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Boilers. Comparison of the main available techniques for boilers to comply with new regulations; Les chaudieres, comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main techniques, presently available, that can lead to a consequent decrease in pollutant emissions, are presented pointing out their advantages and drawbacks: sulfur oxide emissions can be lowered by fuel processing and fume desulfurization (through desulfurizer in situ injection or a downstream treatment for solid and liquid fuels); NOx emissions are decreased through fume recycling, low-NOx burners, air staging (OFA), combustion chamber over-dimensioning, combustion air temperature reduction, re-burning (IFR), injection of de-nitrifying agents (at high temperature without catalysts, at low temperature with catalysts). Associations of these techniques are also discussed. Ash processing is studied for coal and fuel oil, depending on the NOx and SOx previously selected cleansing techniques

Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

1997-12-31

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ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Places disponibles*/Places available **  

CERN Multimedia

* Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) Plannification de projet avec MS-Project/Project Scheduling with MS-Project : 2 sessions : 23.10 & 4.11.03 and 18 &25.11.03 (2 jours/2 days - langue à définir/language to be defined) AutoCAD 2002 ? Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11...

2003-01-01

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Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l’enseignement de la thermodynamique technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [Français] Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé DiagSim capable d’estimer les propriétés d’un corps pur et de tracer n’importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés. [English] The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This technology tool is particularly useful when teaching engineering students the basic concepts of technical thermodynamics.

Jean-Noël Jaubert

2005-01-01

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Técnicas disponibles de monitorización hemodinámica: Ventajas y limitaciones Techniques available for hemodynamic monitoring: Advantages and limitations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El catéter de la arteria pulmonar (CAP) ha constituido una herramienta fundamental para la monitorización hemodinámica en las unidades de cuidados intensivos durante los últimos 40 años. Durante este período de tiempo ha sido ampliamente usado en pacientes críticos para el diagnóstico y como guía del tratamiento, ayudando a los clínicos a entender la fisiopatología de muchos procesos hemodinámicos. Sin embargo, en los últimos años la utilidad del CAP ha sido sometida a un intenso debate. Paralelamente, los avances tecnológicos han permitido el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas, menos invasivas, para la monitorización cardiovascular. Esta puesta al día pretende dar a los clínicos una visión de los parámetros hemodinámicos que aportan los distintos métodos disponibles, considerando que es fundamental comprender tanto su potencial utilidad clínica como sus limitaciones para un uso eficaz de la información que proporcionan.The pulmonary artery catheter has been a key tool for monitoring hemodynamic status in the intensive care unit for nearly 40 years. During this period of time, it has been the hemodynamic monitoring technique most commonly used for the diagnosis of many clinical situations, allowing clinicians to understand the underlying cardiovascular physiopathology, and helping to guide treatment interventions. However, in recent years, the usefulness of pulmonary artery catheterization has been questioned. Technological advances have introduced new and less invasive hemodynamic monitoring techniques. This review provides a systematic update on the hemodynamic variables offered by cardiac output monitoring devices, taking into consideration their clinical usefulness and their inherent limitations, with a view to using the supplied information in an efficient way.

M.L. Mateu Campos; A. Ferrándiz Sellés; G. Gruartmoner de Vera; J. Mesquida Febrer; C. Sabatier Cloarec; Y. Poveda Hernández; X. García Nogales

2012-01-01

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Técnicas disponibles de monitorización hemodinámica: Ventajas y limitaciones/ Techniques available for hemodynamic monitoring: Advantages and limitations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El catéter de la arteria pulmonar (CAP) ha constituido una herramienta fundamental para la monitorización hemodinámica en las unidades de cuidados intensivos durante los últimos 40 años. Durante este período de tiempo ha sido ampliamente usado en pacientes críticos para el diagnóstico y como guía del tratamiento, ayudando a los clínicos a entender la fisiopatología de muchos procesos hemodinámicos. Sin embargo, en los últimos años la utilidad del CAP ha sido (more) sometida a un intenso debate. Paralelamente, los avances tecnológicos han permitido el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas, menos invasivas, para la monitorización cardiovascular. Esta puesta al día pretende dar a los clínicos una visión de los parámetros hemodinámicos que aportan los distintos métodos disponibles, considerando que es fundamental comprender tanto su potencial utilidad clínica como sus limitaciones para un uso eficaz de la información que proporcionan. Abstract in english The pulmonary artery catheter has been a key tool for monitoring hemodynamic status in the intensive care unit for nearly 40 years. During this period of time, it has been the hemodynamic monitoring technique most commonly used for the diagnosis of many clinical situations, allowing clinicians to understand the underlying cardiovascular physiopathology, and helping to guide treatment interventions. However, in recent years, the usefulness of pulmonary artery catheterizati (more) on has been questioned. Technological advances have introduced new and less invasive hemodynamic monitoring techniques. This review provides a systematic update on the hemodynamic variables offered by cardiac output monitoring devices, taking into consideration their clinical usefulness and their inherent limitations, with a view to using the supplied information in an efficient way.

Mateu Campos, M.L.; Ferrándiz Sellés, A.; Gruartmoner de Vera, G.; Mesquida Febrer, J.; Sabatier Cloarec, C.; Poveda Hernández, Y.; García Nogales, X.

2012-09-01

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Heating plants. Comparison between the main available techniques that allow heating plants to respect the new regulations; Les chaudieres. Comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives an overview of the main methods available today to improve the thermal and environmental performances of heating plants and burners and points out the technical and economical advantages and drawbacks of these methods. The methods are described according to the type of pollutant: SO{sub x} (fuel treatment, smokes desulfurization, in-situ desulfurizers injection, lime treatment of solid and liquid fuels), NO{sub x} (smokes recycling, low-NO{sub x} burners, air staging, over-dimensioning of combustion chambers, reduction of combustion air temperature, re-burning, denitrifier injection, combination of several methods), dusts (filters and cyclones). (J.S.)

Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

1997-12-31

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Correlación y concordancia de tres técnicas de cuantificación de carga viral del VIH disponibles en Colombia/ Correlation and concordance of three HIV viral load techniques available in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción. La cuantificación del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) es una herramienta útil para el manejo de los pacientes infectados. Diferentes técnicas se encuentran disponibles en Colombia para ese propósito. Objetivo. Comparar los resultados de carga viral obtenidos mediante el uso de tres técnicas de cuantificación del VIH disponibles en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Muestras seleccionadas por conveniencia y provenientes de diferentes áreas del p (more) aís se sometieron a cuantificación del VIH por tres métodos: Versant bDNA 3.0 ® (Bayer), LCx HIV ® (Abbott) y Amplicor Monitor HIV v1.5 ® (Roche). Todas las muestras se procesaron en el Centro de Análisis Molecular en Bogotá, Colombia. Los resultados obtenidos con las tres técnicas fueron comparados entre sí mediante regresión lineal. Adicionalmente se determinó la concordancia entre las técnicas calculando el kappa no ponderado, la frecuencia de discordancia según puntos de corte clínicamente relevantes y la frecuencia de diferencias superiores a 0,5 logaritmos. Resultados. La correlación entre técnicas fue altamente significativa, con un R2 superior a 0,97. La concordancia también fue sustancial, con kappas no ponderados superiores a 0,7. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de discordancias para puntos de corte clínicamente relevantes y de diferencias superiores a 0,5 logaritmos fueron considerables (8,8% a 15,6% y 19,6% a 36,3%, respectivamente). Conclusión. Las tres técnicas para cuantificación de carga viral son adecuadas y muestran un alto nivel de correlación y concordancia. Sin embargo, la variabilidad observada hace necesario comparar la lectura de una técnica con otra lectura realizada por la misma técnica cuando se incorporen dichos resultados en la toma de decisiones clínicas Abstract in english Introduction. Human Immunodeficiency Virus quantitation is a helpful indicator for the management of infected patients. Different technologies are available in Colombia for this purpose. Objective. To compare the performance of three available technologies for Human Immunodeficiency Virus quantitation in Colombia. Methods. Samples from different areas of the Country were selected by convenience and underwent Human Immunodeficiency Virus quantitation using three methods: V (more) ersant bDNA 3.0 ® (Bayer), LCx HIV ® (Abbott) and Amplicor Monitor v1.5 ® (Roche). All samples were processed at the Centro de Análisis Molecular in Bogotá, Colombia. Results obtained with the three techniques were compared using linear regression. Additionally, the concordance between techniques was assessed calculating the unweighted kappa, the frequency of discordance according to cut-off points of clinical importance, and the frequency of differences exceeding 0.5 logs. Results. The correlation between techniques was highly significant, with an R2 higher than 0.97. The concordance was substantial, with unweighted kappas above 0.7. Nevertheless, the frequency of discordance for cut-off points of clinical importance and the frequency of differences exceeding 0.5 logs were considerable (8.8%-15.6% and 19.6%-36.3% respectively). Conclusion. The three technologies for quantitation of viral load are adequate with high levels of correlation and concordance. However, because of the observed variability we recommend comparing a reading from one technique with another reading from the same technique when incorporating the results into clinical decision making.

Olaya, Patricia; DíazGranados, Carlos A

2006-06-01

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Diagnóstico serológico de sífilis.: Correlación de resultados según técnicas disponibles en el laboratorio Serological diagnosis of syphilis: correlation of results according to available techniques in the laboratory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se analizaron 117 muestras de suero con pedido exclusivo de FTA-Abs (anticuerpos absorbidos fluorescentes antitreponema) con el objetivo de correlacionar los resultados obtenidos según las siguientes técnicas: VDRL, inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) y enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos recombinantes (ELISA rec.), disponibles en el laboratorio para el diagnóstico serológico de sífilis. El 51% de las muestras tuvo resultados positivos por los tres métodos, el 36%, resultados negativos por los tres métodos, el 10% presentó VDRL reactiva con ELISA y FTA-Abs negativas y el 3% restante, VDRL no reactiva con ELISA y FTA-Abs positivas. Se encontró una concordancia del 100% entre los resultados obtenidos por ELISA y FTA-Abs tanto positivos como negativos, mientras que la incidencia de falsos resultados para la prueba reagínica VDRL quedó establecida en un 10% de falsos positivos con títulos en su mayoría no superiores a 1/8. De esta manera, se resalta la importancia de la realización de una segunda prueba treponémica para la confirmación de resultados, especialmente en los casos donde resulten discordantes los datos obtenidos por VDRL y FTA-Abs, tradicionalmente utilizados en el laboratorio como pruebas diagnósticas de sífilis.In the present study, 117 serum samples with exclusive request of FTA-Abs (fluorescent treponemal antibody absortion) were tested with the aim of establishing a correlation of the obtained results according to the following techniques: VDRL, indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and enzime immunoassay with recombinant antigens (ELISA rec), available in the laboratory for serological diagnosis of syphilis. 51% of the samples had positive results with the three methods respectively, 36% negative results with the three methods, 10% showed reactive VDRL with negative ELISA and FTA-Abs and the remaining 3% non reactive VDRL with positive ELISA and FTA-Abs. A 100% concordance between the results obtained by ELISA and FTA-Abs, either positive or negative was found, while the incidence of false results for the reagin test VDRL was established in 10% of false positive results with titers mostly non higher than 1/8. Consequently a second treponemal test is highly important to confirm the results, especially in those cases in which the data obtained by VDRL and FTA-Abs, traditionally used in the laboratory as diagnostic tests of syphilis, were discordant.

Laura Elena Quattordio; Pedro Luis Milani; Héctor Luis Milani

2004-01-01

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Diagnóstico serológico de sífilis.: Correlación de resultados según técnicas disponibles en el laboratorio/ Serological diagnosis of syphilis: correlation of results according to available techniques in the laboratory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se analizaron 117 muestras de suero con pedido exclusivo de FTA-Abs (anticuerpos absorbidos fluorescentes antitreponema) con el objetivo de correlacionar los resultados obtenidos según las siguientes técnicas: VDRL, inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) y enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos recombinantes (ELISA rec.), disponibles en el laboratorio para el diagnóstico serológico de sífilis. El 51% de las muestras tuvo resultados positivos por los tres métodos, el 36%, re (more) sultados negativos por los tres métodos, el 10% presentó VDRL reactiva con ELISA y FTA-Abs negativas y el 3% restante, VDRL no reactiva con ELISA y FTA-Abs positivas. Se encontró una concordancia del 100% entre los resultados obtenidos por ELISA y FTA-Abs tanto positivos como negativos, mientras que la incidencia de falsos resultados para la prueba reagínica VDRL quedó establecida en un 10% de falsos positivos con títulos en su mayoría no superiores a 1/8. De esta manera, se resalta la importancia de la realización de una segunda prueba treponémica para la confirmación de resultados, especialmente en los casos donde resulten discordantes los datos obtenidos por VDRL y FTA-Abs, tradicionalmente utilizados en el laboratorio como pruebas diagnósticas de sífilis. Abstract in english In the present study, 117 serum samples with exclusive request of FTA-Abs (fluorescent treponemal antibody absortion) were tested with the aim of establishing a correlation of the obtained results according to the following techniques: VDRL, indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and enzime immunoassay with recombinant antigens (ELISA rec), available in the laboratory for serological diagnosis of syphilis. 51% of the samples had positive results with the three methods respecti (more) vely, 36% negative results with the three methods, 10% showed reactive VDRL with negative ELISA and FTA-Abs and the remaining 3% non reactive VDRL with positive ELISA and FTA-Abs. A 100% concordance between the results obtained by ELISA and FTA-Abs, either positive or negative was found, while the incidence of false results for the reagin test VDRL was established in 10% of false positive results with titers mostly non higher than 1/8. Consequently a second treponemal test is highly important to confirm the results, especially in those cases in which the data obtained by VDRL and FTA-Abs, traditionally used in the laboratory as diagnostic tests of syphilis, were discordant.

Quattordio, Laura Elena; Milani, Pedro Luis; Milani, Héctor Luis

2004-09-01

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Places disponibles/Places available  

CERN Document Server

Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Off...

2004-01-01

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Longitudinal dielectric permettivity of quantum Maxwell collisional plasmas  

CERN Document Server

The kinetic equation of Wigner -- Vlasov -- Boltzmann with collision integral in relaxation BGK (Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook) form in coordinate space for quantum non--degenerate (Maxwellian) collisional plasma is used. Exact expression (within the limits of considered model) is found. The analysis of longitudinal dielectric permeability is done. It is shown that in the limit when Planck's constant tends to zero of expression for dielectric permettivity transforms into the classical case of dielectric permettivity. At small values of wave number it has been received the solution of the dispersion equation. Damping of plasma oscillations has been analized. The analytical comparison with the dielectric Mermin' function received with the use of the kinetic equation in momentum space is done. Graphic comparison of the real and imaginary parts of dielectric permettivity of quantum and classical plasma is done also.

Latyshev, A V

2010-01-01

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Places disponibles*/Places available **  

CERN Document Server

Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : WorldFIP 2003 pour utilisateurs : 11 - 14.2.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 & 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 25.2.03 (1/2 journée) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.2.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 11 & 12.3.03 / 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 Ces cours seront donnés en français ou anglais en fonction des demandes / These courses will be given in French o...

2003-01-01

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Sistema de gestión de asignación de aguas disponibles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los problemas del adecuado manejo de los recursos hidráulicos, que pueden surgir en una evaluación ambiental, tienen quever con decisiones sobre el uso del agua que afectan la cantidad o calidad del agua super!cial o subterránea. Precisamente elpresente trabajo está enmarcado en el objetivo de realizar un sistema software titulado: “Balance de Aguas”, que informatice los procesos de asignación de aguas disponibles en el país, basado en la idea de controlar las entregas de agua que se establecen a diferentes entidades usuarias, a la vez quese recepcionen las demandas de estos y teniendo en cuenta las condiciones de cada una de las fuentes de abasto (reguladas, no reguladas y subterráneas) al inicio del año. El propósito fundamental es la consolidación del sistema, así como la documentación de los pasos en su desarrollo ingenieril, paralo cual se hace un estudio exhaustivo de los principales modelos, metodologías y herramientas para el desarrollo, así como de las tendencias actuales, permitiendo el análisis para seleccionar las más adecuadas que apoyen la solución del problema. En correspondencia con los objetivos propuestosla implantación del sistema facilita el manejo de los recursos hidráulicos.

Aida María Saúco Peña; Ismel Rebaza Andino; Ángel Borrego Artigas; Yosvani Turruelles Tejeda; Yordanis Gómez Finalé

2011-01-01

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Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medic (more) amento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente). El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8), sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar. Abstract in english Objective. To describe smoking cessation therapies available in Mexico. Material and Methods. Literature review of meta-analysis, controlled clinical trials, and behavioral therapy studies. Results. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions showed a good chance of success on average, expressed as the ratio of the active drug vs. placebo cessation therapy outcomes (ratios of 39, 78, 79, 117, and 119%, for nicotine chewing gum, bupropion, nicotine patch, inhaler, and (more) nicotine nasal spray, respectively). Behavioral therapy showed satisfactory results, (OR= 3.8) however, more research is needed to establish its effectiveness. Conclusions. Emphasis is made on the need to combine behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy, to increase the likelihood of successful smoking cessation.

Sansores, Raúl H; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Espinosa-Martínez, Marlene; Sandoval, Ricardo A

2002-01-01

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RESEÑA DEL SOFTWARE DISPONIBLE EN COLOMBIA PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS EN CADENAS DE ABASTECIMIENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La gestión de los diferentes tipos de inventario a lo largo de una cadena de abastecimiento es un problema complejo que, en la mayoría de los casos de la industria colombiana e internacional, se aborda mediante la implementación de herramientas de software. Sin embargo, la decisión de implementar dichas herramientas está en muchos casos limitada por la capacidad financiera para invertir en ellas y por el desconocimiento de la oferta de software disponible en Colombia. Este artículo presenta una reseña del software disponible en Colombia para la gestión de inventarios con el fin de brindar a las empresas que se enfrentan a la decisión de implementar un software, una herramienta de soporte que indique cuál es la oferta en Colombia y cuáles son las características de los sistemas disponibles. Para esto se presenta primero el estado del arte, en el cual se identifica el resultado de la revisión de la literatura y el uso de las herramientas de software en la industria colombiana. Seguidamente se presenta la caracterización de los productos de software disponibles en el país. Dicha caracterización permite identificar la configuración general de los productos, los módulos de gestión con los que cuenta, las opciones de integración con otras herramientas informáticas, y la información general de precios e instalación. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones del estudio y las futuras oportunidades de investigación.

VALENTINA GUTIÉRREZ; DIANA PATRICIA JARAMILLO

2009-01-01

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Nuclear techniques for preserving works of art  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expose des techniques qui permettent d'ameliorer la conservation des objets en bois, en pierre ou en bois gorges d'eau. Parmi celles-ci les techniques nucleaires permettent d'envisager le traitement, dans d'excellentes conditions de securite et de prix de revient, d'un grand nombre d'objets d'art qui autrefois auraient ete plus ou moins abandonnes a leur destinee.

1975-01-01

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Servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes con trastornos mentales en México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el ámbito de la salud, el bienestar físico y mental debería ser una prioridad. No obstante, en México existen limitantes importantes en la atención a la salud mental, como el estigma social que prevalece hacia las enfermedades mentales, la discriminación y violación a los derechos humanos de las personas afectadas por estos trastornos, el limitado número de servicios clínicos a los que se puede acceder, la falta de servicios de salud especializados, y la tendencia de los gobiernos a omitir esta realidad. En el presente artículo de tipo descriptivo pretendo hacer una breve revisión de los servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes mexicanos que padecen trastornos mentales.

Gabriela Zamora-Carmona

2013-01-01

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What essential medicines for children are on the shelf?/ Quels sont les médicaments essentiels à usage pédiatrique disponibles à la vente ?/ ¿Qué medicamentos pediátricos esenciales hay realmente disponibles?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Documentar la inclusión de medicamentos pediátricos clave en las listas de medicamentos esenciales (LME) nacionales, y evaluar la disponibilidad y el costo de dichos medicamentos en 14 países de África central. MÉTODOS: Se realizaron encuestas en 12 puntos de venta de medicamentos, públicos y privados, de la capital de cada país. Se reunieron datos sobre la disponibilidad de los fármacos considerados durante el día de la encuesta y sobre el costo para l (more) os pacientes del medicamento más barato en existencias. RESULTADOS: Teniendo en cuenta los medicamentos contemplados en la encuesta, la proporción de los mismos hallada en las LME nacionales osciló entre el 50% y el 90%. Sólo en tres países se hallaron en los depósitos centrales de suministros médicos más del 50% de esos medicamentos (intervalo: 15%-75%). La disponibilidad en los depósitos de las organizaciones no gubernamentales no fue sistemáticamente mejor (intervalo: 10%-65%), pero tendió a ser mayor en los hospitales docentes, si bien con un intervalo similar (15%-70%). Los hospitales de distrito (intervalo: 10%-80%) presentaron una mayor disponibilidad que los docentes, mientras que en los dispensarios de atención primaria se observó en general una menor disponibilidad (intervalo: 18%-48%). Las farmacias minoristas o privadas solían disponer de una mayor proporción de los medicamentos abarcados por la encuesta (intervalo: 38%-62%). Se observó una variabilidad considerable de los precios, que tendían a ser más altos en las farmacias minoristas. CONCLUSION: La disponibilidad de medicamentos pediátricos esenciales era escasa. Para mejorar la situación, habrá que entender mejor los sistemas de suministro en los países estudiados y las pautas de demanda de medicamentos. Además de garantizar la disponibilidad de los medicamentos, es preciso que éstos sean asequibles y aceptables para los pacientes. No se conseguirá avanzar sensiblemente hacia los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio si no se hace un gran esfuerzo para mejorar el acceso a los medicamentos pediátricos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To document the inclusion of key medicines for children in national essential medicines lists (EMLs) and standard treatment guidelines, and to assess the availability and cost of these medicines in 14 countries in central Africa. METHODS: Surveys were conducted in 12 public and private sector medicine outlets in each country's capital city. Data were collected on medicine availability on the survey day and on the cost to the patient of the lowest priced medicin (more) e in stock. FINDINGS: The proportion of survey medicines in national EMLs ranged from 50% to 90%. In only three countries were more than 50% of such medicines available from central medical stores (range: 15-75%). Availability in nongovernmental organization stores was not consistently better (range: 10-65%) but tended to be higher in teaching hospitals, although the range was similar (15-70%). District hospitals (range: 10-80%) had slightly better availability than teaching hospitals, while primary health care clinics generally had poorer availability (range: 18-48%). Retail or private pharmacies tended to have more survey medicines available (range: 38-62%). There was considerable variability in prices, which tended to be higher in retail pharmacies. CONCLUSION: The availability of key essential medicines for children was poor. Better understanding of the supply systems in the countries studied and of the pattern of demand for medicines is needed before improvements can be made. Medicines must be available, affordable and acceptable to patients. Substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goals will not occur without a major effort to improve access to medicines for children.

Robertson, Jane; Forte, Gilles; Trapsida, Jean-Marie; Hill, Suzanne

2009-03-01

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Generadores de radiofrecuencia disponibles en el mercado español/ RF generators available in the spanish market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En España se ha producido un incremento en la realización de Técnicas de Radiofrecuencia (RF), como muestra la reciente encuesta publicada en la Revista Española del Dolor. Desde el Grupo de Interés de la Sociedad Española hemos querido difundir la RF mediante la realización de cursos. Una pregunta repetida en los cursos era ¿Qué "aparatos de RF" existen? En el presente artículo no hemos querido valorar cuáles eran mejores o peores, sino describir sus caracter? (more) ?sticas técnicas más relevantes. Objetivos: analizar los diferentes generadores de ondas de radiofrecuencia presentes en el mercado español. Abstract in english There has been an important increase in radiofrequency procedures in Spain during the past five years. The Spanish Society RF Interest Group has always wanted to spread the use of RF techniques among pain practitioners. In this paper we analyze the different RF generators available in the spanish market, with their most relevant technical features.

Andrés, J. de; Roca, G.; Perucho, A.; Nieto, C.; López, D.

2012-06-01

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Generadores de radiofrecuencia disponibles en el mercado español RF generators available in the spanish market  

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Full Text Available En España se ha producido un incremento en la realización de Técnicas de Radiofrecuencia (RF), como muestra la reciente encuesta publicada en la Revista Española del Dolor. Desde el Grupo de Interés de la Sociedad Española hemos querido difundir la RF mediante la realización de cursos. Una pregunta repetida en los cursos era ¿Qué "aparatos de RF" existen? En el presente artículo no hemos querido valorar cuáles eran mejores o peores, sino describir sus características técnicas más relevantes. Objetivos: analizar los diferentes generadores de ondas de radiofrecuencia presentes en el mercado español.There has been an important increase in radiofrequency procedures in Spain during the past five years. The Spanish Society RF Interest Group has always wanted to spread the use of RF techniques among pain practitioners. In this paper we analyze the different RF generators available in the spanish market, with their most relevant technical features.

J. de Andrés; G. Roca; A. Perucho; C. Nieto; D. López

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Efecto de tratamientos térmicos sobre el contenido de lisina disponible en carne de jaiba mora (Homalaspis plana)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto de distintos tratamientos térmicos sobre el contenido de lisina disponible en carne de jaiba mora. La carne se extrajo de las pinzas del recurso, que provenía de la V región de Chile, la carne fresca se mantuvo en frío hasta que se procesó térmicamente en envases de hojalata. Se aplicó un diseño estadístico 3² en el que se consideraron las variables temperatura (80ºC, 100ºC y 121ºC) y tiempo (15, 30 y 45 minutos). Se obtuvieron 9 condici (more) ones temperatura -tiempo de trabajo. Las propiedades nutricionales se estudiaron en base al contenido de lisina disponible, la que disminuye su valor desde 8,33 g/g proteína obtenido en carne cruda hasta 6,01 g/g proteína en la carne sometida a las condiciones térmicas más drásticas. Se concluye que el tiempo de calentamiento afecta más el contenido de lisina disponible en carne de jaiba mora, que la temperatura de calentamiento, por lo tanto los tratamientos térmicos de altas temperaturas y cortos tiempos son mejores para mantener la calidad nutritiva Abstract in english Effect of high temperature treatments on the available lisien of mora crab meat. The effect of different high temperatures treatments on the available lysine content of mora crab meat, was studied. Fresh pincer meat from mora crab (from the V region) was extracted and kept in ice until the thermal process of the canned product. A 3² statistical design was applied, considering the following variables temperature (80ºC, 100ºC and 121ºC) and time (15, 30 and 45 minutes). (more) Nine conditions temperature-time were obtained. Nutritional properties from available lysine were studied. A decrease from 8.33 (in raw meat) to 6.01 g /g protein in the most drastic thermal conditions, was observed. It ca be concluded that the content of available lysine in mora crab meat is more affected by time than by the temperature of the thermal treatments. Therefore the nutritive quality can be maintained applying high temperature and short time treatments

Quitral, Vilma; Abugoch, Lilian; Vinagre, Julia; Larraín, Mª Angélica

2001-12-01

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Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet  

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Full Text Available Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se realizó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red.The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Google, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

Elizabeth Ramos Sánchez

2004-01-01

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Actividad productiva y empleo de personas con trastorno mental severo: algunas propuestas de actuación basadas en la información disponible.  

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Full Text Available Hay un creciente interés, en el campo de la atención comunitaraia a personas con trastorno mental severo, por los temas relacionados con el empleo. Tanto en Estados Unidos como en Europa se están desarrollando a la vez nuevas iniciativas y un número creciente de investigaciones que van aportando nuevo conocimiento a este importante campo de intervención, al que, con más lentitud de la debida, vamos incorporándonos también en nuestro país. En esa situación el artículo parte de la revisión de la información disponible sobre el tema, como base para elaborar y someter a debate algunas líneas de actuación, que recogen también los aspectos más generales de nuestra experiencia en Andalucía. A ese respecto se exponen las características generales que, en nuestra opinión, debería tener un programa destinado a facilitar actividad productiva y empleo a personas con trastorno mental severo en el contexto de nuestro país.

Marcelino López Álvarez; Margarita Laviana Cuetos; Francisco Álvarez Jiménez; Sergio González Álvarez; María Fernández Doménech; María Paz Vera Peláez

2004-01-01

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La valuación de empresas cotizadas en México, mediante la metodología del modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible. Relaciones con la valuación del mercado  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue aplicar el modelo de Flujo de efectivo disponible para determinar el valor de un grupo de empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores para comparar los valores obtenidos con el precio de mercado. La revisión de la literatura del modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible permitió identifi car y describir las principales variables que contiene el mismo, con el fi n de proponer una metodología de aplicación a las empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de valores, considerando que sólo se contaba con información pública. Con la metodología propuesta se aplicó el modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible a las empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, con el fi n de determinar su valor y tratar de encontrar si existe algún patrón de comportamiento del modelo al valuar a este conjunto de empresas, por un periodo de 10 años de 1991 a 2000. Encontramos que el modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible sigue una tendencia muy similar al precio de mercado, lo cual estaría indicando a este modelo como el más adecuado para valuar a este conjunto de empresas tomando, desde luego, el valor de mercado como patrón de referencia.

María Luisa Saavedra

2007-01-01

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The British-Yemeni Society Journal, vol. 16, Londres, 2008, 64 p + ill. (également disponible sur http://www.al-bab.com/bys/journal.htm)  

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Full Text Available Outre des poèmes illustrés et une interview, cette nouvelle livraison de la British-Yemeni Society comprend quatre articles. Ces varias nous donne à lire la « petite histoire » au travers des parcours individuels ou collectifs trop souvent négligés par la « grande » mais qui seuls permettent d’approcher au plus près ce qu’a concrètement été le Yémen et les Yéménites d’autrefois. Le chercheur pourrait regretter que les articles ne soient pas toujours assez fouillés et un peu trop « grand publi...

Patrice Chevalier

2011-01-01

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Mechatronic Developement of New Products Oriented to the Available Technological Capability Desarrollo mecatrónico de nuevos productos orientado a la capacidad tecnológica disponible  

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Full Text Available This paper proposes a technological innovation methodology denominated "Mechatronic development of new products oriented to the available technological capacity". It is shown as a study case of the development of hydromotors with radial pistons.Este trabajo propone una metodología de innovación tecnológica denominada "Desarrollo mecatrónico de nuevos productos orientado a la capacidad tecnológica disponible". Se muestra como caso de estudio el desarrollo de un hidromotor de pistones radiales.

Genovevo Morejón Vizcaíno; José Ricardo Díaz Caballero; José Arzola Ruiz

2011-01-01

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Fósforo, calcio y azufre disponibles de la roca fosfórica acidulada con ácido sulfúrico y tiosulfato de amonio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A produção de milho e sorgo em solos ácidos está limitada por deficiências de N, P, Ca e possivelmente S disponíveis. O uso de rocha fosfórica (RF) acidulada como fonte de P, em solos ácidos e cultivos de ciclo curto, é factível, mas é necessário ensaiar alternativas de acidulação mais econômicas. O tiosulfato de amônia (TSA) como agente acidulador, sozinho ou combinado com ácido sulfúrico (AS) é uma alternativa válida. Para provar a eficiência da RF (more) acidulada se experimentou com solo ácido encalado (SE) e sem encalar (SSE) usando como fertilizantes: RF, RF acidulada com AS (RA), RF acidulada com 70% AS e 30% TSA (R30T), RF acidulada com TSA (R100T), superfosfato triplo (SFT) e 0P. Se aplicou uma dose de 400mg·kg-1 de P ao solo. Se estabeleceram experimentos de incubação em meio ambiente e de invernadouro em SE e SSE. O P liberado por RA e R30T em SSE foi maior que em RF e R100T. Em SE a liberação de P de R30T foi menor que em RA nos primeiros 21 dias, mas logo não houve diferenças significativas. Em invernadouro, com milho, em SSE não houve diferenças em matéria seca (MS) entre SFT, RA e R30T, que foram superiores a RF e R100T. Em SE a produção de MS com R30T não superou àquela com RF e R100T. A absorção de P pelo milho em SSE foi melhor com RA e R30T que com RF e R100T, e em SE foi maior com R30T. Em SE a relação P absorvido / longitude radical foi inversa e em SSE não se encontrou relação. A acidulação parcial de RF substituindo 30% do AS por TSA não muda a eficiência de RF como fonte de P. Abstract in spanish La producción de maíz y sorgo en suelos ácidos esta limitada por deficiencias de N, P, Ca y posiblemente S disponibles. El uso de roca fosfórica (RF) acidulada como fuente de P, en suelos ácidos y cultivos de ciclo corto, es factible, pero es necesario ensayar alternativas de acidulación más económicas. El tiosulfato de amonio (TSA) como agente acidulador, solo o combinado con ácido sulfúrico (AS) es una alternativa válida. Para probar la eficiencia de la RF ac (more) idulada se experimentó con suelo ácido encalado (SE) y sin encalar (SSE) usando como fertilizantes: RF, RF acidulada con AS (RA), RF acidulada con 70% AS y 30% TSA (R30T), RF acidulada con TSA (R100T), superfosfato triple (SFT) y 0P. Se aplicó una dosis de 400mg·kg-1 de P al suelo. Se establecieron experimentos de incubación en medio ambiente y de invernadero en SE y SSE. El P liberado por RA y R30T en SSE fue mayor que en RF y R100T. En SE la liberación de P de R30T fue menor que en RA en los primeros 21 días, pero luego no hubo diferencias significativas. En invernadero, con maíz, en SSE no hubo diferencias en materia seca (MS) entre SFT, RA y R30T, que fueron superiores a RF y R100T. En SE la producción de MS con R30T no superó a aquella con RF y R100T. La absorción de P por el maíz en SSE fue mejor con RA y R30T que con RF y R100T, y en SE fue mayor con R30T. En SE la relación P absorbido / longitud radical fue inversa y en SSE no se encontró relación. La acidulación parcial de RF sustituyendo 30% del AS por TSA no cambia la eficiencia de RF como fuente de P. Abstract in english N, P, Ca and possibly S are critical in maize and sorghum production in acidic soils. The use of phosphate rock (RF) acidulated with sulfuric acid (AS) as source of these elements in short term crops is possible. The use of ammonium thiosulfate (TSA) for RF acidulation combined with sulfuric acid (SA) is feasible. An acidic soil low in P and Ca was used to test the efficiency of RF acidulated with SA and TSA. Field and incubation experiments were conducted on limed (SE) a (more) nd non-limed soil (SSE). Fertilizer treatments were: RF acidulated with AS (RA), RF acidulated with 70% AS and 30% TSA, (R30T); RF acidulated with TSA (R100T), triple super-phosphate (SP) and 0P. The P dosis applied to the soil was 400mg·kg-1. Released P in SSE with RA and R30T was higher than with RF and R100T, but P released from R30T in SE was lower than that from RA in

Sequera, Omaira; Ramírez, Ricardo

2003-10-01

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Estimación del gasto cardíaco: Utilidad en la práctica clínica. Monitorización disponible invasiva y no invasiva Estimating cardiac output: Utility in the clinical practice. Available invasive and non-invasive monitoring  

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Full Text Available Esta revisión pretende profundizar en el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco, sus variables y sus condicionantes, así como repasar exhaustivamente las diferentes técnicas disponibles para su monitorización y establecer las situaciones en que el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco nos aporta una información fundamental en el manejo del paciente crítico. La técnica de Fick, utilizada en los inicios para calcular el gasto cardíaco de los pacientes, ha sido sustituida hoy en día en la práctica clínica por los métodos de termodilución (transcardíaca o transpulmonar), litiodilución, biorreactancia, la tecnología basada en el efecto Doppler o la ecocardiografía. El análisis de la onda de pulso ha permitido la obtención de una medida continua y mínimamente invasiva del gasto cardíaco. Otros métodos, como la biorrectancia, el Doppler o la ecocardiografía nos permiten, en la actualidad, obtener medidas del gasto cardíaco de forma no invasiva, rápida y fiable.This aim of this review is to provide a detailed review of the physiologic conditions and variables of the cardiac output, as well as review the different techniques available for its measurement. We also want to establish the clinical situations in which the measurement of cardiac output can add valuable information for the management of critically ill patients. The Fick technique, used in the beginning to calculate cardiac output, has been replaced today by thermodilution techniques (transcardiac or transpulmonary), lithium dilution, bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography. Pulse wave analysis allows a continuous minimally invasive cardiac output measurement. Other methods, such bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography currently provide a valid, fast and non-invasive measurement of cardiac output.

X. García; L. Mateu; J. Maynar; J. Mercadal; A. Ochagavía; A. Ferrandiz

2011-01-01

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Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseigement technique  

CERN Document Server

Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

2004-01-01

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Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseignement technique  

CERN Multimedia

Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

2004-01-01

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Hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad: evidencia disponible diagnóstica y terapéutica/ Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the preterm infant: current evidence in diagnosis and treatment  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La hemorragia de la matriz germinal y la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica son las complicaciones neuroquirúrgicas más frecuentes en los pacientes recién nacidos pretérmino91. La incidencia de estas complicaciones es muy variable según las series consultadas19,36,47,56,61,71,93, pero su prevalencia está en cualquier caso en aumento debido tanto a la mayor incidencia de embarazos múltiples y partos prematuros en relación al avance de las nuevas técnicas de fertilizaci? (more) ?n, como a la mayor supervivencia de estos pacientes merced a los recientes avances en los cuidados perinatales85. En este contexto resulta esencial disponer de un conocimiento preciso y concreto de las recomendaciones diagnósticas y terapéuticas en referencia a esta entidad. Sin embargo, la evidencia disponible al respecto es a menudo fragmentada e incompleta. El objetivo de la presente revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de los principales aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad. Para ello se ha solicitado a los miembros del grupo de trabajo de Neurocirugía Pediátrica de la Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía que revisen las cuestiones más relevantes en referencia a esta patología. Esto supone el primer paso para la elaboración de una guía clínica común para el tratamiento de las complicaciones asociadas a la hemorragia intra y periventricular del prematuro. Abstract in english Intraventricular haemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus are the most important neurological complications in preterm infants during the neonatal period91. The prevalence of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage widely varies depending on the population of study19,36,47,56,61,71,93, but it is in any case increasing due both to the higher incidence of multiple and preterm deliveries as well as the longer survival of preterm infants favoured by recent advances (more) in perinatal care85. It is therefore of the utmost convenience to be familiar with the most important clinical evidence regarding this entity. However, the available evidence is often incomplete and piecemeal. The objective of the present review is to summarise the main diagnostic and therapeutic points regarding preterm-related posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. The participants of the working-group in Pediatric Neurosurgery of the Spanish Society of Neurosurgery were asked to write these recommendations down. This hopefully represents the first step towards the definition of a clinical guide in the treatment of complications related to periventricular hemorrhage of the preterm infants.

Bravo, C.; Cano, P.; Conde, R.; Gelabert, M.; Pulido, P.; Ros, B.; Miranda, P.

2011-10-01

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Hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad: evidencia disponible diagnóstica y terapéutica Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the preterm infant: current evidence in diagnosis and treatment  

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Full Text Available La hemorragia de la matriz germinal y la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica son las complicaciones neuroquirúrgicas más frecuentes en los pacientes recién nacidos pretérmino91. La incidencia de estas complicaciones es muy variable según las series consultadas19,36,47,56,61,71,93, pero su prevalencia está en cualquier caso en aumento debido tanto a la mayor incidencia de embarazos múltiples y partos prematuros en relación al avance de las nuevas técnicas de fertilización, como a la mayor supervivencia de estos pacientes merced a los recientes avances en los cuidados perinatales85. En este contexto resulta esencial disponer de un conocimiento preciso y concreto de las recomendaciones diagnósticas y terapéuticas en referencia a esta entidad. Sin embargo, la evidencia disponible al respecto es a menudo fragmentada e incompleta. El objetivo de la presente revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de los principales aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad. Para ello se ha solicitado a los miembros del grupo de trabajo de Neurocirugía Pediátrica de la Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía que revisen las cuestiones más relevantes en referencia a esta patología. Esto supone el primer paso para la elaboración de una guía clínica común para el tratamiento de las complicaciones asociadas a la hemorragia intra y periventricular del prematuro.Intraventricular haemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus are the most important neurological complications in preterm infants during the neonatal period91. The prevalence of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage widely varies depending on the population of study19,36,47,56,61,71,93, but it is in any case increasing due both to the higher incidence of multiple and preterm deliveries as well as the longer survival of preterm infants favoured by recent advances in perinatal care85. It is therefore of the utmost convenience to be familiar with the most important clinical evidence regarding this entity. However, the available evidence is often incomplete and piecemeal. The objective of the present review is to summarise the main diagnostic and therapeutic points regarding preterm-related posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. The participants of the working-group in Pediatric Neurosurgery of the Spanish Society of Neurosurgery were asked to write these recommendations down. This hopefully represents the first step towards the definition of a clinical guide in the treatment of complications related to periventricular hemorrhage of the preterm infants.

C. Bravo; P. Cano; R. Conde; M. Gelabert; P. Pulido; B. Ros; P. Miranda

2011-01-01

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EVALUACIÓN DE LOS PARAMETROS DE CALIDAD PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE FOSFORO DISPONIBLE EN SUELOS/ QUALITY PARAMETERS EVALUATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AVAILABLE PHOSPHOROUES IN SOILS  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En la actualidad existen varios procedimientos para la determinación de fósforo disponible en suelos, en donde el fósforo es cuantificado por métodos colorimétricos por medio del desarrollo de un complejo coloreado azul (ácido fosfomolíbdico); en uno, el color se presenta al utilizar como agente reductor ácido ascórbico y en el otro al emplear cloruro estannoso; ambos métodos utilizan la misma solución extractora de Bray II, cuya importancia radica en que prese (more) nta una muy buena correlación con la respuesta de cultivos en suelos ácidos, como lo son la mayoría de suelos de Colombia. Al comparar las dos metodologías se encontró que el método más sensible y con los mejores límites de detección y cuantificación para la determinación de fósforo es el que utiliza como agente reductor ácido ascórbico y tartrato de antimonio y potasio. También se observó al evaluar la precisión del sistema y del método que, tanto los coeficientes de variación, como las desviaciones estándar, fueron menores en este método, por tanto se considera como el método más preciso para la determinación de fósforo. Abstract in english There are some colorimetric procedures for determining available phosphorous in soils, and phosphorous is evaluated by means of a blue complex (phosphomolibdic acid); in one of the methods, color appear when ascorbic acid is used as reductor agent, and in the other when stannous chloride is used. Both methods use the same extractive solution Bray II due to its good response for acid soil cultures, like most Colombian soils are. When the two methodologies were compared it (more) was found that the most sensible method and with the best limit of detection and quantification was the one that uses ascorbic acid, antimonioum and potassium tartrate. Its variation coefficients and standard deviation were lower, and for this reason it is considered as the most precise method for phosphorous determination.

García Galvis, Johnbrynner; Ballesteros, María Inés

2006-06-01

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Validación de la metodología para la determinación cuantitativa de plomo en tintes cosméticos disponibles en el mercado nacional por espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama  

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Full Text Available Se validó la metodología analítica para determinar cuantitativamente plomo en tintes cosméticos disponibles en el mercado nacional, por el método de espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama. Las muestras se digirieron por digestión húmeda con HNO3 al 65 % m/men horno de microondas; el porcentaje de recuperación para la digestión de muestras de 0,25 g y 0,45 g en 5,00 mL fue de 100,5±0,5. El ámbito de linealidad óptimo fue del límite de detección a 5,0 mg/L con un coeficiente de correlación de 0,9998.Los límites de detección y los límites de cuantificación determinados gráficamente por el método de corredor de errores para regresión lineal fueron de 0,12 ±0,02 mg/L y 0,21±0,02 mg/L, respectivamente. Se evaluó la precisión determinando la repetitividad como desviación estándar de 5 réplicas de un tinte positivo para plomo, de acuerdo con la definición de la ISO,2?2*?, y se obtuvo un valor de 2,3. La veracidad se determinó por medio de los porcentajes de recuperación evaluados, agregando alícuotas de patrones de plomo a muestras de tinte y comparándolo con muestras de igual masa a las que no se les realizó adición. Las muestras de tintes se obtuvieron en puestos de venta, tales como farmacias, suplidoras de belleza,supermercados, centros de ventas de productos naturales y el mercado central de San José. De los tintes analizados, de marca Youthair, de fabricación norteamericana, Doni, Mont D’Or, Matador y Siempre Joven, producidos localmente, contienen acetato de plomo como ingrediente activo

Paulina Silva Trejos

2008-01-01

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The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information/ Situation du commerce international d'organes: un tableau prévisionnel reposant sur l'intégration des données disponibles/ Situación del comercio internacional de órganos: panorama provisional basado en la integración de la información disponible  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El trasplante de órganos es una intervención ampliamente practicada en todo el mundo. La expansión de ese tratamiento ha provocado una grave escasez de órganos y la aparición del fenómeno del comercio de órganos. Muchos pacientes viajan a zonas donde es posible comprar y vender órganos. Aunque el comercio internacional de órganos se considera una importante cuestión de política sanitaria, sigue habiendo grandes incertidumbres sobre la situación actual de esa p (more) ráctica, debido a la falta de datos y de iniciativas para sintetizar los datos disponibles. En el presente artículo se ha procurado integrar la información disponible sobre el comercio internacional de órganos en la actualidad para ofrecer un panorama mundial provisional, basado finalmente en una revisión sistemática de 309 noticias aparecidas en los medios de comunicación, artículos de revistas y otros documentos. Se describe el comercio internacional de órganos en relación con sus distintas modalidades, los países que exportan órganos, los países que los importan, y los resultados y consecuencias de esa práctica. Abstract in english Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is (more) an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

Shimazono, Yosuke

2007-12-01

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Evaluación del fósforo disponible mediante tres métodos en distintos suelos y manejos productivos Evaluation of phosphorus available by three methods in different soils and productive managements  

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Full Text Available El fósforo (P) es un nutriente de baja solubilidad y movilidad en los suelos, que se encuentra generalmente en situaciones de deficiencia para el crecimiento vegetal, y sólo puede ser repuesto mediante la fertilización. Debido a la variabilidad en la evaluación de la disponibilidad de P en el suelo, se realizó este trabajo con el objetivo de: a) comparar entre sí dos de los métodos más comunes de evaluación de disponibilidad de P del suelo (Bray I y Olsen), y el método de la tirita de papel de filtro embebida en óxido de hierro (Strip); b) estimar cual de los métodos se relaciona mejor con algunas variables vegetales ante distintas condiciones de manejo y tipos de suelos. Se estudiaron suelos de los órdenes Entisol, Alfisol y Vertisol de la provincia de Corrientes en condición natural o cultivado con Citrus, arroz o pasturas, respectivamente. Se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas y químicas, verificando la similitud textural entre los suelos Testigos y Cultivados. Se realizó un ensayo en invernadero de cada uno de los seis suelos con once niveles de P (entre 0-200 mg P por kg de suelo) y luego se los incubó durante 25 días a 28 °C. Al finalizar la incubación se determinó el P disponible mediante los procedimientos recomendados para los métodos de Bray I, Olsen y Strip. Se sembró "rye grass" (Lolium perenne) que se cosechó a los 45 días de la siembra para cuantificar la materia seca aérea y análisis de P en tejido. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que todos los métodos de evaluación de la disponibilidad de P del suelo describieron de manera adecuada y significativa las relaciones entre MS (R² entre 0,35 a 0,95, y valores extremos para el Vertisol y el Entisol), %P (con R² entre 0,92 y 0,95) y P absorbido (R² entre 0,93 y 0,96 y con muy pocas diferencias entre los suelos) con el P extractado por los tres métodos. Sin embargo, la bondad de los ajustes fue diferente entre suelos, extractantes y manejos productivos, y sugieren la existencia de una interacción tripartita que arroja diferentes resultados en el valor final del P disponible. Se concluye que, no necesariamente el método más sencillo en la evaluación de P disponible para el vegetal es el que mejor refleja la relación con la materia seca o con la concentración del P en el tejido.Phosphorus is a nutrient with low soil solubility and mobility and may present limited availability for plant growth. One way to increase phosphorus availability in soil is by fertilization. Due to the variability in the evaluation of phosphorus availability in soil, the study was carried out with the following objectives: a) to compare two of the most common soil available P methods (Bray I and Olsen), and the iron oxide impregnated filter paper method (Strip); b) to evaluate which of the methods is better related to some plant variables under different managements and soil conditions. The soils selected from Corrientes Province were: 1) Entisol: natural soil as a control and cultivated with Citrus, 2) Alfisol: control and cultivated with rice, 3) Vertisol: control and cultivated with pastures. Physical and chemical soil properties indicated that soils from the same order differed in the textural composition, despite having similar chemical properties, suggesting that the differences among soils can be ascribed to cultivation. In addition, a greenhouse pot trial was conducted.Six soils were fertilized with eleven levels of P (0-200 mg P kg-1) and then incubated during 25 days at 28 °C. After incubation, soil samples were analyzed for P by the Olsen, Bray I and Strip methods. Rye grass was grown in pots during 45 days and the shoot dry matter was harvested and its P content analyzed. The results obtained in this work suggest that the three studied methods of P availability in soils described adequately and significantly the relationship between extracted P and dry matter yield (R² between 0.35 for the Vertisol and 0.95, for the Entisol), % P (R² between 0.92 and 0.95) and absorbed P (R² between 0.93 and 0.

Carolina Fernández López; Rodolfo Mendoza

2008-01-01

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Evaluación del fósforo disponible mediante tres métodos en distintos suelos y manejos productivos/ Evaluation of phosphorus available by three methods in different soils and productive managements  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El fósforo (P) es un nutriente de baja solubilidad y movilidad en los suelos, que se encuentra generalmente en situaciones de deficiencia para el crecimiento vegetal, y sólo puede ser repuesto mediante la fertilización. Debido a la variabilidad en la evaluación de la disponibilidad de P en el suelo, se realizó este trabajo con el objetivo de: a) comparar entre sí dos de los métodos más comunes de evaluación de disponibilidad de P del suelo (Bray I y Olsen), y el (more) método de la tirita de papel de filtro embebida en óxido de hierro (Strip); b) estimar cual de los métodos se relaciona mejor con algunas variables vegetales ante distintas condiciones de manejo y tipos de suelos. Se estudiaron suelos de los órdenes Entisol, Alfisol y Vertisol de la provincia de Corrientes en condición natural o cultivado con Citrus, arroz o pasturas, respectivamente. Se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas y químicas, verificando la similitud textural entre los suelos Testigos y Cultivados. Se realizó un ensayo en invernadero de cada uno de los seis suelos con once niveles de P (entre 0-200 mg P por kg de suelo) y luego se los incubó durante 25 días a 28 °C. Al finalizar la incubación se determinó el P disponible mediante los procedimientos recomendados para los métodos de Bray I, Olsen y Strip. Se sembró "rye grass" (Lolium perenne) que se cosechó a los 45 días de la siembra para cuantificar la materia seca aérea y análisis de P en tejido. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que todos los métodos de evaluación de la disponibilidad de P del suelo describieron de manera adecuada y significativa las relaciones entre MS (R² entre 0,35 a 0,95, y valores extremos para el Vertisol y el Entisol), %P (con R² entre 0,92 y 0,95) y P absorbido (R² entre 0,93 y 0,96 y con muy pocas diferencias entre los suelos) con el P extractado por los tres métodos. Sin embargo, la bondad de los ajustes fue diferente entre suelos, extractantes y manejos productivos, y sugieren la existencia de una interacción tripartita que arroja diferentes resultados en el valor final del P disponible. Se concluye que, no necesariamente el método más sencillo en la evaluación de P disponible para el vegetal es el que mejor refleja la relación con la materia seca o con la concentración del P en el tejido. Abstract in english Phosphorus is a nutrient with low soil solubility and mobility and may present limited availability for plant growth. One way to increase phosphorus availability in soil is by fertilization. Due to the variability in the evaluation of phosphorus availability in soil, the study was carried out with the following objectives: a) to compare two of the most common soil available P methods (Bray I and Olsen), and the iron oxide impregnated filter paper method (Strip); b) to eva (more) luate which of the methods is better related to some plant variables under different managements and soil conditions. The soils selected from Corrientes Province were: 1) Entisol: natural soil as a control and cultivated with Citrus, 2) Alfisol: control and cultivated with rice, 3) Vertisol: control and cultivated with pastures. Physical and chemical soil properties indicated that soils from the same order differed in the textural composition, despite having similar chemical properties, suggesting that the differences among soils can be ascribed to cultivation. In addition, a greenhouse pot trial was conducted.Six soils were fertilized with eleven levels of P (0-200 mg P kg-1) and then incubated during 25 days at 28 °C. After incubation, soil samples were analyzed for P by the Olsen, Bray I and Strip methods. Rye grass was grown in pots during 45 days and the shoot dry matter was harvested and its P content analyzed. The results obtained in this work suggest that the three studied methods of P availability in soils described adequately and significantly the relationship between extracted P and dry matter yield (R² between 0.35 for the Vertisol and 0.95, for the Entisol), % P (R² betwee

Fernández López, Carolina; Mendoza, Rodolfo

2008-07-01

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Influence of available resources on medical practitioners' decision-making process and practice: study of a reference hospital emergency department Influencia de los recursos disponibles en la práctica clínica: estudio en una unidad de urgencias de un hospital de referencia  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate variations in the observation period in the emergency department (ED) in response to bed availability. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study without a control group was conducted in the ED observation ward over 2 1-month periods. During this time the only variable that changed was the number of beds available, which decreased from 20 (pre-test period) to 16 (post-test period). Results: The ED attended 7,725 patients: 3,706 patients in pre-test period, 335 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 1,105.4 minutes per patient, and 4,019 patients in post-test period, 570 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 686.1 minutes per patient (p Objetivo: Evaluar la variación del indicador "periodo de tiempo de observación" dedicado a cada paciente, en respuesta a una reducción del número de camas disponibles. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio «quasiexperimental preprueba postprueba» sin grupo control en una unidad de urgencias durante 2 períodos de un mes. En este tiempo el único cambio fue el número de camas disponibles, que disminuyeron de 20 (período A) a 16 (período B). Resultados: El servicio de urgencias atendió a 7.725 pacientes: 3.706 pacientes en el período A, 335 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 1.105,4 minutos por paciente; y 4.019 pacientes en el período B, 570 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 686,1 minutos por paciente (p < 0,001). No hubo variaciones en la mortalidad, readmisiones o quejas. Conclusiones: Una disminución en el número de camas disponibles para observación comporta una reducción en el tiempo de estancia de los pacientes.

Juan Viñas Salas; Ramón Casals Garrigó; Ana M. Jiménez Vilchez; Pere Godoy

2007-01-01

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Control de admisión para redes móviles AD HOC con base en estimación de ancho de banda disponible/ Control of admission for AD HOC mobile network based on estimates available bandwidth  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los algoritmos de control de admisión en redes alambradas pueden monitorear el tráfico sobre cada uno de los enlaces punto-a-punto con el fin de determinar el ancho de banda disponible para los flujos a lo largo de diferentes rutas y basar su decisión en la diferencia entre el ancho de banda disponible y el ancho de banda requerido. Infortunadamente, esto no es posible en una red móvil ad hoc (MANET) por varias razones, entre las que se destacan dos: (1) en la MANET, (more) una transmisión entre dos nodos adyacentes consume el ancho de banda de muchos nodos vecinos, lo cual dificulta la estimación del ancho de banda disponible. (2) Un nodo que se admite tiene un efecto sobre la red que va mucho más allá de reducir el ancho de banda disponible en una cantidad previsible; al contrario, puede afectar la distribución espacial de los flujos existentes así como las probabilidades de colisión. En estas condiciones, no es fácil para un algoritmo de control de admisión determinar la magnitud de los flujos que deben ser admitidos para aprovechar los recursos de comunicación sin saturar la red. Este es un artículo de reflexión en el que discutimos algunos de los principales aspectos asociados con la interacción entre estos dos problemas fundamentales y proponemos un nuevo enfoque de investigación al respecto. Abstract in english The admission control algorithms in wired networks can monitor traffic on each of the links point-to-point in order to determine the available bandwidth for the flows along different routes and base their decision the difference between the available bandwidth and the bandwidth required. Unfortunately, this is not possible in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) for several reasons, among which two stands out: (1) In the MANET, a transfer between two adjacent nodes consumes th (more) e bandwidth of many neighbors, which difficult to estimate the available bandwidth. (2) A node that supports has an effect on the network that goes far beyond reducing the bandwidth available in a predictable amount, on the contrary, it can affect the spatial distribution of existing flows and the likelihood of collision. In these conditions, it is easy for an admission control algorithm to determine the magnitude of the flows should be admitted to exploit the resources of communication without saturating the network. This is a refection article where we discuss some major issues associated with the interaction between these two fundamental problems and propose a new approach to investigation.

Alzate, Marco A; Támara, Leydi J

2011-07-01

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Meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for mass and routine vaccination with available polysaccharide vaccines/ Méningite à méningocoque en Afrique subsaharienne: justification de la vaccination de masse et de la vaccination systématique avec les vaccins polyosidiques disponibles/ Meningitis meningocócica en el África subsahariana: justificación de la vacunación masiva y rutinaria con las vacunas de polisacáridos disponibles  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La meningitis endémica y epidémica por meningococos del grupo A sigue siendo una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el África subsahariana, pese a la disponibilidad de la vacuna de polisacáridos de meningococos del grupo A, que es barata y segura y proporciona protección en todos los grupos de edad cuando se administra de acuerdo con las instrucciones. Incluso con un tratamiento óptimo, la meningitis meningocócica tiene una tasa de letalidad del 10% y p (more) roduce lesiones del sistema nervioso central en al menos un 15% de los pacientes. En el mejor de los casos, la política de la OMS de contención de las epidemias evita aproximadamente un 50% de los casos e ignora la meningitis endémica, que produce unos 50 000 casos anuales. La recomendación de proceder a la vacunación universal con el polisacárido del meningococo del grupo A dos veces durante la lactancia, seguida de la administración de la vacuna tetravalente a los niños de 2 y 6 años, se fundamenta en la eficacia de los polisacáridos capsulares de los grupos A, C, W135 e Y. Esto permitiría eliminar la enfermedad, tanto epidémica como endémica, y preparar el terreno para el uso de conjugados cuando estén disponibles, y probablemente hubiera evitado la reciente epidemia de meningitis por meningococos de los grupos A y W135 registrada en Burkina Faso. Abstract in english Endemic and epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of the safe and inexpensive group A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which is protective at all ages when administered as directed. Despite optimal therapy, meningococcal meningitis has a 10% fatality rate and at least 15% central nervous system damage. WHO's policy of epidemic containment prevents, at best, about 50% (more) of cases and ignores endemic meningitis, which is estimated at 50 000 cases per year. The effectiveness of group A, C, W135, and Y capsular polysaccharides is the basis for recommending universal vaccination with group A meningococcal polysaccharide twice in infancy, followed by the four-valent vaccine in children aged two and six years. This could eliminate epidemic and endemic disease, prepare for the use of conjugates when they become available, and probably could have prevented the recent epidemics of groups A and W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso.

Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel; Gotschlich, Emil C.; Mohammed, Idris; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Bernardino, Luis; Maiga, Moussa A.

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
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DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability  

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Full Text Available Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingresa los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se interpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso) para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes.A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines the links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak connections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

MAX S ECHEVERRIA; ROBERTO VARGAS; PAULA URZUA; ROBERTO FERREIRA

2008-01-01

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DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible/ DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingresa los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se in (more) terpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso) para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes. Abstract in english A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines the links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak c (more) onnections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

ECHEVERRIA, MAX S; VARGAS, ROBERTO; URZUA, PAULA; FERREIRA, ROBERTO

2008-01-01

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Lutte contre les cercosporioses du bananier aux Antilles françaises - Évaluation et amélioration des techniques disponibles d’épandage aérien et terrestre Fighting Banana Sigatoka diseases in the French West Indies - Evaluation and improvement of available aerial and ground treatment  

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Full Text Available Optimiser les traitements aériens et trouver des solutions alternatives terrestres sont les objectifs du projet de recherche Optiban, afin d’aider les acteurs de la filière antillaise de production de bananes à lutter efficacement contre les maladies du bananier tout en respectant les réglementations et en préservant l’environnement. Focus sur les différents travaux engagés et les premiers résultats des études.Banana growers in the French West Indies have to face a major stake today: to fight effectively against the Sigatoka diseases (the yellow one for years and the black one since the end of 2010), while respecting regulations on aerial application and protected areas. The Optiban project was launched in 2008 to improve aerial application and find ground alternative solutions, which have to be efficient and to meet the expectations of the industry.

CARRÉ, Maÿlis ; COTTEUX, Éric ; ROMBAUT, Marc ; GRIMBUHLER, Sonia ; DIDELOT, Dominique

2011-01-01

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Estudio in vitro del efecto de dentífricos fluorurados comercialmente disponibles en Venezuela en el proceso de remineralización de lesiones iniciales de caries dental.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La técnica de microdureza se ha utilizado para determinar el efecto de dentífricos fluorurados en lesiones artificiales de caries utilizando el modelo in vitro de pH cíclico. Las medidas de microdureza Knoop se realizaron en el esmalte sano, desmineralizado y en el esmalte expuesto al tratamiento in vitro con los diferentes dentífricos. Los resultados demostraron que la exposición a dentífricos que contienen fluoruro produjo un aumento neto en la dureza del esmalte (more) desmineralizado, la cual mostró variabilidad en las medidas de microdureza así como en la tendencia estadística. Se realizaron asociaciones entre los dentífricos que contenían NaF a una concentración de 1.100 ppm F- y la combinación de NaF/MFP a una concentración de 1.450 ppm F-, encontrándose un incremento estadísticamente significativo en la medida de microdureza Knoop ( p Abstract in english The microhardness technique was used to determine the effect of fluoride dentifrices on artificial carious lesions in a pH cycling model in vitro. Knoop hardness measurements were performed on sound and on in vitro demineralized enamel, and after in vitro exposure of the enamel to different dentifrice treatments. Results showed that exposure to fluoride dentifrices produced a net rehardening of the demineralized enamel which exhibited measurable variability as well as a m (more) easurable statistical trend. Both the NaF dentifrice containing 1,100 ppm F- and the combination NaF/MFP dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F- were associated with statistically significant increases in Knoop microhardness (p

Rodríguez, Ana María; Maldonado, Alfonso; Acevedo, Ana María

2006-12-01

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Los principios pedagógicos en cursos de actualización docente disponibles en la web/ Pedagogical principles in teacher training courses available on the web  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Una de las necesidades de cualquier docente es mantenerse al día en relación con las técnicas y procedimientos pedagógicos que potencien el desarrollo del aprendizaje en sus alumnos. Para satisfacer esta necesidad, en los últimos años han surgido diversas plataformas educativas que usan las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) para actualizar docentes en ejercicio a distancia por medio de cursos basados en la web. Sin embargo, estos desarrollos r (more) equieren de un estudio detallado de los procedimientos para diseñar e implementar cursos en línea de manera que se produzca una educación de calidad. En este trabajo se presentan los "principios de la buena práctica pedagógica" propuestos por Chickering y Gamson (1987, 1991) para la educación presencial y se analiza su aplicación a los ambientes de aprendizaje a distancia. Además, se presentan y analizan las estrategias instruccionales y los recursos tecnológicos que se pueden usar para desarrollar cursos dictados a distancia, basados en los principios pedagógicos de Chickering y Gamson y dirigidos a docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Los principios utilizados fueron: a) el contacto entre estudiantes y profesores, b) la cooperación entre los estudiantes, c) el aprendizaje activo, d) la retroalimentación a tiempo, e) el uso apropiado del tiempo, f) las altas expectativas del estudiante, y g) el respeto a los estilos de aprendizaje. Se ilustra cada principio con ejemplos de recursos tecnológicos y estrategias instruccionales usados en un curso de postgrado impartido de manera mixta (presencial y a distancia). Abstract in english One of the needs of any teacher is to keep up to date in relation to the pedagogical techniques and procedures that promote the development of learning in the students. To satisfy this need, several educational platforms have emerged in the last years that make use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to update in-service teachers through distance education. Yet, these developments require a detailed study of the procedures to design and implement on-line c (more) ourses so they produce quality education. In this paper, the "principles of good practice", proposed by Chickering and Gamson (1987, 1991) for face to face instruction, are presented and an analysis is made of their application to distance learning environments. Also, instructional strategies and technological resources which can be used to develop distance education courses, using Chickering and Gamson?s pedagogical principles and aimed at foreign language teachers, are presented and analyzed. The principles used were a) the contact between students and teachers, b) the cooperation of students, c) active learning, d) feedback on time, e) the appropriate use of time, f) the high expectations of students, and g) the respect for learning styles. Each of these principles is illustrated with examples of technological resources used in a graduate course taught partly face to face and partly at distance.

García-Calvo, Javier

2002-01-01

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Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054 Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007). Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs) disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnóstico de situación válido para los catálogos de la región. Plantea, además, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temática en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay.The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007) are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs) in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to Mercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Elsa E. Barber; Silvia Pisano; Carolina Gregui; Gabriela De Pedro; Sofía D'Alessandro; Sandra Romagnoli; Verónica Parsiale

2005-01-01

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Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054/ Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007). Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs) disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, lo (more) s puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnóstico de situación válido para los catálogos de la región. Plantea, además, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temática en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay. Abstract in english The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007) are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs) in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to Mercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quan (more) titatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Barber, Elsa E.; Pisano, Silvia; Gregui, Carolina; De Pedro, Gabriela; D'Alessandro, Sofía; Romagnoli, Sandra; Parsiale, Verónica

2005-06-01

48

EVALUACIÓN ESPACIAL DEL NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE DEL SUELO EN UN CULTIVO DE PAPA cv. SPUNTA EN CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA Spatial evaluation of available soil nitrogen in a potato crop cv. Spunta in Córdoba, Argentina  

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Full Text Available Un análisis espacial del N disponible en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Spunta es necesario a fin de hacer un diagnóstico de la práctica de fertilización localizada y aportar evidencias sobre un potencial problema de riesgo ambiental por lavado de nitratos. Con este propósito se diseñó un esquema de muestreo durante la temporada 2000 que consistió de una grilla rectangular de 3 x 10 estaciones, en dos fechas (21/03 y 14/04) y a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm). El contenido de humedad del suelo en ambas fechas resultó elevado y escasamente variable (CV 52%) fue muy superior a la humedad del suelo en ambas fechas. Una comparación localizada del N disponible mostró que en el estrato superficial el contenido de N-NO3- de toda el área fue siempre superior a 7,5 mg kg-1, considerada la disponibilidad mínima para un óptimo crecimiento de los tubérculos. Entre 20 y 40 cm, en cambio, el contenido de N fue menor en ambas fechas, y la cantidad de N en la segunda se presentó por debajo de 7,5 mg kg-1 en 31% del lote. Esta distribución vertical del N-NO3-, con mayor contenido en superficie, no garantiza un consumo uniforme de N entre 0 y 40 cm. Al mismo tiempo, la mayor acumulación de N-NO3- entre 0 y 20 cm demostró que no ocurrió lixiviación en el perfil.A spatial analysis of the available N in a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Spunta is necessary in order to make a diagnosis of the local fertilization practice and to provide evidence on a potential environmental risk problem from nitrate wash. For this purpose a sampling scheme was designed during the 2000 season that consisted of a rectangular grid of 3 x 10 stations. Samples were taken on two dates (21/3 and 14/04) and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm). The soil water content on both dates resulted to be high and hardly variable (coefficient of variation (CV) 52%) was much higher than the soil water content on both dates. A localized comparison of the available N showed that in the superficial stratum the content of N-NO3- of all the area was always superior to 7.5 mg kg-1, considered the minimal availability for an optimum growth of the tubers. Between 20 and 40 cm, on the other hand, the content of N was smaller on both dates, and the quantity of N of the latter was below 7.5 mg kg-1 in 31% of the area. This vertical distribution of the N-NO3-, with greater content on the surface, does not guarantee a uniform consumption of N between 0 and 40 cm. At the same time, the greater accumulation of N-NO3- between 0 and 20 cm demonstrated that leaching did not occur in the profile.

Antonio de la Casa; Gustavo Ovando; Angel Rodríguez; Luciano Bressanini; Eduardo Buffa

2003-01-01

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Extemporaneous clobazam suspensions for paediatric use prepared from commercially available tablets and pure drug/ Suspensiones extratemporáneas de clobazam para uso pediátrico preparadas a partir de tabletas disponibles comercialmente y fármaco puro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Dos suspensiones orales acuosas de clobazam para uso pediátrico (5 mg/ml) fueron evaluadas para determinar su estabilidad fisicoquimica bajo diferentes condiciones de almacenamiento. Métodos: Las formulaciones fueron conservadas a 4 y 25 ºC y el contenido de clobazam fue determinado mediante Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Performance. Cada una de las muestras fue analizada por triplicado a diferentes tiempos (0, 7, 14, 28 y 56 días). Resultados: Las suspens (more) iones fueron formuladas satisfactoriamente a partir del principio activo puro y de comprimidos disponibles comercialmente. En ambos casos, las muestras presentaron una adecuada estabilidad física. El clobazam fue químicamente estable en las suspensiones acuosas durante los 56 días de duración del estudio a las dos temperaturas elegidas para su conservación. Conclusiones: Todas las formulaciones orales líquidas formuladas y evaluadas en este estudio pueden ser conservadas a 4 y 25 ºC por al menos 56 días. Abstract in english Objective: Two clobazam aqueous suspensions for paediatric oral usage (5 mg/ml) were investigated to determinate its physicochemical stability under different storage conditions. Method: Formulations were stored at 4 and 25 ºC and the clobazam content was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Each sample was analyzed by triplicate at different time points (0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days). Results: Liquid suspensions were successfully formulated from pure drug a (more) nd commercially available tablets. In both cases, samples showed suitable physical stability. Clobazam was chemically stable in aqueous suspension during the 56 days of the study at the two storage temperatures. Conclusions: All the tried oral liquid formulations can be conserved at 4 and 25 ºC at least 56-day period.

Buontempo, F.; Moretton, M. A.; Quiroga, E.; Chiappetta, D. A.

2013-04-01

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Servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes con trastornos mentales en México/ The clinical services available to children and young people with mental illnesses in México/ Serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens com perturbações mentais no México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Na área da saúde, bem-estar físico e mental deveria ser uma prioridade. Porém no México na atenção de saúde mental existem restrições importantes, como o estigma social que prevalece nas doenças mentais, discriminação e violação dos direitos humanos das pessoas afetadas por estas perturbações, o número limitado de serviços clínicos que podem ser acessados , a falta de serviços especializados de saúde, e a tendência dos governos em ignorar esta reali (more) dade. Este artigo procura fazer uma breve revisão dos serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens mexicanos que tenham alguma perturbação mental. Abstract in spanish En el ámbito de la salud, el bienestar físico y mental debería ser una prioridad. No obstante, en México existen limitantes importantes en la atención a la salud mental, como el estigma social que prevalece hacia las enfermedades mentales, la discriminación y violación a los derechos humanos de las personas afectadas por estos trastornos, el limitado número de servicios clínicos a los que se puede acceder, la falta de servicios de salud especializados, y la tende (more) ncia de los gobiernos a omitir esta realidad. En el presente artículo de tipo descriptivo pretendo hacer una breve revisión de los servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes mexicanos que padecen trastornos mentales. Abstract in english In the field of health, physical and mental well-being should be a priority. Nevertheless, in Mexico, the attention given to mental health has important limitations, such as the social stigma that prevails toward mental illnesses; the discrimination and violation of human rights of people affected by these disorders; the limited number of clinical services which can be accessed; the lack of specialized health services and the tendency of Governments to ignore this reality (more) . This article aims to undertake a brief review of the clinical services available to Mexican children and young people that are affected by a mental disorder.

Zamora-Carmona, Gabriela

2013-01-01

51

MEDICAMENTOS VITALES NO DISPONIBLES: ANALISIS DE REGLAMENTACIÓN NACIONAL E INTERNACIONAL, PROPUESTA DE ACTUALIZACIÓN DEL LISTADO NACIONAL VITAL MEDICINES NOT AVAILABLE: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATION ANALYSIS, UPDATE PROPOSAL OF NATIONAL LIST  

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Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión comparativa de las políticas y normas existentes a nivel nacional e internacional en relación con la disponibilidad y acceso a medicamentos huérfanos y/o vitales. Adicionalmente se elabora una propuesta de actualización del listado de medicamentos vitales no disponibles a partir de la comparación con las listas de medicamentos huérfanos de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la lista de solicitudes de importación realizadas al Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (INVIMA) hasta mayo de 2006, una consulta a prestadores de servicios de salud, aseguradores e importadores y comercializadores de medicamentos vitales, el listado propuesto por la Sala Especializada de Medicamentos de la Comisión Revisora del instituto, así como una revisión de la lista de medicamentos protegidos por el decreto 2085 de 2002 y de las importaciones de medicamentos realizadas por el Ministerio de la Protección Social en el marco de los programas de salud pública. De un total de 107 medicamentos propuestos, 26 coinciden con las listas de medicamentos huérfanos de los países de referencia y 12 se encuentran en condiciones de exclusividad en virtud del Decreto 2085 de 2002.A comparative revision was carried out on the national and international policies and regulations about access of orphan and/or vital drugs. An analysis of: orphan drugs' list from USA, European Union and all applications for importation of not available drugs submitted by the Drug Regulatory Authority (INVIMA) until 2006; an informal consultation with health care providers, insurance companies and distributors of vital medicines, were included, in order to improve the actual vital drugs list within the frame of public health programs. The analysis included all drugs that have been protected by Decree 2085 from 2002, as well as the imported drugs by the Ministry of Social Welfare under the public health program. 26 of 107 proposed drugs match the lists of orphan drugs from the countries analyzed and 12 are protected with exclusivity by decree 2085 from 2002.

Gloria A SANDOVAL; Claudia P VACCA G; Jorge OLARTE

2008-01-01

52

Estudio biofarmacéutico comparativo de marcas comerciales de tabletas de ciprofloxacino disponibles en el mercado colombiano/ A comparative biopharmaceutical study of brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish ObjetivoDeterminar la equivalencia biofarmacéutica de marcas comerciales de Ciprofloxacino 500 mg disponibles en el mercado colombiano. MétodosSe tomaron 12 productos comerciales de Ciprofloxacino tabletas 500 mg, adquiridos en droguerías y farmacias de cuatro de las principales ciudades del país, a los cuales se les realizaron los siguientes ensayos: Identificación del principio activo por HPLC, contenido de ingrediente activo, uniformidad de dosificación, pruebas (more) de desintegración y disolución; además se compararon los perfiles de disolución de los productos frente a uno tomado como referencia. Los resultados se analizaron a fin de establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas y posible intercambiabilidad entre los productos evaluados. ResultadosEl análisis comparativo de los productos, permitió evidenciar marcadas diferencias en cuanto a la liberaciónin vitrodel principio activo, con uno de los productos incumpliendo este importante parámetro de calidad. Todos los productos evaluados cumplen con las especificaciones oficiales de identificación y valoración del principio activo, uniformidad de dosificación y tiempo de desintegración. En cuanto a la cinética de disolución se encontraron diferencias entre las formulaciones, con productos de deficiente Eficiencia de Disolución (ED) y que a pesar de cumplir con la especificación a Q30, se disuelven muy lentamente. ConclusionesOnce productos cumplen con todas las especificaciones establecidas en la USP-33/NF28. Los resultados de este trabajo constituyen un valioso aporte para en un futuro cercano y en función de las políticas nacionales, poder establecer bioequivalencia entre estos productos. Abstract in english ObjectiveDetermining the biopharmaceutical equivalency of 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market (i.e. comparing different trademarks). MethodsTwelve commercial 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets were obtained from drugstores and pharmacies in Colombia’s four major cities. They were submitted to the following assays: HPLC identification of active ingredients, active ingredient content, dose uniformity, disintegration and dissolution tests and compa (more) ring the products’ dissolution profiles to that of the innovator. The results were analyzed to establish statistically significant differences and possible inter-changeability between the products being tested. ResultsComparative analysis of the products revealed marked differences regardingin vitrorelease of the active principle (one product failing this important quality parameter). All the products tested here complied with the official specifications for identifying and assaying the active principle, dosage unit uniformity and the disintegration test. Regarding dissolution kinetics, differences were found between formulations as some products had poor dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolved very slowly despite complying with the Q30specification. Conclusions11 products complied with USP33-NF28specifications (guidelines on specifications for impurities in antibiotics). This work has made a valuable contribution towards establishing these products’ bioequivalence in the near future regarding national policy.

Franco-Ospina, Luis A; Matiz-Melo, Germán E; Pájaro-Bolívar, Indira B

2012-08-01

53

Estudio biofarmacéutico comparativo de marcas comerciales de tabletas de ciprofloxacino disponibles en el mercado colombiano/ A comparative biopharmaceutical study of brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la equivalencia biofarmacéutica de marcas comerciales de Ciprofloxacino 500 mg disponibles en el mercado colombiano. Métodos: Se tomaron 12 productos comerciales de Ciprofloxacino tabletas 500 mg, adquiridos en droguerías y farmacias de cuatro de las principales ciudades del país, a los cuales se les realizaron los siguientes ensayos: Identificación del principio activo por HPLC, contenido de ingrediente activo, uniformidad de dosificación, prue (more) bas de desintegración y disolución; además se compararon los perfiles de disolución de los productos frente a uno tomado como referencia. Los resultados se analizaron a fin de establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas y posible intercambiabilidad entre los productos evaluados. Resultados: El análisis comparativo de los productos, permitió evidenciar marcadas diferencias en cuanto a la liberaciónin vitrodel principio activo, con uno de los productos incumpliendo este importante parámetro de calidad. Todos los productos evaluados cumplen con las especificaciones oficiales de identificación y valoración del principio activo, uniformidad de dosificación y tiempo de desintegración. En cuanto a la cinética de disolución se encontraron diferencias entre las formulaciones, con productos de deficiente Eficiencia de Disolución (ED) y que a pesar de cumplir con la especificación a Q30, se disuelven muy lentamente. Conclusiones: Once productos cumplen con todas las especificaciones establecidas en la USP-33/NF28. Los resultados de este trabajo constituyen un valioso aporte para en un futuro cercano y en función de las políticas nacionales, poder establecer bioequivalencia entre estos productos. Abstract in english Objective: Determining the biopharmaceutical equivalency of 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market (i.e. comparing different trademarks). Methods: Twelve commercial 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets were obtained from drugstores and pharmacies in Colombia’s four major cities. They were submitted to the following assays: HPLC identification of active ingredients, active ingredient content, dose uniformity, disintegration and dissolution tests and c (more) omparing the products’ dissolution profiles to that of the innovator. The results were analyzed to establish statistically significant differences and possible inter-changeability between the products being tested. Results: Comparative analysis of the products revealed marked differences regardingin vitrorelease of the active principle (one product failing this important quality parameter). All the products tested here complied with the official specifications for identifying and assaying the active principle, dosage unit uniformity and the disintegration test. Regarding dissolution kinetics, differences were found between formulations as some products had poor dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolved very slowly despite complying with the Q30specification. Conclusions: 11 products complied with USP33-NF28specifications (guidelines on specifications for impurities in antibiotics). This work has made a valuable contribution towards establishing these products’ bioequivalence in the near future regarding national policy.

Franco-Ospina, Luis A.; Matiz-Melo, Germán E.; Pájaro-Bolívar, Indira B.

2012-08-01

54

Les écoulements par RMN à gradient pulsé Pulsed Gradient Nmr Techniques for Studying Flows  

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Full Text Available Nous présentons ici les techniques de RMN à gradient pulsé qui permettent d'étudier les écoulements multiphasiques en canalisation ou en milieu poreux. Les principaux avantages sont de pouvoir travailler sur des milieux non transparents et d'accéder à des échelles de longueurs faibles. On montre qu'il est possible d'obtenir des informations locales sur l'écoulement, telles que le profil de vitesse et ses fluctuations dans les écoulements diphasiques, ou les cartes de distribution des probabilités de déplacement dans des échantillons poreux hétérogènes. Pulsed gradient NMR techniques are presented here. They allow the study of multiphase flow in pipes as well as porous media. The main advantages are the possibilities of studying non transparent media at small length scales. We show that it is possible to obtain local information on the fluid flow, such as velocity profiles in two phase systems, or maps of distribution of displacement probabilities in heterogeneous porous media.

Lebon L.; Leblond J.

2006-01-01

55

Informações médicas na internet afetam a relação médico-paciente?/ ¿Las informaciones médicas disponibles en la Internet pueden afectar la relación médico-paciente?/ Does the information currently available on the Internet affect the physician-patient relationship?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo pretende avaliar o impacto, sobre a relação médico-paciente, das informações disponíveis na internet. Foram aplicados questionários para 221 pacientes e 84 médicos, seguidos de análise descritiva dos dados, bem como incluídos pacientes com fácil acesso à internet e médicos que os atendem. A pesquisa, feita pelo paciente, muitas vezes resultou em pacientes melhor informados. Relevante número de pacientes se sentiu preocupado pela falsa impressão (more) de portar males descritos na internet. Alguns recorreram à automedicação, modificação da prescrição médica ou, mesmo, à troca de profissional. Não é infrequente ocorrer prejuízo ao tratamento e à relação médico-paciente relacionado às informações obtidas e seu entendimento pelo paciente. Conclui-se que ao potencial "iatrogênico" da internet se contrapõe sua capacidade de difundir importantes informações à população. A certificação de sites por entidade reguladora, gerando qualidade de informação e menor "iatrogenia", associada à orientação, poderia ser útil para aperfeiçoar a relação médico-paciente. Abstract in spanish Este artículo pretende evaluar el impacto de la información disponible en la Internet acerca de la relación médico-paciente. Cuestionarios fueron administrados a 221 pacientes y a 84 médicos, seguidos de análisis descriptivo de los datos. Los pacientes con fácil acceso a internet y los médicos que los atienden fueron incluidos en el estudio. La búsqueda realizada por el paciente, a menudo resultó pacientes mejor informados. Un relevante número de los pacientes (more) se sintió preocupado por la falsa impresión de tener las enfermedades descritas en la Internet. Algunos recurrieron a la automedicación, la modificación de la prescripción médica o aun el cambio de los profesionales. No es infrecuente existir perjuicio al tratamiento y a la relación médico-paciente gracias a la información obtenida por el paciente y su comprensión de ella. A la conclusión se verifica que el potencial "iatrogénico" de la Internet se opone a su capacidad de difundir informaciones importantes a la población. La certificación de sitios web por institución reguladora, proporcionando mejor calidad de la información y reducción de "iatrogenia", asociada a la orientación, podría ser útil para perfeccionar la relación médico-paciente. Abstract in english This article evaluates the impact of information available on the internet over the physician-patient relationship. The questionnaires were applied to 221 patients and 84 physicians followed by a descriptive data analysis. Patients with easy access to the internet and doctors who consult these people were included in the study. The research when done by the patient often resulted in better informed patients. A significant number of patients said they felt worried about ha (more) ving a false impression of having diseases described on the internet. Some have resorted to self-medication, modification of the prescription or even the exchange of the attending professional. Not infrequently there is damage to treatment and doctor-patient relationship due to information obtained by the patient and their understanding of them. At conclusion the "iatrogenic" potential of the internet is opposed to its ability to disseminate important information to the people. Certification of sites by regulatory authorities, improving information quality and reducing "iatrogenic", associated with the guidance of doctors, could be useful to improve the doctor-patient relationship.

Coelho, Elisa Quaresma; Coelho, Augusto Quaresma; Cardoso, José Eduardo Dias

2013-04-01

56

Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

2007-07-01

57

La valuación de empresas cotizadas en México, mediante la metodología del modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible: Relaciones con la valuación del mercado/ Valuation of Companies Quoted in Mexico, by means of the Methodology of the Model of Cash flow Available: Relations with Valuation of the Market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue aplicar el modelo de Flujo de efectivo disponible para determinar el valor de un grupo de empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores para comparar los valores obtenidos con el precio de mercado. La revisión de la literatura del modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible permitió identificar y describir las principales variables que contiene el mismo, con el fin de proponer una metodología de aplicación a las empresas que co (more) tizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de valores, considerando que sólo se contaba con información pública. Con la metodología propuesta se aplicó el modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible a las empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, con el fin de determinar su valor y tratar de encontrar si existe algún patrón de comportamiento del modelo al valuar a este conjunto de empresas, por un periodo de 10 años de 1991 a 2000. Encontramos que el modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible sigue una tendencia muy similar al precio de mercado, lo cual estaría indicando a este modelo como el más adecuado para valuar a este conjunto de empresas tomando, desde luego, el valor de mercado como patrón de referencia. Abstract in english The objective of this investigation was to apply the model of Cash flow available to determine the value of a group of companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of Values, and of comparing the values obtained with the price of market. The revision of the Literature of the model of Cash flow Available allowed to identify and to describe the main variables that he himself contains, with the objetive of proposing a methodology of application to the companies that quote in (more) stock-market Mexican of values, considering that single was counted on public information. With the propose methodology the model of Cash flow Available was applied to the companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of Values, with the purpose of determine their value and of try to find if some pattern of behavior of the model when estimating to this set of companies exists, by a period of 10 years from 1991 to 2000. We found that the model of Cash flow Available follows a very similar tendency at the cost of market, which would be indicating to this model like the most adapted to estimate to this set of companies taking, of course, the value from market like reference pattern.

Saavedra, María Luisa

2007-12-01

58

Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome; Proteomique fonctionnelle dediee aux Metalloproteases Matricelles (MMPs): developpement d'une methode extremement sensible permettant la detection des formes actives des MMPs dans des proteomes complexes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows us to identify active forms of gelatinases (M.M.P.-2 and -9) in an indirect manner by comparing the results of tumour samples treated with the photoaffinity probe and the results of tumour samples analysed in zymography. These studies indicate that the protein expression levels of active forms of M.M.P. are extremely low (fmoles) and do not permit any characterisation of those forms of M.M.P. by mass spectrometry, constituting a genuine challenge which can be approached by the development of new photoaffinity probes incorporating a biotin-group. The example of this class of proteins expressed in very low abundance under active form implicates to grant efforts to develop new strategies allowing the capture of the targeted proteins. (author)

David, A

2007-07-15

59

Stapedectomy technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reviews the evolution of the author's stapedectomy technique from total footplate removal with single loop wire prosthesis and Gelfoam seal to small fenestra stapedectomy with platinum ribbon piston prosthesis and blood seal. The author concludes that the microdrill is effective, safe, and cost effective for performing this procedure. Since using this technique, the author has had no cases of sensorineural hearing loss and few complaints of dizziness or vertigo.

House JW

1993-06-01

60

Stapedectomy technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the evolution of the author's stapedectomy technique from total footplate removal with single loop wire prosthesis and Gelfoam seal to small fenestra stapedectomy with platinum ribbon piston prosthesis and blood seal. The author concludes that the microdrill is effective, safe, and cost effective for performing this procedure. Since using this technique, the author has had no cases of sensorineural hearing loss and few complaints of dizziness or vertigo. PMID:8341570

House, J W

1993-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Irrigation Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Irrigation Techniques: Water Science for Schools shows how crops are irrigated on a farm and explains why one method might be better than another: flood (furrow) irrigation, drip or spray irrigation. Also described are some things that many farmers do to become more efficent irrigators.

2008-05-21

62

Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles/ Pediculus capitis: Available therapies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Pediculosis es la infestación del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a más de 15% de la población general y a más de 30% de la población infantil. Los fármacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero hasta 20% de la población se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos (more) compuestos activos, entre ellos: lindano, derivados piretroides, crotamitón, tiabendazol, malatión, carbaryl y cotrimoxazol. De cada uno, se discute el mecanismo de acción, características farmacológicas, efectividad y efectos adversos Abstract in english Head lice infestation is very common. It is one of most frequent diseases in the childhood. In 1996, 15% of the people in the world and 30% of infant were infected. The drugs used at the moment are very effective but the people get reinfested after two months, so to avoid it, it is important to treat all contacts. There are different active compounds like lindane, pyrethins, crotamiton, thiabendazole, malathion, carbaryl and sulpha/trimethoprim. For each of these, we discuss their action, pharmacology characteristics, effectiveness and adverse effects.

ROSSO A, ROBERTO P; RAMÍREZ G, M. SOLEDAD; TORRES H, MARISA

2003-01-01

63

Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles Pediculus capitis: Available therapies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pediculosis es la infestación del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a más de 15% de la población general y a más de 30% de la población infantil. Los fármacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero hasta 20% de la población se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos compuestos activos, entre ellos: lindano, derivados piretroides, crotamitón, tiabendazol, malatión, carbaryl y cotrimoxazol. De cada uno, se discute el mecanismo de acción, características farmacológicas, efectividad y efectos adversosHead lice infestation is very common. It is one of most frequent diseases in the childhood. In 1996, 15% of the people in the world and 30% of infant were infected. The drugs used at the moment are very effective but the people get reinfested after two months, so to avoid it, it is important to treat all contacts. There are different active compounds like lindane, pyrethins, crotamiton, thiabendazole, malathion, carbaryl and sulpha/trimethoprim. For each of these, we discuss their action, pharmacology characteristics, effectiveness and adverse effects.

ROBERTO P ROSSO A; M. SOLEDAD RAMÍREZ G; MARISA TORRES H

2003-01-01

64

Formation sécurité : places disponibles dans les sessions de juin  

CERN Multimedia

Il reste des places dans les formations sécurité suivantes. Pour les mises à jour et les inscriptions, veuillez vous reportez au catalogue des formations sécurité. Safety in Cryogenics level 1, 14 juin, en anglais, 3 heures, 9h00 – 12h00 (5 places) Radiological Protection, 18 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Radiological Protection, 22 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 08h30 – 12h30 (15 places) Sécurité Radiologique, 22 juin, en français, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Conduite de chariots élévateurs, 24-25 juin, en français, 2 jours, 8h00 – 17h30 (3 places) 

DGS Unit

2010-01-01

65

Aseptic technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This chapter describes common laboratory procedures that can reduce the risk of culture contaminations (sepsis), collectively referred as "aseptic technique." Two major strategies of aseptic work are described: using a Bunsen burner and a laminar flow hood. Both methods are presented in the form of general protocols applicable to a variety of laboratory tasks such as pipetting and dispensing aliquots, preparing growth media, and inoculating, passaging, and spreading microorganisms on petri dishes.

Bykowski T; Stevenson B

2008-11-01

66

Electrochemical Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

2008-07-20

67

Presentation Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.).

1992-01-01

68

Une Chaine de Mesure Permettant de Caracteriser la Performance en Voile  

CERN Multimedia

This paper presents the experimental set-up and the analysis tools developed for the performance evaluation in sailing. The measurement system is composed of sensors for the position and attitude of the sail boat, sensors for the wind measurement and some tools for the coach.

Iachkine, Paul; Roncin, Kostia; Kobus, Jean-Michel

2010-01-01

69

Assembly enabling oriented drilling. Ensemble permettant d'effectuer des forges orientes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention concerns an assembly permitting the setting into motion of a tool in rotation around an axis linked to said tool starting from a column which turns at its lower extremity around a second axis. The two axes are substantially concurrent at a same point and form between themselves an identical angle. This tool is characterized in that the said assembly includes in combination a remotely controlled deflector adapted to create a deviation angle, means for controlling the value of the deviation angle, guide means permitting the rotation of the tool and column at its lower extremity around the axes relative to the deflector, and means of control of the polar position of the deflector relative to the second axis.

Thiery, J.

1990-01-30

70

Parallel pic plasma simulation through particle decomposition techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are among the major candidates to yield a satisfactory description of the detail of kinetic effects, such as the resonant wave-particle interaction, relevant in determining the transport mechanism in magnetically confined plasmas. A significant improvement of the simulation performance of such codes con be expected from parallelization, e.g., by distributing the particle population among several parallel processors. Parallelization of a hybrid magnetohydrodynamic-gyrokinetic code has been accomplished within the High Performance Fortran (HPF) framework, and tested on the IBM SP2 parallel system, using a `particle decomposition` technique. The adopted technique requires a moderate effort in porting the code in parallel form and results in intrinsic load balancing and modest inter processor communication. The performance tests obtained confirm the hypothesis of high effectiveness of the strategy, if targeted towards moderately parallel architectures. Optimal use of resources is also discussed with reference to a specific physics problem. [Italiano] I codici Particle-in-cell (PIC) sono considerati tra i piu` promettenti candidati per ottenere una descrizione soddisfacente e dettagliata degli effetti cinetici, quali per esempio l`interazione risonante particella-onda, rilevanti nel determinare i meccanismi di trasporto che interessano il confinamento del plasma. Un significativo miglioramento delle prestazioni della simulazione puo` essere ottenuto distribuendo la popolazione di particelle tra diversi processori in parallelo. La parallelizzazione di un codice ibrido MHD-girocinetico e` stata effettuata, in ambiente HPF, utilizzando la tecnica di `decomposizione per particelle`, ed e` stata provata sul sistema parallelo IBM SP2. La tecnica adottata richiede uno sforzo moderato per la trasformazione del codice in versione parallela, permette un intrinseco bilanciamento tra i processori del carico di lavoro e necessita di una modesta comunicazione tra processori. I risultati ottenuti confermano l`ipotesi di alta efficenza di tale strategia, se applicata ad architetture moderatamente parallele. Si discute inoltre l`uso ottimale delle risorse con riferimento ad uno specifico esempio fisico.

Briguglio, S.; Vlad, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Di Martino, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. for Software Tecnology and Parallel Systems]|[Naples, Univ. `Federico II` (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica

1998-02-01

71

Experimental Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

1995-01-01

72

Analytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper concerns the physical principles behind the analytical techniques employing high energy ion microbeams, with special attention to features that affect their use with microbeams. Particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXIE) is discussed with respect to X-ray production, thick-target PIXIE, a microbeam PIXIE system, sensitivity, and microbeam PIXIE applications. An explanation of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is given for NRA with charged particle detection, NRA with neutron detection and NRA with gamma detection. The essentials of Rutherford back scattering (RBS) are given, along with the elastic recoil detection analysis, which has very close connections with RBS but was introduced much more recently. Finally a comparison of the microbeam's capability with those of its main competitors is presented. (UK)

1987-01-01

73

WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embedding a hidden stream of bits in a file is called Digital watermarking. The file could be an image, audio, video or text. Nowadays, a digital watermarking has many applications such as broadcast monitoring, owner identification, proof of ownership, transaction tracking, content authentication, copy control, device control and file reconstruction. It is intended to complement cryptographic processes. It is a visible or preferably invisible, identification code that is permanently embedded in the data and remains present within the data after any decryption process. The focus of this paper will detail digital watermarking for multimedia applications and covered by definition of digital watermarking, purpose, techniques and types of watermarking attacks briefly discussed.

Man Kan Dan; Dr. T. Meyappan

2012-01-01

74

The relationship between available P and selected biological properties in the rhizosphere of ten crop species under glasshouse conditions Relación entre el P disponible y algunas propiedades biológicas en la rizosfera de diez especies vegetales cultivadas en invernadero Relação entre o P disponível e um conjunto de propriedades biológicas selecionadas na rizosfera de dez espécies vegetais cultivadas em estufa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cultivation of 10 agronomic plant species on selected biological activities and bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in different sampling zones. The lowest available P was measured in the planted soil with Solanum lycopersicum. Helianthus annuus, Zea mays and Phasaeolous vulgaris had a relatively larger effect on the decrease of available P in the rhizosphere soil and in the soil adhering to the root mats. S. lycopersicum and P. vulgaris had the highest P concentration (> 980 mg kg-1) and H. annuus and Z. mays had the highest P uptake (17.62 mg pot-1 and 13.13 mg pot-1, respectively). The mean soil microbial biomass P (MBP) was significantly high in the rhizophere soil and in the soil adhering to root mats of T. aestivum, Z. mays, S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum (> 16 mg kg-1). The mean spore numbers of glumales (SNG) were significantly high in the rhizophere soil and in the soil adhering to root mats of P. vulgaris, S. lycopersicum, T. aestivum and Z. mays (> 167 N/10 g soil). The negative correlations of available P and soluble P with soil biological properties like SNG and alkaline phosphatase activity and the positive correlation with soil pH shows the importance of rhizomicroorganisms and glumales on P nutrition by plants in calcareous soil. Thus rhizosphere acidification of calcareous soil may not be as important as the improvement of biological properties in P uptake and acquisition by plants.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del cultivo de 10 especies de plantas vegetales sobre determinadas actividades biológicas y sobre la biodisponibilidad de fósforo (P) en diferentes zonas de muestreo. El valor más bajo de P disponible se midió en el suelo con Solanum lycopersicum. Helianthus annuus, Zea mays y Phasaeolous vulgaris tuvieron un efecto relativamente mayor sobre la disminución de P disponible en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces. S. lycopersicum y P. vulgaris presentaron la concentración de P más elevada (> 980 mg kg-1) y H. annuus y Z. mays fueron las especies que mostraron una mayor asimilación de P (17,62 mg maceta-1 y 13,13 mg maceta-1, respectivamente). El contenido medio de P en la biomasa microbiana del suelo (MBP) fue significativamente elevado en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces de T. aestivum, Z. mays, S. tuberosum y S. lycopersicum (> 16 mg kg-1). La media del número de esporas de glomales (SNG) presentó valores elevados en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces de P. vulgaris, S. lycopersicum, T. aestivum y Z. mays (> 167 N/10 g suelo). Las correlaciones negativas entre el P disponible y soluble con propiedades biológicas del suelo, como el SNG y la actividad fosfatasa alcalina, así como la correlación positiva con el pH del suelo, pusieron de manifiesto la importancia de los microorganismos de la rizosfera y de los glomales sobre la nutrición fosfatada de especies vegetales en suelos calizos. Así, la acidificación de la rizosfera en suelos calizos podría no ser un factor tan importante en la asimilación y adquisición de P por las plantas como es la mejora de las propiedades biológicas.O objectivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, em diferentes zonas de amostragem, o efeito do cultivo de 10 espécies vegetais em determinadas propriedades biológicas selecionadas bem como na disponibilidade de fósforo (P). A menor disponibilidade de P observou-se nos solos cultivados com Solanum lycopersicum. A Helianthus annuus, Zea mays e o Phasaeolous vulgaris foram as espécies que tiveram um efeito mais acentuado no decréscimo do P disponível na rizosfera do solo e nas zonas do solo aderentes às raízes. S. lycopersicum e o P. vulgaris foram as espécies que apresentaram a maior concentração em P (> 980 mg kg-1) e a H. annuus e a Z. mays as que absorveram maior quantidade de P (17,62 mg vaso-1 e13,13 mg vaso-1 respectivamente). A média da biomassa microbiana de P (MBP) apresentou valores significativamente elevados na r

Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani; Tahere Rashidi

2012-01-01

75

Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF), au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN) et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP) et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or enriching it with oxygen. Several examples are given of the influence of these operational parameters on possible fuel savings.

Perthuis E.

2006-01-01

76

Guía para el tratamiento de lactantes con alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca: Ficha comparativa de las fórmulas especiales disponibles en el mercado español Guideline for the treatment of infants with allergy to cow milk proteins: comparative data sheet of the specific formulae available on the Spanish market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca (APLV) es una enfermedad de elevada incidencia y prevalencia. Su tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de las proteínas de la leche de vaca de la dieta, mediante lactancia materna exclusiva y, en caso de uso de fórmulas adaptadas, con el uso de fórmulas especiales, como fórmulas derivadas de proteínas lácteas altamente hidrolizadas, de fórmulas derivadas de proteínas vegetales o de fórmulas elaboradas a partir de aminoácidos biosintéticos (fórmulas elementales). Estas fórmulas suponen un coste económico considerable y un importante campo comercial para las industrias alimentaria y farmacéutica. Dado el continuo avance científico y técnico, son muchas las modificaciones que se presentan en la elaboración de dichas fórmulas y en las normas para su correcto manejo y muy numerosas las publicaciones sobre diferentes aspectos relativas a las mismas. En el presente trabajo pretendemos revisar las últimas modificaciones debidas a los nuevos conocimientos y a la experiencia clínica acumulada sobre prevención y tratamiento de la APLV. Además, se revisa la importancia de los aspectos nutricionales en todos los lactantes y niños pequeños que reciben fórmulas alimentarias especiales y dietas de exclusión y se presentan las principales características compositivas de las fórmulas disponibles en el mercado español y las recomendaciones de los organismos reguladores. Allergy to cow milk proteins (ACMP) is a disease having high incidence and prevalence. Its treatment consists in the elimination of cow milk proteins, using maternal breastfeeding exclusively and, in the case of adapted formulae, with the use of special formulae such as highly hydrolyzed lactic protein derived formulae, vegetables protein derived formulae or formulae elaborated from biosynthetic aminoacids (Elemental formulae). These formulae entail a considerable financial cost and provide an important commercial field for the food and drug industry. Given the continuous scientific and technical advance, there are many modifications that occur in the elaboration of these formulae and on the guidelines for their correct handling and there are many publications on the different aspects of them. In the present work, we have aimed to review the recent modifications due to the newer knowledge and clinical experience accumulated on prevention and treatment of ACMP. In addition, the importance of the nutritional aspects in all infants and small children who receive special feeding formulae and diets of exclusion and that have the principle

E. de Goicoechea Manzanares; R. Torres Peral; F. Lorente Toledano

2009-01-01

77

Análise de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica disponíveis na BVS-PSI Brasil Análisis de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica disponibles en la BVS-PSI Brasil Thesis and dissertations analysis in psychological assessment available in the BVS-PSI Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou verificar a produção científica de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica no Brasil, disponíveis na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil). Foram analisados 141 resumos de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica referentes a estudos que tinham avaliação psicológica, psicometria, validade, precisão e testes psicológicos como palavras-chave. Os resultados revelaram que 54,6% dos resumos eram de dissertações de mestrado, 43,3%, de teses de doutorado, e 2,1% eram de teses de pós-doutorado. Destes, 19,15% foram defendidos em Universidades estabelecidas na Região Sul do País, 80,14%, no Sudeste, e 0,71%, no Nordeste. Pode-se constatar que maior concentração da produção científica de avaliação psicológica fica na Região Sudeste. Verificou-se que 60,3% tinham por objetivo buscar parâmetros psicométricos, e 27,7% tinham a finalidade de utilizar os testes para validar protocolos de intervenção, descrever habilidades específicas e estudar relações entre variáveis, e constituem a maioria dos estudos transversais. Os construtos mais estudados são a personalidade e a inteligência, e as áreas de aplicação em que se utiliza mais avaliação psicológica são a clínica e a escolar, de acordo com os resultados do presente estudo.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la producción científica de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica en Brasil, disponibles en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud de Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil). Fueron analizados 141 resúmenes de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica referentes a estudios que tenían evaluación psicológica, psicometría, validez, precisión y testes psicológicos como palabras-clave. Los resultados revelaron que 54,6% de los resúmenes eran de disertaciones de maestrazgo, 43,3%, de tesis de doctorado, y 2,1% eran de tesis de post-doctorado. De éstos, 19,15% fueron defendidos en Universidades establecidas en la Región Sur del País, 80,14%, en el Sudeste, y 0,71%, en el Nordeste. Se puede constatar que la mayor concentración de la producción científica de evaluación psicológica está localizada en la Región Sudeste. Se verificó que 60,3% tenían por objetivo buscar parámetros psicométricos, y 27,7% tenían la finalidad de utilizar los testes para validar protocolos de intervención, describir habilidades específicas y estudiar relaciones entre variables, y constituyen la mayoría de los estudios transversales. Los constructos más estudiados son la personalidad y la inteligencia, y las áreas de aplicación en la que se utiliza más evaluación psicológica son la clínica y la escolar, de acuerdo con los resultados del presente estudio.The present study aimed to verify the scientific production of the thesis and dissertations in psychological assessment in Brazil, all which are from the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (BVS-Psi Brasil). 141 theses’ and dissertations’ abstracts that referred to studies with psychological assessment, psychometric, validity, reliability and psychological tests as keywords were analyzed. The results showed that 54,6% of the abstracts were from Masters’ dissertations, 43,3% of PhD’s thesis and 2,1% were from post-doctoral thesis. 19,15% of the studies were defended in universities established in the south region of the country, 80,14% in the southeast and 0,71% in the northeast region. It can be seen that most of the scientific production in psychological assessment comes from the southeast region. It was verified that 60,3% were aimed to search psychometrics parameters and 27,7% had the purpose of using the test to validate intervention protocols, describe specific abilities and study relations between variables, being most of them from transversal studies. The constructs most studied are personality and intelligence and the clinic and the school are the areas of application where the psychological assessment is most used, according to the study’s results.

Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly; Arthur de Almeida Berberian; Regina Gioconda de Andrade; Tatiana Cristina Teixeira

2010-01-01

78

The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence/ Efficacité des politiques de réduction des acides gras trans alimentaires: une revue systématique des données probantes/ La eficacia de las estrategias para reducir las grasas trans en la dieta: examen sistemático de los datos disponibles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Examinar sistemáticamente los datos disponibles sobre la eficacia de las estrategias (incluida la autorregulación) dirigidas a reducir los ácidos grasos de tipo trans (AGT) de producción industrial en los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las bases de datos Medline, Embase y Cinahl para identificar artículos revisados por expertos en los que se estudiara el efecto de las estrategias acerca de las grasas trans. Además, también se buscaron artículos de li (more) teratura gris en las primeras 20 páginas de resultados de Google. Los estudios se incluyeron cuando: (i) se trataba de un estudio empírico que se desarrolló en un entorno del «mundo real» (esto es, se excluyeron estudios de modelamiento); (ii) se examinaba una estrategia relacionada con los AGT que incluyera, por ejemplo, etiquetado, límites voluntarios o prohibiciones; y (iii) se examinaba el efecto de una estrategia sobre los niveles de AGT en los alimentos, la dieta de las personas, la sangre o la leche materna. RESULTADOS: Veintiséis artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. De ellos, cinco incluyeron una autorregulación voluntaria; ocho, sólo etiquetado; cuatro, etiquetado y límites voluntarios; cinco, prohibiciones locales y cuatro, prohibiciones nacionales. En su conjunto, todas las estrategias redujeron el nivel de AGT en los alimentos. Por regla general, los niveles de grasas saturadas aumentaron o disminuyeron según el tipo de producto, y el contenido total de grasa permaneció estable. Las prohibiciones locales y nacionales resultaron ser las más eficaces a la hora de eliminar los AGT de los alimentos, mientras que el etiquetado obligatorio y los límites voluntarios obtuvieron resultados variados, dependiendo, en su mayor parte, de la categoría de alimento. CONCLUSIÓN: Las estrategias dirigidas a la reducción del contenido de AGT en los alimentos estuvieron asociadas a reducciones significativas de los niveles de AGT sin un aumento del contenido total en grasas. Estas estrategias son factibles, viables y pueden tener un efecto sobre la salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of policies, including self-regulation, aimed at reducing industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food. METHODS: The Medline, Embase and Cinahl databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles examining the effect of TFA policies. In addition, the first 20 pages of Google searches were examined for articles from the grey literature. A study was included if: (i) it was empirical and cond (more) ucted in a "real-world" setting (i.e. modelling studies were excluded); (ii) it examined a TFA policy involving, for example, labelling, voluntary limits or bans; and (iii) it examined a policy's effect on TFA levels in food, people's diets, blood or breast milk. FINDINGS: Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 involved voluntary self-regulation; 8, labelling alone; 4, labelling and voluntary limits; 5, local bans and 4, national bans. Overall, the TFA content of food decreased with all types of policy intervention. In general, saturated fat levels increased or decreased, depending on the product type, and total fat content remained stable. National and local bans were most effective at eliminating TFAs from the food supply, whereas mandatory TFA labelling and voluntary TFA limits had a varying degree of success, which largely depended on food category. CONCLUSION: Policies aimed at restricting the TFA content of food were associated with significant reductions in TFA levels, without increasing total fat content. Such policies are feasible, achievable and likely to have an effect on public health.

Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne Marie; Leeder, Stephen R

2013-04-01

79

Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras/ Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA) por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usando la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994). Los datos d (more) e producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979). La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g) fue mayor (P<0.05) para el FD a ras de suelo que para el FA consumido para las 12, 21, y 27 horas de incubación (161.7 v/s 150.6 , s.e.d.= 4.23 ; 217.6 v/s 209.2, s.e.d.= 3.65; y 242.1 v/s 234.7, s.e.d.= 3.34, respectivamente). Después de 27 horas de incubación, no se detectó ningún efecto significativo entre FD y el FA (P0.05) en la cantidad de gas producido ni en la dinámica fermentativa de estos forrajes. Sin embargo, la digestibilidad de la materia seca (g/r) para el FD a ras de suelo, fue significativamente menor (P<0.05) que en el FA consumido medido a las 96 horas de incubación (0.908 v/s 0.873, s.e.d.= 0.005), pero sin efecto de la altura de pradera (P0.05). Estos resultados evidencian el beneficio de complementar el registro de la producción acumulada de gas in vitro con el análisis de los constituyentes del gas fermentado y con determinaciones de residuos de la digestión, a fin de mejorar el entendimiento del proceso fermentativo a nivel ruminal Abstract in english An experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD) and simulated grazing samples (FA), at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data collected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P<0.05) from herbage mass samples than simulated grazing samples at 12, 21, a (more) nd 27 hours of incubation (161.7 v/s 150.6, s.e.d.= 4.23; 217.6 v/s 209.2, s.e.d.= 3.65; and 242.1 v/s 234.7, s.e.d.= 3.34, respectively). However, after 27 hours of incubation, no significant effect (P0.05) of type of sample, either on the amount of gas produced or on the kinetic of fermentation, were found. The dry matter disappearance after 96 hours of incubation was significantly lower (P<0.05) for herbage mass samples compared with simulated grazing samples (0.908 v/s 0.873, s.e.d.= 0.005), but with no effect of sward height (P0.05). These findings show the benefits of complementing in vitro gas production measurements with post digestion residue determinations to improve the knowledge on the nutritive value of feed fermented in the rumen

Pulido, R.; Wood, C. D.; Leaver, J.D.

1998-01-01

80

La r?paration sphinct?rienne directe: points techniques, indications et r?sultats  

Science.gov (United States)

L'incontinence anale est un handicap physique, psychique et social majeur qui a de nombreuses causes différentes. Les méthodes actuellement disponibles pour améliorer les symptômes de cette incontinence sont les méthodes médicales et de rééducation d'une part et les méthodes chirurgicales d'autre part. Quatre techniques chirurgicales répondent à ces objectifs pour la plupart des malades: la sphinctérorraphie, la neuromodulation des racines sacrées, et les deux techniques de substitution que sont le sphincter artificiel et la graciloplastie dynamisée. La réparation sphinctérienne directe est la technique la plus utilisée dans le traitement chirurgical de l'incontinence anale (IA) par lésion sphinctérienne. Cette technique est envisageable chez les malades ayant une incontinence fécale en rapport avec des lésions limitées du sphincter anal externe. La technique chirurgicale est simple (myorraphie par suture directe ou en paletot) et bien codifiée. Les résultats fonctionnels sont imparfaits et se dégradent avec la durée du suivi. Une continence parfaite après réparation sphinctérienne est rarement acquise de façon durable: le malade candidat à cette approche thérapeutique doit en être averti.

Laalim, Said Ait; Hrora, Abdelmalek; Raiss, Mohammed; Ibnmejdoub, Karim; Toughai, Imane; Ahallat, Mohammed; Mazaz, Khalid

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

NONE

1999-10-01

82

Análise de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica disponíveis na BVS-PSI Brasil/ Thesis and dissertations analysis in psychological assessment available in the BVS-PSI Brasil/ Análisis de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica disponibles en la BVS-PSI Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou verificar a produção científica de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica no Brasil, disponíveis na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil). Foram analisados 141 resumos de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica referentes a estudos que tinham avaliação psicológica, psicometria, validade, precisão e testes psicológicos como palavras-chave. Os resultados revelaram que 54,6% dos resumos eram de dis (more) sertações de mestrado, 43,3%, de teses de doutorado, e 2,1% eram de teses de pós-doutorado. Destes, 19,15% foram defendidos em Universidades estabelecidas na Região Sul do País, 80,14%, no Sudeste, e 0,71%, no Nordeste. Pode-se constatar que maior concentração da produção científica de avaliação psicológica fica na Região Sudeste. Verificou-se que 60,3% tinham por objetivo buscar parâmetros psicométricos, e 27,7% tinham a finalidade de utilizar os testes para validar protocolos de intervenção, descrever habilidades específicas e estudar relações entre variáveis, e constituem a maioria dos estudos transversais. Os construtos mais estudados são a personalidade e a inteligência, e as áreas de aplicação em que se utiliza mais avaliação psicológica são a clínica e a escolar, de acordo com os resultados do presente estudo. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la producción científica de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica en Brasil, disponibles en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud de Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil). Fueron analizados 141 resúmenes de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica referentes a estudios que tenían evaluación psicológica, psicometría, validez, precisión y testes psicológicos como palabras-clave. Los resultados revelaron que 54,6% de (more) los resúmenes eran de disertaciones de maestrazgo, 43,3%, de tesis de doctorado, y 2,1% eran de tesis de post-doctorado. De éstos, 19,15% fueron defendidos en Universidades establecidas en la Región Sur del País, 80,14%, en el Sudeste, y 0,71%, en el Nordeste. Se puede constatar que la mayor concentración de la producción científica de evaluación psicológica está localizada en la Región Sudeste. Se verificó que 60,3% tenían por objetivo buscar parámetros psicométricos, y 27,7% tenían la finalidad de utilizar los testes para validar protocolos de intervención, describir habilidades específicas y estudiar relaciones entre variables, y constituyen la mayoría de los estudios transversales. Los constructos más estudiados son la personalidad y la inteligencia, y las áreas de aplicación en la que se utiliza más evaluación psicológica son la clínica y la escolar, de acuerdo con los resultados del presente estudio. Abstract in english The present study aimed to verify the scientific production of the thesis and dissertations in psychological assessment in Brazil, all which are from the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (BVS-Psi Brasil). 141 theses? and dissertations? abstracts that referred to studies with psychological assessment, psychometric, validity, reliability and psychological tests as keywords were analyzed. The results showed that 54,6% of the abstracts were from Masters? dissertation (more) s, 43,3% of PhD?s thesis and 2,1% were from post-doctoral thesis. 19,15% of the studies were defended in universities established in the south region of the country, 80,14% in the southeast and 0,71% in the northeast region. It can be seen that most of the scientific production in psychological assessment comes from the southeast region. It was verified that 60,3% were aimed to search psychometrics parameters and 27,7% had the purpose of using the test to validate intervention protocols, describe specific abilities and study relations between variables, being most of them from transversal studies. The constructs most studied are personality and intelligence and the clinic and the school are the areas of application where the psychological asses

Joly, Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo; Berberian, Arthur de Almeida; Andrade, Regina Gioconda de; Teixeira, Tatiana Cristina

2010-01-01

83

Técnicas de reemplazo renal continuas frente a las intermitentes: pro-intermitentes Intermittent versus continuous renal replacement techniques: pro intermittent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tras una introducción que resume las nuevas definiciones y clasificación de riesgo del fallo renal agudo y los cambios que ha supuesto en su epidemiología, se detalla la evidencia disponible en la literatura para comparar las técnicas continuas de reemplazo renal con las intermitentes en términos de supervivencia, recuperación de función renal, estabilidad hemodinámica, transferencias entre las diferentes técnicas y complicaciones mayores.After an introduction that summarizes the new definitions and risk classification of acute kidney injury, along with the consequences on its epidemiology, available evidence in the literature is reviewed in order to compare intermittent and continuous renal replacement therapy in terms of survival, renal function recovery, hemodynamic stability, transferences between the different techniques and major complications.

V. Barrio

2009-01-01

84

Técnicas de reemplazo renal continuas frente a las intermitentes: pro-intermitentes/ Intermittent versus continuous renal replacement techniques: pro intermittent  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Tras una introducción que resume las nuevas definiciones y clasificación de riesgo del fallo renal agudo y los cambios que ha supuesto en su epidemiología, se detalla la evidencia disponible en la literatura para comparar las técnicas continuas de reemplazo renal con las intermitentes en términos de supervivencia, recuperación de función renal, estabilidad hemodinámica, transferencias entre las diferentes técnicas y complicaciones mayores. Abstract in english After an introduction that summarizes the new definitions and risk classification of acute kidney injury, along with the consequences on its epidemiology, available evidence in the literature is reviewed in order to compare intermittent and continuous renal replacement therapy in terms of survival, renal function recovery, hemodynamic stability, transferences between the different techniques and major complications.

Barrio, V.

2009-03-01

85

Ecocardiografía de contraste: historia, características de las microburbujas y técnicas instrumentales Contrast echocardiography: history, micro bubble characteristics and instrumental techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo describe la historia de la ecocardiografía de contraste, las características físicas de las microburbujas de los agentes de contraste, las principales herramientas instrumentales (índice mecánico, foco y enfoque, número de imágenes por segundo) y las técnicas ecocardiográficas (segunda armónica, armónica de fusión, segunda armónica de pulso invertido, imagen intermitente, angio y densitometría acústica) actualmente disponibles para uso clínico.This article describes the history of contrast echocardiography, the physical characteristics of the contrast agents’ micro bubbles, the main instrumental tools (mechanical index, focus and focusing, frame rate), and the echocardiography techniques (second harmonic imaging, fusion harmonic, power pulse inversion imaging, triggered imaging, intermittent harmonic power Doppler, color power angio and acoustic densitometry), actually available for clinical use.

Carlos Cubides; Gustavo Restrepo; Dagnóvar Aristizábal; Ana Múnera

2006-01-01

86

Surface science techniques  

CERN Multimedia

The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

Bracco, Gianangelo

2013-01-01

87

Techniques and devices developed by the CEA for hot cell and in-situ examinations of PWR components and PWR fuel assembliess after irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Within the framework of the electro-nuclear development of the PWR system, the CEA has provided itself with facilities for developing techniques for analyzing assemblies, pins and fuels. These are examinations and tests on irradiated heads and assemblies with the aid of the Fuel Examination Module (FEM), of machining of assemblies and examinations in the Celimene hot laboratory or detailed examinations and analyses on fuel elements using eddy currents, the electronic microprobe and the Fisher ''permeascope'' which enables the outline of the oxide coat present on the cladding to be followed[fr] Dans le cadre du developpement electronucleaire de la filiere PWR, le CEA s'est dote de moyens permettant la mise au point de techniques d'analyse d'assemblages, d'aiguilles et de combustible. Il s'agit d'examens et de controle sur site d'assemblages irradies a l'aide du Module d'Examen de Combustible (MEC), d'usinage d'assemblages et d'examens dans la cellule chaude Celimene ou d'examens detailles et d'analyses sur des elements combustibles utilisant les courants de Foucault, la microsonde electronique et le permascope Fisher qui permet de suivre le profil de la couche d'oxyde existant sur la gaine

1981-11-13

88

Single nanoparticle measurement techniques  

CERN Document Server

Various single particle measuring techniques are briefly reviewed and the basic concepts of a new micro-SQUID technique are discussed. It allows measurements of the magnetization reversal of single nanometer-sized particles at low temperature. The influence of the measuring technique on the system of interest is discussed.

Wernsdorfer, W; Benoît, A

1999-01-01

89

Low current beam techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

1993-12-31

90

Specific radiography technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beside radiography testing using x-ray machine and gamma source, there are several technique that developed specifically to complete the testing that cannot be done with the two earlier. This technique was specific based on several factor, for the example, the advantages of neutron and electron using to show the image was unique compare to x-ray and gamma. Besides that, these special radiography techniques maybe differ in how to detect the radiation get through the object. These technique can used to inspect thin or specimen that contained radioactive material. There are several technique will discussed in this chapter such as neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and also autoradiography.

2008-01-01

91

Pulse holographic measurement techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author).

1992-01-01

92

Potentiel de production de biogaz à partir de résidus agricoles ou de cultures dédiées en France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Et si on destinait une part importante des résidus agricoles à la production de biogaz ? Encore faut-il évaluer les ressources mobilisables, les taux de résidus disponibles, les moyens de collecte permettant la production ainsi que les rendements envisageables en fonction des cultures utilisées. L'étude présentée ici laisse entrevoir un potentiel important largement sous-estimé.

Essam Almansour, Jean-François Bonnet et Manuel Heredia

2011-01-01

93

Techniques of periocular reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eyelid and periocular reconstruction is often needed in ophthalmic practice, as a result of defects created by excision of lesions or following trauma. A variety of techniques have been described for the repair of these defects. However, it is important to have a knowledge of the basic principles underlying all these techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each, so as to ensure the selection of the optimal technique in a particular case. Different authors have popularized different techniques based on individual preferences and experiences and a brief overview of the different techniques will be helpful to compare them. The articles referenced in this manuscript were looked up through PubMed by feeding the keywords ?periocular reconstruction? and ?eyelid reconstruction? and then looking for relevant cross-references. In this review, we have discussed the various techniques available and also illustrated them diagrammatically to have a quick overview of the topic.

Sharma Vidushi; Benger Ross; Martin Peter

2006-01-01

94

Application d'une technique de modelisation aerodynamique conceptuelle sur la simulation d'un pilote automatique a commande optimale pour un avion d'affaires  

Science.gov (United States)

Ce document présente, dans le cadre d'un contexte conceptuel, une méthode d'enchaînement servant à faire le lien entre les différentes étapes qui permettent de réaliser la simulation d'un aéronef à partir de ses données géométriques et de ses propriétés massiques. En utilisant le cas de l'avion d'affaires Hawker 800XP de la compagnie Hawker Beechcraft, on démontre, via des données, un processus de traitement par lots et une plate-forme de simulation, comment (1) modéliser la géométrie d'un aéronef en plusieurs surfaces, (2) calculer les forces aérodynamiques selon une technique connue sous le nom de Vortex Lattice Method, (3) construire un modèle de vol servant à la simulation des aéronefs pour leur enveloppe de vol en ajoutant des fonctions supplémentaires, (4) construire un modèle de turbosoufflante simplifié, (5) développer un algorithme d'équilibre (trim) du mouvement longitudinal, (6) développer des algorithmes de contrôle à commande moderne, (7) développer certaines fonctions d'un système de pilotage automatique, et (8) rassembler le tout sous une même plate-forme de simulation. Afin de supporter ce travail, une application publique Matlab, connue sous le nom de Tornado, est utilisée conjointement avec d'autres fonctions pour la conception du modèle de vol aérodynamique. D'ailleurs, il sera démontré que le modèle de vol, quoiqu'il soit quand même crédible, ne concorde pas tout à fait avec les données de référence. Par contre, puisque le modèle des moteurs fonctionne bien, que l'algorithme d'équilibrage du mouvement longitudinal fonctionne bien et que les pôles des systèmes dynamiques concordent avec la littérature, les tests dynamiques effectués au sein de la plate-forme de simulation permettent d'obtenir des résultats fonctionnels et crédibles. D'ailleurs, deux systèmes d'augmentation de la stabilité basés sur la méthode de contrôle moderne LQR et couvrant l'enveloppe de vol de l'aéronef via un système d'ordonnancement des gains sont implémentés respectivement selon les mouvements longitudinal et latéral. Ces fonctions fonctionnent bien et permettent de rencontrer les qualités de vol requises pour un avion d'affaires. Finalement, certaines fonctions concernant un système de pilotage automatique sont implémentées. Dans le cas du mouvement latéral, ces fonctions sont basées sur les méthodes de contrôle modernes et couvrent la totalité de l'enveloppe de vol; mais en ce qui concerne le mouvement longitudinal, elles sont basées sur des algorithmes d'équilibre difficile à gérer pour implémenter sur toute l'enveloppe de vol, c'est pourquoi les tests présentés sont limités à des scénarios bien précis. Dans les deux cas, les essais effectués donnent d'assez bons résultats.

Pollender-Moreau, Olivier

95

Plant Tissue Culture Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of plant science. Currently, tissue-cultured plants that have been genetically engineered provide insight into plant molecular biology and gene regulation. Plant tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied plant science, including plant biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied plant science.

Lorraine Mineo (Lafayette College;)

1989-06-06

96

The laser Doppler techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt is made to give a complete discussion of the principles of velocity measurement by the laser Doppler technique and an adequate description of the instruments and their application. The principles of laser optics are discussed and attention is given to the Doppler shift, the differential Doppler technique, signal processing techniques, directional discrimination and frequency shifting, and the properties of scattering properties. Such applications as studies of turbulence, the measurement of wind speed, and studies of combustion are discussed.

Drain, L.E.

1980-01-01

97

Software Test Techniques  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

System fault-tree analysis is a technique for modeling dependability that is inwidespread use. For systems that include software, the integration of softwaredata into fault trees has proved problematic. In this paper we discuss a numberof techniques that can be used to make the assessment of software dependabilityby testing both more tractable and more suitable for use in system fault-treeanalysis. Some of the techniques are illustrated using an experimental controlsystem for a research nuclear reactor as an example.

John C. Knight; Lus G. Nakano

98

Entropy based analytic techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper studies energy supply futures when the end use of this energy is included in the analyses. The various supply and end use opportunities are evaluated against a standard basis with the analytic techniques discussed. A simplified theoretical background for these techniques is given and a wide range of energy supply and end use situations to which the techniques apply is presented. 24 refs.

Dow, J.O.

1980-01-01

99

Scientific techniques in Egyptology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.).

1987-01-01

100

Image Compression Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital images required large number of bits to represent them and in their canonical representation, generally contain significant amount of redundancy. Image compression techniques reduce the number of bits required to represent an image by taking advantage of these redundancies.To overcome this redundancy several image compression techniques are discussed in this paper along with their benefits.

Hardeep Singh Samra

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Contamination Control Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

2000-01-01

102

[Medical image segmentation techniques].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical image segmentation is an important application of image segmentation. However it is the bottleneck that restrains medical image application in clinical practice. In this paper, the aim and significance of medical image segmentation are discussed, the development of medical image segmentation techniques is sketched, and a review of the medical image segmentation techniques is given.

Li J; Zhu S; Bin H

2006-08-01

103

[Medical image segmentation techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical image segmentation is an important application of image segmentation. However it is the bottleneck that restrains medical image application in clinical practice. In this paper, the aim and significance of medical image segmentation are discussed, the development of medical image segmentation techniques is sketched, and a review of the medical image segmentation techniques is given. PMID:17002132

Li, Jing; Zhu, Shan'an; Bin, He

2006-08-01

104

Scientific techniques in Egyptology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.).

Newton, G.W.A.

1987-04-01

105

Image Compression Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital images required large number of bits to represent them and in their canonical representation, generally contain significant amount of redundancy. Image compression techniques reduce the number of bits required to represent an image by taking advantage of these redundancies.To overcome this redundancy several image compression techniques are discussed in this paper along with their benefits.

Hardeep Singh Samra

2012-01-01

106

Laser induced pyrolysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of laser pyrolysis techniques to the problems of chemical analysis is discussed. The processes occurring during laser pyrolysis are first briefly reviewed. The problems encountered in laser pyrolysis gas chromatography are discussed using the analysis of phenanthrene and binary hydrocarbons. The application of this technique to the characterization of naturally occurring carbonaceous material such as oil shales and coal is illustrated

1976-09-07

107

Teletherapy: advanced techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiotherapy has been utilized as a treatment for ophthalmologic processes for more than one hundred years. Over this century, the field of ophthalmologic oncology has been revolutionized through medical discoveries, development of novel surgical interventions, and innovation of advanced radiotherapy techniques. In this chapter, novel radiotherapy techniques are considered. Material presented will build on basic radiation therapy principles, techniques, and treatment parameters established in the previous chapter through consideration of intensity modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and heavy ion therapy. Deliberation of matters common across advanced radiotherapy techniques including target delineation, treatment planning, and requisites for ensuring accurate, precise treatment delivery will precede discussion of advanced radiotherapy techniques as applied to the management ophthalmologic malignancies.

Stockham A; Balagamwala EH; Singh AD; Macklis R

2013-01-01

108

Disagreements around techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modern man lives in disagreement with its techniques. Technical progress is the foundation of its material and spiritual existence, but he does not like it. Specialization, difficult understanding of the technical procedures and the price that has to be paid for technical progress, have led to a deep-going enstrangement. Therefore the question: What kind of human function has our technique. It is understood as an extension and perfection of our bodily organs, in order to increase our ability to see and to hear enormously, and to intervene formatively in the existing reality. Technique is therefore an instrument of comprehensive self-realization of man. (orig./GL)

1980-10-03

109

Qualification of Radiographic Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper present some experience from qualification of a radiographic system, according to the Swedish code. The Swedish code, concerning qualification, follows the ENIQ procedure allowing a mix of technical justification and practical tests. The radiographic system, aimed for qualification, is a digital system using an enhanced type of x-ray camera (designed by SAQ Kontroll) and capable to detect IGSCC cracks, 5 mm deep in 60 mm trough wall. Like many others, the Swedish qualification praxis is based on experience from ultrasonic technique. There is also, for radiographic technique, demands with no relevance for digital technique i.e. for film density

1997-01-01

110

TECHNIQUE OF JEJUNOSTOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feeding difficulties is an important problem of some patients (postoperative feeding in major interventions, acute pancreatitis etc.). Many of these patients are managed by jejunostomy. This paper presents the surgical technique for temporary or permanent jejunostomy by laparoscopic and open approach. Standard technique is Witzel jejunostomy but in some cases it is indicated other types of interventions: Stamm, Liffmann, Albert or Roux jejunostomy. It is also presented postoperative complications. Jejunostomy is a safe and effective procedure for enteral feeding but this operation has some „critical technique points”.

E. Tarcoveanu

2005-01-01

111

Advanced analytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

1976-01-01

112

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 2): Transferencias nerviosas intraplexuales/ Nerve Reconstruction Techniques in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Surgery (Part 2): Intraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio (more) receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc., para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En una primera entrega se analizaron las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales; este trabajo viene a complementar al anterior revisando las transferencias intraplexuales, y así completando el análisis de las transferencias nerviosas disponibles en la cirugía del plexo braquial. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the t (more) rauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has

Robla-Costales, J.; Socolovsky, M.; Di Masi, G.; Robla-Costales, D.; Domitrovic, L.; Campero, A.; Fernández-Fernández, J.; Ibáñez-Plágaro, J.; García-Cosamalón, J.

2011-12-01

113

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 2): Transferencias nerviosas intraplexuales Nerve Reconstruction Techniques in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Surgery (Part 2): Intraplexal nerve transfers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc., para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En una primera entrega se analizaron las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales; este trabajo viene a complementar al anterior revisando las transferencias intraplexuales, y así completando el análisis de las transferencias nerviosas disponibles en la cirugía del plexo braquial.After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexu

J. Robla-Costales; M. Socolovsky; G. Di Masi; D. Robla-Costales; L. Domitrovic; A. Campero; J. Fernández-Fernández; J. Ibáñez-Plágaro; J. García-Cosamalón

2011-01-01

114

Reversible Data Hiding Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reversible data hiding is a technique that is used to hide data inside an image. The data is hidden in such a way that the exact or original data is not visible. The hidden data can be retrieved as and when required. There are several methods that are used in reversible data hiding techniques like Watermarking, Lossless embedding and encryption. In this paper we present a review of reversible watermarking techniques and show different methods that are used to get reversible data hiding technique with higher embedding capacity and invisible objects. Watermark need not be hidden. Watermarking can be applied to 1. Images, 2. Text, 3. Audio/video, 4. Software.

Dhananjay Yadav; Vipul Singhal; Devesh Kumar Bandil

2012-01-01

115

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

116

Perturbation Theory and Techniques  

CERN Multimedia

Prepared for the Quantum Field Theory section of the Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics, Elsevier, 2006. A brief introduction to the methodology and techniques of perturbative relativistic quantum field theory is presented.

Szabó, R J

2005-01-01

117

Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)  

Science.gov (United States)

This site provides information on various classroom assessment techniques (CATs) such as primary trait analysis, using anonymous assessments, goal ranking and matching, self assessment, active learning, transfer and applied learning, and group work assessment.

2010-06-25

118

TECHNIQUE FOR FISTULOGASTROSTOMY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The technique for fistulogastrostomy comprises applying the anastomosis between the stomach and the pancreatic fistula. The anastomosis is applied endoscopically coagulating the walls of the stomach and the pancreatic fistula at the point of their contact.

KOPCHAK VOLODYMYR MYKHAILOVYCH; DUVALKO OLEKSANDR VASYLIOVYCH; KHOMIAK IHOR VASYLIOVYCH; BURYI OLEKSANDR MYKOLAIOVYCH; POPOVYCH OLEH BOHDANOVYCH

119

"Quasi Ultimate" Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter, a multi-level modulation/demodulation method based on a self-homodyne phase noise canceling scheme using a pilot carrier is introduced as a "Quasi Ultimate" technique. The technique allows us to enjoy simultaneous constellation observation and symbol error rate measurement even with multi-level modulation of high degree, such as 16-QAM or 64-QAM, by relaxing the spectral linewidth requirements of the laser light sources and simplifying the receiver configuration.

Miyazaki, Tetsuya

120

Applying contemporary statistical techniques  

CERN Document Server

Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

Wilcox, Rand R

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Comparing safety analysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In process industry Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) and Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD) are very important for the management/reduction of risk. In new standards (e.g. Ref. ) on functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems a quantification of the achieved safety is often required. These new standards do not prescribe how to calculate the achieved safety. Only guidelines and recommendations are given. The problem with this approach is that all kinds of different analysis techniques will be used and in industry the results of the analysis will be compared. These different analysis techniques all use different methodologies and assumptions, which implies that the results may not be comparable. In this paper an approach for comparing different analysis techniques and the qualitative and quantitative results from this comparison are described. The author suggests that, because of the differences in the analysis techniques, one analysis technique is to be preferred. The Enhanced Markov Analysis technique, described in this paper, could be used for this purpose because it covers most aspects relevant for quantification of safety.

2002-01-01

122

Modern lithography techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the development trends of modern lithography techniques. As a mainstream technique for VLSI fabricator, the optical lithography is advancing towards its resolution limitation; meantime, it faces the technical challenge from VLSI fabricating industry more and more. Today, the resolution of optical lithography is not enough to satisfy the fast development requirements of semiconductor industry even if the complex RET (Revolution enhancement techniques) are used in the optical lithography. Hence the NGL (Next generation lithography) techniques, such as XRL (X-ray lithography), SCALPEL (Scanning anger limited project electronic beam lithography), EBDW (Electronic beam direction writing), EUVL (Extreme ultraviolet lithography), and IPL (Ion beam project lithography) will be introduced into VLSI fabricator application for 100-70 nm line-width. Based on the NGL technique development trends and in view of the multiplicity of market inquiry, authors think every NGL technique will have its survival space. However, when the characteristic width of lithography advanced into nano-meter scale (? 100 nm), only the lithography imaging at atomic level will be the last winner. (authors)

2004-01-01

123

Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 - French version only  

CERN Multimedia

Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collabora- tion avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

Davide Vitè

2005-01-01

124

Imaging Techniques in Conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM) has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor object condition.3D laser scanning, PTM, and CT scanning are investigated. Case studies are explored to investigate their current role in cultural heritage. The appropriateness of this role and whether it should be expanded is addressed by analysing advantages and disadvantages of the techniques, their feasibility, and risks caused to object preservation and accessibility.The results indicate that the technologies present some advantages over standard digital photography; PTM in particular is found to be an extremely useful, affordable technique. A more established role within conservation, especially for condition assessments, could be worthwhile. Use of the imaging techniques to create models for exhibition can also be advantageous; however, care must be taken to ensure that such models are used to enhance accessibility to original objects and not to replace them.

Emma Marie Payne

2013-01-01

125

Handbook of laboratory techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

2002-01-01

126

Preparation technique for mezlocillin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention pertains to the technical field of drug combination preparation, more particularly relates to a preparation technique for mezlocillin. The preparation technique for mezlocillin comprises the following steps: ampicillin trihydrate and 1-chloroformyl-3-methylsulfonyl-2-imidazolidinone carry out acylation reaction under alkaline condition and then extraction, acidification and crystallization are conducted to obtain the mezlocillin. The invention is characterized in that when acylation reaction is conducted, reaction menstruum is water and acetone after acylation reaction is finished, an ether extractant is added for carrying out extraction and menthyl acetate is added before acidification so as to carry out acidified crystallization. The synthetic technique has obvious advantages, provides powerful guarantee for synthesizing the mezlocillin with high quality and has relatively great implementation value and long-term social and economic benefit.

PENG SUN; ZHENYU HAN; HEGUANG GUO

127

Temporary abdominal closure techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Open abdomen treatment (OAT) is increasingly used, most often to prevent intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) after emergency abdominal surgery. The goal of temporary abdominal closure (TAC) techniques no longer is abdominal coverage alone, but fluid control and facilitation of early fascial closure are now important aspects. Various methods are available, but negative pressure therapy seems to be best suited to achieve these goals. Fascial approximation techniques prevent lateral retraction of the abdominal muscles and can be combined with TAC techniques. Mesh-mediated vacuum-assisted wound closure is emerging as one of the most promising approaches for OAT. In the intensive care unit, continued attention to IAH/ACS and measures to prevent or treat these conditions is imperative.

De Waele JJ; Leppäniemi AK

2011-07-01

128

Radiation techniques for acromegaly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT) remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

Minniti Giuseppe; Scaringi Claudia; Enrici Riccardo

2011-01-01

129

[Percutaneous tracheosthomy: ideal technique?].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy has become the technique of choice in the Intensive Care Unit, due safety and facilities to be performed at bedside, wich may overcome the risks associated with transport of critically ill patients to the Operating Room. Proponents of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy suggest that the limited dissection results in less tissue damage, lowers the risk of bleeding and wound infection. The aim of this study is to review the techniques of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy through a critical analysis of it's indications, contra-indications and complications, as well to compare percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy to surgical tracheostomy. This manuscript analysis and synthesizes randomized prospective studies, meta-analysis and systematic reviews, comparing both techniques in adult critically ill patients in the Intensive Care Unit.

Sardenberg RA; Avertano AB; Younes RN

2011-11-01

130

Communication Analysis modelling techniques  

CERN Document Server

This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we refer to business activities as communicative events. Message Structures is a technique based on structured text that allows specifying the messages associated to communicative events. Event Specification Templates are a means to organise the requirements concerning a communicative event. This report can be useful to analysts and business process modellers in general, since, according to our industrial experience, it is possible to apply many Communication Analysis concepts, guidelines and criteria to other business process modelling notation...

España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

2012-01-01

131

Vibrating wire alignment technique  

CERN Document Server

Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibrating wire alignment technique, including vibrating wire model analysis, system frequency calculation, wire sag calculation and the relation between wire amplitude and magnetic induction intensity. On the basis of model analysis this article will introduce the alignment method which based on magnetic field measurement and the alignment method which based on amplitude and phase measurement. Finally, some basic questions will be discussed and the solutions will be given.

Xiao-Long, Wang; lei, Wu; Chun-Hua, Li

2013-01-01

132

Simple Driving Techniques  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data structures used in computations.

Rosendahl, Mads

2002-01-01

133

Neutron techniques in Safeguards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An essential part of Safeguards is the ability to quantitatively and nondestructively assay those materials with special neutron-interactive properties involved in nuclear industrial or military technology. Neutron techniques have furnished most of the important ways of assaying such materials, which is no surprise since the neutronic properties are what characterizes them. The techniques employed rely on a wide selection of the many methods of neutron generation, detection, and data analysis that have been developed for neutron physics and nuclear science in general.

Zucker, M.S.

1982-01-01

134

LDAP Injection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase in the number of databases accessed only by some applications has made code injection attacks an important threat to almost any current system. If one of these applications accepts inputs from a client and executes these inputs without first validating them, the attackers are free to execute their own queries and therefore, to extract, modify or delete the content of the database associated to the application. In this paper a deep analysis of the LDAP injection techniques is presented. Furthermore, a clear distinction between classic and blind injection techniques is made.

Jose Maria ALONSO; Antonio GUZMAN; Marta BELTRAN; Rodolfo BORDON

2009-01-01

135

Modern recording techniques  

CERN Document Server

As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

Huber, David Miles

2013-01-01

136

Precision energy measurement technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a technique that was recently successfully tested at SLAC, it is possible to open the slits to ?p/p = +-0.5% and measure the energy centroid of each beam pulse with a precision of +-0.01%. With +-0.5% slits, nearly 100% of the beam is transmitted from the linear accelerator to the target. The technique depends on the fact that the path length through bending magnets in the beam switchyard (BSY) depends on energy. An estimate of resolution is given, and long term stability, phase measurement electronics, and experimental tests are discussed

1977-07-17

137

Radiographic constant exposure technique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out

Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

1985-01-01

138

Wireless communications algorithmic techniques  

CERN Multimedia

This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

2013-01-01

139

91: Multiaxial treatment technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multiaxial radiation technique has been designed. It is a summation of partially rotated 'conformal' technique with different rotational iso-axes for multileaf multiple planning objects to which patient target volume is divided. Each planning object, which regulates the opening of each collimator in 'conformal' radiation treatment planning, no longer coincides with the target volume to be treated, but the agreement of the summation of each isodose distribution and target volume plays a more important role in treatment planning. Disadvantages are frequent occurrence of hot spots in dose distribution and fairly large number of treatment parameters to handle on treatment planning. 7 refs.; 10 figs.; 1 table.

1987-01-01

140

[Microsurgical techniques in urology  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microsurgery is an established operative technique for refertilization by vasovasostomy, tubulovasostomy and microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration. Other andrological indications for the use of a microscope are penile revascularization, resection of varicocele and surgical treatment of Peyronie's disease. Autotransplantation of intra-abdominal testicles and hypospadia correction are indications for microsurgical techniques in pediatric urological surgery. Renal transplant, sex-change surgery and replants of penis and scrotum are further indications for use of microsurgery. Microsurgery will move into new fields of urological surgery, especially neurourology.

Schwarzer JU; Pickl U; Hofmann R; Kropp W; Hartung R

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Incremental mining techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing necessity of organizational data exploration and analysis, seeking new knowledge that may be implicit in their operational systems, has made the study of data mining techniques gain a huge impulse. This impulse can be clearly noticed in the e-commerce domain, where the analysis of cli...

Cavalcanti, Fábio Torres

142

RFI Mitigation / Excision techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Radio frequency interference (RFI) is increasingly affecting radio astronomy research. A few years ago, active research to investigate the possibility of observing in the presence of interference using RFI mitigation techniques was initiated. In this paper, I briefly discuss four RFI mitigation/excision projects. These projects are:- (1) A technique to suppress double sideband amplitude modulated interference in which I show that an astronomical signal in the presence of a DSB interference can be observed with a signal-to-noise ratio factor of 2 less compared to observations if the RFI were not present. (2) Techniques to suppress interference due to synchronization signals in composite video signals are presented. A combination of noise-free modelling of the synchronization signals and adaptive filtering is used for suppressing the interference. (3) Design techniques to minimize spurious pick-up at the analog input of an analog-to-digital converter are discussed. (4) Spectral RFI excision using a spectral channel weighted scheme and its application to Green Bank telescope observations are also presented.

Roshi, D. A.

2004-06-01

143

Imaging Techniques in Conservation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is...

Emma Marie Payne

144

DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES  

Science.gov (United States)

Food scientists use standards and calibrations to relate the concentration of a compound of interest to the instrumental response. The techniques used include classical, single point, and inverse calibrations, as well as standard addition and internal standards. Several fundamental criteria -- sel...

145

A parametric macromodelling technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the ever growing complexity of high-frequency systems in the electronic industry, formation of reduced-order models or compact macromodels of these systems is paramount. In this contribution, a Fourier series expansion technique is extended to form a modeling strategy to approximate the frequen...

Condon, Marissa; Grahovski, Georgi G.

146

Comparison with Other Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter compares dynamic taxonomies with the other main approaches to information access and discusses analogies and differences. The approaches analyzed range from traditional retrieval paradigms, such as queries on structured data, to the most recent approaches, including the current effort on the Semantic Web: queries on structured data, and OLAP data analysis techniques;

Sacco, Giovanni Maria; Ferré, Sébastien; Tzitzikas, Yannis

147

Safeguards techniques and equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

1997-01-01

148

The attribute measurement technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

Macarthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Langner, Diana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Razinkov, Sergey [RFNC-VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [RFNC-VNIIEF

2010-01-01

149

FOCUSED CRAWLING TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for more and more specific reply to a web search query has prompted researchers to work on focused web crawling techniques for web spiders. Variety of lexical and link based approaches of focused web crawling are introduced in the paper highlighting important aspects of each.

Pankaj Mishra

2012-01-01

150

Fugitive emissions measurement techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation discusses several fugitive emission measurement techniques that are currently being used by industry. Methods to count components, quality control issues, types of screening instruments used and measurement methodology are addressed. Both screening methods are bagging methods are discussed. Certain innovations in measurement methods are identified.

Ricks, R.

1996-12-31

151

Surgical Anatomy and Technique  

CERN Multimedia

The success of any operative procedure is dependent, in part, on the surgeon's knowledge of anatomy. This book covers the anatomic regions pertinent to general surgeons and describes the commonly performed general surgical techniques. It contains sections on abdominal aortic aneurysm, femoropopliteal bypass, hysterectomy and oopherectomy.

Skandalakis, Lee John; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N

2008-01-01

152

Galaxy Redshifts Improved Techniques  

CERN Multimedia

This paper analyses the effects of random noise in determining errors and confidence levels for galaxy redshifts obtained by cross-correlation techniques. The main finding is that confidence levels have previously been overestimated, and errors inaccurately calculated in certain applications. New formul\\ae\\ are presented.

Heavens, A F

1993-01-01

153

Air flow measurement techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The techniques for reliable and repeatable measurement of mill primary and secondary air flow are questionable, when straight runs are not available or stratification of two streams in the same duct exists. The usage of a segmental dam as a solution to this problem is discussed.

Martz, L.F.

1984-01-01

154

A video authentication technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system.

Johnson, C.S.

1987-07-01

155

A video authentication technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as long supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system.

Johnson, C.S.

1987-01-01

156

Boundary representation modelling techniques  

CERN Document Server

Boundary representation is the principle solid modelling method used in modern CAD/CAM systems. This book includes: data structures algorithms and other related techniques, including non-manifold modelling, product modelling, graphics, disc files and data exchange, and some application related topics.

Stroud, I

2006-01-01

157

The ion plating technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The ion plating technique and the characteristics of the coatings are described, and the mechanisms involved are discussed. It is essentially vapour deposition on to a substrate which is the cathode of a glow discharge and the substrate has been cleaned and is maintained clean by sputtering. The source of evaporant is resistance heated. (author)

1977-01-01

158

Aplicación de las técnicas de biología molecular en oncología oral Application of molecular biology techniques in oral cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo de revisión se propone exponer las principales técnicas de biología molecular disponibles actualmente para los investigadores, en el campo del cáncer y precáncer oral, clasificadas según el tipo de material biológico del que se disponga para iniciar la investigación. Éste puede ser ADN, ARN o proteínas. La explicación de cada técnica comprenderá una breve sistemática del proceso, así como sus ventajas, inconvenientes y estado de actividad actual. Todo ello con la finalidad de esclarecer las aplicaciones, pronto indispensables, de las técnicas más destacadas, en el diagnóstico precoz, pronóstico y tratamiento individualizado del carcinoma oral. Entre las técnicas más útiles en este proceso se encuentran: la electroforesis en gel, las técnicas de hibridación, la tecnología microarray, los biochips, la PCR convencional, la cuantitativa o la transcriptasa inversa, las técnicas de Southern, Northern y Western blot, la secuenciación de ADN, la clonación de genes, la inmunohistoquímica, el ensayo ELISA y la citometría de flujo. Destacan en particular por su gran utilidad, la tecnología microarray, los biochips y la PCR.This article summarizes the main techniques in the area of molecular biology that are available for the investigation of oral cancer and precancer. They have been classified depending on the biological material we expect to analyze, which can be DNA, RNA or proteins. The explanation for each technique includes a brief description of its basics, as well as some advantages, drawbacks and current use of the technique. Our aim is to throw light on the applications of these techniques, soon indispensable for most studies, in the early diagnosis, prognosis and individualized treatment of oral carcinoma. The most useful techniques for this objective are nowadays: gel electrophoresis, hybridation, microarray technology, biochips, PCR (conventional, quantitative or reverse transcriptase), Southern, Northern and Western blot studies, DNA sequenciation, cloning, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and flow citrometry. Some techniques that deserve a special mention due to their greater usefulness in the area of oral cancer are microarray technology, biochips and PCR.

M. López-Durán; J. Campo-Trapero; J. Cano-Sánchez; R. Díez-Pérez; A. Bascones-Martínez

2010-01-01

159

Autocontrol technique of combined centrifuges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The design characteristic of the autocontrol technique of the combined centrifuge is introduced. Digital technique, vary structure control and interface technique, graphical display techniques, digital communication technique as well as electronic technique are applied in the course of research. Automation in the operation of large scale combined centrifuges and the course of combined test has been realized and it can coordinate with other systems of status monitoring, data collecting and centrifugal force-aerodynamic force matched load automatically

2001-01-01

160

[Seldinger modified technique].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors describe the procedure to insert central blood vessel catheters through peripheral blood vessel catheters using the Seldinger modified technique since critically ill patients service at the Carlos Haya Regional University Hospital in Malaga cares for a high number of patients who need to have canalized a central blood vessel catheter to maximize the treatment they receive. In many cases it is not possible to insert a DRUM type central blood vessel catheter due to an insufficient blood vessel caliber and then the nursing team at this hospital opts to carry out a procedure to canalize a central blood vessel using the Seldinger modified technique. This report was presented at the III National Social-Sanitary Nursing Congress.

Ramos Cuenca F; Linares Escudero J; Romo García R; Cubo Amaya M; Climent Villanueva M; Santos Sarria R

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY – SURGICAL TECHNIQUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) was the first laparoscopic technique considered as a gold standard procedure. Actually the surgical steps of this technique are well designed and standardized. In many countries LC is the first type of laparoscopic procedure performed by young surgeons and residents and is included in residency curriculum. In this way, the residents are trained to perform this procedure and to achive the knowledge based behavior. The aim of this paper is to present the standard key points of the surgical procedure as well as new tendencies and methods. Some debatable subjects (e.g. indications, antegrade (prograde) versus retrograde approach, intraoperative cholangiography, possibilities of cystic duct ligature) are also reviewed. Pictures and online available video illustrate a LC performed by an expert surgeon.

E. Târcoveanu; C. Bradea; R. Moldovanu; A. Vasilescu; A. Nistor

2009-01-01

162

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software development is the set of activities and processes for programmers that will eventually result in a software product. This may include requirement analysis, software design, implementation, testing, documentation, maintenance and then describing computer programs that meet user requirements within the constraints of the environment. It is a structure imposed on the development of software product. Software development is the most important process in developing a Software/tool. The successful execution of the project highly depends on the techniques used to develop the model. Software development technology has an under the model-explicit or implicit-of the development process. In order to understand more about the development process and the methodologies, we abstract from these. The perspective chosen for the abstraction include models developed during the process and the kind of abstraction involved in the techniques of the process.

Asst. Prof. Rajani Kota

2012-01-01

163

Monte Carlo techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The course of ''Monte Carlo Techniques'' will try to give a general overview of how to build up a method based on a given theory, allowing you to compare the outcome of an experiment with that theory. Concepts related with the construction of the method, such as, random variables, distributions of random variables, generation of random variables, random-based numerical methods, will be introduced in this course. Examples of some of the current theories in High Energy Physics describing the e+e- annihilation processes (QED, Electro-Weak, QCD) will also be briefly introduced. A second step in the employment of this method is related to the detector. The interactions that a particle could have along its way, through the detector as well as the response of the different materials which compound the detector will be quoted in this course. An example of detector at LEP era, in which these techniques are being applied, will close the course. (orig.).

1985-07-09

164

CTV rendezvous techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) requires the capability to perform automated rendezvous with Space Station Freedom (SSF) using onboard sensors and algorithms. The current approach to CTV rendezvous applies techniques developed during the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) program which have been mechanized for automatic, onboard execution. The initial catch up sequence can be described as a passive rendezvous without explicit time of arrival control. The ultimate requirement for this rendezvous technique is to place the CTV on the SSF V-bar axis at some specified downrange distance. The launch vehicle will use yaw steering during orbit injection to achieve the proper phantom plane for nodal biasing. This presentation describes the primary components of the CTV rendezvous scheme.

Jennings, Jerry L.; Anderson, Robert L.

165

Signal integrity characterization techniques  

CERN Document Server

"Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

Bogatin, Eric

2009-01-01

166

Technique for reagent production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the technique for reagent production, involving alkali treatment of rice hulls, in order to reduce water use and viscosity of drilling muds and extending time congelation time of cementing muds, the following are added: ferrous chloride (I) and chromide (II). Then the mixture is boiled 2-3 hours, filtered and vaporized, and I and II are taken in the amount of 0.1-0.3% with a ratio of 3:1-1:3.

Khasanov, N.M.; Bash, S.M.; Kuchkarov, D.K.; Kurbanov, A.N.; Panov, A.M.; Primkulov, Yu.P.

1982-01-01

167

Alarm handling techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alarm processing is an area with a low level of standardisation. Current systems from different providers have customization possibilities that make alarm applications completely different on each implementation. Summary of the current situation for alarm processing and the different techniques with the intention of having a reference to improve this area of control systems. It focuses on alarm handling for system operation but adds new ideas for use of alarms in other areas.

NONE

2001-07-01

168

Atrial fibrillation ablation techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a survey on current atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation techniques used for catheter ablation of AF among the European Heart Rhythm Association Research Network. The focus of this questionnaire is on the ablation strategy, such as the use of different lesion sets or sites of ablation in the various forms of AF, and on the technical aspects of catheter ablation with respect to energy sources and imaging modalities. PMID:23015690

Lewalter, Thorsten; Dobreanu, Dan; Proclemer, Alessandro; Marinskis, Germanas; Pison, Laurent; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

2012-10-01

169

Resin infiltration transfer technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

Miller, David V. (Pittsburgh, PA); Baranwal, Rita (Glenshaw, PA)

2009-12-08

170

[Hypodermoclysis: a forgotten technique...  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypodermoclysis consists of infusing solutions in the subcutaneous tissues. It is a convenient means of correcting a moderate dehydration, notably in elderly people, when oral feeding is impossible or insufficient. The only potential problem with this technique is the occurrence of hypovolaemia due to infusion of hypo- or hypertonic solutions in subjects with previous severe salt and water disorders. For this reason, hypodermoclysis should not be used in emergencies.

Dutertre JP; Constans T

1991-03-01

171

[Recovered water mineralization technique  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The possibility to mineralize water by metering out concentrated salt solutions in the amounts necessary to bring it to within the potable water standards with intermediate exchange of chlorine ions for bicarbonate-ions has been demonstrated. The proposed technique ensures physiological quality and stability of recovered water mineralized with solutions of inorganic salts. Stability of concentrated salt solutions kept in metering syringes and potable water was evaluated. Organoleptic tests of resultant potable water were conducted.

Skliar EF; Amiragov MS; Berezkin SV; Kurochkin MG; Skuratov VM

2001-01-01

172

[Recovered water mineralization technique].  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility to mineralize water by metering out concentrated salt solutions in the amounts necessary to bring it to within the potable water standards with intermediate exchange of chlorine ions for bicarbonate-ions has been demonstrated. The proposed technique ensures physiological quality and stability of recovered water mineralized with solutions of inorganic salts. Stability of concentrated salt solutions kept in metering syringes and potable water was evaluated. Organoleptic tests of resultant potable water were conducted. PMID:11840873

Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Berezkin, S V; Kurochkin, M G; Skuratov, V M

2001-01-01

173

Stakeholder involvement techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Stakeholder involvement, dialogue and deliberation can improve the quality and the sustainability of policy decisions. This publication offers a short guide to stakeholder involvement techniques and their selection. It includes an annotated bibliography pointing to easily accessible handbooks and other resources. While it approaches the topic from the point of view of radioactive waste management, it is intended for any person or organisation considering stakeholder involvement in decision making. (author)

2004-01-01

174

Improved palynographic technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author has begun to prepare an electron micrograph reference collection of pollen from extinct species in the central Florida area. The study is planned to assist in the identification of microfossils that occur in nearby peat deposits. One aspect of the scanning electron microscope project is the standardization of a technique for pressing the pollen. A cheap disposal filter, improved acetolysis and a method for applying a uniform pollen layer to SEM studs are described.

Bigelow, J.H.

1980-01-01

175

Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

2007-01-01

176

Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques  

CERN Multimedia

Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

Chis, Timur

2009-01-01

177

A Multiobjective Optimisation Technique  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most common approach to multiobjective examinationtimetabling is the weighted sum aggregation of all criteria into one costfunction and application of some single-objective metaheuristic. However,the translation of user preferences into the weights of criteria isa sophisticated task, which requires experience on the part of the user,especially for problems with a high number of criteria. Moreover, theresults produced by this technique are usually substantially scattered.

Sanja Petrovic; Yuri Bykov

178

Enseignement technique/Technical Training  

CERN Multimedia

Bureautique et techniques administratives/Office Automation & Administrative Techniques - Premiers pas/Getting started - E-Mail - Management Tools - WWW - Applications bureautiques/Office applications

1998-01-01

179

Laser techniques in luminescence spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book covers the following: laser fluorescence and ionization techniques for combustion; fluorescence spectroscopy for DNA analysis; techniques and applications of two-photon spectroscopy of inorganic solids.

1988-11-04

180

Preparation technique of sausages  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a preparation technique of sausages. The preparation technique comprises the following steps of: cutting neck meat, belly meat and rib meat of sheep, cow or horse into strip meat, adding salt, adding garlic cut into granules, stirring evenly, piling up the strip meat, storing for 2 to 3 hours, and permeating the salt and the taste of the garlic cleaning the intestine of sheep, cow or horse in water, turning the inner wall of the intestine outward and turning the outer wall thereof inward inserting one end of the strip meat into the intestine opening, simultaneously pouring one end of the intestine into the intestine, plugging the strip meat and intestine into the intestine, and using strings to seal and connect two ends of the prepared sausage hanging the ring-shaped sausage at a ventilated place for air drying putting the sausage into a pan, adding water, heating to be 100 DEG C, boiling the sausage in annealing for 2 to 3 hours till the meat is cooked taking out the sausage from the pan, reducing the temperature to room temperature, drying, cutting the sausage block into meat pieces or meat strips with a sharp knife and carrying out vacuum package to meat cut into thin pieces and storing the packaged meat in a cold room or a freezing room. The invention provides a preparation technique of a sausage with local ethnic characteristics.

 
 
 
 
181

[Progress in imaging techniques].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Today it is common to perform real-time diagnosis and treatment via live broadcast as a method of education and to spread new technology for diagnosis and therapy in medical fields. Live medical broadcasts have developed along with broadcast technology. In the early days, live video feeds were sent from operating rooms to classrooms and lecture halls in universities and hospitals. However, the development of imaging techniques and communication networks enabled live broadcasts that bi-directionally link operating rooms and meeting halls during scientific meetings and live demonstration courses. Live broadcasts therefore became an important method for education and the dissemination of new medical technologies. The development of imaging techniques has contributed to more realistic live broadcasts through such innovative techniques as three-dimensional viewing and higher-definition 4K technology. In the future, live broadcasts will be transmitted on personal computers using regular Internet connections. In addition to the enhancement of image delivery technology, it will also be necessary to examine the entire image delivery environment carefully, including issues of security and privacy of personal information.

Mishima K; Otsuka T

2013-05-01

182

Leather bronzing technique  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a leather bronzing technique, which can thermally print gold powder coating on the leather surface, can ensure the lasting adhesion of the gold powder and further improve the third dimension of thermally printed patterns. The leather bronzing technique overprints embossing with convex and concave feelings on the leather via a template, before overprinting, silver paper coated with gold powder is paved on the leather, during overprinting, the gold powder on the silver paper is thermally printed onto the embossing surface by the template to form a gold powder coating. The technique combines bronzing and overprinting, overprints the patterns or decorative designs on the template onto the leather surface to form embossing with convex and concave feelings, and simultaneously thermally prints the gold powder coating on the silver paper onto the embossing surface under certain pressure and temperature, thus can transfer and print the gold powder coating onto the leather surface according to pictures and texts on the template and ensure lasting adhesion of the gold powder, meanwhile, the thermally printed patterns have great third dimension and lustre sensation, thus greatly improving the visual effect of leather products.

HONG YANG

183

Image compression technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

1997-03-25

184

Peripheral catheter techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With ultrasound, continuous peripheral nerve blocks (CPNBs) are one of the most recent developments in regional anesthesia in children. CPNBs are now used more widely in children because more suitable materials have been marketed, allowing complete, and prolonged postoperative pain control. Their use after orthopedic procedures in children and treatment for complex regional pain syndrome in adolescents has demonstrated the benefits. Perineural catheters have also shown their superiority over other techniques of continuous regional anesthesia in terms of side effects. The efficiency and the safety of these techniques may facilitate early ambulation with improved pain management, treatment at home with disposable pumps, and improved rehabilitation of children. Studies on large cohorts of patients published to date have failed to highlight any severe complications in their use compared with other adult studies. Accidents owing to systemic toxicity are very unlikely if the recommended maximum dose is not exceeded. The safety of continuous regional anesthesia techniques in children relies on the use of low-concentration l-enantiomer solutions (ropivacaine or levobupivacaine) accompanied by low plasma concentrations of local anesthetics, limiting the risk of systemic toxicity of these molecules. CPNB can ensure strong and lasting analgesia in hospital or at home.

Dadure C; Capdevila X

2012-01-01

185

Image compression technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

Fu, Chi-Yung (San Francisco, CA); Petrich, Loren I. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

186

Applied ALARA techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

1998-01-01

187

Differential photoacoustic microscopy technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), whose image quality largely depends on the optical absorption of samples, provides endogenous information for structural and functional imaging. However, PAM technology in general can not provide edge enhancement imaging for absorbing objects. Therefore, PAM and differential microscopy are integrated for the first time in a single technique to obtain an edge enhancement image. The resolution test target RTA-07 and red blood cells are used as samples to achieve the desired spatial differential photoacoustic imaging. The feasible biomedical application of edge enhancement from the improved differential PAM was demonstrated.

Tang H; Tang Z; Wu Y; Cai Q; Wu L; Chi Y

2013-05-01

188

Monopulse principles and techniques  

CERN Multimedia

Monopulse is a type of radar that sends additional information in the signal in order to avoid problems caused by rapid changes in signal strength. Monopulse is resistant to jamming which is one of the main reasons it is used in most radar systems today. This updated and expanded edition of an Artech House classic offers you a current and comprehensive treatment of monopulse radar principles, techniques, and applications. The Second Edition features two brand new chapters, covering monopulse countermeasures and counter-countermeasures and monopulse for airborne radar and homing seekers.This es

Sherman, Samuel M

2011-01-01

189

Brief inpatient psychotherapeutic technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Trainees rotate onto the medical psychiatric inpatient unit at Massachusetts General Hospital every 6 weeks to learn how to conduct brief inpatient psychotherapy from two staff psychologists and one staff psychiatrist. This article focuses on four key therapeutic principles/techniques used when teaching these trainees about brief inpatient psychotherapy. These include support, affective experience and expression, chain analysis, and identification of relational styles/maladaptive relational patterns. We also briefly discuss our approach to training. Theoretical rationale, numerous clinical examples, and empirical support (of inpatient psychotherapy) are provided.

Stein MB; Jacobo MC

2013-09-01

190

Electricity demand forecasting techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important.

1994-01-01

191

Diamond Anvil Cell Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

It has often been said that scientific advances are made either in a dramatic and revolutionary way, or, as in the case of the diamond anvil cell (DAC), in a slow and evolutionary manner over a period of several years. For more than 2 decades, commencing in 1958, the DAC developed stepwise from a rather crude qualitative instrument to the sophisticated quantitative research tool it is today, capable of routinely producing sustained static pressures in the multi-megabar range and readily adaptable to numerous scientific measurement techniques because of its optical accessibility, miniature size, and portability.

Piermarini, Gasper J.

192

Meniscal repair techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The human meniscus is important for normal knee function and distributes loads, aids in joint lubrication, congruence, stability, and proprioception. Repair of appropriate meniscal tears is possible and several methods exist to accomplish this including suture repairs and device repairs. Clinical evidence suggests that meniscal repairs can result in acceptable healing rates although adverse events have been reported for some devices. New self-adjusting suture devices have facilitated the accurate and effective repair of the torn meniscus. Technique descriptions for these devices are presented.

Barber FA; McGarry JE

2007-12-01

193

Meniscal repair techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human meniscus is important for normal knee function and distributes loads, aids in joint lubrication, congruence, stability, and proprioception. Repair of appropriate meniscal tears is possible and several methods exist to accomplish this including suture repairs and device repairs. Clinical evidence suggests that meniscal repairs can result in acceptable healing rates although adverse events have been reported for some devices. New self-adjusting suture devices have facilitated the accurate and effective repair of the torn meniscus. Technique descriptions for these devices are presented. PMID:18004219

Barber, F Alan; McGarry, John E

2007-12-01

194

DNA Microarray Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and short tandem repeats (STRs). In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

Thakare SP; Trivedi PK; Jani PH; Patel GV

2012-01-01

195

Monovision techniques for telerobots  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary task of the vision sensor in a telerobotic system is to provide information about the position of the system's effector relative to objects of interest in its environment. The subtasks required to perform the primary task include image segmentation, object recognition, and object location and orientation in some coordinate system. The accomplishment of the vision task requires the appropriate processing tools and the system methodology to effectively apply the tools to the subtasks. The functional structure of the telerobotic vision system used in the Langley Research Center's Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory is discussed as well as two monovision techniques for accomplishing the vision subtasks.

Goode, P. W.; Carnils, K.

1987-07-01

196

[Technique of surgical ampullectomy].  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the technique of surgical ampullectomy, which consists of complete resection of the papilla of Vater, including the sphincter, the distal part of common bile duct and Wirsung duct, and the duodenal wall around the papilla. Limits of resection are assessed by frozen section, particularly on both biliary and pancreatic ducts which are sutured together and reinserted on the duodenal wall. Surgical ampullectomy, combined with frozen section, is associated with a low morbidity, and represents a valid alternative to pancreaticoduodenectomy and endoscopic ampullectomy for presumed-benign ampullomas. PMID:15297231

Sauvanet, A; Regimbeau, J-M; Jaeck, D

197

[Technique of surgical ampullectomy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe the technique of surgical ampullectomy, which consists of complete resection of the papilla of Vater, including the sphincter, the distal part of common bile duct and Wirsung duct, and the duodenal wall around the papilla. Limits of resection are assessed by frozen section, particularly on both biliary and pancreatic ducts which are sutured together and reinserted on the duodenal wall. Surgical ampullectomy, combined with frozen section, is associated with a low morbidity, and represents a valid alternative to pancreaticoduodenectomy and endoscopic ampullectomy for presumed-benign ampullomas.

Sauvanet A; Regimbeau JM; Jaeck D

2004-07-01

198

Principles of Electromigration Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromigration techniques provide the separation of analyzed sample components owing to external voltage generating electrokinetic phenomena—electrophoresis and electroosmosis. Taking into account the relatively large number of parameters dealt with during electrophoretic analyses, it is essential to know their influence on the achieved separation of analytes. In this chapter the theoretical and practical aspects of a resolution optimization, as well as the effect of different separation parameters on the migration behavior are described. These, among others, include migration time, efficiency, selectivity, and resolution. The influence of electrods polarization, applied voltage, temperature, capillary, background electrolyte, and various additives on the separation is also discussed.

Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

199

Metallographic preparation techniques for uranium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing metallographic preparation techniques for uranium are limited to elucidating specific microstructural characteristics, and some of the techniques are regarded as being environmentally unacceptable. This paper describes a newly developed technique, which is not only more environmentally friendly, but reveals most microstructural features simultaneously. Example microstructures of the various preparation stages are given to highlight the new technique.

Kelly, Ann M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science Technology Division, MST-6, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: akelly@lanl.gov; Thoma, Dan J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science Technology Division, MST-6, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Field, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science Technology Division, MST-6, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dunn, Paul S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science Technology Division, MST-6, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Teter, David F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science Technology Division, MST-6, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2006-07-15

200

Recursos disponibles para la recuperación de información sobre salud en Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Internet se ha convertido en un fenómeno social en nuestros tiempos y en un apoyo vital para el desarrollo de las investigaciones en salud.El hecho de que es una herramienta para recuperar información e investigar no se discute.Las ciencias de la información avanzan a grandes pasos y los profesionales en salud que se apoyan o tienen contacto con la realidad de Internet,encuentran difícil seguir este paso,lo que disminuye la efectividad y eficiencia con que se utiliza este recurso.Motivado en los hechos previos,se realizó una revisión de algunos recursos encontrados en la red de redes,Internet,y se plantea una estrategia de búsqueda de información para recuperarla en un motor de búsqueda y,así,resolver las preguntas clínicas diarias.En especial,se focaliza la revisión del tema sobre los motores de búsqueda Pubmed y Google.Basado inicialmente en la construcción de una pregunta para hallar información mediante la metodología PICO,el profesional se orienta para definir los términos de búsqueda que le permitirán recuperar información con varios niveles de rigurosidad científica y aplicable a varias latitudes.Finalmente,se comentan algunas limitaciones que existen en torno a la recuperación de información y las oportunidades que ofrecen las iniciativas para la Web semántica.

Luis Guillermo Elizondo Herrera

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

REDVET y RECVET están disponibles desde la biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenLos artículos publicados en REDVET y en RECVET son inmediatamente accesibles desde la Biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia, con sede en Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia, Suramérica, donde las dos revistas científicas editadas por Veterinaria Organización aparece en el área de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia junto a la Bases de datos bibliográficas de la Biblioteca Agropecuaria de Colombia (BAC) del Centro Internacional de Agricultura tropical (CIAT) y la Biblioteca de la FAO (Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación).

Veterinaria.org

2008-01-01

202

REDVET Revista electrónica de Veterinaria indizada y disponible en el portal Redalyc  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEsta noticia sobre la indización definitiva de REDVET en Redalyc fue comunicada de inmediato que se recibió a los miembros del Comité Editorial en primer término, a través del Foro del Comité Editorial, y, posteriormente a todos los miembros de Veterinaria.org, autores y lectores de REDVET utilizando B_Comunidad, B_REDVET y L_VET. Como se indicó en la noticia de primicia en este nº de REDVET correspondiente a Marzo/2008 os informaremos ampliamente de todo el camino recorrido por nuestra revista científica hasta llegar a este punto y para ello os facilitamos el intercambio de los correos entre el Coordinador de Veterinaria.org y Editor de REDVET y los responsables de Redalyc: puede leerse desde http://www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n030308/030828N.pdf

Veterinaria.org

2008-01-01

203

Soil water regime analysis in spruce ecosystem in relation to its disponibility towards drought  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climatic changes, especially increase in the air temperature, decrease of precipitation totals and increase in potential evapotranspiration can be observed at high altitudes, too. This results in alternation of variously long humid and dry periods, which in case of the mountain spruce stands reduces or even disables the transport of available water and nutrients for plants.Moisture regime with a very good available water supply is generally limited only to winter season and for a short time to the beginning of the vegetation season, too. The greatest changes in moisture can be observed especially in summer (July, August).In case of dry and warm periods occurrence, in consequence of increased evapotranspiration (>5 mm.day-1), mainly in the process of water use by trees, the intensive loss in the soil water in a relatively short time can be observed. Consequently, the hydropedological cycles with limited available water storage take part. The biggest danger threatens the spruce resulting from the insufficient available water supply in the upper layers of the soil, where the occurrence of sucking roots is the highest. In the case of a long contact loss of roots and capillary water the physiological weakening, worsening of the health conditions or even liquidation of the spruce stands can be observed.

Ladislav Tužinský

2009-01-01

204

Ficción en un blog de Internet: El autor propone, el lector infiere y dispone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La ciberescritura es todavía un enigma que sigue cambiando los principios fundamentales de la cultura escrita tradicional. Así como no hay fronteras temporales ni espaciales en la Internet, tampoco parecen existir verdades absolutas, principios irrefutables ni reglas pragmáticas formales que faciliten aún la conformación de una gramática del discurso virtual. Todo puede ser ficción o verdad en un universo en el que escritores y lectores somos discurso. Nonecesariamente hay rostros ni gestos ni otro tipo de recursos paralingüísticos, quinésicos o proxémicos que ayuden aambos participantes a entenderse mutuamente. Frente a un emisor discursivo mediado por un computador, el principiode la cooperación de Grice (1975) se potencia hacia el receptor por lo que las llamadas “máximas” pueden a vecesvolverse “mínimas” para el emisor. Este trabajo propone el análisis discursivo de una muestra de 28 comentarios interactivosincorporados por 27 ciberlectores hasta septiembre de 2009, como respuestas a la crónica bloguera de ficciónintitulada Remedios que sacan la piedra (http:barreralinares.blogspot.com, 28-02-2007). Asumiendo como baseteórica la diferencia formal y funcional entre las nociones retóricas y discursivas de ficción, realidad, verdad y verosimilitud,se postula que un cibertexto marcado expresamente por el emisor con rasgos ficcionales de humor, ironía y sarcasmo, termina adquiriendo veracidad a partir de las inferencias que los comentaristas hacen en relación con el tópico tratado. Los resultados muestran una variedad de falsas inferencias o “ciberimplicaturas” que, de acuerdo conel análisis de los comentarios, terminan cambiando la intención original de la crónica. Fenómeno que convierte untexto de “narrativa artificial” en otro de “narrativa natural” (van Dijk, 1975).

Luis Barrera

2010-01-01

205

Perfil nutricional y microbiológico de los embutidos de soya disponibles en Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudió la calidad nutricional y microbiológica de 80 muestras de embutidos de soya (50% mortadela y 50% salchicha). El promedio de proteína en la mortadela fue de 17,5g/100 g y en la salchicha 20g/100g. El contenido de grasa total fue de 5.5g/100g para ambos productos; no obstante, se hallaron diferencias altamente significativas (0.0000) en el contenido de los diferentes ácidos grasos entre ambos productos y en las muestras de un mismo producto dependiendo de la (more) industria que los elaborara. Las mayores diferencias se evidenciaron en los niveles de ácido palmítico (C16:0), ácido oleico (C18:1) y ácido linoleico (C18:2). En ninguna muestra se evidenció la presencia de colesterol. El índice de aterogenicidad promedio para mortadela fue 0.55 y para salchicha 0.59. El consumo de 25 gramos de proteína de soya derivada de estos embutidos puede generar aportar entre el 20-90% de la cantidad de ácidos grasos saturados recomendada por día. Así mismo, puede brindar entre el 12-70% de la cantidad de ácidos graso s poliinsaturados recomendada por día. Estas variaciones responden a las importantes diferencias en la especiación de ácidos grasos evidenciadas según la marca del producto. El 20% de los embutidos estudiados mostraron niveles de coliformes totales> 10(4)/g, lo cual fue más frecuente en la salchicha. El 60% de las muestras de este embutido y el 10% de las muestras de mortadela mostraron niveles de psicrótrofos > 10(6)/g. En ninguna de las muestras se evidenció Escherichia coli y en el 5% Clostridium perfringens en niveles mayores a 10²/g. Los resultados señalan la urgente necesidad de implementar un sistema de control de calidad de los embutidos de soya, antes que las autoridades de salud consideren respaldar las campañas nutricionales que promuevan el consumo de los mismos. Abstract in english Nutritional and microbiological profile of soy bean sausages available in Costa Rica. The nutritional and microbiological quality of 80 soybean sausage samples (50% frankfurter and 5% sausage mortadela) was studied. On average, the protein content was 17 ,5g/100g in sausage mortadela and 20g/100g in frankfurter.the mean total fat content was 5,5g/100g for both products. However when products of different manufacture industries were compared, a highly significant differenc (more) e (p= 0,0000) in the fatty acids speciation between both groups and between samples of the same product were found. Bigger differences were found in the content of palmitic acid(C16:0), oleic acid (C18:l) and linoleic acid (C18:2). Cholesterol was not detected in samples analyzed. On average the atherogenicity index was 0,55 for sausage mortadela and 0,59 for frankfurter. A consumption of 25 grams of soybean protein from these sausages can bring an intake of saturated fatty acids between 20-90% of the daily recommendation. Likewise, they can supply between 12-70% of the recommended daily polyunsaturated fattly acids. These variations are owing to the big difference in fatty acids speciation in each sausage brand. Around 20% of soybean sausages studied showed total coliform levels above l0(4)/g, being more frequent in sausage mortadela. Also 60% of this product and 10% of frankfurters showed psychrotroph levels of 10(6)/g. Clostridium perfringens, in levels above 10²/g was evidenciated in 5% of samples, Escherichia coli was not isolated from them. The findings of this study suggest the urgent need for implementing a quality control system for soybean sausages, before national health authorities consider to support nutritional campaings that promote their consumption.

Monge, Rafael; Arias, María Laura; Alfaro, Thelma; Jiménez, Manuel

2000-06-01

206

Termination of petroleum production - future management of installations. Avslutning av petroleumsproduksjon - fremtidig disponering av innretninger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents a legislative proposal given by the petroleum committee on the management of abandoned well installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. The given proposal comprises both the existing and future rules and regulations on the removal of fixed installations with the exception of sea bed installed pipeline systems. The administrative and economic consequences thereof, are discussed. In the main headings, the proposal is covered as follow: Historical account and survey of existing legislation and international law; demand of regulation; general viewpoints and main points in the committee proposal; form of procedure and terms; public possessioning; fiscal treatment of removal costs; other types of changes in the petroleum law; legality; remarks to the individual regulations; proposed changes in the petroleum law

1993-01-01

207

Future management of Tokke 1; Om framtidig disponering av Tokke 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report to the Storting (Parliament) from the Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the future management of the Norwegian Tokke I hydroelectric power system. The report relates to the transfer of management from the State to the authority of counties and municipalities. Contribution to the debate from the power consuming industry is given. 1 fig.

NONE

1996-12-31

208

Charge Breeding Techniques  

CERN Multimedia

The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

Wenander, F

2004-01-01

209

Underwater cutting techniques developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author).

1990-01-01

210

Neutron detection technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has the ability to measure the total flux of all active flavors of neutrinos using the neutral current reaction, whose signature is a neutron. By comparing the rates of the neutral current reaction to the charged current reaction, which only detects electron neutrinos, one can test the neutrino oscillation hypothesis independent of solar models. It is necessary to understand the neutron detection efficiency of the detector to make use of the neutral current reaction. This report demonstrates a coincidence technique to identify neutrons emitted from the 252Cf neutron calibration source. The source releases on average four neutrons when a 252Cf nucleus spontaneously fissions. Each neutron is detected as a separate event when the neutron is captured by a deuteron, releasing a gamma ray of approximately 6.25 MeV. This gamma ray is in turn detected by the photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. By investigating the time and spatial separation between neutron-like events, it is possible to obtain a pure sample of neutrons for calibration study. Preliminary results of the technique applied to two calibration runs are presented.

2000-01-01

211

Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA) include radiography, ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis) with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes). US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses) and cutaneous (skin and nails) involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

A. Spadaro; E. Lubrano

2012-01-01

212

Single-borehole techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.)

1978-06-23

213

Utilidad de las técnicas de imagen en el hiperparatiroidismo secundario/ Usefulness of imaging techniques in secondary hyperparathyroidism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica que desarrollan hiperparatiroidismo secundario (HPTS), las técnicas de imagen pueden ser de utilidad, fundamentalmente para valorar la localización, el tamaño y el funcionalismo de las glándulas paratiroides. Esta revisión valora las técnicas de imagen de las que se dispone actualmente para evaluar las glándulas paratiroides en el contexto del HPTS. Se hace referencia a: 1) ecografía cervical (modo B, Doppler, Doppler (more) -color y power-Doppler); 2) estudios gammagráficos (talio, 99mTc-MIBI y 99mTc-tetrofosmin), incluyendo técnicas especiales de adquisición de imágenes (Pinhole, SPECT); 3) estudios PET (tomografía por emisión de positrones); 4) tomografía computarizada (TC) y resonancia magnética, y 5) escáneres híbridos (SPECT/TC y PET/TC). Nuestra recomendación es practicar, en todos los pacientes con HPTS que no responden inicial y fácilmente al tratamiento médico, una gammagrafía con 99mTc-MIBI que puede complementarse con un Eco-Doppler color. Si la gammagrafía es positiva y, tras gradación de la intensidad de captación, alguna de las glándulas (no ectópicas) presenta un índice intenso, aunque se puede intentar intensificar el tratamiento, debería pensarse en la realización de una paratiroidectomía. Si la gammagrafía es positiva y, tras gradación de la intensidad de captación, ninguna de las glándulas (no ectópicas) presenta un índice intenso, debería intentarse la intensificación del tratamiento, y si no existe buena respuesta, considerar la paratiroidectomía. Si la gammagrafía es negativa, debería practicarse un PET si se dispone de dicha prueba. En caso de no disponer de PET, lo aconsejable sería realizar una resonancia magnética. Abstract in english For patients with chronic renal failure who develop secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), imaging techniques can be useful, especially to evaluate the location, size and functional status of parathyroid glands. This review analyzes all available imaging procedures in the context of SHPT. We evaluate: 1) Cervical ultrasound (B-mode, Doppler, colour-Doppler and power-Doppler), 2) Scintigraphic studies (Tallium, 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-tetrofosmin), including non-standard image (more) acquisition techniques (Pinhole, SPECT), 3) Positron emission tomography (PET), 4) Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 5) hybrid scanners (SPECT/CT and PET/CT). Our recommendation is that SHPT patients who are initially non responders to medical therapy should be investigated using parathyroid scintigraphy and cervical ultrasound. 99mTc-MIBI uptake can be graded in a semiquantitative scale. Intense uptake indicates a low probability of success using medical treatment and parathyroidectomy should be considered. A moderate to faint uptake indicates that a more intensive medical therapy would probably be beneficial. In the case of no uptake of 99mTc-MIBI, PET should be performed. Where this is not available, MRI could be a possible alternative.

Torregrosa, José Vicente; Félez, I.; Fuster, D.

2010-01-01

214

Study of the texture of porous solids using a technique of ? ray absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A technique, which enables us to measure locally total porosity, open porosity and pore size distribution is developed. The total porosity is calculated from the bulk density. A gamma absorption gauge is set up fitted with a Cs137 source. This enables the determination of the density by layers of carbonaceous samples in a practically automatic way. By taking adequate precautions it is possible to obtain the density with a maximum error ?? ? 0,005 g/cm3. The open porosity is evaluated by the absorption method after impregnation with bromoform. A new mercury porosimeter is developed using the absorption probe for the measurement of mercury infiltrated into the porous sample. Due to the localized character of exploration by this technique, the variations of porous texture in a heterogeneous sample can be studied. Used as a classical porosimeter, in the case of homogeneous samples, this apparatus is capable of exploring the equivalent diameters of pores between 500 ? and 0.14 ? with a maximum error ?P ? 0.002. The possibility of exploration of heterogeneous samples, with the facility of determination of porosities due to macro-pores combined with the non-limiting character of the method in the field of high pressures differentiates this apparatus from all the porosimeters of former conception. Examples of utilization of this technique in the case of graphite-gas reactions are presented. (author)[fr] On a developpe une technique permettant la mesure localisee de la porosite totale, de la porosite ouverte et de la repartition de la taille de pores. La porosite totale est calculee a partir de la densite apparente. On a mis au point une jauge d'absorption du rayonnement gamma munie d'une source de Cs137. Celle-ci nous a permis de determiner la densite par couches d'echantillons cylindriques carbones d'une facon pratiquement automatique. En prenant les precautions adequates, il est possible d'obtenir la densite avec une erreur maximale ?? ? 0,005 g/cm3. La porosite ouverte a ete evaluee par la methode d'absorption apres impregnation au bromoforme. Un nouveau porosimetre au mercure a ete realise en utilisant la sonde d'absorption pour la mesure du mercure infiltre dans l'echantillon poreux. Grace au caractere localise de l'exploration on etudie, par cette technique, les variations de texture poreuse dans un echantillon heterogene. Utilise comme porosimetre classique dans le cas d'echantillons homogenes, cet appareil est capable d'explorer des diametres equivalents de pores compris entre 500 et 0,14 ? avec une erreur maximale, ?P ? 0,002. La possibilite d'exploration d'echantillons heterogenes jointe a la facilite de determination des porosites dues aux macropores et au caractere non limitatif de la methode dans le domaine des hautes pressions, differencient cet appareil de tous les porosimetres de conception anterieure. On presente des exemples d'utilisation de cette technique dans les cas de reactions graphite-gaz. (auteur)

1967-01-01

215

Immunoassay separation technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for effecting the immunoassay of a multiplicity of samples, each possibly containing an antigen or an antibody to be assayed, is discussed. Each sample is incubated with a solution containing a detectable antigen or antibody to form a multiplicity of mixtures, each mixture containing as components antigen-antibody, non-complexed antigen and non-complexed antibody. At least one of the components of the said mixture is separated by adsorption. There after, quantity of detectable antigen or antibody is detected in one of the non-adsorbed portions of the mixture. An improvement, compared to other techniques, is the continuous and sequential separation of at least one component, which is intended to be separated from each said multiplicity of mixtures

1976-03-12

216

[Therapeutic education didactic techniques].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective.

Valverde M; Vidal M; Jansa M

2012-10-01

217

[Therapeutic education didactic techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective. PMID:23157069

Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

2012-10-01

218

Improved collimation testing technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser collimation is an essential part of many experimental setups including optical coherent processors, image transformers, Fourier transform generators, and 4f-based optical systems. A device is required to test the collimation of lasers in such experiments. We are proposing a modification in the existing two-lens-system (TLS)-based collimation testing technique in which a combination of a convex and a concave lens is placed in space between the collimating lens and the first grating of the conventional setup. In the proposed method, we change the position of the second TLS component, placing it between the two gratings. The proposed idea not only reduces the size of the system but also gives improved results. Theoretical modeling and simulated and experimental results are presented to support our idea. PMID:22968284

Mudassar, Asloob Ahmad; Butt, Saira

2012-09-10

219

Tracer technique in casting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of silumine modification studies are described. The following modificators have been used: sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, cryolite labelled with sodium-24 as well as potassium chloride labelled with potassium-42 and phosphoric copper labelled with phosphorus-32. The following factors have been identified as results of the investigations: the effects of modificator chemical composition, temperature and feeding technique on the residual sodium and phosphorus content in silumines; sodium and potassium amounts transfered into the alloys from the salt constituents of fluxes; the effects of the melt maturing time on sodium and phosphorus losses at various temperatures with degassing by hexachloroethane and chlorine and the same during remelting. Some results are also presented concerning the effects of chemical composition and a number of metallurgical factors on grey iron tightness

1982-01-01

220

Robotic cystectomy: surgical technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: • The aim of this report is to describe our surgical technique of robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with totally intracorporeal urinary diversion in patients with urinary bladder cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: • A total of 45 patients (7 women and 38 men) with high-grade and/or muscle-invasive urothelial cancer of the bladder underwent RARC and intracorporeal urinary diversion at our department. • Orthotopic ileal neobladder was performed in 36 patients and ileal conduit was performed in 9 patients. RESULT: • Except in two patients that operation was converted to open surgery during the reconstruction of the orthotopic neobladder, the procedure was performed totally intracorporeal. • The operations time, estimated blood loss and length for hospital stay were decreased over the time. CONCLUSION: • RARC with totally intracorporeal urinary diversion is feasible.

Hosseini A; Adding C; Nilsson A; Jonsson MN; Wiklund NP

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Monovision techniques for telerobots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary task of the vision sensor in a telerobotic system is to provide information about the position of the system's effector relative to objects of interest in its environment. The subtasks required to perform the primary task include image segmentation, object recognition, and object location and orientation in some coordinate system. The accomplishment of the vision task requires the appropriate processing tools and the system methodology to effectively apply the tools to the subtasks. This paper describes the functional structure of the telerobotic vision system used in the Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL) and discusses two monovision techniques for accomplishing the vision subtasks. 11 references.

Goode, P.W.; Cornils, K.

1987-01-01

222

Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique  

CERN Document Server

We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

2011-01-01

223

Differential doppler heterodyning technique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating the detected doppler frequency. It is found that the doppler frequency for this particular setup is independent of the direction of detection. Investigations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) show that the maximum SNR-considering the optical setup-is obtained by measuring the frequency difference between two doppler-shifted beams rather than by measuring the shift of a single beam by comparing it with a reference beam. Measurements seem to be in agreement with the theoretical consideration

Lading, Lars

1971-01-01

224

[New retinal imaging techniques].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Retinal imaging techniques progress rapidly. In many cases, the diagnosis of macular diseases can be done by the combination of fundus photography (color, monochromatic or autofluorescence images) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Fluorescein or indocyanine green angiography remains useful when the other exams are not conclusive. Fundus angiography can be coupled with OCT. Other new investigation methods have appeared such as wide-field retinography on the one hand, or adaptive optics on the other hand which allows visualising photoreceptors in a very small field. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is based on color fundus photos. When the diagnostic of diabetic retinopathy is obvious, a more comprehensive fundus examination is warranted to decide on the treatment and follow-up.

Gaudric A

2013-01-01

225

Hymenoptera marking technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment there are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

A. M. Pereira; J. Chaud-Netto

2008-01-01

226

Technique for producing bitumen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To simplify technology and reduce process time, the technique for deriving bitumen (Bt) from solid fuel, where Bt is distilled at increased temperatures, the distillation is carried out continuously at 250-350/sup 0/ and atm pressure in a current of inert gas (heat carrier) with a mass. ratio of thermal destruct. products and heat carrier of GAMMA:01-1.0. The process is performed in a column unit (CU) equipped with mobile scrapers and immobile segmented dividers that are mounted on one roller and situated parallel to one another. The inert heat carrier is either aqueous steam or inert or smoke gases at a temp. of 300-550/sup 0/. This technique simplifies the process, reduces process time from 18-22 to 2.5-4 hours; as a result, and due to elimination of equipment plug up with solid particles, productivity is raised by 6 times. Example: Debenzined thermally processed products of Baltic shale ''Kerogen-70'' (12 kg) are heated to 250/sup 0/ and fed into CU at a rate of 4 kg/hour. The bottom of column received N/sub 2/ heated to 300/sup 0/ in the amount of 0.5 kg per 1 kg material. From the top of the CU liquid products (steam) are removed then cooled, condensed and collected in a special container for the distillate. From bottom of CU hot shale Bt is removed which contains the undissolved organic mass of the shale. The result is 5.4 kg distillate and 6.54 kg Bt (45 and 54.5% respectively; losses are 0.06 kg or 0.5%). The resultant Bt corresponds to GOST (Govt. standard) at 60/90, 91/130 and 131/200.

Vol' -Epshteyn, A.B.; Gorlov, Ye.G.; Kalashnikov, N.N.; Shpil' berg, M.B.; Zagurskaya, L.M.; Zotova, O.V.

1982-01-01

227

Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy. Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction. Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other. Deriving contours for planning teletherapy. Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit. Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs. Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

2004-04-14

228

Classification Based Outlier Detection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Outlier detection is an important research areaforming part of many application domains. Specific application domains call for specific detection techniques, while the more generic ones can be applied in a large number of scenarios with good results. This survey tries to provide a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on Classification Based Outlier Detection listing out various techniques as applicable to our area of research. We have focused on the underlying approach adopted by each technique. We have identified key assumptions, which are used by the techniques to differentiate between normal and Outlier behavior. When applying a given technique to a particular domain, these assumptions can be used as guidelines to assess the effectiveness of the technique in that domain. We provide a basic outlier detection technique, and then show how the different existing techniques in that category are variants of this basic technique. This template provides an easier and succinct understanding of the Classification based techniques. Further we identify the advantages and disadvantages of various classification based techniques. We also provide a discussion on the computational complexity of the techniques since it is an important issue in our application domain. We hope that this survey will provide a better understanding of the different directions in which research has been done on this topic, and how techniques developed in thisarea can be applied in other domains for which they were not intended to begin with.

Dr. Shuchita Upadhyaya, Karanjit Singh

2012-01-01

229

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such an analysis of the internal environment allows the organization to identify its resources and capabilities as best as possible, in relation to the threats and opportunities brought about by the crisis situations. Authors’ Contribution The research allows the identification of the organizational behaviour of resource and capabilities capitalization that must be adopted during the economic crisis. The study may be useful to both the academic and the business environment.

Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Popescu Andrei; Ploesteanu Mara Gabriela

2011-01-01

230

Technique Selectively Represses Immune System  

Science.gov (United States)

... Immune System December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Researchers devised a way to successfully treat symptoms ... nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

231

Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique  

CERN Document Server

Deals with the Persistent Scatterer Technique, a development in radar interferometric data processing. Using this technique, millimetric displacements can be observed at hundreds of thousands of targets that are affected only slightly from temporal and geometric decorrelation.

Kampes, Bert M

2006-01-01

232

Specialized financing techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations.

1992-01-01

233

Hymenoptera marking technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment there are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to (more) estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

Pereira, A. M.; Chaud-Netto, J.

2008-01-01

234

New accelerating techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A selection of new accelerating techniques is presented. The criterion for having selected a certain scheme was the promise to achieve high accelerating gradients. All schemes belong to one of three essentially different classes: - Near field accelerators, where the particles travel on straight trajectories in free space. The accelerating field, parallel to the trajectory, is guided by a nearby structure with dimensions of the order of the R.F. wave-length (grating accelerator) or the bunch length (wakefield accelerator). - Far-field accelerators. The particles travel in free space on curved trajectories and the acceleration takes place in transverse direction by an el.-magn. beam in free space or weakly guided (inverse free-electron-laser accelerator). - Media accelerators. The particles travel on straight trajectories in a medium (gas, plasma) and are accelerated either by el. magn. or el.-static fields parallel to their trajectory (beam wave accelerators, beam front accelerators, plasma beat-wave accelerator). 31 refs.

1983-01-01

235

Restrictive techniques: gastric banding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surgery for the treatment of severe obesity has a definite role onthe therapeutic armamentarium all over the world. Initiated 40years ago, bariatric surgery has already a long way thanks tohundred of surgeons, who had constantly searched for the besttechnique for the adequate control of severe obesity. Among theimportant breakthroughs in obesity surgery there is theadjustable gastric band. It is a sylastic band, inflatable andadjustable, which is placed on the top of the stomach in order tocreate a 15-20 cc pouch, with an outlet of 1.3cm. The adjustablegastric band has also a subcutaneous reservoir through whichadjustments can be made, according to the patient evolution.The main feature of the adjustable gastric band is the fact thatis minimal invasive, reversible, adjustable and placedlaparoscopically. Then greatly diminishing the surgical traumato the severe obese patient. Belachew and Favretti’s techniqueof laparoscopic application of the adjustable gastric band isdescribed and the evolution of the technique during this years,as we has been practiced since 1998. The perioperative care ofthe patient is also described, as well as the follow-up and shortand long term controls.

Sergio Roll; Katia Cristina da Cunha

2006-01-01

236

Advanced qualification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturing List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space environment, QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. The use of a 10 keV X-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10 keV X-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DOD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. (authors). 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

1019-01-00

237

[Hepatobiliary anastomosis techniques].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The success of hepatobiliary anastomoses is influenced by the diameter of the bile duct, the location within the biliary tract, the situation of primary or revision surgery and accompanying infections. The exact preoperative diagnostics of the anatomy of the biliary tract are indispensable for low complication rates. Within reconstructive surgery, hepaticojejunostomy has been established as the standard technique and a biliodigestive anastomosis is performed proximal to the cystic duct and 2-3 cm below the fork in the hepatic duct. In general, end-to-end anastomoses of the common bile duct are not recommended due to the high risk for stenosis. Within the liver hilus an exact preparation of all tubular structures is mandatory. With regard to possible perioperative complications operations on the hepatic duct or segmental bile ducts should be performed in specialized centers. Methods of drainage in hepatobiliary surgery are percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD), internal-external drainage, internal drainage with endoscopic or surgically placed stents, external-internal-external drainage and the T-drain.

Heidenhain C; Rosch R; Neumann UP

2011-01-01

238

[Hepatobiliary anastomosis techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of hepatobiliary anastomoses is influenced by the diameter of the bile duct, the location within the biliary tract, the situation of primary or revision surgery and accompanying infections. The exact preoperative diagnostics of the anatomy of the biliary tract are indispensable for low complication rates. Within reconstructive surgery, hepaticojejunostomy has been established as the standard technique and a biliodigestive anastomosis is performed proximal to the cystic duct and 2-3 cm below the fork in the hepatic duct. In general, end-to-end anastomoses of the common bile duct are not recommended due to the high risk for stenosis. Within the liver hilus an exact preparation of all tubular structures is mandatory. With regard to possible perioperative complications operations on the hepatic duct or segmental bile ducts should be performed in specialized centers. Methods of drainage in hepatobiliary surgery are percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD), internal-external drainage, internal drainage with endoscopic or surgically placed stents, external-internal-external drainage and the T-drain. PMID:21153387

Heidenhain, C; Rosch, R; Neumann, U P

2011-01-01

239

Techniques of Radio Astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter provides an overview of the techniques of radio astronomy. Thisstudy began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cosmos, but theperiod of rapid progress began 15 years later. From then to the present, thewavelength range has expanded from a few meters to the sub-millimeters, theangular resolution increased from degrees to finer than milli arc seconds,and the receiver sensitivities have improved by large factors. Today, thetechnique of aperture synthesis produces images comparable to or exceedingthose obtained with the best optical facilities. In addition to technicaladvances, the scientific discoveries made in the radio range have contributedmuch to opening new visions of our universe. There are numerous nationalradio facilities spread over the world. In the near future, a new era oftruly global radio observatories will begin. This chapter contains a shorthistory of the development of the field, details of calibration procedures,coherent/heterodyne and incoherent/bolometer receiver systems, observingmethods for single apertures and interferometers, and an overview of aperturesynthesis.

Wilson, T. L.

240

Evolution of Opf techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper analyses some possible applications of Opf techniques to the new market scenario of electric systems. New control tools (the adoption of Facts devices, or the use of correct economical signals related to nodal prices) are introduced. As the technical and economic requirements of the market could give rise to mutual conflict, the use of Multi objective Optimisation (MO) is envisaged. MO allows the management of different objectives and makes it easier to take a decision, as it gives indications on the consequences of the choice with respect to all the objective functions considered[it] A partire dai criteri di ottimizzazione applicati alla pianificazione e all'esercizio dei sistemi elettrici gestiti in maniera tradizionale, l'articolo illustra alcune proposte di Optimal Power Flow (Opf) per il nuovo regime di mercato. Sono presentate due possibili evoluzioni dei metodi tradizionali di Opf, che considerano la presenza di carichi elastici o di dispositivi per la gestione flessibile della rete di trasmissione (Facts). Si riportano anche alcuni risultati ottenuti applicando al problema di Opf metodi di multiobiettivo, utili per contemperare le necessita' dei diversi attori del mercato

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Dating technique tested  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes.

1985-04-01

242

Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006

- French version only  

CERN Multimedia

Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium, Bât 593 Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collaboration avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

Davide Vitè

2005-01-01

243

Advanced cannulation technique and precut.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For most ERCP endoscopists, the greatest hurdle to a successful procedure is deep cannulation of the bile duct. This article explores basic cannulation technique, then reviews a variety of instruments and techniques designed to increase the average endoscopist's success rate. Expert ERCP endoscopists have a few favorite techniques that have proved reliable over time. The most frequently used ones are highlighted in this review.

Baillie J

2012-07-01

244

Advanced qualification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structure-to-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments. (author). 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

1994-01-01

245

Advanced qualification techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ``builds in`` the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ``process capability`` is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co{sup 60} gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe`s Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

Winokur, P.S; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

1993-12-01

246

Techniques in Broadband Interferometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

Erskine, D J

2004-01-04

247

Advanced qualification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

1993-01-01

248

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 1): Transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales Nerve reconstruction techniques in traumatic brachial plexus surgery (Part 1): Extraplexal nerve transfers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los años '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc, para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En esta primera parte se analizan las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales, para luego hacer lo propio con las intraplexuales, en una segunda entrega.After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexus traumatic injuries, the present article has been written in order to clarify the concerned readers the indications, results

J. Robla-Costales; M. Socolovsky; G. Di Masi; L. Domitrovic; A. Campero; J. Fernández-Fernández; J. Ibáñez-Plágaro; J. García-Cosamalón

2011-01-01

249

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 1): Transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales/ Nerve reconstruction techniques in traumatic brachial plexus surgery (Part 1): Extraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los años '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un n (more) ervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc, para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En esta primera parte se analizan las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales, para luego hacer lo propio con las intraplexuales, en una segunda entrega. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the t (more) rauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexus traumatic injuries, the present article has been written in order

Robla-Costales, J.; Socolovsky, M.; Di Masi, G.; Domitrovic, L.; Campero, A.; Fernández-Fernández, J.; Ibáñez-Plágaro, J.; García-Cosamalón, J.

2011-12-01

250

Survey of Nearest Neighbor Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nearest neighbor (NN) technique is very simple, highly efficient and effective in the field of pattern recognition, text categorization, object recognition etc. Its simplicity is its main advantage, but the disadvantages can’t be ignored even. The memory requirement and computation complexity also matter. Many techniques are developed to overcome these limitations. NN techniques are broadly classified into structure less and structure based techniques. In this paper, we present the survey of such techniques. Weighted kNN, Model based kNN, Condensed NN, Reduced NN, Generalized NN are structure less techniques whereas k-d tree, ball tree, Principal Axis Tree, Nearest Feature Line, Tunable NN, Orthogonal Search Tree are structure based algorithms developed on the basis of kNN. The structure less method overcome memory limitation and structure based techniques reduce the computational complexity.

Nitin Bhatia; Vandana

2010-01-01

251

PDV Probe Alignment Technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes specified back reflection. This 3 to 6dB increase in back reflection from the surface relative to the probes specified back reflection is the optimal level for acquiring data from the flyer. Data obtained with the LLNL system is shown in Figure 5.

Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

2007-10-26

252

Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Première partie : Présentation théorique des trois techniques Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part One : Theoretical Description of Three Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les techniques de diffusion, des rayons X, des neutrons et de la lumière, jouent un rôle très important pour la compréhension des milieux colloïdaux. Peu d'articles de la littérature s'attachent à présenter conjointement les trois méthodes. Nous avons, dans la première partie de cet article, détaillé les principes théoriques en insistent tout particulièrement sur les spécificités de chacune. Après les rappels concernant la diffusion par les systèmes dilués, nous nous sommes intéressés aux systèmes concentrés pour lesquels les entités diffusantes sont en interaction. Les milieux dispersés montrent souvent une certaine polydispersité que l'on cherche à mesurer; les techniques de diffusion permettent cette mesure. Nous terminerons cette revue par une description des appareillages utilisés. La deuxième partie de cet article concernera une large illustration des possibilités de ces méthodes d'analyse à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux, sur la base de travaux effectués à I'IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole) ou dans de nombreux laboratoires de recherche extérieurs. This article aims to describe X-ray, neutron and light scattering techniques with emphasis on their specific nature and their scope of application. Indeed, whereas light diffusion has been used for a long time in research laboratories, in particular for characterizing polymers in solution, small angle X-ray scattering has been the subject of renewed interest in recent years. Neutron scattering, which is obviously more difficultly accessible, has proven to be extremely useful for studying various systems for which light and X-ray scattering remain relatively powerless. Whereas there is an abundant literature concerning various applications of the three methods, it should be noted that only a few articles have attempted to describe all three techniques at the same time. In this article we have tried to make up for this lack, and as such it was indispensable for us to review the basic theoretical principles, and especially radiation-matter interaction. This should clearly highlight the fields of application and the specific features of each method together with the information that can be obtained about colloidal systems. This article is divided into two general parts : (1) a description of the theoretical principles, including a joint description of the specific features of the three types of radiation - light, X rays and neutrons, and (2) a bibliographic review, not an exhaustive one, based on the extensive work done at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP) or in outside research laboratories, and concerning the characterizing of colloidal systems. Part One is divided into several chapters. First of all we review the physical laws governing the interaction of radiation with matter. X-ray or light photons are electromagnetic waves characterized by a very different wavelength, which is close to one angstrom for X rays and to about 6000 angstroms for light. Neutrons are moving particles having a wavelength of several angstroms. X rays interact solely with electrons from atoms, while neutrons interact with the nuclei of these same atoms. When a light wave passes through a diffusing medium, it creates a dipole that will radiate an electromagnetic field proportional to the polarizability of the medium. The diffused intensity or scatter cross-section appears as the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function gamma(x). This intensity contains all information about the nature, geometry and size of the diffusing entities contained in the medium. All these characteristic magnitudes of the colloid can be deduced from the experiment when the particles are homogeneous, identical and uncorrelated. This last qualification reveals the presence of particles that are very similar to one another, possibly in the form of more or less compact aggregates. We also refer to interactions among particles, which will be negligible if the diffusing entities are very far away, i. e. when a dilute system is present. The magnitudes that

Espinat D.

2006-01-01

253

Resolution enhancement for ultrasonic echographic technique in non destructive testing with an adaptive deconvolution method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The ultrasonic echographic technique has specific advantages which makes it essential in a lot of Non Destructive Testing (NDT) investigations. However, the high acoustic power necessary to propagate through highly attenuating media can only be transmitted by resonant transducers, which induces severe limitations of the resolution on the received echograms. This resolution may be improved with deconvolution methods. But one-dimensional deconvolution methods come up against problems in non destructive testing when the investigated medium is highly anisotropic and inhomogeneous (i.e. austenitic steel). Numerous deconvolution techniques are well documented in the NDT literature. But they often come from other application fields (biomedical engineering, geophysics) and we show they do not apply well to specific NDT problems: frequency-dependent attenuation and non-minimum phase of the emitted wavelet. We therefore introduce a new time-domain approach which takes into account the wavelet features. Our method solves the deconvolution problem as an estimation one and is performed in two steps: (i) A phase correction step which takes into account the phase of the wavelet and estimates a phase-corrected echogram. The phase of the wavelet is only due to the transducer and is assumed time-invariant during the propagation. (ii) A band equalization step which restores the spectral content of the ideal reflectivity. The two steps of the method are performed using fast Kalman filters which allow a significant reduction of the computational effort. Synthetic and actual results are given to prove that this is a good approach for resolution improvement in attenuating media[fr] L'echographie ultrasonore comporte des avantages qui la rendent essentielle en Controle Non Destructif (CND). Cependant, l'importante energie acoustique necessaire pour traverser des materiaux tres attenuants ne peut etre obtenue qu'a l'aide de traducteurs resonnants, ce qui limite serieusement la resolution sur les echogrammes mesures. Cette resolution peut etre amelioree avec des methodes de deconvolution. Mais l'application des methodes de deconvolution monodimensionnelle pose probleme en controle non destructif quand le milieu est fortement anisotrope et heterogene (l'acier austenitique par exemple). Les techniques de deconvolution sont nombreuses et bien documentees dans la litterature en CND. Mais elles proviennent generalement d'autres domaines d'application (genie biomedical, geophysique) et nous montrons que ces techniques ne sont pas bienadaptees auxprincipaux problemes du CND: l'attenuation en frequence du milieu et la phase non-minimale de l'ondelette. Nous avons developpe une methode de deconvolution temporelle qui permet de prendre en compte les caracteristiques de l'ondelette. Notre methode traite le probleme de deconvolution comme un probleme d'estimation et comporte 2 etapes: (i) une etape de correction en phase qui prend en compte la phase de l'ondelette pour estimer l'echogramme corrige en phase. La phase de l'ondelette est uniquement caracteristique du traducteur utilise et reste constante lors de la propagation, (ii) une etape d'egalisation spectrale qui permet de restaurer le contenu spectral de la reflectivite ideale. Les deux etapes sont mises en oeuvre par des filtres de Kalman rapides qui permettent de reduire considerablement le cout en calcul de la methode. La presentation de resultats synthetiques et reels montre que l'approche adoptee permet effectivement d'ameliorer sensiblement la resolution dans les materiaux attenuants

1989-01-01

254

Techniques de biologie moléculaire comme outils de gestion des pêches : bilan et perspectives Molecular biology techniques in fishery management : applications and perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le concept de stock stipule que la diversité génétique et la structure populationnelle des espèces doivent être reconnues et préservées afin d'assurer une utilisation optimale de la ressource. Néanmoins, les programmes de gestion ont en général manqué d'objectifs clairs concernant la conservation de la diversité génétique. De plus, les chercheurs en biologie des pêches ont longtemps hésité à intégrer l'usage d'outils moléculaires dans l'étude des populations. Le résultat de cette façon de voir et de faire a mené à un retard dans le développement de l'approche génétique dans notre discipline, comparativement aux domaines médical et agricole. Dans le contexte du "Colloque franco-québécois sur l'intégration des technologies modernes à la gestion des poissons dulcicoles et amphihalins", l'objectif de cet article est d'énoncer les bénéfices possibles de l'application de techniques de biologie moléculaire en gestion des pêches. Les techniques déjà disponibles sont décrites brièvement et leur utilité est appuyée par des exemples concrets d'application. Les nouvelles approches en développement, de même que leurs domaines d'application potentielle, sont décrits. The stock concept implies that genetic diversity and population structure must be considered and preserved in order to optimize the resource use. Nevertheless, management programs have generally lacked clear objectives regarding the conservation of gene pools. Furthermore, fishery biologists have often hesitated to integrate the use of molecular tools to population studies. These factors led to a slow development of a genetic approach in fisheries science when compared to other fields, such as medecine and agriculture. In the context of the "Colloque franco-québécois sur l'intégration des technologies modernes à la gestion des poissons dulcicoles et amphihalins", the main objective of this paper is to state the potential benefits of integrating molecular tools to fishery management. The already available techniques are briefly described and their usefulness supported by "real life" applications. New approaches and their potential applications are also discussed.

BERNATCHEZ L.

2008-01-01

255

L'addiction en milieu professionnel : quelles techniques de confirmation après l'immunoanalyse ? Workplace drug testing: which technique to use after immunoassay ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les analyses de confirmation concernant les conduites addictives en milieu professionnel sont pratiquées, soit en seconde intention après dépistage urinaire par immunoanalyse, ou d'emblée lorsqu'il n'existe pas d'immunoessal Pour les principales familles de stupéfiants (cannabis, opiacés, cocaïne, amphétamines), en cas de positivité lors du dépistage par immunoanalyse, la ou les substances dont la présence est suspectée lors de l'immunoessai doivent être formellement identifiées par Chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse. Cette analyse permet d'établir un profil d'exposition, et le plus souvent de conclure, soit à une conduite toxicophile, soit à une prise thérapeutique, soit à une interférence lors de l'immunoanalyse. Les méthodes dites de confirmation peuvent également être mises en oeuvre lorsque l'immunoanalyse est négative en raison d'une sensibilité insuffisante comme c'est le cas par exemple avec certaines benzodiazépines. Pour ces recherches, chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à une détection par barrette de diodes et chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à la spectrométrie de masse sont les techniques de choix. Enfin, en l'absence d'immunoessal disponible, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse permet de mettre en évidence un certain nombre de molécules parmi lesquelles on trouve des médicaments, ou des produits dopants comme les stéroïdes anabolisants. Enfin la chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à une détection par barrette de diodes peut-être mise en oeuvre pour d'autres médicaments appartenant à la classe des substances psychoactives. Professional workplace addiction testing is performed either to validate urine positive screening immunoassay or directly in the absence of immunoassay. As regards the main drugs of abuse (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines) positive results must be confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Exposure, an addiction, or a therapeutic pattern, in most cases, may then be concluded. Confirmation techniques have also to be carried out, when immunoassay is not sensitive enough, ie. for some benzodiazepines. For these exposures, liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector or to a mass detector, are the optimal techniques. However, when immunoassay is not available, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is useful for many substances, as doping agent like anabolic steroids. Liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector is also the method of choice for most psychoactive drugs.

Goullé Jean-Pierre; Lacroix Christian

2009-01-01

256

ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S) FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

Akwasi Asamoah; Charles Antwi-Boasiako; Kwasi Frimpong-Mensah

2013-01-01

257

Deep brain stimulation surgical techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stereotactic techniques for placement of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes have undergone continuous refinement since the introduction of human stereotaxis in the 1940s. Volumetric imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, have replaced ventriculography, and increasingly sophisticated computer systems now allow highly refined targeting of subcortical structures. This chapter reviews the underlying principles of stereotactic surgery, including imaging, targeting, and registration, and describes the surgical approach to DBS placement using both framed and frameless techniques.

Khan FR; Henderson JM

2013-01-01

258

Semiconductor-laser modulation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three simple modulation techniques for semiconductor lasers have been described. The first technique employs a single constant current source and is suitable for low frequency modulation up to 500 Khz. The second and third techniques employ two constant current sources each with current summing of subtraction and are suitable for higher frequency modulation up to several MHz. Schematic diagrams of designed, developed and tested circuits, implementing each of the above mentioned schemes, have also been presented. (author).

1996-01-01

259

Introduction to the Pinch Technique  

CERN Multimedia

These notes are a short introduction to the pinch technique. We present the one-loop calculations for basic QCD Green's functions. The equivalence between the pinch technique and the background field method is explicitly shown at the one-loop level. We review the absorptive pinch technique in the last sections. These lectures are a compilation of famous papers on this subject and are prepared for the third Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics.

Mathieu, Vincent

2008-01-01

260

Electronic Payment Fraud Detection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the fraudulent transactions that occur in electronic payment systems. We evaluate various techniques that can be used in detecting fraudulent transactions of card-not-present payment systems. The presented evaluation based on the literature, and from our own studies for these techniques. It provides a basis for exploring the common ground between techniques and for analyzing experimental studies and scenarios in practice.

Adnan M. Al-Khatib

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Surface techniques - progress and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A survey is presented of the progress made in the field surface techniques. Innovations in the following areas are looked at: CVD processes, manganese diffusion method, thin layer techniques, wet chemical processes, plasma techniques, plating. (GSC)[de] Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber den Fortschritt auf dem Gebiet der Oberflaechentechnik gegeben. Im einzelnen werden die Neuentwicklungen in den folgenden Bereichen betrachtet: CVD-Verfahren, Diffusionsverfahren Manganieren, Duennschichttechnik, nasschemische Verfahren, Plasmatechnik, Plattieren. (GSC)

1977-01-01

262

Advanced cannulation technique and precut.  

Science.gov (United States)

For most ERCP endoscopists, the greatest hurdle to a successful procedure is deep cannulation of the bile duct. This article explores basic cannulation technique, then reviews a variety of instruments and techniques designed to increase the average endoscopist's success rate. Expert ERCP endoscopists have a few favorite techniques that have proved reliable over time. The most frequently used ones are highlighted in this review. PMID:22748240

Baillie, John

2012-07-01

263

Remote techniques for hazardous environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remote techniques are essential to many industries where hazardous environments are an inherent part of everyday operations. The latest developments in remote technologies and the practical applications of these techniques worldwide are presented in this book. Applications covered include repair and refurbishment, inspection, decommissioning, operation and maintenance, and waste management. Although concentrating on techniques developed for nuclear industry applications, much of this research and development has great relevance for non-nuclear applications, such as in the offshore, medical and petrochemical industries. (UK).

1996-01-01

264

Visualization Techniques in Smart Grid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visualization is an established methodology in scientific computing. It has been used in many fields because of its strong capability in large data management and information display. However, its applications in power systems, especially in Smart Grid are still in infancy stage. Besides, while there were a lot of researches working on visualizing data in transmission power system, the study on displaying distribution power system data was limited. Therefore, in this paper, author proposed some techniques to visualize the Smart Grid data at distribution. They are classified in three categories, which are low dimensional techniques, multivariate high dimensional techniques and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques.

Dao Viet Nga; Ong Hang See; Do Nguyet Quang; Chee Yung Xuen; Lai Lee Chee

2012-01-01

265

Parachute technique for partial penectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

Fernando Korkes; Oseas C. Neves-Neto; Marcelo L. Wroclawski; Marcos Tobias-Machado; Antonio C. L. Pompeo; Eric R. Wroclawski

2010-01-01

266

Developments in internal monitoring techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to increase accuracy and speed, improve detection limits and reduce uncertainties in internal dosimetry, laboratories have developed improved or new internal monitoring techniques in both in vivo measurements and bioassay analyses. Most of these techniques have not yet entered routine monitoring programmes. This paper intends to summarise these new techniques, show their potential improvements compared to the currently employed monitoring routines and discuss the main aspects of the EC-funded IDEA project, which aims at a comprehensive assessment of these techniques and the enhancements necessary to bring them to broader acceptance in the routine monitoring community. (author)

Schmitzer, C.; Brandl, A.; Wahl, W.; Roth, P.; Franck, D.; Carlin, L. de; Andrasi, A

2003-07-01

267

Optical techniques in regenerative medicine  

CERN Multimedia

In regenerative medicine, tissue engineers largely rely on destructive and time-consuming techniques that do not allow in situ and spatial monitoring of tissue growth. Furthermore, once the therapy is implanted in the patient, clinicians are often unable to monitor what is happening in the body. To tackle these barriers, optical techniques have been developed to image and characterize many tissue properties, fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, and characterize the properties of the scaffolds. Optical Techniques in Regenerative Medicine illustrates how to use optical imaging techniques and

Morgan, Stephen P

2013-01-01

268

Techniques for industrial pollution prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is a catalog of seventy-three techniques to reduce/eliminate of recycle/reuse wastes, now operating in one hundred and twenty one industrial plants in seven different industries. Each technique is described and illustrated. Industries represented include: chemical; food and beverage; plating; construction materials; metallurgy; textiles; tannery; pulp and paper.

Overcash, M.R.; De Hertogh, M.D.

1986-01-01

269

A Classification for Privacy Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a classification for techniques that encourage, preserve, or enhance privacy in online environments. This classification encompasses both automated mechanisms (those that exclusively or primarily use computers and software to implement privacy techniques) and nonautomated mechanisms (those that exclusively or primarily use human means to implement privacy techniques). We give examples of various techniques and show where they fit within this classification. The importance of such a classification is discussed along with its use as a tool for the comparison and evaluation of privacy techniques. *************** Cet article propose une classification des techniques qui cherchent à encourager, à préserver et à améliorer la protection de la vie privée dans les environnements en ligne. Cette classification comprend des mécanismes à la fois automatisés (dont la mise en oeuvre se fait exclusivement ou principalement à l’aide d’ordinateurs et de logiciels) et non automatisés (dont mise en oeuvre se fait exclusivement ou principalement par l’intermédiaire de personnes). Des exemples sont donnés de diverses techniques, en les situant dans cette classification. L’article commente l’importance des classifications de ce genre ainsi que leur utilité pour la comparaison et l’évaluation des techniques pour la protection de la vie privée.

Carlisle Adams

2006-01-01

270

Multi Attribute Decision Making Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many times situation are arise where there aremany factors or parameters on which a decision is based.The problem becomes more complex with these multiparameters. In this paper we propose multi attribute decisionmaking techniques. The techniques will provide a solution tofind out the best alternative among the given attributes.Three methods for decision making are proposed in thispaper.

Manoj Sharma

2013-01-01

271

Techniques de jeu de role. (Role Playing Techniques.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Techniques for warming up, establishing group rapport, and setting in motion a role-playing activity are outlined. These involve physical games, communication exercises, oral skill development, and creative thinking. (MSE)

Dufeu, Bernard

1983-01-01

272

Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atilla Alpay, Suat Hayri Ugurbas, Berktug ErdoganDepartment of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TurkeyPurpose: To compare various techniques of pterygium surgery including bare sclera, intraoperative mitomycin C application, conjunctival flap reconstruction, and conjunctival autografting technique.Methods: This study is designed to compare 4 currently used techniques in order to determine the complication and recurrence rates after pterygium exision. Included in the study were 77 eyes from 60 patients. Bare sclera technique was used to treat 21 primary pterygia; mitomycin C was used to treat 20 (16 primary, 4 recurrent) pterygia; 18 (17 primary, 1 recurrent) pterygia were treated by conjuntival flap reconstruction; and 18 (9 primary, 9 recurrent) pterygia were treated by conjunctival autografting technique. All patients who underwent surgery were followed up for between 6 months and 2 years.Results: Eight recurrences (38.09%) were observed in the bare sclera group whereas there were 5 (25%) recurrences in the mitomycin C group. In the conjunctival flap reconstruction group, 6 (33.33%) recurrences were detected. In the conjunctival autografting group, 3 recurrences were  observed. There were no major complications threatening visual ability in the surgical patients.Conclusion: A comparison of the groups demonstrated that the recurrence rate was highest in the bare sclera group, and lowest in conjunctival autografting and mitomycin C treatment groups respectively. Although the conjunctival autografting technique is a more difficult and time consuming technique than the others, cosmetic and surgical results were found to be superior. We advise conjunctival autografting for the treatment of pterygium in view of the high recurrence rates of other techniques, and the possible complications of mitomycin C treatment for benign disease.Keywords: pterygium, comparing, techniques, mitomycin C

Atilla Alpay; Suat Hayri Ugurbas; Berktug Erdogan

2008-01-01

273

The history of cesarean technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cesarean section has been practiced since ancient times. Unfortunately, no ancient medical documents describing the techniques for cesarean section are extant. In the early medieval period, cesarean section was usually performed by midwives. One of the first explicit instructions in medical literature on cesarean technique dates from about 1480 ce from southern Germany. We discuss the evolution of cesarean surgical technique and point up the contribution of many giants in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, such as Blundell, Frank, Harris, Joel-Cohen, Kehrer, Kerr, Lebas, Levret, Maylard, Pfannenstiel, Porro, Portes, and Sanger.

Lurie S; Glezerman M

2003-12-01

274

The history of cesarean technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cesarean section has been practiced since ancient times. Unfortunately, no ancient medical documents describing the techniques for cesarean section are extant. In the early medieval period, cesarean section was usually performed by midwives. One of the first explicit instructions in medical literature on cesarean technique dates from about 1480 ce from southern Germany. We discuss the evolution of cesarean surgical technique and point up the contribution of many giants in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, such as Blundell, Frank, Harris, Joel-Cohen, Kehrer, Kerr, Lebas, Levret, Maylard, Pfannenstiel, Porro, Portes, and Sanger. PMID:14710118

Lurie, Samuel; Glezerman, Marek

2003-12-01

275

Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD)measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique,based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformationand attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, acomputer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective orpainted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition,target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformationcalculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.

A. W. Burner

276

Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification  

CERN Document Server

This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

Ray, Sandip

2010-01-01

277

Food Physics and Radiation Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed.

1999-01-01

278

Food physics and radiation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed.

1999-01-01

279

SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATION – DIRECT TABLETTING TECHNIQUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direct tabletting technique is the modern and the most efficient process used in tablet manufacturing and has been successfully employed for various poorly soluble and poorly compressible drugs. Spherical agglomeration is particle engineering technique which involves the transformation of fine crystals into spherical shape particles which enhances the powder properties such as particle size, shape, flow properties, solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical drug substances. This technique can also be applied to sustain the drug release from solid dosage forms. The present article is on the detailed comprehensive review about advantages and disadvantages, mechanism, different manufacturing methods of spherical agglomerates and characterization of spherical agglomerates.

Patil Pradnya B.; Gupta V.R.M.; Udupi R.H.; K. Srikanth; Pati Nikunja B.; B. Sree Giri Prasad

2011-01-01

280

Underwater YAG laser welding technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When planning preventive maintenance of reactor components using welding, it is necessary to consider special environments such as narrow space or difficult accessibility while minimizing exposure to radiation in the reactor pressure vessel. Toshiba has developed an underwater neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd: YAG) laser welding technique. The features of this welding technique are low-heat-input welding and compact welding machine dimensions for welding in narrow spaces. This paper provides a summary of the new welding technique as a reliable welding technology. (author)

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

A Modified Borel Summation Technique  

CERN Multimedia

We compare and contrast three different perturbative expansions for the quartic anharmonic oscillator wavefunction and apply a modified Borel summation technique to determine the energy eigenvalues. In the first two expansions this provides the energy eigenvalues directly however in the third method we tune the wavefunctions to achieve the correct large x behaviour. This tuning technique allows us to determine the energy eigenvalues up to an arbitrary level of accuracy with remarkable efficiency. We give numerical evidence to explain this behaviour. We also refine the modified Borel summation technique to improve its accuracy. The main sources of error are investigated with reasonable error corrections calculated.

Leonard, David

2007-01-01

282

Traitement de 46 malades porteurs de stades IV ORL par radiochimiothérapie concomitante selon un protocole permettant une radiosensibilisation de toutes les séances  

Science.gov (United States)

An external beam therapy with two fractions a day giving 48Gy with 16fractions and 45days, initialy palliative, has been shown to be well adapted for a simultaneous radiosensitizing chemotherapy employment. Associated to a cisplatin, fluorouracyl, etoposide and hydrea based chemotherapy, it has been applyed to 46patients with inoperable stages IV ORL tumors including 91% T4, 9% T3, 48% N2N3, 72% performans status equal or less than2. With a 30months observation median delay a clinical complete response at 4months is observed in 93%, with further locoregional relapses in 38%. One year survival is 58%, 2years 40%, 3years 35%. These results are equal or better than those obtained with hyperfractionnated, accelerated, hyper-fractionnated and accelerated, and classical radiotherapy. Une radiothérapie bifractionnée donnant 48 Gy en 16 séances et 45 jours, initialement palliative, s'est révélée bien adaptée pour l'emploi simultané d'une chimiothérapie radiosensibilisante. Associée à une chimiothérapie à base de cisplatine, fluoro-uracile, etoposide et hydrea, elle a été appliquée à 46 malades porteurs de cancers ORL de stade IV inopérables comprenant 91 % de T4, 9 % de T3, 48 % de N2N3, 72 % de performans status égaux ou inférieurs à 2. Avec un délai médian d'observation de 30 mois on observe 93 % de réponses cliniques complètes à 4 mois avec 38 % de récidives locorégionales ultérieures. La survie est de 58 % à 1 an, 40 % à 2 ans et de 35 % à 3 ans. Ces résultats sont égaux ou supérieurs à ceux qui ont été obtenus avec des radiothérapies hyperfractionnées, accélérées, hyperfractionnées et accélérées, et classiques.

Baillet, F.; Dessard-Diana, B.; Diana, C.; Simon, J. M.; Mazeron, J. J.; Pierga, J. Y.; Dendale, R.

1998-04-01

283

Device allowing casting of molten radioactive glass into a container. Dispositif permettant la coulee de verre radioactif en fusion dans un conteneur  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After vitrification of radioactive wastes the glass is poured into a storage container through a system for containment of molten glass (especially during casting), collection all gases, dusts and particles and allowing container dilatation.

Joutel, S.

1988-12-02

284

Acoustic techniques for localizing holdup  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Material that does not come out of a process as product or waste is called holdup. When this is fissile material, its location and quantity must be determined to improve safeguards and security as well as safety at the facility. The most common method for detecting and measuring holdup is with radiation based techniques. When using them, one must consider equipment geometry, geometry of holdup, and effects of background radiation when converting the radiation measurement into a fissile material quantity. We are developing complementary techniques that use tiny acoustic transducers, which are unaffected by background radiation, to improve holdup measurements by aiding in determining the above conversion factors for holdup measurements. Thus far, we have applied three techniques, Acoustic Interferometry, Pulse Echo, and bending Wave Propagation, of which the latter appears most effective. This paper will describe each of these techniques and show how they may ultimately reduce costs and personnel radiation exposure while increasing confidence I and accuracy of holdup measurements.

Vnuk, D.

1996-09-01

285

[Impressions techniques--Part 2].  

Science.gov (United States)

A dental impression is a positive replica of the teeth, the surrounding gingiva and the border between them; the purpose of which is to create an accurate master model. Two major techniques for impressions exist today: The conventional and the digital impressions. The current article describes both techniques. In the conventional impressions, it is important to choose a proper tray, stock or custom, and to mix the material properly. The commonly used impression techniques for making a conventional impression are described with a review on the effect of the technique on its accuracy. The effect of the wash bulk on the accuracy of the stone dies and/or the restoration is discussed, as well. The digital impressions with their advantages and disadvantages are described in comparison to the conventional impressions. Although, digital impressions eliminate some of the negative characteristics of conventional impressions, proper soft-tissue management and isolation of tooth preparation margins is still mandatory. PMID:23367724

Levartovsky, S; Masri, M; Alter, E; Pilo, R

2012-10-01

286

[Impressions techniques--Part 2].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A dental impression is a positive replica of the teeth, the surrounding gingiva and the border between them; the purpose of which is to create an accurate master model. Two major techniques for impressions exist today: The conventional and the digital impressions. The current article describes both techniques. In the conventional impressions, it is important to choose a proper tray, stock or custom, and to mix the material properly. The commonly used impression techniques for making a conventional impression are described with a review on the effect of the technique on its accuracy. The effect of the wash bulk on the accuracy of the stone dies and/or the restoration is discussed, as well. The digital impressions with their advantages and disadvantages are described in comparison to the conventional impressions. Although, digital impressions eliminate some of the negative characteristics of conventional impressions, proper soft-tissue management and isolation of tooth preparation margins is still mandatory.

Levartovsky S; Masri M; Alter E; Pilo R

2012-10-01

287

Evolutions of the polyethylen technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyethylene networks have been widely used in the world for many years, and today, like GAZ de FRANCE, many gas companies use electrofusion techniques for assembly of pipelines. Recent developments in the polyethylene technique are described, in particular the simplification of installation procedures and the operation of pipelines in service. The first point involved the design of high performance tools, independent of equipment brands, easily operated under work-site conditions: for example, automatic welding units able to adjust electrical parameters without any intervention by the operator. The second point concerns not only tools, but also the processes used both to solve problems linked to large diameter pipes and to extend the possibilities of the polyethylene technique. These different applications illustrate the latest developments in electrofusion, fittings, tools and installation methods which guarantee a polyethylene technique of high quality.

Cheron, J.J.; Fallou, J.

1988-01-01

288

Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atilla Alpay, Suat Hayri Ugurbas, Berktug ErdoganDepartment of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TurkeyPurpose: To compare various techniques of pterygium surgery including bare sclera, intraoperative mitomycin C application, conjunctival flap reconstru...

Atilla Alpay; Suat Hayri Ugurbas; Berktug Erdogan

289

Simulation techniques for applied dynamics  

CERN Multimedia

Presents advanced modelling and simulation techniques for the dynamical analysis of coupled engineering systems consisting of mechanical, electrical, hydraulic and biological components as well as control devices often based on computer hardware and software.

Maier, Giulio; Schneider, Wilhelm; Schrefler, Bernhard; Serafini, Paolo; Arnold, Martin

2009-01-01

290

Spectroscopic Techniques for Atmospheric Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several analytical and optical techniques for atmospheric analysis are discussed. Environmental constraints for real world applications are mentioned. Special emphasis is given to the cavity ring Down Spectroscopy as a very sensitive method for atmospheric trace gas detection is described.

2009-07-06

291

Pressure transducer temperature compensation technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A data reduction technique to compensate for the effects of rapid temperature changes in a pressure transducer, operating at 17.24 MPa (2500 psi) and 589 K (6000F), has been developed. This technique allows for pressure measurements, with an uncertainty of less than +-3% of full scale, to be made in locations where the media temperature is changing several hundred degrees in a few seconds.

1985-01-01

292

Experimental technique of neutron reflection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is presented that the classifications, structures and components of neutron reflectometer (NR), as well s functions and parameters of each components, detailed characters of NR facility 'PRN-2M'. Based on the practical experiments, the basic experimental techniques, the measurement and the related experimental settings are described, including the choice of experimental conditions, adjustments of polarized neutron beam line, basic experimental technique and approach of measurement. The above can be an instruction for NR experiments and a reference for NR construction. (authors)

2006-01-01

293

Survey on Spam Filtering Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years spam became as a big problem of Internet and electronic communication. There developed a lot of techniques to fight them. In this paper the overview of existing e-mail spam filtering methods is given. The classification, evaluation, and comparison of traditional and learning-based methods are provided. Some personal anti-spam products are tested and compared. The statement for new approach in spam filtering technique is considered.

Saadat Nazirova

2011-01-01

294

Simple techniques can increase motivation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Productivity depends upon strong motivation. This article describes how the symptoms of weak motivation can be detected among engineers and other employees and what to do about it. Fortunately, most people want to be productive and respond to simple motivation building techniques. These techniques include establishing twoway communication between supervisor and subordinate, delegating authority on the basis of responsibility, effective organization of time, and the use of positive reinforcement (or rewards) and, when conditions merit it, negative reinforcement (or sanctions).

Smith, E.A.

1982-12-01

295

A Survey of Compression Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital data is owned, used and enjoyed by many people all over the world. Compressing data is mostly done when we face with problems of constraints in memory. In this paper we have attempted to discuss in general about compression and decompression, the different techniques of compression using ‘Lossless method compression and decompression’ on text data using a simple coding technique called Huffmann coding.

Prof. Sashikala,; Prof. Melwin .Y.,; Prof. Arunodhayan Sam Solomon,; Prof. M.N.Nachappa,

2013-01-01

296

Discovering the Botnet Detection Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Botnet is a network of compromised computers. It just fellow the master slave concept. Bots are comprised computers and do the tasks what ever their master orders them. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is used for the communication between the master and bots. Information is also encrypted to avoid the effect of third party. In this paper we discuss the Botnets detection techniques and comparative analysis of these techniques on the basis of DNS query, History data and group activity.

Rahim, Aneel; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T.

297

Perfecting Your Spread Plate Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Spread Plate Technique, in conjunction with serial dilutions, is a valuable research tool. In this example, dye is used to accentuate the visible volume of each aliquot and the dispersion pattern on the agar. With the utilization of a second dye, each agar plate can be used twice. The immediate feedback and personal evaluation of these techniques provide an active learning experience that students remember.

Diane Hartman

2011-01-01

298

Uranium exploration techniques in Bolivia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The exploration techniques used by the Bolivian Nuclear Energy Commission/Comision Boliviana de Energia Nuclear (COBOEN) in certain areas of Bolivia that are considered promising from the standpoint of uranium deposits are presented in summary form. The methods and results obtained are described, including the techniques used by the Italian company AGIP-URANIUM during four years of exploration under contract with COBOEN. Statistical data are also given explaining the present level of uranium exploration in Bolivia. (author)

1978-12-08

299

Outlier Detection: Applications And Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Outliers once upon a time regarded as noisy data in statistics, has turned out to be an important problem which is being researched in diverse fields of research and application domains. Many outlier detection techniques have been developed specific to certain application domains, while some techniques are more generic. Some application domains are being researched in strict confidentiality such as research on crime and terrorist activities. The techniques and results of such techniques are not readily forthcoming. A number of surveys, research and review articles and books cover outlier detection techniques in machine learning and statistical domains individually in great details. In this paper we make an attempt to bring together various outlier detection techniques, in a structured and generic description. With this exercise, we hope to attain a better understanding of the different directions of research on outlier analysis for ourselves as well as for beginners in this research field who could then pick up the links to different areas of applications in details.

Karanjit Singh; Shuchita Upadhyaya

2012-01-01

300

PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

Punia Supriya; Bala Rajni; Rana A.C.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF). Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334). Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358).The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

Predrag Spiri?; Sanja Spiri?; Milan Stankovi?

2010-01-01

302

Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Electromigration Techniques in Detection of Microorganisms  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection and identification of microbes is a challenge and an important aspect in many fields of our lives from medicine to bioterrorism defense. However, the analysis of such complex molecules brings a lot of questions mainly about their behavior. Bacteria are biocolloid, whose surface charge originates from the ionization of carboxyl, phosphate, or amino groups and the adsorption of ions from solution. Consequently, the charged cell wall groups determine the spontaneous formation of the electrical double layer. In this chapter application of electromigration techniques for microorganism's identification and separation are described. This approach represents the possibility to apply electromigration techniques in medical diagnosis, detection of food contamination, and sterility testing.

Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

303

Review of uranium bioassay techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, {alpha}-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: {alpha}-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided.

Bogard, J.S.

1996-04-01

304

Authentication techniques for smart cards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

Nelson, R.A.

1994-02-01

305

Review of uranium bioassay techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, ?-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: ?-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided

1996-01-01

306

Authentication techniques for smart cards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

1994-01-01

307

Antigen retrieval techniques: current perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Development of the antigen retrieval (AR) technique, a simple method of boiling archival paraffin-embedded tissue sections in water to enhance the signal of immunohistochemistry (IHC), was the fruit of pioneering efforts guided by the philosophy of rendering IHC applicable to routine formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for wide application of IHC in research and clinical pathology. On the basis of thousands of articles and many reviews, a book has recently been published that summarizes basic principles for practice and further development of the AR technique. Major topics with respect to several critical issues, such as the definition, application, technical principles, and further studies of the AR technique, are highlighted in this article. In particular, a further application of the heat-induced retrieval approach for sufficient extraction of nucleic acids in addition to proteins, and standardization of routine IHC based on the AR technique in terms of a test battery approach, are also addressed. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism of the AR technique may shed light on facilitating the development of molecular morphology.

Shi SR; Cote RJ; Taylor CR

2001-08-01

308

Penile disassembly technique for epispadias repair: variants of technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We present 2 variants of the penile disassembly technique for epispadias repair that refine some details of the Mitchell technique. In some cases the urethral plate retracts and shortens, and there may be poor vascularization at the most distal portion. In addition, when the neurovascular bundles of the separated hemicorporeal glanular bodies are intact, it is difficult to achieve excellent correction of dorsal chordee. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 1998 we performed the modified Mitchell technique in 11 boys 2 to 14 years old using 1 of 2 variants. For variant 1 the hemiglans and urethral plate remain connected by a small tissue bridge to avoid shortening the urethral plate and ensure a better blood supply. For variant 2 each corporeal body is dissected from the glans cap and neurovascular bundle to achieve complete mobility. This procedure enables ideal mobility of the corporeal bodies as well as curvature repair. When corporeal rotation was unsuccessful, we corrected persistent dorsal chordee using the Ransley corporotomy with corporostomy in 2 patients and with dermal grafting in 1. RESULTS: Mean followup was 17 months (range 6 to 30). Dorsal curvature was corrected in all cases. Cosmetic appearance was good. Complications included meatal stenosis and urethral fistula in 1 case each. CONCLUSIONS: Our variants of epispadias repair may be good alternatives to the Ransley and Mitchell complete penile disassembly techniques.

Perovic SV; Vukadinovic V; Djordjevic ML; Djakovic NG

1999-09-01

309

Transfer techniques in protein blotting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is an extremely powerful tool for the analysis of complex protein mixtures. Although the value of this method cannot be questioned, it is restricted in that the separated proteins remain buried within the dense gel matrix and are not readily available for further investigation. A number of methods have been developed in order to try and overcome this problem, for example the elution of proteins from excised gel slices (see Chapter 19 ). Alternatively, proteins have been studied while they are still buried within the gel using a variety of in situ peptide mapping (see Chapter 22 ) and gel overlay techniques (for example, see ref. 1). Unfortunately all of these methods have serious drawbacks: in the case of protein elution and in situ peptide mapping techniques, the resolution and number of bands that can be processed is restricted, whereas the gel overlay techniques are generally time-consuming and insensitive.

Gooderham K

1984-01-01

310

Overview of leak testing techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past ten years leak testing techniques have gained greater importance as a powerful non-destructive testing tool particularly in nuclear, space, petro-chemical, fertilizer and chemical industries. Leak for various reasons is an undesirable feature in a component or system, still leaks do occur in practice and can some-times cause significant loss in terms of both money and human life. Hence it is essential that leaks are effectively detected and remedial measures to plug the leaks are taken sufficiently in advance. Over the years more than twenty different leak test methods have been developed with different detection sensitivities. In this article commonly used leak-detection methods have been described with emphasis to Helium leak detection technique which is one of the most widely used techniques today

2002-01-01

311

New techniques in neutron scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New neutron sources being planned, such as the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) or the European Spallation Source (ESS), will provide an order of magnitude flux increase over what is available today, but neutron scattering will still remain a signal-limited technique. At the same time, the development of new materials, such as polymer and ceramic composites or a variety of complex fluids, will increasingly require neutron-based research. This paper will discuss some of the new techniques which will allow us to make better use of the available neutrons, either through improved instrumentation or through sample manipulation. Discussion will center primarily on unpolarized neutron techniques since polarized neutrons will be the subject of the next paper. (author).

1993-01-01

312

Probabilistic techniques for software verification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The various techniques for verification of proper software behaviour can be separated into probabilistic and deterministic ones. Deterministic techniques mainly qualify for small programs with very high reliability requirements. The probabilistic ones qualify for large programs in the first place. They are mostly based on operating experience and on black box testing; the aspects of software behaviour are dominating in contrast to the questions of its correctness. The outcome of the related investigations is typically a reliability figure and a related level of confidence. This contribution gives some formulae that may be used as rules of thumb. In any particular licensing process, however, things most likely will get so complex that more detailed techniques such as two stage sampling may become important. In these cases it is advisable to engage specialists about probabilistic, because the mathematical complexity of the problem may exceed the scope needed in ''normal'' engineering. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

1991-01-01

313

Infraglottic airway devices and techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Airway management involves far more than just proficiency with tracheal intubation techniques. There are several infraglottic techniques available and the method chosen will depend on the accessibility of equipment, the level of training and expertise, and the patient's specific injury or disease. Endotracheal intubation is most commonly performed by direct laryngoscopy. Several modifications of laryngoscope blades and a variety of adjuncts such as bougies may help to accomplish even a difficult airway. Rigid intubation fibrescopes do improve the view of the larynx, especially in patients with difficult anatomy. They also permit tracheal intubation with less head and cervical spine movement than is often generated by direct laryngoscopy. Successful intubation, however, requires considerable experience, as in intubation techniques using flexible fibrescopes. Both the EasyTube and the Combitube serve as an infraglottic or a supraglottic airway. The tip of the EasyTube resembles the one of an endotracheal tube, whereas the Combitube is much more bulky. PMID:16408536

Thierbach, Andreas R; Werner, Christian

2005-12-01

314

AI assisted coal interpretation techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an integrated geological interpretation system for coal deposits based on maximised use of AI techniques. The first part describes the lithological interpretation which uses a number of boreholes with both logged lithology and downhole geophysical logs. This information provides a learning set of data to the neural network. The second part concentrates on the correlation of both coal and noncoal units from borehole to borehole. Problems in this area, in a manual sense, are interpretation of correlation across weathering zones and other geological anomalies. The technique is based on pattern recognition and dynamic programming techniques where a correlation matrix is developed relating all holes with their maximum correlations. 6 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Cram, A.A.; Turczynski, G.P.J.; Godresse, M.; Low, G.; Driver, I.J.; Ozawa, N. [Engineering Computer Services Pty. Ltd., Bowral, NSW (Australia)

1995-12-31

315

Green technique in coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of green technique in coal mining was proposed. Its connotation and technical system were explained. The theory of the green technique in coal mining is the distribution behaviour of joints, fractures and bed separations, and the seepage flow behaviour of methane and water in the broken rock strata caused by the key strata break after mining. The main content of the green technique in coal mining includes water-preserved-mining, coal mining under building and bed separation grouting to reduce surface subsidence, particle extraction and backfill mining, simultaneous extraction of coal and coal-bed methane, coal mine roadway supporting, underground discharge of particle rock refuse and underground coal gasification. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Qian, M.; Xu, J.; Miao, X. [CUMT, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

2003-07-01

316

IVDSA while breathing. Breathing technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to eliminate the misregistration artifacts created by respiratory movements which severely deteriorate IVDSA's images, contrary to the conventional procedure, we applied intravenous DSA while breathing. With this technique, mask images during any respiratory phase coincide with live images once or twice per respiration. Through this, artifact-free subtraction images were obtainable. We refer to this as Breathing Technique. 326 IVDSA with peripheral injections were used in a total of 226 cases and 91.7 % of the images had a high diagnostic value. Since this technique yields intermittant information, it is not useful for cardio-functional analysis or compiling time-density curves. However, it can increase the availability of static images in diagnosing angio-lesions in the aorta and its main branches and oncogenous lesions in vessels.

Matsuoka, S.; Okayasu, T.

1987-05-01

317

Image Segmentation by Using Threshold Techniques  

CERN Multimedia

This paper attempts to undertake the study of segmentation image techniques by using five threshold methods as Mean method, P-tile method, Histogram Dependent Technique (HDT), Edge Maximization Technique (EMT) and visual Technique and they are compared with one another so as to choose the best technique for threshold segmentation techniques image. These techniques applied on three satellite images to choose base guesses for threshold segmentation image.

Al-amri, Salem Saleh; D., Khamitkar S

2010-01-01

318

Aplicación de las técnicas de biología molecular en oncología oral/ Application of molecular biology techniques in oral cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo de revisión se propone exponer las principales técnicas de biología molecular disponibles actualmente para los investigadores, en el campo del cáncer y precáncer oral, clasificadas según el tipo de material biológico del que se disponga para iniciar la investigación. Éste puede ser ADN, ARN o proteínas. La explicación de cada técnica comprenderá una breve sistemática del proceso, así como sus ventajas, inconvenientes y estado de actividad act (more) ual. Todo ello con la finalidad de esclarecer las aplicaciones, pronto indispensables, de las técnicas más destacadas, en el diagnóstico precoz, pronóstico y tratamiento individualizado del carcinoma oral. Entre las técnicas más útiles en este proceso se encuentran: la electroforesis en gel, las técnicas de hibridación, la tecnología microarray, los biochips, la PCR convencional, la cuantitativa o la transcriptasa inversa, las técnicas de Southern, Northern y Western blot, la secuenciación de ADN, la clonación de genes, la inmunohistoquímica, el ensayo ELISA y la citometría de flujo. Destacan en particular por su gran utilidad, la tecnología microarray, los biochips y la PCR. Abstract in english This article summarizes the main techniques in the area of molecular biology that are available for the investigation of oral cancer and precancer. They have been classified depending on the biological material we expect to analyze, which can be DNA, RNA or proteins. The explanation for each technique includes a brief description of its basics, as well as some advantages, drawbacks and current use of the technique. Our aim is to throw light on the applications of these te (more) chniques, soon indispensable for most studies, in the early diagnosis, prognosis and individualized treatment of oral carcinoma. The most useful techniques for this objective are nowadays: gel electrophoresis, hybridation, microarray technology, biochips, PCR (conventional, quantitative or reverse transcriptase), Southern, Northern and Western blot studies, DNA sequenciation, cloning, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and flow citrometry. Some techniques that deserve a special mention due to their greater usefulness in the area of oral cancer are microarray technology, biochips and PCR.

López-Durán, M.; Campo-Trapero, J.; Cano-Sánchez, J.; Díez-Pérez, R.; Bascones-Martínez, A.

2010-08-01

319

CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN) is tested on simulated and real data.

M. Martorella; A. Cacciamano; E. Giusti; F. Berizzi; B. Haywood; B. Bates

2008-01-01

320

Cost management techniques. Part II.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reducing the cost of purchased products and services is of continuing importance to hospital purchasing and materials managers. In the first of three articles, the authors addressed the life cycle costing approach applied to purchasing as a means of evaluating total costs over the life of a product rather than only evaluating quoted prices. Life cycle costing is most appropriate for longer lived products, those with maintenance, repair, and disposal considerations. This article continues the discussion of cost management techniques focusing on ways to identify and manage total costs of purchasing and acquisition. The third article will present integrated cost and value management techniques.

Monczka RM; Taylor BE

1987-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Cuban agriculture and nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of nuclear techniques to agriculture emerged in Cuba at the end of the 60s. At the beginning only few researchers used these techniques for stimulating or mutational purposes. At the end of the 80 s systematic research began for its possible application to existing agricultural problems among which we can highlight radiomutable genesis and the determination of diagnostic damage of seeds by x-rays, plant nutrition and soil fertility, efficient water use, animal nutrition, reproduction and health as well as pest control

1997-01-01

322

Nuclear and alternative analytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful technique for monitoring trace contaminants in the environment, particularly when radiochemical separation procedures are applied to improve the limits of detection. The developments in newer techniques for trace inorganic contaminants, such as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasms-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), are complementary to NAA, and the three methods can be used to measure a comprehensive range of trace elements and sample types, over a broad range of concentrations. 4 refs.; 3 tabs

1996-01-01

323

Grid flexibility and patching techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The numerical determination of combustor flowfields is of great value to the combustor designer. An a priori knowledge of the flow behavior can speed the combustor design process and reduce the number of experimental test rigs required to arrive at an optimal design. Even 2-D steady incompressible isothermal flow predictions are of use many codes of this kind are available, each employing different techniques to surmount the difficulties arising from the nonlinearity of the governing equations and from typically irregular combustor geometries. Mapping techniques (algebraic and elliptic PDE), and adaptive grid methods (both multi-grid and grid embedding) as applied to axisymmetric combustors are discussed.

Keith, T.G.; Smith, L.W.; Yung, C.N.; Barthelson, S.H.; Dewitt, K.J.

1984-04-01

324

An automated interferogram analysis technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An automated technique has been developed for the analysis of various types of interferograms. The technique makes use of a high speed digitized microdensitometer to scan the interferograms and a high speed computer to perform the required computations. The optical thickness variations for a test specimen can be determined by analysis of one or two interferograms. In addition, when required, determinations can be made of time change in optical thickness or the physical thickness and index of refraction homogeneity profiles by analysis of multiple interferograms.

Jones RA; Kadakia PL

1968-08-01

325

An automated interferogram analysis technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

An automated technique has been developed for the analysis of various types of interferograms. The technique makes use of a high speed digitized microdensitometer to scan the interferograms and a high speed computer to perform the required computations. The optical thickness variations for a test specimen can be determined by analysis of one or two interferograms. In addition, when required, determinations can be made of time change in optical thickness or the physical thickness and index of refraction homogeneity profiles by analysis of multiple interferograms. PMID:20068827

Jones, R A; Kadakia, P L

1968-08-01

326

Surface analysis the principal techniques  

CERN Multimedia

This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers ho

Vickerman, John C

2009-01-01

327

Add-A-Source technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Counting neutrons emitted by spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes is a means for determining Plutonium content in samples. Correlations techniques have been developed for separating such neutrons from a background of nonfission neutrons due to (?, n) reactions. Further procedures are then used to correct the effect of neutron-induced fission. In order to perform such a correction the sample's chemical composition (including the presence of moisture) must be a well known parameter. The present paper reports a theoretical formulation of a new approach (add-a-source technique), which could allow to correct the measurement indipendently by the knowledge of the sample's chemical composition

1988-01-01

328

Techniques to Teach Communication Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Second language learners encounter communication problems when they attempt to use the target language. One way to overcome the problems is using effective strategies. Thus, L2 learners can benefit from teaching communication strategies to use them effectively. However, teaching and teachability of CS is a controversial issue. In this paper, it is discussed that teaching CS is useful and feasible and that techniques can be introduced to teach them. It is claimed that the Bottom-Up Approach is the framework within which such techniques can be put to use and create an atmosphere of easy communication and learning.

Ataollah Maleki

2010-01-01

329

Data Mining Concepts and Techniques  

CERN Multimedia

The increasing volume of data in modern business and science calls for more complex and sophisticated tools. Although advances in data mining technology have made extensive data collection much easier, it's still always evolving and there is a constant need for new techniques and tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge. Since the previous edition's publication, great advances have been made in the field of data mining. Not only does the third of edition of Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques continue the tradition of equipping you with an understandin

Han, Jiawei; Pei, Jian

2011-01-01

330

Slit aperture technique for mammography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following a discussion of various principles used in the elimination of scatter, the prototype of a simple slit aperture mammography apparatus is described (modified Mammomat, Siemens). The main advantage of this technique compared with grid mammography is a halving of the radiation dose for identical image quality, using an identical film system. The technical requirements (heavy duty tube, new generator) are, however, considerable. If the film-screen systems currently in use are to remain the common systems for the future, then the development of a multi-lamellar slit diaphragm technique carries much promise for mammography.

Friedrich, M.

1984-11-01

331

93: Narrow beam irradiation technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Applying a tiny field to a deep seated cerebral arteriovenous malformation, the dose characteristics and the reconstruction accuracy are studied in the LINAC-CT radiation system. Internal point referring patient set-up system is applied, the maximum deviation is 1.5 mm. The machine is stable enough and the reconstruction accuracy in patient set-up is good enough. Hence, this technique is applicable clinically. Using this technique for benign disease like AVM, unnecessary and harmful radiation to the neighboring normal tissue can be minimized. 6 refs.; 9 figs.

1987-01-01

332

Weighted simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, we propose a statistically weighted simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (wSART) for computed tomography (CT) imaging. The wSART algorithm is a generalization of the conventional simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) which accounts for the statistical information of the measured projection data. We validate our proposed algorithm by use of real phantom data collected from Aquilion ONETM scanner. Our preliminary results showed that the wSART algorithm can efficiently suppress the streak artifacts induced by photon starvation. (orig.)

Shi, Daxin; Zou, Yu; Zamyatin, Alexander A. [Toshiba Medical Research Institute USA, Inc., Vernon Hills, IL (United States)

2011-07-01

333

Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs.

1993-01-01

334

Physics aids new medical techniques  

CERN Document Server

Since the discovery of X-rays, fundamental physics has been a source of ideas for radiography and medical imaging. A new imaging method firmly rooted in particle physics was chosen by Time magazine as one of its "Inventions of the Year 2000". The award-winning invention in the medical science category was a scanner that combined the advantages of computer tomography with positron emission tomography. The use of these techniques, which depend on detecting and analysing electromagnetic radiation (X-rays or gamma rays respectively), show that detection techniques from particle physics have made, and continue to make, essential contributions to medical science. (0 refs).

CERN. Geneva

2001-01-01

335

Orthopedic imaging. Techniques and applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume is intended to provide radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, and other clinicians with an up-to-date review of imaging of the musculoskeletal system. In the first part of the book, the various imaging techniques are discussed in turn, with particular attention to their advantages and disadvantages. The second part then documents the application of these techniques to the clinical problems and diseases encountered in specific anatomical regions. Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert in the field, and a wealth of illustrative material is included. (orig.)

Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). MRI Centre; Petterson, H. [eds.] [University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology

1998-10-01

336

Orthopedic imaging. Techniques and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume is intended to provide radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, and other clinicians with an up-to-date review of imaging of the musculoskeletal system. In the first part of the book, the various imaging techniques are discussed in turn, with particular attention to their advantages and disadvantages. The second part then documents the application of these techniques to the clinical problems and diseases encountered in specific anatomical regions. Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert in the field, and a wealth of illustrative material is included. (orig.)

1998-01-01

337

Adaptation des techniques de forage à la recherche et à l'équipement des stockages souterrains de gaz naturel Adapting Drilling Techniques to the Search for and Equipment of Underground Natural-Gas Storage Facilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pour répondre à la modulation annuelle de la consommation de gaz, le Gaz de France a décidé, il y a une trentaine d'années, de stocker du gaz, soit dans des nappes aquifères, soit dans des cavités salines. La recherche de structures géologiques aptes à recevoir ce gaz, la réalisation et l'équipement de puits d'exploration ou d'exploitation, l'entretien de ces puits et le contrôle des stockages ont été confiés au Département réservoirs souterrains de la Direction des études et techniques nouvelles. Les phases d'exploration et de développement d'un stockage souterrain nécessitent le forage de puits du type pétrolier. Ces sondages permettent, d'une part la récupération d'un maximum de renseignements concernant les différentes couches géologiques traversées et l'évaluation de leur aptitude à stocker le gaz, et d'autre part, d'assurer une exploitation optimale et fiable du stockage dans les meilleures conditions de sécurité. La pratique acquise dans l'exécution de ces forages par le Gaz de France lui a permis d'adapter aux stockages souterrains de nombreuses techniques des forages pétroliers. Parallèlement des procédés originaux ont pu être mis au point pour répondre à certaines exigences particulières du forage des puits de réservoirs souterrains, notamment à celles concernant le bon calibrage du trou foré ou la qualité des cimentations des cuvelages. L'article présente l'ensemble de ces adaptationset pratiques originales; bien que ne prétendant rien d'autre qu'apporter une contribution au chapitre problèmes particuliers des forages pour stockages souterrains de la technique pétrolière, certaines de celles-ci devraient pouvoir, en retour, trouver des applications intéressantes dans les forages pétroliers de moyenne profondeur. About 30 years ago and with a view to keep pace with the annual variation of gas consumption, Gaz de France decided to store gas in either aquifer layers or salt cavities. The search for geological structures suitable for holding this gas, the drilling and equipment of exploration or production wells, their maintenance and the controlling of such storage facilities were entrusted to the Underground Reservoirs Department of the Service for Research and New Technologies. The exploration and development phases of an underground storage facility require the drilling of petroleum-type wells. Such boreholes are used to recover the maximum amount of information concerning the different geological layers crossed and to assess their suitability for storing gas. At the same time, they must be capable of ensuring the optimal and reliable exploitation of the storage facilities under the best possible safety conditions. The practical drilling experience acquired by Gaz de France enabled it to adapt many petroleum drilling techniques to underground storage facilities. At the same time, original procedures were developed to cope with various specific requirements inherent to drilling wells into underground reservoirs, particularly requirements concerning the proper sizing of boreholes and casing cementation quality. This article describes all these adaptations and original developments. Primarily a contribution to the field of Specific Problems in Boreholes for Underground Storage Facilitiesamong petroleum technologies, some of these developments should in turn result in interesting applications in medium-depth oil and gas wells.

Grandin J.; Konirsch O.

2006-01-01

338

Théorie et instrumentation des techniques de LC-MS et LC-MS/MS applicables à la toxicologie LC-MS and LC-MS/MS theory and instruments applicable to toxicology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les principaux constituants d'un spectromètre de masse couplé à la chromatographic liquide (sources d'ionisation à pression atmosphérique, cellules de collision, filtres de masse) et, pour chacun, les principales innovations des constructeurs, leurs avantages proclamés, leur intérêt et leurs applications potentielles en toxicologie. Sont également abordés les modes opératoires généralement utilisés pour les analyses qualitatives ou quantitatives en toxicologie, ainsi que les rares recommandations internationales concernant le nombre d'ions ou de transitions de masse à enregistrer et les variations acceptables de leurs intensités relatives, permettant de profiter réellement de la spécificité de la LC-MS et de la LC-MS/MS au cours d'analyses quantitatives. Il est rappelé à cette occasion que des analyses toxicologiques fiables reposent non seulement sur un matériel performant, mais aussi sur de bonnes pratiques techniques et des opérateurs compétents. This paper reviews the main parts of a mass spectrometer coupled to liquid chromatography (atmospheric pressure ionisation sources, collision cells, massfilters) and, for each, the main manufacturers' innovations, their claimed advantages and their potential interest and applications in toxicology. The operating procedures mostfrequently used in toxicology for either qualitative or quantitative analysis aie also discussed, as well as the rare international recommendations about the number of ions or mass transitions to monitor and the acceptable variability of their relative intensity, in order to fully benefitfrom LC-MS or LC-MS/MS specificity during quantitative assays. On this occasion, it is reminded tliat reliable toxicology analyses not only rely on high-performance devices, but also on good technical practices and skilled operators.

Marquet Pierre

2008-01-01

339

Core calculational techniques and procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Described are the procedures and techniques employed by B and W in core design analyses of power peaking, control rod worths, and reactivity coefficients. Major emphasis has been placed on current calculational tools and the most frequently performed calculations over the operating power range

1977-01-01

340

Gauge technique for massive electrodynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In gauge theories which undergo spontaneous symmetry breaking, explicit or dynamical, the generated vector boson masses (..mu..) complicate the form and solution of the gauge technique equations. The effect of ..mu.. for (massive) electrodynamics is determined by numerical methods and the results compared with approximate analytical solutions used in previous work on the subject.

Delbourgo, R.; Parker, N.N. (Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay (Australia). Dept. of Physics); Kenny, B.G. (Western Australia Univ., Nedlands. Dept. of Physics)

1982-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cell Formation Techniques – A Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cellular manufacturing system has been proved a vital approach for batch and job shop production systems. Group technology has been an essential tool for developing a cellular manufacturing system. Thepaper aims to discuss various cell formation techniques and highlights the significant research work done in past over the years and attempts to points out the gap in research of past studies.

Pawan Kumar Arora,; Abid Haleem,; M K Singh

2011-01-01

342

Survey on Spam Filtering Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the recent years spam became as a big problem of Internet and electronic communication. There developed a lot of techniques to fight them. In this paper the overview of existing e-mail spam filtering methods is given. The classification, evaluation, and comparison of traditional and learning-base...

Saadat Nazirova

343

Percutaneous nephropyelostomy. A new technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Percutaneous nephropyelostomy was carried out in 33 patients with a modified technique. The puncture was performed under control by dynamic ultrasound with a sector-scanner using a needle guide unit fitted to the transducer head and primary insertion of a wide-bore catheter. After 2 days the catheter could be replaced by a balloon catheter for permanent or temporary drainage.

Lindgren PG; Hemmingsson A

1980-01-01

344

Advances of the IBIC technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique has been used for a wide variety of analytical applications in the study of semiconductor materials. This paper briefly reviews these uses and identifies those areas which require further development in order to facilitate the more widespread use of the IBIC method. Progress towards implementing these improvements is discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

Breese, M.B.H.; Laird, J.S.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

1993-12-31

345

Technique of medical image database  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The general methods of image input, quantization, storage and files search are discussed. Some image processing softwares are introduced. Furthermore, the contents of this paper involve the techniques of star-network and local-network, compression methods of medical image or graphic data, transmission of a medical image, sharing image data source through a network system

1990-01-01

346

Parallel pseudospectral domain decomposition techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of interface boundary conditions on the ability to parallelize pseudospectral multidomain algorithms is investigated. Using the properties of spectral expansions, a novel parallel two domain procedure is generalized to an arbitrary number of domains each of which can be solved on a separate processor. This interface boundary condition considerably simplifies influence matrix techniques. 6 refs.

Gottlieb, D.; Hirsch, R.S. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (USA) NSF, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-12-01

347

Diagnostic cardiology: Noninvasive imaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contains 23 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The chest x-ray and cardiac series; Computed tomographic scanning of the heart, coronary arteries, and great vessels; Digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of cardiovascular disease; Magnetic resonance: technique and cardiac applications; Basics of radiation physics and instrumentation; and Nuclear imaging: the assessment of cardiac performance.

1985-01-01

348

DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

Bharati M.; . Ramageri

2010-01-01

349

Measurements Techniques for Gyrotron characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments planned for the characterization of the 35GHz girotron, which is being built at the Plasma Laboratory of INPE, are described. The methods of the measurements are presented and the required instrumentation and devices are specified. Special attention is given to the measurement techniques of the resonator electric field profile. (author).

1987-01-01

350

Forensic techniques in coal utilisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of forensic techniques both to predict and solve problems in the coal industry is discussed under four session headings: petrology/geology; best practice science; forensics in action; and what more do we need. All the papers have been abstracted separately on the Coal Data Base.

NONE

2000-07-01

351

Techniques of Assessing Mental Effort.  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for techniques to increase the effort that learners invest in video-based instruction has been hindered by the limitations of the instruments used to assess the construct of mental effort. Several researchers have noted the confusion of terms in the field that refer to the cognitive resources devoted to processing the stimulus. In this…

Cennamo, Katherine S.

352

Accelerator techniques in nuclear sciences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the important applications of the accelerator techniques for basic and applied sciences are discussed in this paper. It is also planned to discuss, very briefly, some of the research programs being pursued by the Trombay groups using heavy ion beams from the 14 UD pelletron accelerator at Mumbai and other heavy-ion accelerators. (author)

2001-01-01

353

Energy conservation techniques for engineers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book shows engineers how to incorporate the latest conservation technology into their designs. It offers practical, innovative techniques for lighting and power - including electrical, plumbing, and HVAC - heating, ventilating, and air conditioning - which not only save energy but reduce life-cycle costs.

Zackrison, H.B. Jr.

1983-01-01

354

Remote sensing data processing techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Efficient digital techniques are presented for processing remote sensing images and data, Digital transformations, digital filtering, local space operators, data compression, pattern recognition and geometrical transformations are in particular described to obtain useful environmental maps and data. A special processing procedure to integrate images and data given by different remote sensing systems is also presented. Next future trends are finally outlined

1985-01-01

355

Video Compression Techniques: An Overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, a new comparative study of video compression techniques was presented. Due to the rapid developments in internet technology and computers, popularity of video streaming applications is rapidly growing. Therefore today, storing and transmitting uncompressed raw video requires large sto...

M. Abomhara; O.O. Khalifa; O. Zakaria; A.A. Zaidan; B.B. Zaidan; A. Rame

356

Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

1995-02-22

357

A measurement technique for hydroxyacetone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C{double{underscore}bond}CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NOx. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water, the authors developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one they reported earlier, namely, derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, they adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island, New York. The authors report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

Klotz, P.J.

1999-10-04

358

Point-source inversion techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of approaches for obtaining source parameters from waveform data using moment-tensor or dislocation point source models have been investigated and applied to long-period body and surface waves from several earthquakes. Generalized inversion techniques have been applied to data for long-period teleseismic body waves to obtain the orientation, time function and depth of the 1978 Thessaloniki, Greece, event, of the 1971 San Fernando event, and of several events associated with the 1963 induced seismicity sequence at Kariba, Africa. The generalized inversion technique and a systematic grid testing technique have also been used to place meaningful constraints on mechanisms determined from very sparse data sets; a single station with high-quality three-component waveform data is often sufficient to discriminate faulting type (e.g., strike-slip, etc.). Sparse data sets for several recent California earthquakes, for a small regional event associated with the Koyna, India, reservoir, and for several events at the Kariba reservoir have been investigated in this way. Although linearized inversion techniques using the moment-tensor model are often robust, even for sparse data sets, there are instances where the simplifying assumption of a single point source is inadequate to model the data successfully. Numerical experiments utilizing synthetic data and actual data for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake graphically demonstrate that severe problems may be encountered if source finiteness effects are ignored. These techniques are generally applicable to on-line processing of high-quality digital data, but source complexity and inadequacy of the assumed Green's functions are major problems which are yet to be fully addressed.

Langston, Charles A.; Barker, Jeffrey S.; Pavlin, Gregory B.

1982-11-01

359

Ion beam techniques in arts and archaeology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ion beam techniques used in studies of arts and archaeology are compared with other analytical techniques. Some examples are specially selected to illustrate the achievements and trends of the techniques in this field.

1991-01-01

360

Revisión clínica de diez técnicas tradicionales para cobertura de lesiones en punta de dedo Clinical review of ten traditional techniques for finger tip injuries coverage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las amputaciones de punta de dedo son lesiones muy comunes para las que se han descrito numerosas técnicas reconstructivas. El manejo de estas heridas supone, con frecuencia, un problema difícil para el cirujano que no dispone de medios para la realización de intervenciones microquirúrgicas. En estos casos, las técnicas convencionales de cobertura, que han probado su eficacia y sencillez, pueden aportar soluciones adecuadas a cada paciente si son correctamente empleadas. Los injertos de piel, colgajos de avance V-Y, las diferentes modalidades de colgajos de dedos cruzados, los colgajos inguinales, colgajos homodigitales de pedículo retrógrado y anterógrado, son algunas de las técnicas desarrolladas en este estudio. El correcto manejo de las técnicas tradicionales, cuyo empleo sigue hoy vigente en muchos Servicios de Urgencias del mundo, se presenta como un recurso eficaz para resolver las más diversas lesiones de punta de dedo.Fingertip amputations are very common injuries and a lot of reconstructive methods have been described to treat them. The management of these wounds frequently supposes a complex problem for surgeons without resources for microsurgical applications. In these cases, conventional coverage techniques, that have proven their effectiveness and simplicity, can be appropriate solutions to each patient if they are correctly employed. Skin grafts, advancement V-Y flaps, different modalities of cross-finger flaps, groin flaps, homodigital direct and reverse pedicle flaps, are some of the techniques developed in this study. Correct management of these traditional techniques, are today effective in many Emergency Services all over the world, and represent an effective resource to solve most of finger tip injuries.

A. Fernández García; T. Soria Cogollos; S. Alonso Rosa; F. Santoyo Gil-López; J. García Contreras; C. Fernández Pascual

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The approach of mammography technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the mammography technique to improved the film' s quality and to meet the clinical application. Methods: The mammography of 500 cases were classified according to their age, breast type and project- ed position. The highlights and quality control of the mammography technique were summarized. Results: Among the 500 cases, 95% met the clinical diagnostic demands. Of the grand type, 17.2% were dense type, 43.4% were adenoid type, atrophy and degeneration type were 10% and 29.4% respectively. The grand type and age range overlapped a lot. Routine MLO and CCM position of bilateral breasts mammography could mostly meet the diagnostic demands. Conclusion: The quality of mammography is the precondition of exact clinical diagnosis. Sufficient pre-exam preparation, suitable position and parameter were the key point of high quality mammography. (authors)

2007-01-01

362

Statistical techniques in ophthalmic journals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the years, the use of statistics to evaluate experimental data in ophthalmology has increased. The present study sought to assess the frequency and types of statistical techniques used in ophthalmic journals. We reviewed 974 original articles from the Archives for 1970, 1980, and 1990; the American Journal of Ophthalmology for 1990; and Ophthalmology for 1990. Of the 592 articles reviewed for 1990, 391 (66.0%) contained statistics, with measures of central tendency most commonly used (385 articles [65.0%]), followed by dispersion (298 [50.3%]), t test (120 [20.3%]), and contingency tables (98 [16.6%]). A reader familiar with 10 statistical techniques would have "statistical accessibility" to 526 (88.9%) of 1990 articles. A statistically significant difference was found in the percentage of articles containing statistical methods among the journals (P = .0003; Archives, 75.3%; Ophthalmology, 66.8%; and American Journal of Ophthalmology, 55.2%).

Juzych MS; Shin DH; Seyedsadr M; Siegner SW; Juzych LA

1992-09-01

363

Graph Partitioning Advance Clustering Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, Clustering is the process of grouping the data into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters. Dissimilarities are assessed based on the attribute values describing the objects. Often, distance measures are used. Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique, where interesting patterns and structures can be found directly from very large data sets with little or none of the background knowledge. This paper also considers the partitioning of mdimensional lattice graphs using Fiedler’s approach, which requires the determination of the eigenvector belonging to the second smallest Eigen value of the Laplacian with K-means partitioning algorithm.

T. Soni Madhulatha

2012-01-01

364

Graph partitioning advance clustering technique  

CERN Document Server

Clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, Clustering is the process of grouping the data into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters. Dissimilarities are assessed based on the attribute values describing the objects. Often, distance measures are used. Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique, where interesting patterns and structures can be found directly from very large data sets with little or none of the background knowledge. This paper also considers the partitioning of m-dimensional lattice graphs using Fiedler's approach, which requires the determination of the eigenvector belonging to the second smallest Eigenvalue of the Laplacian with K-means partitioning algorithm.

Madhulatha, T Soni

2012-01-01

365

Hypodermoclysis: an alternative infusion technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypodermoclysis, the subcutaneous infusion of fluids, is a useful and easy hydration technique suitable for mildly to moderately dehydrated adult patients, especially the elderly. The method is considered safe and does not pose any serious complications. The most frequent adverse effect is mild subcutaneous edema that can be treated by local massage or systemic diuretics. Approximately 3 L can be given in a 24-hour period at two separate sites. Common infusion sites are the chest, abdomen, thighs and upper arms. The preferred solution is normal saline, but other solutions, such as half-normal saline, glucose with saline or 5 percent glucose, can also be used. Potassium chloride can be added to the solution bag if needed. Hyaluronidase can also be added to enhance fluid absorption. Hypodermoclysis can be administered at home by family members or a nurse; the technique should be familiar to every family physician.

Sasson M; Shvartzman P

2001-11-01

366

Hypodermoclysis: an alternative infusion technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypodermoclysis, the subcutaneous infusion of fluids, is a useful and easy hydration technique suitable for mildly to moderately dehydrated adult patients, especially the elderly. The method is considered safe and does not pose any serious complications. The most frequent adverse effect is mild subcutaneous edema that can be treated by local massage or systemic diuretics. Approximately 3 L can be given in a 24-hour period at two separate sites. Common infusion sites are the chest, abdomen, thighs and upper arms. The preferred solution is normal saline, but other solutions, such as half-normal saline, glucose with saline or 5 percent glucose, can also be used. Potassium chloride can be added to the solution bag if needed. Hyaluronidase can also be added to enhance fluid absorption. Hypodermoclysis can be administered at home by family members or a nurse; the technique should be familiar to every family physician. PMID:11730312

Sasson, M; Shvartzman, P

2001-11-01

367

The ancient Chinese casting techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong), etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

2011-01-01

368

Text Steganography Techniques: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography has been in use since the presence of secret messages and this use has gained popularity as the internet became well-liked. Text steganography is a sub part of steganography that hides the message behind other cover text file. Moreover, hiding the text behind HTML coding of web pages makes the detection of steganography impractical as web pages are a fundamental building blocks of the internet. This paper reviews some of most common text steganography techniques that mainly focus on protecting text behind HTML and CSS (Cascading Style sheets) coding of web pages. This paper also proposes a new technique based on hiding text behing HTML and CSS portion of web page coding

Neha Rani#1 , Jyoti Chaudhary

2013-01-01

369

Groundwater Solution Techniques: Environmental Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Groundwater models provide a scientific tool for various groundwater studies which include groundwater flow, solute transport, heat transport and deformation. However, without a good understanding of a model, modeling studies are not well designed or the model does not represent the natural system which being modeled long term effects may results. Thus, this review has focused and reviewed the types of solution techniques in terms of advantages and limitations. The findings are vital to improve the model conceptualization and understanding of the uncertainty in model results. On the same hand, it acts as guide and reference to groundwater modeler, reduces the time spent in understanding the solution technique and complexity of groundwater models, as well as focus ways to address the groundwater problems and deliver modeling output more efficiently.

Sarva Mangala PRAVEENA; Mohd Harun ABDULLAH; Ahmad Zaharin ARIS; Kawi BIDIN

2010-01-01

370

Study Of Multimedia Watermarking Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the recent burgeoning of networked multimedia systems, techniques are needed to prevent illegal copying / forgery in distributed digital audio/ visual/text document. It may be also desirable to determine where and by how much the multimedia file has been changed from the original due to attacks. This is attributed to increasing instances of hacking during digital communication Digital watermarking has been proposed as a solution to the above problem to protect multimedia document. There are two important issues that watermarking algorithms need to address. Firstly, watermarking schemes are required to provide trustworthy evidence for protecting rightful ownership. Secondly, good watermarking schemes should satisfy the requirement of robustness and resist distortions due to common manipulations (such as truncation, compression etc.) In this paper, various techniques to secure Multimedia data are discussed.

Chhaya S. Gosavi; C. S. Warnekar

2010-01-01

371

Guide to molecular cloning techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume clarifies molecular biological concepts for the investigator in other fields, presents state-of-the-art methods for the experienced investigator, and orients the student joining this discipline for the first time. A quantitative approach to molecular biology is stressed, allowing one to learn how to perform a technique and how to confirm that the technique has been properly carried out. This book is a means toward obtaining and characterizing a clone. This guide: contains more than 76 methods;contrasts different approaches to emphasize strengths and weaknesses of each;highlights methods deemed superior;covers genomic cloning, preparation and characterization of mRNA, cDNA cloning, screening libraries, and confirming the identity of selected clones.

Berger, S.L.; Kimmel, A.R.

1987-01-01

372

Releasable suture technique for trabeculectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the effect of the releasable suture technique on immediate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP). Nine eyes of nine patients with glaucoma had trabeculectomy with a releasable suture. In the six eyes that did not receive antimitotics, the suture was released by the fifth postoperative day; in the others suture release was delayed up to the fourteenth day. Of the nine patients, one had an acceptable postoperative IOP and did not need suture release; in another the suture broke and could not be released. In the remaining seven patients, the difference between the pre-release and post-release IOP was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The complications of this technique include failed suture release, subconjunctival hematoma and a distinctive "windshield wiper" keratopathy.

Jacob Pushpa; Thomas Ravi; Mahajan Anuradha; Mathai Annie; Gieser Stephen; Raju Renu

1993-01-01

373

Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

Cesareo, R.

1988-01-01

374

Non destructive assay (NDA) techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the IAEA Safeguards System the basic verification method used is nuclear material accountancy, with containment and surveillance as important complementary measures. If nuclear material accountancy is to be effective, IAEA inspectors have to make independent measurements to verify declared material quantities. Most of the equipment available to the inspectors is designed to measure gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by various nuclear materials. Equipment is also available to measure the gross weight of an item containing nuclear material. These types of measurement techniques are generally grouped under the title of nondestructive assay (NDA). The paper describes the NDA techniques and instruments used to verify the total amount of nuclear material held at a nuclear facility. (author)

2001-10-05

375

Progress in thin film techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress since the last Workshop is reported on superconducting accelerating RF cavities coated with thin films. The materials investigated are Nb, Nb{sub 3}Sn, NbN and NbTiN, the techniques applied are diffusion from the vapour phase (Nb{sub 3}Sn, NbN), the bronze process (Nb{sub 3}Sn), and sputter deposition on a copper substrate (Nb, NbTiN). Specially designed cavities for sample evaluation by RF methods have been developed (triaxial cavity). New experimental techniques to assess the RF amplitude dependence of the surface resistance are presented (with emphasis on niobium films sputter deposited on copper). Evidence is increasing that they are caused by magnetic flux penetration into the surface layer. (R.P.). 30 refs.

Weingarten, W. [CERN - European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Geneva (Switzerland)

1996-01-01

376

An Improved Face recognition Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We are proposing an approach for identifying face from given database which stores large amount of distinct faces. Database is considered that stores three unique parameters for each face. Based on these, the database is divided into few categories and sub-categories .Whenever it is required to search a face, computation of thefirst category that contains the face is performed, based on first parameter attached with the face. In this way the next category can be found based on the other parameters .The final category may contain many faces and finally another search technique is performed to find out the actual face. It produces better result in terms oftime consumption comparing to other popular approaches. We also use neural network technique to find out whether the picture to be searched is a face or not and also the concept of fuzzy logic to calculate the database categories

Debjyoti Bagchi; Debasish Chatterjee

2011-01-01

377

Techniques for preparing isotopic targets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The techniques of making isotopic targets for nuclear physics experiments are introduced. Vacuum evaporation, electroplating, centrifugal precipitation, rolling and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering used to prepare various isotopic targets at IAE are described. Reduction-distillation with active metals and electrolytic reduction for converting isotope oxides to metals are mentioned. The stripping processes of producing self-supporting isotopic targets are summarized. The store methods of metallic targets are given

1987-01-01

378

Novel NMR and EPR techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book delivers a survey of recent research in the fields of condensed matter physics and chemistry based on novel NMR and ESR techniques. Applications include quantum computing, metal nanoparticles, low dimensional magnets, fullerenes as atomic cages, superconductors, porous media, and laser assisted studies. The book is dedicated to Professor Robert Blinc, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, in appreciation of his remarkable scientific accomplishments in the NMR of condensed matter. (orig.)

Dolinsek, J.; Zumer, S. (eds.) [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Dept. of Physics]|[Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vilfan, M. [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2006-07-01

379

Matching technique for inductive magnetometer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Matching an inductive magnetometer with its preamplifier is the keyest technique in magnetotelluric sounding system. The major difficulty lies in meeting the high technical requirements such as low noise, small temperature drift, wide frequency band, high sensitivity, optimum impedance matching, simple transfer characteristics and powerful anti-interference ability. Matching methods of different frequency bands for different purposes are simply described to overcome the mentioned technical difficulties. Some matching ways and transfer characteristics are illustrated in the paper.

Musheng, Z.

1987-06-01

380

Data mining and visualization techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Whitney, Paul (Richland, WA); Thomas, Jim (Richland, WA)

2004-03-23

 
 
 
 
381

A MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR HYDROXYACETONE.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C=CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NO{sub x}. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water (it's Henry's law constant being {approx}2 x 10{sup 4} M atm{sup -1} at 20 C, Zhou and Lee, unpublished data), we developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one we reported earlier (Lee and Zhou, 1993), namely, based on derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, we adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island (LI), New York. We report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

KLOTZ,P.J.

1999-10-04

382

Guide to molecular cloning techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book includes the following selections: requirements for a molecular biology laboratory; general methods for isolating and characterizing nucleic acids; enzymatic techniques and recombinant DNA technology; restriction enzymes; growth and maintenance of bacteria; genetic cloning, preparation and characterization of RNA; preparation of cDNA and the generation of cDNA libraries; selections of clones from libraries; and identification and characterization of specific clones.

Berger, S.L.; Kimmel, A.R.

1987-01-01

383

Adjustment techniques for experimental data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To carry through numerically the different adjustment of experimental data planned by National Institute of Nuclear Research investigators. It is presented the different adjustment techniques of experimental data which are fundamentally for: linear least squares, non linear with restrictions. Methodology: Lineal least squares - Orthogonal decomposition via Householder reflections. No lineal - Method of general lowering and quasi Newton; Levenberg-Marquardt modified - More version. No lineal with restrictions - Quadratic sequential programming method (In process). (Author)

1992-07-15

384

[Endoscopic ultasound: history and techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

Endosonography is an imaging technique based on the unification of ultrasonography and edoscopy. EUS became part of clinical practice at the beginning of the 80s due to its superior capacity to study the pancreas with respect to abdominal ultrasound. In recent years, there is a growing interest in EUS as shown by the number of scientific articles and changing clinical practice regarding diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms (bile duct stones, cancer staging) and palliation. PMID:17921933

Fabbri, C; Polifemo, A M; Cennamo, V; D'Imperio, N

2007-08-01

385

Remote sensing data processing techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Efficient digital techniques are presented for processing remote sensing images and data. Digital transformations, digital filtering, local space operators, data compression, pattern recognition and geometrical transformations are in particular described to obtain useful environmental maps and data. A special processing procedure to integrate images and data given by different remote sensing systems is also presented. Next future trends are finally outlined. 7 refs

1987-03-06

386

Cooling techniques for electronic equipment  

CERN Multimedia

Details infallible techniques for designing electronic hardware to withstand severe thermal environments. Using both SI and English units throughout, it presents methods for the development of various reliable electronic systems without the need of high-speed computers. It also offers mathematical modeling applications, using analog resistor networks, to provide the breakup of complex systems into numerous individual thermal resistors and nodes for those who prefer high-speed digital computer solutions to thermal problems.

Steinberg, Dave S

1991-01-01

387

Combined technique for gingko preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Local gingko species planted in Taixing, Jiangsu province was used as material. Irradiation period, irradiation dose, package, pre-treatment, preservative condition and other factors were tested to study the optimum techniques for gingko preservation. The results showed that optimum irradiation dose of 60Co-? ray for newly harvested gingko fruit is 0.2 kGy and for gingko fruit with mature embryo is 3.0 kGy

1999-01-01

388

[The techniques to detect apoptosis of spermatozoids].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article presents the classification and evaluation of techniques applied in documentation of apoptosis of spermatozoids. The main point of techniques detecting the changes in DNA of apoptosis spermatozoids (SCSA technique, TUNEL test and Comet assay) is revealed The annexin technique, the technique of detection of changes of cells transmembrane potential, the technique of detection of activity of caspase and technique of detection the degree of expression of proteins-regulators of apoptosis are discussed too. The advantages and shortcomings of these techniques are considered.

Ploskonos MV

2013-04-01

389

Nuclear techniques in animal agriculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear technology plays an integral part in research to improve the health and productivity of animals. The use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in animal agriculture is briefly reviewed. The radioimmunoassay techniques give the opportunity of measuring and following precisely hormonal patterns in animals over the reproductive cycle. Simply by analysing a sample of blood, milk, or other body fluid, minute hormone concentrations can be assayed and the reproductive status of the animal assessed. The radioimmunoassay procedure uses antigens which are isotopically labelled, usually with /sup 125/I, and antibodies specifically developed for each hormone. The onset of sexual maturity, of oestrus, or the influence of environmental, nutritional or other factors on the reproductive state of an animal can be studied. An example of the use of the radioimmunoassay technique is illustrated in the coordinated research program of the IAEA which focuses on improving domestic buffalo production. Nuclear techniques, particularly the use of stable and radioactive tracers are providing important insights into the functioning of the digestive system of ruminants, its qualitative dynamics and metabolism. For assessing the products of the rumen, particularly volatile fatty acids which become an energy source, and microbial proteins which become a protein source for the animal, materials labelled with /sup 14/C, /sup 3/H, /sup 35/S, /sup 15/N and /sup 32/P are used. As an illustrative example, the results of one study of nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein and rumen bypass protein synthesis in cattle are shown.

Young, B.A. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

1981-09-01

390

Imaging techniques for myocardial inflammation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) represents a heterogeneous group of disorders which results in morbidity and mortality in young individuals. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of these patients have histologic evidence of myocarditis which is potentially treatable with immunosuppression. The identification of myocardial inflammation may therefore lead to development of therapeutic regimens designed to treat the cause rather than the effect of the myocardial disease. Ultimately, this may result in improvement in the abysmal prognosis of DC. The currently accepted technique for identification of active myocardial inflammation is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is not perfect, however, since pathologic standards for the diagnosis of myocarditis have not been established. Furthermore, focal inflammation may give rise to sampling error. The inflammation-avid radioisotope gallium-67 citrate has been used as an adjunct to biopsy improving the yield of myocarditis from 7 percent to 36 percent. Serial imaging correlates well to biopsy results. Future studies are designed to study the applicability of lymphocyte labelling techniques to myocardial inflammatory disease.

O' Connell, J.B.; Henkin, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.

1986-03-01

391

Convolution techniques in analytical electrochemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of curve fitting techniques to convolution potential sweep voltammetry, called convolutive voltammetric curve fitting, is described. Fitting functions are derived from theoretical relations among semiintegral, current, and potential. Use of these fitting functions allows the return of more mechanistic information than was previously possible. Validity of the techniques is determined by application to artificial voltammograms created by digital simulation methods. The validity of semiderivative voltammetric curve fitting in fitting waves of several kinetic mechanisms is also investigated. The usefulness of semiderivative voltammetric curve fitting (s.v.c.f.) is determined in application to real linear sweep and anodic stripping voltammograms. An experimetal setup is described in which data acquisition and experimental control are performed solely by a dedicated laboratory microcomputer. S.v.c.f. is successful in the fitting of classically reversible voltammograms, and kinetically controlled anodic stripping voltammograms, but is not successful in fitting kinetically controlled linear sweep voltammograms. Semiderivative voltammetric curve fitting is used for the resolution of overlapped linear sweep and anodic stripping voltammetric waves. The method is successful in the resolution of voltammograms of nearly classically reversible systems at peak separations of 40 mV. Effects of homogeneous kinetics and residual current on resolution are discussed, as well as enhancement of resolution through constraining peak widths. A new method for the numerical evaluation of the convolution integrals found in the solution of electrochemical boundary value problems is discussed. The method leads to the application of convolution techniques to more complex electrochemical systems than was previously possible.

Toman, J.J.

1982-06-01

392

Lead Extraction: "Drag Through" Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of extraction techniques of chronic pacemaker and defibrillator leads is to present an approach that is successful in extracting all leads and minimizes or eliminates complications. To extract a chronically implanted intravascular device, the device must be separated from the encapsulating inflammatory tissue. Three ablation techniques are currently used: mechanical, laser and electrosurgical. Indirect traction is traction applied by an instrument such as a snare passed into the heart, usually through a femoral vein. The lead is entrapped in the snare, and pulling or pushing applies traction. 1,2 The safety of this technique is enhanced by the ability to avoid those problems associated with the binding sites in the superior veins and right atrium. Indirect traction is more successful than direct traction. Countertraction is a method of safely extracting an electrode entrapped in fibrous tissue at the electrode-myocardial interface. It is defined as the countering of the traction on the lead by a sheath. A sheath of slightly larger diameter is passed over the lead to a point about 1 cm from the heart wall. Traction is applied on the lead, pulling the myocardial wall to the edge of the sheath, which counters the traction. Because only the scar tissue is present between the sheath and the heart wall, cardiac tissue is not in jeopardy.

Anoop K. Gupta

2002-01-01

393

Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

2007-04-30

394

Imaging techniques for myocardial inflammation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) represents a heterogeneous group of disorders which results in morbidity and mortality in young individuals. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of these patients have histologic evidence of myocarditis which is potentially treatable with immunosuppression. The identification of myocardial inflammation may therefore lead to development of therapeutic regimens designed to treat the cause rather than the effect of the myocardial disease. Ultimately, this may result in improvement in the abysmal prognosis of DC. The currently accepted technique for identification of active myocardial inflammation is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is not perfect, however, since pathologic standards for the diagnosis of myocarditis have not been established. Furthermore, focal inflammation may give rise to sampling error. The inflammation-avid radioisotope gallium-67 citrate has been used as an adjunct to biopsy improving the yield of myocarditis from 7 percent to 36 percent. Serial imaging correlates well to biopsy results. Future studies are designed to study the applicability of lymphocyte labelling techniques to myocardial inflammatory disease.

1986-01-01

395

Computational intelligence techniques in bioinformatics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Computational intelligence (CI) is a well-established paradigm with current systems having many of the characteristics of biological computers and capable of performing a variety of tasks that are difficult to do using conventional techniques. It is a methodology involving adaptive mechanisms and/or an ability to learn that facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments, such that the system is perceived to possess one or more attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery, association and abstraction. The objective of this article is to present to the CI and bioinformatics research communities some of the state-of-the-art in CI applications to bioinformatics and motivate research in new trend-setting directions. In this article, we present an overview of the CI techniques in bioinformatics. We will show how CI techniques including neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief network, fuzzy logic, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems and support vector machines, could be successfully employed to tackle various problems such as gene expression clustering and classification, protein sequence classification, gene selection, DNA fragment assembly, multiple sequence alignment, and protein function prediction and its structure. We discuss some representative methods to provide inspiring examples to illustrate how CI can be utilized to address these problems and how bioinformatics data can be characterized by CI. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are also presented and an extensive bibliography is included.

Hassanien AE; Al-Shammari ET; Ghali NI

2013-07-01

396

Processing technique of lichee brandy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a processing technique of lichee brandy, including the steps as below: fresh lichee fruits are broken, and acid is added till 6.0g to 7.0 g/l during breaking 30 to 120 mg/l of pectase and 250 to 500 mg/l of yeast are added to the fruit juices, the operation of starting fermentation is carried out during zymohydrolysis, and the operation of maceration and zymohydrolysis is carried out for 6 to 8 hours at the temperature between 12 and 20 DEG C the mixture obtained is led into a fermentation cylinder to be fermented for 7 to 10 days at the temperature between 14 and 20 DEG C, and the operation of fermentation is stopped when the content of residual sugar is lower than 2g/l the operation of twice distillation is carried out, head and last flows are cut down during first simple distillation, the alcohol content of the simple distillate is regulated to the degree of 29 percent Vol and heads, first wine, second wine, feints and aromatic water are respectively cut down according to the alcohol content during secondary fine distillation. The processing technique has the advantages of favorable zymohydrolysis effect, high rate of juice yield and effective inhabitation of bacteria growth the lower temperature fermentation and the grading wine cutting can keep the fragrance and the taste of wine, and the processing technique is suitable for preparing the lichee brandy.

ZHENGZHONG GUO; ZHAOMIN KOU

397

Classification system for immobilization techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biotechnological processes call for an overall process optimization. One of the major possibilities of optimizing biotechnological processes lies in immobilization technologies, which may increase productivities and product concentrations. This paper gives a systematic approach to the various immobilization techniques reported in literature. The most important levels of influence on overall process performance are considered within a classification system by three criteria: Substrates and products flow pattern criterion, catalyst criterion and apparatus criterion. Some important immobilization systems are discussed, and the classification system is applied to these examples. (orig.)

Katzbauer, B. [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Biotechnology; Narodoslawsky, M. [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Moser, A. [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Biotechnology

1995-03-01

398

Negotiation Techniques (That Really Work!)  

CERN Multimedia

Sales is all about negotiation. Price. Delivery. Terms. And every day, salespeople leave money on the table. They just don't have the skills to get what they want. Now Stephan Schiffman, drawing on years of experience, shows you how to nail the sale, hit quotas, and boost the bottom line. Schiffman-style negotiation is all about getting the best deal. And he outlines specific techniques to get there. Things can be tough out there. But with Schiffman's negotiation skills in your pocket, you can do battle and win.

Schiffman, Stephan

2010-01-01

399

The cold crucible melting technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work deals with the principle of the cold crucible melting technique with induction heating which is used in metals, glasses and refractory materials melting and in gas induced plasma. As there is no contact between the melted material and the crucible, there is no wear of the crucible, a long life and a very low contamination of the crucible with no temperature limit. As glass is an electric insulator when cold, it is necessary to preheat a little part of the glass (microwaves for nuclear purposes). (O.L.). 8 figs.

Jouan, A.

1994-12-31

400

Automated medical image segmentation techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT) and Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

Sharma Neeraj; Aggarwal Lalit

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Techniques displayed at BNES conference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reviews the progress being made in remote visual examination systems. There is greatly enhanced optics available at present, in conjunction with robot systems which can transport the camera system inside pressure vessels. The technique offers cost savings over regular photographic surveys, and for some reactors has been accepted as a replacement, allowing electronic archiving of video images, and also allowing other inspections to be conducted simultaneously. Advances in other robot and manipulator applications are also described, along with a summary of the range of industrial concerns servicing this market at present.

Rippon, S.

1993-07-01

402

Detailed fuel spray analysis techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel spray analyses which are a necessary input to the analytical modeling of the complex mixing and combustion processes which occur in advanced combustor systems are discussed. It is anticipated that by controlling fuel air reaction conditions, combustor temperatures can be better controlled, leading to improved combustion system durability. The capability to measure liquid droplet size, velocity, and number density throughout a fuel spray and to utilize this measurement technique in laboratory benchmark experiments was demonstrated. The experiment to characterize fuel sprays is described. The experiments and data are useful for application to and validation of turbulent flow modeling to improve the design systems of future advanced technology engines.

Mularz, E.J.; Bosque, M.A.

1984-01-01

403

Zeta regularization techniques with applications  

CERN Multimedia

This book is the result of several years of work by the authors on different aspects of zeta functions and related topics. The aim is twofold. On one hand, a considerable number of useful formulas, essential for dealing with the different aspects of zeta-function regularization (analytic continuation, asymptotic expansions), many of which appear here, in book format, for the first time are presented. On the other hand, the authors show explicitly how to make use of such formulas and techniques in practical applications to physical problems of very different nature. Virtually all types of zeta

Elicalde, E

1994-01-01

404

Remote techniques for nuclear plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume covers the practical application of remote technology to all types of nuclear plant, both experimental and commercial. It concentrates on the remote inspection, refurbishment and decommissioning of reactor pressure vehicles, reactor internal components, primary circuits, boiler and steam generators, PIE and fuel routes, reprocessing and radioactive waste storage. The emphasis is on equipment currently in use, and it also covers equipment under consideration and development. Consisting of more than 50 papers, these proceedings draw on the experience of nuclear engineers from around the world to form a substantial reference work on remote techniques for the inspection and refurbishment of nuclear plant. (author).

1993-01-01

405

Diffraction techniques in engineering applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diffraction techniques applied to crystalline materials provide quantitative information about the crystallographic structure and mechanical condition of the material. Those two characteristics influence the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of a Component. A concerted application of x-ray and neutron diffraction allows one to comprehensively study the bulk and subsurface variations of such material characteristics as crystallographic texture, residual stress, and cold work. The Residual Stre