WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Boilers. Comparison of the main available techniques for boilers to comply with new regulations; Les chaudieres, comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main techniques, presently available, that can lead to a consequent decrease in pollutant emissions, are presented pointing out their advantages and drawbacks: sulfur oxide emissions can be lowered by fuel processing and fume desulfurization (through desulfurizer in situ injection or a downstream treatment for solid and liquid fuels); NOx emissions are decreased through fume recycling, low-NOx burners, air staging (OFA), combustion chamber over-dimensioning, combustion air temperature reduction, re-burning (IFR), injection of de-nitrifying agents (at high temperature without catalysts, at low temperature with catalysts). Associations of these techniques are also discussed. Ash processing is studied for coal and fuel oil, depending on the NOx and SOx previously selected cleansing techniques

Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

1997-12-31

2

ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Places disponibles*/Places available **  

CERN Multimedia

* Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) Plannification de projet avec MS-Project/Project Scheduling with MS-Project : 2 sessions : 23.10 & 4.11.03 and 18 &25.11.03 (2 jours/2 days - langue à définir/language to be defined) AutoCAD 2002 ? Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11...

2003-01-01

3

Heating plants. Comparison between the main available techniques that allow heating plants to respect the new regulations; Les chaudieres. Comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives an overview of the main methods available today to improve the thermal and environmental performances of heating plants and burners and points out the technical and economical advantages and drawbacks of these methods. The methods are described according to the type of pollutant: SO{sub x} (fuel treatment, smokes desulfurization, in-situ desulfurizers injection, lime treatment of solid and liquid fuels), NO{sub x} (smokes recycling, low-NO{sub x} burners, air staging, over-dimensioning of combustion chambers, reduction of combustion air temperature, re-burning, denitrifier injection, combination of several methods), dusts (filters and cyclones). (J.S.)

Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

1997-12-31

4

A Study on the Suitable Techniques for Improving the Flow Properties of the Egyptian Waxy Crude Oils Étude des techniques permettant d'améliorer l'écoulement des pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper, three different techniques were used for improving the flow properties of three Egyptian waxy crude oils (M-96, GPY-3 and Khalda. These techniques are : dilution, heating and chemical treatment. The improvement efficiency for each technique was investigated by measuring the rheological properties and the pour point as well. Also, the effect of each improvement technique on the power requirement was studied through calculation of the reduction in the pipeline pressure loss. The studied techniques have shown promising results in improving the flow properties of the tested crudes. However, the most suitable technique for a specific crude should be decided in the light of the technical features studied in the present paper in addition to an economical study which should be performed on each case individually. Cet article rend compte des essais effectués pour améliorer les caractéristiques d'écoulement de trois pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique (M-96, GPY-3 et Khalda. Trois techniques différentes ont été mises en oeuvre : dilution, chauffage et traitement chimique. L'efficacité de chacune de ces techniques a été évaluée par la mesure des propriétés rhéologiques et du point d'écoulement. De plus, on a étudié l'effet de ces diverses techniques sur les besoins énergétiques en calculant la réduction de la perte de charge en pipeline. Les techniques envisagées ont apporté des résultats prometteurs quant à l'amélioration des caractéristiques d'écoulement des bruts étudiés. Toutefois, pour choisir la technique la plus appropriée à un pétrole brut spécifique, il faudrait combiner les données techniques apportées par cet article avec une étude d'ordre économique effectuée pour chaque cas individuel.

El-Eman N.

2006-11-01

5

Diagnóstico serológico de sífilis.: Correlación de resultados según técnicas disponibles en el laboratorio Serological diagnosis of syphilis: correlation of results according to available techniques in the laboratory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se analizaron 117 muestras de suero con pedido exclusivo de FTA-Abs (anticuerpos absorbidos fluorescentes antitreponema con el objetivo de correlacionar los resultados obtenidos según las siguientes técnicas: VDRL, inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI y enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos recombinantes (ELISA rec., disponibles en el laboratorio para el diagnóstico serológico de sífilis. El 51% de las muestras tuvo resultados positivos por los tres métodos, el 36%, resultados negativos por los tres métodos, el 10% presentó VDRL reactiva con ELISA y FTA-Abs negativas y el 3% restante, VDRL no reactiva con ELISA y FTA-Abs positivas. Se encontró una concordancia del 100% entre los resultados obtenidos por ELISA y FTA-Abs tanto positivos como negativos, mientras que la incidencia de falsos resultados para la prueba reagínica VDRL quedó establecida en un 10% de falsos positivos con títulos en su mayoría no superiores a 1/8. De esta manera, se resalta la importancia de la realización de una segunda prueba treponémica para la confirmación de resultados, especialmente en los casos donde resulten discordantes los datos obtenidos por VDRL y FTA-Abs, tradicionalmente utilizados en el laboratorio como pruebas diagnósticas de sífilis.In the present study, 117 serum samples with exclusive request of FTA-Abs (fluorescent treponemal antibody absortion were tested with the aim of establishing a correlation of the obtained results according to the following techniques: VDRL, indirect immunofluorescence (IFI and enzime immunoassay with recombinant antigens (ELISA rec, available in the laboratory for serological diagnosis of syphilis. 51% of the samples had positive results with the three methods respectively, 36% negative results with the three methods, 10% showed reactive VDRL with negative ELISA and FTA-Abs and the remaining 3% non reactive VDRL with positive ELISA and FTA-Abs. A 100% concordance between the results obtained by ELISA and FTA-Abs, either positive or negative was found, while the incidence of false results for the reagin test VDRL was established in 10% of false positive results with titers mostly non higher than 1/8. Consequently a second treponemal test is highly important to confirm the results, especially in those cases in which the data obtained by VDRL and FTA-Abs, traditionally used in the laboratory as diagnostic tests of syphilis, were discordant.

Laura Elena Quattordio

2004-09-01

6

Places disponibles*/Places available **  

CERN Multimedia

Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 20 - 22.1.03 (3 days) Introduction to PVSS : 27.1.03 (Afternoon) free course but registration necessary Basic PVSS : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 days) MAGNE-03 - Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 jours) MAGNE-03 - Magnetism for Technical Electronics : 11 - 13.2.03 (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 et 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.3.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Si vous désirez ...

2003-01-01

7

Places disponibles/Places available  

CERN Multimedia

Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : / Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 13 - 17.9.2004 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.9.2004 (4 jours) Programmation S...

2004-01-01

8

Places disponibles/Places available  

CERN Multimedia

Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Off...

2004-01-01

9

Coste salarial y renta disponible del trabajador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se expone la relación entre el coste laboral y la renta disponible del trabajador, así como el análisis de las consecuencias sobre el salario derivadas de la cotización a la Seguridad Social. The relationship between labour costs and disposable income of the workers is exposed as well as the analysis of the impact on wages resulting from contributions to Social Security.

Antonio Pérez Carrasco

2009-04-01

10

EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research pretends to show the degree of semantic merging between the available lexis of Spanish and Catalan from Valencia in 2nd year baccalaureate students. The global inter-linguistic compatibility for speakers of both linguistic communities in the seventeen semantic groups studied will show the high level of coincidence in both languages in contact. This is due to the fact that the lexis used in specifi c communicative situations is similar in both.

El presente trabajo pretende mostrar el grado de convergencia semántica entre el léxico disponible del español y del catalán de Valencia en los estudiantes de segundo de bachillerato. La compatibilidad global interlingüística de los hablantes de ambas comunidades lingüísticas en los diecisiete campos semánticos mostrará un alto nivel de coincidencia en las dos lenguas en contacto. Esto se debe a que el léxico usado en situaciones comunicativas concretas es similar en las diferentes lenguas de cultura.

M.ª Begoña Gómez Devís

2010-10-01

11

EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende mostrar el grado de convergencia semántica entre el léxico disponible del español y del catalán de Valencia en los estudiantes de segundo de bachillerato. La compatibilidad global interlingüística de los hablantes de ambas comunidades lingüísticas en los diecisiete campos semánticos mostrará un alto nivel de coincidencia en las dos lenguas en contacto. Esto se debe a que el léxico usado en situaciones comunicativas concretas es similar en las diferentes lenguas de cultura.The present research pretends to show the degree of semantic merging between the available lexis of Spanish and Catalan from Valencia in 2nd year baccalaureate students. The global inter-linguistic compatibility for speakers of both linguistic communities in the seventeen semantic groups studied will show the high level of coincidence in both languages in contact. This is due to the fact that the lexis used in specifi c communicative situations is similar in both.

M.ª Begoña Gómez Devís

2010-10-01

12

Places disponibles*/Places available ** - French version only  

CERN Multimedia

Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 20 - 22.1.03 (3 days) Introduction to PVSS : 27.1.03 (Afternoon) free course but registration necessary Basic PVSS : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 days) MAGNE-03 - Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 jours) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System : 28.1.03 (1 day) MAGNE-03 - Magnetism for Technical Electronics : 11 - 13.2.03 (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 et 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.2.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may va...

2003-01-01

13

Comparación de diversos métodos de determinación del fósforo disponible en suelos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Existen numerosos métodos químicos para la determinación del fósforo del suelo disponible para las plantas. Normalmente estos se diferencian en la composición y el pH de la solución extractante y son recomendados para determinados tipos de suelos, no existiendo un extractante universal para todo tipo de suelo.

Cabrera, Francisco; Gira?ldez, E.; Madrid, Luis; Arambarri, Pablo

1982-01-01

14

RESEÑA DEL SOFTWARE DISPONIBLE EN COLOMBIA PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS EN CADENAS DE ABASTECIMIENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La gestión de los diferentes tipos de inventario a lo largo de una cadena de abastecimiento es un problema complejo que, en la mayoría de los casos de la industria colombiana e internacional, se aborda mediante la implementación de herramientas de software. Sin embargo, la decisión de implementar dichas herramientas está en muchos casos limitada por la capacidad financiera para invertir en ellas y por el desconocimiento de la oferta de software disponible en Colombia. Este artículo presenta una reseña del software disponible en Colombia para la gestión de inventarios con el fin de brindar a las empresas que se enfrentan a la decisión de implementar un software, una herramienta de soporte que indique cuál es la oferta en Colombia y cuáles son las características de los sistemas disponibles. Para esto se presenta primero el estado del arte, en el cual se identifica el resultado de la revisión de la literatura y el uso de las herramientas de software en la industria colombiana. Seguidamente se presenta la caracterización de los productos de software disponibles en el país. Dicha caracterización permite identificar la configuración general de los productos, los módulos de gestión con los que cuenta, las opciones de integración con otras herramientas informáticas, y la información general de precios e instalación. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones del estudio y las futuras oportunidades de investigación.

VALENTINA GUTI\\u00C9RREZ

2009-01-01

15

La base de données HelioClim de rayonnement solaire disponible au sol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La ressource solaire disponible au sol est devenue un enjeu majeur dans les nouvelles technologies de développement durable. Les utilisateurs publics et privés de l'énergie solaire ont besoin d'un accès facile et rapide à cette information, sous forme ponctuelle ou sous forme de cartes à l'échelle locale, régionale, ou nationale. Les images satellitaires apparaissent comme les mieux appropriées pour couvrir une grille d'échantillonnage de haute résolution, régulière dans l'espace...

Lefe?vre, Mireille; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

2010-01-01

16

Recursos disponibles para la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de futbolistas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La retirada deportiva es a menudo una etapa de crisis que requiere exigencias y ciertos ajustes a nivel ocupacional, financiero, social y psicológico (Cury, Ferreira y Leite de Barros, 2008). En línea con las contribuciones recientes al tema de la retirada deportiva y la posterior empleabilidad, el presente trabajo pretende analizar de modo descriptivo los recursos disponibles para hacer frente a la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de los jugadores profesionales de un club...

Ndez, Macarena Lorenzo Fernu E.; Reyes Bueno Moreno, M.

2012-01-01

17

Conception, elaboration et mise a l'essai d'un simulateur interactif permettant une approche modelisante: Application aux lois de la genetique mendelienne  

Science.gov (United States)

Dans cette recherche-developpement, nous avons concu, developpe et mis a l'essai un simulateur interactif pour favoriser l'apprentissage des lois probabilistes impliqees dans la genetique mendelienne. Cet environnement informatise devra permettre aux etudiants de mener des experiences simulees, utilisant les statistiques et les probebilites comme outils mathematiques pour modeliser le phenomene de la transmission des caracteres hereditaires. L'approche didactique est essentiellement orientee vers l'utilisation des methodes quantitatives impliquees dans l'experimentation des facteurs hereditaires. En incorporant au simulateur le principe de la "Lunette cognitive" de Nonnon (1986), l'etudiant fut place dans une situation ou il a pu synchroniser la perception de la representation iconique (concrete) et symbolique (abstraite) des lois probabilistes de Mendel. A l'aide de cet environnement, nous avons amene l'etudiant a identifier le(s) caractere(s) hereditaire(s) des parents a croiser, a predire les frequences phenotypiques probables de la descendance issue du croisement, a observer les resultats statistiques et leur fluctuation au niveau de l'histogramme des frequences, a comparer ces resultats aux predictions anticipees, a interpreter les donnees et a selectionner en consequence d'autres experiences a realiser. Les etapes de l'approche inductive sont privilegiees du debut a la fin des activites proposees. L'elaboration, du simulateur et des documents d'accompagnement, a ete concue a partir d'une vingtaine de principes directeurs et d'un modele d'action. Ces principes directeurs et le modele d'action decoulent de considerations theoriques psychologiques, didactiques et technologiques. La recherche decrit la structure des differentes parties composant le simulateur. L'architecture de celui-ci est construite autour d'une unite centrale, la "Principale", dont les liens et les ramifications avec les autres unites confere a l'ensemble du simulateur sa souplesse et sa facilite d'utilisation. Le simulateur "Genetique", a l'etat de prototype, et la documentation qui lui est afferente ont ete soumis a deux mises a l'essai: l'une fonctionnelle, l'autre empirique. La mise a l'essai fonctionnelle, menee aupres d'un groupe d'enseignants experts, a permis d'identifier les lacunes du materiel elabore afin de lui apporter les reajustements qui s'imposaient. La mise a l'essai empirique, conduite par un groupe de onze (11) etudiants de niveau secondaire, avait pour but, d'une part, de tester la facilite d'utilisation du simulateur "Genetique" ainsi que les documents d'accompagnement et, d'autre part, de verifier si les participants retiraient des avantages pedagogiques de cet environnement. Trois techniques furent exploitees pour recolter les donnees de la mise a l'essai empirique. L'analyse des resultats a permis de faire un retour critique sur les productions concretes de cette recherche et d'apporter les modifications necessaires tant au simulateur qu'aux documents d'accompagnement. Cette analyse a permis egalement de conclure que notre simulateur interactif favorise une approche inductive permettant aux etudiants de s'approprier les lois probabilistes de Mendel. Enfin, la conclusion degage des pistes de recherches destinees aux etudes ulterieures, plus particulierement celles qui s'interessent a developper des simulateurs, afin d'integrer a ceux-ci des representations concretes et abstraites presentees en temps reel. Les disquettes du simulateur "Genetique" et les documents d'accompagnement sont annexes a la presente recherche.

Lasri, Abdel-Halim

18

RESEÑA DEL SOFTWARE DISPONIBLE EN COLOMBIA PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS EN CADENAS DE ABASTECIMIENTO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La gestión de los diferentes tipos de inventario a lo largo de una cadena de abastecimiento es un problema complejo que, en la mayoría de los casos de la industria colombiana e internacional, se aborda mediante la implementación de herramientas de software. Sin embargo, la decisión de implementar di [...] chas herramientas está en muchos casos limitada por la capacidad financiera para invertir en ellas y por el desconocimiento de la oferta de software disponible en Colombia. Este artículo presenta una reseña del software disponible en Colombia para la gestión de inventarios con el fin de brindar a las empresas que se enfrentan a la decisión de implementar un software, una herramienta de soporte que indique cuál es la oferta en Colombia y cuáles son las características de los sistemas disponibles. Para esto se presenta primero el estado del arte, en el cual se identifica el resultado de la revisión de la literatura y el uso de las herramientas de software en la industria colombiana. Seguidamente se presenta la caracterización de los productos de software disponibles en el país. Dicha caracterización permite identificar la configuración general de los productos, los módulos de gestión con los que cuenta, las opciones de integración con otras herramientas informáticas, y la información general de precios e instalación. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones del estudio y las futuras oportunidades de investigación. Abstract in english Review of the software available for inventory management in supply chains in Colombia The inventory management of the different types of inventory along a supply chain is a complex problem that, in most of the cases of the Colombian and international industry, is dealt through the implementation of [...] inventory software. However, the decision to implement such software is, in many cases, constrained by the financial capacity of investment and by the lack of knowledge of the available software in Colombia . This work presents a review of the inventory software available in Colombia in order to give support to the companies that face the decision of implementing this kind of software. First, we present the state of the art in which we identify the result of the literature review and the use of the inventory software in the Colombian industry. Then, we present the characterization of the inventory software available in the country. This characterization allows the identification of the general configuration of the products included in the study; the management modules, the integration options with other informatics tools, and the general information of prices and installation are also included in the review. Finally, we present the conclusions of the study and identify future research opportunities.

VALENTINA, GUTIÉRREZ; DIANA PATRICIA, JARAMILLO.

19

What essential medicines for children are on the shelf? / Quels sont les médicaments essentiels à usage pédiatrique disponibles à la vente ? / ¿Qué medicamentos pediátricos esenciales hay realmente disponibles?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Documentar la inclusión de medicamentos pediátricos clave en las listas de medicamentos esenciales (LME) nacionales, y evaluar la disponibilidad y el costo de dichos medicamentos en 14 países de África central. MÉTODOS: Se realizaron encuestas en 12 puntos de venta de medicamentos, público [...] s y privados, de la capital de cada país. Se reunieron datos sobre la disponibilidad de los fármacos considerados durante el día de la encuesta y sobre el costo para los pacientes del medicamento más barato en existencias. RESULTADOS: Teniendo en cuenta los medicamentos contemplados en la encuesta, la proporción de los mismos hallada en las LME nacionales osciló entre el 50% y el 90%. Sólo en tres países se hallaron en los depósitos centrales de suministros médicos más del 50% de esos medicamentos (intervalo: 15%-75%). La disponibilidad en los depósitos de las organizaciones no gubernamentales no fue sistemáticamente mejor (intervalo: 10%-65%), pero tendió a ser mayor en los hospitales docentes, si bien con un intervalo similar (15%-70%). Los hospitales de distrito (intervalo: 10%-80%) presentaron una mayor disponibilidad que los docentes, mientras que en los dispensarios de atención primaria se observó en general una menor disponibilidad (intervalo: 18%-48%). Las farmacias minoristas o privadas solían disponer de una mayor proporción de los medicamentos abarcados por la encuesta (intervalo: 38%-62%). Se observó una variabilidad considerable de los precios, que tendían a ser más altos en las farmacias minoristas. CONCLUSION: La disponibilidad de medicamentos pediátricos esenciales era escasa. Para mejorar la situación, habrá que entender mejor los sistemas de suministro en los países estudiados y las pautas de demanda de medicamentos. Además de garantizar la disponibilidad de los medicamentos, es preciso que éstos sean asequibles y aceptables para los pacientes. No se conseguirá avanzar sensiblemente hacia los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio si no se hace un gran esfuerzo para mejorar el acceso a los medicamentos pediátricos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To document the inclusion of key medicines for children in national essential medicines lists (EMLs) and standard treatment guidelines, and to assess the availability and cost of these medicines in 14 countries in central Africa. METHODS: Surveys were conducted in 12 public and private se [...] ctor medicine outlets in each country's capital city. Data were collected on medicine availability on the survey day and on the cost to the patient of the lowest priced medicine in stock. FINDINGS: The proportion of survey medicines in national EMLs ranged from 50% to 90%. In only three countries were more than 50% of such medicines available from central medical stores (range: 15-75%). Availability in nongovernmental organization stores was not consistently better (range: 10-65%) but tended to be higher in teaching hospitals, although the range was similar (15-70%). District hospitals (range: 10-80%) had slightly better availability than teaching hospitals, while primary health care clinics generally had poorer availability (range: 18-48%). Retail or private pharmacies tended to have more survey medicines available (range: 38-62%). There was considerable variability in prices, which tended to be higher in retail pharmacies. CONCLUSION: The availability of key essential medicines for children was poor. Better understanding of the supply systems in the countries studied and of the pattern of demand for medicines is needed before improvements can be made. Medicines must be available, affordable and acceptable to patients. Substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goals will not occur without a major effort to improve access to medicines for children.

Jane, Robertson; Gilles, Forte; Jean-Marie, Trapsida; Suzanne, Hill.

2009-03-01

20

AVALIAÇÃO DA DISPONIBILIDADE E DA QUALIDADE DE UMA PASTAGEM NATURAL / DISPONIBILITY AND QUALITY OF NATIVE PASTURE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado numa área de pastagem natural de 1,5ha localizada no Campus da UFSM (Santa Maria, RS). Com o uso do Método Botanal, foram efetuados levantamentos nos meses de fevereiro, maio e outubro de 1985 e em maio de 1986. O objetivo do trabalho foi a determinação da disponibilidade [...] total da pastagem (em kg MS/ha), a contribuição dos seus principais componentes para esta disponibilidade e a determinação da qualidade da pastagem através dos teores de PB, fibra detergente neutra (FDN) e lignina encontrados. Com relação aos componentes da pastagem, Paspalum notatum destacou-se pela sua contribuição, que se manteve praticamente constante nos quatro períodos de amostragem. Axonopus affinis evidenciou uma queda nos valores de contribuição para a MS no levantamento que se seguiu ao período de estiagem prolongada (maio/86), enquanto Setaria geniculata registrou um comportamento inverso, neste mesmo período. Entre as leguminosas, Desmodium incanum destacou-se por sua persistência, mesmo durante períodos desfavoráveis. Com relação à PB, nos meses de outubro de 1985 e maio de 1986, primavera e outono, respectivamente, a pastagem apresentou os maiores teores, ocorrendo o inverso com a FDN. Em outubro de 1985 (outono) a comunidade apresentou o menor teor de FDA, enquanto os menores teores de lignina foram encontrados no mês de fevereiro de 1985 (verão). Abstract in english The research was conducted in an native pasture area of 1.5ha at the UFSM "Campus" (Santa Maria, RS). Using the Botanal Method, surveys were made in February, in May, in October 1985 and in May 1986. The aim of this work was the determination of the whole disponibility of the pasture (in DM.kg/ha), [...] the contribution of its main components for this disponibility and the determination of the pasture quality through the founded rates of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and lignin. Regarding to the pasture components, Paspalum notatum distinguished it self by its contribution that kept constaint in the four sampling periods. Axonopus affinis showed a drop in contribution values to dry matter, in the survey after the long period of drough (May, 1986), while Setaria geniculata recorded an inverse behavior in the same period. Among the legume species, Desmodium incanum distinguished itself by its persistence even during the unfavourable periods. Regarding to crude protein, in October 1985 and May 1986, spring and autumn, respectively, tha pasture showed the largest rates, the inverse happened with NDF. In October 1985 (autumn) was found the minor rate of ADF while the minorrates of lignin were found in February 1985 (summer).

Jumaida Maria, Rosito; Carmen Elizabeth, Denardin-Saldanha; Leonir Terezinha, Uhde.

 
 
 
 
21

Degradabilidad ruminal del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica degradativa de forrajes, en muestras de una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., manejadas a dos alturas de pradera, alta y baja. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo (FD y en forraje aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo (FS. La degradabilidad ruminal se estudió usando la técnica de las bolsas de dacrón y los datos fueron ajustados a una ecuación exponencial. La fracción soluble (g/kg MS, de la materia seca (MS (299 v/s 351, s.e.d.= 5,4, de la materia organica (MO (304 v/s 376, s.e.d.= 3,3 y del nitrógeno (250 v/s 301, s.e.d.= 6,4, fueron significativamente mayores (P<0,05 en muestras de FS que en muestras de FD. La degradabilidad potencial (g/kg MS de MS, MO y nitrógeno, fue significativamente mayor (P<0,05 en las muestras de FS, que en las muestras de FD. La degradabilidad efectiva fue mayor en las muestras de FS, que en las muestras de FD, tanto para la MS (474 v/s 508, s.e.d.= 13,0, MO (490 v/s 529, s.e.d.= 11,6 y nitrógeno (351 v/s 419, s.e.d.= 10,0. Respecto del factor altura, sólo se encontró un efecto significativo en la degradabilidad efectiva en el nitrógeno, en favor de la altura baja (365 v/s 406, s.e.d.= 10,0.

PULIDO RUBÉN

2000-01-01

22

Contratación y diferencia. Prohibiciones de discriminación por sexo y origen étnico a bienes y servicios disponibles al público  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este trabajo estudia las prohibiciones de discriminación por sexo y origen étnico en el acceso a bienes y servicios disponibles al público contenidas en la Directiva del Consejo 2004/113/CE, de 13 de diciembre de 2004, y en la Directiva del Consejo 2000/43/CE, de 29 de junio de 2000. La tesis se pregunta por la compatibilidad de dichas prohibiciones con el principio de autonomía privada y la libertad de contratación, concreta el concepto de discriminación directa e indire...

Aguilera Rull, Ariadna

2010-01-01

23

Determinantes de salud y políticas públicas: identificación de indicadores de problemas de salud y factores asociados, basada en datos disponibles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La planeación en salud requiere de información, que está disponible, pero que no siempre se utiliza. Aunque los sistemas de información en salud aparecieron hace más de tres décadas, las decisiones del sector se dirigen al manejo de enfermedad y no a modificar los factores que la genera. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la utilidad de datos disponibles en los diferentes sectores, para identificar grupos de población con características similares, asociadas con problemas de salud e identificar marcadores sencillos que orienten la toma de decisiones para solucionarlos. Métodos: Estudio ecológico. Se identificaron, recolectaron y procesaron datos de instituciones públicas y privadas y de estudios recientes. La asociación y correlación entre las diferentes variables permitió identificar aquellas con capacidad para discriminar grupos de población con problemas similares. Resultados: El estrato de vivienda mostró asociación significante con la mayoría de variables y se utilizó para dividir los barrios de la ciudad en cuatro conglomerados. Los barrios pertenecientes a estratos más bajos mostraron deficiencias en vivienda y educación, mayor proporción de población menor de 18 años, promedio de edad de muerte menor, menor estatura y mayor mortalidad perinatal y por accidentes y violencia. En los barrios de nivel medio y alto, se encontraron mejores condiciones de vivienda y tumores y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles como las principales causas de muerte. La conexión a servicios públicos fue similar en los hogares de todos los estratos, excepto el teléfono. El promedio ponderado por estrato y por barrio explica más de 80% de la varianza para la mayoría de las variables analizadas. Se propone que este indicador, disponible en forma permanente, se emplee como instrumento para planes locales de desarrollo, con validaciones periódicas a fin de evaluar su capacidad en el tiempo.

Elsa Patricia Muñoz

2007-09-01

24

Generadores de radiofrecuencia disponibles en el mercado español RF generators available in the spanish market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En España se ha producido un incremento en la realización de Técnicas de Radiofrecuencia (RF, como muestra la reciente encuesta publicada en la Revista Española del Dolor. Desde el Grupo de Interés de la Sociedad Española hemos querido difundir la RF mediante la realización de cursos. Una pregunta repetida en los cursos era ¿Qué "aparatos de RF" existen? En el presente artículo no hemos querido valorar cuáles eran mejores o peores, sino describir sus características técnicas más relevantes. Objetivos: analizar los diferentes generadores de ondas de radiofrecuencia presentes en el mercado español.There has been an important increase in radiofrequency procedures in Spain during the past five years. The Spanish Society RF Interest Group has always wanted to spread the use of RF techniques among pain practitioners. In this paper we analyze the different RF generators available in the spanish market, with their most relevant technical features.

J. de Andrés

2012-06-01

25

Generadores de radiofrecuencia disponibles en el mercado español / RF generators available in the spanish market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En España se ha producido un incremento en la realización de Técnicas de Radiofrecuencia (RF), como muestra la reciente encuesta publicada en la Revista Española del Dolor. Desde el Grupo de Interés de la Sociedad Española hemos querido difundir la RF mediante la realización de cursos. Una pregunta [...] repetida en los cursos era ¿Qué "aparatos de RF" existen? En el presente artículo no hemos querido valorar cuáles eran mejores o peores, sino describir sus características técnicas más relevantes. Objetivos: analizar los diferentes generadores de ondas de radiofrecuencia presentes en el mercado español. Abstract in english There has been an important increase in radiofrequency procedures in Spain during the past five years. The Spanish Society RF Interest Group has always wanted to spread the use of RF techniques among pain practitioners. In this paper we analyze the different RF generators available in the spanish ma [...] rket, with their most relevant technical features.

J. de, Andrés; G., Roca; A., Perucho; C., Nieto; D., López.

26

Efecto de tratamientos térmicos sobre el contenido de lisina disponible en carne de jaiba mora (Homalaspis plana)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto de distintos tratamientos térmicos sobre el contenido de lisina disponible en carne de jaiba mora. La carne se extrajo de las pinzas del recurso, que provenía de la V región de Chile, la carne fresca se mantuvo en frío hasta que se procesó térmicamente en envases de hojalata. Se [...] aplicó un diseño estadístico 3² en el que se consideraron las variables temperatura (80ºC, 100ºC y 121ºC) y tiempo (15, 30 y 45 minutos). Se obtuvieron 9 condiciones temperatura -tiempo de trabajo. Las propiedades nutricionales se estudiaron en base al contenido de lisina disponible, la que disminuye su valor desde 8,33 g/g proteína obtenido en carne cruda hasta 6,01 g/g proteína en la carne sometida a las condiciones térmicas más drásticas. Se concluye que el tiempo de calentamiento afecta más el contenido de lisina disponible en carne de jaiba mora, que la temperatura de calentamiento, por lo tanto los tratamientos térmicos de altas temperaturas y cortos tiempos son mejores para mantener la calidad nutritiva Abstract in english Effect of high temperature treatments on the available lisien of mora crab meat. The effect of different high temperatures treatments on the available lysine content of mora crab meat, was studied. Fresh pincer meat from mora crab (from the V region) was extracted and kept in ice until the thermal p [...] rocess of the canned product. A 3² statistical design was applied, considering the following variables temperature (80ºC, 100ºC and 121ºC) and time (15, 30 and 45 minutes). Nine conditions temperature-time were obtained. Nutritional properties from available lysine were studied. A decrease from 8.33 (in raw meat) to 6.01 g /g protein in the most drastic thermal conditions, was observed. It ca be concluded that the content of available lysine in mora crab meat is more affected by time than by the temperature of the thermal treatments. Therefore the nutritive quality can be maintained applying high temperature and short time treatments

Vilma, Quitral; Lilian, Abugoch; Julia, Vinagre; Mª Angélica, Larraín.

27

Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se real [...] izó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red. Abstract in english The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Googl [...] e, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

Elizabeth, Ramos Sánchez.

2004-04-01

28

Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se realizó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red.The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Google, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

Elizabeth Ramos Sánchez

2004-04-01

29

Actividad productiva y empleo de personas con trastorno mental severo: algunas propuestas de actuación basadas en la información disponible.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hay un creciente interés, en el campo de la atención comunitaraia a personas con trastorno mental severo, por los temas relacionados con el empleo. Tanto en Estados Unidos como en Europa se están desarrollando a la vez nuevas iniciativas y un número creciente de investigaciones que van aportando nuevo conocimiento a este importante campo de intervención, al que, con más lentitud de la debida, vamos incorporándonos también en nuestro país. En esa situación el artículo parte de la revisión de la información disponible sobre el tema, como base para elaborar y someter a debate algunas líneas de actuación, que recogen también los aspectos más generales de nuestra experiencia en Andalucía. A ese respecto se exponen las características generales que, en nuestra opinión, debería tener un programa destinado a facilitar actividad productiva y empleo a personas con trastorno mental severo en el contexto de nuestro país.

Marcelino López Álvarez

2004-01-01

30

Agua disponible en monocultivo de soja con cultivos de cobertura y barbechos reducidos en la región semiárida y subhúmeda Pampeana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En ambientes subhúmedos y semiáridos el principal factor de pérdida de agua desde la superficie del suelo es la evaporación. Este proceso puede ser reducido utilizando cultivos de cobertura (CC) que al aumentar la transpiración, reasignan el agua potencialmente evaporada al flujo transpiratorio de l [...] as plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la dinámica del agua bajo los sistemas de cultivo (SC) de soja continua con CC y barbechos de duración reducida. Se estudiaron cuatro CC y tres momentos de secado en un Hapludol y en un Haplustol, evaluando la lámina de agua disponible (LAD) durante dos años. Para el Hapludol, en general, la LAD a la siembra de soja fue mayor o igual en los SC con CC que bajo monocultivo de soja. En el Haplustol sólo en el SC con CC centeno secado tardío la LAD fue mayor al sistema de soja continua. Se concluye que la dinámica hídrica bajo monocultivo de soja es afectada por la inclusión de CC, siendo el centeno la especie mejor adaptada a estos ambientes. Abstract in english In subhumid and semiarid environments, the main factor affecting water loss from the soil surface is evaporation. This process can be reduced by using cover crops (CC) that increase transpiration and potentially reallocate evaporated water to plant transpiration. The aim of this work was to study th [...] e water dynamics under cropping systems (SC) with continuous soybean in two soil great groups, four CC and three fallow lengths. We studied four CC and three drying times under two soils, a Haplustol and a Hapludol, evaluating the available water depth (LAD) for two years. For the Hapludol, in general, the LAD at soybean planting rotated with CC was greater than or equal to the SC under continuous soybean. In the Haplustol, the LAD at soybean planting was greater only in the SC with the late-dried CC rye when compared to the continuous soybeans SC. We conclude that the water dynamics under continuous soybean is affected by the inclusion of CC, where rye is the best species adapted to these environments.

Patricia Fabiana, Carfagno; Maximiliano Joaquín, Eiza; Alberto, Quiroga; Francisco, Babinec; Celio, Chagas; Roberto, MIchelena.

2013-07-01

31

Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseignement technique  

CERN Multimedia

Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

2004-01-01

32

Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseigement technique  

CERN Multimedia

Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

2004-01-01

33

Fósforo, calcio y azufre disponibles de la roca fosfórica acidulada con ácido sulfúrico y tiosulfato de amonio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A produção de milho e sorgo em solos ácidos está limitada por deficiências de N, P, Ca e possivelmente S disponíveis. O uso de rocha fosfórica (RF) acidulada como fonte de P, em solos ácidos e cultivos de ciclo curto, é factível, mas é necessário ensaiar alternativas de acidulação mais econômicas. O [...] tiosulfato de amônia (TSA) como agente acidulador, sozinho ou combinado com ácido sulfúrico (AS) é uma alternativa válida. Para provar a eficiência da RF acidulada se experimentou com solo ácido encalado (SE) e sem encalar (SSE) usando como fertilizantes: RF, RF acidulada com AS (RA), RF acidulada com 70% AS e 30% TSA (R30T), RF acidulada com TSA (R100T), superfosfato triplo (SFT) e 0P. Se aplicou uma dose de 400mg·kg-1 de P ao solo. Se estabeleceram experimentos de incubação em meio ambiente e de invernadouro em SE e SSE. O P liberado por RA e R30T em SSE foi maior que em RF e R100T. Em SE a liberação de P de R30T foi menor que em RA nos primeiros 21 dias, mas logo não houve diferenças significativas. Em invernadouro, com milho, em SSE não houve diferenças em matéria seca (MS) entre SFT, RA e R30T, que foram superiores a RF e R100T. Em SE a produção de MS com R30T não superou àquela com RF e R100T. A absorção de P pelo milho em SSE foi melhor com RA e R30T que com RF e R100T, e em SE foi maior com R30T. Em SE a relação P absorvido / longitude radical foi inversa e em SSE não se encontrou relação. A acidulação parcial de RF substituindo 30% do AS por TSA não muda a eficiência de RF como fonte de P. Abstract in spanish La producción de maíz y sorgo en suelos ácidos esta limitada por deficiencias de N, P, Ca y posiblemente S disponibles. El uso de roca fosfórica (RF) acidulada como fuente de P, en suelos ácidos y cultivos de ciclo corto, es factible, pero es necesario ensayar alternativas de acidulación más económi [...] cas. El tiosulfato de amonio (TSA) como agente acidulador, solo o combinado con ácido sulfúrico (AS) es una alternativa válida. Para probar la eficiencia de la RF acidulada se experimentó con suelo ácido encalado (SE) y sin encalar (SSE) usando como fertilizantes: RF, RF acidulada con AS (RA), RF acidulada con 70% AS y 30% TSA (R30T), RF acidulada con TSA (R100T), superfosfato triple (SFT) y 0P. Se aplicó una dosis de 400mg·kg-1 de P al suelo. Se establecieron experimentos de incubación en medio ambiente y de invernadero en SE y SSE. El P liberado por RA y R30T en SSE fue mayor que en RF y R100T. En SE la liberación de P de R30T fue menor que en RA en los primeros 21 días, pero luego no hubo diferencias significativas. En invernadero, con maíz, en SSE no hubo diferencias en materia seca (MS) entre SFT, RA y R30T, que fueron superiores a RF y R100T. En SE la producción de MS con R30T no superó a aquella con RF y R100T. La absorción de P por el maíz en SSE fue mejor con RA y R30T que con RF y R100T, y en SE fue mayor con R30T. En SE la relación P absorbido / longitud radical fue inversa y en SSE no se encontró relación. La acidulación parcial de RF sustituyendo 30% del AS por TSA no cambia la eficiencia de RF como fuente de P. Abstract in english N, P, Ca and possibly S are critical in maize and sorghum production in acidic soils. The use of phosphate rock (RF) acidulated with sulfuric acid (AS) as source of these elements in short term crops is possible. The use of ammonium thiosulfate (TSA) for RF acidulation combined with sulfuric acid (S [...] A) is feasible. An acidic soil low in P and Ca was used to test the efficiency of RF acidulated with SA and TSA. Field and incubation experiments were conducted on limed (SE) and non-limed soil (SSE). Fertilizer treatments were: RF acidulated with AS (RA), RF acidulated with 70% AS and 30% TSA, (R30T); RF acidulated with TSA (R100T), triple super-phosphate (SP) and 0P. The P dosis applied to the soil was 400mg·kg-1. Released P in SSE with RA and R30T was higher than with RF and R100T, but P released from R30T in

Omaira, Sequera; Ricardo, Ramírez.

34

Techniques de contrôles non destructifs  

CERN Document Server

La construction du LHC et des expériences nécessite un contrôle permanent de la qualité de la matière première utilisée et des assemblages par soudage, brasage ou collage des divers composants. Pour la vérification des matériaux et des assemblages de fabrication, il est souvent hors de question de recourir à des méthodes qui altéreraient les parties à contrôler. Les techniques de Contrôles Non Destructifs (CND), dont celles les plus employées au CERN font intervenir la transmission d'ondes sonores (contrôle par ultrasons) ou de rayons pénétrants (radiographie X ou gamma), représentent un moyen de détection souvent quantitatif de défauts applicable au contrôle qualité de production. Ces deux techniques complémentaires nous permettent de déceler des discontinuités (dans la matière de base, fissuration ou dédoublement, manque de compacité... ; dans les assemblages, présence d'inclusions, manque de brasure ou de fusion dans les joints soudés, cavités...). Après un bref aperçu de...

Dalin, J M

2004-01-01

35

Estimación del gasto cardíaco: Utilidad en la práctica clínica. Monitorización disponible invasiva y no invasiva Estimating cardiac output: Utility in the clinical practice. Available invasive and non-invasive monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esta revisión pretende profundizar en el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco, sus variables y sus condicionantes, así como repasar exhaustivamente las diferentes técnicas disponibles para su monitorización y establecer las situaciones en que el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco nos aporta una información fundamental en el manejo del paciente crítico. La técnica de Fick, utilizada en los inicios para calcular el gasto cardíaco de los pacientes, ha sido sustituida hoy en día en la práctica clínica por los métodos de termodilución (transcardíaca o transpulmonar, litiodilución, biorreactancia, la tecnología basada en el efecto Doppler o la ecocardiografía. El análisis de la onda de pulso ha permitido la obtención de una medida continua y mínimamente invasiva del gasto cardíaco. Otros métodos, como la biorrectancia, el Doppler o la ecocardiografía nos permiten, en la actualidad, obtener medidas del gasto cardíaco de forma no invasiva, rápida y fiable.This aim of this review is to provide a detailed review of the physiologic conditions and variables of the cardiac output, as well as review the different techniques available for its measurement. We also want to establish the clinical situations in which the measurement of cardiac output can add valuable information for the management of critically ill patients. The Fick technique, used in the beginning to calculate cardiac output, has been replaced today by thermodilution techniques (transcardiac or transpulmonary, lithium dilution, bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography. Pulse wave analysis allows a continuous minimally invasive cardiac output measurement. Other methods, such bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography currently provide a valid, fast and non-invasive measurement of cardiac output.

X. García

2011-12-01

36

New photoplastic fabrication techniques and devices based on high aspect ratio photoresist  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ce travail traite du développement de technologies de microfabrication basées sur la mise en forme d'un matériau photoplastique en utilisant des techniques de photolithographie et de moulage. Ces technologies, combinées avec une méthode originale de libération, permettent la fabrication de microstructures pseudo-tridimensionnelles à faible module d'élasticité ayant des éléments de tailles et de formes qui sont difficiles à obtenir avec les procédés standards de microfabrication....

Genolet, Gre?goire; Rooij, Nicolaas Frans

2007-01-01

37

Etude de nouvelles techniques de réduction du " facteur de crête " (PAPR) à compatibilité descendante pour les systèmes multiporteuses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L'OFDM pour ''Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing'' est une technique de modulation multiporteuses sophistiquée qui a fait ses preuves dans le domaine de la communication sans fil permettant aux technologies actuelles d'atteindre un débit de transmission élevé. Elle est utilisée dans la plupart des standards de communication tels que le DAB, le DVB-T, les réseaux locaux sans fil (WLAN), le WIMAX. Elle est en phase de normalisation dans le LTE (''Long Term Evolution'') pour la fut...

Guel, De?sire?

2009-01-01

38

Hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad: evidencia disponible diagnóstica y terapéutica / Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the preterm infant: current evidence in diagnosis and treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hemorragia de la matriz germinal y la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica son las complicaciones neuroquirúrgicas más frecuentes en los pacientes recién nacidos pretérmino91. La incidencia de estas complicaciones es muy variable según las series consultadas19,36,47,56,61,71,93, pero su prevalencia está e [...] n cualquier caso en aumento debido tanto a la mayor incidencia de embarazos múltiples y partos prematuros en relación al avance de las nuevas técnicas de fertilización, como a la mayor supervivencia de estos pacientes merced a los recientes avances en los cuidados perinatales85. En este contexto resulta esencial disponer de un conocimiento preciso y concreto de las recomendaciones diagnósticas y terapéuticas en referencia a esta entidad. Sin embargo, la evidencia disponible al respecto es a menudo fragmentada e incompleta. El objetivo de la presente revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de los principales aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad. Para ello se ha solicitado a los miembros del grupo de trabajo de Neurocirugía Pediátrica de la Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía que revisen las cuestiones más relevantes en referencia a esta patología. Esto supone el primer paso para la elaboración de una guía clínica común para el tratamiento de las complicaciones asociadas a la hemorragia intra y periventricular del prematuro. Abstract in english Intraventricular haemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus are the most important neurological complications in preterm infants during the neonatal period91. The prevalence of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage widely varies depending on the population of study19,36,47,56,61,71,93, but [...] it is in any case increasing due both to the higher incidence of multiple and preterm deliveries as well as the longer survival of preterm infants favoured by recent advances in perinatal care85. It is therefore of the utmost convenience to be familiar with the most important clinical evidence regarding this entity. However, the available evidence is often incomplete and piecemeal. The objective of the present review is to summarise the main diagnostic and therapeutic points regarding preterm-related posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. The participants of the working-group in Pediatric Neurosurgery of the Spanish Society of Neurosurgery were asked to write these recommendations down. This hopefully represents the first step towards the definition of a clinical guide in the treatment of complications related to periventricular hemorrhage of the preterm infants.

C., Bravo; P., Cano; R., Conde; M., Gelabert; P., Pulido; B., Ros; P., Miranda.

2011-10-01

39

Recursos disponibles para la protección de mujeres migrantes en tránsito por Tamaulipas / Resources available (few) for the protection of migrant women transit by Tamaulipas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La labor del gobierno mexicano en materia de política migratoria es una estrategia para administrar el flujo de migrantes en tránsito rumbo a Estados Unidos, no para salvaguardar su integridad y derechos, menos aún está diseñada para proteger a las mujeres. En esa medida, el interés de este artículo [...] es hacer evidentes los escasos recursos de protección disponibles para migrantes y la ausencia de perspectiva de género en los recursos de apoyo para mujeres en tránsito por México. A través de entrevistas a autoridades y organismos sociales en la frontera de Tamaulipas y con base en el enfoque del modelo ecológico, se evaluaron los recursos de la política pública mexicana como elementos amortiguadores para los migrantes, frente a riesgos y elementos de vulnerabilidad de la mujer en tránsito. Abstract in english The work of the Mexican government immigration policy is a strategy to manage the flow of migrants in transit heading for the U.S., not to safeguard their integrity and rights, much less is designed to protect women. To that extent, the interest is to make clear the limited resources available for m [...] igrant protection and the absence of a gender perspective in support resources for women in transit through Mexico. Through interviews with authorities and social organizations on the border of Tamaulipas, and based on the ecological model approach, were evaluated the resources of Mexican public policy as damping elements for migrants face risks and vulnerability elements woman in transit.

Rocío, Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Blanca Delia, Vázquez Delgado.

2014-03-01

40

Recursos disponibles para la protección de mujeres migrantes en tránsito por Tamaulipas / Resources available (few) for the protection of migrant women transit by Tamaulipas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La labor del gobierno mexicano en materia de política migratoria es una estrategia para administrar el flujo de migrantes en tránsito rumbo a Estados Unidos, no para salvaguardar su integridad y derechos, menos aún está diseñada para proteger a las mujeres. En esa medida, el interés de este artículo [...] es hacer evidentes los escasos recursos de protección disponibles para migrantes y la ausencia de perspectiva de género en los recursos de apoyo para mujeres en tránsito por México. A través de entrevistas a autoridades y organismos sociales en la frontera de Tamaulipas y con base en el enfoque del modelo ecológico, se evaluaron los recursos de la política pública mexicana como elementos amortiguadores para los migrantes, frente a riesgos y elementos de vulnerabilidad de la mujer en tránsito. Abstract in english The work of the Mexican government immigration policy is a strategy to manage the flow of migrants in transit heading for the U.S., not to safeguard their integrity and rights, much less is designed to protect women. To that extent, the interest is to make clear the limited resources available for m [...] igrant protection and the absence of a gender perspective in support resources for women in transit through Mexico. Through interviews with authorities and social organizations on the border of Tamaulipas, and based on the ecological model approach, were evaluated the resources of Mexican public policy as damping elements for migrants face risks and vulnerability elements woman in transit.

Rocío, Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Blanca Delia, Vázquez Delgado.

 
 
 
 
41

Grado de acidez y potencial erosivo de las bebidas energizantes disponibles en Chile / Acidity and erosive potential of energy drinks available in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde hace una década están disponibles en el mercado nacional, tanto bebidas como otros productos energéticos. Su popularidad ha ido en aumento, sin embargo su consumo no está exento de riesgos. La cafeína es el ingrediente activo principal de estas bebidas y el consumo excesivo puede llegar a caus [...] ar alteraciones en la salud general. Mucha gente las bebe a diario sin estar consciente del daño potencial que puede significar para su salud y sus dientes, especialmente en el caso de niños y adolescentes. En Chile, la acidez de estas bebidas es desconocida. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el pH de las bebidas energéticas presentes en el mercado chileno, estableciendo su potencial erosivo sobre los dientes. Metodología: La muestra quedó formada por 8 diferentes bebidas energéticas disponibles en Chile. El pH fue evaluado con un pHmetro calibrado (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH/Ion 510) a 4°C y 17°C. Los resultados obtenidos fueron registrados y analizados estadísticamente. Resultados: El rango de pH osciló entre 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) y 3.30 (Red Bull). El promedio fue 2.88 a 4°C y 2.89 a 17°C. Conclusiones: Todas las muestras estudiadas tuvieron pH ácido, haciendo de ellas bebidas potencialmente erosivas para los dientes. Los valores de pH fueron menores a 4°C que a 17°C, pero sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0.05). Abstract in english For a decade, energy drinks and other energy products have been available in the national market, and their popularity has increased. The consumption is not risk free, though. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in these drinks and an excessive consumption may be dangerous for general health. Man [...] y people drink them daily without being aware of the potential risk they pose on their health and teeth, especially on children and adolescents. Currently, the acidity of those beverages is unknown in Chile. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pH of energy drinks, and correlate it with their erosive potential on teeth. Methodology: 8 different energy drinks available in Chile constituted the sample. pH was measured with a calibrated digital pHmeter (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH / Ion 510) at 4°C and 17°C. The results obtained were registered and statistically analyzed. Results: pH values ranged from 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) to 3.30 (Red Bull) the mean pH was 2.88 and 2.89, at 4°C and 17°C respectively. Conclusions: All of the beverages showed low pH, which makes them potentially erosive for hard dental tissue. The pH values were lower at 4°C than at 17°C, but without statistical significance (p>0.05).

MC, Fresno; P, Angel; R, Arias; A, Muñoz.

2014-04-01

42

Niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible en gallinas durante 48 semanas en postura / Levels of calcium and available phosphorus in laying hens during 48 weeks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un experimento para evaluar niveles de calcio (Ca) y fósforo disponible (Pd) en gallinas. Se utilizaron 300 gallinas Leghorn Hy-line W36 y se alimentaron con cinco tratamientos, tomando en cuenta los niveles óptimos de encontrados en la literatura. Las dietas fueron: T1, 4.34% Ca y 0.18% [...] Pd; T2, 4.34% Ca y 0.23% Pd; T3, 4.62% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T4, 4.62% Ca y 0.23% Pd y T5, 3.25% Ca y 0.25% Pd. Se midió consumo de alimento, consumo de Ca y de Pd, conversión alimenticia, número de huevos, masa de huevo, peso del huevo, gravedad específica y porcentaje de cascarón. Para número de huevos, masa de huevo, consumo de alimento, conversión alimenticia y peso de huevo, no se encontraron diferencias entre tratamientos (P>0.05). Se observó mayor consumo de Ca (P Abstract in english An experiment was conducted to evaluate levels of calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (AP) in hens. For this study 300 Leghorn Hy-line W36 hens were used. Five treatments were evaluated, level of Ca and AP in the diet: T1, 4.34 and 0.18%; T2, 4.34 and 0.23%; T3, 4.62 and 0.18%; T4, 4.62 and 0.23% [...] and T5, 3.25 and 0.25% (control). The experiment lasted 48 wk. It was measured feed, Ca and AP consumption, number of eggs, egg mass, feed conversion, egg weight, specific gravity and percentage of eggshell. In feed consumption, number of eggs, egg mass, feed conversion and egg weight, there were no differences among treatments (P>0.05). Higher consumption of calcium (P

Diana Angélica, Gutiérrez Arenas; Juan Manuel, Cuca García; Arturo, Pró Martínez; Carlos Miguel, Becerril Pérez; José Luis, Figueroa Velasco.

2013-12-01

43

Niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible en gallinas durante 48 semanas en postura / Levels of calcium and available phosphorus in laying hens during 48 weeks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un experimento para evaluar niveles de calcio (Ca) y fósforo disponible (Pd) en gallinas. Se utilizaron 300 gallinas Leghorn Hy-line W36 y se alimentaron con cinco tratamientos, tomando en cuenta los niveles óptimos de encontrados en la literatura. Las dietas fueron: T1, 4.34% Ca y 0.18% [...] Pd; T2, 4.34% Ca y 0.23% Pd; T3, 4.62% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T4, 4.62% Ca y 0.23% Pd y T5, 3.25% Ca y 0.25% Pd. Se midió consumo de alimento, consumo de Ca y de Pd, conversión alimenticia, número de huevos, masa de huevo, peso del huevo, gravedad específica y porcentaje de cascarón. Para número de huevos, masa de huevo, consumo de alimento, conversión alimenticia y peso de huevo, no se encontraron diferencias entre tratamientos (P>0.05). Se observó mayor consumo de Ca (P Abstract in english An experiment was conducted to evaluate levels of calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (AP) in hens. For this study 300 Leghorn Hy-line W36 hens were used. Five treatments were evaluated, level of Ca and AP in the diet: T1, 4.34 and 0.18%; T2, 4.34 and 0.23%; T3, 4.62 and 0.18%; T4, 4.62 and 0.23% [...] and T5, 3.25 and 0.25% (control). The experiment lasted 48 wk. It was measured feed, Ca and AP consumption, number of eggs, egg mass, feed conversion, egg weight, specific gravity and percentage of eggshell. In feed consumption, number of eggs, egg mass, feed conversion and egg weight, there were no differences among treatments (P>0.05). Higher consumption of calcium (P

Diana Angélica, Gutiérrez Arenas; Juan Manuel, Cuca García; Arturo, Pró Martínez; Carlos Miguel, Becerril Pérez; José Luis, Figueroa Velasco.

44

Evaluación del fósforo disponible mediante tres métodos en distintos suelos y manejos productivos Evaluation of phosphorus available by three methods in different soils and productive managements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El fósforo (P es un nutriente de baja solubilidad y movilidad en los suelos, que se encuentra generalmente en situaciones de deficiencia para el crecimiento vegetal, y sólo puede ser repuesto mediante la fertilización. Debido a la variabilidad en la evaluación de la disponibilidad de P en el suelo, se realizó este trabajo con el objetivo de: a comparar entre sí dos de los métodos más comunes de evaluación de disponibilidad de P del suelo (Bray I y Olsen, y el método de la tirita de papel de filtro embebida en óxido de hierro (Strip; b estimar cual de los métodos se relaciona mejor con algunas variables vegetales ante distintas condiciones de manejo y tipos de suelos. Se estudiaron suelos de los órdenes Entisol, Alfisol y Vertisol de la provincia de Corrientes en condición natural o cultivado con Citrus, arroz o pasturas, respectivamente. Se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas y químicas, verificando la similitud textural entre los suelos Testigos y Cultivados. Se realizó un ensayo en invernadero de cada uno de los seis suelos con once niveles de P (entre 0-200 mg P por kg de suelo y luego se los incubó durante 25 días a 28 °C. Al finalizar la incubación se determinó el P disponible mediante los procedimientos recomendados para los métodos de Bray I, Olsen y Strip. Se sembró "rye grass" (Lolium perenne que se cosechó a los 45 días de la siembra para cuantificar la materia seca aérea y análisis de P en tejido. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que todos los métodos de evaluación de la disponibilidad de P del suelo describieron de manera adecuada y significativa las relaciones entre MS (R² entre 0,35 a 0,95, y valores extremos para el Vertisol y el Entisol, %P (con R² entre 0,92 y 0,95 y P absorbido (R² entre 0,93 y 0,96 y con muy pocas diferencias entre los suelos con el P extractado por los tres métodos. Sin embargo, la bondad de los ajustes fue diferente entre suelos, extractantes y manejos productivos, y sugieren la existencia de una interacción tripartita que arroja diferentes resultados en el valor final del P disponible. Se concluye que, no necesariamente el método más sencillo en la evaluación de P disponible para el vegetal es el que mejor refleja la relación con la materia seca o con la concentración del P en el tejido.Phosphorus is a nutrient with low soil solubility and mobility and may present limited availability for plant growth. One way to increase phosphorus availability in soil is by fertilization. Due to the variability in the evaluation of phosphorus availability in soil, the study was carried out with the following objectives: a to compare two of the most common soil available P methods (Bray I and Olsen, and the iron oxide impregnated filter paper method (Strip; b to evaluate which of the methods is better related to some plant variables under different managements and soil conditions. The soils selected from Corrientes Province were: 1 Entisol: natural soil as a control and cultivated with Citrus, 2 Alfisol: control and cultivated with rice, 3 Vertisol: control and cultivated with pastures. Physical and chemical soil properties indicated that soils from the same order differed in the textural composition, despite having similar chemical properties, suggesting that the differences among soils can be ascribed to cultivation. In addition, a greenhouse pot trial was conducted.Six soils were fertilized with eleven levels of P (0-200 mg P kg-1 and then incubated during 25 days at 28 °C. After incubation, soil samples were analyzed for P by the Olsen, Bray I and Strip methods. Rye grass was grown in pots during 45 days and the shoot dry matter was harvested and its P content analyzed. The results obtained in this work suggest that the three studied methods of P availability in soils described adequately and significantly the relationship between extracted P and dry matter yield (R² between 0.35 for the Vertisol and 0.95, for the Entisol, % P (R² between 0.92 and 0.95 and absorbed P (R² between 0.93 and 0.96. Nevertheless, th

Carolina Fernández López

2008-07-01

45

Evaluación del fósforo disponible mediante tres métodos en distintos suelos y manejos productivos / Evaluation of phosphorus available by three methods in different soils and productive managements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El fósforo (P) es un nutriente de baja solubilidad y movilidad en los suelos, que se encuentra generalmente en situaciones de deficiencia para el crecimiento vegetal, y sólo puede ser repuesto mediante la fertilización. Debido a la variabilidad en la evaluación de la disponibilidad de P en el suelo, [...] se realizó este trabajo con el objetivo de: a) comparar entre sí dos de los métodos más comunes de evaluación de disponibilidad de P del suelo (Bray I y Olsen), y el método de la tirita de papel de filtro embebida en óxido de hierro (Strip); b) estimar cual de los métodos se relaciona mejor con algunas variables vegetales ante distintas condiciones de manejo y tipos de suelos. Se estudiaron suelos de los órdenes Entisol, Alfisol y Vertisol de la provincia de Corrientes en condición natural o cultivado con Citrus, arroz o pasturas, respectivamente. Se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas y químicas, verificando la similitud textural entre los suelos Testigos y Cultivados. Se realizó un ensayo en invernadero de cada uno de los seis suelos con once niveles de P (entre 0-200 mg P por kg de suelo) y luego se los incubó durante 25 días a 28 °C. Al finalizar la incubación se determinó el P disponible mediante los procedimientos recomendados para los métodos de Bray I, Olsen y Strip. Se sembró "rye grass" (Lolium perenne) que se cosechó a los 45 días de la siembra para cuantificar la materia seca aérea y análisis de P en tejido. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que todos los métodos de evaluación de la disponibilidad de P del suelo describieron de manera adecuada y significativa las relaciones entre MS (R² entre 0,35 a 0,95, y valores extremos para el Vertisol y el Entisol), %P (con R² entre 0,92 y 0,95) y P absorbido (R² entre 0,93 y 0,96 y con muy pocas diferencias entre los suelos) con el P extractado por los tres métodos. Sin embargo, la bondad de los ajustes fue diferente entre suelos, extractantes y manejos productivos, y sugieren la existencia de una interacción tripartita que arroja diferentes resultados en el valor final del P disponible. Se concluye que, no necesariamente el método más sencillo en la evaluación de P disponible para el vegetal es el que mejor refleja la relación con la materia seca o con la concentración del P en el tejido. Abstract in english Phosphorus is a nutrient with low soil solubility and mobility and may present limited availability for plant growth. One way to increase phosphorus availability in soil is by fertilization. Due to the variability in the evaluation of phosphorus availability in soil, the study was carried out with t [...] he following objectives: a) to compare two of the most common soil available P methods (Bray I and Olsen), and the iron oxide impregnated filter paper method (Strip); b) to evaluate which of the methods is better related to some plant variables under different managements and soil conditions. The soils selected from Corrientes Province were: 1) Entisol: natural soil as a control and cultivated with Citrus, 2) Alfisol: control and cultivated with rice, 3) Vertisol: control and cultivated with pastures. Physical and chemical soil properties indicated that soils from the same order differed in the textural composition, despite having similar chemical properties, suggesting that the differences among soils can be ascribed to cultivation. In addition, a greenhouse pot trial was conducted.Six soils were fertilized with eleven levels of P (0-200 mg P kg-1) and then incubated during 25 days at 28 °C. After incubation, soil samples were analyzed for P by the Olsen, Bray I and Strip methods. Rye grass was grown in pots during 45 days and the shoot dry matter was harvested and its P content analyzed. The results obtained in this work suggest that the three studied methods of P availability in soils described adequately and significantly the relationship between extracted P and dry matter yield (R² between 0.35 for the Vertisol and 0.95

Carolina, Fernández López; Rodolfo, Mendoza.

46

Evaluación del fósforo disponible mediante tres métodos en distintos suelos y manejos productivos / Evaluation of phosphorus available by three methods in different soils and productive managements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El fósforo (P) es un nutriente de baja solubilidad y movilidad en los suelos, que se encuentra generalmente en situaciones de deficiencia para el crecimiento vegetal, y sólo puede ser repuesto mediante la fertilización. Debido a la variabilidad en la evaluación de la disponibilidad de P en el suelo, [...] se realizó este trabajo con el objetivo de: a) comparar entre sí dos de los métodos más comunes de evaluación de disponibilidad de P del suelo (Bray I y Olsen), y el método de la tirita de papel de filtro embebida en óxido de hierro (Strip); b) estimar cual de los métodos se relaciona mejor con algunas variables vegetales ante distintas condiciones de manejo y tipos de suelos. Se estudiaron suelos de los órdenes Entisol, Alfisol y Vertisol de la provincia de Corrientes en condición natural o cultivado con Citrus, arroz o pasturas, respectivamente. Se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas y químicas, verificando la similitud textural entre los suelos Testigos y Cultivados. Se realizó un ensayo en invernadero de cada uno de los seis suelos con once niveles de P (entre 0-200 mg P por kg de suelo) y luego se los incubó durante 25 días a 28 °C. Al finalizar la incubación se determinó el P disponible mediante los procedimientos recomendados para los métodos de Bray I, Olsen y Strip. Se sembró "rye grass" (Lolium perenne) que se cosechó a los 45 días de la siembra para cuantificar la materia seca aérea y análisis de P en tejido. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que todos los métodos de evaluación de la disponibilidad de P del suelo describieron de manera adecuada y significativa las relaciones entre MS (R² entre 0,35 a 0,95, y valores extremos para el Vertisol y el Entisol), %P (con R² entre 0,92 y 0,95) y P absorbido (R² entre 0,93 y 0,96 y con muy pocas diferencias entre los suelos) con el P extractado por los tres métodos. Sin embargo, la bondad de los ajustes fue diferente entre suelos, extractantes y manejos productivos, y sugieren la existencia de una interacción tripartita que arroja diferentes resultados en el valor final del P disponible. Se concluye que, no necesariamente el método más sencillo en la evaluación de P disponible para el vegetal es el que mejor refleja la relación con la materia seca o con la concentración del P en el tejido. Abstract in english Phosphorus is a nutrient with low soil solubility and mobility and may present limited availability for plant growth. One way to increase phosphorus availability in soil is by fertilization. Due to the variability in the evaluation of phosphorus availability in soil, the study was carried out with t [...] he following objectives: a) to compare two of the most common soil available P methods (Bray I and Olsen), and the iron oxide impregnated filter paper method (Strip); b) to evaluate which of the methods is better related to some plant variables under different managements and soil conditions. The soils selected from Corrientes Province were: 1) Entisol: natural soil as a control and cultivated with Citrus, 2) Alfisol: control and cultivated with rice, 3) Vertisol: control and cultivated with pastures. Physical and chemical soil properties indicated that soils from the same order differed in the textural composition, despite having similar chemical properties, suggesting that the differences among soils can be ascribed to cultivation. In addition, a greenhouse pot trial was conducted.Six soils were fertilized with eleven levels of P (0-200 mg P kg-1) and then incubated during 25 days at 28 °C. After incubation, soil samples were analyzed for P by the Olsen, Bray I and Strip methods. Rye grass was grown in pots during 45 days and the shoot dry matter was harvested and its P content analyzed. The results obtained in this work suggest that the three studied methods of P availability in soils described adequately and significantly the relationship between extracted P and dry matter yield (R² between 0.35 for the Vertisol and 0.95

Carolina, Fernández López; Rodolfo, Mendoza.

2008-07-01

47

The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information / Situation du commerce international d'organes: un tableau prévisionnel reposant sur l'intégration des données disponibles / Situación del comercio internacional de órganos: panorama provisional basado en la integración de la información disponible  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish El trasplante de órganos es una intervención ampliamente practicada en todo el mundo. La expansión de ese tratamiento ha provocado una grave escasez de órganos y la aparición del fenómeno del comercio de órganos. Muchos pacientes viajan a zonas donde es posible comprar y vender órganos. Aunque el co [...] mercio internacional de órganos se considera una importante cuestión de política sanitaria, sigue habiendo grandes incertidumbres sobre la situación actual de esa práctica, debido a la falta de datos y de iniciativas para sintetizar los datos disponibles. En el presente artículo se ha procurado integrar la información disponible sobre el comercio internacional de órganos en la actualidad para ofrecer un panorama mundial provisional, basado finalmente en una revisión sistemática de 309 noticias aparecidas en los medios de comunicación, artículos de revistas y otros documentos. Se describe el comercio internacional de órganos en relación con sus distintas modalidades, los países que exportan órganos, los países que los importan, y los resultados y consecuencias de esa práctica. Abstract in english Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ tra [...] de is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

Yosuke, Shimazono.

2007-12-01

48

MEDICAMENTOS VITALES NO DISPONIBLES: ANALISIS DE REGLAMENTACIÓN NACIONAL E INTERNACIONAL, PROPUESTA DE ACTUALIZACIÓN DEL LISTADO NACIONAL VITAL MEDICINES NOT AVAILABLE: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATION ANALYSIS, UPDATE PROPOSAL OF NATIONAL LIST  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se realiza una revisión comparativa de las políticas y normas existentes a nivel nacional e internacional en relación con la disponibilidad y acceso a medicamentos huérfanos y/o vitales. Adicionalmente se elabora una propuesta de actualización del listado de medicamentos vitales no disponibles a partir de la comparación con las listas de medicamentos huérfanos de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la lista de solicitudes de importación realizadas al Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia d...

Sandoval, Gloria A.; Vacca, Claudia P. G.; Olarte, Jorge

2008-01-01

49

Modelación de la distribución de especies y ecosistemas en el tiempo y en el espacio: una revisión de las nuevas herramientas y enfoques disponibles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar el marco conceptual y metodológico en que se desarrollan las técnicas de modelos de distribución para especies y ecosistemas. Se hace una revisión histórica de los conceptos que fundamentan estas técnicas y se presentan las principales etapas metodológicas [...] involucradas en estos análisis. Se discute cómo estos enfoques son de gran utilidad para el desarrollo de nuevas preguntas en el campo de la biogeografía y de la conservación biológica. Finalmente, se presenta una aplicación de técnicas de modelos de distribución, tomando como caso de estudio Beilschmiedia miersii (belloto del norte). Esta revisión conceptual y metodológica, así como el ejemplo aplicado, buscan clarificar la utilidad y el potencial que tienen los modelos de distribución, con el objetivo de invitar a la investigación en biogeografía y así seguir avanzando en el conocimiento de los patrones espaciales y temporales de la distribución de los organismos. Abstract in english This article aims to present the conceptual and methodological framework in which models techniques for species and ecosystems distribution are developed. An historical review of concepts behind these techniques is made as well as the presentation of the major methodological steps involved in these [...] tests. A discussion on how these approaches are useful for the development of new questions in the field of biogeography and biological conservation is generated. Finally, an application of distribution modeling techniques, using the specie Beilschmiedia miersii (belloto Del Norte) as a study case, is presented. This conceptual and methodological review as well as the example applied, seeks to clarify the usefulness and potential of distribution models techniques, with the objective to go forward in biogeography research and thus, farther progress in understanding spatial and temporal patterns of organism's distribution.

Patricio, Pliscoff; Taryn, Fuentes-Castillo.

2011-05-01

50

Modelación de la distribución de especies y ecosistemas en el tiempo y en el espacio: una revisión de las nuevas herramientas y enfoques disponibles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar el marco conceptual y metodológico en que se desarrollan las técnicas de modelos de distribución para especies y ecosistemas. Se hace una revisión histórica de los conceptos que fundamentan estas técnicas y se presentan las principales etapas metodológicas [...] involucradas en estos análisis. Se discute cómo estos enfoques son de gran utilidad para el desarrollo de nuevas preguntas en el campo de la biogeografía y de la conservación biológica. Finalmente, se presenta una aplicación de técnicas de modelos de distribución, tomando como caso de estudio Beilschmiedia miersii (belloto del norte). Esta revisión conceptual y metodológica, así como el ejemplo aplicado, buscan clarificar la utilidad y el potencial que tienen los modelos de distribución, con el objetivo de invitar a la investigación en biogeografía y así seguir avanzando en el conocimiento de los patrones espaciales y temporales de la distribución de los organismos. Abstract in english This article aims to present the conceptual and methodological framework in which models techniques for species and ecosystems distribution are developed. An historical review of concepts behind these techniques is made as well as the presentation of the major methodological steps involved in these [...] tests. A discussion on how these approaches are useful for the development of new questions in the field of biogeography and biological conservation is generated. Finally, an application of distribution modeling techniques, using the specie Beilschmiedia miersii (belloto Del Norte) as a study case, is presented. This conceptual and methodological review as well as the example applied, seeks to clarify the usefulness and potential of distribution models techniques, with the objective to go forward in biogeography research and thus, farther progress in understanding spatial and temporal patterns of organism's distribution.

Patricio, Pliscoff; Taryn, Fuentes-Castillo.

51

Meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for mass and routine vaccination with available polysaccharide vaccines / Méningite à méningocoque en Afrique subsaharienne: justification de la vaccination de masse et de la vaccination systématique avec les vaccins polyosidiques disponibles / Meningitis meningocócica en el África subsahariana: justificación de la vacunación masiva y rutinaria con las vacunas de polisacáridos disponibles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish La meningitis endémica y epidémica por meningococos del grupo A sigue siendo una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el África subsahariana, pese a la disponibilidad de la vacuna de polisacáridos de meningococos del grupo A, que es barata y segura y proporciona protección en todos los gru [...] pos de edad cuando se administra de acuerdo con las instrucciones. Incluso con un tratamiento óptimo, la meningitis meningocócica tiene una tasa de letalidad del 10% y produce lesiones del sistema nervioso central en al menos un 15% de los pacientes. En el mejor de los casos, la política de la OMS de contención de las epidemias evita aproximadamente un 50% de los casos e ignora la meningitis endémica, que produce unos 50 000 casos anuales. La recomendación de proceder a la vacunación universal con el polisacárido del meningococo del grupo A dos veces durante la lactancia, seguida de la administración de la vacuna tetravalente a los niños de 2 y 6 años, se fundamenta en la eficacia de los polisacáridos capsulares de los grupos A, C, W135 e Y. Esto permitiría eliminar la enfermedad, tanto epidémica como endémica, y preparar el terreno para el uso de conjugados cuando estén disponibles, y probablemente hubiera evitado la reciente epidemia de meningitis por meningococos de los grupos A y W135 registrada en Burkina Faso. Abstract in english Endemic and epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of the safe and inexpensive group A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which is protective at all ages when administered as directed. Despite opti [...] mal therapy, meningococcal meningitis has a 10% fatality rate and at least 15% central nervous system damage. WHO's policy of epidemic containment prevents, at best, about 50% of cases and ignores endemic meningitis, which is estimated at 50 000 cases per year. The effectiveness of group A, C, W135, and Y capsular polysaccharides is the basis for recommending universal vaccination with group A meningococcal polysaccharide twice in infancy, followed by the four-valent vaccine in children aged two and six years. This could eliminate epidemic and endemic disease, prepare for the use of conjugates when they become available, and probably could have prevented the recent epidemics of groups A and W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso.

John B., Robbins; Rachel, Schneerson; Emil C., Gotschlich; Idris, Mohammed; Abdulsalami, Nasidi; Jean-Philippe, Chippaux; Luis, Bernardino; Moussa A., Maiga.

52

Meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for mass and routine vaccination with available polysaccharide vaccines / Méningite à méningocoque en Afrique subsaharienne: justification de la vaccination de masse et de la vaccination systématique avec les vaccins polyosidiques disponibles / Meningitis meningocócica en el África subsahariana: justificación de la vacunación masiva y rutinaria con las vacunas de polisacáridos disponibles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish La meningitis endémica y epidémica por meningococos del grupo A sigue siendo una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el África subsahariana, pese a la disponibilidad de la vacuna de polisacáridos de meningococos del grupo A, que es barata y segura y proporciona protección en todos los gru [...] pos de edad cuando se administra de acuerdo con las instrucciones. Incluso con un tratamiento óptimo, la meningitis meningocócica tiene una tasa de letalidad del 10% y produce lesiones del sistema nervioso central en al menos un 15% de los pacientes. En el mejor de los casos, la política de la OMS de contención de las epidemias evita aproximadamente un 50% de los casos e ignora la meningitis endémica, que produce unos 50 000 casos anuales. La recomendación de proceder a la vacunación universal con el polisacárido del meningococo del grupo A dos veces durante la lactancia, seguida de la administración de la vacuna tetravalente a los niños de 2 y 6 años, se fundamenta en la eficacia de los polisacáridos capsulares de los grupos A, C, W135 e Y. Esto permitiría eliminar la enfermedad, tanto epidémica como endémica, y preparar el terreno para el uso de conjugados cuando estén disponibles, y probablemente hubiera evitado la reciente epidemia de meningitis por meningococos de los grupos A y W135 registrada en Burkina Faso. Abstract in english Endemic and epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of the safe and inexpensive group A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which is protective at all ages when administered as directed. Despite opti [...] mal therapy, meningococcal meningitis has a 10% fatality rate and at least 15% central nervous system damage. WHO's policy of epidemic containment prevents, at best, about 50% of cases and ignores endemic meningitis, which is estimated at 50 000 cases per year. The effectiveness of group A, C, W135, and Y capsular polysaccharides is the basis for recommending universal vaccination with group A meningococcal polysaccharide twice in infancy, followed by the four-valent vaccine in children aged two and six years. This could eliminate epidemic and endemic disease, prepare for the use of conjugates when they become available, and probably could have prevented the recent epidemics of groups A and W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso.

John B., Robbins; Rachel, Schneerson; Emil C., Gotschlich; Idris, Mohammed; Abdulsalami, Nasidi; Jean-Philippe, Chippaux; Luis, Bernardino; Moussa A., Maiga.

2003-10-01

53

QUELQUES PARAMETRES DE CONTROLE DES PROPRIETES ELECTROMAGNETIQUES DE FERRITES DE NICKEL-ZINC DANS LA BANDE UHF-V  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

En raison du développement des terminaux mobiles pour la bande UHF-V (300MHz-700MHz), il existe une forte demande pour la réalisation d'antennes miniatures destinées à ces applications [1-5]. En effet les dimensions des antennes actuellement disponibles sont trop importantes pour permettre leur intégration, et les techniques qui permettent de réduire ces dimensions conduisent à une certaine dégradation de leurs performances [6]. Des travaux récents sur la miniaturisation des antennes...

Souriou, David; Mattei, Jean-luc; Chevalier, Alexis; Queffelec, Patrick

2010-01-01

54

DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible / DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingres [...] a los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se interpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso) para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes. Abstract in english A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines t [...] he links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak connections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

MAX S, ECHEVERRIA; ROBERTO, VARGAS; PAULA, URZUA; ROBERTO, FERREIRA.

55

Estudio in vitro del efecto de dentífricos fluorurados comercialmente disponibles en Venezuela en el proceso de remineralización de lesiones iniciales de caries dental.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La técnica de microdureza se ha utilizado para determinar el efecto de dentífricos fluorurados en lesiones artificiales de caries utilizando el modelo in vitro de pH cíclico. Las medidas de microdureza Knoop se realizaron en el esmalte sano, desmineralizado y en el esmalte expuesto al tratamiento in [...] vitro con los diferentes dentífricos. Los resultados demostraron que la exposición a dentífricos que contienen fluoruro produjo un aumento neto en la dureza del esmalte desmineralizado, la cual mostró variabilidad en las medidas de microdureza así como en la tendencia estadística. Se realizaron asociaciones entre los dentífricos que contenían NaF a una concentración de 1.100 ppm F- y la combinación de NaF/MFP a una concentración de 1.450 ppm F-, encontrándose un incremento estadísticamente significativo en la medida de microdureza Knoop ( p Abstract in english The microhardness technique was used to determine the effect of fluoride dentifrices on artificial carious lesions in a pH cycling model in vitro. Knoop hardness measurements were performed on sound and on in vitro demineralized enamel, and after in vitro exposure of the enamel to different dentifri [...] ce treatments. Results showed that exposure to fluoride dentifrices produced a net rehardening of the demineralized enamel which exhibited measurable variability as well as a measurable statistical trend. Both the NaF dentifrice containing 1,100 ppm F- and the combination NaF/MFP dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F- were associated with statistically significant increases in Knoop microhardness (p

Ana María, Rodríguez; Alfonso, Maldonado; Ana María, Acevedo.

2006-12-01

56

Estudio in vitro del efecto de dentífricos fluorurados comercialmente disponibles en Venezuela en el proceso de remineralización de lesiones iniciales de caries dental.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La técnica de microdureza se ha utilizado para determinar el efecto de dentífricos fluorurados en lesiones artificiales de caries utilizando el modelo in vitro de pH cíclico. Las medidas de microdureza Knoop se realizaron en el esmalte sano, desmineralizado y en el esmalte expuesto al tratamiento in [...] vitro con los diferentes dentífricos. Los resultados demostraron que la exposición a dentífricos que contienen fluoruro produjo un aumento neto en la dureza del esmalte desmineralizado, la cual mostró variabilidad en las medidas de microdureza así como en la tendencia estadística. Se realizaron asociaciones entre los dentífricos que contenían NaF a una concentración de 1.100 ppm F- y la combinación de NaF/MFP a una concentración de 1.450 ppm F-, encontrándose un incremento estadísticamente significativo en la medida de microdureza Knoop ( p Abstract in english The microhardness technique was used to determine the effect of fluoride dentifrices on artificial carious lesions in a pH cycling model in vitro. Knoop hardness measurements were performed on sound and on in vitro demineralized enamel, and after in vitro exposure of the enamel to different dentifri [...] ce treatments. Results showed that exposure to fluoride dentifrices produced a net rehardening of the demineralized enamel which exhibited measurable variability as well as a measurable statistical trend. Both the NaF dentifrice containing 1,100 ppm F- and the combination NaF/MFP dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F- were associated with statistically significant increases in Knoop microhardness (p

Ana María, Rodríguez; Alfonso, Maldonado; Ana María, Acevedo.

57

Control de admisión para redes móviles AD HOC con base en estimación de ancho de banda disponible / Control of admission for AD HOC mobile network based on estimates available bandwidth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los algoritmos de control de admisión en redes alambradas pueden monitorear el tráfico sobre cada uno de los enlaces punto-a-punto con el fin de determinar el ancho de banda disponible para los flujos a lo largo de diferentes rutas y basar su decisión en la diferencia entre el ancho de banda disponi [...] ble y el ancho de banda requerido. Infortunadamente, esto no es posible en una red móvil ad hoc (MANET) por varias razones, entre las que se destacan dos: (1) en la MANET, una transmisión entre dos nodos adyacentes consume el ancho de banda de muchos nodos vecinos, lo cual dificulta la estimación del ancho de banda disponible. (2) Un nodo que se admite tiene un efecto sobre la red que va mucho más allá de reducir el ancho de banda disponible en una cantidad previsible; al contrario, puede afectar la distribución espacial de los flujos existentes así como las probabilidades de colisión. En estas condiciones, no es fácil para un algoritmo de control de admisión determinar la magnitud de los flujos que deben ser admitidos para aprovechar los recursos de comunicación sin saturar la red. Este es un artículo de reflexión en el que discutimos algunos de los principales aspectos asociados con la interacción entre estos dos problemas fundamentales y proponemos un nuevo enfoque de investigación al respecto. Abstract in english The admission control algorithms in wired networks can monitor traffic on each of the links point-to-point in order to determine the available bandwidth for the flows along different routes and base their decision the difference between the available bandwidth and the bandwidth required. Unfortunate [...] ly, this is not possible in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) for several reasons, among which two stands out: (1) In the MANET, a transfer between two adjacent nodes consumes the bandwidth of many neighbors, which difficult to estimate the available bandwidth. (2) A node that supports has an effect on the network that goes far beyond reducing the bandwidth available in a predictable amount, on the contrary, it can affect the spatial distribution of existing flows and the likelihood of collision. In these conditions, it is easy for an admission control algorithm to determine the magnitude of the flows should be admitted to exploit the resources of communication without saturating the network. This is a refection article where we discuss some major issues associated with the interaction between these two fundamental problems and propose a new approach to investigation.

Marco A, Alzate; Leydi J, Támara.

58

Los principios pedagógicos en cursos de actualización docente disponibles en la web / Pedagogical principles in teacher training courses available on the web  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Una de las necesidades de cualquier docente es mantenerse al día en relación con las técnicas y procedimientos pedagógicos que potencien el desarrollo del aprendizaje en sus alumnos. Para satisfacer esta necesidad, en los últimos años han surgido diversas plataformas educativas que usan las tecnolog [...] ías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) para actualizar docentes en ejercicio a distancia por medio de cursos basados en la web. Sin embargo, estos desarrollos requieren de un estudio detallado de los procedimientos para diseñar e implementar cursos en línea de manera que se produzca una educación de calidad. En este trabajo se presentan los "principios de la buena práctica pedagógica" propuestos por Chickering y Gamson (1987, 1991) para la educación presencial y se analiza su aplicación a los ambientes de aprendizaje a distancia. Además, se presentan y analizan las estrategias instruccionales y los recursos tecnológicos que se pueden usar para desarrollar cursos dictados a distancia, basados en los principios pedagógicos de Chickering y Gamson y dirigidos a docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Los principios utilizados fueron: a) el contacto entre estudiantes y profesores, b) la cooperación entre los estudiantes, c) el aprendizaje activo, d) la retroalimentación a tiempo, e) el uso apropiado del tiempo, f) las altas expectativas del estudiante, y g) el respeto a los estilos de aprendizaje. Se ilustra cada principio con ejemplos de recursos tecnológicos y estrategias instruccionales usados en un curso de postgrado impartido de manera mixta (presencial y a distancia). Abstract in english One of the needs of any teacher is to keep up to date in relation to the pedagogical techniques and procedures that promote the development of learning in the students. To satisfy this need, several educational platforms have emerged in the last years that make use of information and communication t [...] echnologies (ICT) to update in-service teachers through distance education. Yet, these developments require a detailed study of the procedures to design and implement on-line courses so they produce quality education. In this paper, the "principles of good practice", proposed by Chickering and Gamson (1987, 1991) for face to face instruction, are presented and an analysis is made of their application to distance learning environments. Also, instructional strategies and technological resources which can be used to develop distance education courses, using Chickering and Gamson’s pedagogical principles and aimed at foreign language teachers, are presented and analyzed. The principles used were a) the contact between students and teachers, b) the cooperation of students, c) active learning, d) feedback on time, e) the appropriate use of time, f) the high expectations of students, and g) the respect for learning styles. Each of these principles is illustrated with examples of technological resources used in a graduate course taught partly face to face and partly at distance.

Javier, García-Calvo.

2002-01-01

59

Internet y recursos en línea como alternativas terapéuticas para trastornos de abuso o dependencia a sustancias: una revisión de los recursos disponibles Internet and Online Resources Such as Therapeutic Alternatives for Substance Use Disorders: A Review of Available Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Las intervenciones en línea constituyen una de las tantas opciones terapéuticas disponibles para pacientes con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias y otras condiciones psiquiátricas. No obstante, su utilidad ha sido ampliamente cuestionada a la luz de falta de rigurosidad. Objetivo: Revisar y discutir la literatura existente acerca de los recursos e intervenciones en línea para trastornos por abuso/dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas. Método: Búsqueda sistemática de literatura sobre los recursos e intervenciones en línea relacionados con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias. Resultados: Existen numerosos recursos informativos para el público general, pero la calidad de la información disponible no es siempre adecuada. También hay, aunque en menor número, intervenciones y programas de autoayuda en línea, específicamente para tabaquismo y alcoholismo. No obstante, su efectividad no ha sido determinada en estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados, adecuadamente diseñados. Conclusión: Son necesarios estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados que permitan evaluar la efectividad de este tipo de intervenciones. Los resultados iluminarán el desarrollo de estrategias de intervención integrales que usen esta poderosa herramienta de comunicación.Introduction: Online interventions are one of the many treatment options available for patients with substance use disorders and other psychiatric conditions. However, its usefulness has been widely questioned due to a lack of rigorous scientific research. Objective: To review and discuss the literature about online resources and interventions for substance use disorders. Methods: Systematic search of literature on online resources and interventions related to substance use disorders. Results: There are many sources of information for the general public, but the quality of information available is not always appropriate. There are, though in smaller numbers, interventions and online self-help programs specifically for smoking and alcoholism. However, their effectiveness has not been determined in properly designed randomized controlled trials. Conclusion: It is necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of online interventions using rigorous randomized controlled trials. The results illuminate the development of comprehensive intervention strategies that may use this powerful communication tool.

Luis Felipe Orozco Cabal

2010-02-01

60

Determinantes de salud y políticas públicas: identificación de indicadores de problemas de salud y factores asociados, basada en datos disponibles / Health and public policy determinants: selection of indicators for health problems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La planeación en salud requiere de información, que está disponible, pero que no siempre se utiliza. Aunque los sistemas de información en salud aparecieron hace más de tres décadas, las decisiones del sector se dirigen al manejo de enfermedad y no a modificar los factores que la gener [...] a. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la utilidad de datos disponibles en los diferentes sectores, para identificar grupos de población con características similares, asociadas con problemas de salud e identificar marcadores sencillos que orienten la toma de decisiones para solucionarlos. Métodos: Estudio ecológico. Se identificaron, recolectaron y procesaron datos de instituciones públicas y privadas y de estudios recientes. La asociación y correlación entre las diferentes variables permitió identificar aquellas con capacidad para discriminar grupos de población con problemas similares. Resultados: El estrato de vivienda mostró asociación significante con la mayoría de variables y se utilizó para dividir los barrios de la ciudad en cuatro conglomerados. Los barrios pertenecientes a estratos más bajos mostraron deficiencias en vivienda y educación, mayor proporción de población menor de 18 años, promedio de edad de muerte menor, menor estatura y mayor mortalidad perinatal y por accidentes y violencia. En los barrios de nivel medio y alto, se encontraron mejores condiciones de vivienda y tumores y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles como las principales causas de muerte. La conexión a servicios públicos fue similar en los hogares de todos los estratos, excepto el teléfono. El promedio ponderado por estrato y por barrio explica más de 80% de la varianza para la mayoría de las variables analizadas. Se propone que este indicador, disponible en forma permanente, se emplee como instrumento para planes locales de desarrollo, con validaciones periódicas a fin de evaluar su capacidad en el tiempo. Abstract in english Introduction: Health planning requires information from all sectors, usually available, but not used frequently. Information systems in Health appeared more than 3 decades ago but decisions are usually taken on considerations directed to the solution of a manifestation without modification of causal [...] factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of available data to identify population groups with similar characteristics associated to health problems and to identify simple markers to serve as a basis for decisions directed to solve them. Methods: Ecological study. Data were identified, collected and collated from public institutions and from recent studies for analysis. Association and correlation among the different variables identified those with the capacity to discriminate population groups. Household socio economic stratum had a significant association with most variables and was used to divide «Barrios» in four conglomerates. Results: Lower conglomerates presented deficiencies in household and education, larger proportion of young population, lower mean death age, higher mortality caused by accidents and violence, and lower stature. Middle and higher income conglomerates had better household conditions and the principal cause of death was tumors and chronic diseases. Public services were similar for all except telephone. Weighed household stratum by neighborhood «barrio» explained more that 80% of variance for most variables. It is proposed that this marker, available and easy to obtain, the instrument to define local development plans with periodic validations to evaluate its capacity.

Alberto, Pradilla; Álvaro, Rueda; Ligia, de Salazar; Jenny Andrea, Vélez; Elsa Patricia, Muñoz.

 
 
 
 
61

¿Es necesario disponer de tratamientos con buprenorfina/naloxona para los presos dependientes de opiáceos? / Is the availability of buprenorphine/naloxone therapy for opioid-dependent inmates a necessity?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La utilización de programas de tratamiento con agonistas opiáceos (TAO), junto con un abordaje psicosocial, es la forma más efectiva de prevenir recaídas en los pacientes con dependencia a opiáceos. Estos programas disminuyen la morbimortalidad así como las conductas de riesgo de transmisión del VIH [...] y de otras infecciones, mejoran la calidad de vida y la retención en tratamiento, y tienen un impacto positivo sobre los comportamientos asociales, por lo que son muy útiles en presos con antecedente de consumo de opiáceos. Los TAO basados en el uso de buprenorfina/naloxona (B/N), igual que los basados en metadona (MT), están actualmente disponibles en España. El tratamiento diversificado ofrece una alternativa de tratamiento para la dependencia de opioides más individualizada y adaptada a las características de los pacientes. En cuanto a eficacia ambos fármacos son muy similares, pero B/N es más segura, con menor perfil de interacciones con posibilidad de dispensación en farmacias una vez que el paciente sea puesto en libertad, lo que puede ayudar a la reintegración social. Económicamente, el tratamiento con B/N es más costoso que el de MT. Se aconseja disponer de las diferentes modalidades de TAO y que estas se prescriban según las características y necesidades de cada caso, sin que la reclusión menoscabe el derecho al tratamiento farmacológico, que debe ser similar al efectuado extrapenitenciariamente. Abstract in english Agonist therapy (OAT) programs in combination with a psychosocial approach are the most effective way to prevent relapse in opioid-dependent patients. These programs reduce morbidity and risk behaviours for HIV transmission and other infections, improve quality of life and retention in treatment, an [...] d have a positive impact on antisocial behaviour. They are therefore very useful for prisoners with a history of opiate use. OATs based on buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N), along with others using methadone, are currently available in Spain. Diversified treatment offers an alternative treatment for opioid dependence that is more personalized and tailored to the patient's characteristics. As regards effectiveness, both drugs are very similar, but B/N shows a better safety profile and fewer drug-drug interactions and can be dispensed in pharmacies once the patient is released, which can assist with the patient' social reintegration. B/N treatment is more expensive than methadone. It is advisable to have different modes of OAT. These should be prescribed according to the characteristics and needs of each case, without incarceration impeding the right to drug treatment, which should be similar to that performed outside prison.

A., Marco; A., López-Burgos; L., García-Marcos; C., Gallego; J.J., Antón; A., Errasti.

2013-02-01

62

Les écoulements par RMN à gradient pulsé Pulsed Gradient Nmr Techniques for Studying Flows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nous présentons ici les techniques de RMN à gradient pulsé qui permettent d'étudier les écoulements multiphasiques en canalisation ou en milieu poreux. Les principaux avantages sont de pouvoir travailler sur des milieux non transparents et d'accéder à des échelles de longueurs faibles. On montre qu'il est possible d'obtenir des informations locales sur l'écoulement, telles que le profil de vitesse et ses fluctuations dans les écoulements diphasiques, ou les cartes de distribution des probabilités de déplacement dans des échantillons poreux hétérogènes. Pulsed gradient NMR techniques are presented here. They allow the study of multiphase flow in pipes as well as porous media. The main advantages are the possibilities of studying non transparent media at small length scales. We show that it is possible to obtain local information on the fluid flow, such as velocity profiles in two phase systems, or maps of distribution of displacement probabilities in heterogeneous porous media.

Lebon L.

2006-12-01

63

Producción de huevo, calidad del cascarón y rentabilidad en gallinas de primer ciclo con niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible / Egg production, eggshell quality and profitability of laying hens during first cycle with levels of calcium and available phosphorus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para evaluar el efecto del calcio y fósforo en la calidad del cascarón del huevo se realizó un experimento con 480 gallinas Hy-Line W-36. Se usaron tres niveles de calcio (Ca) (3.2, 4.2 y 5.2 %) y cuatro de fósforo disponible (Pd) (0.15, 0.20, 0.25 y 0.30 %). Se encontró interacción (P[...] y Pd en consumo de alimento (CAL) y masa de huevo (MH). Con el nivel de Ca de 5.2 % y de Pd (0.15 %) disminuyó el CAL (96.7 g) y MH (48.7 g). El porcentaje de postura y MH fueron menores (P Abstract in english In order to evaluate the importance of calcium and phosphorus for egg shell quality, a trial was conducted using 480 Hy-Line 36 hens in a 3*4*3 factorial arrangement to evaluate three calcium (Ca) (3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 %) and four available phosphorus (Ap) levels (0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 %) during 20 [...] to 72 wk of age). Results showed an interaction (P

Víctor Manuel, Valdés Narváez; Manuel, Cuca García; Arturo, Pro Martínez; Mariano, González Alcorta; Ma. Elena, Suárez Oporta.

2011-03-01

64

Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054 / Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007). Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs) disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas [...] nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnóstico de situación válido para los catálogos de la región. Plantea, además, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temática en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay. Abstract in english The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007) are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs) in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to M [...] ercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Elsa E., Barber; Silvia, Pisano; Carolina, Gregui; Gabriela, De Pedro; Sofía, D' Alessandro; Sandra, Romagnoli; Verónica, Parsiale.

2005-06-01

65

Extemporaneous clobazam suspensions for paediatric use prepared from commercially available tablets and pure drug / Suspensiones extratemporáneas de clobazam para uso pediátrico preparadas a partir de tabletas disponibles comercialmente y fármaco puro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Dos suspensiones orales acuosas de clobazam para uso pediátrico (5 mg/ml) fueron evaluadas para determinar su estabilidad fisicoquimica bajo diferentes condiciones de almacenamiento. Métodos: Las formulaciones fueron conservadas a 4 y 25 ºC y el contenido de clobazam fue determinado median [...] te Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Performance. Cada una de las muestras fue analizada por triplicado a diferentes tiempos (0, 7, 14, 28 y 56 días). Resultados: Las suspensiones fueron formuladas satisfactoriamente a partir del principio activo puro y de comprimidos disponibles comercialmente. En ambos casos, las muestras presentaron una adecuada estabilidad física. El clobazam fue químicamente estable en las suspensiones acuosas durante los 56 días de duración del estudio a las dos temperaturas elegidas para su conservación. Conclusiones: Todas las formulaciones orales líquidas formuladas y evaluadas en este estudio pueden ser conservadas a 4 y 25 ºC por al menos 56 días. Abstract in english Objective: Two clobazam aqueous suspensions for paediatric oral usage (5 mg/ml) were investigated to determinate its physicochemical stability under different storage conditions. Method: Formulations were stored at 4 and 25 ºC and the clobazam content was determined by High Performance Liquid Chroma [...] tography. Each sample was analyzed by triplicate at different time points (0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days). Results: Liquid suspensions were successfully formulated from pure drug and commercially available tablets. In both cases, samples showed suitable physical stability. Clobazam was chemically stable in aqueous suspension during the 56 days of the study at the two storage temperatures. Conclusions: All the tried oral liquid formulations can be conserved at 4 and 25 ºC at least 56-day period.

F., Buontempo; M. A., Moretton; E., Quiroga; D. A., Chiappetta.

66

Atributos morfológicos y fisiológicos de genotipos de Brachiaria en un suelo con bajo fósforo disponible y alta saturación de aluminio / Morphologic and physiological attributes of Brachiaria genotypes in soil with low available phosphorus and high aluminum saturation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN Se evaluaron en invernadero en un suelo de Matazul, Meta, Colombia durante 6 semanas, 2 genotipos de Brachiaria (uno mejor adaptado a bajo P, B. decumbens y otro menos adaptado, B. ruziziensis) y 8 progenies del cruzamiento entre ellos ( mejores adaptados: H-7, H-40, H-28, H-58; menos adapta [...] dos: H-190, H-94, H-82, H-179). Los genotipos mejor adaptados presentaron mayor biomasa aérea, explicada por mayor área foliar, mayor absorción de P en el tallo y mayor volumen de raíz. Las características morfológicas de las raíces, principalmente longitud, peso seco y contenido de P, permiteron mejor adaptación a bajo P disponible en el suelo. El periodo de evaluación fue suficiente para observar diferencias entre progenies. Abstract in english Two Brachiaria genotypes (Brachiaria decumbens, considered as better adapted and Brachiaria ruziziensis, considered as less adapted) and 8 progenies from the cross of these two (H-7, H-40, H-28 and H-58 more adapted; H-190, H-94, H-82 and H-179 less adapted) were evaluated during 6 weeks to detect d [...] ifferences in shoot and root attributes when grown in an acid soil from Matazul, Meta, Colombia. Results indicated that better adapted genotypes to low P had more shoot biomass, this could be explained by a greater leaf area, more P uptake in the stem and greater root volume. The root attributes, root length, root dry weight and root P content contributed to greater adaptation to low P availability in acid soils. Six weeks of plant growth was not adequate time to distinguish differences in adaptation to low P among the two parents, but it was adequate time to identify superior progenies from the crosses.

Sergio, Mejía Kerguelen; Idupulapati, Rao; Hernando, Ramírez; Annabé, Louw-Gaume; Alain, Gaume; Emmanuel, Frossard.

2009-01-01

67

Servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes con trastornos mentales en México / The clinical services available to children and young people with mental illnesses in México / Serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens com perturbações mentais no México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Na área da saúde, bem-estar físico e mental deveria ser uma prioridade. Porém no México na atenção de saúde mental existem restrições importantes, como o estigma social que prevalece nas doenças mentais, discriminação e violação dos direitos humanos das pessoas afetadas por estas perturbações, o núm [...] ero limitado de serviços clínicos que podem ser acessados , a falta de serviços especializados de saúde, e a tendência dos governos em ignorar esta realidade. Este artigo procura fazer uma breve revisão dos serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens mexicanos que tenham alguma perturbação mental. Abstract in spanish En el ámbito de la salud, el bienestar físico y mental debería ser una prioridad. No obstante, en México existen limitantes importantes en la atención a la salud mental, como el estigma social que prevalece hacia las enfermedades mentales, la discriminación y violación a los derechos humanos de las [...] personas afectadas por estos trastornos, el limitado número de servicios clínicos a los que se puede acceder, la falta de servicios de salud especializados, y la tendencia de los gobiernos a omitir esta realidad. En el presente artículo de tipo descriptivo pretendo hacer una breve revisión de los servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes mexicanos que padecen trastornos mentales. Abstract in english In the field of health, physical and mental well-being should be a priority. Nevertheless, in Mexico, the attention given to mental health has important limitations, such as the social stigma that prevails toward mental illnesses; the discrimination and violation of human rights of people affected b [...] y these disorders; the limited number of clinical services which can be accessed; the lack of specialized health services and the tendency of Governments to ignore this reality. This article aims to undertake a brief review of the clinical services available to Mexican children and young people that are affected by a mental disorder.

Gabriela, Zamora-Carmona.

68

Degradabilidad ruminal del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras / Rumen degradation characteristics of the herbage mass samples and the simulated grazing samples for dairy cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la dinámica degradativa de forrajes, en muestras de una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L.), manejadas a dos alturas de pradera, alta y baja. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo (FD) y en forraje aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo [...] (FS). La degradabilidad ruminal se estudió usando la técnica de las bolsas de dacrón y los datos fueron ajustados a una ecuación exponencial. La fracción soluble (g/kg MS), de la materia seca (MS) (299 v/s 351, s.e.d.= 5,4), de la materia organica (MO) (304 v/s 376, s.e.d.= 3,3) y del nitrógeno (250 v/s 301, s.e.d.= 6,4), fueron significativamente mayores (P Abstract in english An experiment was carried out in order to describe the ruminal degradation characteristics of forages, in herbage mass samples (FD) and in simulated grazing samples (FS), obtained at two sward heights (high and low) from a permanent pasture (Lolium perenne L.). The degradation kinetics of the sample [...] s was studied using in situ dacron bags. Data collected were fitted according to an exponential equation. The soluble fraction (g/kg DM) of the dry matter (DM) (299 vs. 351, s.e.d.= 5.4), of the organic matter (OM) (304 vs. 376, s.e.d.= 3.3) and of the nitrogen (250 vs. 301, s.e.d.= 6.4) were significantly higher (P

RUBÉN, PULIDO; JOHN DAVID, LEAVER.

69

Servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes con trastornos mentales en México / The clinical services available to children and young people with mental illnesses in México / Serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens com perturbações mentais no México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Na área da saúde, bem-estar físico e mental deveria ser uma prioridade. Porém no México na atenção de saúde mental existem restrições importantes, como o estigma social que prevalece nas doenças mentais, discriminação e violação dos direitos humanos das pessoas afetadas por estas perturbações, o núm [...] ero limitado de serviços clínicos que podem ser acessados , a falta de serviços especializados de saúde, e a tendência dos governos em ignorar esta realidade. Este artigo procura fazer uma breve revisão dos serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens mexicanos que tenham alguma perturbação mental. Abstract in spanish En el ámbito de la salud, el bienestar físico y mental debería ser una prioridad. No obstante, en México existen limitantes importantes en la atención a la salud mental, como el estigma social que prevalece hacia las enfermedades mentales, la discriminación y violación a los derechos humanos de las [...] personas afectadas por estos trastornos, el limitado número de servicios clínicos a los que se puede acceder, la falta de servicios de salud especializados, y la tendencia de los gobiernos a omitir esta realidad. En el presente artículo de tipo descriptivo pretendo hacer una breve revisión de los servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes mexicanos que padecen trastornos mentales. Abstract in english In the field of health, physical and mental well-being should be a priority. Nevertheless, in Mexico, the attention given to mental health has important limitations, such as the social stigma that prevails toward mental illnesses; the discrimination and violation of human rights of people affected b [...] y these disorders; the limited number of clinical services which can be accessed; the lack of specialized health services and the tendency of Governments to ignore this reality. This article aims to undertake a brief review of the clinical services available to Mexican children and young people that are affected by a mental disorder.

Gabriela, Zamora-Carmona.

2013-01-01

70

MEDICAMENTOS VITALES NO DISPONIBLES: ANALISIS DE REGLAMENTACIÓN NACIONAL E INTERNACIONAL, PROPUESTA DE ACTUALIZACIÓN DEL LISTADO NACIONAL VITAL MEDICINES NOT AVAILABLE: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATION ANALYSIS, UPDATE PROPOSAL OF NATIONAL LIST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión comparativa de las políticas y normas existentes a nivel nacional e internacional en relación con la disponibilidad y acceso a medicamentos huérfanos y/o vitales. Adicionalmente se elabora una propuesta de actualización del listado de medicamentos vitales no disponibles a partir de la comparación con las listas de medicamentos huérfanos de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la lista de solicitudes de importación realizadas al Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (INVIMA hasta mayo de 2006, una consulta a prestadores de servicios de salud, aseguradores e importadores y comercializadores de medicamentos vitales, el listado propuesto por la Sala Especializada de Medicamentos de la Comisión Revisora del instituto, así como una revisión de la lista de medicamentos protegidos por el decreto 2085 de 2002 y de las importaciones de medicamentos realizadas por el Ministerio de la Protección Social en el marco de los programas de salud pública. De un total de 107 medicamentos propuestos, 26 coinciden con las listas de medicamentos huérfanos de los países de referencia y 12 se encuentran en condiciones de exclusividad en virtud del Decreto 2085 de 2002.A comparative revision was carried out on the national and international policies and regulations about access of orphan and/or vital drugs. An analysis of: orphan drugs' list from USA, European Union and all applications for importation of not available drugs submitted by the Drug Regulatory Authority (INVIMA until 2006; an informal consultation with health care providers, insurance companies and distributors of vital medicines, were included, in order to improve the actual vital drugs list within the frame of public health programs. The analysis included all drugs that have been protected by Decree 2085 from 2002, as well as the imported drugs by the Ministry of Social Welfare under the public health program. 26 of 107 proposed drugs match the lists of orphan drugs from the countries analyzed and 12 are protected with exclusivity by decree 2085 from 2002.

Gloria A SANDOVAL

2008-01-01

71

Enseignement Technique CERN 2004 - French version only  

CERN Multimedia

Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE Monique Duval tél. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Aimeriez-vous améliorer vos connaissances des applications de Microsoft Office ou d'Outlook ? Un nouveau cours, combinant un cours avec professeur et ...

Monique Duval

2004-01-01

72

Evaluación del uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles para el perfil de medicina transfusional / Evaluation of the use of databases available for students and faculty of the transfusion medicine profile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar las habilidades en el uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles en la Red del Sistema Nacional de Salud y establecer estrategias a partir de los resultados alcanzados, se aplicó una encuesta de competencias informacionales a 7 profesores y 11 estudiantes de la carrera [...] Licenciatura en Tecnología de la Salud, en el perfil Medicina Transfusional, en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Enrique Cabrera". La encuesta identificó el estado del conocimiento sobre búsquedas bibliográficas, la utilización de las fuentes de información y el acceso a las tecnologías de la información. Se tuvieron en cuenta los aspectos éticos, y se protegió en todo momento la identidad de los entrevistados. Los resultados de la experiencia demuestran que la mayoría de los profesores conocen y usan las bases de datos PUBMED e HINARI, de ellos 16,7 % requiere del apoyo de un especialista; los alumnos tienen un total desconocimiento de las bases de datos cuya consulta facilita Infomed. Los docentes y los alumnos desconocen la existencia de la base de datos DYNAMED, mientras que el buscador más conocido y visitado por estos es Google. Se concluye que existe una deficiente competencia informacional. A partir de los resultados alcanzados se recomienda desarrollar habilidades mediante talleres y otras actividades curriculares de alfabetización informacional. Abstract in english The paper aims to explore the students' and faculty's abilities in the use of data bases available in the Health System Network. An informational competence survey to 7 teachers and 11 students of the Health Technologies program (Transfusional Medicine branch) was applied in "Enrique Cabrera" Facult [...] y of Medicine. The survey identified the knowledge about bibliography search and usage of information sources. Ethics procedures, such as anonymity, were followed. The results show that most of the professors know and use the data bases PUBMED e HINARI. 16.7 % of them require the help of a specialist. On the other hand, students showed total ignorance of the data bases available in Infomed. Teachers and students do not use nor know DYNAMED database; meanwhile the more visited search engine is Google. We can conclude that there is a deficient informational competence so we recommend developing information related abilities through workshops and other curricula activities.

Ana Iris, Valdespino Alberti; Tania, García Peralta; Raquel, Levón Herrera; Mariela, Forrellat Barrios.

2013-06-01

73

Estudio biofarmacéutico comparativo de marcas comerciales de tabletas de ciprofloxacino disponibles en el mercado colombiano / A comparative biopharmaceutical study of brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la equivalencia biofarmacéutica de marcas comerciales de Ciprofloxacino 500 mg disponibles en el mercado colombiano. Métodos: Se tomaron 12 productos comerciales de Ciprofloxacino tabletas 500 mg, adquiridos en droguerías y farmacias de cuatro de las principales ciudades del paí [...] s, a los cuales se les realizaron los siguientes ensayos: Identificación del principio activo por HPLC, contenido de ingrediente activo, uniformidad de dosificación, pruebas de desintegración y disolución; además se compararon los perfiles de disolución de los productos frente a uno tomado como referencia. Los resultados se analizaron a fin de establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas y posible intercambiabilidad entre los productos evaluados. Resultados: El análisis comparativo de los productos, permitió evidenciar marcadas diferencias en cuanto a la liberaciónin vitrodel principio activo, con uno de los productos incumpliendo este importante parámetro de calidad. Todos los productos evaluados cumplen con las especificaciones oficiales de identificación y valoración del principio activo, uniformidad de dosificación y tiempo de desintegración. En cuanto a la cinética de disolución se encontraron diferencias entre las formulaciones, con productos de deficiente Eficiencia de Disolución (ED) y que a pesar de cumplir con la especificación a Q30, se disuelven muy lentamente. Conclusiones: Once productos cumplen con todas las especificaciones establecidas en la USP-33/NF28. Los resultados de este trabajo constituyen un valioso aporte para en un futuro cercano y en función de las políticas nacionales, poder establecer bioequivalencia entre estos productos. Abstract in english Objective: Determining the biopharmaceutical equivalency of 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market (i.e. comparing different trademarks). Methods: Twelve commercial 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets were obtained from drugstores and pharmacies in Colombia’s four major cities. They [...] were submitted to the following assays: HPLC identification of active ingredients, active ingredient content, dose uniformity, disintegration and dissolution tests and comparing the products’ dissolution profiles to that of the innovator. The results were analyzed to establish statistically significant differences and possible inter-changeability between the products being tested. Results: Comparative analysis of the products revealed marked differences regardingin vitrorelease of the active principle (one product failing this important quality parameter). All the products tested here complied with the official specifications for identifying and assaying the active principle, dosage unit uniformity and the disintegration test. Regarding dissolution kinetics, differences were found between formulations as some products had poor dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolved very slowly despite complying with the Q30specification. Conclusions: 11 products complied with USP33-NF28specifications (guidelines on specifications for impurities in antibiotics). This work has made a valuable contribution towards establishing these products’ bioequivalence in the near future regarding national policy.

Luis A., Franco-Ospina; Germán E., Matiz-Melo; Indira B., Pájaro-Bolívar.

74

Estudio biofarmacéutico comparativo de marcas comerciales de tabletas de ciprofloxacino disponibles en el mercado colombiano / A comparative biopharmaceutical study of brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la equivalencia biofarmacéutica de marcas comerciales de Ciprofloxacino 500 mg disponibles en el mercado colombiano. Métodos: Se tomaron 12 productos comerciales de Ciprofloxacino tabletas 500 mg, adquiridos en droguerías y farmacias de cuatro de las principales ciudades del paí [...] s, a los cuales se les realizaron los siguientes ensayos: Identificación del principio activo por HPLC, contenido de ingrediente activo, uniformidad de dosificación, pruebas de desintegración y disolución; además se compararon los perfiles de disolución de los productos frente a uno tomado como referencia. Los resultados se analizaron a fin de establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas y posible intercambiabilidad entre los productos evaluados. Resultados: El análisis comparativo de los productos, permitió evidenciar marcadas diferencias en cuanto a la liberaciónin vitrodel principio activo, con uno de los productos incumpliendo este importante parámetro de calidad. Todos los productos evaluados cumplen con las especificaciones oficiales de identificación y valoración del principio activo, uniformidad de dosificación y tiempo de desintegración. En cuanto a la cinética de disolución se encontraron diferencias entre las formulaciones, con productos de deficiente Eficiencia de Disolución (ED) y que a pesar de cumplir con la especificación a Q30, se disuelven muy lentamente. Conclusiones: Once productos cumplen con todas las especificaciones establecidas en la USP-33/NF28. Los resultados de este trabajo constituyen un valioso aporte para en un futuro cercano y en función de las políticas nacionales, poder establecer bioequivalencia entre estos productos. Abstract in english Objective: Determining the biopharmaceutical equivalency of 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market (i.e. comparing different trademarks). Methods: Twelve commercial 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets were obtained from drugstores and pharmacies in Colombia’s four major cities. They [...] were submitted to the following assays: HPLC identification of active ingredients, active ingredient content, dose uniformity, disintegration and dissolution tests and comparing the products’ dissolution profiles to that of the innovator. The results were analyzed to establish statistically significant differences and possible inter-changeability between the products being tested. Results: Comparative analysis of the products revealed marked differences regardingin vitrorelease of the active principle (one product failing this important quality parameter). All the products tested here complied with the official specifications for identifying and assaying the active principle, dosage unit uniformity and the disintegration test. Regarding dissolution kinetics, differences were found between formulations as some products had poor dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolved very slowly despite complying with the Q30specification. Conclusions: 11 products complied with USP33-NF28specifications (guidelines on specifications for impurities in antibiotics). This work has made a valuable contribution towards establishing these products’ bioequivalence in the near future regarding national policy.

Luis A., Franco-Ospina; Germán E., Matiz-Melo; Indira B., Pájaro-Bolívar.

2012-08-01

75

Evaluación del uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles para el perfil de medicina transfusional / Evaluation of the use of databases available for students and faculty of the transfusion medicine profile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar las habilidades en el uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles en la Red del Sistema Nacional de Salud y establecer estrategias a partir de los resultados alcanzados, se aplicó una encuesta de competencias informacionales a 7 profesores y 11 estudiantes de la carrera [...] Licenciatura en Tecnología de la Salud, en el perfil Medicina Transfusional, en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Enrique Cabrera". La encuesta identificó el estado del conocimiento sobre búsquedas bibliográficas, la utilización de las fuentes de información y el acceso a las tecnologías de la información. Se tuvieron en cuenta los aspectos éticos, y se protegió en todo momento la identidad de los entrevistados. Los resultados de la experiencia demuestran que la mayoría de los profesores conocen y usan las bases de datos PUBMED e HINARI, de ellos 16,7 % requiere del apoyo de un especialista; los alumnos tienen un total desconocimiento de las bases de datos cuya consulta facilita Infomed. Los docentes y los alumnos desconocen la existencia de la base de datos DYNAMED, mientras que el buscador más conocido y visitado por estos es Google. Se concluye que existe una deficiente competencia informacional. A partir de los resultados alcanzados se recomienda desarrollar habilidades mediante talleres y otras actividades curriculares de alfabetización informacional. Abstract in english The paper aims to explore the students' and faculty's abilities in the use of data bases available in the Health System Network. An informational competence survey to 7 teachers and 11 students of the Health Technologies program (Transfusional Medicine branch) was applied in "Enrique Cabrera" Facult [...] y of Medicine. The survey identified the knowledge about bibliography search and usage of information sources. Ethics procedures, such as anonymity, were followed. The results show that most of the professors know and use the data bases PUBMED e HINARI. 16.7 % of them require the help of a specialist. On the other hand, students showed total ignorance of the data bases available in Infomed. Teachers and students do not use nor know DYNAMED database; meanwhile the more visited search engine is Google. We can conclude that there is a deficient informational competence so we recommend developing information related abilities through workshops and other curricula activities.

Ana Iris, Valdespino Alberti; Tania, García Peralta; Raquel, Levón Herrera; Mariela, Forrellat Barrios.

76

Modulation techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

Schilling, D. L.

1982-01-01

77

Dismantling techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

Wiese, E.

1998-03-13

78

Estudio biofarmacéutico comparativo de marcas comerciales de tabletas de ciprofloxacino disponibles en el mercado colombiano / A comparative biopharmaceutical study of brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish ObjetivoDeterminar la equivalencia biofarmacéutica de marcas comerciales de Ciprofloxacino 500 mg disponibles en el mercado colombiano. MétodosSe tomaron 12 productos comerciales de Ciprofloxacino tabletas 500 mg, adquiridos en droguerías y farmacias de cuatro de las principales ciudades del país, a [...] los cuales se les realizaron los siguientes ensayos: Identificación del principio activo por HPLC, contenido de ingrediente activo, uniformidad de dosificación, pruebas de desintegración y disolución; además se compararon los perfiles de disolución de los productos frente a uno tomado como referencia. Los resultados se analizaron a fin de establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas y posible intercambiabilidad entre los productos evaluados. ResultadosEl análisis comparativo de los productos, permitió evidenciar marcadas diferencias en cuanto a la liberaciónin vitrodel principio activo, con uno de los productos incumpliendo este importante parámetro de calidad. Todos los productos evaluados cumplen con las especificaciones oficiales de identificación y valoración del principio activo, uniformidad de dosificación y tiempo de desintegración. En cuanto a la cinética de disolución se encontraron diferencias entre las formulaciones, con productos de deficiente Eficiencia de Disolución (ED) y que a pesar de cumplir con la especificación a Q30, se disuelven muy lentamente. ConclusionesOnce productos cumplen con todas las especificaciones establecidas en la USP-33/NF28. Los resultados de este trabajo constituyen un valioso aporte para en un futuro cercano y en función de las políticas nacionales, poder establecer bioequivalencia entre estos productos. Abstract in english ObjectiveDetermining the biopharmaceutical equivalency of 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market (i.e. comparing different trademarks). MethodsTwelve commercial 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets were obtained from drugstores and pharmacies in Colombia’s four major cities. They wer [...] e submitted to the following assays: HPLC identification of active ingredients, active ingredient content, dose uniformity, disintegration and dissolution tests and comparing the products’ dissolution profiles to that of the innovator. The results were analyzed to establish statistically significant differences and possible inter-changeability between the products being tested. ResultsComparative analysis of the products revealed marked differences regardingin vitrorelease of the active principle (one product failing this important quality parameter). All the products tested here complied with the official specifications for identifying and assaying the active principle, dosage unit uniformity and the disintegration test. Regarding dissolution kinetics, differences were found between formulations as some products had poor dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolved very slowly despite complying with the Q30specification. Conclusions11 products complied with USP33-NF28specifications (guidelines on specifications for impurities in antibiotics). This work has made a valuable contribution towards establishing these products’ bioequivalence in the near future regarding national policy.

Luis A, Franco-Ospina; Germán E, Matiz-Melo; Indira B, Pájaro-Bolívar.

2012-08-15

79

Culinary Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This website is a simple, quick reference for a variety of basic culinary techniques. It covers a wide variety of techniques that some recipes or class situations might assume are basic but in fact are not necessarily so. Techniques from preparing stock and mayonnaise, to poaching and saut�ing are included. While not designed specifically as an educational site, the technique descriptions are handy and easily found in a pinch, and act as a simple and relevant source of reference for anyone involved in the culinary arts.

2006-11-23

80

Decomposition techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

La valuación de empresas cotizadas en México, mediante la metodología del modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible: Relaciones con la valuación del mercado / Valuation of Companies Quoted in Mexico, by means of the Methodology of the Model of Cash flow Available: Relations with Valuation of the Market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue aplicar el modelo de Flujo de efectivo disponible para determinar el valor de un grupo de empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores para comparar los valores obtenidos con el precio de mercado. La revisión de la literatura del modelo de Flujo de Efect [...] ivo Disponible permitió identificar y describir las principales variables que contiene el mismo, con el fin de proponer una metodología de aplicación a las empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de valores, considerando que sólo se contaba con información pública. Con la metodología propuesta se aplicó el modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible a las empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, con el fin de determinar su valor y tratar de encontrar si existe algún patrón de comportamiento del modelo al valuar a este conjunto de empresas, por un periodo de 10 años de 1991 a 2000. Encontramos que el modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible sigue una tendencia muy similar al precio de mercado, lo cual estaría indicando a este modelo como el más adecuado para valuar a este conjunto de empresas tomando, desde luego, el valor de mercado como patrón de referencia. Abstract in english The objective of this investigation was to apply the model of Cash flow available to determine the value of a group of companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of Values, and of comparing the values obtained with the price of market. The revision of the Literature of the model of Cash flow Avail [...] able allowed to identify and to describe the main variables that he himself contains, with the objetive of proposing a methodology of application to the companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of values, considering that single was counted on public information. With the propose methodology the model of Cash flow Available was applied to the companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of Values, with the purpose of determine their value and of try to find if some pattern of behavior of the model when estimating to this set of companies exists, by a period of 10 years from 1991 to 2000. We found that the model of Cash flow Available follows a very similar tendency at the cost of market, which would be indicating to this model like the most adapted to estimate to this set of companies taking, of course, the value from market like reference pattern.

María Luisa, Saavedra.

82

Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome; Proteomique fonctionnelle dediee aux Metalloproteases Matricelles (MMPs): developpement d'une methode extremement sensible permettant la detection des formes actives des MMPs dans des proteomes complexes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows us to identify active forms of gelatinases (M.M.P.-2 and -9) in an indirect manner by comparing the results of tumour samples treated with the photoaffinity probe and the results of tumour samples analysed in zymography. These studies indicate that the protein expression levels of active forms of M.M.P. are extremely low (fmoles) and do not permit any characterisation of those forms of M.M.P. by mass spectrometry, constituting a genuine challenge which can be approached by the development of new photoaffinity probes incorporating a biotin-group. The example of this class of proteins expressed in very low abundance under active form implicates to grant efforts to develop new strategies allowing the capture of the targeted proteins. (author)

David, A

2007-07-15

83

Intensity techniques  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics.

Jacobsen, Finn

2008-01-01

84

Nanofabrication Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from Foothill-De Anza Community College describes a course on nanoscience for those who need an introduction to the subject. This course is the fifth in a five course series that leads to a certificate in nanoscience, nanotechnology, and nanomaterials engineering. Students will obtain a survey of fabrication techniques as well as "hands-on experience creating thin film materials, and quality control 'shadowing' in a clean energy technology fabrication facility." The projects required by the class are also described.

2012-11-08

85

Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt / Validation des nécessaires permettant de tester ponctuellement la teneur en iode du sel: expériences indiennes / Validación de kits de determinación in situ del contenido de yodo de la sal: experiencia en la India  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los trastornos por carencia de yodo son un grave problema de salud pública, y la yodación de la sal es la intervención más empleada para eliminarlos. Sin embargo, es fundamental vigilar regularmente el contenido de yodo de la sal para asegurar el éxito y la sostenibilidad de esa intervención. El mét [...] odo empleado tradicionalmente para medir el contenido de yodo, la valoración yodométrica, plantea problemas relacionados con su accesibilidad y costo. Los kits más recientes para análisis in situ son baratos, apenas exigen adiestramiento, y permiten obtener resultados inmediatos. Partiendo de los datos aportados por estudios de evaluación de la disponibilidad de sal yodada en dos Estados de la India, Madhya Pradesh y el Territorio de Delhi, procedimos a analizar la utilidad del kit sobre el terreno. En Delhi se obtuvieron muestras de sal de 30 escuelas, empleando para ello la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados del Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (EPI). Las mediciones del contenido de yodo mediante el kit fueron efectuadas por un solo observador. Las muestras de sal de Madhya Pradesh procedían de 30 conglomerados rurales y 30 urbanos, identificados mediante la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados del EPI a partir de datos censales. En cada grupo, se obtuvieron muestras de sal a partir de 10 hogares seleccionados al azar y de todos los minoristas. Los 15 investigadores participantes en el estudio calcularon el contenido de yodo de las muestras de sal empleando el kit sobre el terreno. Todas las muestras se llevaron al laboratorio central de Delhi, donde el contenido de yodo se determinó mediante la valoración yodométrica como método de referencia. El grado de coincidencia entre los niveles obtenidos con el kit y los obtenidos mediante la valoración disminuyó paralelamente al aumento del número de observadores. Aunque la sensibilidad no se vio demasiado afectada por el aumento del número de observadores (93,3% para un solo observador, y 93,9% para varios observadores), la especificidad disminuyó pronunciadamente (90,4% para un solo observador, y 40,4% para varios observadores). Considerando la baja especificidad y el número consiguientemente elevado de falsos positivos obtenidos cuando lo usaron varios observadores (« condiciones reales »), cabe concluir que el kit tendía a sobreestimar sistemáticamente la disponibilidad de sal yodada. Puesto que esa sobreestimación podría conducir a la complacencia, mientras no se disponga de una alternativa válida debería seguirse utilizando el método de valoración para controlar el contenido de yodo de la sal en todos los niveles, desde el productor hasta el consumidor, a fin de garantizar la eficacia del programa. Abstract in english Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditiona [...] l method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samp

Chandrakant S., Pandav; Narendra K., Arora; Anand, Krishnan; Rajan, Sankar; Smita, Pandav; Madhu G., Karmarkar.

86

Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt / Validation des nécessaires permettant de tester ponctuellement la teneur en iode du sel: expériences indiennes / Validación de kits de determinación in situ del contenido de yodo de la sal: experiencia en la India  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los trastornos por carencia de yodo son un grave problema de salud pública, y la yodación de la sal es la intervención más empleada para eliminarlos. Sin embargo, es fundamental vigilar regularmente el contenido de yodo de la sal para asegurar el éxito y la sostenibilidad de esa intervención. El mét [...] odo empleado tradicionalmente para medir el contenido de yodo, la valoración yodométrica, plantea problemas relacionados con su accesibilidad y costo. Los kits más recientes para análisis in situ son baratos, apenas exigen adiestramiento, y permiten obtener resultados inmediatos. Partiendo de los datos aportados por estudios de evaluación de la disponibilidad de sal yodada en dos Estados de la India, Madhya Pradesh y el Territorio de Delhi, procedimos a analizar la utilidad del kit sobre el terreno. En Delhi se obtuvieron muestras de sal de 30 escuelas, empleando para ello la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados del Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (EPI). Las mediciones del contenido de yodo mediante el kit fueron efectuadas por un solo observador. Las muestras de sal de Madhya Pradesh procedían de 30 conglomerados rurales y 30 urbanos, identificados mediante la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados del EPI a partir de datos censales. En cada grupo, se obtuvieron muestras de sal a partir de 10 hogares seleccionados al azar y de todos los minoristas. Los 15 investigadores participantes en el estudio calcularon el contenido de yodo de las muestras de sal empleando el kit sobre el terreno. Todas las muestras se llevaron al laboratorio central de Delhi, donde el contenido de yodo se determinó mediante la valoración yodométrica como método de referencia. El grado de coincidencia entre los niveles obtenidos con el kit y los obtenidos mediante la valoración disminuyó paralelamente al aumento del número de observadores. Aunque la sensibilidad no se vio demasiado afectada por el aumento del número de observadores (93,3% para un solo observador, y 93,9% para varios observadores), la especificidad disminuyó pronunciadamente (90,4% para un solo observador, y 40,4% para varios observadores). Considerando la baja especificidad y el número consiguientemente elevado de falsos positivos obtenidos cuando lo usaron varios observadores (« condiciones reales »), cabe concluir que el kit tendía a sobreestimar sistemáticamente la disponibilidad de sal yodada. Puesto que esa sobreestimación podría conducir a la complacencia, mientras no se disponga de una alternativa válida debería seguirse utilizando el método de valoración para controlar el contenido de yodo de la sal en todos los niveles, desde el productor hasta el consumidor, a fin de garantizar la eficacia del programa. Abstract in english Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditiona [...] l method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samp

Chandrakant S., Pandav; Narendra K., Arora; Anand, Krishnan; Rajan, Sankar; Smita, Pandav; Madhu G., Karmarkar.

2000-08-01

87

L'opération de la Carte du Ciel dans les contextes institutionnel et technique de l'astronomie française à la fin du XIXe siècle  

Science.gov (United States)

Ce chapitre analyse le contexte institutionnel français dans lequel naît la Carte du Ciel. Dans les années 1880, le régime républicain réorganise totalement la recherche astronomique. À Paris, l'instrumentation est totalement renouvelée sous l'impulsion de Maurice Loewy. En province, les efforts de décentralisation permettent un accroissement significatif des arsenaux techniques de Marseille et Toulouse, ainsi que l'édification des établissements de Besançon, Lyon et Bordeaux. À Alger, la station astronomique créée sous le second Empire est transformée en un observatoire particulièrement dynamique grâce à l'implication de Charles Trépied. Ce panorama des établissements astronomiques permet de cerner les enjeux institutionnels et scientifiques qui concourent à l'engagement des observatoires de Paris, Bordeaux, Toulouse et Alger dans l'entreprise de la Carte du Ciel.

Le Guet Tully, F.; Sadsaoud, H.; de La Noë, J.

2008-06-01

88

Llizarov technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper illustrates the radiographic manifestations of the Ilizarov distraction technique for the correction of short and deformed limbs. The radiographs of 130 patients who underwent Ilizarov distraction at 160 sites since December 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Reasons for correction included fracture nonunion and malunion idiopathic leg length discrepancy, achondroplasia, and neurofibromatosis with tibial pseudarthrosis. Ninety patients were adults, and 40 were children. In order to assess cortical bone development during the fixation phase, CT of the regenerate bone was performed in 17 patients. Conventional tomograms were obtained in 20 patients for the evaluation of delayed or hypoplastic union at the distraction site

89

Experimental Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

90

Experimental techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, ? detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

91

WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embedding a hidden stream of bits in a file is called Digital watermarking. The file could be an image, audio, video or text. Nowadays, a digital watermarking has many applications such as broadcast monitoring, owner identification, proof of ownership, transaction tracking, content authentication, copy control, device control and file reconstruction. It is intended to complement cryptographic processes. It is a visible or preferably invisible, identification code that is permanently embedded in the data and remains present within the data after any decryption process. The focus of this paper will detail digital watermarking for multimedia applications and covered by definition of digital watermarking, purpose, techniques and types of watermarking attacks briefly discussed.

Man Kan Dan

2012-06-01

92

Experimental Techniques  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectrometry and many of them home-built: electrostatic ion storage devices, accelerator mass spectrometers (i.e., sector instruments), reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and ion traps. The experimental results presented in this volume were obtained with such instruments. Detection schemes are detailed, both for the identification of neutral products and charged ones. In delayed dissociation experiments, prompt dissociation is a problem as all the fragmentation is then not sampled; an example is photo-induced electron transfer to an ammonium group and subsequent hydrogen loss. A way to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.

Wyer, Jean

2013-01-01

93

Industrial technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

94

Une Chaine de Mesure Permettant de Caracteriser la Performance en Voile  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents the experimental set-up and the analysis tools developed for the performance evaluation in sailing. The measurement system is composed of sensors for the position and attitude of the sail boat, sensors for the wind measurement and some tools for the coach.

Iachkine, Paul; Roncin, Kostia; Kobus, Jean-Michel

2010-01-01

95

Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles Pediculus capitis: Available therapies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pediculosis es la infestación del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a más de 15% de la población general y a más de 30% de la población infantil. Los fármacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero hasta 20% de la población se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos compuestos activos, entre ellos: lindano, derivados piretroides, crotamitón, tiabendazol, malatión, carbaryl y cotrimoxazol. De cada uno, se discute el mecanismo de acción, características farmacológicas, efectividad y efectos adversosHead lice infestation is very common. It is one of most frequent diseases in the childhood. In 1996, 15% of the people in the world and 30% of infant were infected. The drugs used at the moment are very effective but the people get reinfested after two months, so to avoid it, it is important to treat all contacts. There are different active compounds like lindane, pyrethins, crotamiton, thiabendazole, malathion, carbaryl and sulpha/trimethoprim. For each of these, we discuss their action, pharmacology characteristics, effectiveness and adverse effects.

ROBERTO P ROSSO A

2003-01-01

96

Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles / Pediculus capitis: Available therapies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Pediculosis es la infestación del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a más de 15% de la población general y a más de 30% de la población infantil. Los fármacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero ha [...] sta 20% de la población se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos compuestos activos, entre ellos: lindano, derivados piretroides, crotamitón, tiabendazol, malatión, carbaryl y cotrimoxazol. De cada uno, se discute el mecanismo de acción, características farmacológicas, efectividad y efectos adversos Abstract in english Head lice infestation is very common. It is one of most frequent diseases in the childhood. In 1996, 15% of the people in the world and 30% of infant were infected. The drugs used at the moment are very effective but the people get reinfested after two months, so to avoid it, it is important to trea [...] t all contacts. There are different active compounds like lindane, pyrethins, crotamiton, thiabendazole, malathion, carbaryl and sulpha/trimethoprim. For each of these, we discuss their action, pharmacology characteristics, effectiveness and adverse effects.

ROBERTO P, ROSSO A; M. SOLEDAD, RAMÍREZ G; MARISA, TORRES H.

97

Formation sécurité : places disponibles dans les sessions de juin  

CERN Multimedia

Il reste des places dans les formations sécurité suivantes. Pour les mises à jour et les inscriptions, veuillez vous reportez au catalogue des formations sécurité. Safety in Cryogenics level 1, 14 juin, en anglais, 3 heures, 9h00 – 12h00 (5 places) Radiological Protection, 18 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Radiological Protection, 22 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 08h30 – 12h30 (15 places) Sécurité Radiologique, 22 juin, en français, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Conduite de chariots élévateurs, 24-25 juin, en français, 2 jours, 8h00 – 17h30 (3 places) 

DGS Unit

2010-01-01

98

Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras / Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA) por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usan [...] do la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994). Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979). La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g) fue mayor (P Abstract in english An experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD) and simulated grazing samples (FA), at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data coll [...] ected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P

R., Pulido; C. D., Wood; J.D., Leaver.

99

Comités techniques - ISO  

...techniques Filtrer par secteur technique: Tous Agriculture Construction Emballage/Distribution des marchandises Environnement Ingénierie mécanique Matériaux non métalliques Minerais et métaux Médecine et santé ...

100

Bibliographical resources available in the Internet about dangerous substances and residues and their influence in the environment in the period 1975-2005 Recursos bibliográficos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias y residuos peligrosos y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The Internet has become the most used source of biomedical information. The documentation, produced by the public and private institutions, in relation with the dangerous substances that can recover in the Internet is fundamental for the prevention of this type of risks. Objective. To locate and to check the available documents in the Internet about dangerous substances, dangerous residues, including inert, and his influence in the environment in the period 1975 - 2005. Material and Method. Descriptive and cross sectional study of the results of the bibliographical searches made in the Internet, in the corresponding databases. Results. It has been recognized 162 records that expire with the requirements indicated in the pre-established methodology. Discussion. With respect to the environmental documentation present in the Internet it seems to be suitable to increase his diffusion and to improve his classification and accessibility.Introducción. Internet se ha convertido en una fuente de información biomédica cada vez más utilizada. La documentación producida por las instituciones públicas y privadas, en relación con las sustancias peligrosas que se pueden recuperar en Internet, es fundamental para la prevención de este tipo de riesgos. Objetivo. Localizar y revisar los documentos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias peligrosas, residuos peligrosos, incluyendo inertes, y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005. Material y método. Estudio descriptivo transversal de los resultados de las búsquedas bibliográficas efectuadas en Internet, en las correspondientes bases de datos. Resultados. Se han reconocido 162 registros que cumplen con los requisitos señalados en la metodología preestablecida. Discusión. Con respecto a la documentación medioambiental pre- sente en Internet, parece conveniente incrementar su difusión y mejorar su clasificación y accesibilidad.

Elena Ronda-Pérez

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Training techniques for industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used training techniques in relation to cost-effective, prevention-oriented Quality Assurance are examined. Important questions are whether training techniques teach cost effectiveness and whether the techniques are, themselves, cost effective. To answer these questions, criteria for evaluating teaching techniques for cost effectiveness were developd, and then commonly used techniques are evaluated in terms of specific training program objectives. Motivation of personnel is also considered important to the success of a training program, and methods are outlined by which recognition of the academic quality of industrial training can be used as a motivational technique

102

Surface science techniques  

CERN Document Server

The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

Bracco, Gianangelo

2013-01-01

103

Guía para el tratamiento de lactantes con alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca: Ficha comparativa de las fórmulas especiales disponibles en el mercado español Guideline for the treatment of infants with allergy to cow milk proteins: comparative data sheet of the specific formulae available on the Spanish market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

La alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca (APLV es una enfermedad de elevada incidencia y prevalencia. Su tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de las proteínas de la leche de vaca de la dieta, mediante lactancia materna exclusiva y, en caso de uso de fórmulas adaptadas, con el uso de fórmulas especiales, como fórmulas derivadas de proteínas lácteas altamente hidrolizadas, de fórmulas derivadas de proteínas vegetales o de fórmulas elaboradas a partir de aminoácidos biosintéticos (fórmulas elementales. Estas fórmulas suponen un coste económico considerable y un importante campo comercial para las industrias alimentaria y farmacéutica. Dado el continuo avance científico y técnico, son muchas las modificaciones que se presentan en la elaboración de dichas fórmulas y en las normas para su correcto manejo y muy numerosas las publicaciones sobre diferentes aspectos relativas a las mismas.
En el presente trabajo pretendemos revisar las últimas modificaciones debidas a los nuevos conocimientos y a la experiencia clínica acumulada sobre prevención y tratamiento de la APLV. Además, se revisa la importancia de los aspectos nutricionales en todos los lactantes y niños pequeños que reciben fórmulas alimentarias especiales y dietas de exclusión y se presentan las principales características compositivas de las fórmulas disponibles en el mercado español y las recomendaciones de los organismos reguladores.

Allergy to cow milk proteins (ACMP is a disease having high incidence and prevalence. Its treatment consists in the elimination of cow milk proteins, using maternal breastfeeding exclusively and, in the case of adapted formulae, with the use of special formulae such as highly hydrolyzed lactic protein derived formulae, vegetables protein derived formulae or formulae elaborated from biosynthetic aminoacids (Elemental formulae. These formulae entail a considerable financial cost and provide an important commercial field for the food and drug industry. Given the continuous scientific and technical advance, there are many modifications that occur in the elaboration of these formulae and on the guidelines for their correct handling and there are many publications on the different aspects of them. In the present work, we have aimed to review the recent modifications due to the newer knowledge and clinical experience accumulated on prevention and treatment of ACMP. In addition, the importance of the nutritional aspects in all infants and small children who receive special feeding formulae and diets of exclusion and that have the principle

E. de Goicoechea Manzanares

2009-01-01

104

Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usando la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994. Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979. La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g fue mayor (PAn experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD and simulated grazing samples (FA, at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data collected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P<0.05 from herbage mass samples than simulated grazing samples at 12, 21, and 27 hours of incubation (161.7 v/s 150.6, s.e.d.= 4.23; 217.6 v/s 209.2, s.e.d.= 3.65; and 242.1 v/s 234.7, s.e.d.= 3.34, respectively. However, after 27 hours of incubation, no significant effect (P0.05 of type of sample, either on the amount of gas produced or on the kinetic of fermentation, were found. The dry matter disappearance after 96 hours of incubation was significantly lower (P<0.05 for herbage mass samples compared with simulated grazing samples (0.908 v/s 0.873, s.e.d.= 0.005, but with no effect of sward height (P0.05. These findings show the benefits of complementing in vitro gas production measurements with post digestion residue determinations to improve the knowledge on the nutritive value of feed fermented in the rumen

R. Pulido

1998-01-01

105

Nuclear techniques in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

106

Introduction to perturbation techniques  

CERN Document Server

Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

Nayfeh, Ali H

2011-01-01

107

Diagnostic tests in HIV management: a review of clinical and laboratory strategies to monitor HIV-infected individuals in developing countries / Tests diagnostiques et prise en charge des infections à VIH: revue des méthodes cliniques et analytiques permettant le suivi des personnes contaminées dans les pays en développement / Pruebas diagnósticas en el manejo de la infección por VIH: estudio de las estrategias clínicas y de laboratorio empleadas para controlar a las personas infectadas por el VIH en los países en desarrollo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Realizamos una revisión sistemática de la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas como medio de seguimiento clínico y de laboratorio de las personas infectadas por el VIH en los países en desarrollo. La información sobre pruebas diagnósticas reunida a partir de bases de datos computadorizadas, de las p [...] ublicaciones y de Internet se clasificó como clínica (información sobre los pacientes distinta de los datos de laboratorio), inmunológica (información sobre pruebas inmunológicas) o virológica (información sobre pruebas virológicas). De los 51 estudios seleccionados para la revisión, 28 evaluaron pruebas inmunológicas, 12 pruebas virológicas, y 7 pruebas clínicas e inmunológicas. Los métodos de evaluación de la eficacia fueron principalmente la sensibilidad y la especificidad en el caso de las pruebas clínicas, y los coeficientes de correlación en el caso de las pruebas inmunológicas y virológicas. Entre las primeras, la mayoría de las medidas de eficacia de las pruebas revelaron una sensibilidad superior al 70% y una especificidad superior al 65%. En la categoría de pruebas inmunológicas, los coeficientes de correlación oscilaron entre 0,54 y 0,99 para diferentes técnicas de recuento de CD4, mientras que la correlación (r) entre los recuentos de CD4 y de linfocitos totales se situó entre 0,23 y 0,74. En cuanto a las pruebas virológicas, los coeficientes de correlación para diferentes técnicas de cuantificación del ARN del VIH fueron de entre 0,54 y 0,90. A la hora de realizar nuevas investigaciones en el futuro, será necesario consensuar el diseño de los estudios, y reunir y notificar datos de utilidad para las instancias decisorias. Recomendamos clasificar la información en categorías clínicamente pertinentes, utilizar una definición coherente de enfermedad en todos los estudios, y proporcionar medidas tanto de asociación como de exactitud. Abstract in english We conducted a systematic review on the performance of diagnostic tests for clinical and laboratory monitoring of HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Diagnostic test information collected from computerized databases, bibliographies and the Internet were categorized as clinical (non-laborato [...] ry patient information), immunologic (information from immunologic laboratory tests), or virologic (information from virologic laboratory tests). Of the 51 studies selected for the review 28 assessed immunologic tests, 12 virologic tests and seven clinical and immunologic tests. Methods of performance evaluation were primarily sensitivity and specificity for the clinical category and correlation coefficients for immunologic and virologic categories. In the clinical category, the majority of test performance measures was reported as >70% sensitive and >65% specific. In the immunologic category, correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.99 for different CD4 count enumeration techniques, while correlation for CD4 and total lymphocyte counts was between r = 0.23 and r = 0.74. In the virologic category, correlation coefficients for different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) quantification techniques ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.90. Future research requires consensus on designing studies, and collecting and reporting data useful for decision-makers. We recommend classifying information into clinically relevant categories, using a consistent definition of disease across studies and providing measures of both association and accuracy.

April D, Kimmel; Elena, Losina; Kenneth A, Freedberg; Sue J, Goldie.

2006-07-10

108

Semiconductor research. Experimental techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

Patane, Amalia [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Balkan, Naci (eds.) [Essex Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering

2012-07-01

109

Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques  

CERN Document Server

The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

Balkan, Naci

2012-01-01

110

Drilling technique for crystals  

Science.gov (United States)

Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

1977-01-01

111

Exploring image binarization techniques  

CERN Document Server

The book focuses on an image processing technique known as binarization. It provides a comprehensive survey over existing binarization techniques for both document and graphic images. A number of evaluation techniques have been presented for quantitative comparison of different binarization methods. The book provides results obtained comparing a number of standard and widely used binarization algorithms using some standard evaluation metrics. The comparative results presented in tables and charts facilitates understanding the process. In addition to this, the book presents techniques for preparing a reference image which is very much important for quantitative evaluation of the binarization techniques. The results are produced taking image samples from standard image databases.

Chaki, Nabendu; Saeed, Khalid

2014-01-01

112

Low current beam techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

1993-12-31

113

Pulse holographic measurement techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

114

LAPAROSCOPIC SPLENECTOMY – SURGICAL TECHNIQUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is the second level of skill for a surgeon. The aim of this paper is to present the technique and the tricks for a succesfull splenectomy. There are also presented some datas of history of spleen surgery and surgical anatomy. Indications of laparoscopic splenectomy are the same as in the open technique. The standard operative technique is described. I also present different laparoscopic techniques so as trocars approach, dissection, divided of the spleen vessels by Ligasure or staplers, hand assited technique etc. The postoperative course and follow-up are also described. Conclusion: Laparoscopic splenectomy is a feasible technique. An adequate training in laparoscopic surgery and modern technologies are necessary to perform this operation. LS is the gold standard treatment for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

E. Târcoveanu

2007-07-01

115

Análise de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica disponíveis na BVS-PSI Brasil / Thesis and dissertations analysis in psychological assessment available in the BVS-PSI Brasil / Análisis de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica disponibles en la BVS-PSI Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou verificar a produção científica de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica no Brasil, disponíveis na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil). Foram analisados 141 resumos de teses e dissertações em avaliação psicológica referentes a estudos que tinham [...] avaliação psicológica, psicometria, validade, precisão e testes psicológicos como palavras-chave. Os resultados revelaram que 54,6% dos resumos eram de dissertações de mestrado, 43,3%, de teses de doutorado, e 2,1% eram de teses de pós-doutorado. Destes, 19,15% foram defendidos em Universidades estabelecidas na Região Sul do País, 80,14%, no Sudeste, e 0,71%, no Nordeste. Pode-se constatar que maior concentração da produção científica de avaliação psicológica fica na Região Sudeste. Verificou-se que 60,3% tinham por objetivo buscar parâmetros psicométricos, e 27,7% tinham a finalidade de utilizar os testes para validar protocolos de intervenção, descrever habilidades específicas e estudar relações entre variáveis, e constituem a maioria dos estudos transversais. Os construtos mais estudados são a personalidade e a inteligência, e as áreas de aplicação em que se utiliza mais avaliação psicológica são a clínica e a escolar, de acordo com os resultados do presente estudo. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la producción científica de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica en Brasil, disponibles en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud de Brasil (Bvs-Psi Brasil). Fueron analizados 141 resúmenes de tesis y disertaciones en evaluación psicológica referen [...] tes a estudios que tenían evaluación psicológica, psicometría, validez, precisión y testes psicológicos como palabras-clave. Los resultados revelaron que 54,6% de los resúmenes eran de disertaciones de maestrazgo, 43,3%, de tesis de doctorado, y 2,1% eran de tesis de post-doctorado. De éstos, 19,15% fueron defendidos en Universidades establecidas en la Región Sur del País, 80,14%, en el Sudeste, y 0,71%, en el Nordeste. Se puede constatar que la mayor concentración de la producción científica de evaluación psicológica está localizada en la Región Sudeste. Se verificó que 60,3% tenían por objetivo buscar parámetros psicométricos, y 27,7% tenían la finalidad de utilizar los testes para validar protocolos de intervención, describir habilidades específicas y estudiar relaciones entre variables, y constituyen la mayoría de los estudios transversales. Los constructos más estudiados son la personalidad y la inteligencia, y las áreas de aplicación en la que se utiliza más evaluación psicológica son la clínica y la escolar, de acuerdo con los resultados del presente estudio. Abstract in english The present study aimed to verify the scientific production of the thesis and dissertations in psychological assessment in Brazil, all which are from the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde do Brasil (BVS-Psi Brasil). 141 theses’ and dissertations’ abstracts that referred to studies with psychological asses [...] sment, psychometric, validity, reliability and psychological tests as keywords were analyzed. The results showed that 54,6% of the abstracts were from Masters’ dissertations, 43,3% of PhD’s thesis and 2,1% were from post-doctoral thesis. 19,15% of the studies were defended in universities established in the south region of the country, 80,14% in the southeast and 0,71% in the northeast region. It can be seen that most of the scientific production in psychological assessment comes from the southeast region. It was verified that 60,3% were aimed to search psychometrics parameters and 27,7% had the purpose of using the test to validate intervention protocols, describe specific abilities and study relations between variables, being most of them from transversal studies. The constructs most studied are personality and intelligence and the clinic and the school are the areas of app

Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo, Joly; Arthur de Almeida, Berberian; Regina Gioconda de, Andrade; Tatiana Cristina, Teixeira.

116

Caracterización por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas del thinner comercialmente disponible en la ciudad de Cartagena / Characterization by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Commercially Available Thinner in the City of Cartagena / Caracterização por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas do Tíner comercialmente disponível na cidade de Cartagena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O Tíner é um dos produtos de maior utilização na indústria das pinturas, lubrificantes e colas. Sua composição é variável conforme a seu uso e qualidade. No entanto, a exposição crônica é uma preocupação devido a que pode afetar órgãos principais tais como pulmões, fígados, rins e glândulas suprarre [...] nais. Neste estudo foi caracterizada a composição de várias amostras de Tíner, disponíveis comercialmente na cidade de Cartagena. Doze amostras de Tíner foram recoletadas em diferentes lojas e analisadas por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (GC/MS). Os resultados mostraram que não só a composição, más também a distribuição relativa dos componentes presentes nas amostras são variáveis. Trinta e dois compostos foram detectados, entre os que se encontram: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno e etilbenceno, com frequências de aparição de 91.7, 66.7, 75.0 e 66.7%, respectivamente. O desconhecimento do risco de intoxicação, gerado ao manipular este tipo de misturas, pode ser a causa de muitos dos problemas de saúde em pessoas expostas ao Tíner, tanto nas atividades laborais quanto domésticas. Uma mineração de dados mostrou a associação potencial entre os componentes do Tíner e manifestações clínicas, as quais incluem dano renal e hepático, perda de cabelo, alterações hematológicas, dermatite, ansiedade e problemas de equilíbrio, entre outras. Em conclusão, o Tíner possui grande variabilidade tanto em seus componentes quanto na proporção relativa dos mesmos. Os efeitos prejudiciais na saúde por exposição direta ou indireta a estes componentes têm sido amplamente descritos na literatura. Abstract in spanish El thinner es uno de los productos de mayor utilización en la industria de las pinturas, lubricantes y pegamentos. Su composición es variable de acuerdo con su uso y calidad. Sin embargo, la exposición crónica es una preocupación debido a que puede afectar órganos principales tales como pulmones, hí [...] gado, riñón y glándulas suprarrenales. En este estudio fue caracterizada la composición de varias muestras de thinner, disponibles comercialmente en la ciudad de Cartagena, que fueron recolectadas en diferentes almacenes y analizadas por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Los resultados mostraron que no solo la composición, sino también la distribución relativa de los componentes presentes en las muestras son variables. Treinta y dos compuestos fueron detectados, entre los que se encuentran: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno y etilbenceno, con frecuencias de aparición de 91,7%, 66,7%, 75,0% y 66,7%, respectivamente. El desconocimiento del riesgo de intoxicación, generado al manipular este tipo de mezclas, puede ser la causa de muchos de los problemas de salud en personas expuestas al thinner, tanto en actividades laborales como domésticas. Una minería de datos mostró la asociación potencial entre los componentes del thinner y manifestaciones clínicas, las cuales incluyen daño renal y hepático, pérdida de cabello, alteraciones hematológicas, dermatitis, ansiedad y problemas de equilibrio, entre otras. En conclusión, el thinner posee gran variabilidad tanto en sus componentes como en la proporción relativa de los mismos. Los efectos perjudiciales en la salud por exposición directa o indirecta a estos componentes han sido ampliamente descritos en la literatura. Abstract in english Thinner is a widely used product in the industry of paints, lubricants and adhesives. Its composition varies according to its use and quality. However, its chronic exposure is a concern, because it can affect major organs such as lungs, liver, kidney and the adrenal glands. This study characterizes [...] the composition of several thinner samples commercially available in the city of Cartagena. Twelve samples were collected in different stores, these were then analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The re

Wilson, Maldonado; Katia, Noguera; Jesús, Olivero.

2013-12-01

117

The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence / Efficacité des politiques de réduction des acides gras trans alimentaires: une revue systématique des données probantes / La eficacia de las estrategias para reducir las grasas trans en la dieta: examen sistemático de los datos disponibles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Examinar sistemáticamente los datos disponibles sobre la eficacia de las estrategias (incluida la autorregulación) dirigidas a reducir los ácidos grasos de tipo trans (AGT) de producción industrial en los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las bases de datos Medline, Embase y Cinahl para id [...] entificar artículos revisados por expertos en los que se estudiara el efecto de las estrategias acerca de las grasas trans. Además, también se buscaron artículos de literatura gris en las primeras 20 páginas de resultados de Google. Los estudios se incluyeron cuando: (i) se trataba de un estudio empírico que se desarrolló en un entorno del «mundo real» (esto es, se excluyeron estudios de modelamiento); (ii) se examinaba una estrategia relacionada con los AGT que incluyera, por ejemplo, etiquetado, límites voluntarios o prohibiciones; y (iii) se examinaba el efecto de una estrategia sobre los niveles de AGT en los alimentos, la dieta de las personas, la sangre o la leche materna. RESULTADOS: Veintiséis artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. De ellos, cinco incluyeron una autorregulación voluntaria; ocho, sólo etiquetado; cuatro, etiquetado y límites voluntarios; cinco, prohibiciones locales y cuatro, prohibiciones nacionales. En su conjunto, todas las estrategias redujeron el nivel de AGT en los alimentos. Por regla general, los niveles de grasas saturadas aumentaron o disminuyeron según el tipo de producto, y el contenido total de grasa permaneció estable. Las prohibiciones locales y nacionales resultaron ser las más eficaces a la hora de eliminar los AGT de los alimentos, mientras que el etiquetado obligatorio y los límites voluntarios obtuvieron resultados variados, dependiendo, en su mayor parte, de la categoría de alimento. CONCLUSIÓN: Las estrategias dirigidas a la reducción del contenido de AGT en los alimentos estuvieron asociadas a reducciones significativas de los niveles de AGT sin un aumento del contenido total en grasas. Estas estrategias son factibles, viables y pueden tener un efecto sobre la salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of policies, including self-regulation, aimed at reducing industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food. METHODS: The Medline, Embase and Cinahl databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles examining the effect [...] of TFA policies. In addition, the first 20 pages of Google searches were examined for articles from the grey literature. A study was included if: (i) it was empirical and conducted in a "real-world" setting (i.e. modelling studies were excluded); (ii) it examined a TFA policy involving, for example, labelling, voluntary limits or bans; and (iii) it examined a policy's effect on TFA levels in food, people's diets, blood or breast milk. FINDINGS: Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 involved voluntary self-regulation; 8, labelling alone; 4, labelling and voluntary limits; 5, local bans and 4, national bans. Overall, the TFA content of food decreased with all types of policy intervention. In general, saturated fat levels increased or decreased, depending on the product type, and total fat content remained stable. National and local bans were most effective at eliminating TFAs from the food supply, whereas mandatory TFA labelling and voluntary TFA limits had a varying degree of success, which largely depended on food category. CONCLUSION: Policies aimed at restricting the TFA content of food were associated with significant reductions in TFA levels, without increasing total fat content. Such policies are feasible, achievable and likely to have an effect on public health.

Shauna M, Downs; Anne Marie, Thow; Stephen R, Leeder.

118

Estudio sobre la pertinencia del uso de las normas disponibles del Raven en adultos mayores chilenos / Study on the relevance of using available norms Raven in Chileans older adults / Estudo sobre a pertinência da utilização das normas disponíveis de Raven em idosos chilenos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A avaliação da inteligência na população idosa tem aumentado sua importância devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida. Este estudo está centrado na relevância das normas disponíveis para o teste de Matrizes Progressivas de Raven para essa população. Foram utilizadas as normas de Colchester (1942, ci [...] tado por Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), as mais completas disponíveis. Participaram 102 idosos voluntários (com idade superior a 60 anos). O desenho do estudo foi não experimental transversal correlacional. Os resultados indicam que as normas são pouco exigentes para esse grupo e que existem diferenças significativas entre os adultos da terceira e quarta idade, privilegiando o primeiro grupo. O índice de discrepância mostrou alta sensibilidade, indicando que a distribuição de pontuações esperadas não corresponde a da população em geral. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à necessidade de atualização das normas e da consideração das novas características desse período vital. Abstract in spanish La evaluación de la inteligencia en población adulto mayor ha aumentado su relevancia debido al incremento de la esperanza de vida. Este estudio centra su interés en la pertinencia de normas disponibles para el Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven para dicha población. Se utilizaron normas de Colch [...] ester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), las más completas existentes. Participaron 102 adultos mayores voluntarios (más de 60 años). El diseño fue no experimental transversal correlacional. Los resultados indican que las normas resultan poco exigentes para ese grupo y que existen diferencias significativas entre los adultos de la tercera y cuarta edad, privilegiando a los del primer grupo. El índice de discrepancia mostró alta sensibilidad, indicando que la distribución de puntajes esperados no se corresponde al de la población general. Se discuten los resultados en torno a la necesidad de actualización de las normas y la consideración de las nuevas características de este periodo vital. Abstract in english The assessment of intelligence in the elderly population has increased its importance in terms of increased life expectancy. The present study focuses its interest on the relevance of available norms for Raven Progressive Matrices Test in the evaluation of elderly population. Standards were used Col [...] chester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), the most comprehensive available. The non-probability sample involved 102 elderly (aged over 60 years old) who were volunteers. The study used a non-experimental cross-correlation design. The results indicate that the current norms are not very demanding for the aging population, and that there are significant differences between adults of the third and fourth age, better for the first group. Moreover, the discrepancy index showed high sensitivity, indicating that the expected distribution of scores does not correspond to the general population. Results are discussed regarding the need to update the norms and the consideration of the new features involved in this vital period.

Cristina, Alarcón Paz; Vanessa, Díaz Valenzuela; Jacqueline, Hernández Rosales; Claudia, Estrada Goic.

119

The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence / Efficacité des politiques de réduction des acides gras trans alimentaires: une revue systématique des données probantes / La eficacia de las estrategias para reducir las grasas trans en la dieta: examen sistemático de los datos disponibles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Examinar sistemáticamente los datos disponibles sobre la eficacia de las estrategias (incluida la autorregulación) dirigidas a reducir los ácidos grasos de tipo trans (AGT) de producción industrial en los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las bases de datos Medline, Embase y Cinahl para id [...] entificar artículos revisados por expertos en los que se estudiara el efecto de las estrategias acerca de las grasas trans. Además, también se buscaron artículos de literatura gris en las primeras 20 páginas de resultados de Google. Los estudios se incluyeron cuando: (i) se trataba de un estudio empírico que se desarrolló en un entorno del «mundo real» (esto es, se excluyeron estudios de modelamiento); (ii) se examinaba una estrategia relacionada con los AGT que incluyera, por ejemplo, etiquetado, límites voluntarios o prohibiciones; y (iii) se examinaba el efecto de una estrategia sobre los niveles de AGT en los alimentos, la dieta de las personas, la sangre o la leche materna. RESULTADOS: Veintiséis artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. De ellos, cinco incluyeron una autorregulación voluntaria; ocho, sólo etiquetado; cuatro, etiquetado y límites voluntarios; cinco, prohibiciones locales y cuatro, prohibiciones nacionales. En su conjunto, todas las estrategias redujeron el nivel de AGT en los alimentos. Por regla general, los niveles de grasas saturadas aumentaron o disminuyeron según el tipo de producto, y el contenido total de grasa permaneció estable. Las prohibiciones locales y nacionales resultaron ser las más eficaces a la hora de eliminar los AGT de los alimentos, mientras que el etiquetado obligatorio y los límites voluntarios obtuvieron resultados variados, dependiendo, en su mayor parte, de la categoría de alimento. CONCLUSIÓN: Las estrategias dirigidas a la reducción del contenido de AGT en los alimentos estuvieron asociadas a reducciones significativas de los niveles de AGT sin un aumento del contenido total en grasas. Estas estrategias son factibles, viables y pueden tener un efecto sobre la salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of policies, including self-regulation, aimed at reducing industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food. METHODS: The Medline, Embase and Cinahl databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles examining the effect [...] of TFA policies. In addition, the first 20 pages of Google searches were examined for articles from the grey literature. A study was included if: (i) it was empirical and conducted in a "real-world" setting (i.e. modelling studies were excluded); (ii) it examined a TFA policy involving, for example, labelling, voluntary limits or bans; and (iii) it examined a policy's effect on TFA levels in food, people's diets, blood or breast milk. FINDINGS: Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 involved voluntary self-regulation; 8, labelling alone; 4, labelling and voluntary limits; 5, local bans and 4, national bans. Overall, the TFA content of food decreased with all types of policy intervention. In general, saturated fat levels increased or decreased, depending on the product type, and total fat content remained stable. National and local bans were most effective at eliminating TFAs from the food supply, whereas mandatory TFA labelling and voluntary TFA limits had a varying degree of success, which largely depended on food category. CONCLUSION: Policies aimed at restricting the TFA content of food were associated with significant reductions in TFA levels, without increasing total fat content. Such policies are feasible, achievable and likely to have an effect on public health.

Shauna M, Downs; Anne Marie, Thow; Stephen R, Leeder.

2013-04-01

120

Caracterización por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas del thinner comercialmente disponible en la ciudad de Cartagena / Characterization by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Commercially Available Thinner in the City of Cartagena / Caracterização por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas do Tíner comercialmente disponível na cidade de Cartagena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O Tíner é um dos produtos de maior utilização na indústria das pinturas, lubrificantes e colas. Sua composição é variável conforme a seu uso e qualidade. No entanto, a exposição crônica é uma preocupação devido a que pode afetar órgãos principais tais como pulmões, fígados, rins e glândulas suprarre [...] nais. Neste estudo foi caracterizada a composição de várias amostras de Tíner, disponíveis comercialmente na cidade de Cartagena. Doze amostras de Tíner foram recoletadas em diferentes lojas e analisadas por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (GC/MS). Os resultados mostraram que não só a composição, más também a distribuição relativa dos componentes presentes nas amostras são variáveis. Trinta e dois compostos foram detectados, entre os que se encontram: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno e etilbenceno, com frequências de aparição de 91.7, 66.7, 75.0 e 66.7%, respectivamente. O desconhecimento do risco de intoxicação, gerado ao manipular este tipo de misturas, pode ser a causa de muitos dos problemas de saúde em pessoas expostas ao Tíner, tanto nas atividades laborais quanto domésticas. Uma mineração de dados mostrou a associação potencial entre os componentes do Tíner e manifestações clínicas, as quais incluem dano renal e hepático, perda de cabelo, alterações hematológicas, dermatite, ansiedade e problemas de equilíbrio, entre outras. Em conclusão, o Tíner possui grande variabilidade tanto em seus componentes quanto na proporção relativa dos mesmos. Os efeitos prejudiciais na saúde por exposição direta ou indireta a estes componentes têm sido amplamente descritos na literatura. Abstract in spanish El thinner es uno de los productos de mayor utilización en la industria de las pinturas, lubricantes y pegamentos. Su composición es variable de acuerdo con su uso y calidad. Sin embargo, la exposición crónica es una preocupación debido a que puede afectar órganos principales tales como pulmones, hí [...] gado, riñón y glándulas suprarrenales. En este estudio fue caracterizada la composición de varias muestras de thinner, disponibles comercialmente en la ciudad de Cartagena, que fueron recolectadas en diferentes almacenes y analizadas por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Los resultados mostraron que no solo la composición, sino también la distribución relativa de los componentes presentes en las muestras son variables. Treinta y dos compuestos fueron detectados, entre los que se encuentran: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno y etilbenceno, con frecuencias de aparición de 91,7%, 66,7%, 75,0% y 66,7%, respectivamente. El desconocimiento del riesgo de intoxicación, generado al manipular este tipo de mezclas, puede ser la causa de muchos de los problemas de salud en personas expuestas al thinner, tanto en actividades laborales como domésticas. Una minería de datos mostró la asociación potencial entre los componentes del thinner y manifestaciones clínicas, las cuales incluyen daño renal y hepático, pérdida de cabello, alteraciones hematológicas, dermatitis, ansiedad y problemas de equilibrio, entre otras. En conclusión, el thinner posee gran variabilidad tanto en sus componentes como en la proporción relativa de los mismos. Los efectos perjudiciales en la salud por exposición directa o indirecta a estos componentes han sido ampliamente descritos en la literatura. Abstract in english Thinner is a widely used product in the industry of paints, lubricants and adhesives. Its composition varies according to its use and quality. However, its chronic exposure is a concern, because it can affect major organs such as lungs, liver, kidney and the adrenal glands. This study characterizes [...] the composition of several thinner samples commercially available in the city of Cartagena. Twelve samples were collected in different stores, these were then analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The re

Wilson, Maldonado; Katia, Noguera; Jesús, Olivero.

 
 
 
 
121

Eficácia das vacinas comercialmente disponíveis contra a infecção pelo papilomavírus em mulheres: revisão sistemática e metanálise / Efficacy of commercially available vaccines against HPV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis / Eficacia de las vacunas disponibles en el mercado contra la infección por papilomavirus en mujeres: revisión sistemática y metaanálisis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Infecção persistente por HPV é condição necessária para ocorrência de câncer do colo de útero. Visando a reduzir sua incidência, foram desenvolvidas vacinas profiláticas contra HPV, existindo duas formulações comercialmente disponíveis: bivalente (subtipos 16 e 18) e quadrivalente (6, 11, 16 e 18). [...] Realizou-se uma metanálise da eficácia dessas vacinas em mulheres, com foco na avaliação estratificada por desfechos clínicos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) publicados entre 2000 e 2009 foram identificados com base em busca no MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane e LILACS, e avaliados por dois revisores independentes. Seis ECR foram incluídos na metanálise. As vacinas reduziram o risco de ocorrência de lesões precursoras da neoplasia, com eficácia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para NIC 2 e 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para NIC 3, nas análises por protocolo. As eficácias nas análises por intenção de tratar foram menores: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) e 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para avaliação de sua eficácia sobre a incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo de útero são necessários estudos com maior tempo de seguimentos. Abstract in spanish La infección persistente por VPH es una condición necesaria para la aparición de cáncer del cuello del útero. Con el fin de reducir la incidencia se han desarrollado vacunas profilácticas contra el VPH, existiendo dos formulaciones disponibles comercialmente: bivalentes (tipos 16, 18) y tetravalente [...] (6, 11, 16 y 18). Se realizó un meta-análisis de la eficacia de estas vacunas en las mujeres, centrándose en la evaluación estratificada por los resultados clínicos. Se identificaron ensayos controlados aleatorios (ECA) publicados entre 2000 y 2009 en las basis MEDLINE, LILACS y Cochrane Library, y evaluados por dos revisores independientes. Seis ECA fueron incluidos. La vacuna reduce el riesgo de las lesiones precursoras del cáncer, con una eficacia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para CIN 2 y 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para CIN 3, en el análisis por protocolo. La eficiencia en el análisis por intención de tratar fue menor: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) y 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para evaluar su efectividad en la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer cervical, se necesitan estudios con un seguimiento más prolongado. Abstract in english Persistent HPV infection is a necessary condition for the occurrence of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been developed to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Two vaccines are commercially available: bivalent (types 16, 18) and quadrivalent (6, 11, 16 and 18). This study aimed to [...] perform a systematic review and metaanalysis of the HPV vaccines' efficacy in women, focusing its performance stratified by clinical outcomes. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published between 2000 and 2009 were identified from searches of MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library, and evaluated by two independent reviewers. Six RCT were selected. The vaccines reduced the risk of precursor lesions of cervical cancer, presenting efficacy of 97% (95%CI: 90-99) for CIN 2 and 96% (95%CI: 89-99) for CIN 3, in the per protocol analysis. The efficacies in the analysis by intention to treat were smaller: 63% (95%CI: 52-71) and 42% (95%CI: 26-55), respectively. In order to evaluate its effectiveness on the incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer, longer-term studies will be needed.

Silvia Cristina Fonseca de, Araujo; Rosângela, Caetano; Jose Ueleres, Braga; Frances Valéria, Costa e Silva.

2013-11-01

122

Estudio sobre la pertinencia del uso de las normas disponibles del Raven en adultos mayores chilenos Estudo sobre a pertinência da utilização das normas disponíveis de Raven em idosos chilenos Study on the relevance of using available norms Raven in Chileans older adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La evaluación de la inteligencia en población adulto mayor ha aumentado su relevancia debido al incremento de la esperanza de vida. Este estudio centra su interés en la pertinencia de normas disponibles para el Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven para dicha población. Se utilizaron normas de Colchester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, las más completas existentes. Participaron 102 adultos mayores voluntarios (más de 60 años. El diseño fue no experimental transversal correlacional. Los resultados indican que las normas resultan poco exigentes para ese grupo y que existen diferencias significativas entre los adultos de la tercera y cuarta edad, privilegiando a los del primer grupo. El índice de discrepancia mostró alta sensibilidad, indicando que la distribución de puntajes esperados no se corresponde al de la población general. Se discuten los resultados en torno a la necesidad de actualización de las normas y la consideración de las nuevas características de este periodo vital.A avaliação da inteligência na população idosa tem aumentado sua importância devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida. Este estudo está centrado na relevância das normas disponíveis para o teste de Matrizes Progressivas de Raven para essa população. Foram utilizadas as normas de Colchester (1942, citado por Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, as mais completas disponíveis. Participaram 102 idosos voluntários (com idade superior a 60 anos. O desenho do estudo foi não experimental transversal correlacional. Os resultados indicam que as normas são pouco exigentes para esse grupo e que existem diferenças significativas entre os adultos da terceira e quarta idade, privilegiando o primeiro grupo. O índice de discrepância mostrou alta sensibilidade, indicando que a distribuição de pontuações esperadas não corresponde a da população em geral. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à necessidade de atualização das normas e da consideração das novas características desse período vital.The assessment of intelligence in the elderly population has increased its importance in terms of increased life expectancy. The present study focuses its interest on the relevance of available norms for Raven Progressive Matrices Test in the evaluation of elderly population. Standards were used Colchester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, the most comprehensive available. The non-probability sample involved 102 elderly (aged over 60 years old who were volunteers. The study used a non-experimental cross-correlation design. The results indicate that the current norms are not very demanding for the aging population, and that there are significant differences between adults of the third and fourth age, better for the first group. Moreover, the discrepancy index showed high sensitivity, indicating that the expected distribution of scores does not correspond to the general population. Results are discussed regarding the need to update the norms and the consideration of the new features involved in this vital period.

Cristina Alarcón Paz

2012-12-01

123

Semiconductor Modeling Techniques  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the key theoretical techniques for semiconductor research to quantitatively calculate and simulate the properties. It presents particular techniques to study novel semiconductor materials, such as 2D heterostructures, quantum wires, quantum dots and nitrogen containing III-V alloys. The book is aimed primarily at newcomers working in the field of semiconductor physics to give guidance in theory and experiment. The theoretical techniques for electronic and optoelectronic devices are explained in detail.

Xavier, Marie

2012-01-01

124

Plant Tissue Culture Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of plant science. Currently, tissue-cultured plants that have been genetically engineered provide insight into plant molecular biology and gene regulation. Plant tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied plant science, including plant biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied plant science.

Lorraine Mineo (Lafayette College;)

1989-06-06

125

Image Compression Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital images required large number of bits to represent them and in their canonical representation, generally contain significant amount of redundancy. Image compression techniques reduce the number of bits required to represent an image by taking advantage of these redundancies.To overcome this redundancy several image compression techniques are discussed in this paper along with their benefits.

Hardeep Singh Samra

2012-04-01

126

Analog signal isolation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application

127

Radionuclide techniques in haematology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter should serve as a practical guide for the clinician who uses radionuclide techniques to solve haematological problems. Commonly used techniques are discussed in some detail with practical guidelines for labeling of blood cells and plasma proteins, handling of labeled products, and for necessary, if simple, calculations. (Auth.)

128

Contamination Control Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

EBY, J.L.

2000-05-16

129

Scientific techniques in Egyptology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.).

Newton, G.W.A.

1987-04-01

130

Conception et caractérisation de dispositifs permettant l'étude du transport dépendant du spin dans le silicium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ce travail de thèse porte sur l'étude du transport dépendant du spin dans le silicium en utilisant une barrière tunnel et un métal ferromagnétique comme élément polarisant. Différentes études ont été menées pour concevoir, réaliser et caractériser le transport des électrons polarisés. La première partie de cette étude porte sur la conception et la réalisation d'électrodes ferromagnétiques submicroniques utilisées pour l'injection de spin. La seconde partie du manuscrit ...

Bruyant, Nicolas

2008-01-01

131

Disagreements around techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modern man lives in disagreement with its techniques. Technical progress is the foundation of its material and spiritual existence, but he does not like it. Specialization, difficult understanding of the technical procedures and the price that has to be paid for technical progress, have led to a deep-going enstrangement. Therefore the question: What kind of human function has our technique. It is understood as an extension and perfection of our bodily organs, in order to increase our ability to see and to hear enormously, and to intervene formatively in the existing reality. Technique is therefore an instrument of comprehensive self-realization of man. (orig./GL)

132

Laser two focus techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of the laser two focus velocimetry are reviewed. The fundamentals of this nonintrusive fluid flow velocity measurement technique are described. Emphasis is placed upon the advances of this technique. Results of measurements in a very small flow channel and in a small turbocharger compressor rotor are presented. The influence of beam diameter - beam separation ratio on the measuring accuracy and on the measuring time is treated. A multicolor two dimensional system with selectable beam separation is presented. The laser Doppler and the laser two focus techniques are compared.

Schodl, R.

133

Advanced analytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

134

Adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) are iterative procedures for reconstructing objects from their projections. It is proven that ART can be computationally efficient by carefully arranging the order in which the collected data are accessed during the reconstruction procedure and adaptively adjusting the relaxation parameters. In this paper, an adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (AART), which adopts the same projection access scheme in multilevel scheme algebraic reconstruction technique (MLS-ART), is proposed. By introducing adaptive adjustment of the relaxation parameters during the reconstruction procedure, one-iteration AART can produce reconstructions with better quality, in comparison with one-iteration MLS-ART. Furthermore, AART outperforms MLS-ART with improved computational efficiency

135

TECHNIQUE OF JEJUNOSTOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feeding difficulties is an important problem of some patients (postoperative feeding in major interventions, acute pancreatitis etc.. Many of these patients are managed by jejunostomy. This paper presents the surgical technique for temporary or permanent jejunostomy by laparoscopic and open approach. Standard technique is Witzel jejunostomy but in some cases it is indicated other types of interventions: Stamm, Liffmann, Albert or Roux jejunostomy. It is also presented postoperative complications. Jejunostomy is a safe and effective procedure for enteral feeding but this operation has some „critical technique points”.

E. Tarcoveanu

2005-04-01

136

Radiation effects hardening techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section of the IEEE Tutorial Short Course will discuss techniques for radiation hardening semiconductor electronic components. The hardening techniques may include special process procedures and constraints, circuit designs, and system adaptations to achieve the desired level of radiation tolerance. The radiation sources considered include nuclear weapons, natural space environments, and nuclear reactors. Each of these sources offers a unique radiation spectrum requiring specific hardening techniques for the semiconductor technologies used and, equally important, specific testing procedures to verify that the desired radiation tolerance level has been achieved with confidence. The radiation spectrum for the various sources will be reviewed, with its particular characteristics. 39 refs., 32 figs

137

Ecocardiografía de contraste: historia, características de las microburbujas y técnicas instrumentales / Contrast echocardiography: history, micro bubble characteristics and instrumental techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo describe la historia de la ecocardiografía de contraste, las características físicas de las microburbujas de los agentes de contraste, las principales herramientas instrumentales (índice mecánico, foco y enfoque, número de imágenes por segundo) y las técnicas ecocardiográficas (segunda [...] armónica, armónica de fusión, segunda armónica de pulso invertido, imagen intermitente, angio y densitometría acústica) actualmente disponibles para uso clínico. Abstract in english This article describes the history of contrast echocardiography, the physical characteristics of the contrast agents’ micro bubbles, the main instrumental tools (mechanical index, focus and focusing, frame rate), and the echocardiography techniques (second harmonic imaging, fusion harmonic, power pu [...] lse inversion imaging, triggered imaging, intermittent harmonic power Doppler, color power angio and acoustic densitometry), actually available for clinical use.

Carlos, Cubides; Gustavo, Restrepo; Dagnóvar, Aristizábal; Ana, Múnera.

2006-04-22

138

Ecocardiografía de contraste: historia, características de las microburbujas y técnicas instrumentales Contrast echocardiography: history, micro bubble characteristics and instrumental techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo describe la historia de la ecocardiografía de contraste, las características físicas de las microburbujas de los agentes de contraste, las principales herramientas instrumentales (índice mecánico, foco y enfoque, número de imágenes por segundo y las técnicas ecocardiográficas (segunda armónica, armónica de fusión, segunda armónica de pulso invertido, imagen intermitente, angio y densitometría acústica actualmente disponibles para uso clínico.This article describes the history of contrast echocardiography, the physical characteristics of the contrast agents’ micro bubbles, the main instrumental tools (mechanical index, focus and focusing, frame rate, and the echocardiography techniques (second harmonic imaging, fusion harmonic, power pulse inversion imaging, triggered imaging, intermittent harmonic power Doppler, color power angio and acoustic densitometry, actually available for clinical use.

Carlos Cubides

139

Plastinación, una técnica moderna al servicio de la anatomía Plastination: a modern anatomical technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La preservación y el mantenimiento de los cadáveres y especímenes anatómicos han llevado a la búsqueda de técnicas diferentes y a la utilización de sustancias distintas al formaldehído con el fin de minimizar los riesgos de exposición a vapores químicos y a agentes biológicos y de disponer de preparados anatómicos con mayor durabilidad, conservando las características anatómicas y facilitando la docencia y la investigación en la disciplina. Una de estas técnicas es la plastinación. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos con ella en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia. The preservation and maintenance of anatomical specimens and corpses have created the need for new techniques and for the use of substances different from formaldehyde, in order to lessen the risks of exposure to this substance and to biological agents, and to increase the availability and durability of anatomical pieces preserving their characteristics in order to facilitate teaching and research. In the eighth decade of the XX century the German anatomist von Hagens patented the plastination technique that consists of replacing the water of tissues by silicones, polymers or resins. The plastination process includes four steps: fixation, dehydration, impregnating and curing. There are some difficulties in Colombia regarding the availability of acetone, polymers and silicones as well as a lack of adequate infrastructure for the plastination process; because of this we have modified the technique using other substances at different pressure and temperature conditions; we report the modifications with which we have obtained very good results.

Oscar Isaza Castro

2005-01-01

140

ELM mitigation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large edge-localized mode (ELM) control techniques must be developed to help ensure the success of burning and ignited fusion plasma devices such as tokamaks and stellarators. In full performance ITER tokamak discharges, with QDT = 10, the energy released by a single ELM could reach ?30 MJ which is expected to result in an energy density of 10–15 MJ/m2on the divertor targets. This will exceed the estimated divertor ablation limit by a factor of 20–30. A worldwide research program is underway to develop various types of ELM control techniques in preparation for ITER H-mode plasma operations. An overview of the ELM control techniques currently being developed is discussed along with the requirements for applying these techniques to plasmas in ITER. Particular emphasis is given to the primary approaches, pellet pacing and resonant magnetic perturbation fields, currently being considered for ITER

 
 
 
 
141

Stress Reduction Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

... to write down your concerns is an effective stress management technique. Ripping up the paper after you finish writing also helps relieve stress. Participate in a hobby . Doing something you enjoy ...

142

Quantitative Decision Aiding Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This communication presents three Quantitative Decision Aiding Techniques: Cost Effectiveness Analysis, Cost benefit Analysis and Decision Analysis, which are valuable in order to find among a set of alternative protection options the best one

143

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

144

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

145

Radiochemical procedures and techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is presented of the radiochemical procedures and techniques currently in use by the Chemistry Division Nuclear Chemistry Group at Argonne National Laboratory for the analysis of radioactive samples. (U.S.)

146

Classical Encryption Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the classical encryption and modern techniques which are widely used to solve the problem in open networked systems, where information is being received and misused by adversaries by means of facilitating attacks at various levels in the communication. In this paper the proposition of building the basics of classical encryption and modern techniques and the comparison has been done between each of them.

Ramandeep Sharma

2012-08-01

147

Digital Watermarking Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available More the development of the multimedia, more the digitalization, the more is the access to internet. This fast rate of enhancement gives a sense of protection and authentication.  Digital watermarking technology provides a strong solution to insecurity created by digitalization. In this paper, our focus is on the basic concepts of watermarking, their characterisation, their techniques. Extending more, we will elaborate one of the latest technique of watermarking named as “Discrete Cosine Transform” (DCT.

Prabhjot Kaur Chahal

2013-11-01

148

Applying contemporary statistical techniques  

CERN Document Server

Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

Wilcox, Rand R

2003-01-01

149

Techniques of Radio Astronomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter provides an overview of the techniques of radio astronomy. This study began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cosmos, but the period of rapid progress began fifteen years later. From then to the present, the wavelength range expanded from a few meters to the sub-millimeters, the angular resolution increased from degrees to finer than milli arc seconds and the receiver sensitivities have improved by large factors. Today, the technique of apertu...

Wilson, T. L.

2011-01-01

150

The technique of autoradiography at very low temperature; Technique d'autoradiographie a tres basse temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological samples frozen in liquid nitrogen (-195 deg. C) acquire the hardness of light metals, enabling the surface for autoradiography to be cut on a milling machine. The autoradiographic exposure is made in saturated nitrogen vapour. The emulsion, on a plastic base, is laid on the milled surface in a dark room and this assembly is then placed above the liquid nitrogen in a foam-teflon container. Measurements show that, a temperature gradient is established between -190 deg. C at the liquid nitrogen surface and -121 deg. C at the top of the closed container. Developing is done at room temperature, the speed of the emulsion being practically unchanged. This technique enables the specimen to be kept far below the freezing-point, from the moment the animal is killed until the plate is developed. Freezing ensures complete absence of chemical diffusion and that the recorded tracer distribution is precisely that obtaining at the time of death. The distribution at different levels can be investigated by milling off successive layers. Pseudo-radiographic effects are wholly non-existent. The enhancement of natural colours in the anatomical elements, brought about by low temperatures, is such that it becomes possible to dispense with staining when making colour autoradiograms of sections. (author) [French] Les sujets congeles dans l'azote liquide (-190 deg. C) acquierent la durete metal leger, ce qui permet de preparer le plan d'autoradiographie par fraisage sur machine-outil. L'exposition autoradiographique est elle-meme effectuee dans la vapeur de l'azote liquide, en chambre noire, l'emulsion portee par une plaque plastique est appliquee contre la surface fraisee. Cet ensemble est dispose au-dessus de l'azote liquide contenu dans un recipient en mousse de teflon. Les mesures montrent qu'un gradient de temperature s'etablit entre -190 deg. C a la surface de l'azote liquide et -120 deg. C, a la partie superieure du recipient ferme. Le developpement a lieu a temperature ordinaire et la sensibilite de l'emulsion n'est pas appreciabdement modifiee. Cette technique permet de maintenir le bloc tres au-dessous de la temperature de congelation, des la mort de l'animal jusqu'au developpement; toute diffusion chimique est supprimee et la repartition de la substance radioactive saisie sur l'autoradiographie a l'instant exact de la mort par congelation. Des fraisages successifs permettent d'etudier la repartition de la substance radioactive, a toutes les profondeurs. L'absence d'effets pseudo-radiographiques est totale. Enfin, le renforcement des couleurs naturelles des elements anatomiques par cette tres basse temperature est considerable, ce qui permet de realigner l'autoradiographie en couleurs de le coupe processus de coloration. (auteur)

Pellerin, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1959-07-01

151

Potentiel de production de biogaz à partir de résidus agricoles ou de cultures dédiées en France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Et si on destinait une part importante des résidus agricoles à la production de biogaz ? Encore faut-il évaluer les ressources mobilisables, les taux de résidus disponibles, les moyens de collecte permettant la production ainsi que les rendements envisageables en fonction des cultures utilisées. L'étude présentée ici laisse entrevoir un potentiel important largement sous-estimé.

Essam Almansour, Jean-François Bonnet et Manuel Heredia

2011-02-01

152

Techniques of male circumcision.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A

2013-01-01

153

Handbook of laboratory techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

154

MEMS metrology techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The MEMS industry currently produces over $13 billion in annual revenue, with devices in such diverse applications as blood pressure sensors, projection displays, optical switches, printers, hard drives, and gyroscopes. As production techniques improve, ever more functions may be served by MEMS, and the industry is growing at an annual rate of more than 15%. The large diversity of MEMS leads to many challenges in metrology, as each design has different critical factors which will affect its performance. Unlike traditional semiconductor devices, MEMS require characterization both in their static state and under actuation. Parameters of interest include shape, dimensions, surface roughness, sidewall angles, film thickness, residual stress, feature volumes, response times, thermal properties, resonance frequencies, stiction, environmental immunity and more. This talk will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of techniques for MEMS surface metrology. Bright- and dark-field microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact and non-contact surface profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laser Doppler vibrometry and digital holography are some of the primary techniques used to evaluate MEMS surfaces and motion. While no single technique can fully characterize all MEMS devices, or even one device under all conditions, the utility of each of the different types of instruments is increasing as they are pushed by MEMS and other industries to provide more characterization capability. With a broad understanding of the various metrology techniques available, the one or few critical instruments to measure a given class of devices will hopefully be more easily understood.

Novak, Erik

2005-01-01

155

Telescopes and Techniques  

CERN Document Server

Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

Kitchin, C R

2013-01-01

156

Radiation techniques for acromegaly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

Minniti Giuseppe

2011-12-01

157

Techniques for debris control  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will summarize a range of techniques which have been proposed for controlling the growth of man-made debris in earth orbit. Several techniques developed in studies at the Johnson Space Center will be described in detail. These techniques include the retrieval of inoperative satellites with an orbital maneuvering vehicle and self-disposal devices for satellites and upper stages. Self-disposal devices include propulsive deorbit motors and passive drag-augmentation devices. Concepts for sweeping small debris from the orbital environment will also be described. An evaluation of the technical feasibility and economic practicality of the various control methods will be summarized. In general, methods which prevent the accumulation of large debris objects were found to provide greater promise for control of the debris problem than methods of removing small debris particles.

Petro, Andrew J.

1990-01-01

158

Biodosimetry using dicentric technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological dosimetry, based on the analysis of solid stained dicentric chromosomes, has been used since the mid 1960, to estimate the absorbed dose immediately following a radiation accident. The dicentric is the main aberration used for biodosimetry. It is an exchange between the centromeric pieces of two broken chromosomes, which in its complete form is accompanied by a fragment composed of the acentric pieces of these chromosomes. Dicentric technique in chromosome aberration analysis is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetry technique, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeter have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by equivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual working lifetime. This paper aims at presenting a method based on the analysis of chromosomal aberration using dicentric technique for biological dosimetry. (Author)

159

Vibrating wire alignment technique  

CERN Document Server

Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibrating wire alignment technique, including vibrating wire model analysis, system frequency calculation, wire sag calculation and the relation between wire amplitude and magnetic induction intensity. On the basis of model analysis this article will introduce the alignment method which based on magnetic field measurement and the alignment method which based on amplitude and phase measurement. Finally, some basic questions will be discussed and the solutions will be given.

Xiao-Long, Wang; lei, Wu; Chun-Hua, Li

2013-01-01

160

Radiological focusing techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The textbook explains the most common and essential radiological focusing techniques and gives the relevant theory and technical fundamentals. The theory does not consume much space in this book, the theoretical part briefly addressing such aspects as film-screen combinations, doses administered by X-ray radiography, quality assurance, radiological protection, and potential patient reactions to contrast media applied. The textbook primarily is a practical guide giving general advice and guidance on focusing techniques, accompanied by an illustrative compilation of frequent mistakes. Arranged by body regions, the well over 80 examples of focusing techniques are presented by systematic texts and illustrations. There is an annex giving a glossary of terms, a bibliography, and a list of useful addresses. (orig./MG)

 
 
 
 
161

Novel food processing techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components (bioactive food components or as an emulsifying technique. Pulsed electrical field can be effective in microorganisms destruction, as well as a pretreatment to drying. Some of these techniques has already found its application in food industry of several high industry developed countries.

Vesna Lelas

2006-12-01

162

Alexander Technique and Dance Technique: Applications in the Studio  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating principles from the Alexander Technique into a dance technique class can provide tools for facilitating a more coordinated use of the self. While the methodologies of Alexander Technique and dance technique may present differences, there are ways of applying the principles of Alexander within the context of a dance technique class that…

Nettl-Fiol, Rebecca

2006-01-01

163

Single well techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

164

Optimizing craniofacial CT technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last two decades, there has been a marked increase in the number of computed tomography (CT) studies performed in the United States, with a resultant increase in the radiation dose delivered to patients. Hence there is an urgent need to optimize CT protocols and to get familiar with the factors affecting the CT radiation dose and with available dose reduction options. This article discusses the basic physics related to CT technique and describes current and future methods of dose reduction. Also briefly described are other CT techniques applicable in the maxillofacial region, such as three-dimensional CT, cone beam CT, and dual-energy CT. PMID:25086803

Parmar, Hemant A; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Mukherji, Suresh K

2014-08-01

165

LDAP Injection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase in the number of databases accessed only by some applications has made code injection attacks an important threat to almost any current system. If one of these applications accepts inputs from a client and executes these inputs without first validating them, the attackers are free to execute their own queries and therefore, to extract, modify or delete the content of the database associated to the application. In this paper a deep analysis of the LDAP injection techniques is presented. Furthermore, a clear distinction between classic and blind injection techniques is made.

Jose Maria ALONSO

2009-11-01

166

Advanced Techniques in Biophysics  

CERN Document Server

Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

Arrondo, José Luis R

2006-01-01

167

Digital image compression techniques  

CERN Document Server

In order to utilize digital images effectively, specific techniques are needed to reduce the number of bits required for their representation. This Tutorial Text provides the groundwork for understanding these image compression tecniques and presents a number of different schemes that have proven useful. The algorithms discussed in this book are concerned mainly with the compression of still-frame, continuous-tone, monochrome and color images, but some of the techniques, such as arithmetic coding, have found widespread use in the compression of bilevel images. Both lossless (bit-preserving) an

Rabbani, Majid

1991-01-01

168

Wireless communications algorithmic techniques  

CERN Document Server

This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

2013-01-01

169

Remote Raman measurement techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

Leonard, D. A.

1981-02-01

170

Rhinoplasty – indications and techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhinoplasty is considered to be one of the most challenging procedures in otolaryngology head and neck surgery. Meticulous planning and excellent surgical skills are pre-requisites for reproducible good outcomes. More than 100 years after the first rhinoplasty, many controversies regarding indication and techniques remain unresolved. The aim of this article is to review current concepts and arguments.

Tasman, Abel-Jan

2007-01-01

171

Modern radar techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in the design and operation of radar equipment are reviewed in chapters contributed by leading experts. Topics addressed include computers and data processing in radar, phased arrays, target characteristics, radar ECM and ECCM, over-the-horizon radar, and secondary surveillance radar techniques. Block diagrams, graphs, and photographs of installations and equipment are provided.

Scanlan, M. J. B.

172

The attribute measurement technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

173

Boundary representation modelling techniques  

CERN Document Server

Boundary representation is the principle solid modelling method used in modern CAD/CAM systems. This book includes: data structures algorithms and other related techniques, including non-manifold modelling, product modelling, graphics, disc files and data exchange, and some application related topics.

Stroud, I

2006-01-01

174

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions. [...

Rolf Dieter, Illg.

175

Radionuclide techniques in cardiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several radionuclide techniques to study cardiac pathophysiology have been developed over the last decade. There are four major areas of interest for the clinician: cardiac function, myocardial perfusion, myocardial infarction and myocardial metabolism. Each area of interest is discussed. General methodology, clinical indications, limitations and possible future developments are mentioned. (Auth.)

176

New Radiography Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving the quality of radiographic images involves several aspects: the X ray source, the device used to obtain the image, the optical array in the process and the image manipulation. We give a brief and general view of these different aspects and new techniques for radiography

177

FOCUSED CRAWLING TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for more and more specific reply to a web search query has prompted researchers to work on focused web crawling techniques for web spiders. Variety of lexical and link based approaches of focused web crawling are introduced in the paper highlighting important aspects of each.

Pankaj Mishra

2012-04-01

178

Techniques de hacking  

CERN Document Server

Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

Erickson, Jon

2008-01-01

179

Genitourinary imaging techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current era of pediatric uroradiology, use of nuclear medicine, ultrasonography, CT, and MRI has been valuable in the identification and management of genitourinary diseases. Excellent information about the renal parenchyma and renal function is currently attainable with current cross-sectional imaging techniques that can identify tissue differentiation of lesions, distinguish dilatation of the pelvocalyceal system, and determine margins of the kidney and perirenal space. Invasive angiography is limited in application specifically to vascular diseases, although they are uncommon in childhood. Because of these newer techniques, intravenous urography has lost its position as the "cornerstone" of urinary tract imaging and is used mainly to identify pathologic conditions of the ureters. PMID:16716784

Sty, John R; Pan, Cynthia G

2006-06-01

180

Laser beam shaping techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

2000-03-16

 
 
 
 
181

Signal integrity characterization techniques  

CERN Document Server

"Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

Bogatin, Eric

2009-01-01

182

Nozzle fabrication technique  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to techniques for fabricating hour glass throat or convergent divergent nozzle shapes, and more particularly to new and improved techniques for forming rocket nozzles from electrically conductive material and forming cooling channels in the wall thereof. The concept of positioning a block of electrically conductive material so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling electron discharge machine electrode and thereafter revolving the body about its own axis to generate a hyperbolic surface of revolution, either internal or external is novel. The method will generate a rocket nozzle which may be provided with cooling channels using the same control and positioning system. The configuration of the cooling channels so produced are unique and novel. Also the method is adaptable to nonmetallic material using analogous cutting tools, such as, water jet, laser, abrasive wire and hot wire.

Wells, Dennis L. (inventor)

1988-01-01

183

Network acceleration techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

2012-01-01

184

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software development is the set of activities and processes for programmers that will eventually result in a software product. This may include requirement analysis, software design, implementation, testing, documentation, maintenance and then describing computer programs that meet user requirements within the constraints of the environment. It is a structure imposed on the development of software product. Software development is the most important process in developing a Software/tool. The successful execution of the project highly depends on the techniques used to develop the model. Software development technology has an under the model-explicit or implicit-of the development process. In order to understand more about the development process and the methodologies, we abstract from these. The perspective chosen for the abstraction include models developed during the process and the kind of abstraction involved in the techniques of the process.

Asst. Prof. Rajani Kota

2012-05-01

185

Electronic Packaging Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

1979-01-01

186

Radiation techniques improve rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice is the staple diet for roughly half of mankind. Higher yields and better grain quality, therefore, are of global importance. Plant breeders have demonstrated in recent years that by improving the genetic component, and appropriate application of good agronomic techniques, yields can be multiplied. The genetic potential with regard to other important characters like, early ripening, nutritional value, milling and cooking quality, disease resistance, etc. is still to be exploited. (author)

187

Weld braze technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-strength metal joints are formed by a combined weld-braze technique. A hollow cylindrical metal member is forced into an undersized counterbore in another metal member with a suitable braze metal disposed along the bottom of the counterbore. Force and current applied to the members in an evacuated chamber results in the concurrent formation of the weld along the sides of the counterbore and a braze along the bottom of the counterbore in one continuous operation

188

Resin infiltration transfer technique  

Science.gov (United States)

A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

Miller, David V. (Pittsburgh, PA); Baranwal, Rita (Glenshaw, PA)

2009-12-08

189

Imaging techniques in medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a wide range of imaging techniques in medicine, e.g. radiography, digital radiography, CT, cardiography, scintiscanning, magnetic resonance tomography. All images of structures, organs, or parts of organs, whether generated by visible light or by other electromagnetic waves (e.g. high-frequency or X-ray radiation), result from an interaction between radiation and object. Today, ultrasonic waves in the MHz range are being used to an increasing extent. (orig./HP)

190

DNA Microarray Technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and short tandem repeats (STRs). In addition to the many molecula...

Sp, Thakare; Pk, Trivedi; Ph, Jani; Gv, Patel

2012-01-01

191

Matrix techniques in colorimetry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The usual (geometric) procedure to determine the chromaticity coordinates of a color that results from the additive mixture of colored stimuli is to plot the coordinates of these stimuli on the CIE chromaticity diagram and apply the center-of-gravity rule. This procedure, however, may become inaccurate and cumbersome if more than just a few colored stimuli are mixed in various proportions. An alternate method is presented that uses matrix techniques to solve problems related to colorimetry simply and accurately. PMID:7386588

Spiegler, J B

1980-04-01

192

Techniques for Wireless Applications  

Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

2012-05-01

193

Image compression technique  

Science.gov (United States)

An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

Fu, Chi-Yung (San Francisco, CA); Petrich, Loren I. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

194

Enseignement technique/Technical Training  

CERN Multimedia

Bureautique et techniques administratives/Office Automation & Administrative Techniques - Premiers pas/Getting started - E-Mail - Management Tools - WWW - Applications bureautiques/Office applications

1998-01-01

195

Applied ALARA techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

Waggoner, L.O.

1998-02-05

196

Applied ALARA techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

197

DNA Microarray Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

Thakare SP

2012-11-01

198

Electricity demand forecasting techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

199

Laser isotope separation technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interest on isotopes and their applications increased in many fields such as nuclear power generation and medicine. Laser isotope separation is a promising technique for its high selectivity and efficiency. Isotopes of Gd and Zr, which are important materials in nuclear engineering, can be separated by selective stepwise or multiphoton ionization method based on polarization selection rules. Development of isotope separation of 93Zr, 126Sn, and 135Cs is desired for future nuclear transmutation of long-lived fission products. Separation method of 48Ca by radiation pressure is proposed for double-beta-decay experiment. (author)

200

Developing techniques for decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Babcock Woodall - Duckham (BW-D) of England and Quadrex of the United States are co-operating in the marketing of a wide variety of decontamination techniques which have the potential to clean materials and components ranging in scale from small transducers to complete primary circuits. Lomi (low oxidation-state metal ion) decontamination and the Pod (PWR oxidation decontamination) process for application to PWR scales are described. Two significant joint BW/D/Quadrex projects, the Lomi decontamination of an American PWR steam generator channel head and the Freon cleaning of CEGB equipment, are discussed. (U.K.)

 
 
 
 
201

Developing techniques for decontamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Babcock Woodall - Duckham (BW-D) of England and Quadrex of the United States are co-operating in the marketing of a wide variety of decontamination techniques which have the potential to clean materials and components ranging in scale from small transducers to complete primary circuits. Lomi (low oxidation-state metal ion) decontamination and the Pod (PWR oxidation decontamination) process for application to PWR scales are described. Two significant joint BW/D/Quadrex projects, the Lomi decontamination of an American PWR steam generator channel head and the Freon cleaning of CEGB equipment, are discussed.

Cruickshank, A.

1983-11-01

202

Metallographic preparation techniques for uranium  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing metallographic preparation techniques for uranium are limited to elucidating specific microstructural characteristics, and some of the techniques are regarded as being environmentally unacceptable. This paper describes a newly developed technique, which is not only more environmentally friendly, but reveals most microstructural features simultaneously. Example microstructures of the various preparation stages are given to highlight the new technique.

Kelly, Ann M.; Thoma, Dan J.; Field, Robert D.; Dunn, Paul S.; Teter, David F.

2006-07-01

203

Metallographic preparation techniques for uranium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing metallographic preparation techniques for uranium are limited to elucidating specific microstructural characteristics, and some of the techniques are regarded as being environmentally unacceptable. This paper describes a newly developed technique, which is not only more environmentally friendly, but reveals most microstructural features simultaneously. Example microstructures of the various preparation stages are given to highlight the new technique.

Kelly, Ann M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science Technology Division, MST-6, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: akelly@lanl.gov; Thoma, Dan J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science Technology Division, MST-6, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Field, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science Technology Division, MST-6, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dunn, Paul S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science Technology Division, MST-6, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Teter, David F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science Technology Division, MST-6, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2006-07-15

204

Metallographic preparation techniques for uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing metallographic preparation techniques for uranium are limited to elucidating specific microstructural characteristics, and some of the techniques are regarded as being environmentally unacceptable. This paper describes a newly developed technique, which is not only more environmentally friendly, but reveals most microstructural features simultaneously. Example microstructures of the various preparation stages are given to highlight the new technique

205

The Autonomy of Technique Revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

Jacques Ellul's claim that technique became an autonomous phenomenon during the middle of the 20th century, and subsequently a system, means that the influence people have on technique is much less decisive than the influence technique has on people. As a sociohistorical description of the relationship between technique and society, it can be…

Vanderburg, Willem H.

2004-01-01

206

Charge Breeding Techniques  

CERN Document Server

The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

Wenander, F

2004-01-01

207

Single-borehole techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.)

208

Evolution of radiotherapeutic techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenocarcinoma is the most common kind of tumor involving the uterine corpus, occurring in a frequency of 90 percent or better and found predominantly in post-menopausal women. Because of vaginal bleeding, diagnosis is made early and control rates are good. Regional lymph node metastases are found to occur in about 20 percent of all operable patients and more frequently in those with advanced lesions near the cervix. Surgery alone fails not only because of metastases but also because of persistence in the vaginal vault and in the periurethral region. From a theoretical and practical viewpoint, preoperative irradiation is a valuable and important role in the treatment of carcinoma of the endometrium. Treatment calls for a technique that will effectively irradiate the uterine tissue, the vaginal vault, and and the immediate extrauterine tissues in which postsurgical persistence is known to appear. From the standpoint of survival, both preoperative external therapy and preoperative radium therapy are effective with equivalent survival figures. The incidence in our experience of vaginal recurrence in those patients who were irradiated preoperatively with external beam therapy techniques would indicate the need for supplemental radium within the vaginal vault

209

Decision Analysis Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most significant step in building structure maintenance decision is the physical inspection of the facility to be maintained. The physical inspection involved cursory assessment of the structure and ratings of the identified defects based on expert evaluation. The objective of this paper is to describe present a novel approach to prioritizing the criticality of physical defects in a residential building system using multi criteria decision analysis approach. A residential building constructed in 1985 was considered in this study. Four criteria which includes; Physical Condition of the building system (PC, Effect on Asset (EA, effect on Occupants (EO and Maintenance Cost (MC are considered in the inspection. The building was divided in to nine systems regarded as alternatives. Expert's choice software was used in comparing the importance of the criteria against the main objective, whereas structured Proforma was used in quantifying the defects observed on all building systems against each criteria. The defects severity score of each building system was identified and later multiplied by the weight of the criteria and final hierarchy was derived. The final ranking indicates that, electrical system was considered the most critical system with a risk value of 0.134 while ceiling system scored the lowest risk value of 0.066. The technique is often used in prioritizing mechanical equipment for maintenance planning. However, result of this study indicates that the technique could be used in prioritizing building systems for maintenance planning

Hammad Dabo Baba

2014-01-01

210

Code Optimization Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.

MAGEE,GLEN I.

2000-08-03

211

Isotope techniques for hydrology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

212

Image Compression Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Digital images required large number of bits to represent them and in their canonical representation, generally contain significant amount of redundancy. Image compression techniques reduce the number of bits required to represent an image by taking advantage of these redundancies.To overcome this redundancy several image compression techniques are discussed in this paper along with their benefits.

Hardeep Singh Samra

2012-04-01

213

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 2): Transferencias nerviosas intraplexuales / Nerve Reconstruction Techniques in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Surgery (Part 2): Intraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nervio [...] sa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc., para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En una primera entrega se analizaron las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales; este trabajo viene a complementar al anterior revisando las transferencias intraplexuales, y así completando el análisis de las transferencias nerviosas disponibles en la cirugía del plexo braquial. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the l

J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; D., Robla-Costales; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

214

Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 - French version only  

CERN Multimedia

Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collabora- tion avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

Davide Vitè

2005-01-01

215

Technique for solar simulator  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve simulation precision of solar simulator, this paper researched general design scheme of optical system. First of all, this paper discussed optimization techniques for focusing system, optical integrator, collimating system, and which aberrations influenced the uniformity of optical integrator; Secondly, analysis of defocus effect for integrator projector lens and put forward optimal defocus distance formula, then using ZEMAX to design collimating optical system, and simulated the system in LightTools; Finally, tested solar simulator, the results show that: it can simulated one solar constant, irradiation range reached ?200mm, working distance is 1000mm, irradiation non uniformity in 60mm range is less than ±1%, and in (60-200) mm is less than ± 2%, instability is better than ± 1%/h.

Liu, Shi; Zhang, Guoyu; Sun, Gaofei; Wang, Lingyun; Gao, Yujun

2012-10-01

216

Advanced enrichment techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

217

Advanced enrichment techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

218

QCD Resummation Techniques  

CERN Document Server

In this thesis, we develop resummation algorithms suitable for perturbative QCD. In the first part, we propose a resummation technique applicable to the Regge limit. We develop a new systematic procedure for this limit in perturbative QCD to arbitrary logarithmic order. The formalism relies on the IR structure and the gauge symmetry of the theory. Using a factorization procedure introduced by Sen, we derive a sum of convolutions in transverse momentum space over soft and jet functions, which approximate the amplitude up to power-suppressed corrections. A set of evolution equations generalizing the BFKL equation and controlling the high energy behavior of the amplitudes to arbitrary logarithmic accuracy is derived. The general method is illustrated in the case of leading and next-to-leading logarithmic gluon reggeization and BFKL equation. We confirm the standard results at LL accuracy. At NLL order, we find an agreement with the reggeization conjecture up to two loops. However, starting at three loop order, w...

Kucs, Tibor

2004-01-01

219

Nuclear techniques in medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear physics has played a large role in medical treatment and diagnosis, from the technologies used in nuclear physics experiments to nuclear reactions. Particle detector technology from experimental nuclear and particle physics is the basis of the various tomographic imaging modalities such as: the radioactive tracers used in nuclear medicine result from neutron induced reactions using nuclear reactor facilities; cyclotron production of short-lived isotopes which allows metabolism of brain and cardiac tissue to be measured; in-vivo neutron activation analysis which allows the measurement of trace elements in the body. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate some of those techniques such as, particle-beam treatments, neutron activation analyses, magnetic resonance imaging, and the physics involved. 5 figs., 1 tab., ills

220

New accelerating techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A selection of new accelerating techniques is presented. The criterion for having selected a certain scheme was the promise to achieve high accelerating gradients. All schemes belong to one of three essentially different classes: - Near field accelerators, where the particles travel on straight trajectories in free space. The accelerating field, parallel to the trajectory, is guided by a nearby structure with dimensions of the order of the R.F. wave-length (grating accelerator) or the bunch length (wakefield accelerator). - Far-field accelerators. The particles travel in free space on curved trajectories and the acceleration takes place in transverse direction by an el.-magn. beam in free space or weakly guided (inverse free-electron-laser accelerator). - Media accelerators. The particles travel on straight trajectories in a medium (gas, plasma) and are accelerated either by el. magn. or el.-static fields parallel to their trajectory (beam wave accelerators, beam front accelerators, plasma beat-wave accelerator). 31 refs.

 
 
 
 
221

Techniques virales avancées  

CERN Document Server

Cet ouvrage traite de techniques avancées de la virologie informatique selon une double perspective: l'analyse de la défense antivirale et les différentes phases d'une attaque à l'aide d'un code malveillant. Le point de vue adopté est celui de l'attaquant dans la mesure où c'est le seul qui permet réellement à celui qui a la responsabilité de défendre un système, de comprendre ce qui peut se passer et d'envisager les solutions à mettre en œuvre. L'approche retenue fait intervenir l'utilisation de systèmes booléens originaux, la théorie de la complexité et la théorie de la calculabilité. À part

Filiol, Éric

2007-01-01

222

Phase angle measurement techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Real-time measure of the power transfer across a transmission line was discussed. Phase angle measurement techniques, algorithms and applications relevant to power utilities were assessed. Phase-based applications compute the voltage angle difference between two stations, thereby allowing for power transfer calculations and power system control applications. A list of phase angle measurement applications was provided. It includes frequency measurement, state estimation, adaptive relaying, power system control, system restoration, real power flow monitoring and stability assessment, reactive power requirements monitoring, HVDC modulation, subsynchronous resonance, sequence of event recording, and loss reduction and fault location. The optimum timing requirement was determined for each application. Among the timing systems available today, the Global Positioning System (GPS), supported by powerful computers and other custom hardware, is the only tool that can provide the accuracy and coverage needed by today`s power system applications. Commercially available equipment for phase angle measurements was also reviewed. 30 refs., 32 tabs., 5 figs.

Madge, R.; Fischer, D.

1996-01-01

223

Immunoassay separation technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for effecting the immunoassay of a multiplicity of samples, each possibly containing an antigen or an antibody to be assayed, is discussed. Each sample is incubated with a solution containing a detectable antigen or antibody to form a multiplicity of mixtures, each mixture containing as components antigen-antibody, non-complexed antigen and non-complexed antibody. At least one of the components of the said mixture is separated by adsorption. There after, quantity of detectable antigen or antibody is detected in one of the non-adsorbed portions of the mixture. An improvement, compared to other techniques, is the continuous and sequential separation of at least one component, which is intended to be separated from each said multiplicity of mixtures

224

Chemistry Laboratory Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning to navigate the treacherous shoals of the chemistry laboratory is tricky business. Fortunately, interested parties can use this fine online course from MIT's OpenCourseWare to become more familiar with such matters. The course consists of "intensive practical training in basic chemistry lab techniques" and the site includes a host of instructional videos. The manual and materials for this course were prepared by Dr. Katherine J. Franze and Dr. Kevin M. Shea in collaboration with a number of their colleagues. Visitors can make their way through the syllabus, course calendar, labs, and the study materials. In the Study Materials area, visitors will find ten videos, including "Using a Balance," "Melting Point Determination," and "Thin-Layer Chromatography." Students of chemistry and educators will find this site most useful and will wish to share it widely with others.

225

Spyware Detection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer viruses are big threat to computer world; researchers doing work in this area have made various efforts in the direction of classification and detection methods of these viruses. Graph mining, system call arrangement and CFG analysis are some latest research activities in this field. The computability theory and the semi computable functions are quite important in our context of analyzing malicious activities. A mathematical model like random access stored program machine with the association of attached background is used by Ferenc Leitold while explaining modeling of viruses in his paper. Computer viruses like polymorphic viruses and metamorphic viruses use more efficient techniques for their evolution so it is required to use strong models for understanding their evolution and then apply detection followed by the process of removal. Code Emulation is one of the strongest ways to analyze computer viruses but the anti-emulation activities made by virus designers are also active. This paper involves the study of spywares.

Ankur Singh Bist

2014-02-01

226

[Therapeutic education didactic techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective. PMID:23157069

Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

2012-10-01

227

Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy. Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction. Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other. Deriving contours for planning teletherapy. Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit. Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs. Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

228

Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy; Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction; Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other; Deriving contours for planning teletherapy; Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit; Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs; Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

229

Nondestructive Acoustic Imaging Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Acoustic imaging techniques are used in the field of nondestructive testing of technical components to measure defects such as lack of side wall fusion or cracks in welded joints. Data acquisition is performed by a remote-controlled manipulator and a PC for the mass storage of the high-frequency time-of-flight data at each probe position. The quality of the acoustic images and the interpretation relies on the proper understanding of the transmitted wave fronts and the arrangement of the probes in pulse-echo mode or in pitch-and-catch arrangement. The use of the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique allows the depth-dependent resolution to be replaced by a depth-independent resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio to be improved. Examples with surface-connected cracks are shown to demonstrate the improved features. The localization accuracy could be improved by entering 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional reconstructed data into the environment of a 3-dimensional CAD drawing. The propagation of ultrasonic waves through austenitic welds is disturbed by the anisotropic and inhomogeneous structure of the material. The effect is more or less severe depending upon the longitudinal or shear wave modes. To optimize the performance of an inspection software tool, a 3-dimensional CAD-Ray program has been implemented, where the shape of the inhomogeneous part of a weld can be simulated together with the grain structure based on the elastic constants. Ray-tracing results are depicted for embedded and for surface-connected defects.

Schmitz, Volker

230

Geological data integration techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

231

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such an analysis of the internal environment allows the organization to identify its resources and capabilities as best as possible, in relation to the threats and opportunities brought about by the crisis situations. Authors’ Contribution The research allows the identification of the organizational behaviour of resource and capabilities capitalization that must be adopted during the economic crisis. The study may be useful to both the academic and the business environment.

Caescu Stefan Claudiu

2011-12-01

232

Programing techniques for CDC equipment  

Science.gov (United States)

Five techniques reduce core requirements for fast batch turnaround time and interactive-terminal capability. Same techniques increase program versatility, decrease problem-configuration dependence, and facilitate interprogram communication.

Newsom, J. R.; Tiffany, S. H.

1979-01-01

233

Neutron detection technique  

CERN Document Server

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has the ability to measure the total flux of all active flavors of neutrinos using the neutral current reaction, whose signature is a neutron. By comparing the rates of the neutral current reaction to the charged current reaction, which only detects electron neutrinos, one can test the neutrino oscillation hypothesis independent of solar models. It is necessary to understand the neutron detection efficiency of the detector to make use of the neutral current reaction. This report demonstrates a coincidence technique to identify neutrons emitted from the sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron calibration source. The source releases on average four neutrons when a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf nucleus spontaneously fissions. Each neutron is detected as a separate event when the neutron is captured by a deuteron, releasing a gamma ray of approximately 6.25 MeV. This gamma ray is in turn detected by the photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. By investigating the time and spatial separation between n...

Oblath, N S

2000-01-01

234

Hymenoptera marking technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment ther [...] e are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

A. M., Pereira; J., Chaud-Netto.

235

Uncertainty analysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The origin of the uncertainty affecting Performance Assessments, as well as their propagation to dose and risk results is discussed. The analysis is focused essentially on the uncertainties introduced by the input parameters, the values of which may range over some orders of magnitude and may be given as probability distribution function. The paper briefly reviews the existing sampling techniques used for Monte Carlo simulations and the methods for characterizing the output curves, determining their convergence and confidence limits. Annual doses, expectation values of the doses and risks are computed for a particular case of a possible repository in clay, in order to illustrate the significance of such output characteristics as the mean, the logarithmic mean and the median as well as their ratios. The report concludes that provisionally, due to its better robustness, such estimation as the 90th percentile may be substituted to the arithmetic mean for comparison of the estimated doses with acceptance criteria. In any case, the results obtained through Uncertainty Analyses must be interpreted with caution as long as input data distribution functions are not derived from experiments reasonably reproducing the situation in a well characterized repository and site

236

Dose Reduction Techniques  

CERN Document Server

As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

Waggoner, L O

2000-01-01

237

Improved Search Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

2012-01-01

238

Teaching Politics: Techniques & Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Published by Dr. William J. Ball, an Assistant Professor of Political Science at The College of New Jersey, Teaching Politics: Techniques & Technologies commits itself to "increasing the quality of teaching and learning about politics in higher education settings." This site functions as a pedagogical information center for political science instructors. Teaching Politics' nine content sections provide educators with a variety of resources for and about instruction, including sections devoted to Conference Papers, Book Reviews, video tours and descriptions of Multimedia Classrooms, The Guide to Teaching, The Web Crawler (a local area search engine that indexes over 5000 political science Web pages), and the H-Teachpol Discussion List--a listserv for post-secondary political science instructors (discussed in the February 28, 1997 issue of the Scout Report). Users should note that most conference papers posted at the site are in Adobe Portable Document Format (.pdf) and many of the papers are accompanied by audio and video presentations which require RealPlayer. The video tours of the multimedia classrooms require RealPlayer as well.

Ball, William J.

1999-01-01

239

Technique of pneumatic pest control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: Pest control in organic production of berries, potatoes and vegetables usually employs spreading technique of registered phytopharmaceutical agents. This technique may be supported or even replaced by pneumatic pest control. Up to now there is no evaluation of pneumatic pest control available from agricultural engineering point of view. This paper concerns the following questions: Which techniques of pneumatic pest control are available and how may these techniques be improved in ...

Scha?fer, Winfried

2003-01-01

240

Parachute technique for partial penectomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin fl...

Fernando Korkes; Neves-neto, Oseas C.; Wroclawski, Marcelo L.; Marcos Tobias-Machado; Pompeo, Antonio C. L.; Wroclawski, Eric R.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Plastinación, una técnica moderna al servicio de la anatomía / Plastination: a modern anatomical technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La preservación y el mantenimiento de los cadáveres y especímenes anatómicos han llevado a la búsqueda de técnicas diferentes y a la utilización de sustancias distintas al formaldehído con el fin de minimizar los riesgos de exposición a vapores químicos y a agentes biológicos y de disponer de prepar [...] ados anatómicos con mayor durabilidad, conservando las características anatómicas y facilitando la docencia y la investigación en la disciplina. Una de estas técnicas es la plastinación. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos con ella en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia. Abstract in english The preservation and maintenance of anatomical specimens and corpses have created the need for new techniques and for the use of substances different from formaldehyde, in order to lessen the risks of exposure to this substance and to biological agents, and to increase the availability and durabilit [...] y of anatomical pieces preserving their characteristics in order to facilitate teaching and research. In the eighth decade of the XX century the German anatomist von Hagens patented the plastination technique that consists of replacing the water of tissues by silicones, polymers or resins. The plastination process includes four steps: fixation, dehydration, impregnating and curing. There are some difficulties in Colombia regarding the availability of acetone, polymers and silicones as well as a lack of adequate infrastructure for the plastination process; because of this we have modified the technique using other substances at different pressure and temperature conditions; we report the modifications with which we have obtained very good results.

Ricardo, Jiménez Mejía; Óscar, Isaza Castro.

2005-03-01

242

Sterility test by radiometric technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sterility test of pharmaceuticals can be carried out by the application of pharmacopoeia and radiometric technique. In Indonesia the application of pharmacopoeia technique is carried out through liquid germination for aerobacteria and for fungus and yeast. Radiometric technique is applied to autotrop and heterotrop bacteria. (SMN)

243

Techniques in Broadband Interferometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

Erskine, D J

2004-01-04

244

Dose Reduction Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

245

Advanced qualification techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structure-to-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-kev x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SCC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments

246

Dose Reduction Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

WAGGONER, L.O.

2000-05-16

247

Survey of Nearest Neighbor Techniques  

CERN Document Server

The nearest neighbor (NN) technique is very simple, highly efficient and effective in the field of pattern recognition, text categorization, object recognition etc. Its simplicity is its main advantage, but the disadvantages can't be ignored even. The memory requirement and computation complexity also matter. Many techniques are developed to overcome these limitations. NN techniques are broadly classified into structure less and structure based techniques. In this paper, we present the survey of such techniques. Weighted kNN, Model based kNN, Condensed NN, Reduced NN, Generalized NN are structure less techniques whereas k-d tree, ball tree, Principal Axis Tree, Nearest Feature Line, Tunable NN, Orthogonal Search Tree are structure based algorithms developed on the basis of kNN. The structure less method overcome memory limitation and structure based techniques reduce the computational complexity.

Bhatia, Nitin

2010-01-01

248

Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Première partie : Présentation théorique des trois techniques Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part One : Theoretical Description of Three Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les techniques de diffusion, des rayons X, des neutrons et de la lumière, jouent un rôle très important pour la compréhension des milieux colloïdaux. Peu d'articles de la littérature s'attachent à présenter conjointement les trois méthodes. Nous avons, dans la première partie de cet article, détaillé les principes théoriques en insistent tout particulièrement sur les spécificités de chacune. Après les rappels concernant la diffusion par les systèmes dilués, nous nous sommes intéressés aux systèmes concentrés pour lesquels les entités diffusantes sont en interaction. Les milieux dispersés montrent souvent une certaine polydispersité que l'on cherche à mesurer; les techniques de diffusion permettent cette mesure. Nous terminerons cette revue par une description des appareillages utilisés. La deuxième partie de cet article concernera une large illustration des possibilités de ces méthodes d'analyse à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux, sur la base de travaux effectués à I'IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole ou dans de nombreux laboratoires de recherche extérieurs. This article aims to describe X-ray, neutron and light scattering techniques with emphasis on their specific nature and their scope of application. Indeed, whereas light diffusion has been used for a long time in research laboratories, in particular for characterizing polymers in solution, small angle X-ray scattering has been the subject of renewed interest in recent years. Neutron scattering, which is obviously more difficultly accessible, has proven to be extremely useful for studying various systems for which light and X-ray scattering remain relatively powerless. Whereas there is an abundant literature concerning various applications of the three methods, it should be noted that only a few articles have attempted to describe all three techniques at the same time. In this article we have tried to make up for this lack, and as such it was indispensable for us to review the basic theoretical principles, and especially radiation-matter interaction. This should clearly highlight the fields of application and the specific features of each method together with the information that can be obtained about colloidal systems. This article is divided into two general parts : (1 a description of the theoretical principles, including a joint description of the specific features of the three types of radiation - light, X rays and neutrons, and (2 a bibliographic review, not an exhaustive one, based on the extensive work done at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP or in outside research laboratories, and concerning the characterizing of colloidal systems. Part One is divided into several chapters. First of all we review the physical laws governing the interaction of radiation with matter. X-ray or light photons are electromagnetic waves characterized by a very different wavelength, which is close to one angstrom for X rays and to about 6000 angstroms for light. Neutrons are moving particles having a wavelength of several angstroms. X rays interact solely with electrons from atoms, while neutrons interact with the nuclei of these same atoms. When a light wave passes through a diffusing medium, it creates a dipole that will radiate an electromagnetic field proportional to the polarizability of the medium. The diffused intensity or scatter cross-section appears as the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function gamma(x. This intensity contains all information about the nature, geometry and size of the diffusing entities contained in the medium. All these characteristic magnitudes of the colloid can be deduced from the experiment when the particles are homogeneous, identical and uncorrelated. This last qualification reveals the presence of particles that are very similar to one another, possibly in the form of more or less compact aggregates. We also refer to interactions among particles, which will be negligible if the diffusing entities are very far away, i. e. when a dilute system is present. The magnitudes that char

Espinat D.

2006-11-01

249

Ultra high speed image processing techniques. [electronic packaging techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Packaging techniques for ultra high speed image processing were developed. These techniques involve the development of a signal feedthrough technique through LSI/VLSI sapphire substrates. This allows the stacking of LSI/VLSI circuit substrates in a 3 dimensional package with greatly reduced length of interconnecting lines between the LSI/VLSI circuits. The reduced parasitic capacitances results in higher LSI/VLSI computational speeds at significantly reduced power consumption levels.

Anthony, T.; Hoeschele, D. F.; Connery, R.; Ehland, J.; Billings, J.

1981-01-01

250

The comparison of TBI techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many various treatment techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) combined with intensive chemotherapy prior bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The large complex clinical, biological, physical and technical situation of TBI must be realised. But unfortunately not all of these techniques may fulfil the recommendations for TBI. Main criteria for choosing TBI technique - reliability and reasonability of irradiation - reproducibility of treatment conditions - uniformity of dose delivery - easiness of treatment planning - comfort for patient and the staff Basic requirements for TBI technique - AP and PA irradiation - irradiation of the whole body including skin - suitable photon beam quality - sufficient dose homogeneity - supine and prone patient position - optimal shielding of the lungs - the use of low dose rate - hyperfractionation scheme - sterile conditions - easy and precise dosimetry The comparison of various TBI techniques is evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and our experiences are discussed. The best TBI technique seems to be that technique when the patient is situated in a special treatment room (in the second floor over or under treatment unit) with the large treatment distance and with comfort for patient. Sweeping beam technique is also suitable. But entirely unsuitable technique is LL irradiation of patient

251

Classroom Assessment Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Provost David L. Potter of George Mason University chaired a joint task force and presented a report entitled ``Powerful Partnerships : A Shared Responsibility for Learnin'' in June 1998. The main goal is to make a difference in the quality of student learning. Further, it is important to assess this difference and document it. Clifford O. Young, Sr., & Laura Howzell Young of California State University, San Bernardino argue that a new paradigm for assessment, a learning paradigm, must be constructed to measure the success of new kinds of educational practices. Using two survey instruments, the Instruction Model Learning Model Questionnaire (IMLMQ) and the Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness (SETE), they compared students' responses to the course when taught with traditional methods and with interactive methods. The results suggest that neither instrument effectively measures the kinds of learning promoted under the new paradigm. Linn, Baker, & Dunbar recommend that these newer assessment practices should be more authentic, that is, to involve students in the actual or simulated performance of a task or the documentation of the desired competency in a portfolio. Cerbin says that one of the most unfortunate consequences of a summative emphasis is that it inhibits open and productive discussions about teaching; in essence, it marginalizes the types of activity that could lead to better teaching (Cerbin, 1992). William Cerbin, who is the Director of the Center for Effective Teaching and learning, University Assessment Coordinator, and Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse is a recognized expert in the areas of cognition, language, and development. Edgerton, Hutchings, & Quinlan indicate that Teaching Portfolios may contain evidence of students' learning, but such information is optional, and when included, it may be only one of many pieces of material. Seldin, also supports this and stresses that the interplay between the instructor and the learner should be carefully observed and monitored. Forrest says that Student Portfolios, which document learning in more detail, seldom reveal how teaching contributes to students' progress. Cerbin further indicates that a course portfolio is essentially, a like a manuscript of scholarly work in progress. In this example, it is a work that explains what, how, and why students learn or do not learn in a course. In this paper, the author reports on a dozen techniques that could perhaps be used to document assessment of student learning. References : Cerbin, W. (1993). Fostering a culture of teaching as scholarship. The Teaching Professor, 7(3), 1-2. Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P., & Quinlan, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: Capturing the scholarship in teaching. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Forrest, A. (1990). Time will tell: Portfolio-assisted assessment of general education. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Linn, R., Baker, E., & Dunbar, S. (1991). Complex, Performance-based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Educational Researcher, 20 (8), 15-21. Narayanan, M. (2003). Assessment in Higher Education: Partnerships in Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio. Bolton, MA: Anker. Young, C. O., Sr., & Young, L. H. (1999). Assessing Learning in Interactive Courses. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10 (1), 63-76.

Narayanan, M.

2003-12-01

252

Electronic Payment Fraud Detection Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we discuss the fraudulent transactions that occur in electronic payment systems. We evaluate various techniques that can be used in detecting fraudulent transactions of card-not-present payment systems. The presented evaluation based on the literature, and from our own studies for these techniques. It provides a basis for exploring the common ground between techniques and for analyzing experimental studies and scenarios in practice.

Al-khatib, Adnan M.

2012-01-01

253

Geolocation Techniques Principles and Applications  

CERN Document Server

Geolocation Techniques: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of geolocation technologies and techniques, from radio-frequency based to inertial based. The focus of this book is to provide an overview on the different types of infra-structure supported by most commercial localization systems as well as on the most popular computational techniques which these systems employ. This book can serve as a reference for scholarly activities such as teaching, self-learning, or research.

Gentile, Camillo; Raulefs, Ronald; Teolis, Carole

2013-01-01

254

Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

Tim Lajcik

2012-07-01

255

Visualization Techniques in Smart Grid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visualization is an established methodology in scientific computing. It has been used in many fields because of its strong capability in large data management and information display. However, its applications in power systems, especially in Smart Grid are still in infancy stage. Besides, while there were a lot of researches working on visualizing data in transmission power system, the study on displaying distribution power system data was limited. Therefore, in this paper, author proposed some techniques to visualize the Smart Grid data at distribution. They are classified in three categories, which are low dimensional techniques, multivariate high dimensional techniques and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.

Dao Viet Nga

2012-08-01

256

Utilidad de las técnicas de imagen en el hiperparatiroidismo secundario / Usefulness of imaging techniques in secondary hyperparathyroidism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica que desarrollan hiperparatiroidismo secundario (HPTS), las técnicas de imagen pueden ser de utilidad, fundamentalmente para valorar la localización, el tamaño y el funcionalismo de las glándulas paratiroides. Esta revisión valora las técnicas de imagen d [...] e las que se dispone actualmente para evaluar las glándulas paratiroides en el contexto del HPTS. Se hace referencia a: 1) ecografía cervical (modo B, Doppler, Doppler-color y power-Doppler); 2) estudios gammagráficos (talio, 99mTc-MIBI y 99mTc-tetrofosmin), incluyendo técnicas especiales de adquisición de imágenes (Pinhole, SPECT); 3) estudios PET (tomografía por emisión de positrones); 4) tomografía computarizada (TC) y resonancia magnética, y 5) escáneres híbridos (SPECT/TC y PET/TC). Nuestra recomendación es practicar, en todos los pacientes con HPTS que no responden inicial y fácilmente al tratamiento médico, una gammagrafía con 99mTc-MIBI que puede complementarse con un Eco-Doppler color. Si la gammagrafía es positiva y, tras gradación de la intensidad de captación, alguna de las glándulas (no ectópicas) presenta un índice intenso, aunque se puede intentar intensificar el tratamiento, debería pensarse en la realización de una paratiroidectomía. Si la gammagrafía es positiva y, tras gradación de la intensidad de captación, ninguna de las glándulas (no ectópicas) presenta un índice intenso, debería intentarse la intensificación del tratamiento, y si no existe buena respuesta, considerar la paratiroidectomía. Si la gammagrafía es negativa, debería practicarse un PET si se dispone de dicha prueba. En caso de no disponer de PET, lo aconsejable sería realizar una resonancia magnética. Abstract in english For patients with chronic renal failure who develop secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), imaging techniques can be useful, especially to evaluate the location, size and functional status of parathyroid glands. This review analyzes all available imaging procedures in the context of SHPT. We evaluate [...] : 1) Cervical ultrasound (B-mode, Doppler, colour-Doppler and power-Doppler), 2) Scintigraphic studies (Tallium, 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-tetrofosmin), including non-standard image acquisition techniques (Pinhole, SPECT), 3) Positron emission tomography (PET), 4) Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 5) hybrid scanners (SPECT/CT and PET/CT). Our recommendation is that SHPT patients who are initially non responders to medical therapy should be investigated using parathyroid scintigraphy and cervical ultrasound. 99mTc-MIBI uptake can be graded in a semiquantitative scale. Intense uptake indicates a low probability of success using medical treatment and parathyroidectomy should be considered. A moderate to faint uptake indicates that a more intensive medical therapy would probably be beneficial. In the case of no uptake of 99mTc-MIBI, PET should be performed. Where this is not available, MRI could be a possible alternative.

José Vicente, Torregrosa; I., Félez; D., Fuster.

257

Parachute technique for partial penectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TEC [...] HNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

Fernando, Korkes; Oseas C., Neves-Neto; Marcelo L., Wroclawski; Marcos, Tobias-Machado; Antonio C. L., Pompeo; Eric R., Wroclawski.

2010-04-01

258

Radiation measurements by optical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several new methods of radiation measurements are being developed using recent optical techniques such as optical sensors of PIN photo-diode and micro photo-multiplier, scintillating fiber optics and laser technology. Current status of new techniques are reviewed here including our results. (author)

259

Innovative Techniques for Management Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Innovative training techniques intorduced in response to change in internal structure and external environment of organizations have produced positive results in their management's productivity and effectiveness. A four-year study has been conducted on the use of innovative training techniques by Vanderbilt University's Graduate School or…

Verda, Dominic J.

260

SEM-based characterization techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scanning electron microscope is now a common instrument in materials characterization laboratories. The basic role of the SEM as a topographic imaging system has steadily been expanding to include a variety of SEM-based analytical techniques. These techniques cover the range of basic semiconductor materials characterization to live-time device characterization of operating LSI or VLSI devices. This paper introduces many of the more commonly used techniques, describes the modifications or additions to a conventional SEM required to utilize the techniques, and gives examples of the use of such techniques. First, the types of signals available from a sample being irradiated by an electron beam are reviewed. Then, where applicable, the type of spectroscopy or microscopy which has evolved to utilize the various signal types are described. This is followed by specific examples of the use of such techniques to solve problems related to semiconductor technology. Techniques emphasized include: x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron beam induced current (EBIC), stroboscopic voltage analysis, cathodoluminescnece and electron beam IC metrology. Current and future trends of some of the these techniques, as related to the semiconductor industry are discussed

 
 
 
 
261

Murine heterotopic heart transplant technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now over forty years since this technique was first reported by Corry, Wynn and Russell. Although it took some years for other labs to become proficient in and utilize this technique, it is now widely used by many laboratories around the world. A significant refinement to the original technique was developed and reported in 2001 by Niimi. Described here are the techniques that have evolved over more than a decade in the hands of three surgeons (Plenter, Grazia, Pietra) in our center. These techniques are now being passed on to a younger generation of surgeons and researchers. Based largely on the Niimi experience, the procedures used have evolved in the fine details - details which we will endeavor to relate here in such a way that others may be able to use this very useful model. Like Niimi, we have found that a video aid to learning is a priceless resource for the beginner. PMID:25046118

Plenter, Robert J; Grazia, Todd J

2014-01-01

262

Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques  

CERN Document Server

The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

Mancini, Ferdinando

2015-01-01

263

Recursos disponibles para la recuperación de información sobre salud en Internet  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Internet se ha convertido en un fenómeno social en nuestros tiempos y en un apoyo vital para el desarrollo de las investigaciones en salud.El hecho de que es una herramienta para recuperar información e investigar no se discute.Las ciencias de la información avanzan a grandes pasos y los profesio [...] nales en salud que se apoyan o tienen contacto con la realidad de Internet,encuentran difícil seguir este paso,lo que disminuye la efectividad y eficiencia con que se utiliza este recurso.Motivado en los hechos previos,se realizó una revisión de algunos recursos encontrados en la red de redes,Internet,y se plantea una estrategia de búsqueda de información para recuperarla en un motor de búsqueda y,así,resolver las preguntas clínicas diarias.En especial,se focaliza la revisión del tema sobre los motores de búsqueda Pubmed y Google.Basado inicialmente en la construcción de una pregunta para hallar información mediante la metodología PICO,el profesional se orienta para definir los términos de búsqueda que le permitirán recuperar información con varios niveles de rigurosidad científica y aplicable a varias latitudes.Finalmente,se comentan algunas limitaciones que existen en torno a la recuperación de información y las oportunidades que ofrecen las iniciativas para la Web semántica.

Luis Guillermo, Elizondo Herrera.

2005-12-01

264

Recursos disponibles para la recuperación de información sobre salud en Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Internet se ha convertido en un fenómeno social en nuestros tiempos y en un apoyo vital para el desarrollo de las investigaciones en salud.El hecho de que es una herramienta para recuperar información e investigar no se discute.Las ciencias de la información avanzan a grandes pasos y los profesionales en salud que se apoyan o tienen contacto con la realidad de Internet,encuentran difícil seguir este paso,lo que disminuye la efectividad y eficiencia con que se utiliza este recurso.Motivado en los hechos previos,se realizó una revisión de algunos recursos encontrados en la red de redes,Internet,y se plantea una estrategia de búsqueda de información para recuperarla en un motor de búsqueda y,así,resolver las preguntas clínicas diarias.En especial,se focaliza la revisión del tema sobre los motores de búsqueda Pubmed y Google.Basado inicialmente en la construcción de una pregunta para hallar información mediante la metodología PICO,el profesional se orienta para definir los términos de búsqueda que le permitirán recuperar información con varios niveles de rigurosidad científica y aplicable a varias latitudes.Finalmente,se comentan algunas limitaciones que existen en torno a la recuperación de información y las oportunidades que ofrecen las iniciativas para la Web semántica.

Luis Guillermo Elizondo Herrera

2005-12-01

265

Perfil nutricional y microbiológico de los embutidos de soya disponibles en Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la calidad nutricional y microbiológica de 80 muestras de embutidos de soya (50% mortadela y 50% salchicha). El promedio de proteína en la mortadela fue de 17,5g/100 g y en la salchicha 20g/100g. El contenido de grasa total fue de 5.5g/100g para ambos productos; no obstante, se hallaron d [...] iferencias altamente significativas (0.0000) en el contenido de los diferentes ácidos grasos entre ambos productos y en las muestras de un mismo producto dependiendo de la industria que los elaborara. Las mayores diferencias se evidenciaron en los niveles de ácido palmítico (C16:0), ácido oleico (C18:1) y ácido linoleico (C18:2). En ninguna muestra se evidenció la presencia de colesterol. El índice de aterogenicidad promedio para mortadela fue 0.55 y para salchicha 0.59. El consumo de 25 gramos de proteína de soya derivada de estos embutidos puede generar aportar entre el 20-90% de la cantidad de ácidos grasos saturados recomendada por día. Así mismo, puede brindar entre el 12-70% de la cantidad de ácidos graso s poliinsaturados recomendada por día. Estas variaciones responden a las importantes diferencias en la especiación de ácidos grasos evidenciadas según la marca del producto. El 20% de los embutidos estudiados mostraron niveles de coliformes totales> 10(4)/g, lo cual fue más frecuente en la salchicha. El 60% de las muestras de este embutido y el 10% de las muestras de mortadela mostraron niveles de psicrótrofos > 10(6)/g. En ninguna de las muestras se evidenció Escherichia coli y en el 5% Clostridium perfringens en niveles mayores a 10²/g. Los resultados señalan la urgente necesidad de implementar un sistema de control de calidad de los embutidos de soya, antes que las autoridades de salud consideren respaldar las campañas nutricionales que promuevan el consumo de los mismos. Abstract in english Nutritional and microbiological profile of soy bean sausages available in Costa Rica. The nutritional and microbiological quality of 80 soybean sausage samples (50% frankfurter and 5% sausage mortadela) was studied. On average, the protein content was 17 ,5g/100g in sausage mortadela and 20g/100g in [...] frankfurter.the mean total fat content was 5,5g/100g for both products. However when products of different manufacture industries were compared, a highly significant difference (p= 0,0000) in the fatty acids speciation between both groups and between samples of the same product were found. Bigger differences were found in the content of palmitic acid(C16:0), oleic acid (C18:l) and linoleic acid (C18:2). Cholesterol was not detected in samples analyzed. On average the atherogenicity index was 0,55 for sausage mortadela and 0,59 for frankfurter. A consumption of 25 grams of soybean protein from these sausages can bring an intake of saturated fatty acids between 20-90% of the daily recommendation. Likewise, they can supply between 12-70% of the recommended daily polyunsaturated fattly acids. These variations are owing to the big difference in fatty acids speciation in each sausage brand. Around 20% of soybean sausages studied showed total coliform levels above l0(4)/g, being more frequent in sausage mortadela. Also 60% of this product and 10% of frankfurters showed psychrotroph levels of 10(6)/g. Clostridium perfringens, in levels above 10²/g was evidenciated in 5% of samples, Escherichia coli was not isolated from them. The findings of this study suggest the urgent need for implementing a quality control system for soybean sausages, before national health authorities consider to support nutritional campaings that promote their consumption.

Rafael, Monge; María Laura, Arias; Thelma, Alfaro; Manuel, Jiménez.

266

El Incumplimiento Contractual y los Remedios de que Dispone el Acreedor en la Compraventa Internacional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la Convención de Viena se recoge un concepto amplio y objetivo de incumplimiento y pone a disposición del acreedor una serie de remedios entre los cuales puede optar libremente. Empero, la Convención le impone una gestión razonable de los efectos del incumplimiento que se manifiesta en la necesidad de observar cargas de comunicación y de conducta material. La Convención atribuye al deudor una responsabilidad objetiva y estricta y ella se extiende a todos los daños que sean una consecuencia del incumplimiento razonablemente previsible al momento del contrato, con exclusión de aquellos daños que el acreedor habría podido prevenir o evitar de haber observado una conducta razonable. La exoneración de responsabilidad solo incide directamente en la indemnización de daños, no así respecto de los restantes remedios como son la pretensión de cumplimiento, incluidas sus modalidades de reparación y sustitución de las mercaderías no conformes, la reducción del precio y la resolución del contrato.The Viena Convention adopts a wide and objective concept of non-compliance and offers the creditor a series of remedies to freely choose from. However, the Convention requires him or her to reasonably manage the effects of this non-compliance, meaning that he or she has to respect communication and material conduct requirements. The Convention establishes that the debtor's liability is objective and strict and it extends to all damages following reasonably foreseeable non compliance at the time of the contract, while excluding all those damages that the creditor would have been able to prevent from happening or to to avoid if he or she had adopted a reasonable conduct. The exoneration of liability only influences directly the damages compensation, but it does not affect the other remedies such as the compliance claim (including compensation and mending of all non conform products, the reduction of the price and the termination of the contract.

Álvaro R Vidal Olivares

2006-12-01

267

Ficción en un blog de Internet: El autor propone, el lector infiere y dispone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La ciberescritura es todavía un enigma que sigue cambiando los principios fundamentales de la cultura escrita tradicional. Así como no hay fronteras temporales ni espaciales en la Internet, tampoco parecen existir verdades absolutas, principios irrefutables ni reglas pragmáticas formales que faciliten aún la conformación de una gramática del discurso virtual. Todo puede ser ficción o verdad en un universo en el que escritores y lectores somos discurso. Nonecesariamente hay rostros ni gestos ni otro tipo de recursos paralingüísticos, quinésicos o proxémicos que ayuden aambos participantes a entenderse mutuamente. Frente a un emisor discursivo mediado por un computador, el principiode la cooperación de Grice (1975 se potencia hacia el receptor por lo que las llamadas “máximas” pueden a vecesvolverse “mínimas” para el emisor. Este trabajo propone el análisis discursivo de una muestra de 28 comentarios interactivosincorporados por 27 ciberlectores hasta septiembre de 2009, como respuestas a la crónica bloguera de ficciónintitulada Remedios que sacan la piedra (http:barreralinares.blogspot.com, 28-02-2007. Asumiendo como baseteórica la diferencia formal y funcional entre las nociones retóricas y discursivas de ficción, realidad, verdad y verosimilitud,se postula que un cibertexto marcado expresamente por el emisor con rasgos ficcionales de humor, ironía y sarcasmo, termina adquiriendo veracidad a partir de las inferencias que los comentaristas hacen en relación con el tópico tratado. Los resultados muestran una variedad de falsas inferencias o “ciberimplicaturas” que, de acuerdo conel análisis de los comentarios, terminan cambiando la intención original de la crónica. Fenómeno que convierte untexto de “narrativa artificial” en otro de “narrativa natural” (van Dijk, 1975.

Luis Barrera

2010-01-01

268

Future management of Tokke 1; Om framtidig disponering av Tokke 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report to the Storting (Parliament) from the Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the future management of the Norwegian Tokke I hydroelectric power system. The report relates to the transfer of management from the State to the authority of counties and municipalities. Contribution to the debate from the power consuming industry is given. 1 fig.

NONE

1996-12-31

269

Bioensayo microbiano para estimar los nutrimentos disponibles en los abonos organicos: calibracion en el campo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se demostr6 recientemente que el aumento nude la biomasa microbiana en una mezcla de sue- calo: abono organico (9:1, suplementada con gluco- sa como fuente de carbono, fue proporcional al crecimiento de una planta indicadora (sorgo cre- cida en el mismo sustrato. En la presente investi- gaci6n se determina si este bioensayo es de utili- dad como gufa en la fertilizaci6n de los cultivos con abonos organicos, mediante la siembra en el campo de chile dulce (Capsicum annuum L. y to- mate (Lycopersicum esculentum L. como plantas indicadoras. Los tratamientos consistieron de sue- 10 solo 0 en mezcla con 10% de abonos organicos amende contenido de nutrimentos contrastante a saber: pollinaza (CM, compost (C, bocashi (B, vermi- macompost (V y broza de cafe (Br. En el bioensa- vermicomyo microbiano se utiliz6 un disefio de bloques randocompletos al azar con 6 repeticiones, la biomasa microbiana (BM se midi6 2 dfas despues de in- cubar con glucosa. En los ensayos de campo las plantas indicadoras se sembraron en un disefio de bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. En chile dulce se midi6 el peso seco (600 C de la comparte aerea de la planta (PSC y el peso fresco de frutos verdes (PFF a los 97 dfas despues de la Microsiembra. El peso seco de la parte aerea de las amendplantas de tomate (PST fue medido a los 32 dfas. Los abonos organicos CM, C y B indujeron la mayor BM y tambien el mayor PSC, PFF Y PST, indicaci6n de que fueron los de mayor y mas in- mediato suministro de nutrimentos, contrario al y Br que mostraron los valores mas bajos para es- tas variables (P<0.05. Estos 2 abonos, respecto vatratamiento de CM presentaron 3 y 5 veces menos BM y 2 Y 4 veces menos biomasa aerea, respecti- vamente (P<0.05. Las correlaciones altas obteni- codas entre la BM y el PSC (r=0.87 y entre la BM y el PST (r= 0.93, permiten concluir que bioensayo microbiano es un metoda promisorio para pronosticar el suministro de nutrimentos orlos abonos organicos a los cultivos bajo condicio- determines de campo y en consecuencia puede ser una excelente gufa en su dosificaci6n.

Eduardo Salas

2001-01-01

270

Perfil nutricional y microbiológico de los embutidos de soya disponibles en Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la calidad nutricional y microbiológica de 80 muestras de embutidos de soya (50% mortadela y 50% salchicha). El promedio de proteína en la mortadela fue de 17,5g/100 g y en la salchicha 20g/100g. El contenido de grasa total fue de 5.5g/100g para ambos productos; no obstante, se hallaron d [...] iferencias altamente significativas (0.0000) en el contenido de los diferentes ácidos grasos entre ambos productos y en las muestras de un mismo producto dependiendo de la industria que los elaborara. Las mayores diferencias se evidenciaron en los niveles de ácido palmítico (C16:0), ácido oleico (C18:1) y ácido linoleico (C18:2). En ninguna muestra se evidenció la presencia de colesterol. El índice de aterogenicidad promedio para mortadela fue 0.55 y para salchicha 0.59. El consumo de 25 gramos de proteína de soya derivada de estos embutidos puede generar aportar entre el 20-90% de la cantidad de ácidos grasos saturados recomendada por día. Así mismo, puede brindar entre el 12-70% de la cantidad de ácidos graso s poliinsaturados recomendada por día. Estas variaciones responden a las importantes diferencias en la especiación de ácidos grasos evidenciadas según la marca del producto. El 20% de los embutidos estudiados mostraron niveles de coliformes totales> 10(4)/g, lo cual fue más frecuente en la salchicha. El 60% de las muestras de este embutido y el 10% de las muestras de mortadela mostraron niveles de psicrótrofos > 10(6)/g. En ninguna de las muestras se evidenció Escherichia coli y en el 5% Clostridium perfringens en niveles mayores a 10²/g. Los resultados señalan la urgente necesidad de implementar un sistema de control de calidad de los embutidos de soya, antes que las autoridades de salud consideren respaldar las campañas nutricionales que promuevan el consumo de los mismos. Abstract in english Nutritional and microbiological profile of soy bean sausages available in Costa Rica. The nutritional and microbiological quality of 80 soybean sausage samples (50% frankfurter and 5% sausage mortadela) was studied. On average, the protein content was 17 ,5g/100g in sausage mortadela and 20g/100g in [...] frankfurter.the mean total fat content was 5,5g/100g for both products. However when products of different manufacture industries were compared, a highly significant difference (p= 0,0000) in the fatty acids speciation between both groups and between samples of the same product were found. Bigger differences were found in the content of palmitic acid(C16:0), oleic acid (C18:l) and linoleic acid (C18:2). Cholesterol was not detected in samples analyzed. On average the atherogenicity index was 0,55 for sausage mortadela and 0,59 for frankfurter. A consumption of 25 grams of soybean protein from these sausages can bring an intake of saturated fatty acids between 20-90% of the daily recommendation. Likewise, they can supply between 12-70% of the recommended daily polyunsaturated fattly acids. These variations are owing to the big difference in fatty acids speciation in each sausage brand. Around 20% of soybean sausages studied showed total coliform levels above l0(4)/g, being more frequent in sausage mortadela. Also 60% of this product and 10% of frankfurters showed psychrotroph levels of 10(6)/g. Clostridium perfringens, in levels above 10²/g was evidenciated in 5% of samples, Escherichia coli was not isolated from them. The findings of this study suggest the urgent need for implementing a quality control system for soybean sausages, before national health authorities consider to support nutritional campaings that promote their consumption.

Rafael, Monge; María Laura, Arias; Thelma, Alfaro; Manuel, Jiménez.

2000-06-01

271

La resistencia a insecticidas de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner en España: datos disponibles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[ESP] Los tratamientos insecticidas, formando parte o no de programas de control integrado, siguen siendo actualmente imprescindibles para el control de Helicoverpa armigera sobre resistencia a insecticidas en España es prácticamente inexistente, a pesar de que la plaga ostente a nivel mundial una probada historia. Intentando paliar esta situación, durante las campañas 1995-1998 se investigó la resistencia a insecticidas de H. armigera en dos de las comunidades españolas de ...

Torres Vila, L. M.; Rodri?guez Molina, M. C.; Palo, E.; Bielza Lino, Pablo; Lacasa Plasencia, Alfredo

2000-01-01

272

Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atilla Alpay, Suat Hayri Ugurbas, Berktug ErdoganDepartment of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TurkeyPurpose: To compare various techniques of pterygium surgery including bare sclera, intraoperative mitomycin C application, conjunctival flap reconstruction, and conjunctival autografting technique.Methods: This study is designed to compare 4 currently used techniques in order to determine the complication and recurrence rates after pterygium exision. Included in the study were 77 eyes from 60 patients. Bare sclera technique was used to treat 21 primary pterygia; mitomycin C was used to treat 20 (16 primary, 4 recurrent pterygia; 18 (17 primary, 1 recurrent pterygia were treated by conjuntival flap reconstruction; and 18 (9 primary, 9 recurrent pterygia were treated by conjunctival autografting technique. All patients who underwent surgery were followed up for between 6 months and 2 years.Results: Eight recurrences (38.09% were observed in the bare sclera group whereas there were 5 (25% recurrences in the mitomycin C group. In the conjunctival flap reconstruction group, 6 (33.33% recurrences were detected. In the conjunctival autografting group, 3 recurrences were  observed. There were no major complications threatening visual ability in the surgical patients.Conclusion: A comparison of the groups demonstrated that the recurrence rate was highest in the bare sclera group, and lowest in conjunctival autografting and mitomycin C treatment groups respectively. Although the conjunctival autografting technique is a more difficult and time consuming technique than the others, cosmetic and surgical results were found to be superior. We advise conjunctival autografting for the treatment of pterygium in view of the high recurrence rates of other techniques, and the possible complications of mitomycin C treatment for benign disease.Keywords: pterygium, comparing, techniques, mitomycin C

Atilla Alpay

2008-09-01

273

Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry  

CERN Document Server

Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

1964-01-01

274

Food physics and radiation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

275

Food Physics and Radiation Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

276

Physical simulations using centrifuge techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Centrifuge techniques offer a technique for doing physical simulations of the long-term mechanical response of deep ocean sediment to the emplacement of waste canisters and to the temperature gradients generated by them. Preliminary investigations of the scaling laws for pertinent phenomena indicate that the time scaling will be consistent among them and equal to the scaling factor squared. This result implies that this technique will permit accelerated-life-testing of proposed configurations; i.e, long-term studies may be done in relatively short times. Presently, existing centrifuges are being modified to permit scale model testing. This testing will start next year

277

Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification  

CERN Document Server

This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

Ray, Sandip

2010-01-01

278

Correlation technique for resonance calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A correlation technique was developed to make the accuracy of complex and long-running resonance treatments available in fast, routine calculations. The technique is based on the subgroup method and is used to generate group-averaged resonance reaction rates. By fitting the correlation to several detailed auxiliary resonance calculations, a set of weights (the Lebesgue measure) is obtained. The weights may then be applied to a wider range of new cases. Use of the correlation technique results in one-tenth the computational burden of the detailed resonance treatment; yet, the results duplicate the detailed calculations to within 1/100 percent in k/sub eff/. 2 figures, 1 table

279

Fault Diagnosis Using Adaptive Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, by use of adaptive technique, a new method for fault detection and isolation is investigated. In the proposed method, estimation of fault signal obtains that it provides significant information about fault characteristics including size and severity of the fault, which are essential for many applications. The proposed technique is examined on a model of an aircraft and reconstructed fault signal is obtained. The simulation results are compared with the results achieved by use of sliding mode technique. Simulation results and comparison illustrate the capability of the proposed method.

M. Siahi

2008-01-01

280

Underwater YAG laser welding technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When planning preventive maintenance of reactor components using welding, it is necessary to consider special environments such as narrow space or difficult accessibility while minimizing exposure to radiation in the reactor pressure vessel. Toshiba has developed an underwater neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd: YAG) laser welding technique. The features of this welding technique are low-heat-input welding and compact welding machine dimensions for welding in narrow spaces. This paper provides a summary of the new welding technique as a reliable welding technology. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATION – DIRECT TABLETTING TECHNIQUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direct tabletting technique is the modern and the most efficient process used in tablet manufacturing and has been successfully employed for various poorly soluble and poorly compressible drugs. Spherical agglomeration is particle engineering technique which involves the transformation of fine crystals into spherical shape particles which enhances the powder properties such as particle size, shape, flow properties, solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical drug substances. This technique can also be applied to sustain the drug release from solid dosage forms. The present article is on the detailed comprehensive review about advantages and disadvantages, mechanism, different manufacturing methods of spherical agglomerates and characterization of spherical agglomerates.

Patil Pradnya B.

2011-11-01

282

Magnetic tunnel junction pattern technique  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) pattern technique that involves transforming the magnetic layer above the tunnel barrier in unwanted areas into an insulator, thus providing insulation between different MTJ devices without suffering common tunnel barrier shorting problems. With this technique, 90%-100% yielding MTJ devices have been observed. MTJ results using this process are superior to an etching based process. Switching distribution of patterned magnetic bits is also narrower using this novel technique. Process control and the ability to stop on the tunnel barrier have been demonstrated.

Chen, Eugene; Schwarz, Benjamin; Choi, Chang Ju; Kula, Witold; Wolfman, Jerome; Ounadjela, Kamel; Geha, Sam

2003-05-01

283

L'addiction en milieu professionnel : quelles techniques de confirmation après l'immunoanalyse ? Workplace drug testing: which technique to use after immunoassay ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les analyses de confirmation concernant les conduites addictives en milieu professionnel sont pratiquées, soit en seconde intention après dépistage urinaire par immunoanalyse, ou d'emblée lorsqu'il n'existe pas d'immunoessal Pour les principales familles de stupéfiants (cannabis, opiacés, cocaïne, amphétamines, en cas de positivité lors du dépistage par immunoanalyse, la ou les substances dont la présence est suspectée lors de l'immunoessai doivent être formellement identifiées par Chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse. Cette analyse permet d'établir un profil d'exposition, et le plus souvent de conclure, soit à une conduite toxicophile, soit à une prise thérapeutique, soit à une interférence lors de l'immunoanalyse. Les méthodes dites de confirmation peuvent également être mises en oeuvre lorsque l'immunoanalyse est négative en raison d'une sensibilité insuffisante comme c'est le cas par exemple avec certaines benzodiazépines. Pour ces recherches, chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à une détection par barrette de diodes et chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à la spectrométrie de masse sont les techniques de choix. Enfin, en l'absence d'immunoessal disponible, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse permet de mettre en évidence un certain nombre de molécules parmi lesquelles on trouve des médicaments, ou des produits dopants comme les stéroïdes anabolisants. Enfin la chromatographie en phase liquide couplée à une détection par barrette de diodes peut-être mise en oeuvre pour d'autres médicaments appartenant à la classe des substances psychoactives. Professional workplace addiction testing is performed either to validate urine positive screening immunoassay or directly in the absence of immunoassay. As regards the main drugs of abuse (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines positive results must be confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Exposure, an addiction, or a therapeutic pattern, in most cases, may then be concluded. Confirmation techniques have also to be carried out, when immunoassay is not sensitive enough, ie. for some benzodiazepines. For these exposures, liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector or to a mass detector, are the optimal techniques. However, when immunoassay is not available, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is useful for many substances, as doping agent like anabolic steroids. Liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector is also the method of choice for most psychoactive drugs.

Goullé Jean-Pierre

2009-04-01

284

Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. PMID:24741323

Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Matsunaga, Tae; Tani, Johji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Oryu, Makoto; Iwama, Hisakazu; Masaki, Tsutomu

2014-01-01

285

[Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: a modified technique].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a surgical technique which has been adopted by otolaryngologists in the last years, because of the improvement in the endonasal approach by means of endoscopes. Although the results with the different techniques regarding permeability of the lacrimal duct are similar, we present some modifications in the surgical technique which contribute to a better postoperatory mucosal recovery, due to its more functional and less aggressive nature, improving the cost-benefit ratio. Two groups are compared, the first one (96 DCR) performing osteotomies with a chisel, without doing lacrimal duct and mucosa flaps, the second one (40 DCR) applying the modified technique using Smith-Kerrison forceps to perform osteotomies and creating lacrimal duct and mucosa flaps. Final results referred to permeability are similar (92.7% vs 87.5%). No major complications were found, and the most common minor complication was postoperative eyelid hematoma in cases of orbital fat exposure (5 cases vs 7 cases). PMID:12487068

Massegur Solench, H; Trias Mis, E; Ademà Alcover, J M

2002-01-01

286

Technique Selectively Represses Immune System  

Science.gov (United States)

... NIEHS NIGMS NIMH NIMHD NINDS NINR NLM CIT CSR FIC NCATS NCCAM CC OD About NIH Mission ... treat symptoms resembling multiple sclerosis in a mouse model. With further development, the technique might be used ...

287

Computer techniques in EDXRF analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different computer techniques presently used in EDXRF analysis are discussed. A comparison of the formerly used hardware structure with a modern multibus system with distributed functions, firmware capabilities and a floppy disk system is given. Software methods described include the language, the qualitative analysis, different background subtraction and peak deconvolution techniques and quantitative analysis approaches. Finally the typical software requirements for the industrial laboratory and the solutions available are summarized. (author)

288

Experimental technique of neutron reflection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is presented that the classifications, structures and components of neutron reflectometer (NR), as well s functions and parameters of each components, detailed characters of NR facility 'PRN-2M'. Based on the practical experiments, the basic experimental techniques, the measurement and the related experimental settings are described, including the choice of experimental conditions, adjustments of polarized neutron beam line, basic experimental technique and approach of measurement. The above can be an instruction for NR experiments and a reference for NR construction. (authors)

289

Some techniques in neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AAEC's Moata, a 100 kW UTR twin slab Argonaut type reactor was used as a neutron source in the establishment of techniques for neutron radiography described in this report. Some work has been carried out using a 100 ?g 252 Cf source in the investigation of techniques using portable isotope sources. Examples of X and neutron radiographs of the same subject are compared. Diagrams of the reactor source arrangement, and the materials used, are provided. (author)

290

Computational Techniques in Manufacturing Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing processes are complex and therefore difficult to plan by software. The present state in computational techniques in manufacturing technology as well as software applications at the Department of Manufacturing Technology of CTU in Prague are discussed in this article. Computational techniques may help to solve many manufacturing problems as such programs in the field of process planning have been developed. However, due to the complexity of manufacturing processes, complete plann...

Ma?dl, J.; C?erma?k, J.; Vrabec, M.

2000-01-01

291

Survey on Spam Filtering Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years spam became as a big problem of Internet and electronic communication. There developed a lot of techniques to fight them. In this paper the overview of existing e-mail spam filtering methods is given. The classification, evaluation, and comparison of traditional and learning-based methods are provided. Some personal anti-spam products are tested and compared. The statement for new approach in spam filtering technique is considered.

Saadat Nazirova

2011-08-01

292

Le médicament comme objet technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Envisager le médicament comme objet technique, c'est restituer toutes ces opérations qui, de la conception à l'utilisation, mettent en relation contenus techniques, dispositions matérielles, usages, formes de relations sociales, organisations... avec ses spécificités, vers ces moments préalables. Cette présentation est scindée en trois parties : dans les deux premières, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont la forme matérielle du médicament peut être mise en relation avec le...

Akrich, Madeleine

1996-01-01

293

Advanced Techniques of Stress Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article aims to check the stress analysis technique based on 3D models also making a comparison with the traditional technique which utilizes a model built directly into the stress analysis program. This comparison of the two methods will be made with reference to the rear fuselage of IAR-99 aircraft, structure with a high degree of complexity which allows a meaningful evaluation of both approaches. Three updated databases are envisaged: the database having the idealized model obtained u...

Tataru, Simion; Baran, Daniela; Lozici-branzei, Dorin

2013-01-01

294

Software Testing Techniques and Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software testing provides a means to reduce errors, cut maintenance and overall software costs. Numerous software development and testing methodologies, tools, and techniques have emerged over the last few decades promising to enhance software quality. This paper describes Software testing, need for software testing, Software testing goals and principles. Further it describe about different Software testing techniques and different software testing strategies.

Isha,

2014-04-01

295

Uranium exploration techniques in Bolivia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exploration techniques used by the Bolivian Nuclear Energy Commission/Comision Boliviana de Energia Nuclear (COBOEN) in certain areas of Bolivia that are considered promising from the standpoint of uranium deposits are presented in summary form. The methods and results obtained are described, including the techniques used by the Italian company AGIP-URANIUM during four years of exploration under contract with COBOEN. Statistical data are also given explaining the present level of uranium exploration in Bolivia. (author)

296

Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sciences. This paper mainly discusses about the human face recognition with the help of different tactics and techniques like “Eigen faces for Recognition” and “Feature Based Recognition: Elastic Bunch Graph Matching”. The scanning technique such as 4-D laser scanning is still under discussion since for recognition technique it is necessary, The real world is CCTV technology and similarity between the human and computer recognition.This technology is outstanding in the capturing image of faces such as criminal investigation, terrorists identification, medical purposes like plastic surgery .It provides almost security and reliability compared to the other techniques. In future this technology will be the most convenient and secure technique. This will over through all the current security traits and become a efficient security measure

P.RAVI TEJA#1 , R.R.V.S.S.ABHISHEK *2 , P.RAM MANINTH

2013-04-01

297

Cementing techniques in hip resurfacing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The subject of the cementing technique in hip resurfacing has been poorly studied to date. The hip resurfacing prosthesis is unique in the family of cemented prostheses because the cement mantle is blind (hidden underneath the implant) and is radiographically obscured. This presents an immediate challenge to the surgeon at the time of surgery, but also has a longer-term implication in terms of lack of post-operative clinical observation. This should be compared with total hip replacement or total knee replacement where the cement mantle can at least be partially observed both intra- and post-operatively. With this in mind, the objective of this review is, firstly, to understand the cement mantles typically achieved in current clinical practice and, secondly, to identify those factors affecting the cement mantle and to consolidate them into an improved and reproducible cementing technique. The outcome of this work shows that the low-viscosity technique can commonly lead to excessive cement penetration in the proximal femoral head and an incompletely seated component, whereas a more consistent controlled cement mantle can be achieved with a high-viscosity cementing technique. Consequently, it is recommended that a high-viscosity technique should be used to minimize the build-up of excessive cement, to reduce the temperature created by the exothermic polymerization, and to help to ensure correct seating of the prosthesis. A combination of these factors is potentially critical to the clinical success of some articular surface replacement (ASR) procedures. It is important to note that we specifically studied the DePuy ASR system; therefore only the general principles (and not the specifics) of the cementing technique may apply to other resurfacing prostheses, because of differences in internal geometry, clearance, and surgical technique. PMID:16669398

Chandler, M; Kowalski, R S Z; Watkins, N D; Briscoe, A; New, A M R

2006-02-01

298

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 1): Transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales / Nerve reconstruction techniques in traumatic brachial plexus surgery (Part 1): Extraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los años '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia n [...] erviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc, para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En esta primera parte se analizan las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales, para luego hacer lo propio con las intraplexuales, en una segunda entrega. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexus traumatic injuries, the present arti

J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

299

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 1): Transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales / Nerve reconstruction techniques in traumatic brachial plexus surgery (Part 1): Extraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los años '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia n [...] erviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc, para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En esta primera parte se analizan las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales, para luego hacer lo propio con las intraplexuales, en una segunda entrega. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexus traumatic injuries, the present arti

J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

2011-12-01

300

Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Electromigration Techniques in Detection of Microorganisms  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection and identification of microbes is a challenge and an important aspect in many fields of our lives from medicine to bioterrorism defense. However, the analysis of such complex molecules brings a lot of questions mainly about their behavior. Bacteria are biocolloid, whose surface charge originates from the ionization of carboxyl, phosphate, or amino groups and the adsorption of ions from solution. Consequently, the charged cell wall groups determine the spontaneous formation of the electrical double layer. In this chapter application of electromigration techniques for microorganism's identification and separation are described. This approach represents the possibility to apply electromigration techniques in medical diagnosis, detection of food contamination, and sterility testing.

Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

 
 
 
 
301

Ride quality research techniques: Section on general techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Information is gathered about the methods currently used for the study of ride quality in a variety of transportation modes by a variety of research organizations, including universities, Federal agencies, contracting firms, and private industries. Detailed descriptions of these techniques and their strengths and weaknesses, and identifying the organizations using such methods are presented. The specific efforts of the Group's participants, as well as a variety of feasible approaches not currently in use, are presented as methodological alternatives under the three basic factors which must be considered in ride quality studies: research techniques, research environments, and choice of subjects.

1977-01-01

302

Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

2013-01-01

303

Review of uranium bioassay techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, ?-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: ?-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided

304

Mutation techniques in plant breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in the use of mutation techniques for generating and selecting desired genetic variation in crop and model plant species has significantly increased over the past decade. This was mainly due to: (1) successful application of in vivo mutation techniques in the breeding of new, improved crop varieties; (2) new opportunities for induced mutation using in vitro techniques for improving vegetatively propagated crops; (3) emerging possibilities for applying in vitro selection of mutagenized cells and tissues; (4) increasing application of doubled haploids (DHs) for the rapid selection and shortening of the breeding cycle of improved varieties from desired mutants, and for the development of F1 performing DH lines from heterotic hybrids; (5) advancement of rapid, often non-destructive, mass screening methods; (6) enhanced demand for morphological, developmental and biochemical mutants of various species for studies on the molecular genetics of plant differentiation and development or on plant physiology; (7) wider availability of gene transformation technology that allows the transfer of desired mutated genes from model or other plant species to the desired crop plant (shuttle mutagenesis); and (8) application of mutation techniques for generating DNA polymorphism and for mapping particular genes. An overview of the results of applying mutation techniques for crop improvement is given. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs tabs

305

Radar rainfall image repair techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

Stephen M. Wesson

2004-01-01

306

New impetus for radionuclide techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide techniques, whose application has been known for decades, are still being utilized rather more in research than in practical engineering. Despite a great variety of methods for measurement, examination and analysis developed and tested in recent decades, and despite early recognition of the practical value of these techniques, industrial application in particular has never flourished beyond the areas considered to have been developed already twenty years ago. In many fields the broad application of radionuclide techniques never came true because the problems involved in converting these methods into practical application were not realized. This is true in particular of the need to adapt the measuring technique to practical requirements, which necessity has never been recognized in the usual approaches of application oriented research. For this reason, government institutions and private industries active in the field of radiological techniques in the Federal Republic have joined forces in an association in order to ensure the transfer of know-how to practical application by adopting the style and employing the methods of industry. (orig.)

307

Dating techniques in fault investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determining the time of most recent fault movement is an important part of assessing a possible site for a nuclear power plant. The purpose of this paper is not to present research information but to provide a practical guide to some of the dating techniques available to the engineering geologist working on nuclear power plant siting. Emphasis is placed on the practical aspects, such as usable minerals, conditions necessary for them to yield correct dates, degree of accuracy, sample collection, sample size, and sample packaging. In this paper, we have taken for granted the usual geologic field techniques--such as those used in stratigraphy, paleontology, and structural analysis--for assessing fault history. We discuss laboratory techniques used in conjunction with or supplemental to field methods. The specific radiometric methods discussed are 14C (carbon-14), fission track, K-Ar (potassium-argon), thermoluminescense, Rb-Sr (rubidium-strontium), and U-Th (uranium-thorium). Racemization of amino acids, paleomagnetism, and fluid-inclusion techniques are the nonradiometric methods that are discussed. Our experiences with some of these techniques are described as well

308

LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (?²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

Markus Tilp

2013-09-01

309

Ultrasonic techniques validation on shell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the results obtained in several international RRT during the 80's, it has been necessary to prove the effectiveness of the NDT techniques. For this reason it has been imperative to verify the goodness of the Inspection Procedure over different mock-ups, representative of the inspection area and with real defects. Prior to the revision of the inspection procedure and with the aim of updating the techniques used, it is a good practice to perform different scans on the mock-ups until the validation is achieved. It is at this point, where all the parameters of the inspection at hands are defined; transducer, step, scan direction,... and what it's more important, it will be demonstrated that the technique to be used for the area required to inspection is suitable to evaluate the degradation phenomena that could appear. (Author)

310

CRITICAL REVIEW OF CRYPTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES?.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large amounts of data are being communicated over different channels - both public and private. The volume is getting increased exponentially and continuously day by day. Though more and more ways of protecting the data are also underway, this creates a problem of Security to those concerned with the data - particularly the sender, and receiver. This problem is further aggravated with the advent of high speed computing, parallel technologies, etc. Selection of the right technique for encryption and decryption of the data communicated, with the suitable algorithm, keys etc. deserve a critical review. This paper therefore studies the most commonly used techniques of cryptographic for the purpose of right selection of the technique

Sathyalakshmi.L

2014-09-01

311

Phase refocusing techniques in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phase refocusing (FR) techniques have commonly used for reducing motion artifacts. With these techniques it can also be detected how fluid moves. We compared signal intensities between FR and spin echo (SE) techniques, using the same repetition time and echo time in flow phantom studies. We also examined the possibility of clinical application of this method. Experimental studies using the flow phantom revealed that decrease of the signal intensity was usually velosity-dipendent, but the range of the decrease was different in each encoding gradient. In our study of a patient with mitral stenosis the defference of velosity, which was confirmed by ultrasonography, and between 1t.-atrium and the other three chambers was clearly demonstrated. In a patient with arteriovenous malformation we could detect a variety of velosity in the nidus. We also found significant increase of signal intensity in the spleen in a patient with liver cirrhosis. (author)

312

Learning convergence of CMAC technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

CMAC is one useful learning technique that was developed two decades ago but yet lacks adequate theoretical foundation. Most past studies focused on development of algorithms, improvement of the CMAC structure, and applications. Given a learning problem, very little about the CMAC learning behavior such as the convergence characteristics, effects of hash mapping, effects of memory size, the error bound, etc. can be analyzed or predicted. In this paper, we describe the CMAC technique with mathematical formulation and use the formulation to study the CMAC convergence properties. Both information retrieval and learning rules are described by algebraic equations in matrix form. Convergence characteristics and learning behaviors for the CMAC with and without hash mapping are investigated with the use of these equations and eigenvalues of some derived matrices. The formulation and results provide a foundation for further investigation of this technique. PMID:18255730

Lin, C S; Chiang, C T

1997-01-01

313

Add-A-Source technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Counting neutrons emitted by spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes is a means for determining Plutonium content in samples. Correlations techniques have been developed for separating such neutrons from a background of nonfission neutrons due to (?, n) reactions. Further procedures are then used to correct the effect of neutron-induced fission. In order to perform such a correction the sample's chemical composition (including the presence of moisture) must be a well known parameter. The present paper reports a theoretical formulation of a new approach (add-a-source technique), which could allow to correct the measurement indipendently by the knowledge of the sample's chemical composition

314

Techniques to Teach Communication Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Second language learners encounter communication problems when they attempt to use the target language. One way to overcome the problems is using effective strategies. Thus, L2 learners can benefit from teaching communication strategies to use them effectively. However, teaching and teachability of CS is a controversial issue. In this paper, it is discussed that teaching CS is useful and feasible and that techniques can be introduced to teach them. It is claimed that the Bottom-Up Approach is the framework within which such techniques can be put to use and create an atmosphere of easy communication and learning.

Ataollah Maleki

2010-09-01

315

Computational Techniques in Manufacturing Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manufacturing processes are complex and therefore difficult to plan by software. The present state in computational techniques in manufacturing technology as well as software applications at the Department of Manufacturing Technology of CTU in Prague are discussed in this article. Computational techniques may help to solve many manufacturing problems as such programs in the field of process planning have been developed. However, due to the complexity of manufacturing processes, complete planning of a manufacturing process by software is not possible at present.

J. Mádl

2000-01-01

316

Cuban agriculture and nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of nuclear techniques to agriculture emerged in Cuba at the end of the 60s. At the beginning only few researchers used these techniques for stimulating or mutational purposes. At the end of the 80 s systematic research began for its possible application to existing agricultural problems among which we can highlight radiomutable genesis and the determination of diagnostic damage of seeds by x-rays, plant nutrition and soil fertility, efficient water use, animal nutrition, reproduction and health as well as pest control

317

Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

318

CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

A. Cacciamano

2008-08-01

319

Weighted simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we propose a statistically weighted simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (wSART) for computed tomography (CT) imaging. The wSART algorithm is a generalization of the conventional simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) which accounts for the statistical information of the measured projection data. We validate our proposed algorithm by use of real phantom data collected from Aquilion ONETM scanner. Our preliminary results showed that the wSART algorithm can efficiently suppress the streak artifacts induced by photon starvation. (orig.)

320

Clustering Techniques for Marbles Classification  

CERN Document Server

Automatic marbles classification based on their visual appearance is an important industrial issue. However, there is no definitive solution to the problem mainly due to the presence of randomly distributed high number of different colours and its subjective evaluation by the human expert. In this paper we present a study of segmentation techniques, we evaluate they overall performance using a training set and standard quality measures and finally we apply different clustering techniques to automatically classify the marbles. KEYWORDS: Segmentation, Clustering, Quadtrees, Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), Simulated Annealing (SA).

Caldas-Pinto, J R; Ramos, V; Ramalho, M; Pina, Pedro; Ramos, Vitorino; Ramalho, Mario

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Trigonocephaly: A simple modified technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trigonocephaly is the premature fusion of the metopic suture leading to deformation of anterior calvarium causing keel shaped deformity of forehead. In most cases, surgical correction is for aesthetic and psychosocial reasons. Various techniques have been described. Here we describe a technique, which is simple to perform with good postoperative results. Metopic suture is excised, one side is reconstructed in finger clasping manner to fit in an expanded area, and the other side is transected and simply molded, and all these fixed with nonabsorbable suture. Supraorbital horizontal bar is mobilized on either side anteriorly and fixed with titanium plate and screws. PMID:25250065

Mohammad, Danish; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam

2014-05-01

322

Hemispherotomy and other disconnective techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy has evolved as new technical innovations have been made. Hemispherotomy techniques have been developed to replace hemispherectomy in order to reduce the complication rates while maintaining good seizure control. Disconnective procedures are based on the interruption of the epileptic network rather than the removal of the epileptogenic zone. They can be applied to hemispheric pathologies, leading to hemispherotomy, but they can also be applied to posterior quadrant epilepsies, or hypothalamic hamartomas. In this paper, the authors review the literature, present an overview of the historical background, and discuss the different techniques along with their outcomes and complications. PMID:18759615

De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Delalande, Olivier

2008-09-01

323

Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

1976-01-01

324

EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a wide spectrum of technological areas, such as medical imaging, pharmaceutical industry, analytical instrumentation, aerospace, remote sensing, lidars and ladars, surveillance, national defense, corrosion imaging and monitoring, sub-terrestrial and marine imaging. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios, and demanding design parameters such as speed, signal-to-noise ratio, high specificity, high contrast and spatial resolution, high-scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environment, necessitate the development of a multifunctional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, operating on diverse detection and imaging principles. Finally, pattern recognition and image processing algorithms can significantly contribute to enhanced detection and imaging, including object classification, clustering, feature selection, texture analysis, segmentation, image compression and color representation under complex imaging scenarios, with applications in medical imaging, remote sensing, aerospace, radars, defense and homeland security. We feel confident that the exciting new contributions of this special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques will appeal to the technical community. We would like to thank all authors as well as all anonymous reviewers and the MST Editorial Board, Publisher and staff for their tremendous efforts and invaluable support to enhance the quality of this significant endeavor.

Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

2011-10-01

325

Récupération d'énergie à partir des vibrations ambiantes : dispositif électromagnétique et circuit électronique d'extraction synchrone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La récupération d'énergie vise à réaliser des dispositifs électromécaniques de taille centimétrique permettant d'alimenter des systèmes électroniques en puisant de manière opportuniste l'énergie du milieu environnant. Parmi les différentes sources disponibles (solaire, thermique etc.) les vibrations ambiantes sont susceptibles de fournir assez de puissance pour alimenter des microsystèmes autonomes tels que des noeuds de réseaux de capteurs communicants. L'enjeu consiste à con...

Arroyo, Emmanuelle

2012-01-01

326

Smart Mobile Agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A l’heure actuelle, une majorité de personnes possèdent un smartphone (lit-téralement « téléphone intelligent »). Mais sont-ils vraiment intelligents ? Ils permettent de saisir ou d’accéder à un grand nombre d’informations. Malheureusement pour l’utilisateur, beaucoup de ces applications sont indépendantes les unes des autres. L’objectif est de réaliser une application utile et utilisable afin de faire intera-gir le simple calendrier de base disponible sur les smartphones...

Morard, Franc?ois; Bocchi, Yann

2013-01-01

327

Reconnaissance des digues de protection contre les crues du bassin de la Loire par méthodes géophysiques sismique et électrique pour la caractérisation de l'aléa karstique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectifs - Elaborer une méthodologie permettant de déterminer une probabilité de présence de karsts sous les digues de la Loire - Caractériser l'hétérogénéité des digues de la Loire - Evaluer le niveau de susceptibilité de présence de karsts - Orienter les futurs actions complémentaires envisageables sur les digues de la Loire Phasage du projet - Collecte exhaustive des données géologiques et hydrogéologiques disponibles le long des levées (tranche 1) - Élaboration d'une ca...

Samyn, Ke?vin; Bitri, Adnand; Mathieu, Francis; Nachbaur, Aude; Closset, Luc; Lequin, Delphine

2011-01-01

328

Requêtes dépendantes de la localisation : Expression, évaluation et optimisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Depuis quelques années, l'évolution des terminaux nomades et des réseaux mobiles et/ou sans fil favorise le développement de nouveaux services et de nouvelles applications dédiées aux usagers mobiles. Parmi ces applications, nous définissons le concept d'applications de proximité. Celles-ci permettent à différents usagers physiquement proches les uns des autres de partager certaines de leurs informations et de localiser les données disponibles. Ces applications s'inscrivent dans un...

Thilliez, Marie

2004-01-01

329

Géolocalisation et prédiction dans les réseaux Wi-Fi en intérieur  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La démocratisation des terminaux mobiles et l'accroissement des débits disponibles permettent d'envisager de nouvelles applications, en particulier relatives au contextes. Celles-ci nécessitent d'assurer la continuité des services et la détection de la position du terminal mobile. Nous proposons d'une part la géolocalisation des terminaux et, d'autre part, la prédiction de la mobilité.Les systèmes satellites ne fonctionnant pas à l'intérieur des bâtiments, nous basons ...

Lassabe, Fre?de?ric

2009-01-01

330

DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

. Ramageri; Bharati M.

2010-01-01

331

Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

332

Otoplasty – techniques, characteristics and risks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The protruding ear as a minor ear abnormality is found in approx. 5% of the German population and may give rise to serious emotional problems in children and also in adults. In general, the procedure used for the surgical correction of protruding ears (otoplasty is a combination of incision, scoring and suture techniques. The choice of the surgical procedure is based on the severity of the ear abnormality and the individual characteristics of the auricular cartilage. In children up to the age of ten years, a soft, elastic or easily pliable auricular cartilage is often still present. In this situation, gentle suture techniques, such as a suturing technique described by Mustardé, are frequently enough to achieve a cosmetically good and lasting result. In adults, the auricular cartilage has already become stiff. Therefore, a combination of incision, scoring and suture techniques is usually required. Apart from reducing the cephaloauricular angle to 15-20°, emphasis on the antihelical fold and a smooth rim of the helix without interruption of the contour are desirable outcomes of this operation. Occasionally, surgical fixation (lobulopexy may be required to treat protruding lobules or, in rare cases, an additional conchal reduction may become necessary in cases of conchal hyperplasia. Since postoperative complications can often result in severe auricular deformities, as a matter of principle, each ear should be analysed individually regarding its problem areas, and the surgical approach that causes the least injury to the cartilage should be used.

Naumann, Andreas

2007-01-01

333

Superresolution techniques and ISAR imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution optimal estimation techniques have been applied to the problem area of radar imaging of rotating objects. Typical digital range-Doppler processor operations are described, utilizing several of the many superresolution techniques available in the literature. Their application to the range domain represents new R and D work, wherein multiple scatterers within one range have been resolved without increasing the bandwidth. Simulation results show the feasibility for achieving superresolution in the Doppler domain only, the range domain only, or both domains jointly in a three-dimensional (3D) processed image. The capability for focusing upon a small section of the overall image and achieving finer detail (magnification) should be particularly useful. It is concluded that superresolution techniques offer a valuable complement to conventional DFT-ISAR image processing, and should permit either higher resolution images from the same samples, or equal quality images from significantly fewer data samples. The reader is cautioned that these techniques are not applicable in certain situations where total coherence exists over the entire observation interval.

Gabriel, William F.

1990-09-01

334

Diagnostic cardiology: Noninvasive imaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contains 23 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The chest x-ray and cardiac series; Computed tomographic scanning of the heart, coronary arteries, and great vessels; Digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of cardiovascular disease; Magnetic resonance: technique and cardiac applications; Basics of radiation physics and instrumentation; and Nuclear imaging: the assessment of cardiac performance

335

Advances phase-lock techniques  

CERN Document Server

From cellphones to micrprocessors, to GPS navigation, phase-lock techniques are utilized in most all modern electronic devices. This high-level book takes a systems-level perspective, rather than circuit-level, which differentiates it from other books in the field.

Crawford, James A

2008-01-01

336

Nuclear techniques and human behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of nuclear energy discovery and utilization is introduce briefly. It is dissertated the necessity of developing nuclear power and the essentiality of strengthening environment monitoring. It is brought forward that nuclear techniques can bring civilization and progress, but it can bring disaster if not correct uses

337

ELONGATION CUTOFF TECHNIQUE: PARALLEL PERFORMANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the elongation cutoff technique (ECT substantially speeds up thequantum-chemical calculation at Hartree-Fock (HF level of theory and is especially wellsuited for parallel performance. A comparison of ECT timings for water chains with thereference HF calculations is given. The analysis includes the overall CPU (central processingunit time and its most time consuming steps.

Jacek Korchowiec

2008-01-01

338

A measurement technique for hydroxyacetone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C{double{underscore}bond}CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NOx. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water, the authors developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one they reported earlier, namely, derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, they adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island, New York. The authors report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

Klotz, P.J.

1999-10-04

339

New techniques for wound debridement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Debridement is a crucial component of wound management. Traditionally, several types of wound debridement techniques have been used in clinical practice such as autolytic, enzymatic, biodebridement, mechanical, conservative sharp and surgical. Various factors determine the method of choice for debridement for a particular wound such as suitability to the patient, the type of wound, its anatomical location and the extent of debridement required. Recently developed products are beginning to challenge traditional techniques that are currently used in wound bed preparation. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the current evidence behind the use of these newer techniques in clinical practice. There is some evidence to suggest that low frequency ultrasound therapy may improve healing rates in patients with venous ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers. Hydrosurgery debridement is quick and precise, but the current evidence is limited and further studies are underway. Debridement using a monofilament polyester fibre pad and plasma-mediated bipolar radiofrequency ablation are both very new techniques. The initial evidence is limited, and further studies are warranted to confirm their role in management of chronic wounds. PMID:23418808

Madhok, Brijesh M; Vowden, Kathryn; Vowden, Peter

2013-06-01

340

Bipulsating Technique for Silicon Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Method controls reaction temperature and rate of reaction of sodium and silicon tetrafluoride by alternately adding measured amounts of reactants. Technique used in large reactor, where heat dissipation becomes serious problem, to control reactor temperatures. Highly efficient method, which would utilize almost 100 percent of raw materials.

Sanjurjo, A.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Objective techniques for psychological assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.

Wortz, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Ross, T.

1973-01-01

342

New techniques for particle accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of the new techniques which have been proposed for use in particle accelerators. Attention is focused upon those areas where significant progress has been made in the last two years--in particular, upon two-beam accelerators, wakefield accelerators, and plasma focusers. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

343

DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

. Ramageri

2010-12-01

344

Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

Wilson, Diane

345

Thematic Repetition as Rhetorical Technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores William Harvey's work, "On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals." Highlights Harvey's fear of publication and his strategies for reducing resistance to his ideas. Underscores his use of circular references, metaphors, and organizational techniques that enhance and demonstrate his underlying thesis. (SG)

Allen, Jo

1991-01-01

346

Biomedical engineering and rehabilitation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors outline the programmes set up by the ORIS for the development of biomaterials and rehabilitation products using the radiochemical techniques. They then discuss the development of instruments designed to make the handling and use of radioactive isotopes easier for users

347

Colonoscopic polypectomy and associated techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polypectomy of colonic polyps has been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer development and is considered a fundamental skill for all endoscopists who perform colonoscopy. A variety of polypectomy techniques and devices are available, and their use can vary greatly based on local availability and preferences. In general, cold forceps and cold snare have been the polypectomy methods of choice for smaller polyps, and hot snare has been the method of choice for larger polyps. The use of hot forceps has mostly fallen out of favor. Polypectomy for difficult to remove polyps may require the use of special devices and advanced techniques and has continued to evolve. As a result, the vast majority of polyps today can be removed endoscopically. Since electrocautery is frequently used for polypectomy, endoscopists should be thoroughly familiar with the basic principles of electrosurgery as it pertains to polypectomy. Tattooing of a polypectomy site is an important adjunct to polypectomy and can greatly facilitate future surgery or endoscopic surveillance. The two most common post-polypectomy complications are bleeding and perforation. Their incidence can be decreased with the use of meticulous polypectomy techniques and the application of some prophylactic maneuvers. This review will examine the technique of polypectomy and its complications from the perspective of the practicing gastroenterologist.

Christopher J Fyock, Peter V Draganov

2010-08-01

348

Microprocessor Simulation: A Training Technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the design and application of a microprocessor simulation using BASIC for formal training of technicians and managers and as a management tool. Illustrates the utility of the modular approach for the instruction and practice of decision-making techniques. (SK)

Oscarson, David J.

1982-01-01

349

Advances of the IBIC technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique has been used for a wide variety of analytical applications in the study of semiconductor materials. This paper briefly reviews these uses and identifies those areas which require further development in order to facilitate the more widespread use of the IBIC method. Progress towards implementing these improvements is discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

Breese, M.B.H.; Laird, J.S.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

1993-12-31

350

Bochner techniques and cosmological models  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate the possibility of applying the Bochner techniques [R. Zh. Matematika, 2A, 746 (1985)] to dynamics of an ideal fluid in a curved space-time. One example of the result of such application is that every irrotational motion of “cosmological fluid” with zero expansion in a closed oriented space-time obeying the energy condition is shearless.

Stepanov, S. E.

1993-06-01

351

New Techniques for Particle Acclerators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review is presented of the new techniques which have been proposed for use in particle accelerators. Attention is focused upon those areas where significant progress has been made in the last two years--in particular, upon two-beam accelerators, wakefield accelerators, and plasma focusers.

Sessler, Andrew M.

1990-06-01

352

Ride quality research techniques: Section on scaling techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Scaling techniques appropriate for the measurement of ride quality subjective responses are evaluated. The major focal points of interest are summarized in succeeding paragraphs as follow: (1) scope of scaling, (2) goal of scaling, (3) category scales; including polarity, scalar points, and whether the scale is discrete or continuous in nature, (4) need and use of adjectives and/or adverbs, (5) role and use of magnitude estimation, (6) multiple response measures; and (7) related topics.

1977-01-01

353

Effets hydrauliques d'une injection de CO2 en réservoir souterrain : Mise au point de méthodes géophysiques de surface permettant de suivre ces effets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L'objectif de cette thèse est de déterminer expérimentalement les effets des réactions de dissolution/précipitation de la calcite (CaCO3) en milieux poreux sur les observables géophysiques, à différentes échelles. Elle s'inscrit dans le cadre de la recherche sur le stockage géologique du dioxyde de carbone (CO2). La première partie est consacrée à la conception et la réalisation d'expériences de percolation réactive de fluide riche en CO2 sur des échantillons décimétriques ...

Contraires, Simon

2008-01-01

354

La prise en charge infirmière des patients psychotiques permettant de favoriser leur maintien à domicile, dans un établissement de santé mental  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction : Les patients touchés par la psychose ou schizophrénie sont confrontés à un risque de décompensation important. La prise en charge infirmière est essentielle pour leur maintien à domicile. Les concepts de bases sont définis dans cette partie du travail. Problématique : « Sur quelles interventions l’infirmière se base-t-elle pour favoriser le maintien à domicile et éviter les rechutes chez les patients atteints de schizophrénie ? » Méthode : Elle est axée sur l...

Mai?tre, Marjorie; Thie?baud, Vale?rie; Zade, Carla

2012-01-01

355

A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.

John Justin M

2012-03-01

356

Ultrasonic thermometry using pulse techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasonic pulse techniques have been developed which, when applied to inert gases, provide temperature measurements up to 8000 K. The response time can be less than 1 msec. This is a significant feature in studying shock-heated or combusting gases. Using a momentary contact coupling technique, temperature has been measured inside steel from 300 to 1500 K. Thin-wire sensors have been used above 2000 K in nuclear and industrial applications where conditions preclude the use of thermocouples, resistance devices, or optical pyrometers. At 2500 K, temperature sensitivity of 0.1% is obtained in Re wire sensors 5 cm long by timing five round trips with an electronic instrument that resolves the time interval between selected echoes to 0.1 microsec. Sensors have been operated at rotational speeds over 2000 rpm and in noisy environments. Temperature profiling of up to ten regions using only a single guided path or beam has also been accomplished.

Lynnworth, L. C.; Carnevale, E. H.

1972-01-01

357

Genetics techniques for Thermococcus kodakarensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thermococcus kodakarensis (T.k. has emerged as a premier model system for studies of archaeal biochemistry, genetics, and hyperthermophily. This prominence is derived largely from the natural competence of T.k. and the comprehensive, rapid, and facile techniques available for manipulation of the T.k. genome. These genetic capacities are complemented by robust planktonic growth, simple selections and screens, defined in vitro transcription and translation systems, replicative expression plasmids, in vivo reporter constructs, and an ever-expanding knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms underlying T.k. metabolism. Here we review the existing techniques for genetic and biochemical manipulation of T.k. We also introduce a universal platform to generate the first comprehensive deletion and epitope/affinity-tagged archaeal strain libraries.

ThomasJamesSantangelo

2012-06-01

358

Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques  

CERN Document Server

This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

Kido, Ken'iti

2015-01-01

359

Ultrasonic large aperture imaging technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose of defect detection, localization and sizing with ultrasound, a large aperture imaging technique has been developed. This method combines a focused transducer as an emitter with N transducers as receivers, regularly spaced in a large aperture. A classical beam forming algorithm is then applied to the N signals in order to obtain the final high resolution image. The authors demonstrate that this configuration ensures both a high signal to noise ratio - i.e. a high capability of defect detection - and a high lateral resolution - i.e. a high capability of defect location and sizing. Contrary to other focusing techniques, this method does not require complex control system or special purpose processor

360

Physical simulations using centrifuge techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Centrifuge techniques offer a method for doing physical simulations of the long-term mechanical response of deep ocean sediment to the emplacement of waste canisters and to the temperature gradients generated by them. Theoretical investigations of the scaling laws for pertinent phenomena indicate that the time scaling will be consistent among them and equal to the scaling factor squared. This result implies that this technique will permit accelerated-life-testing or proposed configurations; i.e., long-term studies may be done in relatively short times. Medium-scale simulation experiments that are designed to investigate the mechanical response of the sediment are currently in progress. Large-scale simulations can be started in the near future with the completion of the modifications to the Sandia-25 centrifuge

 
 
 
 
361

Simulation techniques for cosmological simulations  

CERN Document Server

Modern cosmological observations allow us to study in great detail the evolution and history of the large scale structure hierarchy. The fundamental problem of accurate constraints on the cosmological parameters, within a given cosmological model, requires precise modelling of the observed structure. In this paper we briefly review the current most effective techniques of large scale structure simulations, emphasising both their advantages and shortcomings. Starting with basics of the direct N-body simulations appropriate to modelling cold dark matter evolution, we then discuss the direct-sum technique GRAPE, particle-mesh (PM) and hybrid methods, combining the PM and the tree algorithms. Simulations of baryonic matter in the Universe often use hydrodynamic codes based on both particle methods that discretise mass, and grid-based methods. We briefly describe Eulerian grid methods, and also some variants of Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods.

Dolag, K; Schindler, S; Diaferio, A; Bykov, A M

2008-01-01

362

Image Steganography Techniques: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is one of the methods used for the hidden exchange of information and it can bedefined as the study of invisible communication that usually deals with the ways of hiding theexistence of the communicated message. In this way, if successfully it is achieved, the messagedoes not attract attention from eavesdroppers and attackers. Using steganography, informationcan be hidden in different embedding mediums, known as carriers. These carriers can be images,audio files, video files, and text files. The focus in this paper is on the use of an image file as acarrier, and hence, the taxonomy of current steganographic techniques for image files has beenpresented. These techniques are analyzed and discussed not only in terms of their ability to hideinformation in image files but also according to how much information can be hidden, and therobustness to different image processing attacks.

Nagham Hamid

2012-06-01

363

Text Steganography Techniques: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography has been in use since the presence of secret messages and this use has gained popularity as the internet became well-liked. Text steganography is a sub part of steganography that hides the message behind other cover text file. Moreover, hiding the text behind HTML coding of web pages makes the detection of steganography impractical as web pages are a fundamental building blocks of the internet. This paper reviews some of most common text steganography techniques that mainly focus on protecting text behind HTML and CSS (Cascading Style sheets coding of web pages. This paper also proposes a new technique based on hiding text behing HTML and CSS portion of web page coding

Neha Rani#1 , Jyoti Chaudhary

2013-07-01

364

Groundwater Solution Techniques: Environmental Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Groundwater models provide a scientific tool for various groundwater studies which include groundwater flow, solute transport, heat transport and deformation. However, without a good understanding of a model, modeling studies are not well designed or the model does not represent the natural system which being modeled long term effects may results. Thus, this review has focused and reviewed the types of solution techniques in terms of advantages and limitations. The findings are vital to improve the model conceptualization and understanding of the uncertainty in model results. On the same hand, it acts as guide and reference to groundwater modeler, reduces the time spent in understanding the solution technique and complexity of groundwater models, as well as focus ways to address the groundwater problems and deliver modeling output more efficiently.

Kawi BIDIN

2010-01-01

365

Planning Technique in Maxillofacial Plasty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have represented a new method of computer planning in surgical management of posttraumatic and congenital deformities of facial skeleton using individual tetrapolyfluoroethylene implants for contour plasty. There have been developed the technique of preoperative planning enabling to recover the symmetry of a deformed area using a computer 3D-model, and based on the obtained data — to produce individual implants for contour plasty. There have been received positive results of the technique in clinical use in patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities. Computer planning promotes accurate planning and reliable prognosis of the management results due to an individual implant used for contour facial plasty, which requires correction. Conclusion. Computer planning and CAD/CAM-production of an individual implant enables to correct deformities and recover facial symmetry and esthetics in patients with posttraumatic and congenital distortions of face.

?.?. Muraev

2013-08-01

366

Abel inversion using transform techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is presented for calculating the reconstruction of a circularly symmetric two-dimensional function from its projection, a relation known as the Abel inversion. This technique differs from techniques used previously by using integral transforms for its implementation. The frequency-domain analysis allows for experimentally obtained data, which is often noisy and off-center, to be dealt with in a systematic, rational manner. The formulation of the Abel inversion in terms of transforms, the filtering of the noise, and the estimate of the off-center shift are discussed. Sample calculations of simulated noisy data and the application of the method to an image of a laser sustained plasma are presented

367

Video Compression Techniques: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents, the review of various compression algorithms used for the video compression. The video compression has become a basic requirement in the modern digital scenario. The video compression is started with the Motion JPEG and Motion JPEG2000. In which the each frame is consider as a picture for the JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression respectively. But these techniques do not use the video compression at all. Video signal has high temporal redundancies due to the high correlation between successive frames. Actually, this redundancy has not been exploited enough by these video compression techniques. So the MPEG is exploited as a solution to this problem. But the MPEG is slow due to 3D transformations of the video blocks. So the Accordion based video compression is found to be a better idea.

Ajay

2014-07-01

368

LHC Olympics: Advanced Analysis Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The LHC Olympics is a series of workshop aimed at encouraging theorists and experimentalists to prepare for the soon-to-be-online Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland. One aspect of the LHC Olympics program consists of the study of simulated data sets which represent various possible new physics signals as they would be seen in LHC detectors. Through this exercise, LHC Olympians learn the phenomenology of possible new physics models and gain experience in analyzing LHC data. Additionally, the LHC Olympics encourages discussion between theorists and experimentalists, and through this collaboration new techniques could be developed. The University of Washington LHC Olympics group consists of several first-year graduate and senior undergraduate students, in both theoretical and experimental particle physics. Presented here is a discussion of some of the more advanced techniques used and the recent results of one such LHC Olympics study.

Armour, Kyle; Larkoski, Andrew; Gray, Amanda; Ventura, Dan; Walsh, Jon; Schabinger, Rob

2006-05-01

369

Data mining and visualization techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Whitney, Paul (Richland, WA); Thomas, Jim (Richland, WA)

2004-03-23

370

Automation of APAAP immunocytochemical technique.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A tissue processing instrument (the Histokinette) was modified by the addition of an electronic timing device which allows an immunocytochemical staining technique (the APAAP method) to be performed as a semiautomated procedure. After incubation with primary monoclonal antibodies (applied by hand) slides (up to 72 in a batch) are placed in racks and cycled through tanks of reagents, comprising anti-mouse Ig followed by APAAP complexes with intervening timed draining and washing stages. This s...

Stross, W. P.; Jones, M.; Mason, D. Y.

1989-01-01

371

Processing techniques applying laser technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The requirements for the processing of nuclear energy equipment include high precision, low distortion, and low heat input. Toshiba has developed laser processing techniques for cutting, welding, and surface heat treatment of nuclear energy equipment because the zone affected by distortion and heat in laser processing is very small. Laser processing contributes to the manufacturing of high-quality and high-reliability equipment and reduces the manufacturing period. (author)

372

A MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR HYDROXYACETONE.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C=CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NO{sub x}. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water (it's Henry's law constant being {approx}2 x 10{sup 4} M atm{sup -1} at 20 C, Zhou and Lee, unpublished data), we developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one we reported earlier (Lee and Zhou, 1993), namely, based on derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, we adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island (LI), New York. We report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

KLOTZ,P.J.

1999-10-04

373

Groundwater Solution Techniques: Environmental Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Groundwater models provide a scientific tool for various groundwater studies which include groundwater flow, solute transport, heat transport and deformation. However, without a good understanding of a model, modeling studies are not well designed or the model does not represent the natural system which being modeled long term effects may results. Thus, this review has focused and reviewed the types of solution techniques in terms of advantages and limitations. The findings are vital to impro...

Bidin, Kawi; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Abdullah, Mohd Harun; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

2010-01-01

374

Techniques for effective vocabulary selection  

CERN Document Server

The vocabulary of a continuous speech recognition (CSR) system is a significant factor in determining its performance. In this paper, we present three principled approaches to select the target vocabulary for a particular domain by trading off between the target out-of-vocabulary (OOV) rate and vocabulary size. We evaluate these approaches against an ad-hoc baseline strategy. Results are presented in the form of OOV rate graphs plotted against increasing vocabulary size for each technique.

Venkataraman, A; Venkataraman, Anand; Wang, Wen

2003-01-01

375

5.3. Experimental technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is devoted to experimental technique. Solvents used in experiment were purified by conventional method; N-vinyl-pyrrolidone was purified by vacuum distillation at presence of inhibitor-hydroquinone; vinyl-pyridine was purified by vacuum distillation. The synthesis of ethynyl piperidol monomers was studied. The synthesis of cross-linked polymers of ethynyl piperidol was suited as well. The assessment of composition of monomer units of cross-linked polymers of ethynyl piperidol was carried out.

376

Radar techniques using array antennas  

CERN Document Server

Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

2013-01-01

377

TBI technique with long SAD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the physical and technical situation of total body irradiation (TBI) for long SAD and a 6 MV X-rays. In principle this paper consists of the following points: physical characteristics of 6 MV X-rays; basic TBI dosimetry; dose distribution in the phantom; compensating method for inhomogeneity; practical TBI technique; in vivo dosimetry of the oesophagus. For TBI, it is very important to have uniformity of the three-dimensional dose distribution in the whole body. TBI technique is performed by AP/PA opposing fields, bilateral opposing fields and four fields (combined AP/PA and bilateral opposing fields). As a result of measured dose distribution in the phantom, four fields with compensators is the best TBI technique, indicating unaccuracy dose of ±10%. It is impossible to deliver a dose uniformity of ±10% for bilateral fields. For TBI dosimetry, it needs to measure for the phantom size needs to be measured to achieve the full scattering conditions, but the phantom size for dosimetry is practically suitable for use of a minimum dimension of 30 x 30 x 30 cm3. Compensating methods are used to give homogeneous dose to different thick bodys and inhomogeneities. We use tissue-equivalent bolus and compensator such as lead or copper. For in vivo measurement, expected dose ratio in the oesophagus is 0.947±0.044 for four fields, 0.994±0.025 for AP/PA fields, and 0.987±0.077 for the bilateral fields. The unaccuracy of irradiation doses are less than 5% f irradiation doses are less than 5% for various TBI. In the future, TBI technique should be established the best irradiated method that the uncertainty dose is delivered within ±5%. (author)

378

New extraction technique for alkaloids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This articl...

Djilani Abdelouaheb; Legseir Belgacem; Soulimani Rachid; Dicko Amadou; Younos Chaffique

2006-01-01

379

Electromigration techniques theory and practice  

CERN Document Server

The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

2013-01-01

380

A Technique: Examining the Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive therapy is based on the realistic epistemology which exerts that there is an objective reality beyond human experience. Cognitive models of psychopathology stipulate that the processing of external event or internal stimuli is biased and therefore systematically distorts the individual’s construction of his or her experiences, leading to a variety of cognitive errors. These distorted cognitions predispose or perpetuates mental disorders. If this bias that is also manifested in the automatic thoughts during specific instances can be attenuated by weakening the belief in these thoughts, it may lead into change in the accompanying emotion and dysfunctional behaviour. Objective: The aim of this review is to describe the basic technique of cognitive therapy namely “examining the evidence” and also present the clinical application of this technique. In order to perform this technique, first situation must be detailed. Then assessed emotion is graded according to its severity. After that, key automatic thought must be identified and phrased accordingly. After grading belief in the thought, evidence for and against the thought can be generated using appropriate questioning. In the end by using this evidence, the belief in the automatic thought and the emotion must be reviewed. Examining the evidence can also be used as a homework assignment to be done between sessions. In this text, steps of examining the evidence, which questions to be asked, and the points that must be attendant is reviewed and a sample interview is included. Conclusion: By its empirical nature “examining the evidence” is the most valuable technique of cognitive therapy and when it is applied properly long lasting change can occur in clients

Serkan AKKOYUNLU

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

Biometric Recognition Techniques A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In today?s world automation is encompassing virtually every walk of life and human control functions are delegated to technical equipment. No doubt this results in emerging requirement of highly reliable personal identification system for authenticated access of resources and to reject imposters. Traditional password based verification systems can be easily hacked when a password is divulged to an unauthorized user. A number of biometric techniques have been proposedfor personal identificat...

SHWETA GAUR; Shah, V. A.; MANISH THAKKER

2013-01-01

382

Subcellular techniques in radioecological studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental approach to the study of subcellular components is briefly reviewed with discussion on isolation techniques, chromatography, electrophoresis, dialysis, ultrafiltration, autoradiography and histochemistry. The majority of the examples are, of necessity, drawn from non-marine species but the principle considerations apply equally to all such studies. Some of the subcellular investigations that have been made on marine species are discussed, and the increasing requirement for further studies is illustrated by parallel examples in the mammalian field. (author)

383

Automated medical image segmentation techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT) and Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits ...

Sharma Neeraj; Aggarwal Lalit

2010-01-01

384

Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hideki Kobara,1 Hirohito Mori,1 Kazi Rafiq,2 Shintaro Fujihara,1 Noriko Nishiyama,1 Maki Ayaki,1 Tatsuo Yachida,1 Tae Matsunaga,1 Johji Tani,1 Hisaaki Miyoshi,1 Hirohito Yoneyama,1 Asahiro Morishita,1 Makoto Oryu,1 Hisakazu Iwama,3 Tsutomu Masaki1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-Gun, Kagawa, Japan Abstract: Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. Keywords: submucosal endoscopy, submucosal tunneling method, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy, gastrointestinal subepithelial tumor, functional and motility disorders

Kobara H

2014-04-01

385

Home care: products and techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal disease is common in dogs and cats. Prevention and treatment is important for general health and well-being of our pets. Both prevention and treatment of periodontal disease have two components, namely maintenance of oral hygiene and professional periodontal therapy. Maintenance of oral hygiene is performed by the owner and is, therefore, also called home care. The preventions and long-term control of periodontal disease requires adequate home care. This chapter details home care techniques and available products. PMID:11269998

Gorrel, C

2000-11-01

386

Computational intelligence techniques in bioinformatics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational intelligence (CI) is a well-established paradigm with current systems having many of the characteristics of biological computers and capable of performing a variety of tasks that are difficult to do using conventional techniques. It is a methodology involving adaptive mechanisms and/or an ability to learn that facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments, such that the system is perceived to possess one or more attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery, association and abstraction. The objective of this article is to present to the CI and bioinformatics research communities some of the state-of-the-art in CI applications to bioinformatics and motivate research in new trend-setting directions. In this article, we present an overview of the CI techniques in bioinformatics. We will show how CI techniques including neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief network, fuzzy logic, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems and support vector machines, could be successfully employed to tackle various problems such as gene expression clustering and classification, protein sequence classification, gene selection, DNA fragment assembly, multiple sequence alignment, and protein function prediction and its structure. We discuss some representative methods to provide inspiring examples to illustrate how CI can be utilized to address these problems and how bioinformatics data can be characterized by CI. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are also presented and an extensive bibliography is included. PMID:23891719

Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Ghali, Neveen I

2013-12-01

387

Imaging techniques in thyroid diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imaging techniques were discussed in a comprehensive manner and in consideration of the rapid recent progress. 30 papers were presented on the subjects of, roughly, radiology, nuclear medicine, and sonography. Apart from conventional radiodiagnostics, which may even yield epidemiological information, the first section also discussed pneumatological functional analysis as a mean of diagnosing tracheal insufficiencies. Thyroid CT is the method of choice in the mediastinal manifestations of thyroid diseases and in examinations of the organs next to the thyroid. Orbital CT yields completely new findings on the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and therapy of endocrineous orbitopathy. - While the diagnostic value of nuclear spin tomography remains uncertain, thyroid scintiscanning has reached maturity by now. In contrast to scanners, which give a general image, the ? camera can detect regional functional phenomena. Fluorescence scintiscanning, apart from quantification of intrathyroid iodine, enables scintigraphic imaging of the thyroid without incorporation of radioactivity. - The recent progress in thyroid sonography has been dramatic. Apart from the simple and reproducible technique of volumetry, nonstandard echo structures indicate diffuse or focal fine tissue lesions, and sonography has therefore become an accepted technique prior to fine needle biopsy or scintiscanning. (orig.)

388

Perioperative Acupuncture and Related Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Acupuncture and related techniques are increasingly practiced in conventional medical settings, and the number of patients willing to use these techniques is increasing. Despite more than 30 years of research, the exact mechanism of action and efficacy of acupuncture have not been establ