgical skills are pre-requisites for reproducible good outcomes. More than 100 years after the first rhinoplasty, many controversies regarding indication and techniques remain unresolved. The aim of this article is to review current concepts and arguments.

Tasman, Abel-Jan

2007-01-01

152

Computerized tomography: Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is an introduction to the physical and technical fundamentals of computerized tomography. The measuring and imaging mechanisms of the various CT techniques are described with a view to relevant medical perspectives and potential side effects. Particular regard is given to magnetic resonance tomography. (orig./MG)

1985-01-01

153

Merchandising Techniques and Libraries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposes that libraries employ modern booksellers' merchandising techniques to improve circulation of library materials. Using displays in various ways, the methods and reasons for weeding out books, replacing worn book jackets, and selecting new books are discussed. Suggestions for learning how to market and 11 references are provided. (RBF)

Green, Sylvie A.

1981-01-01

154

Techniques in Adlerian Psychology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus…

Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.

155

Safeguards techniques and equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

1997-10-01

156

Nuclear techniques in agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among the scientists of the country to use this technique. The NA and BTD provides service to outside users for research and development purpose and many scientists have availed of this service. (author)

2012-01-01

157

Monte Carlo techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The course of ''Monte Carlo Techniques'' will try to give a general overview of how to build up a method based on a given theory, allowing you to compare the outcome of an experiment with that theory. Concepts related with the construction of the method, such as, random variables, distributions of random variables, generation of random variables, random-based numerical methods, will be introduced in this course. Examples of some of the current theories in High Energy Physics describing the e+e- annihilation processes (QED, Electro-Weak, QCD) will also be briefly introduced. A second step in the employment of this method is related to the detector. The interactions that a particle could have along its way, through the detector as well as the response of the different materials which compound the detector will be quoted in this course. An example of detector at LEP era, in which these techniques are being applied, will close the course. (orig.)

1985-07-09

158

Signal integrity characterization techniques  

CERN Multimedia

"Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

Bogatin, Eric

2009-01-01

159

VOICE TRANSFORMATION TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Voice transformation is one of the applications in speech processing which involves modification of speech signal of source speaker to a target speaker. This paper describes new techniques for generating speaker-dependent pitch contours for particular short sentences. Here speech signal of source speaker is Neutral speech and speech signal of target speaker is Angry speech. We have proposed 2 transformation algorithms for emotion conversion. The proposed algorithms starts with pitch tracking for both reference and target speakers. And then modifies reference speaker’s pitch according to target speaker’s pitch by using different techniques proposed in the algorithms. In both the algorithms, statistics are used to form a mapping function from a reference speaker’s pitch frequency to the appropriate value for a second speaker.

PRIYANKA PRAKASH KATULE, B. V. PATHAK

2013-08-01

160

Techniques de hacking  

CERN Document Server

Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

Erickson, Jon

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software development is the set of activities and processes for programmers that will eventually result in a software product. This may include requirement analysis, software design, implementation, testing, documentation, maintenance and then describing computer programs that meet user requirements within the constraints of the environment. It is a structure imposed on the development of software product. Software development is the most important process in developing a Software/tool. The successful execution of the project highly depends on the techniques used to develop the model. Software development technology has an under the model-explicit or implicit-of the development process. In order to understand more about the development process and the methodologies, we abstract from these. The perspective chosen for the abstraction include models developed during the process and the kind of abstraction involved in the techniques of the process.

Asst. Prof. Rajani Kota

2012-05-01

162

Autocontrol technique of combined centrifuges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design characteristic of the autocontrol technique of the combined centrifuge is introduced. Digital technique, vary structure control and interface technique, graphical display techniques, digital communication technique as well as electronic technique are applied in the course of research. Automation in the operation of large scale combined centrifuges and the course of combined test has been realized and it can coordinate with other systems of status monitoring, data collecting and centrifugal force-aerodynamic force matched load automatically

2001-08-01

163

LDAP Injection Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increase in the number of databases accessed only by some applications has made code injection attacks an important threat to almost any current system. If one of these applications accepts inputs from a client and executes these inputs without first validating them, the attackers are free to execute their own queries and therefore, to extract, modify or delete the content of the database associated to the application. In this paper a deep analysis of the LDAP injection techniques is pres...

Alonso, Jose Maria; Guzman, Antonio; Beltran, Marta; Bordon, Rodolfo

2009-01-01

164

Stakeholder involvement techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stakeholder involvement, dialogue and deliberation can improve the quality and the sustainability of policy decisions. This publication offers a short guide to stakeholder involvement techniques and their selection. It includes an annotated bibliography pointing to easily accessible handbooks and other resources. While it approaches the topic from the point of view of radioactive waste management, it is intended for any person or organisation considering stakeholder involvement in decision making. (author)

2004-01-01

165

Radiation techniques for acromegaly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Radiotherapy (RT) remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and co...

Minniti Giuseppe; Scaringi Claudia; Enrici Riccardo

2011-01-01

166

Improved palynographic technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author has begun to prepare an electron micrograph reference collection of pollen from extinct species in the central Florida area. The study is planned to assist in the identification of microfossils that occur in nearby peat deposits. One aspect of the scanning electron microscope project is the standardization of a technique for pressing the pollen. A cheap disposal filter, improved acetolysis and a method for applying a uniform pollen layer to SEM studs are described.

Bigelow, J.H.

1980-01-01

167

A parametric macromodelling technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the ever growing complexity of high-frequency systems in the electronic industry, formation of reduced-order models or compact macromodels of these systems is paramount. In this contribution, a Fourier series expansion technique is extended to form a modeling strategy to approximate the frequency-domain behaviour of a system based on several design variables. In particular, it is intended to provide a tool for the designer to identify the effect of manufacturer tolerances and process flu...

Condon, Marissa; Grahovski, Georgi G.

2009-01-01

168

Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques  

CERN Document Server

Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

Chis, Timur

2009-01-01

169

COMPUTER ASSISTED AUDIT TECHNIQUES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today, the environment based on informatics influences continuously auditors’ work, because it creates new opportunities and new risks, additional rules in what concerns security, fairness and acceptable margin of error. The growth of the systems’ complexity, especially the informatics accounting Systems of ERP type (Enterprise Resource Planning), so as the large volume of transactions registered at present have lead to the replacement of the „manual”, classic audit techniques with mo...

2007-01-01

170

Radiation techniques for acromegaly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Radiotherapy (RT) remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduct...

Minniti, Giuseppe; Scaringi, Claudia; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

2011-01-01

171

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the orga...

Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Popescu Andrei; Ploesteanu Mara Gabriela

2011-01-01

172

Dacryocystorhinostomy: drill technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Dacryocystorhinostomy or DCR is a bypass procedure with an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa via a bony ostium. It may be performed through an external skin incision or intranasally with or without endoscopic visualization. The success rates for endoscopic and external dacryocystorhinostomy vary widely (external 70-95%; endonasal 59-99%). Video: In the “classic” Dupuy-Dutemps-Brouget technique a scalpel blade is used to perform the skin incis...

Ramalho, M.; Coutinho, I.; Pedrosa, C.; Pina, S.; Vaz, F.; Ferreira, M.; Melo, A.

2013-01-01

173

Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

2007-01-01

174

Techniques for Wireless Applications  

Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

2012-05-01

175

Conchomeatoplasty: a new technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stenosis of the cartilaginous auditory canal is still difficult to resolve and many techniques of plastic surgery have been proposed. Our experience was first built up in treatment of stenosis of the tracheostomy in patients who had undergone laryngectomy. Since it is simple and effective, we have transferred and modified the technique to the treatment of stenosis of the external auditory canal and of the concha. Fourteen patients with stenosis of the cartilaginous auditory canal (diameters of the stenosis prior to surgery varied from 19 to 78.5 mm(2)) underwent day-surgery conchomeatoplasty under local anaesthesia. Eight months after the operation, the results are good. Following surgery, the surface of the auditory canal, measured at the narrowest point of the external auditory meatus, varied from a minimum of 113 mm(2) to a maximum of 254 mm(2). The technique we propose to correct the stenosis of the external auditory canal is easy to carry out, short, and may be performed under local anaesthesia. Lastly, the auditory canal and the ear auricle have a good blood supply, thus ensuring the flaps will survive. PMID:23836441

Giacomarra, Vittorio; Spinato, Giacomo; Bullo, Federica; Da Mosto, Maria Cristina; Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Tirelli, Giancarlo; Tirelli, Gianfranco

2013-11-01

176

Computer Assisted Audit Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the modern point of view, audit takes intoaccount especially the information systems representingmainly the examination performed by a professional asregards the manner for developing an activity by means ofcomparing it to the quality criteria specific to this activity.Having as reference point this very general definition ofauditing, it must be emphasized that the best known segmentof auditing is the financial audit that had a parallel evolutionto the accountancy one.The present day phase of developing the financial audithas as main trait the internationalization of the accountantprofessional. World wide there are multinational companiesthat offer services in the financial auditing, taxing andconsultancy domain. The auditors, natural persons and auditcompanies, take part at the works of the national andinternational authorities for setting out norms in theaccountancy and auditing domain.The computer assisted audit techniques can be classified inseveral manners according to the approaches used by theauditor. The most well-known techniques are comprised inthe following categories: testing data techniques, integratedtest, parallel simulation, revising the program logics,programs developed upon request, generalized auditsoftware, utility programs and expert systems.

Eugenia Iancu

2007-01-01

177

Endoscopic thyroidectomy: Our technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Minimally invasive surgery is widely employed for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Several minimal access approaches to the thyroid gland have been described. The commonly performed surgeries have been endoscopic lobectomies. We have performed endoscopic total thyroidectomy by the anterior chest wall approach. In this study, we have described our technique and evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of this procedure. Materials and Methods: From June 2005 to August 2006, 15 cases of endoscopic thyroidectomy were done at our institute. Five patients were male and 10 were female. Mean age was 45 years. (Range 23 to 71 years. Four patients had multinodular goiter and underwent near-total thyroidectomy; four patients had follicular adenoma and underwent hemithyroidectomy. Out of the seven patients of papillary carcinoma, four were low-risk and so a hemithyroidectomy was performed while three patients in the high risk group underwent total thyroidectomy. A detailed description of the surgical technique is provided. Results : The mean nodule size was 48 mm (range 20-80 mm and the mean operating time was 85 min (range 60-120 min. In all cases, the recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified and preserved intact, the superior and inferior parathyroids were also identified in all patients. No patients required conversion to an open cervicotomy. All patients were discharged the day after surgery. All thyroidectomies were completed successfully. No recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies or postoperative tetany occurred. The postoperative course was significantly less painful and all patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Conclusions : It is possible to remove large nodules and perform as well as total thyroidectomies using our endoscopic approach. It is a safe and effective technique in the hands of an appropriately trained surgeon. The patients get a cosmetic benefit without any morbidity.

Puntambekar Shailesh

2007-01-01

178

A fuzzy disaggregation technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a problem of time series disaggregation in presence of broad information lack. In this framework it is not possible to follow standard methodologies, like those stemming from the Chow and Lin algorithm and based on probabilistic assumptions. In general terms, when information sets are limited, instead of referring to probabilistic measures it could be more appropriate to adopt an uncertainty measure satisfying only some general properties, like the fuzzy one. After a synthetic survey about fuzzy aggregation operators, we introduce a fuzzy disaggregation technique, based on Choquet capacity theory and characterized by De Finetti coherence.

Alessandro Polli

2005-10-01

179

DNA Microarray Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

Thakare SP

2012-11-01

180

[Techniques of appendectomy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Appendicectomy is a century old. McBurney's incision is the oldest but still most frequently used approach. This well-codified surgical procedure can be made difficult by anatomical variations in the situation of the caecum within the peritoneal cavity or by variations in winding of the appendix around the caecum. In uncomplicated appendicectomy abdominal drainage must be installed only when the base of the appendix is of poor quality. Complicated forms of appendicitis (with peritoneal abscess, appendiceal mass, appendicular peritonitis) have their own specific treatment. Laparoscopic surgery has a role to play among the appendicectomy techniques, and this role seems to be particularly interesting in appendicular peritonitis. PMID:1534631

Suc, B; Escat, J

1992-03-15

 
 
 
 
181

Electricity demand forecasting techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

1994-02-16

182

Monovision techniques for telerobots  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary task of the vision sensor in a telerobotic system is to provide information about the position of the system's effector relative to objects of interest in its environment. The subtasks required to perform the primary task include image segmentation, object recognition, and object location and orientation in some coordinate system. The accomplishment of the vision task requires the appropriate processing tools and the system methodology to effectively apply the tools to the subtasks. The functional structure of the telerobotic vision system used in the Langley Research Center's Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory is discussed as well as two monovision techniques for accomplishing the vision subtasks.

Goode, P. W.; Carnils, K.

1987-07-01

183

Monovision techniques for telerobots  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary task of the vision sensor in a telerobotic system is to provide information about the position of the system's effector relative to objects of interest in its environment. The subtasks required to perform the primary task include image segmentation, object recognition, and object location and orientation in some coordinate system. The accomplishment of the vision task requires the appropriate processing tools and the system methodology to effectively apply the tools to the subtasks. The functional structure of the telerobotic vision system used in the Langley Research Center's Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory is discussed as well as two monovision techniques for accomplishing the vision subtasks.

Goode, P. W.; Carnils, K.

1987-01-01

184

Monopulse principles and techniques  

CERN Document Server

Monopulse is a type of radar that sends additional information in the signal in order to avoid problems caused by rapid changes in signal strength. Monopulse is resistant to jamming which is one of the main reasons it is used in most radar systems today. This updated and expanded edition of an Artech House classic offers you a current and comprehensive treatment of monopulse radar principles, techniques, and applications. The Second Edition features two brand new chapters, covering monopulse countermeasures and counter-countermeasures and monopulse for airborne radar and homing seekers.This es

Sherman, Samuel M

2011-01-01

185

Velocimetry Using Heterodyne Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At LLNL, we have been using heterodyne techniques for the past year and a half to measure velocities up to several kilometers-per-second on different types of experiments. We assembled this diagnostic, which we call the Heterodyne Velocimeter (HetV), using commercially available products developed for the communications industry. We use a 1550 nm fiber laser and single mode fibers to deliver light to and from the target. The return Doppler-shifted light is mixed with the original laser light to generate a beat frequency proportional to the velocity. At a velocity of 1000 m/s, the beat signal has a frequency of 1.29 GHz. We record the beat signals directly onto fast digitizers. The maximum velocity is limited by the bandwidth of the electronics and the sampling rate of the digitizers. The record length is limited by the amount of memory contained in the digitizers. This paper describes our approach to measuring velocities with this technique and presents recent data obtained with the HetV.

Strand, O T; Berzins, L V; Goosman, D R; Kuhlow, W W; Sargis, P D; Whitworth, T L

2004-08-10

186

Polymer gel dosimetry technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in radiation therapy techniques, including non-coplanar beams, dynamic wedge, multi-leaf collimator, sterotactic radiosurgery, high-dose-rate brachytherapy using remote afterloading and shielded applicators, and heavy-particle beams such as protons, have created a need for three-dimensional, tissue-equivalent dosimeters, capable of recording time-integrated dose distributions with high spatial resolution and accuracy, and independent of energy and dose rate. All these requirements are met by the recently developed polymer gel dosimetry technique, based on radiation induced formation of polymer microparticles in a tissue-equivalent gel. A permanent image of the dose distribution is encoded in the gel as the distribution of its optical turbidity and of the NMR relaxation rates of the water protons in the gel. Three dimensional dose distributions can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging or optical transmission tomography. The prototype gel, called BANG{trademark}, is now being tested at several hospital sites throughout the U.S. and Europe.

Maryanski, M.J.

1995-12-31

187

Neutron detection technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has the ability to measure the total flux of all active flavors of neutrinos using the neutral current reaction, whose signature is a neutron. By comparing the rates of the neutral current reaction to the charged current reaction, which only detects electron neutrinos, one can test the neutrino oscillation hypothesis independent of solar models. It is necessary to understand the neutron detection efficiency of the detector to make use of the neutral current reaction. This report demonstrates a coincidence technique to identify neutrons emitted from the {sup 252}Cf neutron calibration source. The source releases on average four neutrons when a {sup 252}Cf nucleus spontaneously fissions. Each neutron is detected as a separate event when the neutron is captured by a deuteron, releasing a gamma ray of approximately 6.25 MeV. This gamma ray is in turn detected by the photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. By investigating the time and spatial separation between neutron-like events, it is possible to obtain a pure sample of neutrons for calibration study. Preliminary results of the technique applied to two calibration runs are presented.

Oblath, N.S.; Poon, A.W.P.

2000-09-14

188

Neutron detection technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has the ability to measure the total flux of all active flavors of neutrinos using the neutral current reaction, whose signature is a neutron. By comparing the rates of the neutral current reaction to the charged current reaction, which only detects electron neutrinos, one can test the neutrino oscillation hypothesis independent of solar models. It is necessary to understand the neutron detection efficiency of the detector to make use of the neutral current reaction. This report demonstrates a coincidence technique to identify neutrons emitted from the "2"5"2Cf neutron calibration source. The source releases on average four neutrons when a "2"5"2Cf nucleus spontaneously fissions. Each neutron is detected as a separate event when the neutron is captured by a deuteron, releasing a gamma ray of approximately 6.25 MeV. This gamma ray is in turn detected by the photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. By investigating the time and spatial separation between neutron-like events, it is possible to obtain a pure sample of neutrons for calibration study. Preliminary results of the technique applied to two calibration runs are presented

2000-01-01

189

Charge breeding techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by a novel scheme called charge breeding. The transformation from 1 + to n + charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices to produce highly charged ions, charge-to-mass ratios between 1/9 and 1/4 are easily obtained. In this article the performance and the features of the two charge breeding concepts will be compared and discussed. An outlook on charge breeders for the next generation of radioactive ion beam facilities is also given.

Wenander, Fredrik

2004-12-01

190

Charge breeding techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by a novel scheme called charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices to produce highly charged ions, charge-to-mass ratios between 1/9 and 1/4 are easily obtained. In this article the performance and the features of the two charge breeding concepts will be compared and discussed. An outlook on charge breeders for the next generation of radioactive ion beam facilities is also given

2004-12-27

191

Charge Breeding Techniques  

CERN Document Server

The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

Wenander, F

2004-01-01

192

Code Optimization Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.

MAGEE,GLEN I.

2000-08-03

193

Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006

- French version only  

CERN Multimedia

Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium, Bât 593 Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collaboration avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

Davide Vitè

2005-01-01

194

Techniques virales avancées  

CERN Document Server

Cet ouvrage traite de techniques avancées de la virologie informatique selon une double perspective: l'analyse de la défense antivirale et les différentes phases d'une attaque à l'aide d'un code malveillant. Le point de vue adopté est celui de l'attaquant dans la mesure où c'est le seul qui permet réellement à celui qui a la responsabilité de défendre un système, de comprendre ce qui peut se passer et d'envisager les solutions à mettre en œuvre. L'approche retenue fait intervenir l'utilisation de systèmes booléens originaux, la théorie de la complexité et la théorie de la calculabilité. À part

Filiol, Éric

2007-01-01

195

Tracer technique in casting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of silumine modification studies are described. The following modificators have been used: sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, cryolite labelled with sodium-24 as well as potassium chloride labelled with potassium-42 and phosphoric copper labelled with phosphorus-32. The following factors have been identified as results of the investigations: the effects of modificator chemical composition, temperature and feeding technique on the residual sodium and phosphorus content in silumines; sodium and potassium amounts transfered into the alloys from the salt constituents of fluxes; the effects of the melt maturing time on sodium and phosphorus losses at various temperatures with degassing by hexachloroethane and chlorine and the same during remelting. Some results are also presented concerning the effects of chemical composition and a number of metallurgical factors on grey iron tightness

1981-11-24

196

Advanced enrichment techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

1987-09-07

197

Advanced enrichment techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

1987-09-07

198

New vitrification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has developed a new direct-induction cold-crucible glass melting technique to the industrial stage. Process equipment is no longer subject to previous limitations on the glass melting temperature and capacity, making it possible in future facilities to vitrify not only high-level but also low- and intermediate-level liquid wastes. In the new vitrification facilities the liquid evaporation capacity has been increased by adding a head-end concentration step prior to calcining, and by increasing the calciner evaporation capacity. Vitrification furnace performance has been enhanced by increasing the melting capacity as well as the melting temperature to produce a wider range of glass formulations. Consequently, liquid waste vitrification now includes two types of facilities for high-level wastes and for low-to intermediate-level wastes

1991-04-14

199

New accelerating techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A selection of new accelerating techniques is presented. The criterion for having selected a certain scheme was the promise to achieve high accelerating gradients. All schemes belong to one of three essentially different classes: - Near field accelerators, where the particles travel on straight trajectories in free space. The accelerating field, parallel to the trajectory, is guided by a nearby structure with dimensions of the order of the R.F. wave-length (grating accelerator) or the bunch length (wakefield accelerator). - Far-field accelerators. The particles travel in free space on curved trajectories and the acceleration takes place in transverse direction by an el.-magn. beam in free space or weakly guided (inverse free-electron-laser accelerator). - Media accelerators. The particles travel on straight trajectories in a medium (gas, plasma) and are accelerated either by el. magn. or el.-static fields parallel to their trajectory (beam wave accelerators, beam front accelerators, plasma beat-wave accelerator). 31 refs.

1983-09-05

200

Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique  

CERN Document Server

We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Techniques of Stochastic Cooling  

CERN Document Server

This report starts with a short presentation of the basic stochastic cooling concepts in the radio-frequency and microwave range. Techniques for longitudinal and transverse beam cooling are discussed with emphasis on technological aspects. Since pick-ups and kickers are vital elements in all stochastic cooling systems and often pose limiting constraints on the system performance, a short review of different pick-up and kicker structures will be included. Also several examples of systems that are in operation or were used in the past, both for high energy and low energy beams, are presented. For future machines, there is considerable interest in fast cooling of moderate and highly charged ion beams of low momentum.

Caspers, Friedhelm

2001-01-01

202

Tessellation Reconstruction Techniques  

CERN Document Server

The application of Voronoi and Delaunay tessellation based methods for reconstructing continuous fields from discretely sampled data sets is discussed. The succesfull operation as ``multidimensional interpolation'' method is corroborated through their ability to reproduce even intricate statistical aspects of the analytical predictions of perturbation theory of cosmic velocity field evolution. The newly developed and fully self-adaptive technique for density field estimation by means of Delaunay tessellations, basically exploiting their ``minimum triangulation'' quality, is shown to succesfully reproduce the morphology of the foamlike structure in N-body simulations of cosmic structure formation. The full hierarchy of structure is implicitly and directly reproduced at every spatial resolution scale present in the particle distribution, at the same time automatically and sharply rendering its characteristic anisotropic filamentary and wall-like features.

Van de Weygaert, R; Weygaert, Rien van de; Schaap, Willem

2000-01-01

203

Nuclear techniques in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long term development and successful utilization of the Tongonan geothermal field for electric power generation is ultimately a function of the response of the reservoir to extensive exploitation. A field drawdown test of several years duration has been planned to test this response. A number of nuclear chemical techniques have been incorporated into this to assist in quantitatively tracing the subsurface movements of both reservoir and reinjected fluids; and to provide an early warning of changes in the physical and chemical properties of the reservoir fluids with respect to natural recharge. The programme will be implemented by Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) under contract to Philippine National Oil Company - Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC). (author)

1979-12-04

204

Differential doppler heterodyning technique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating the detected doppler frequency. It is found that the doppler frequency for this particular setup is independent of the direction of detection. Investigations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) show that the maximum SNR-considering the optical setup-is obtained by measuring the frequency difference between two doppler-shifted beams rather than by measuring the shift of a single beam by comparing it with a reference beam. Measurements seem to be in agreement with the theoretical consideration

Lading, Lars

1971-01-01

205

Monovision techniques for telerobots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary task of the vision sensor in a telerobotic system is to provide information about the position of the system's effector relative to objects of interest in its environment. The subtasks required to perform the primary task include image segmentation, object recognition, and object location and orientation in some coordinate system. The accomplishment of the vision task requires the appropriate processing tools and the system methodology to effectively apply the tools to the subtasks. This paper describes the functional structure of the telerobotic vision system used in the Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL) and discusses two monovision techniques for accomplishing the vision subtasks. 11 references.

Goode, P.W.; Cornils, K.

1987-01-01

206

Geological data integration techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

1986-10-13

207

Biomedical telemetry techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The landmarks and important state-of-the-art work in biomedical telemetry are reviewed. The advantages provided by transmission of physiologic data from minimally restrained to completely unencumbered subjects with biomedical telemetry systems is discussed both from the standpoint of the wide variety of physiologic parameters and subjects that can be monitored and in terms of the various proven electronic techniques for implementing this mode of physiologic data transmission and recovery. Monitored parameter capabilities now include biopotentials (ECG, EMG, EEG), temperature, mechanical events (muscle force, limb motion), pH, pressure (ICP, blood pressure), and others. The system developments in biomedical telemetry have had the aims of minimizing size, weight, and volume while extending the operating capabilities of the systems in terms of minimum required power, multiplicity of data channels, and reliable operation in the intended operating environment. These developments have progressed from discrete transistor to integrated microcircuit implementations in systems which can encode the physiologic data as FM, PAM, PWM, or PCM. Biotelemeters can be utilized as external (backpack) or completely implantable devices and today may be found in the research laboratory, the intensive care unit, portable patient care units, and in the freely ranging animal in the field usually employing a radio link. Also discussed are considerations for power sources and power source recharging through the tissues of implanted subjects. There are advantages and disadvantages to using biomedical telemetry, to using implanted or external biotelemeters, and to each of the various encoding techniques. These are considered, and the future of biomedical telemetry is projected. PMID:7047072

Jeutter, D C

1982-02-01

208

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 1): Transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales / Nerve reconstruction techniques in traumatic brachial plexus surgery (Part 1): Extraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los años '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia n [...] erviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc, para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En esta primera parte se analizan las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales, para luego hacer lo propio con las intraplexuales, en una segunda entrega. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexus traumatic injuries, the present arti

Robla-Costales, J.; Socolovsky, M.; Di Masi, G.; Domitrovic, L.; Campero, A.; Fernández-Fernández, J.; Ibáñez-Plágaro, J.; García-Cosamalón, J..

209

La technique au service de l’Homme Ou quand les muscles sont artificiels, les caméras s’avalent et les robots opèrent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Imaginez une panne de courant à l’hôpital. Une foule d’appareils cesseraient de fonctionner, de la machine coeur-poumon aux respirateurs artificiels, en passant par les appareils permettant de surveiller les patients pendant une opération. Mais pas de panique! Les hôpitaux ont tout prévu et disposent de sources de courant alternatives.

Grassi Pauletti, Sara; Biundo, Giuseppina

2007-01-01

210

Changes in urological surgical techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, laparoscopic and afterwards robotic techniques have constituted most of urologic surgery procedures. Open surgery may give place to robotic surgery due to possible widespread use of robots in the future. Studies, that compare these two techniques are usually designed about radical prostatectomy, since it is the most common operation performed by using these techniques. In literature,robotic surgery seems more advantageous than other techniques but the most important disadvantage of this technique is cost-effective problems. In present review,history of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery, and comparison of advantages, disadvantages and cost of these techniques have been discussed with literature.

Oktay Üçer

2010-06-01

211

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such an analysis of the internal environment allows the organization to identify its resources and capabilities as best as possible, in relation to the threats and opportunities brought about by the crisis situations. Authors’ Contribution The research allows the identification of the organizational behaviour of resource and capabilities capitalization that must be adopted during the economic crisis. The study may be useful to both the academic and the business environment.

Caescu Stefan Claudiu

2011-12-01

212

Programing techniques for CDC equipment  

Science.gov (United States)

Five techniques reduce core requirements for fast batch turnaround time and interactive-terminal capability. Same techniques increase program versatility, decrease problem-configuration dependence, and facilitate interprogram communication.

Newsom, J. R.; Tiffany, S. H.

1979-01-01

213

Steganalysis of Digital Watermarking Techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to develop steganalysis techniques for images that have been potentially subjected to a watermarking algorithm. Our effort was directed towards two separate research areas: Detection of robust watermarking techniques usin...

N. Memon J. Fridrich

2003-01-01

214

Nozzle fabrication technique  

Science.gov (United States)

A block of electrically conductive material which is to be formed into a body with internal and/or external surfaces that approximate hyperboloids of one sheet is placed so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a traveling EDM electrode wire. The electrode wire is then moved into cutting proximity of the body wire. Thereafter, by revolving the body about its own axis, the external and/or internal surfaces of the body will be cut into an approximate hyperbolic surface of revolution depending upon whether the body is positioned with the cutting wire outside of the body or in a previously formed longitudinal passage in the body. As an alternative technique, elongated channels can also be cut into the wall of the body by successively orienting the body to a selected number of angular positions, with the electrode wire being either outside of the body or in a previously formed passage in the body. At each of these angular positions, the electrode wire is moved orthogonally with respect to the axis of the wire, while both the body axis skew angle and the rotational position about that axis is controlled by cutting a channel or groove in the body to relieve stresses in the body material or to convey a coolant fluid.

Wells, Dennis L. (inventor)

1991-01-01

215

Fenestration obscuration techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

There are situations where it is advantageous to visually obscure through glass, to an external observer, the movement of people within a well lit room. It may be that the building use has changed or existing measures which had provided obscuration such as 'Bomb-blast' curtains have been discontinued. Recognising that implemented solutions must create the minimum disruption to outward visibility and involve the least procedural effort (be simple to use), the Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure, CPNI, commissioned this study, defining key requirements including: (a) Automatic or simple manual operation (b) Obscuration of movement within the building from outside (c) Varying levels of obscuration depending on the difference in internal and external light levels. (d) Minimum disruption to outward visibility (e) Acceptable for use on heritage and iconic sites (f) Easy to retrofit (g) Low cost This report reviews earlier work carried out into the protection of Guardrooms by the use of lighting techniques coupled with the use of reflective and screen printed films. Other innovative solutions including Electrochromatic controllable glazing which may prove more appropriate to office and commercial buildings are also considered. It is seen that some measures, (window films or blinds), are cost effective and unsophisticated while more complex automatic systems using reactive glazing can offer critical design advantages. It must be noted however that some of the key requirements are mutually exclusive and any solution chosen will always be a compromise based on client needs and circumstances.

Smalley, Michael

2007-10-01

216

Dating technique tested  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes

1985-01-01

217

Neutron detection technique  

CERN Document Server

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has the ability to measure the total flux of all active flavors of neutrinos using the neutral current reaction, whose signature is a neutron. By comparing the rates of the neutral current reaction to the charged current reaction, which only detects electron neutrinos, one can test the neutrino oscillation hypothesis independent of solar models. It is necessary to understand the neutron detection efficiency of the detector to make use of the neutral current reaction. This report demonstrates a coincidence technique to identify neutrons emitted from the sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron calibration source. The source releases on average four neutrons when a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf nucleus spontaneously fissions. Each neutron is detected as a separate event when the neutron is captured by a deuteron, releasing a gamma ray of approximately 6.25 MeV. This gamma ray is in turn detected by the photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. By investigating the time and spatial separation between n...

Oblath, N S

2000-01-01

218

Structural design verification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a structural test program on full-scale Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) piping components and nozzles. The principal components of interest are elbows, straight pipe, tees, reducers, and heat exchanger nozzles made from austenitic stainless steel with operating temperatures above 8000F. The objective of the program is to experimentally validate the analytical techniques and design criteria being developed for these components. Basic test facility features for the full-scale piping component tests are described with emphasis on 16-inch diameter piping elbow and nozzle tests. The elbow tests are performed with an internal environment of sodium at 11000F and loads can be applied externally to evaluate simulative piping loads or internally by pressurizing up to 600 psi to study multiaxial stress effects. Initial tests on nozzles are aimed at providing data on creep ratcheting using controlled inert gas flow to simulate worst case operational thermal transients in the piping system. Strain and displacement measurements are of particular importance in these tests, however, thermal control and instrumentation is also challenging because of the temperature sensitivity of creep in the region of 11000F. (author)

1976-10-01

219

Dose Reduction Techniques  

CERN Document Server

As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

Waggoner, L O

2000-01-01

220

Techniques of Radio Astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter provides an overview of the techniques of radio astronomy. Thisstudy began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cosmos, but theperiod of rapid progress began 15 years later. From then to the present, thewavelength range has expanded from a few meters to the sub-millimeters, theangular resolution increased from degrees to finer than milli arc seconds,and the receiver sensitivities have improved by large factors. Today, thetechnique of aperture synthesis produces images comparable to or exceedingthose obtained with the best optical facilities. In addition to technicaladvances, the scientific discoveries made in the radio range have contributedmuch to opening new visions of our universe. There are numerous nationalradio facilities spread over the world. In the near future, a new era oftruly global radio observatories will begin. This chapter contains a shorthistory of the development of the field, details of calibration procedures,coherent/heterodyne and incoherent/bolometer receiver systems, observingmethods for single apertures and interferometers, and an overview of aperturesynthesis.

Wilson, T. L.

 
 
 
 
221

Teaching Politics: Techniques & Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Published by Dr. William J. Ball, an Assistant Professor of Political Science at The College of New Jersey, Teaching Politics: Techniques & Technologies commits itself to "increasing the quality of teaching and learning about politics in higher education settings." This site functions as a pedagogical information center for political science instructors. Teaching Politics' nine content sections provide educators with a variety of resources for and about instruction, including sections devoted to Conference Papers, Book Reviews, video tours and descriptions of Multimedia Classrooms, The Guide to Teaching, The Web Crawler (a local area search engine that indexes over 5000 political science Web pages), and the H-Teachpol Discussion List--a listserv for post-secondary political science instructors (discussed in the February 28, 1997 issue of the Scout Report). Users should note that most conference papers posted at the site are in Adobe Portable Document Format (.pdf) and many of the papers are accompanied by audio and video presentations which require RealPlayer. The video tours of the multimedia classrooms require RealPlayer as well.

Ball, William J.

1999-01-01

222

Uncertainty analysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The origin of the uncertainty affecting Performance Assessments, as well as their propagation to dose and risk results is discussed. The analysis is focused essentially on the uncertainties introduced by the input parameters, the values of which may range over some orders of magnitude and may be given as probability distribution function. The paper briefly reviews the existing sampling techniques used for Monte Carlo simulations and the methods for characterizing the output curves, determining their convergence and confidence limits. Annual doses, expectation values of the doses and risks are computed for a particular case of a possible repository in clay, in order to illustrate the significance of such output characteristics as the mean, the logarithmic mean and the median as well as their ratios. The report concludes that provisionally, due to its better robustness, such estimation as the 90th percentile may be substituted to the arithmetic mean for comparison of the estimated doses with acceptance criteria. In any case, the results obtained through Uncertainty Analyses must be interpreted with caution as long as input data distribution functions are not derived from experiments reasonably reproducing the situation in a well characterized repository and site

1987-01-01

223

Improved Search Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

2012-01-01

224

Spécification de l'extension LibAudioStream  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

LibAudioStream est un moteur de rendu audionumérique disponible sous forme de librairie, permettant de manipuler des ressources audio à travers le concept de flux. Ce moteur est facilement intégrable dans des applications qui nécessitent de jouer des fichiers son, des montages audio, et d'appliquer des effets et des traitements DSP en temps-réel. Une algèbre de description, de composition et de transformation des flux audio permet de construire des expressions complexes, que l'on va pou...

2014-01-01

225

Géolocalisation et prédiction dans les réseaux Wi-Fi en intérieur  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La démocratisation des terminaux mobiles et l'accroissement des débits disponibles permettent d'envisager de nouvelles applications, en particulier relatives au contextes. Celles-ci nécessitent d'assurer la continuité des services et la détection de la position du terminal mobile. Nous proposons d'une part la géolocalisation des terminaux et, d'autre part, la prédiction de la mobilité.Les systèmes satellites ne fonctionnant pas à l'intérieur des bâtiments, nous basons ...

2009-01-01

226

Filtrage matriciel multicomposante et estimation de la polarisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ce papier présente une méthode de séparation des ondes polarisées reçus sur des réseaux de capteurs multicomposantes. Cette méthode est basée sur la diagonalisation d'une matrice spectrale large bande multicomposante assurant la prise en compte de toute l'information disponible. De plus, une méthode permettant l'analyse de la polarisation de ces ondes à partir de la matrice spectrale est aussi proposée. Enfin, les performances du filtrage sont testées sur des données synthétique...

2005-01-01

227

Parachute technique for partial penectomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V"...

2010-01-01

228

Outlier Detection: Applications And Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outliers once upon a time regarded as noisy data in statistics, has turned out to be an important problem which is being researched in diverse fields of research and application domains. Many outlier detection techniques have been developed specific to certain application domains, while some techniques are more generic. Some application domains are being researched in strict confidentiality such as research on crime and terrorist activities. The techniques and results of such techniques are n...

Karanjit Singh; Shuchita Upadhyaya

2012-01-01

229

L'addiction en milieu professionnel : quelles techniques de confirmation après l'immunoanalyse ? Workplace drug testing: which technique to use after immunoassay ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les analyses de confirmation concernant les conduites addictives en milieu professionnel sont pratiquées, soit en seconde intention après dépistage urinaire par immunoanalyse, ou d'emblée lorsqu'il n'existe pas d'immunoessal Pour les principales familles de stupéfiants (cannabis, opiacés, cocaïne, amphétamines, en cas de positivité lors du dépistage par immunoanalyse, la ou les substances dont la présence est suspectée lors de l'immunoessai doivent être formellement identifiées par Chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse. Cette analyse permet d'établir un profil d'exposition, et le plus souvent de conclure, soit à une conduite toxicophile, soit à une prise thérapeutique, soit à une interférence lors de l'immunoanalyse. Les méthodes dites de confirmation peuvent également être mises en oeuvre lorsque l'immunoanalyse est négative en raison d'une sensibilité insuffisante comme c'est le cas par exemple avec certaines benzodiazépines. Pour ces recherches, chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à une détection par barrette de diodes et chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à la spectrométrie de masse sont les techniques de choix. Enfin, en l'absence d'immunoessal disponible, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse permet de mettre en évidence un certain nombre de molécules parmi lesquelles on trouve des médicaments, ou des produits dopants comme les stéroïdes anabolisants. Enfin la chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à une détection par barrette de diodes peut-être mise en oeuvre pour d'autres médicaments appartenant à la classe des substances psychoactives. Professional workplace addiction testing is performed either to validate urine positive screening immunoassay or directly in the absence of immunoassay. As regards the main drugs of abuse (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines positive results must be confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Exposure, an addiction, or a therapeutic pattern, in most cases, may then be concluded. Confirmation techniques have also to be carried out, when immunoassay is not sensitive enough, ie. for some benzodiazepines. For these exposures, liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector or to a mass detector, are the optimal techniques. However, when immunoassay is not available, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is useful for many substances, as doping agent like anabolic steroids. Liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector is also the method of choice for most psychoactive drugs.

Goullé Jean-Pierre

2009-04-01

230

Survey of Nearest Neighbor Techniques  

CERN Multimedia

The nearest neighbor (NN) technique is very simple, highly efficient and effective in the field of pattern recognition, text categorization, object recognition etc. Its simplicity is its main advantage, but the disadvantages can't be ignored even. The memory requirement and computation complexity also matter. Many techniques are developed to overcome these limitations. NN techniques are broadly classified into structure less and structure based techniques. In this paper, we present the survey of such techniques. Weighted kNN, Model based kNN, Condensed NN, Reduced NN, Generalized NN are structure less techniques whereas k-d tree, ball tree, Principal Axis Tree, Nearest Feature Line, Tunable NN, Orthogonal Search Tree are structure based algorithms developed on the basis of kNN. The structure less method overcome memory limitation and structure based techniques reduce the computational complexity.

Bhatia, Nitin

2010-01-01

231

New techniques in quality assurance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GPU Nuclear Corp. has a multifaceted quality assurance (QA) program. This program includes a comprehensive QA organization to help ensure its implementation. The QA organization employs various techniques in assuring quality at GPU Nuclear. These techniques not only include the typical QA/quality-control verification activities, i.e., QA engineering, quality control, and audits, but also include some new innovative techniques. Several new techniques have been developed for verifying activities. These techniques include monitoring and functional audits of safety systems. Several new techniques for assessing performance and adequacy and effectiveness of plant and QA programs, such as plant assessments and QA systems engineering evaluations, have also been developed. This paper provides an overview of these and other new techniques being employed by GPU Nuclear's QA organization

1987-06-07

232

Hybrid coolers allow important water saving; Les refroidisseurs ''hybrides'' permettent des economies d'eau importantes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air cooling systems used with refrigerating machineries are in general highly water and electricity consuming. The use of 'hybrid' systems having the characteristics of both close-cycle evaporative systems and dry coolers allow important water saving. This article presents the operation principle and characteristics of such cooling systems. (J.S.)

Bitsch, V. [Societe Jaeggi-France (France)

2005-03-01

233

Traitement de 46 malades porteurs de stades IV ORL par radiochimiothérapie concomitante selon un protocole permettant une radiosensibilisation de toutes les séances  

Science.gov (United States)

An external beam therapy with two fractions a day giving 48Gy with 16fractions and 45days, initialy palliative, has been shown to be well adapted for a simultaneous radiosensitizing chemotherapy employment. Associated to a cisplatin, fluorouracyl, etoposide and hydrea based chemotherapy, it has been applyed to 46patients with inoperable stages IV ORL tumors including 91% T4, 9% T3, 48% N2N3, 72% performans status equal or less than2. With a 30months observation median delay a clinical complete response at 4months is observed in 93%, with further locoregional relapses in 38%. One year survival is 58%, 2years 40%, 3years 35%. These results are equal or better than those obtained with hyperfractionnated, accelerated, hyper-fractionnated and accelerated, and classical radiotherapy. Une radiothérapie bifractionnée donnant 48 Gy en 16 séances et 45 jours, initialement palliative, s'est révélée bien adaptée pour l'emploi simultané d'une chimiothérapie radiosensibilisante. Associée à une chimiothérapie à base de cisplatine, fluoro-uracile, etoposide et hydrea, elle a été appliquée à 46 malades porteurs de cancers ORL de stade IV inopérables comprenant 91 % de T4, 9 % de T3, 48 % de N2N3, 72 % de performans status égaux ou inférieurs à 2. Avec un délai médian d'observation de 30 mois on observe 93 % de réponses cliniques complètes à 4 mois avec 38 % de récidives locorégionales ultérieures. La survie est de 58 % à 1 an, 40 % à 2 ans et de 35 % à 3 ans. Ces résultats sont égaux ou supérieurs à ceux qui ont été obtenus avec des radiothérapies hyperfractionnées, accélérées, hyperfractionnées et accélérées, et classiques.

Baillet, F.; Dessard-Diana, B.; Diana, C.; Simon, J. M.; Mazeron, J. J.; Pierga, J. Y.; Dendale, R.

1998-04-01

234

Modélisation et conception d'outils robotises et de techniques de fraisage pour l'arthroplastie total du genou  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La chirurgie assistée par ordinateur a amené une valeur ajoutée significative aux interventions médicales, en fournissant des outils de mesures permettant au chirurgien de quantifier et contrôler leurs gestes. En orthopédie et notamment pour la pose de prothèse totale de genou (PTG), la chirurgie assistée par ordinateur a réduit de manière significative les variations d'alignement et de position, paramètres directement corrélés aux échecs précoces nécessitant une chirurgie de ...

Plaskos, Christopher

2005-01-01

235

Classroom Assessment Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Provost David L. Potter of George Mason University chaired a joint task force and presented a report entitled ``Powerful Partnerships : A Shared Responsibility for Learnin'' in June 1998. The main goal is to make a difference in the quality of student learning. Further, it is important to assess this difference and document it. Clifford O. Young, Sr., & Laura Howzell Young of California State University, San Bernardino argue that a new paradigm for assessment, a learning paradigm, must be constructed to measure the success of new kinds of educational practices. Using two survey instruments, the Instruction Model Learning Model Questionnaire (IMLMQ) and the Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness (SETE), they compared students' responses to the course when taught with traditional methods and with interactive methods. The results suggest that neither instrument effectively measures the kinds of learning promoted under the new paradigm. Linn, Baker, & Dunbar recommend that these newer assessment practices should be more authentic, that is, to involve students in the actual or simulated performance of a task or the documentation of the desired competency in a portfolio. Cerbin says that one of the most unfortunate consequences of a summative emphasis is that it inhibits open and productive discussions about teaching; in essence, it marginalizes the types of activity that could lead to better teaching (Cerbin, 1992). William Cerbin, who is the Director of the Center for Effective Teaching and learning, University Assessment Coordinator, and Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse is a recognized expert in the areas of cognition, language, and development. Edgerton, Hutchings, & Quinlan indicate that Teaching Portfolios may contain evidence of students' learning, but such information is optional, and when included, it may be only one of many pieces of material. Seldin, also supports this and stresses that the interplay between the instructor and the learner should be carefully observed and monitored. Forrest says that Student Portfolios, which document learning in more detail, seldom reveal how teaching contributes to students' progress. Cerbin further indicates that a course portfolio is essentially, a like a manuscript of scholarly work in progress. In this example, it is a work that explains what, how, and why students learn or do not learn in a course. In this paper, the author reports on a dozen techniques that could perhaps be used to document assessment of student learning. References : Cerbin, W. (1993). Fostering a culture of teaching as scholarship. The Teaching Professor, 7(3), 1-2. Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P., & Quinlan, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: Capturing the scholarship in teaching. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Forrest, A. (1990). Time will tell: Portfolio-assisted assessment of general education. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Linn, R., Baker, E., & Dunbar, S. (1991). Complex, Performance-based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Educational Researcher, 20 (8), 15-21. Narayanan, M. (2003). Assessment in Higher Education: Partnerships in Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio. Bolton, MA: Anker. Young, C. O., Sr., & Young, L. H. (1999). Assessing Learning in Interactive Courses. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10 (1), 63-76.

Narayanan, M.

2003-12-01

236

Electronic Payment Fraud Detection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the fraudulent transactions that occur in electronic payment systems. We evaluate various techniques that can be used in detecting fraudulent transactions of card-not-present payment systems. The presented evaluation based on the literature, and from our own studies for these techniques. It provides a basis for exploring the common ground between techniques and for analyzing experimental studies and scenarios in practice.

Adnan M. Al-Khatib

2012-06-01

237

Geolocation Techniques Principles and Applications  

CERN Document Server

Geolocation Techniques: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of geolocation technologies and techniques, from radio-frequency based to inertial based. The focus of this book is to provide an overview on the different types of infra-structure supported by most commercial localization systems as well as on the most popular computational techniques which these systems employ. This book can serve as a reference for scholarly activities such as teaching, self-learning, or research.

Gentile, Camillo; Raulefs, Ronald; Teolis, Carole

2013-01-01

238

Diagnostic techniques and defect classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses diagnostic techniques in superconducting cavities, concentrating on the development of the temperature mapping technique and defects. In the first part the dependence of the temperature mapping technique on different bath cooling conditions is discussed, moreover on the thermal conductivity of the cavity wall and the rf frequency. In the second part a systematic characterization of localized defects is given which cause quenching of superconducting niobium cavities. (BHO)

1984-11-01

239

Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

Tim Lajcik

2012-07-01

240

Visualization Techniques in Smart Grid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visualization is an established methodology in scientific computing. It has been used in many fields because of its strong capability in large data management and information display. However, its applications in power systems, especially in Smart Grid are still in infancy stage. Besides, while there were a lot of researches working on visualizing data in transmission power system, the study on displaying distribution power system data was limited. Therefore, in this paper, author proposed some techniques to visualize the Smart Grid data at distribution. They are classified in three categories, which are low dimensional techniques, multivariate high dimensional techniques and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.

Dao Viet Nga

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Préface  

Science.gov (United States)

L'École Thématique “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Désordonnés” [1] s'inscrit dans le cadre des écoles organisées sous l'impulsion de la Société Française de la Neutronique (SFN). Elle s'est deroulée en mai 2002 sur la Presqu'île de Giens (Var) en première partie des 11émes Journées de la Diffusion Neutronique. L'Édition de ces cours constitue ainsi le cinquième ouvrage introduisant les techniques neutroniques et leurs apports à differentes thématiques [2]. Le désordre est un facteur déterminant pour pratiquement toutes les propriétés des matériaux. Il est inhérent dans les matériaux amorphes ou liquides, mais il détermine également les propriétés mécaniques et électroniques d'autres composés d'importance technologique comme les matériaux métalliques, dont l'aspect “désordonné” est moins évident. Le désordre enfin joue un rôle essentiel dans tout ce que touche à la vie. En fait, il est difficile d'imaginer des systèmes, à part quelques exceptions rares comme l'hélium ou le silicium de haute pureté, où il n'y ait pas de désordre. En dehors de cet aspect pratique, la description scientifique du désordre atomique pose toujours des problèmes fondamentaux faute de concepts pertinents. Une des tâches importantes du scientifique ou de l'ingenieur est de préciser quel genre de désordre existe à une échelle d'espace et de temps donnée. Un materiau peut très bien être homogène à l'échelle atomique et présenter des défauts ou des hétrogéneité visibles à l'œil et inversement. De même, un système désordonné à un instant donné, peut apparaître ordonné si on moyenne dans le temps. Les techniques de diffusion des neutrons sont idéales pour aborder ces questions. Les neutrons sondent directement les noyaux et ont à la fois des longueurs d'ondes proches des distances inter atomiques et des énergies avoisinant celles des excitations élémentaires de la matière condensée. Ils permettent ainsi une observation directe et non-destructive des positions et des mouvements atomiques. La gamme des distances et des temps sondés par les neutrons autorisent aussi bien de suivre le mouvement des atomes à l'échelle inter atomique que l'évolution d'une structure soit mésoscopique soit macroscopique sur des temps de moins d'une picoseconde à plusieurs heures. La gamme des techniques de diffusion utilisées pour couvrir un tel champ d'application est naturellement très large : différents types de diffractomètres permettent des études de structure atomique trés pointue et résolue dans le temps. Les spectromètres nous donnent accès à la dynamique d'une dizaine de femto- à plusieurs nanosecondes. La diffusion aux petits angles, la reflectomètrie et finalement la tomographie nous permettent de regarder la structure et la dynamique d'objets plus grands. Il était illusoire de prétendre couvrir la totalité des systèmes désordonnés et l'ensemble des techniques de diffusion neutronique pertinentes au cours d'une école de 3 jours. Nous avons donc été amené à nous concentrer sur les liquides, les verres, les cristaux plastiques et les polymères. Ce choix s'est imposé par le souhait d'introduire les concepts de base, en acceptant de sacrifier certains domaines d'applications. Il va de soi que l'étude approfondie de systèmes mettant en jeu plusieurs échelles de distance (structure moléculaire, portée des corrélations entre les molécules) et de temps (relaxations caractéristiques des divers phenomènes dynamiques selon leur extension spatiale) implique une pluralité de techniques expérimentales, complémentaires des différentes techniques neutroniques disponibles. Un des objectifs de cette école etait donc de préciser les domaines de pertinence des différentes techniques neutroniques disponibles en en situant la complémentarité avec d'autres approches instrumentales (diffraction des rayons X, EXAFS, RMN, etc.). Enfin la confrontation avec les résultats obtenus par simulation et modélisation numérique est essentielle à la compré

Schober, Helmut; Fischer, Henry; Leclercq-Hugeux, Françoise

2003-09-01

242

Radiation measurements by optical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several new methods of radiation measurements are being developed using recent optical techniques such as optical sensors of PIN photo-diode and micro photo-multiplier, scintillating fiber optics and laser technology. Current status of new techniques are reviewed here including our results. (author)

1995-03-01

243

Multi Attribute Decision Making Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many times situation are arise where there aremany factors or parameters on which a decision is based.The problem becomes more complex with these multiparameters. In this paper we propose multi attribute decisionmaking techniques. The techniques will provide a solution tofind out the best alternative among the given attributes.Three methods for decision making are proposed in thispaper.

Manoj Sharma

2013-06-01

244

Mathematical techniques in nuclear medicine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many mathematical techniques are routinely employed for the analysis of nuclear data and images. This book examines the use of these techniques in areas such as image processing, quantitative measurements from gamma camera images, image subtraction and registration, SPECT filters, deconvolution of the renogram, parametric images, Fourier Analysis of dynamic studies, factor analysis and blood flow measurement in the limb. (UK).

Chandler, S.T.; Thomson, W.H. [eds.

1996-12-31

245

Élaboration d'une technique de tatouage vidéo basée sur la perturbation des vecteurs de mouvement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L'essor du multimédia et des supports numériques, qui permettent l'obtention d'une copie parfaite, conduise de plus en plus les fournisseurs de contenus à se poser le problème du piratage des données. La protection et le tatouage des media numériques sont rapidement devenus un axe majeur de recherche dans le domaine du traitement d'images. La problématique que nous posons dans cette thèse est de proposer une solution globale de protection des contenus vidéo. Pour ce faire, nous propo...

2004-01-01

246

Fault Diagnosis Using Adaptive Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, by use of adaptive technique, a new method for fault detection and isolation is investigated. In the proposed method, estimation of fault signal obtains that it provides significant information about fault characteristics including size and severity of the fault, which are essential for many applications. The proposed technique is examined on a model of an aircraft and reconstructed fault signal is obtained. The simulation results are compared with the results achieved by use of sliding mode technique. Simulation results and comparison illustrate the capability of the proposed method.

M. Siahi

2008-01-01

247

Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification  

CERN Multimedia

This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

Ray, Sandip

2010-01-01

248

Simulation techniques for applied dynamics  

CERN Multimedia

Presents advanced modelling and simulation techniques for the dynamical analysis of coupled engineering systems consisting of mechanical, electrical, hydraulic and biological components as well as control devices often based on computer hardware and software.

Maier, Giulio; Schneider, Wilhelm; Schrefler, Bernhard; Serafini, Paolo; Arnold, Martin

2009-01-01

249

Sample Selection by Durbin Technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

This computer system consists of two programs which stratify a universe and select two units from each stratum using the Durbin technique which is a sampling method developed by James Durbin (Estimation of Sampling Error in Multistage Surveys, 'Applied St...

1976-01-01

250

[Vaginal hysterectomy leniens: intrafascial technique].  

Science.gov (United States)

The appearance of a new intrafascial technique for vaginal hysterectomy serves to remind us that in spite of well-standardized techniques, gynecologists perform this less often than formerly. The described technique is an intrafascial variation of the extrafascial vaginal hysterectomy beginning at the fundus uteri. We mobilize the anterior vaginal wall using Strassmann's incision. The body of the uterus should be delivered through the anterior fornix. Then follows the ligation of the broad ligaments and careful dissection of the fibroareolar space of the posterior cervical wall. The cardinal ligament requires intrafascial clamping and ligation. This technique is simple and avoids injury to the ureters. If this operation is successfully performed, postoperative pain is minimal, and hospitalization could be greatly reduced. PMID:15459520

Tapia, Jorge E

2004-10-01

251

Radiotracer techniques in hydrological studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of radioactive tracers particularly short-lived radioisotopes frequently offers advantages over conventional methods of analyses. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. Essentially, radiotracer techniques offer a safe, cost effective and powerful tool in the assessment, management and protection of water resources. The Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria of late has been offering consultancy services to some industries in the area of radiotracer technique. The first nuclear reactor in Nigeria, the MNSR, is expected to be commissioned in the Centre very soon. Many short-lived radioisotopes such as Cu-64, Ga-72, Br-82, Hg-197 etc which are very important in hydrological studies can be produced by the MNSR facility. This article reports on the basic principles of the technique and its roles in hydrology

2000-07-17

252

Techniques for Microwave Dielectric Measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

To fulfill the need for accurate characterization of the properties of electromagnetic window materials at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, a number of different techniques have been applied in the development of facilities for dielectric measur...

D. R. Gagnon D. J. White G. E. Everett D. J. Banks

1986-01-01

253

Oxidative iodine monochloride iodination technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The iodine monochloride (ICl) technique is used to radiolabel proteins under mild experimental conditions. Proteins labeled by this technique have been shown to have both in vitro and in vivo characteristics often superior to those proteins labeled by the more frequently used chloramine-T method. Although first published more than two decades ago, use of the ICl technique has largely been superceded by other more recently developed iodination methods. This paper attempts to reintroduce the oxidative ICl method to the research community. This is accomplished by the presentation of a detailed protocol for a convenient modification of the original technique. A review of the qualities of the iodinated proteins produced by the ICl and other iodination methods is also discussed. (Auth.)

1980-12-12

254

Spectroscopic Techniques for Atmospheric Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several analytical and optical techniques for atmospheric analysis are discussed. Environmental constraints for real world applications are mentioned. Special emphasis is given to the cavity ring Down Spectroscopy as a very sensitive method for atmospheric trace gas detection is described.

2009-07-06

255

Status Report: Prospect Drilling Technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt is made to give a survey of the available drilling systems (processes and equipment), which are used in prospect drilling. Starting from the diamond core drilling technique system, the systems are described which can be distinguished according ...

J. Behrens C. Marx H. Schlueter

1981-01-01

256

Experimental techniques and measurement accuracies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief description of the experimental tools available for fusion neutronics experiments is given. Attention is paid to error estimates mainly for the measurement of tritium breeding ratio in simulated blankets using various techniques

1985-03-03

257

Environmental monitoring techniques for actinides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary aim of the environmental monitoring programme is to demonstrate compliance with the radiation exposure limits set by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board for the members of the public. This requires detailed measurements of radioactivity content in a number of environmental matrices, amongst many other measurements carried out in the environment. The radionuclides covered in the environmental monitoring include fission products, activation products and actinides. The talk is however restricted to environmental monitoring techniques for actinides. The talk covers the methodology and techniques to be adopted for evaluation of actinides especially plutonium in the various environmental samples like air, water, soil, vegetation and foodstuffs. The different measurement techniques that can be adopted are: gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorimetry, solid state nuclear track detectors, ICP-mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis and fission track analysis. The choice of a particular technique is dependent upon the type of the environmental matrices and the activity levels of the radionuclide present. (author)

2001-02-07

258

IC Self-Help Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

... using regular exercise to combat stress and relieve pain, IC patients suggest: Learning basic relaxation techniques. Using meditation tapes and/or visualization. Learning self-hypnosis. Receiving massages. Going to psychotherapy to learn coping ...

259

Survey on Spam Filtering Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the recent years spam became as a big problem of Internet and electronic communication. There developed a lot of techniques to fight them. In this paper the overview of existing e-mail spam filtering methods is given. The classification, evaluation, and comparison of traditional and learning-based methods are provided. Some personal anti-spam products are tested and compared. The statement for new approach in spam filtering technique is considered.

Saadat Nazirova

2011-01-01

260

Radar rainfall image repair techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality) on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are neare...

Wesson, Stephen M.; Pegram, Geoffrey G. S.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

LIMB LENGTHENING USING WAGNER'S TECHNIQUE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Limb length discrepancy is a disabling anomaly that has many causes including congential, traumatic and paralytic. This study was designed to evaluate results and complications of Wagner's technique in lower limb lenghtening. Methods. In this retrospective study results of the Wagner's technique in seventy paiteints during ten years were studied. Patients were followed for 1 to 9 years after operation with mean of 6 years. Results of operation, complications and paitients s...

Nazem Kh, A.; Zare Zadeh, A.; Mirbagheri, M.

2002-01-01

262

A compendium of modelling techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Integration Insight provides a brief overview of the most popular modelling techniques used to analyse complex real-world problems, as well as some less popular but highly relevant techniques. The modelling methods are divided into three categories, with each encompassing a number of methods, as follows: 1) Qualitative Aggregate Models (Soft Systems Methodology, Concept Maps and Mind Mapping, Scenario Planning, Causal (Loop) Diagrams), 2) Quantitative Aggregate Models (Function fitting a...

Badham, J.

2010-01-01

263

CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduc...

2008-01-01

264

Survey of semantic modeling techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

Smith, C.L.

1975-07-01

265

Image Watermarking Techniques - A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multimedia communication technology has developed very rapidly during the last few years. The main aim of the watermarking technique is to protect the confidentiality, integrity, availability and authenticity of information in communication from unauthorized access, reveal, disruption, change and copy. In watermarking the required information is inserted in multimedia data. This study analyzes watermarking techniques, various categories of watermarking and its requirements. This study mainly concentrates on two broad categories of Image watermarking.

S. Priya

2012-07-01

266

Coding techniques of particle simulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present chapter, coding techniques of PIC and Monte-Carlo simulation codes, especially parallelization and speed-up technique are discussed taking the analysis of MHD and transport phenomena in plasmas as examples. The point in the PIC method is hybrid parallelization in the particle decomposition and domain decomposition and the point in the Monte-Carlo method is parallelization of random number generation and reduction in the memory access time. (J.P.N.)

2013-04-01

267

Survey on Spam Filtering Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years spam became as a big problem of Internet and electronic communication. There developed a lot of techniques to fight them. In this paper the overview of existing e-mail spam filtering methods is given. The classification, evaluation, and comparison of traditional and learning-based methods are provided. Some personal anti-spam products are tested and compared. The statement for new approach in spam filtering technique is considered.

Saadat Nazirova

2011-08-01

268

AI Game-Playing Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In conjunction with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence's Hall of Champions exhibit, the Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence held a panel discussion entitled "AI Game-Playing Techniques: Are They Useful for Anything Other Than Games?" This article summarizes the panelists' comments about whether ideas and techniques from AI game playing are useful elsewhere and what kinds of game might be suitable as "challenge problems" for future research.

Nau, Dana S.

1999-01-01

269

Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sciences. This paper mainly discusses about the human face recognition with the help of different tactics and techniques like “Eigen faces for Recognition” and “Feature Based Recognition: Elastic Bunch Graph Matching”. The scanning technique such as 4-D laser scanning is still under discussion since for recognition technique it is necessary, The real world is CCTV technology and similarity between the human and computer recognition.This technology is outstanding in the capturing image of faces such as criminal investigation, terrorists identification, medical purposes like plastic surgery .It provides almost security and reliability compared to the other techniques. In future this technology will be the most convenient and secure technique. This will over through all the current security traits and become a efficient security measure

P.RAVI TEJA#1 , R.R.V.S.S.ABHISHEK *2 , P.RAM MANINTH

2013-04-01

270

Analytical applications of nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contributions from some of the world's leading nuclear analysts included in this book describe a variety of nuclear techniques and applications, such as those in the fields of environment and health, industrial processes, non-destructive testing, forensic and archaeological investigations and cosmochemistry, and in method validation. The descriptive articles demonstrate the advantages of nuclear techniques in, for example, analysing trace elements in submilligram samples in a single strand of hair or in kilogram samples of municipal waste. Halogenated organic compounds as well as major and trace inorganic constituents are analysed in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. Several different techniques are applied to investigate the authenticity of art objects and the origin of extraterrestrial material. Many applications of nuclear analytical techniques in industrial process control or in the production of high-tech materials are described, highlighting the socioeconomic benefit of these techniques in our daily lives. The book is intended to stimulate students, teachers and non-nuclear scientists to take the 'nuclear' option into consideration when deciding on a new field of study or an alternative analytical technique

2004-01-01

271

PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

Punia Supriya

2012-03-01

272

Théorie et instrumentation des techniques de LC-MS et LC-MS/MS applicables à la toxicologie LC-MS and LC-MS/MS theory and instruments applicable to toxicology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les principaux constituants d'un spectromètre de masse couplé à la chromatographic liquide (sources d'ionisation à pression atmosphérique, cellules de collision, filtres de masse et, pour chacun, les principales innovations des constructeurs, leurs avantages proclamés, leur intérêt et leurs applications potentielles en toxicologie. Sont également abordés les modes opératoires généralement utilisés pour les analyses qualitatives ou quantitatives en toxicologie, ainsi que les rares recommandations internationales concernant le nombre d'ions ou de transitions de masse à enregistrer et les variations acceptables de leurs intensités relatives, permettant de profiter réellement de la spécificité de la LC-MS et de la LC-MS/MS au cours d'analyses quantitatives. Il est rappelé à cette occasion que des analyses toxicologiques fiables reposent non seulement sur un matériel performant, mais aussi sur de bonnes pratiques techniques et des opérateurs compétents. This paper reviews the main parts of a mass spectrometer coupled to liquid chromatography (atmospheric pressure ionisation sources, collision cells, massfilters and, for each, the main manufacturers' innovations, their claimed advantages and their potential interest and applications in toxicology. The operating procedures mostfrequently used in toxicology for either qualitative or quantitative analysis aie also discussed, as well as the rare international recommendations about the number of ions or mass transitions to monitor and the acceptable variability of their relative intensity, in order to fully benefitfrom LC-MS or LC-MS/MS specificity during quantitative assays. On this occasion, it is reminded tliat reliable toxicology analyses not only rely on high-performance devices, but also on good technical practices and skilled operators.

Marquet Pierre

2008-02-01

273

Gas Well Testing Analysis Using Finite-Difference Models and Optimization Techniques Analyse d'essais de puits de gaz par des modèles utilisant la méthode des différences finies et par des techniques d'optimisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In reservoir engineering studies of gas fields, three important parameters are needed: the permeability-thickness product, the skin factor, and the inertial-turbulent factor. Several methods have been proposed to determine these parameters from gas well tests. The most powerful one is the pseudo-steady state analysis, where a linear dependence on a semilogarithmic plot is found between the real gas pseudo-pressure and time. Another one is the type-curve matching. Both have drawbacks because they can be rigorously applied only to specific cases. An automated type-curve match, which provides a general method to analyze well test data, is presented in this paper. It is based on the adjustment of a numerical model to gas well test data, by means of optimization techniques. The numerical model is the solution of the second order strongly non-linear partial differential equation which rules the radial flow of real gases towards a well. The differential equation is solved by finite-differences, taking into account the variation of gas properties with pressure. In order to simulate any gas well test, appropriate initial and boundary conditions are imposed. The least squares method is used to minimize residual differences between actual pressures measured during test and computed pressures. Two optimization techniques are applied to obtain the best estimate of parameters that minimize the sum of the square of the residuals: the univariate method of Fibonacci [1] and the multivariate method of Marquardt [1, 2]. This procedure is applied to a single-rate and a two-rate drawdown test. Numerical results showed excellent agreement with well test data. Les études de gisements de gaz rendent indispensables la connaissance de trois paramètres importants : la capacité de flux (produit de la perméabilité par l'épaisseur de la couche productrice, l'effet de peau et le facteur d'inertie et de turbulence. On connaît plusieurs méthodes pour déterminer ces paramètres à partir d'essais de puits de gaz. Une des plus performantes est l'analyse du régime pseudo-permanent pour lequel on trouve, sur un graphique semi-logarithmique, une relation linéaire entre la pseudo-pression d'un gaz réel et le temps. Une autre méthode est l'ajustement à des courbes types. Les deux méthodes présentent l'inconvénient de ne pouvoir être rigoureusement appliquées qu'à des cas spécifiques. Cet article expose une méthode générale permettant d'analyser les données des essais de puits par ajustement automatisé des courbes types. Elle est basée sur le meilleur accord d'un modèle numérique avec les données obtenues dans les essais de puits de gaz grâce à des techniques d'optimisation. Le modèle numérique fournit la solution d'une équation différentielle à dérivées partielles du 2e ordre et fortement non linéaire qui régit le flux radial des gaz réels vers un puits de production. L'équation différentielle est résolue par la méthode des différences finies en tenant compte des variations des propriétés des gaz avec la pression. Pour simuler n'importe quel type d'essais de puits de gaz, on impose des conditions initiales et aux limites appropriées. On minimise les différences résiduelles entre les pressions réelles mesurées pendant l'essai et les pressions calculées par la méthode des moindres carrés. On utilise deux techniques d'optimisation pour obtenir la meilleure estimation des paramètres qui minimisent la somme des carrés des résidus : la méthode monovariante de Fibonacci [1] et la méthode polyvariante de Marquardt [1, 2]. On applique ce mode opératoire à des essais de puits menés à un débit constant et à deux débits constants. Les résultats numériques concordent très bien avec les données des essais de puits.

Darderes E. A.

2006-11-01

274

Adaptation des techniques de forage à la recherche et à l'équipement des stockages souterrains de gaz naturel Adapting Drilling Techniques to the Search for and Equipment of Underground Natural-Gas Storage Facilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pour répondre à la modulation annuelle de la consommation de gaz, le Gaz de France a décidé, il y a une trentaine d'années, de stocker du gaz, soit dans des nappes aquifères, soit dans des cavités salines. La recherche de structures géologiques aptes à recevoir ce gaz, la réalisation et l'équipement de puits d'exploration ou d'exploitation, l'entretien de ces puits et le contrôle des stockages ont été confiés au Département réservoirs souterrains de la Direction des études et techniques nouvelles. Les phases d'exploration et de développement d'un stockage souterrain nécessitent le forage de puits du type pétrolier. Ces sondages permettent, d'une part la récupération d'un maximum de renseignements concernant les différentes couches géologiques traversées et l'évaluation de leur aptitude à stocker le gaz, et d'autre part, d'assurer une exploitation optimale et fiable du stockage dans les meilleures conditions de sécurité. La pratique acquise dans l'exécution de ces forages par le Gaz de France lui a permis d'adapter aux stockages souterrains de nombreuses techniques des forages pétroliers. Parallèlement des procédés originaux ont pu être mis au point pour répondre à certaines exigences particulières du forage des puits de réservoirs souterrains, notamment à celles concernant le bon calibrage du trou foré ou la qualité des cimentations des cuvelages. L'article présente l'ensemble de ces adaptationset pratiques originales; bien que ne prétendant rien d'autre qu'apporter une contribution au chapitre problèmes particuliers des forages pour stockages souterrains de la technique pétrolière, certaines de celles-ci devraient pouvoir, en retour, trouver des applications intéressantes dans les forages pétroliers de moyenne profondeur. About 30 years ago and with a view to keep pace with the annual variation of gas consumption, Gaz de France decided to store gas in either aquifer layers or salt cavities. The search for geological structures suitable for holding this gas, the drilling and equipment of exploration or production wells, their maintenance and the controlling of such storage facilities were entrusted to the Underground Reservoirs Department of the Service for Research and New Technologies. The exploration and development phases of an underground storage facility require the drilling of petroleum-type wells. Such boreholes are used to recover the maximum amount of information concerning the different geological layers crossed and to assess their suitability for storing gas. At the same time, they must be capable of ensuring the optimal and reliable exploitation of the storage facilities under the best possible safety conditions. The practical drilling experience acquired by Gaz de France enabled it to adapt many petroleum drilling techniques to underground storage facilities. At the same time, original procedures were developed to cope with various specific requirements inherent to drilling wells into underground reservoirs, particularly requirements concerning the proper sizing of boreholes and casing cementation quality. This article describes all these adaptations and original developments. Primarily a contribution to the field of Specific Problems in Boreholes for Underground Storage Facilitiesamong petroleum technologies, some of these developments should in turn result in interesting applications in medium-depth oil and gas wells.

Grandin J.

2006-11-01

275

MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

Predrag Spiri?

2010-12-01

276

Landing techniques in beach volleyball.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (?(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

2013-01-01

277

New impetus for radionuclide techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide techniques, whose application has been known for decades, are still being utilized rather more in research than in practical engineering. Despite a great variety of methods for measurement, examination and analysis developed and tested in recent decades, and despite early recognition of the practical value of these techniques, industrial application in particular has never flourished beyond the areas considered to have been developed already twenty years ago. In many fields the broad application of radionuclide techniques never came true because the problems involved in converting these methods into practical application were not realized. This is true in particular of the need to adapt the measuring technique to practical requirements, which necessity has never been recognized in the usual approaches of application oriented research. For this reason, government institutions and private industries active in the field of radiological techniques in the Federal Republic have joined forces in an association in order to ensure the transfer of know-how to practical application by adopting the style and employing the methods of industry. (orig.)

1979-01-01

278

Review of uranium bioassay techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, {alpha}-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: {alpha}-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided.

Bogard, J.S.

1996-04-01

279

Mutation techniques in plant breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in the use of mutation techniques for generating and selecting desired genetic variation in crop and model plant species has significantly increased over the past decade. This was mainly due to: (1) successful application of in vivo mutation techniques in the breeding of new, improved crop varieties; (2) new opportunities for induced mutation using in vitro techniques for improving vegetatively propagated crops; (3) emerging possibilities for applying in vitro selection of mutagenized cells and tissues; (4) increasing application of doubled haploids (DHs) for the rapid selection and shortening of the breeding cycle of improved varieties from desired mutants, and for the development of F1 performing DH lines from heterotic hybrids; (5) advancement of rapid, often non-destructive, mass screening methods; (6) enhanced demand for morphological, developmental and biochemical mutants of various species for studies on the molecular genetics of plant differentiation and development or on plant physiology; (7) wider availability of gene transformation technology that allows the transfer of desired mutated genes from model or other plant species to the desired crop plant (shuttle mutagenesis); and (8) application of mutation techniques for generating DNA polymorphism and for mapping particular genes. An overview of the results of applying mutation techniques for crop improvement is given. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

1995-11-01

280

LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (?²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

Markus Tilp

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Review of uranium bioassay techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, ?-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: ?-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided

1996-01-01

282

New techniques in neutron scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New neutron sources being planned, such as the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) or the European Spallation Source (ESS), will provide an order of magnitude flux increase over what is available today, but neutron scattering will still remain a signal-limited technique. At the same time, the development of new materials, such as polymer and ceramic composites or a variety of complex fluids, will increasingly require neutron-based research. This paper will discuss some of the new techniques which will allow us to make better use of the available neutrons, either through improved instrumentation or through sample manipulation. Discussion will center primarily on unpolarized neutron techniques since polarized neutrons will be the subject of the next paper. (author)

1993-11-01

283

The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Projections of charged particle beam current density (profiles) are frequently used as a measure of beam position and size. In conventional practice only two projections, usually horizontal and vertical, are measured. This puts a severe limit on the detail of information that can be achieved. A third projection provides a significant improvement. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) uses three or more projections to reconstruct 3-dimensional density profiles. At the 200 MeV H-linac, we have used this technique to measure beam density, and it has proved very helpful, especially in helping determine if there is any coupling present in x-y phase space. We will present examples of measurements of current densities using this technique.

Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.; Kponou, A.

1997-07-01

284

The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Projections of charged particle beam current density (profiles) are frequently used as a measure of beam position and size. In conventional practice only two projections, usually horizontal and vertical, are measured. This puts a severe limit on the detail of information that can be achieved. A third projection provides a significant improvement. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) uses three or more projections to reconstruct 3-dimensional density profiles. At the 200 MeV H-linac, we have used this technique to measure beam density, and it has proved very helpful, especially in helping determine if there is any coupling present in x-y phase space. We will present examples of measurements of current densities using this technique

1997-05-12

285

Evaluation of standard watermarking techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decade digital watermarking techniques have been devised to answer the ever-growing need to protect the intellectual property of digital still images, video sequences or audio from piracy attacks. Because of the proliferation of watermarking algorithms and their applications some benchmarks have been created in order to help watermarkers comparing their algorithms in terms of robustness against various attacks (i.e. Stirmark, Checkmark). However, no equal attention has been devoted to the proposition of benchmarks tailored to assess the watermark perceptual transparency. In this work, we study several watermarking techniques in terms of the mark invisibility through subjective experiments. Moreover, we test the ability of several objective metrics, used in the literature mainly to evaluate distortions due to the coding process, to be correlated with subjective scores. The conclusions drawn in the paper are supported by extensive experimentations using both several watermarking techniques and objective metrics.

Marini, Enrico; Autrusseau, Florent; Le Callet, Patrick; Campisi, Patrizio

2007-02-01

286

Measurement technique of radwaste content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-destructive assay is effective for management and disposal of transuranium (TRU)-contaminated wastes. Several measurement techniques have been developed such as: (a) Passive ?-ray technique; TRU nuclides emit specific ?-ray. TRU content could be analyzed by ?-ray energy spectroscopy. (b) Passive neutron technique; Alpha-particle emitted from TRU reacts with light elements and generates neutron. Some TRU also generate spontaneous fission neutrons. TRU content could be evaluated by the neutron counting. (c) Active neutron technique; Some TRU are fissionable and generate fission neutrons when exposed to an external neutron source. The TRU content could be evaluated by the fission neutron counting. An active neutron technique which is expected to be highly responsive has been tested in Mitsubishi to measure the TRU content in 200-liter waste drum. The apparatus consists of graphite assay chamber, pulsed-neutron generator, He-3 neutron counters and data acquisition system. The drum is irradiated by periodical neutron burst. The fast neutrons generated from the TRU are counted during the bursts. The counts would be proportional to the TRU content. The results for various waste drums show marked dependency of neutron response on the composition of the waste matrices. The detectable limit is about 2 mg of the fissile TRU for low density matrix and about 20 mg for high density matrix. The limit could be improved by increasing the counters and attainable to about 10 mg of the fissile TRU for high density matrix. However, the active neutron technique is applicable only to fissile TRU and is affected also by the waste matrices. Total TRU content could be evaluated by a combination of informations on TRU isotopic composition and waste matrix properties. (author)

1994-02-02

287

Reactor vital equipment determination techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Reactor Vital Equipment Determination Techniques program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is discussed. The purpose of the program is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with technical support in identifying vital areas at nuclear power plants using a fault-tree technique. A reexamination of some system modeling assumptions is being performed for the Vital Area Analysis Program. A short description of the vital area analysis and supporting research on modeling assumptions is presented. Perceptions of program modifications based on the research are outlined, and the status of high-priority research topics is discussed.

Bott, T.F.; Thomas, W.S.

1983-01-01

288

Reactor vital equipment determination techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Vital Equipment Determination Techniques program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is discussed. The purpose of the program is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with technical support in identifying vital areas at nuclear power plants using a fault-tree technique. A reexamination of some system modeling assumptions is being performed for the Vital Area Analysis Program. A short description of the vital area analysis and supporting research on modeling assumptions is presented. Perceptions of program modifications based on the research are outlined, and the status of high-priority research topics is discussed

1983-10-14

289

Pinch technique: Theory and applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We review the theoretical foundations and the most important physical applications of the Pinch Technique (PT). This general method allows the construction of off-shell Green’s functions in non-Abelian gauge theories that are independent of the gauge-fixing parameter and satisfy ghost-free Ward identities. We first present the diagrammatic formulation of the technique in QCD, deriving, at one loop, the gauge independent gluon self-energy, quark–gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex, togeth...

Papavassiliou, Joannis; Binosi, D.

2009-01-01

290

CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

A. Cacciamano

2008-08-01

291

[Relaxation techniques for chronic pain].  

Science.gov (United States)

Relaxation techniques are an integral part of the psychological therapy of chronic pain and follow very different objectives. These techniques lead to muscular and vegetative stabilization, serve as distraction from pain, to build up the internal focus of control and thus to improve self-efficacy. Additional targets are improvement of body awareness and stress management, shielding from sensory stimuli and recurrence prevention of migraine as well a sleeping aid. The most commonly used and best studied method is progressive muscle relaxation which has a good compliance because it is easy to learn and has a high plausibility for patients. PMID:21818724

Diezemann, A

2011-08-01

292

Computational Techniques in Manufacturing Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manufacturing processes are complex and therefore difficult to plan by software. The present state in computational techniques in manufacturing technology as well as software applications at the Department of Manufacturing Technology of CTU in Prague are discussed in this article. Computational techniques may help to solve many manufacturing problems as such programs in the field of process planning have been developed. However, due to the complexity of manufacturing processes, complete planning of a manufacturing process by software is not possible at present.

J. Mádl

2000-01-01

293

[Laparoscopic suture and knot techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

Laparoscopic suture and knot techniques are not yet considered standard laparoscopic procedures. In conventional surgery, it would be unthinkable that a procedure would be attempted without a good working knowledge of suture and knot techniques. In laparoscopic operations, limited mobility, the lever arm through the instruments and especially the conversion of 2D vision to 3D actions and the lack of a direct tactile sense all have limiting effect. The needle holders available leave room for improvement. The initially protracted operating times become shorter with training and a period of adjustment. PMID:8050302

Pier, A; Thevissen, P; Eikel, M; Götz, F

1994-05-01

294

Molten salt techniques. Volume 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This collection of five papers on molten salts deals with the following specific topics: the actinides and their salts, including their availability along with techniques and equipment for their handling, preparation, purification, and physical property measurement; cryolite systems and methods for their handling, preparation, and thermodynamic and physicochemical property assessment, as well as the use of electrodes in molten cryolite; the theory, construction, and application of reference electrodes for molten salt electrolytes; neutron diffraction in molten salt systems including isotope exchange methods for sample preparation; and dry boxes and inert atmosphere techniques for molten salt handling and analysis

1987-01-01

295

Clustering Techniques for Marbles Classification  

CERN Multimedia

Automatic marbles classification based on their visual appearance is an important industrial issue. However, there is no definitive solution to the problem mainly due to the presence of randomly distributed high number of different colours and its subjective evaluation by the human expert. In this paper we present a study of segmentation techniques, we evaluate they overall performance using a training set and standard quality measures and finally we apply different clustering techniques to automatically classify the marbles. KEYWORDS: Segmentation, Clustering, Quadtrees, Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), Simulated Annealing (SA).

Caldas-Pinto, J R; Ramos, V; Ramalho, M; Pina, Pedro; Ramos, Vitorino; Ramalho, Mario

2004-01-01

296

Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

1993-01-01

297

Inverse design technique for cascades  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical technique to generate cascades is presented. The basic prescribed parameters are: inlet angle, exit pressure, and distribution of blade thickness and lift along a blade. Other sets of parameters are also discussed. The technique is based on the lambda scheme. The problem of stability of the computation as a function of the prescribed set of parameters and the treatment of boundary conditions is discussed. A one dimensional analysis to indicate a possible way for assuring stability for any two dimensional calculation is provided.

Zannetti, L.; Pandolfi, M.

1984-01-01

298

Raisonnement géométrique et méthodes de décision en robotique : application à la programmation automatique des robots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Présentation des 2 catégories de techniques permettant de faire évoluer un robot. Description de la programmation des robots (grâce à des outils de programmation et simulation graphique) et de la programmation automatique en utilisant la modélisation géométrique

1987-01-01

299

Surface-Moisture Monitoring Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Technique monitors drying of continuous sheets of thin material. Ribbon sensing element samples moisture content of web material during each rotation of roller. Change in resistivity of thermally and electrically conductive ribbon is parameter used to measure web moisture; measurements insensitive to ribbon contact pressure. Application in industrial production of sheet materials such as paper and fabric.

Yang, L. C.

1984-01-01

300

Bipulsating Technique for Silicon Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Method controls reaction temperature and rate of reaction of sodium and silicon tetrafluoride by alternately adding measured amounts of reactants. Technique used in large reactor, where heat dissipation becomes serious problem, to control reactor temperatures. Highly efficient method, which would utilize almost 100 percent of raw materials.

Sanjurjo, A.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

1995-02-22

302

Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain.

Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group

1995-03-01

303

Biomedical engineering and rehabilitation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors outline the programmes set up by the ORIS for the development of biomaterials and rehabilitation products using the radiochemical techniques. They then discuss the development of instruments designed to make the handling and use of radioactive isotopes easier for users

1982-01-01

304

Evaluation of a Dereverberation Technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-microphone dereverberation technique was evaluated by obtaining speech recognition measures and preference judgments from 10 normal-hearing adults and 7 older adult hearing-impaired listeners. Both groups had higher scores at the shorter reverberation time than at the longer reverberation time. Hearing-impaired subjects performed significantly…

Neuman, Arlene C.; Eisenberg, Laurie

1991-01-01

305

Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

2012-01-01

306

Colonoscopic polypectomy and associated techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polypectomy of colonic polyps has been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer development and is considered a fundamental skill for all endoscopists who perform colonoscopy. A variety of polypectomy techniques and devices are available, and their use can vary greatly based on local availability and preferences. In general, cold forceps and cold snare have been the polypectomy methods of choice for smaller polyps, and hot snare has been the method of choice for larger polyps. The use of hot forceps has mostly fallen out of favor. Polypectomy for difficult to remove polyps may require the use of special devices and advanced techniques and has continued to evolve. As a result, the vast majority of polyps today can be removed endoscopically. Since electrocautery is frequently used for polypectomy, endoscopists should be thoroughly familiar with the basic principles of electrosurgery as it pertains to polypectomy. Tattooing of a polypectomy site is an important adjunct to polypectomy and can greatly facilitate future surgery or endoscopic surveillance. The two most common post-polypectomy complications are bleeding and perforation. Their incidence can be decreased with the use of meticulous polypectomy techniques and the application of some prophylactic maneuvers. This review will examine the technique of polypectomy and its complications from the perspective of the practicing gastroenterologist.

Christopher J Fyock, Peter V Draganov

2010-08-01

307

ELONGATION CUTOFF TECHNIQUE: PARALLEL PERFORMANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the elongation cutoff technique (ECT substantially speeds up thequantum-chemical calculation at Hartree-Fock (HF level of theory and is especially wellsuited for parallel performance. A comparison of ECT timings for water chains with thereference HF calculations is given. The analysis includes the overall CPU (central processingunit time and its most time consuming steps.

Jacek Korchowiec

2008-01-01

308

Advances phase-lock techniques  

CERN Document Server

From cellphones to micrprocessors, to GPS navigation, phase-lock techniques are utilized in most all modern electronic devices. This high-level book takes a systems-level perspective, rather than circuit-level, which differentiates it from other books in the field.

Crawford, James A

2008-01-01

309

Cardiomyopathies: evaluation with radionuclide techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this review, attention is focused on the value of radionuclide techniques for the detection of cardiomyopathies, in particular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Before entering these issues, the currently available cardiovascular nuclear medicine procedures are discussed. Broadly speaking, they fall into two major categories: those concerned with the heart as a muscle and those concerned with the heart as a pump. (Auth.)

1984-07-06

310

A measurement technique for hydroxyacetone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C{double{underscore}bond}CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NOx. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water, the authors developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one they reported earlier, namely, derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, they adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island, New York. The authors report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

Klotz, P.J.

1999-10-04

311

Image Denoising Techniques Preserving Edges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work is to propose an image denoising technique and compare it with image denoising using ridgelets. The proposed method uses slantlet transform instead of wavelets in ridgelet transform. Experimental result shows that the proposed method is more effective than ridgelets in noise removal. The proposed method is effective in compressing images while preserving edges.

N Radhika, Dr; Antony, Tinu

2011-01-01

312

BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

2001-09-12

313

Simplified technique for selectron dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dosimetry in brachytherapy applications using Selectron remote after loading unit requires techniques which help in planning the treatment. A simple method given here will prove useful for this purpose and also help the physicists in verification of these plans. (author). 2 refs

1992-01-01

314

Measurements Techniques for Gyrotron characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments planned for the characterization of the 35GHz girotron, which is being built at the Plasma Laboratory of INPE, are described. The methods of the measurements are presented and the required instrumentation and devices are specified. Special attention is given to the measurement techniques of the resonator electric field profile. (author)

1987-01-01

315

Functional Techniques in Classical Mechanics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1931 Koopman and von Neumann extended previous work of Liouville and provided an operatorial version of Classical Mechanics (CM). In this talk we will review a path-integral formulation of this operatorial version of CM. In particular we will study the geometrical nature of the many auxiliary variables present and of the unexpected universal symmetries generated by the functional technique.

Gozzi, E.

2001-01-01

316

Laparoscopic Extravesical Ureteral Reimplantation: Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation in children is currently a technically demanding procedure with sparse literature to aid in mastering the learning curve. We present our most recent technique and lessons learned after 20 cases in children 4–15 years of age. The literature is also reviewed to encapsulate the current state-of-the-art.

John-Paul Capolicchio

2008-08-01

317

Advances of the IBIC technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique has been used for a wide variety of analytical applications in the study of semiconductor materials. This paper briefly reviews these uses and identifies those areas which require further development in order to facilitate the more widespread use of the IBIC method. Progress towards implementing these improvements is discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig

1993-11-17

318

Laparoscopic Extravesical Ureteral Reimplantation: Technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation in children is currently a technically demanding procedure with sparse literature to aid in mastering the learning curve. We present our most recent technique and lessons learned after 20 cases in children 4–15 years of age. The literature is also reviewed to encapsulate the current state-of-the-art.

John-Paul Capolicchio

2008-01-01

319

Laparoscopic Extravesical Ureteral Reimplantation: Technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation in children is currently a technically demanding procedure with sparse literature to aid in mastering the learning curve. We present our most recent technique and lessons learned after 20 cases in children 4–15 years of age. The literature is also reviewed to encapsulate the current state-of-the-art.

Capolicchio, John-paul

2008-01-01

320

Cell Formation Techniques – A Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cellular manufacturing system has been proved a vital approach for batch and job shop production systems. Group technology has been an essential tool for developing a cellular manufacturing system. Thepaper aims to discuss various cell formation techniques and highlights the significant research work done in past over the years and attempts to points out the gap in research of past studies.

Pawan Kumar Arora,

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Compilation Techniques for Reconfigurable Architectures  

CERN Document Server

Describes a wide range of code transformations and mapping techniques for compiling programs written in high-level programming languages to reconfigurable architectures. This book provides a structure for practitioners and graduate students in the area of computer science and electrical engineering to map computations to those architectures.

Cardoso, Joao MP

2008-01-01

322

Holographic techniques in stereo radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some methods for stereo-radiography based on holographic technique are described. A new method has been proposed in which the wavefront reconstruction process is involved. It appears that this method could be used for the useful clinical radio-diagnostic purposes. (author)

1980-12-01

323

New improvements in shearography techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shearography is a non-contact full field technique used in the assessment of spatial gradient of displacements through a preset direction, Hung and Taylor [1]. The optical set-up can be based on a Michelson interferometer scheme, for static or quasi-static measurements, and on the Mach-

Lopes, H.; Vaz, M. A. P.; Guedes, R. M.; Gomes, J. F. S.

2007-01-01

324

Novel medical technique: antiprotonic imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors illustrate how a beam of antiprotons can be used to make density measurements in biological and other similar materials by measuring the energy loss per unit length, dE/dx, for stopping antiprotons. These measurements are displayed using computer graphic techniques to produce high resolution images comparable to those produced by state of the art X-ray computer assisted tomography, (CAT). Unlike computer assisted tomographic methods, antiproton imaging directly measures dE/dx at any point in the medium, and requires no reconstruction algorithms. Monte Carlo techniques have been used to explore the quality of antiprotonic imaging. The images produced by this method are presented, discussed and compared to X-ray CAT scans. Theoretically there are no limits to the resolution of antiprotonic imaging, but the technique is limited by radiation dosage and data processing. The authors estimate that, in general, one would be able to obtain images from their antiprotonic technique of comparable quality to CAT images, with a substantial reduction in the dose delivered to the patient

1986-01-01

325

Process analysis with nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental determination of response characteristics of individual devices and complete production plants with the aid of nuclear techniques under different working conditions is discussed. The main principles of the processing of experimental data are described and examples obtained from the glass, chemical and pulp industry and a sewage treatment plant are presented. (author)

1983-11-01

326

Accelerator techniques in nuclear sciences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the important applications of the accelerator techniques for basic and applied sciences are discussed in this paper. It is also planned to discuss, very briefly, some of the research programs being pursued by the Trombay groups using heavy ion beams from the 14 UD pelletron accelerator at Mumbai and other heavy-ion accelerators. (author)

2001-02-07

327

DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

. Ramageri

2010-12-01

328

Technique for adaptive data analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An adaptive technique is presented for analyzing time-ordered data sequences where calibrations change systematically during data collection. Running averages of selected data items are maintained during analysis, and are used to modify calibration constants. Results can thus be compensated for drifts and for step-function changes. A learning process is used to establish initial values of running averages. 4 figures

1978-01-01

329

Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

1980-01-01

330

Mesure d'un effet de lentille de population dans un cristal de Cr3+:LiSAF par la technique du Z-scan  

Science.gov (United States)

Nous avons réalisé une expérience permettant de mesurer la variation de la polarisabilité des ions Cr3+ dans le LiSAF lorsqu'ils passent de l'état fondamental 4A{2} à l'état excité 4T{2}. Cette variation de polarisabilité est à l'origine d'un effet de lentille de population non-linéaire dépendant du temps.

Passilly, N.; Haouas, E.; Ménard, V.; Moncorgé, R.; Aït-Ameur, K.

2006-10-01

331

Rutas de navegación empleadas por los usuarios para acceder a los contenidos disponibles en el sitio web de Infomed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partir de los datos aportados por Webalizer, un software para el procesamiento de los ficheros logs del servidor, se identificaron las rutas utilizadas por los usuarios para navegar en las estructuras jerárquicas del sitio web de Infomed y se realizó su diagramación, sin embargo, se detectó un grupo de URLs, que si bien poseían un alto número de accesos, no era posible relacionarlos mediante sus enlaces con otros URLs del mismo sitio. Con la hipótesis de que estos se accedían desde enlaces externos, que apuntan a determinados URLs del sitio de Infomed, incluidos los motores de búsquedas, se procesaron los ficheros logs del servidor web, en los cuales es posible identificar los sitios desde donde se accedían a los URLs que no mostraban acceso por ninguna de las estructuras jerárquicas del sitio web. Finalmente, se reelaboró el diagrama donde es posible apreciar 3 rutas de navegación en el sitio: una, que corresponde con la estructura jerárquica del sitio, otra donde los accesos se realizan mediante enlaces externos, y una tercera, relacionada con los accesos a partir de los motores de búsqueda. El análisis de ese diagrama permitió conocer las rutas de navegación que siguen los usuarios para acceder a los contenidos y servicios, cuáles de estas son las más utilizadas en los diversos niveles que integran la estructura jerárquica del sitio, entre otros resultados, lo cual argumenta que los estudios estadísticos de la navegación ofrecen indiscutibles ventajas al personal responsable de la administración y el desarrollo de los sitios.Starting from the contribution made by Webalizer, a software for processing log files from the server, the routes used by users to sail in the hierarchical structures of Infomed website were identified and diagraming was carried out. Nevertheless a group of URL with a higth number of accesses was noticed but was imposible to relate them using their links with other URL of the same site. Having the hypothesis that they were accessed from external links that pointed out to determined URL from Infomed website, including search engines, the log files from web server were processed, in which is possible the identification of the sites that made possible the access to the URL that did not show access by any hierarchical structure of the website. Finally a diagram showing the three routes of navigation in the site was devised: one that corresponds with the hierarchical structure of the site, another where the access is fulfilled by means of external links, and third related to the access from search engines. The diagram analysis showed the routes of navigation followed by the users to access contents and services, which are the most frequently used in the levels that integrate the hierarchical structure of the site among other results which argues that estatistical studies of navigation offer evident advantages to the personal responsible for the administration and development of the sites.

Adrián Coutin Domínguez

2003-10-01

332

Available financing systems for gas, electric and gas oil installations; Les financements disponibles pour les installations gaz, electricite et fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In collaboration with financing organisms, the French energy suppliers like Gaz de France (GdF), Electricite de France (EdF) and Chaleur Fioul association propose some financing offers to encourage the use of natural gas, electricity and gas oil in existing and new dwellings. These loans can be cumulated with public aids for the improvement of the existing accommodations. This article completes a first article published in CFP no 659 and devoted to the financial aid systems for the improvement of existing dwellings. (J.S.)

Anon.

2003-10-01

333

Selección de recursos de información disponibles en el Web invisible / Selection of the information resources available in the invisible Web  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de desarrollar una herramienta de referencia útil para la búsqueda de información en la llamada Internet invisible, es decir, en aquel conjunto de información accesible por medio de Internet y que, por diversas razones, no se procesa por los motores de búsqueda, con especial atención [...] a las fuentes de información sobre ciencia y tecnología, y a partir de criterios como accesibilidad, utilidad, usabilidad, número de bases de datos a que ofrece acceso y calidad, se creó una colección actualizada de recursos útiles para dicho fin. Dicha selección abarca información volátil, dinámica, en formatos especiales y recursos que sólo son accesibles mediante una pasarela a una base de datos. Comprende recursos como: directorios de bibliotecas, catálogos colectivos, libros y bases de datos bibliográficas, directorios, literatura gris y fuentes multidisciplinares, archivos y depósitos de documentos, así como los denominados multibuscadores. Abstract in english In order to develop a useful reference tool to search information in what is known as the invisible Internet , that is, that set of information accessible through Internet which, by diverse reasons, is not processed by the search engines, with special attention to the sources of information on scien [...] ce and technology, and based on such criteria as accessibility, usefulness, usability, number of databases to which it offers access and quality, an useful and up-to-date collection of resources was created. Such selection covers volatile and dynamic information in special formats and resources only accessible by a gateway to a database. It includes resources such as: library directories, collective catalogues, books and bibliographical databases, directories, gray literature and multidisciplinary sources, files and deposits of documents, as well as the so-called multisearchers.

José Martín, Brocos Fernández; Carolina, Salinas Pardo.

334

Selección de recursos de información disponibles en el Web invisible Selection of the information resources available in the invisible Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el objetivo de desarrollar una herramienta de referencia útil para la búsqueda de información en la llamada Internet invisible, es decir, en aquel conjunto de información accesible por medio de Internet y que, por diversas razones, no se procesa por los motores de búsqueda, con especial atención a las fuentes de información sobre ciencia y tecnología, y a partir de criterios como accesibilidad, utilidad, usabilidad, número de bases de datos a que ofrece acceso y calidad, se creó una colección actualizada de recursos útiles para dicho fin. Dicha selección abarca información volátil, dinámica, en formatos especiales y recursos que sólo son accesibles mediante una pasarela a una base de datos. Comprende recursos como: directorios de bibliotecas, catálogos colectivos, libros y bases de datos bibliográficas, directorios, literatura gris y fuentes multidisciplinares, archivos y depósitos de documentos, así como los denominados multibuscadores.In order to develop a useful reference tool to search information in what is known as the invisible Internet , that is, that set of information accessible through Internet which, by diverse reasons, is not processed by the search engines, with special attention to the sources of information on science and technology, and based on such criteria as accessibility, usefulness, usability, number of databases to which it offers access and quality, an useful and up-to-date collection of resources was created. Such selection covers volatile and dynamic information in special formats and resources only accessible by a gateway to a database. It includes resources such as: library directories, collective catalogues, books and bibliographical databases, directories, gray literature and multidisciplinary sources, files and deposits of documents, as well as the so-called multisearchers.

José Martín Brocos Fernández

2006-06-01

335

Nanosecond decay-time techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repetitive time-selection technique of fluorescence decay-time measurement as devised by Becquerel in 1859 is limited by the mechanics of the apparatus to a decay-time range of ?10-4 s. In the original device the fluorescent spot was permitted to move repeatedly past an area of constant illumination and the spot was thereafter observed repeatedly at predetermined time intervals after passage through the illuminated area. In an electronic equivalent of this technique (cf. Dreeskamp and Burton, Phys. Rev. Letters, 2, (1959) 45, the luminescent region remains in constant position but the beam from a 30-kV X-ray tube is interrupted after ? 0.8 ns and the luminescence produced (during a time of ? 0.4 ns) is thereafter observed repetitively, at predetermined time intervals after the beginning of the cut-off of illumination by the X-ray tube, via an image converter and photomultiplier system. By the use of this technique we have observed decay phenomena which are complete in several nanoseconds and the decay times of which can be established, for example, as 2.2 ± 0.1 ns. The special virtues of this technique are that the decay curve established is, in principle, not affected by the decay constants of the various parts of the electronic system and is extendable over a broad range of intensity (a factor of 100). Further, the actual curve can be established with a high degree of accuracy so that one is not constrained by preconceived notions to assuming a first-power decay law and the selection of a decay constant based on such a notion. Indeed, although we have now found that in many cases (e.g., p-terphenyl scintillator in benzene or cyclohexane solvent) an initial part of the decay curve is apparently first order, we are yet to observe a case in which the decay is singularly first order over the entire observation range made accessible by this technique. Recent improvements in the accuracy of the technique have made possible a clearer understanding of the mechanism of excitation transfer, and the structure of the luminescent system and the mechanism of quenching. The apparatus is described, some more recent results are given and some speculations regarding the nature of the excitation transfer and quenching mechanisms involved in nanosecond decay are presented. (author)

1962-04-01

336

Radiochromic technique for radiation measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

he radio-chromic technique in radiation dosimetry for protection of patients and occupational workers are known to health physicist and dosimetrist since long. But with the recent advances in polymer science, measurement techniques and understanding of physical phenomenon responsible for color change on radiation sensitive objects, the technique is progressing very well for personal accidental dose measurements, online dose mapping of patients during radiotherapy treatment without any further processing, and radiation industries. These dosimeters, with very high spatial resolution and relatively low spectral sensitivity variation, are insensitive to visible light, thus offering ease of handling. Radiochromic dosimeters color directly and do not require chemical processing wherein a color change (colorless to blue, red, green, etc.) indicates exposure to radiation. Image formation occurs as a dye-forming or a polymerization process, in which energy is transferred from an energetic photon or particle to the receptive part of the leuco-dye or colorless photomonomer molecule, initiating color formation through chemical changes. In recent years, various radiochromic dosimeters have also been used for nonclinical applications such as blood irradiation, radiation processing, and reference standard. The Paper highlights the national and international status of the techniques including responsible physical - chemical phenomenon, standard commercial products with its futuristic applications for mapping of radiation doses and radiation dose estimation in nuclear/radiological emergency. The Paper highlights the R and D efforts carried out at DLJ to establish radiochromic techniques based on radiochromic dyes and substituted diacytelene first time in India. The radiochromic films based on pH sensitive dyes, leuco dyes and substituted diacytelene using a suitable polymer as a host matrix has been developed at DLJ and characterized using standard techniques. The radiochromic films based on pH sensitive dyes, leuco dyes are useful in radiation processing industries. Few pH sensitive and leuco dye based films dose range. 1 kGy to 4 kGy have also been developed and evaluated. The results were satisfactory. The leuco dyes are not suitable for radiation dose measurements in cGy range. Therefore, substituted diacytelene has been chosen to estimate the radiation doses in cGy range. The substituted diacetylene based radiochromic films are sensitive from 10 cGy to 40 Gy. The dose response, dose rate response, energy response, color stability and UV response of the dosimeter has been carried out. A credit size Instant Alert Chemical Radiation dosimeter has been fabricated covered with UV protective film. The developed film responds to radiochromic changes in cGy range above 22°C only. Further R and D efforts have been made to observe radiochromic changes below 22°C. The results are encouraging from 0°C to 60°C. (author)

2012-01-01

337

Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques  

CERN Document Server

This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

Kido, Ken'iti

2015-01-01

338

Graph Partitioning Advance Clustering Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, Clustering is the process of grouping the data into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters. Dissimilarities are assessed based on the attribute values describing the objects. Often, distance measures are used. Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique, where interesting patterns and structures can be found directly from very large data sets with little or none of the background knowledge. This paper also considers the partitioning of mdimensional lattice graphs using Fiedler’s approach, which requires the determination of the eigenvector belonging to the second smallest Eigen value of the Laplacian with K-means partitioning algorithm.

T. Soni Madhulatha

2012-03-01

339

Graph partitioning advance clustering technique  

CERN Document Server

Clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, Clustering is the process of grouping the data into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters. Dissimilarities are assessed based on the attribute values describing the objects. Often, distance measures are used. Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique, where interesting patterns and structures can be found directly from very large data sets with little or none of the background knowledge. This paper also considers the partitioning of m-dimensional lattice graphs using Fiedler's approach, which requires the determination of the eigenvector belonging to the second smallest Eigenvalue of the Laplacian with K-means partitioning algorithm.

Madhulatha, T Soni

2012-01-01

340

Simulation techniques for cosmological simulations  

CERN Document Server

Modern cosmological observations allow us to study in great detail the evolution and history of the large scale structure hierarchy. The fundamental problem of accurate constraints on the cosmological parameters, within a given cosmological model, requires precise modelling of the observed structure. In this paper we briefly review the current most effective techniques of large scale structure simulations, emphasising both their advantages and shortcomings. Starting with basics of the direct N-body simulations appropriate to modelling cold dark matter evolution, we then discuss the direct-sum technique GRAPE, particle-mesh (PM) and hybrid methods, combining the PM and the tree algorithms. Simulations of baryonic matter in the Universe often use hydrodynamic codes based on both particle methods that discretise mass, and grid-based methods. We briefly describe Eulerian grid methods, and also some variants of Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods.

Dolag, K; Schindler, S; Diaferio, A; Bykov, A M

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Hypodermoclysis: an alternative infusion technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypodermoclysis, the subcutaneous infusion of fluids, is a useful and easy hydration technique suitable for mildly to moderately dehydrated adult patients, especially the elderly. The method is considered safe and does not pose any serious complications. The most frequent adverse effect is mild subcutaneous edema that can be treated by local massage or systemic diuretics. Approximately 3 L can be given in a 24-hour period at two separate sites. Common infusion sites are the chest, abdomen, thighs and upper arms. The preferred solution is normal saline, but other solutions, such as half-normal saline, glucose with saline or 5 percent glucose, can also be used. Potassium chloride can be added to the solution bag if needed. Hyaluronidase can also be added to enhance fluid absorption. Hypodermoclysis can be administered at home by family members or a nurse; the technique should be familiar to every family physician. PMID:11730312

Sasson, M; Shvartzman, P

2001-11-01

342

Decontamination techniques at Fugen plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Fugen power generation plant, decontamination of systems and individual instruments was carried out in 1990 as part of the 8th regular inspection. Of the operations conducted, the present report particularly focuses on the decontamination of the fuel replacing equipment, heat exchangers and bottom shielding plug latch. Development of systems decontamination is outlined first, focusing on the preliminary study, testing for establishment of decontamination conditions, equipment decontamination testing for demonstration, and design of a decontamination system. Actual systems decontamination operations carried out at the plant are then addressed, centering on the decontamination techniques used, results of the operations, and evaluation of the techniques. Decontamination of the heat exchangers is outlined focusing on the decontamination tools used, decontamination conditions, processes, results, reduction in exposure dose, and soundness of materials. The decontamination of fuel replacing equipment is then described, centering on chemical decontamination procedures and jet/foam decontamination. (N.K.)

1990-01-01

343

Releasable suture technique for trabeculectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the effect of the releasable suture technique on immediate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP. Nine eyes of nine patients with glaucoma had trabeculectomy with a releasable suture. In the six eyes that did not receive antimitotics, the suture was released by the fifth postoperative day; in the others suture release was delayed up to the fourteenth day. Of the nine patients, one had an acceptable postoperative IOP and did not need suture release; in another the suture broke and could not be released. In the remaining seven patients, the difference between the pre-release and post-release IOP was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The complications of this technique include failed suture release, subconjunctival hematoma and a distinctive "windshield wiper" keratopathy.

Jacob Pushpa

1993-01-01

344

Translumbar aortography by catheter technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

400 examinations performed during the last three years by TLA (only catheter technique) were subjected to critical analysis and studied particularly in respect to the rate of complications. We observed 13 complications (3.25%) of moderate severity, including 3 large hematomas (documented by CT), 3 paravasations and 7 dissections, but no fatal complication. Two (0.5%) of these complications had clinical evidence. The advantages of the catheter technique of TLA are described. Injections through rigid metal cannula should be avoided because of the high incidence of complications (mainly the increased risk of dissection). Downstream injection resulted in excellent visualization of peripheral occluding vascular disease. Upstream injection should be preferred to demonstrate the major abdominal arteries as well as supraceliac collateral circulation in the case of high Leriche syndrome. The low or intermediate puncture of the aorta is preferable to facilitate caudad direction of the catheter and to diminish the risk of damaging other vessels or puncturing an organ. (orig.)

1982-01-01

345

Groundwater Solution Techniques: Environmental Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Groundwater models provide a scientific tool for various groundwater studies which include groundwater flow, solute transport, heat transport and deformation. However, without a good understanding of a model, modeling studies are not well designed or the model does not represent the natural system which being modeled long term effects may results. Thus, this review has focused and reviewed the types of solution techniques in terms of advantages and limitations. The findings are vital to improve the model conceptualization and understanding of the uncertainty in model results. On the same hand, it acts as guide and reference to groundwater modeler, reduces the time spent in understanding the solution technique and complexity of groundwater models, as well as focus ways to address the groundwater problems and deliver modeling output more efficiently.

Kawi BIDIN

2010-01-01

346

Image Steganography Techniques: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is one of the methods used for the hidden exchange of information and it can bedefined as the study of invisible communication that usually deals with the ways of hiding theexistence of the communicated message. In this way, if successfully it is achieved, the messagedoes not attract attention from eavesdroppers and attackers. Using steganography, informationcan be hidden in different embedding mediums, known as carriers. These carriers can be images,audio files, video files, and text files. The focus in this paper is on the use of an image file as acarrier, and hence, the taxonomy of current steganographic techniques for image files has beenpresented. These techniques are analyzed and discussed not only in terms of their ability to hideinformation in image files but also according to how much information can be hidden, and therobustness to different image processing attacks.

Nagham Hamid

2012-06-01

347

Text Steganography Techniques: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography has been in use since the presence of secret messages and this use has gained popularity as the internet became well-liked. Text steganography is a sub part of steganography that hides the message behind other cover text file. Moreover, hiding the text behind HTML coding of web pages makes the detection of steganography impractical as web pages are a fundamental building blocks of the internet. This paper reviews some of most common text steganography techniques that mainly focus on protecting text behind HTML and CSS (Cascading Style sheets coding of web pages. This paper also proposes a new technique based on hiding text behing HTML and CSS portion of web page coding

Neha Rani#1 , Jyoti Chaudhary

2013-07-01

348

Planning Technique in Maxillofacial Plasty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have represented a new method of computer planning in surgical management of posttraumatic and congenital deformities of facial skeleton using individual tetrapolyfluoroethylene implants for contour plasty. There have been developed the technique of preoperative planning enabling to recover the symmetry of a deformed area using a computer 3D-model, and based on the obtained data — to produce individual implants for contour plasty. There have been received positive results of the technique in clinical use in patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities. Computer planning promotes accurate planning and reliable prognosis of the management results due to an individual implant used for contour facial plasty, which requires correction. Conclusion. Computer planning and CAD/CAM-production of an individual implant enables to correct deformities and recover facial symmetry and esthetics in patients with posttraumatic and congenital distortions of face.

?.?. Muraev

2013-08-01

349

The ancient Chinese casting techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

Tan Derui

2011-02-01

350

CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions

2007-03-01

351

Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques  

CERN Document Server

Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

Ferreira, Antoine

2013-01-01

352

Ultrasonic thermometry using pulse techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasonic pulse techniques have been developed which, when applied to inert gases, provide temperature measurements up to 8000 K. The response time can be less than 1 msec. This is a significant feature in studying shock-heated or combusting gases. Using a momentary contact coupling technique, temperature has been measured inside steel from 300 to 1500 K. Thin-wire sensors have been used above 2000 K in nuclear and industrial applications where conditions preclude the use of thermocouples, resistance devices, or optical pyrometers. At 2500 K, temperature sensitivity of 0.1% is obtained in Re wire sensors 5 cm long by timing five round trips with an electronic instrument that resolves the time interval between selected echoes to 0.1 microsec. Sensors have been operated at rotational speeds over 2000 rpm and in noisy environments. Temperature profiling of up to ten regions using only a single guided path or beam has also been accomplished.

Lynnworth, L. C.; Carnevale, E. H.

1972-01-01

353

Techniques for effective vocabulary selection  

CERN Document Server

The vocabulary of a continuous speech recognition (CSR) system is a significant factor in determining its performance. In this paper, we present three principled approaches to select the target vocabulary for a particular domain by trading off between the target out-of-vocabulary (OOV) rate and vocabulary size. We evaluate these approaches against an ad-hoc baseline strategy. Results are presented in the form of OOV rate graphs plotted against increasing vocabulary size for each technique.

Venkataraman, A; Venkataraman, Anand; Wang, Wen

2003-01-01

354

Experimental techniques for multiphase flows  

Science.gov (United States)

This review discusses experimental techniques that provide an accurate spatial and temporal measurement of the fields used to describe multiphase systems for a wide range of concentrations, velocities, and chemical constituents. Five methods are discussed: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonic pulsed Doppler velocimetry (UPDV), electrical impedance tomography (EIT), x-ray radiography, and neutron radiography. All of the techniques are capable of measuring the distribution of solids in suspensions. The most versatile technique is MRI, which can be used for spatially resolved measurements of concentration, velocity, chemical constituents, and diffusivity. The ability to measure concentration allows for the study of sedimentation and shear-induced migration. One-dimensional and two-dimensional velocity profiles have been measured with suspensions, emulsions, and a range of other complex liquids. Chemical shift MRI can discriminate between different constituents in an emulsion where diffusivity measurements allow the particle size to be determined. UPDV is an alternative technique for velocity measurement. There are some limitations regarding the ability to map complex flow fields as a result of the attenuation of the ultrasonic wave in concentrated systems that have high viscosities or where multiple scattering effects may be present. When combined with measurements of the pressure drop, both MRI and UPDV can provide local values of viscosity in pipe flow. EIT is a low cost means of measuring concentration profiles and has been used to study shear-induced migration in pipe flow. Both x-ray and neutron radiographes are used to image structures in flowing suspensions, but both require highly specialized facilities.

Powell, Robert L.

2008-04-01

355

Nuclear techniques in homeland security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selected methods for border monitoring, utilizing nuclear techniques are discussed, with a particular emphasis on those developed with the contribution of our Institute. It covers a basic inspection of the borders against smuggling of radioactive materials, as well as known systems using linear accelerators of electrons for inspection of large trucks by X-ray radiography. More advanced active methods based on tagged neutron inspection systems to monitor explosives and methods based on photofission to detect fissile materials are presented, too. (author)

2005-01-01

356

Data mining and visualization techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Whitney, Paul (Richland, WA); Thomas, Jim (Richland, WA)

2004-03-23

357

An isotopic ratio tracer technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brookhaven National Laboratory has recently investigated the feasibility of utilizing naturally-occurring differences in the stable isotopes of sulfur as a means of identifying SO2 and sulfates with the major sources from which they originate. This technique involves sampling of the SO2 from the atmosphere by a chemically treated filter, a series of chemical conversions and finally determination of the isotopic ratios in a mass spectrometer. The details of this tracer system and its initial field results are summarized. (author)

1967-09-11

358

Mirage technique in anisotropic solids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Theoretical and experimental analysis of heat diffusion in an anisotropic medium are presented. The solution of the 3D thermal conduction equation in an orthorhombic medium is calculated by the mean of a Fourier transforms method. Experiments were performed on an orthorhombic polydiacetylene single crystal sample. The temperature field at the sample surface was determined using the photothermal probe beam deflection technique. Then the 3 coefficients of the thermal conductivity tensor have be...

Quelin, X.; Perrin, B.; Louis, G.

1994-01-01

359

Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hideki Kobara,1 Hirohito Mori,1 Kazi Rafiq,2 Shintaro Fujihara,1 Noriko Nishiyama,1 Maki Ayaki,1 Tatsuo Yachida,1 Tae Matsunaga,1 Johji Tani,1 Hisaaki Miyoshi,1 Hirohito Yoneyama,1 Asahiro Morishita,1 Makoto Oryu,1 Hisakazu Iwama,3 Tsutomu Masaki1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-Gun, Kagawa, Japan Abstract: Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. Keywords: submucosal endoscopy, submucosal tunneling method, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy, gastrointestinal subepithelial tumor, functional and motility disorders

Kobara H

2014-04-01

360

Imaging for new radiotherapy techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Radiotherapy could be considerably improved by the recent development of three-dimensional intensity-modulated radiation therapy. This technique allows the concept of so-called dose painting or adaptive dose distribution to be implemented with improved aligning of the dose distribution along the complex geometric arrangements of the tumour and the surround healthy critical structures. This enables the radiation dose in the tumour to be increasingly enhanced while sparing the normal tissue. Fu...

Schlemmer, H. -p

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Uranium exploration and evaluation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground, carborne and airborne surveys for uranium commenced with GM-counters and developed to total-count scintillation counters which have subsequently been replaced to some extent by gamma spectrometers. Stabilisation of the last mentioned is important and has only been achieved recently. Hydrogeochemistry has been revitalised by the introduction of neutron activation analysis and has considerable promise of success in the discovery of surface and near-surface uranium deposits. Soil, stream sediment and lake sediment analyses also have potential particularly in follow-up surveys. One of the most encouraging methods of detecting relatively deeply buried uranium ore bodies is by measuring the radon content of air retained in soil or sub-soil; also that dissolved in stream or lake water. Helium, particularly 4He, which is also a decay product of uranium but which has an infinite half-life could be measured along with radon. Theoretically this could not only give additional information on buried ore bodies, but on the depth of burial. Another possible technique for use in the detection of buried ore bodies is that of measuring the increased heat flow at surface which, in favourable circumstatnces, should be associated with significant uranium occurrences. Measurement of heat flow could either be by surface thermal sensors or by thermal infra-red scanning techniques from aircraft. For the purposes of preliminary surveys of large areas, airborne geochemical techniques offer considerable scope. Possibilities include the measurement of 222Rn in the atmosphere. Alternatively, one or more of the decay products of radon could be measured. These are 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po. It is concluded that there is ample evidence to suggest that the more widespread application of known exploration methods, together with new techniques that can already be envisaged, will result in important new discoveries of uranium reserves

1977-05-13

362

Analysing Malicious Code: : Dynamic Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report starts out discussing a framework for building an API monitoring system. In such a system, malicious code can be run, and its actions can be taken notice of. I look into different analysis tools for stuctural analysis, and API monitoring tools. I will also discuss dynamic analysis using a debugger, and anti-debugging techniques used by modern malware. When using a debugger, API hooking can be implemented using brakepoints as well. In any case, we will need an isolated environm...

2007-01-01

363

Electromigration techniques theory and practice  

CERN Document Server

The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

2013-01-01

364

A Technique: Examining the Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive therapy is based on the realistic epistemology which exerts that there is an objective reality beyond human experience. Cognitive models of psychopathology stipulate that the processing of external event or internal stimuli is biased and therefore systematically distorts the individual’s construction of his or her experiences, leading to a variety of cognitive errors. These distorted cognitions predispose or perpetuates mental disorders. If this bias that is also manifested in the automatic thoughts during specific instances can be attenuated by weakening the belief in these thoughts, it may lead into change in the accompanying emotion and dysfunctional behaviour. Objective: The aim of this review is to describe the basic technique of cognitive therapy namely “examining the evidence” and also present the clinical application of this technique. In order to perform this technique, first situation must be detailed. Then assessed emotion is graded according to its severity. After that, key automatic thought must be identified and phrased accordingly. After grading belief in the thought, evidence for and against the thought can be generated using appropriate questioning. In the end by using this evidence, the belief in the automatic thought and the emotion must be reviewed. Examining the evidence can also be used as a homework assignment to be done between sessions. In this text, steps of examining the evidence, which questions to be asked, and the points that must be attendant is reviewed and a sample interview is included. Conclusion: By its empirical nature “examining the evidence” is the most valuable technique of cognitive therapy and when it is applied properly long lasting change can occur in clients

Serkan AKKOYUNLU

2012-11-01

365

Remote-controlled decontamination techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several surface decontamination techniques have recently been developed and adapted for robotics use. One method involves a water spray system, operating at 100 psi and 250 degree F, combined with a vacuum and mounted to a small, six-wheeled robot (the PEDSCO). A second method combines an ultra-high-pressure (UHP) water jet system capable of cutting through 3 ft of concrete mounted to a slightly larger, four-wheeled robot (the WASP)

1987-11-15

366

Improvement of OAI approximate technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is given for refining the OAI (Otsuka-Arima-Iachello) technique with improving the Boson image of the schematic shell model Hamiltonian. It is shown tht the error of the Arima's Boson Hamiltonian H/sup B/(Arima) is entirely due to that of the zero order Boson image of the SU (2)-symmetry-violating term in the fermion Hamiltonian.

Xuangen, C.

1983-05-01

367

Artificial Intelligence Techniques and Methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two closely related aspects of artificial intelligence that have received comparatively little attention in the recent literature are research methodology, and the analysis of computational techniques that span multiple application areas. We believe both issues to be increasingly significant as Artificial Intelligence matures into a science and spins off major application efforts. It is imperative to analyze the repertoire of AI methods with respect to past experience, utility in new domains,...

Carbonell, Jaime G.; Sleeman, Derek

1982-01-01

368

Liquid measurement - techniques and problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Techniques and problems surrounding liquid measurement are discussed. Non-custody measurements are important for inventory control, cost effective blending operations, accounting and tax information, and loss control. Most internal measurements are used as a backup to custody transfer measurements. However, good systems analysis can only be done if all the data is good. Personnel should have a strong sense of the above, plus a technical competence and pride in their practice of the art of measurement.

Comstock, D.M.

1984-04-01

369

Evaluation of standard watermarking techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last decade digital watermarking techniques have been devised to answer the ever-growing need to protect the intellectual property of digital still images, video sequences or audio from piracy attacks. Because of the proliferation of watermarking algorithms and their applications some benchmarks have been created in order to help watermarkers comparing their algorithms in terms of robustness against various attacks (i.e. Stirmark, Checkmark). However, no equal attention has been devote...

2007-01-01

370

Sampling techniques in metalexicographic research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A careful examination of lexicographic papers reveals that sampling techniques are generally neglected by metalexicographers. Authors rarely document, still less discuss, the sampling schemes used. This is surprising in view of the fact that sampling is actually something many researchers do when they wish to make generalizations about the whole dictionary text, usually too large to be studied in its entirety. Not rarely samples consisting of one stretch only, usually selected judgmentally, a...

Bukowska, Agnieszka

2011-01-01

371

Sampling techniques in metalexicographic research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Browsing through International Journal of Lexicography archives and other metalexicographic work one could easily notice that sampling techniques are generally neglected by metalexicographers, rarely described exhaustively by the authors themselves and almost never discussed, even though numerous researchers sample in order to make generalizations about the whole dictionary text, usually too large to be studied in its entirety. Not rarely samples consisting of one stretch only, usually select...

Bukowska, Agnieszka

2010-01-01

372

Techniques of facial nerve block.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure w...

Schimek, F.; Fahle, M.

1995-01-01

373

Detection Techniques for Trapped Ions  

CERN Document Server

Various techniques are used to detect the presence of charged particles stored in electromagnetic traps, their energy, their mass, or their internal states. Detection methods can rely on the variation of the number of trapped particles (destructive methods) or the use of the ion's interaction with electromagnetic radiation as a non-destructive tool to probe the trapped particles. This review gives an introduction into various methods, discussing the basic mode of operation completed by the description of recent realizations.

Knoop, Martina

2013-01-01

374

Tracing Technique for Blaster Attack  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Blaster worm of 2003 is still persistent, the infection appears to have successfully transitioned to new hosts as the original systems are cleaned or shut off, suggesting that the Blaster worm, and other similar worms, will remain significant Internet threats for many years after their initial release. This paper is to propose technique on tracing the Blaster attack from various logs in different OSI layers based on fingerprint of Blaster attack on victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log...

2009-01-01

375

Radar techniques using array antennas  

CERN Multimedia

Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

2013-01-01

376

Radon assay and purification techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive 222Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed.

Simgen, Hardy

2013-08-01

377

Adjustment techniques for experimental data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To carry through numerically the different adjustment of experimental data planned by National Institute of Nuclear Research investigators. It is presented the different adjustment techniques of experimental data which are fundamentally for: linear least squares, non linear with restrictions. Methodology: Lineal least squares - Orthogonal decomposition via Householder reflections. No lineal - Method of general lowering and quasi Newton; Levenberg-Marquardt modified - More version. No lineal with restrictions - Quadratic sequential programming method (In process). (Author)

1992-07-15

378

Lead Extraction: "Drag Through" Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of extraction techniques of chronic pacemaker and defibrillator leads is to present an approach that is successful in extracting all leads and minimizes or eliminates complications. To extract a chronically implanted intravascular device, the device must be separated from the encapsulating inflammatory tissue. Three ablation techniques are currently used: mechanical, laser and electrosurgical. Indirect traction is traction applied by an instrument such as a snare passed into the heart, usually through a femoral vein. The lead is entrapped in the snare, and pulling or pushing applies traction. 1,2 The safety of this technique is enhanced by the ability to avoid those problems associated with the binding sites in the superior veins and right atrium. Indirect traction is more successful than direct traction. Countertraction is a method of safely extracting an electrode entrapped in fibrous tissue at the electrode-myocardial interface. It is defined as the countering of the traction on the lead by a sheath. A sheath of slightly larger diameter is passed over the lead to a point about 1 cm from the heart wall. Traction is applied on the lead, pulling the myocardial wall to the edge of the sheath, which counters the traction. Because only the scar tissue is present between the sheath and the heart wall, cardiac tissue is not in jeopardy.

Anoop K. Gupta

2002-10-01

379

Nuclear computational techniques at Schlumberger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In oil well logging a measurement device called a sonde is lowered into a well. The sonde transmits a signal to a data acquisition system that records the signal as a function of well depth. In nuclear logging, the signals are the result of interactions experienced by neutrons and/or gamma rays as they travel from the radiation source through the formation and then back to a detector. In this paper the authors discuss the application and development of nuclear computational techniques at Schlumberger-Doll Research. These techniques are used in two different ways: (a) to predict sonde responses under conditions for which experimental measurements have not been taken, and (b) to investigate new measurement concepts. The first is important for making what are called environmental corrections. Typically a sonde will be calibrated in a series of laboratory formations to produce a basic response profile. Unfortunately, the number of environmental conditions, such as borehole size, mudcake thickness, etc., encountered in actual field operations is too large for a complete experimental calibration. Modeling is used to predict tool responses under environmental conditions for which measured points do not exist. The second use improves understanding of the physics issues involved in the transport process and guides the development of new measurement techniques. This paper concentrates on the second use

1987-06-07

380

Layout techniques for integrated circuits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several techniques are presented for solving circuit-layout problems. In particular, a channel-placement algorithm is first introduced to reduce the channel density (d) so that a channel router can complete the routing requirements in fewer tracks. A 4-layer channel-routing model is then formulated so that a general channel routing problem (CRP) with cyclic conflicts and long critical paths can be completed with d/2. Finally, the 4-layer, 2-dimensional switchbox routing problem needed to enhance the channel routing in general circuit layout is investigated from the graph-theoretical viewpoint. The channel-placement technique consists of two phases. Using the principle of decomposition, the initial placement phase effectively reduces the complexity of the problem and, therefore, improves the efficiency of the second phase, which is called the iterative improvement placement. The main feature of this phase is its hill-climbing ability to avoid being trapped at local minima. The combination of these two phases leads to an efficient technique for standard cell placement. To utilize multi-layer technology, a new 4-layer channel routing model is introduced to minimize the channel width of more-generalized CRP's. The 2-dimensional switchbox routing problem is transformed to an equivalent graph-theoretical problem.

Tsay, C.Y.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

[Modern techniques for terminating pregnancy].  

Science.gov (United States)

This panel presentation consists of detailed technical descriptions of Karman aspiration and of hypertonic saline injection, a list of legal indications for abortion in France, a brief summary of how abortions are conducted in England, and a question and answer period, all following an introduction published in this journal (ibid. 1(1): 21-22, 1973.). The Karman aspiration is done only until 8 weeks of amenorrhea, with premedication only, using a polyethylene cannula and either a 50 cc syringe, a hand pump or a mechanical pump (.5-1 atmosphere vacuum). Pro fuse details of technique, treatment and complications are given, since the procedure is new to French physicians, and is currently done "semi-clandestinely." Most of the text on midtrimester abortions concerns indications and dilatation of the cervix; the hypertonic saline technique was shown in a film. The accepted indications at the Port Royal Maternity are: chromosomal or metabolic genetic defects demonstruated by amniocentesis and culture, probably severe congenital d efect indicated by elevated alpha-feto-protein, infection by German measles shown by presence of IgM in maternal serum. Every precaution is taken in such cases to guarantee the possibility of a healthy living infant in the future. Second trimester abortions in King's College Hospital, London, are usually by intraamniotic prostaglandins and iv oxytocin, and an IUD is inserted immediately. The questions concerned mainly where abortions can be performed, where techniques can be learned , and early abortion clinics in Holland. PMID:12276957

Palmer, R; Brunerie, J; Henrion, R; Newton, J; De Watteville; Wijnberg, B

1974-01-01

382

Flexible time domain averaging technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

2013-09-01

383

Cierre de la pared abdominal: qué técnica y qué sutura se deben usar Closing the abdominal wall: what technique and type of suture to use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: El cierre de la pared abdominal es un procedimiento frecuente en la práctica de los cirujanos generales. El tipo de cierre y el material de sutura en la mayoría de los casos se realizan y escogen en forma empírica. El presente estudio valora la mejor evidencia disponible sobre la técnica para el cierre de la fascia abdominal y el tipo de sutura. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura y se evaluaron los artículos de más alta calidad (revisiones sistemáticas. Los resultados se analizaron particularmente. Resultados: La mejor técnica de sutura de la fascia abdominal es aquella con puntos continuos con material de absorción lenta (polidioxanona o no absorbible (polipropileno, los cuales tienen índices de hernia incisional menores que las suturas de absorción rápida. Conclusiones: Es recomendable utilizar sutura de material de absorción lenta o no absorbible para el cierre de la pared abdominal.Introduction: Closure of the abdominal wall is a frequently performed procedure in general surgical practice. The type of closure and the suture material are often chosen on empirical bases. The present study evaluates the best evidence available regarding the technique of closure of the abdominal wall and the best suture material to be used. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken and the best quality articles (systematic reviews were analyzed. Results: The best technique appears to be the closure with interrupted sutures of slow absorption (polydioxanone or non absorbable (polypropylene material, which exhibit lower recurrence rates that those observed with materials of rapid absorption. Conclusions: It is recommended to utilize interrupted sutures of slow absorption or non absorbable material for closing the abdominal wall.

Carlos Lehmann

2007-06-01

384

Injected radiotracer techniques in hydrology  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioactive tracers which have several advantages over conventional tracers made significant contributions to the development of the injected tracer method in hydrology. A review of the nuclear and the physico-chemical characteristics of the possible radiotracer compounds leads us to conclude that the most effective groundwater tracers are tritiated water (HTO),82Br- and58Co or60Co as a hexacyanocobaltate complex. A discussion of the various case studies in India and abroad covering the three groups of applications mentioned helps us to conclude that well established radiotracer methods with associated interpretational techniques are available for many short range studies in surface and subsurface hydrology.

Rao, S. M.

1984-08-01

385

Text Summarization using Clustering Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A summarization system consists of reduction of a text document to generate a new form which conveys the key meaning of the contained text.Due to the problem of information overload, access to sound and correctly-developed summaries is necessary. Text summarization is the most challenging task in information retrieval. Data reduction helps a user to find required information quickly without wasting time and effort in reading the whole document collection. This paper presents a combined approach to document and sentence clustering as an extractive technique of summarization

Anjali R. Deshpande #1 , Lobo L. M. R. J.

2013-08-01

386

Measurements techniques for transportation noise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The noise from transport systems (roads, railways and aircraft) are increasing more and more both in space and in time and, therefore, they are still the major factor responsible for environmental noise pollution. The population exposed to transport noise is also increasing, and the corresponding health effects on people (i.e. annoyance and sleep disturbance) become more severe. Due to this current situation international and national legislation has been issued and implemented to reduce the harmful effects of such noise. This paper describes the techniques prescribed by recent Italian legislation to measure road, railway and aircraft noise. (author)

2001-04-03

387

Study on Image Steganography Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is a secret Communication to hide the secret Data. It is an invisible communication that hides data like text, image, and audio, video etc .The secret message is inserted into the image files. The image files can use stego-key to hide the data and the resultant image is called as stego-image. This is most important for the internet users to share their secret data in an efficient manner. Steganography plays an important role in defence. Various steganographic techniques areanalyzed and its pros and cons are highlighted in this paper.

C.Gayathri

2013-04-01

388

Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications  

CERN Document Server

Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

2012-01-01

389

Tritium accountancy techniques in ETHEL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three accountancy methods will be utilised in ETHEL, namely, PVT-c, weight plus concentration and calorimetry. PVT-c is based on the pressure, volume, temperature and concentration of a tritiated gas. A comparator balance will be used for large quantities of tritium contained on transportable uranium getter beds. The concentration of a tritiated gas is determined via two independent methods, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry using an Omegatron. Calorimetry utilises the decay heat of the tritium and was found to have an accuracy equal or surpassing that of conventional techniques. The different accountancy methods including the operational and calibration procedures will be described. (orig.).

Engelmann, U. [European Commission, JRC, Safety Technology Inst., Ispra (Italy); Thornton, M.I. [European Commission, JRC, Safety Technology Inst., Ispra (Italy); Vassallo, G. [European Commission, JRC, Safety Technology Inst., Ispra (Italy)

1995-12-31

390

The cold crucible melting technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work deals with the principle of the cold crucible melting technique with induction heating which is used in metals, glasses and refractory materials melting and in gas induced plasma. As there is no contact between the melted material and the crucible, there is no wear of the crucible, a long life and a very low contamination of the crucible with no temperature limit. As glass is an electric insulator when cold, it is necessary to preheat a little part of the glass (microwaves for nuclear purposes). (O.L.). 8 figs.

Jouan, A.

1994-12-31

391

Conventional colonoscopy: Technique, indications, limits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Colonoscopy has long been the gold standard for the diagnosis of colonic diseases. Recently, with the advent of CT colonografy, new alternatives seem to appear on the horizon, which seem to finally overcome some of colonoscopy's drawbacks like procedure related pain and discomfort during the examination. Polyp miss rate and the fact that not always the caecum can be reached are also the basis of debate. This article gives an overview about current technique, indications and limitations of diagnostic colonoscopy as well as a potential prospect for the future, discussing novel imaging technologies ranging from magnification endoscopy to virtual histopathology.

Haefner, Michael [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Michael.Haefner@meduniwien.ac.at

2007-03-15

392

Analytical techniques in radiation technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiation processing which applies gamma, X rays , or fast electrons for inducing the changes in the material's chemical, physical of biological properties has been introduced in many fields. Quite a few applications are related to the health and environmental protection. Sterilization of health-care products and food irradiation belongs to the first group. The second covers flue gas and wastewater treatment .Radiation sterilization or food irradiation plants are in regular operation in many countries all over the world. Their role in medical hygiene, food borne diseases control, tissue banking can not be overestimated.Quality control is a very important issue concerning these processes; dosimetry, microbiology, content of pollutants and radiolytic products are all based on physico-chemical and biological analyses . Since the changes are very small and concentration of investigated substances very low, advanced or special development methods have to be applied. They concern photometry, ESR, luminescence and others. Regarding environmental protection, first introduced limits for emission of pollutants concerned gram quantities. Nowadays emission limits for sulphur and nitrogen oxides, small diameter particulate (smaller than 2.5 or 10 microns) are given in milligrams, while concentrations of heavy metals (including mercury) or poly aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e. dioxins) are in nanograms even. Therefore, monitoring techniques are of the biggest importance for implementation of radiation technologies for environment conservation. Two industrial plants for flue gas purification at coal fired power stations are in operation. The monitoring system for ppm's quantities of nitrogen and sulphur oxide, ammonium, ozone are substantial components of the system. The by-product being used as a fertilizer is controlled for composition and heavy metal content. The technology can be used for VOC and PAH (dioxins) control as well, HCPL/MS techniques should be used in this case and sampling is quite a sophisticated procedure. Stable isotope tracers are utilized to investigate process mechanism as well. Wastewater pollutants treatment plant using electron accelerator as a source of radiation has been constructed as well. HCLP/MS and other techniques are used to record performance of the plant. Solutions presented in the paper are the example of the role which analytical techniques play in modern technology development. (author)

2003-06-09

393

Neutron radiography, techniques and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

1988-02-04

394

Survey on FPGA Routing Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA, a programmable integrated circuit, has gained great popularity in the circuit design. Routing is an important part of FPGA design step which determines therouting in horizontal and vertical channels of FPGA. In this paper, a number of routing techniques are reviewed. FPGA routing can be achieved in various approaches like based on geometric routing, andbased on Boolean Satisfiability. The algorithms based on geometric routing are proved to be efficient algorithms for FPGA routing. The advantage of Boolean based algorithm is that it finds routingpossibility and simultaneously route all nets.

Ms. Nagalakshmi Venugopal

2012-07-01

395

Experimental techniques in nuclear physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of experimental techniques involving wide varieties of nuclear radiation detection methods are required to carry out research in different areas of nuclear physics. The progress in the design and operation of nuclear radiation detectors in various applications has been very rapid and a periodic review in this field is always appropriate. The present report, while dealing with the general principles of particle and radiation detection using conventional detectors of gas, scintillator and semiconductor types, also gives an update of the recent developments in sophisticated detector systems which are built to meet the requirements of present day nuclear physics experiments. (author)

1999-01-01

396

Computer Animation: Algorithms and Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed as an educational reference for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students, this site confers information about computer animation techniques. The site's author, Dr. Richard Parent, Associate Professor of Computer and Information Science at the Ohio State University, gives a thorough overview with topics ranging from the history of computer animation to hardware and software requirements to kinematics algorithms. He also provides an extensive reference list. Clearly written and accompanied by appropriate formulae and diagrams, this is a good Web resource for computer scientists.

Parent, Richard.

1998-01-01

397

Fuzzy mathematical techniques with applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This text presents the basic concepts of fuzzy set theory within a context of real-world applications. The book is self-contained and can be used as a starting point for people interested in this fast growing field as well as by researchers looking for new application techniques. The section on applications includes: Manipulation of knowledge in expert systems; relational database structures; pattern clustering; analysis of transient behavior in digital systems; modeling of uncertainty and search trees. Contents: Fuzzy sets; Possibility theory and fuzzy quantification; Fuzzy functions; Fuzzy events and fuzzy statistics; Fuzzy relations; Fuzzy logics; Some applications; Bibliography.

Kandel, A.

1986-01-01

398

A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures, Hidden Markov Model (HMM, geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and processes are also discussed along with the solutions provided by different authors.

Muhammad Sharif

2012-12-01

399

Tracing Technique for Blaster Attack  

CERN Document Server

Blaster worm of 2003 is still persistent, the infection appears to have successfully transitioned to new hosts as the original systems are cleaned or shut off, suggesting that the Blaster worm, and other similar worms, will remain significant Internet threats for many years after their initial release. This paper is to propose technique on tracing the Blaster attack from various logs in different OSI layers based on fingerprint of Blaster attack on victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. The researchers intended to do a preliminary investigation upon this particular attack so that it can be used for further research in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

S., Siti Rahayu; S., Shahrin; A., Faizal M; M, Mohd Zaki; R, Irda

2009-01-01

400

New extraction technique for alkaloids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

Djilani Abdelouaheb

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Diffraction techniques in engineering applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diffraction techniques applied to crystalline materials provide quantitative information about the crystallographic structure and mechanical condition of the material. Those two characteristics influence the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of a Component. A concerted application of x-ray and neutron diffraction allows one to comprehensively study the bulk and subsurface variations of such material characteristics as crystallographic texture, residual stress, and cold work. The Residual Stress User Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory offers academic and industrial researchers both neutron and x-ray diffraction capabilities. Recent examples of the application of work related to thin film, metal, ceramic and composite material technologies are presented.

Kozarczek, K.J.; Hubbard, C.R.; Watkins, T.R.; Wang, X.L.; Spooner, S.

1995-12-31

402

Negotiation Techniques (That Really Work!)  

CERN Multimedia

Sales is all about negotiation. Price. Delivery. Terms. And every day, salespeople leave money on the table. They just don't have the skills to get what they want. Now Stephan Schiffman, drawing on years of experience, shows you how to nail the sale, hit quotas, and boost the bottom line. Schiffman-style negotiation is all about getting the best deal. And he outlines specific techniques to get there. Things can be tough out there. But with Schiffman's negotiation skills in your pocket, you can do battle and win.

Schiffman, Stephan

2010-01-01

403

Postprocessing techniques in CT angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT angiography provides a high diagnostic valence, in conjunction with the possibility of displaying pathological changes of diverse nature. CTA, which was used up to now only in the MIP technique, must be looked upon and used in the context of MPR and 3D in order to completely cover the diagnosis and also in order to ensure radiation protection during medical checkups. This comprehensive information is the real strength of computed tomography and should be viewed as an important advantage compared to other imaging modalities. Considering the technical and time aspects the following meaningful application possibilities thus emerge for postprocessing. (orig.)

1997-01-01

404

Postprocessing techniques in CT angiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CT angiography provides a high diagnostic valence, in conjunction with the possibility of displaying pathological changes of diverse nature. CTA, which was used up to now only in the MIP technique, must be looked upon and used in the context of MPR and 3D in order to completely cover the diagnosis and also in order to ensure radiation protection during medical checkups. This comprehensive information is the real strength of computed tomography and should be viewed as an important advantage compared to other imaging modalities. Considering the technical and time aspects the following meaningful application possibilities thus emerge for postprocessing. (orig.)

Oldendorf, M.; Weber, P. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie]|[Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Medical Engineering Group

1997-11-01

405

Personalization techniques and recommender systems  

CERN Document Server

The phenomenal growth of the Internet has resulted in huge amounts of online information, a situation that is overwhelming to the end users. To overcome this problem, personalization technologies have been extensively employed. The book is the first of its kind, representing research efforts in the diversity of personalization and recommendation techniques. These include user modeling, content, collaborative, hybrid and knowledge-based recommender systems. It presents theoretic research in the context of various applications from mobile information access, marketing and sales and web services,

Uchyigit, Gulden

2008-01-01

406

A Reliable Whole Cell Clamp Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a simple whole cell formation technique that the author invented in teaching and experiments. The implementation of the invented technique is a syringe with a hole and slot. With the newly invented technique, novices will shorten their learning curve and veterans will increase their success rate. The invented technique

Li, Chenhong

2008-01-01

407

Setting a date. Dating techniques in archaeology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dating techniques are discussed and explained. The age range and sensitivity of different techniques are given. Potassium/argon dating, amino-acid dating, radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, thermoluminescence and geomagnetic field dating are all mentioned. Each technique is explained and a brief history given. The techniques and equipment used by the British Museum, and some examples of archaeological articles dated are mentioned.

Moore, Glenis.

1987-02-01

408

PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR OFDM USING CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has recently been applied in wireless communication systems due to its high data rate transmission capability with high bandwidth efficiency and its robustness to multi-path delay. Fading is the one of the major aspect which is considered in the receiver. To cancel the effect of fading, channel estimation and equalization procedure must be done at the receiver before data demodulation. Many channel estimation and equalization algorithms are studied in the literatures. This projectmainly deals with pilot based channel estimation techniques for OFDM communication over frequency selective fading channels. Mainly three prediction algorithms are used in the equalizer to estimate the channel responses namely, Least Mean Square (LMS, Normalized LMS (NLMS and Recursive Least Square (RLS algorithm. These three algorithms are considered in this work and their performances are statistically compared by using computer simulations.

K. Elangovan,

2010-08-01

409

Advanced Techniques of Stress Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to check the stress analysis technique based on 3D models also making a comparison with the traditional technique which utilizes a model built directly into the stress analysis program. This comparison of the two methods will be made with reference to the rear fuselage of IAR-99 aircraft, structure with a high degree of complexity which allows a meaningful evaluation of both approaches. Three updated databases are envisaged: the database having the idealized model obtained using ANSYS and working directly on documentation, without automatic generation of nodes and elements (with few exceptions, the rear fuselage database (performed at this stage obtained with Pro/ ENGINEER and the one obtained by using ANSYS with the second database. Then, each of the three databases will be used according to arising necessities.The main objective is to develop the parameterized model of the rear fuselage using the computer aided design software Pro/ ENGINEER. A review of research regarding the use of virtual reality with the interactive analysis performed by the finite element method is made to show the state- of- the-art achieved in this field.

Simion TATARU

2013-12-01

410

The Tokai NPP decommissioning technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and started decommissioning from December 2001 as a pioneer of NPP decommissioning. This article presented current state of Tokai NPP decommissioning technique. As the second stage of decommissioning works, removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) were started from 2006 by jacking down method with decommissioning data accumulated. Each heat exchanger was divided into top head, seven 'tears' of shell and bottom head. Each 'tear' was out and separated into a cylinder, and then divided into two by remote-operated cutting equipment with manipulators for gas cutting and motor disk cutting under monitoring works by fixed and mobile cameras. Divided 'tear' was further cut into center baffle plate, heat transfer tubes and fine pieces of shell. Cutting works would produce radioactive fine particles, which were filtered by temporary ventilation equipment with exhaust fan and filters. Appropriate works using existing technique combined and their rationalization were important at this stage. (T. Tanaka)

2013-10-01

411

Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design

2011-01-01

412

Reconstruction techniques in renal injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kidney repair reconstruction techniques are controversial. The conventional technique is suturing, but this is usually with further loss of viable tissue as it promotes scaring. In this animal model, we investigated the parenchymal effect of different sutures and methods. We carried out this study in the year 2000 in the Animal Laboratory of Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey. We used 40 New Zealand white rabbits in this study, randomized into 5 groups. We separated the left kidney from Gerota's fascia, and performed standard lacerations with incisions 5 mm deep and 10 mm in length. We performed no reconstruction procedure in group 1, and used homeostatic collagen powder in group 2. We primarily sutured the lacerations with chromic gut (4/0) in group 3, and sutured the kidney in group 4 with polyglactin (4/0). We wrapped the kidney with a polyglactin mesh in group 5. We sacrificed 2 rabbits in each group postoperatively on day 2, 15, 45 and 90, and performed left nephrectomy for histological investigation, and assessed interstitial inflammation. While group 5 established the best results, the other 4 groups had similar intermediate results. The pseudocapsule was visible macroscopically in the polyglactin mesh group. We could see mononuclear cell infiltration, dilatation of tubules, atrophy of tubules, and interstitial fibrosis in all groups except group 5. In this animal model, we found that the most appropriate repair material for kidney surgery was polyglactin mesh. (author)

2005-01-01

413

Évolution des techniques de séquençage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La biologie analytique a connu depuis quelques années une grande révolution en conséquence des progrès technologiques de la biologie moléculaire appliquée au séquençage des génomes. En effet, connaître l’enchaînement complet des bases nucléotidiques qui constituent un génome, c’est connaître toute l’information nécessaire à la vie (du moins en théorie.Ce n’est que récemment, avec la mise en place des Programmes Génome, que de nombreux génomes, dont celui de l’être humain, sont aujourd’hui séquencés, et que d’autres génomes sont en voie de l’être dans des délais de plus en plus raccourcis. Ces réalisations spectaculaires, sont rendues possible grâce aux développements extraordinaires des techniques de séquençage que nous essayons de passer en revue dans cet article. Nous rappellerons dans un premier temps le principe de base et l’évolution des techniques traditionnelles (Sanger, Maxam et pyroséquençage. Nous discuterons les avantages et les inconvénients de chaque approche avant d’exposer la nouvelle génération de séquenceurs automatisés.

Ennaji Mly Mustapha

2007-08-01

414

Reconstitution technique for surveillance programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surveillance programs of reactor pressure vessel materials play very important role in reactor pressure vessel lifetime assessment. Unfortunately, most of them were designed and manufactured many years ago when knowledge about radiation damage as well of fracture mechanics was substantially nonadequate to present requirements. Reconstitution techniques are very effective methods for obtaining necessary data from irradiated and previously tested surveillance specimens. Electron beam welding technique was chosen for reconstitution of irradiated surveillance specimens from WWER-440 reactor pressure vessels. This method was chosen as an effective one as practically no machining is necessary after welding as specimen dimensions and forms are fully maintained. Paper describes the reconstitution method and results obtained from its validation--time dependent temperature in the vicinity of the specimen notch to prove that this method does not affect irradiation damage in reconstituted specimens. Paper also gives results from first tests of re-assessed surveillance program of WWER-440 RPV: comparison of transition temperature shifts from original Charpy V-notch specimens with transition temperature shifts from reconstituted precracked Charpy specimens.

Brumovsky, M.; Novosad, P. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez plc (Czech Republic)

1996-09-01

415

Multiple raise round blasting technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Multiple Raise Round Blasting Technique (MRRBT) is a safe, efficient, cost effective method of blasting that will use existing mine personnel. The MRRBT, developed from the conventional drop raise method style of blasting, can be used for most raise mining applications. Current results using MRRBT indicate no upper limit for the maximum length that a raise can be blasted. To date, only small diameter holes have been used with MRRBT; undoubtedly larger diameter holes will be used with this procedure in the future. The drill pattern and hole size are typically determined by local conditions. The cost per foot/meter should be substantially lower using MRRBT, as opposed to raise bore machines and/or conventional raise miners. Drilling, loading and