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Sample records for techniques disponibles permettant

  1. Boilers. Comparison of the main available techniques for boilers to comply with new regulations; Les chaudieres, comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

    1997-12-31

    The main techniques, presently available, that can lead to a consequent decrease in pollutant emissions, are presented pointing out their advantages and drawbacks: sulfur oxide emissions can be lowered by fuel processing and fume desulfurization (through desulfurizer in situ injection or a downstream treatment for solid and liquid fuels); NOx emissions are decreased through fume recycling, low-NOx burners, air staging (OFA), combustion chamber over-dimensioning, combustion air temperature reduction, re-burning (IFR), injection of de-nitrifying agents (at high temperature without catalysts, at low temperature with catalysts). Associations of these techniques are also discussed. Ash processing is studied for coal and fuel oil, depending on the NOx and SOx previously selected cleansing techniques

  2. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Places disponibles*/Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) Plannification de projet avec MS-Project/Project Scheduling with MS-Project : 2 sessions : 23.10 & 4.11.03 and 18 &25.11.03 (2 jours/2 days - langue à définir/language to be defined) AutoCAD 2002 ? Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11...

  3. Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l’enseignement de la thermodynamique technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Jaubert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé DiagSim capable d’estimer les propriétés d’un corps pur et de tracer n’importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés. [English] The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This technology tool is particularly useful when teaching engineering students the basic concepts of technical thermodynamics.

  4. Heating plants. Comparison between the main available techniques that allow heating plants to respect the new regulations; Les chaudieres. Comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the main methods available today to improve the thermal and environmental performances of heating plants and burners and points out the technical and economical advantages and drawbacks of these methods. The methods are described according to the type of pollutant: SO{sub x} (fuel treatment, smokes desulfurization, in-situ desulfurizers injection, lime treatment of solid and liquid fuels), NO{sub x} (smokes recycling, low-NO{sub x} burners, air staging, over-dimensioning of combustion chambers, reduction of combustion air temperature, re-burning, denitrifier injection, combination of several methods), dusts (filters and cyclones). (J.S.)

  5. BAT - BREF - IPPC or MTD: the ''best available techniques''; BAT - Bref - IPPC ou encore MTD: les ''meilleures techniques disponibles''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chefdebien, H. de [Federation Nationale des Activites de la Depollution et de l' Environnement, FNADE, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2001-08-01

    The notion of 'best available techniques' (BAT) in waste management (in French: 'meilleures techniques disponibles' or MTD) is defined in the European directive no 96/61/EC from October 10, 1996, also called IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention Control) directive. Its aim is to minimize the overall noxious effects of the industrial activities inside the European Union (air, water and ground pollution, noise, smells, accidents, excess of resources consumption etc..). BAT reference documents (named 'BREFs') are elaborated for each domain of activity by the European IPPC Bureau. This article presents the content of the BREFs relative to waste management and the criteria retained for the determination of the BATs in this domain. It precises the possible relations between the BREFs and the existing directives and environmental standards. Then it stresses on the importance of the BREF in wastes incineration. (J.S.)

  6. Places disponibles*/Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 20 - 22.1.03 (3 days) Introduction to PVSS : 27.1.03 (Afternoon) free course but registration necessary Basic PVSS : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 days) MAGNE-03 - Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 jours) MAGNE-03 - Magnetism for Technical Electronics : 11 - 13.2.03 (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 et 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.3.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Si vous désirez ...

  7. Places disponibles/Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : / Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 13 - 17.9.2004 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.9.2004 (4 jours) Programmation S...

  8. Places disponibles/Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Off...

  9. Places disponibles*/Places available **

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : WorldFIP 2003 pour utilisateurs : 11 - 14.2.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 & 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 25.2.03 (1/2 journée) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.2.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 11 & 12.3.03 / 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 Ces cours seront donnés en français ou anglais en fonction des demandes / These courses will be given in French o...

  10. COSTE SALARIAL Y RENTA DISPONIBLE DEL TRABAJADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pérez Carrasco

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Se expone la relación entre el coste laboral y la renta disponible del trabajador, así como el análisis de las consecuencias sobre el salario derivadas de la cotización a la Seguridad Social. The relationship between labour costs and disposable income of the workers is exposed as well as the analysis of the impact on wages resulting from contributions to Social Security.

  11. A Study on the Suitable Techniques for Improving the Flow Properties of the Egyptian Waxy Crude Oils Étude des techniques permettant d'améliorer l'écoulement des pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Eman N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, three different techniques were used for improving the flow properties of three Egyptian waxy crude oils (M-96, GPY-3 and Khalda. These techniques are : dilution, heating and chemical treatment. The improvement efficiency for each technique was investigated by measuring the rheological properties and the pour point as well. Also, the effect of each improvement technique on the power requirement was studied through calculation of the reduction in the pipeline pressure loss. The studied techniques have shown promising results in improving the flow properties of the tested crudes. However, the most suitable technique for a specific crude should be decided in the light of the technical features studied in the present paper in addition to an economical study which should be performed on each case individually. Cet article rend compte des essais effectués pour améliorer les caractéristiques d'écoulement de trois pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique (M-96, GPY-3 et Khalda. Trois techniques différentes ont été mises en oeuvre : dilution, chauffage et traitement chimique. L'efficacité de chacune de ces techniques a été évaluée par la mesure des propriétés rhéologiques et du point d'écoulement. De plus, on a étudié l'effet de ces diverses techniques sur les besoins énergétiques en calculant la réduction de la perte de charge en pipeline. Les techniques envisagées ont apporté des résultats prometteurs quant à l'amélioration des caractéristiques d'écoulement des bruts étudiés. Toutefois, pour choisir la technique la plus appropriée à un pétrole brut spécifique, il faudrait combiner les données techniques apportées par cet article avec une étude d'ordre économique effectuée pour chaque cas individuel.

  12. Places disponibles*/Places available ** - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 20 - 22.1.03 (3 days) Introduction to PVSS : 27.1.03 (Afternoon) free course but registration necessary Basic PVSS : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 days) MAGNE-03 - Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 jours) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System : 28.1.03 (1 day) MAGNE-03 - Magnetism for Technical Electronics : 11 - 13.2.03 (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 et 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.2.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may va...

  13. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl H Sansores

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente. El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8, sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar.Objective. To describe smoking cessation therapies available in Mexico. Material and Methods. Literature review of meta-analysis, controlled clinical trials, and behavioral therapy studies. Results. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions showed a good chance of success on average, expressed as the ratio of the active drug vs. placebo cessation therapy outcomes (ratios of 39, 78, 79, 117, and 119%, for nicotine chewing gum, bupropion, nicotine patch, inhaler, and nicotine nasal spray, respectively. Behavioral therapy showed satisfactory results, (OR= 3.8 however, more research is needed to establish its effectiveness. Conclusions. Emphasis is made on the need to combine behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy, to increase the likelihood of successful smoking cessation.

  14. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl H, Sansores; Alejandra, Ramírez-Venegas; Marlene, Espinosa-Martínez; Ricardo A, Sandoval.

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochran [...] e Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente). El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8), sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar. Abstract in english Objective. To describe smoking cessation therapies available in Mexico. Material and Methods. Literature review of meta-analysis, controlled clinical trials, and behavioral therapy studies. Results. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions showed a good chance of success on average, expressed [...] as the ratio of the active drug vs. placebo cessation therapy outcomes (ratios of 39, 78, 79, 117, and 119%, for nicotine chewing gum, bupropion, nicotine patch, inhaler, and nicotine nasal spray, respectively). Behavioral therapy showed satisfactory results, (OR= 3.8) however, more research is needed to establish its effectiveness. Conclusions. Emphasis is made on the need to combine behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy, to increase the likelihood of successful smoking cessation.

  15. RESEÑA DEL SOFTWARE DISPONIBLE EN COLOMBIA PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS EN CADENAS DE ABASTECIMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA GUTIÉRREZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de los diferentes tipos de inventario a lo largo de una cadena de abastecimiento es un problema complejo que, en la mayoría de los casos de la industria colombiana e internacional, se aborda mediante la implementación de herramientas de software. Sin embargo, la decisión de implementar dichas herramientas está en muchos casos limitada por la capacidad financiera para invertir en ellas y por el desconocimiento de la oferta de software disponible en Colombia. Este artículo presenta una reseña del software disponible en Colombia para la gestión de inventarios con el fin de brindar a las empresas que se enfrentan a la decisión de implementar un software, una herramienta de soporte que indique cuál es la oferta en Colombia y cuáles son las características de los sistemas disponibles. Para esto se presenta primero el estado del arte, en el cual se identifica el resultado de la revisión de la literatura y el uso de las herramientas de software en la industria colombiana. Seguidamente se presenta la caracterización de los productos de software disponibles en el país. Dicha caracterización permite identificar la configuración general de los productos, los módulos de gestión con los que cuenta, las opciones de integración con otras herramientas informáticas, y la información general de precios e instalación. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones del estudio y las futuras oportunidades de investigación.

  16. Observation du trafic malveillant à l'aide d'un cadriciel permettant la composition et la parallélisation d'inspecteurs de points d'interconnexion

    OpenAIRE

    Alberdi, Ion

    2010-01-01

    Notre thèse stipule qu'au vu de l'ampleur des agissements malveillants dans l'Internet, les logiciels d'extrémité doivent être surveillés. Pour limiter le nombre de points de surveillance, nous proposons de surveiller les logiciels depuis un point d'interconnexion. Nous avons dans ce but conçu Luth, un outil permettant de composer et de paralléliser un ensemble d'inspecteurs de points d'interconnexion (appelés MI) qui implémentent des mini IDS, IPS ou pare-feux, tout en vérifiant la correctio...

  17. Conception, elaboration et mise a l'essai d'un simulateur interactif permettant une approche modelisante: Application aux lois de la genetique mendelienne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasri, Abdel-Halim

    Dans cette recherche-developpement, nous avons concu, developpe et mis a l'essai un simulateur interactif pour favoriser l'apprentissage des lois probabilistes impliqees dans la genetique mendelienne. Cet environnement informatise devra permettre aux etudiants de mener des experiences simulees, utilisant les statistiques et les probebilites comme outils mathematiques pour modeliser le phenomene de la transmission des caracteres hereditaires. L'approche didactique est essentiellement orientee vers l'utilisation des methodes quantitatives impliquees dans l'experimentation des facteurs hereditaires. En incorporant au simulateur le principe de la "Lunette cognitive" de Nonnon (1986), l'etudiant fut place dans une situation ou il a pu synchroniser la perception de la representation iconique (concrete) et symbolique (abstraite) des lois probabilistes de Mendel. A l'aide de cet environnement, nous avons amene l'etudiant a identifier le(s) caractere(s) hereditaire(s) des parents a croiser, a predire les frequences phenotypiques probables de la descendance issue du croisement, a observer les resultats statistiques et leur fluctuation au niveau de l'histogramme des frequences, a comparer ces resultats aux predictions anticipees, a interpreter les donnees et a selectionner en consequence d'autres experiences a realiser. Les etapes de l'approche inductive sont privilegiees du debut a la fin des activites proposees. L'elaboration, du simulateur et des documents d'accompagnement, a ete concue a partir d'une vingtaine de principes directeurs et d'un modele d'action. Ces principes directeurs et le modele d'action decoulent de considerations theoriques psychologiques, didactiques et technologiques. La recherche decrit la structure des differentes parties composant le simulateur. L'architecture de celui-ci est construite autour d'une unite centrale, la "Principale", dont les liens et les ramifications avec les autres unites confere a l'ensemble du simulateur sa souplesse et sa facilite d'utilisation. Le simulateur "Genetique", a l'etat de prototype, et la documentation qui lui est afferente ont ete soumis a deux mises a l'essai: l'une fonctionnelle, l'autre empirique. La mise a l'essai fonctionnelle, menee aupres d'un groupe d'enseignants experts, a permis d'identifier les lacunes du materiel elabore afin de lui apporter les reajustements qui s'imposaient. La mise a l'essai empirique, conduite par un groupe de onze (11) etudiants de niveau secondaire, avait pour but, d'une part, de tester la facilite d'utilisation du simulateur "Genetique" ainsi que les documents d'accompagnement et, d'autre part, de verifier si les participants retiraient des avantages pedagogiques de cet environnement. Trois techniques furent exploitees pour recolter les donnees de la mise a l'essai empirique. L'analyse des resultats a permis de faire un retour critique sur les productions concretes de cette recherche et d'apporter les modifications necessaires tant au simulateur qu'aux documents d'accompagnement. Cette analyse a permis egalement de conclure que notre simulateur interactif favorise une approche inductive permettant aux etudiants de s'approprier les lois probabilistes de Mendel. Enfin, la conclusion degage des pistes de recherches destinees aux etudes ulterieures, plus particulierement celles qui s'interessent a developper des simulateurs, afin d'integrer a ceux-ci des representations concretes et abstraites presentees en temps reel. Les disquettes du simulateur "Genetique" et les documents d'accompagnement sont annexes a la presente recherche.

  18. Talco y carbonato básico de magnesio como aportantes de magnesio disponible al suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa Goméz Laverde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediante dos ensayos de laboratorio se realizó un estudio sobre la solubilización de carbonato básico de magnesio y de talco para juzgar estas fuentes como aportantes de magnesio disponible. Los minerales finamente molidos se aplicaron en dosis equivalente a 3,6 meq/100 g a muestras de tres suelos de pH diferente. En el ensayo I las muestras de suelo más la fuente de magnesio se Incubaron en recipientes cerrados, a 18

  19. Le raisonnement et les avancées techniques permettent de réduire la fertilisation azotée : le cas de Farmstar-colza®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagarde Fabien

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The practices of nitrogen fertilization are really changing, due to the new farming context including environmental, economical, and energetic constraints. In 2005, 90% of the producers said they used a method to adapt nitrogen supplies in their fields and more than 40% among them used the CETIOM method “réglette azote”. Since 2004, a new system, called Farmstar-colza® based on satellite observation has been developed by Infoterra France, a subsidiary of the EADS group. With this technology, it’s possible to draw a map of the fields with nitrogen supply advices and to practice modular apply on the crops. Moreover, this technology increases the precision of the crop nitrogen absorption assessment. Therefore, in the future it seems possible to improve the estimated need of nitrogen to grow oil seed rape in order to get a good energetic balance with an optimum oil rate as well as high yields.

  20. Recursos disponibles para la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de futbolistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Lorenzo Fern\\u00E1ndez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La retirada deportiva es a menudo una etapa de crisis que requiere exigencias y ciertos ajustes a nivel ocupacional, financiero, social y psicológico (Cury, Ferreira y Leite de Barros, 2008. En línea con las contribuciones recientes al tema de la retirada deportiva y la posterior empleabilidad, el presente trabajo pretende analizar de modo descriptivo los recursos disponibles para hacer frente a la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de los jugadores profesionales de un club de fútbol. Para ello se ha elaborado el Cuestionario para el Diagnóstico de la Empleabilidad en Deportistas de Élite. Los resultados indican que para hacer frente de forma adaptativa a la retirada deportiva los futbolistas del club necesitan instaurar una conciencia de futuro, planificar su retirada deportiva, ahorrar y formarse, y por otro lado, se debe fortalecer el capital humano acumulado, apoyo social percibido y habilidades, estrategias y capacidades adquiridas tras la práctica deportiva.

  1. Niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible en gallinas durante 48 semanas en postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Angélica Gutiérrez Arenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para evaluar niveles de calcio (Ca y fósforo disponible (Pd en gallinas. Se utilizaron 300 gallinas Leghorn Hy-line W36 y se alimentaron con cinco tratamientos, tomando en cuenta los niveles óptimos de encontrados en la literatura. Las dietas fueron: T1, 4.34% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T2, 4.34% Ca y 0.23% Pd; T3, 4.62% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T4, 4.62% Ca y 0.23% Pd y T5, 3.25% Ca y 0.25% Pd. Se midió consumo de alimento, consumo de Ca y de Pd, conversión alimenticia, número de huevos, masa de huevo, peso del huevo, gravedad específica y porcentaje de cascarón. Para número de huevos, masa de huevo, consumo de alimento, conversión alimenticia y peso de huevo, no se encontraron diferencias entre tratamientos (P>0.05. Se observó mayor consumo de Ca (P<0.05 en las gallinas de los tratamientos T3 y T4 (4.80 y 4.81 g ave-1 día-1 ; en cuanto a consumo de fósforo disponible, las gallinas del T5 consumieron más (P<0.05 que las demás (0.258 g ave -1 día-1 . Para gravedad específica, hubo mejores resultados con T1, T3 y T4 (1.0837, 1.0841, y 1.0840; P<0.05. En porcentaje de cascarón se observaron mejores resultados con las gallinas de T1, T2, T3 y T4 (P<0.05. Se concluye que las concentraciones de Ca sugeridas por el NRC (1994, no son suficientes para máxima calidad del cascarón; sin embargo, los niveles de Pd 0.18 y 0.23% son menores a los sugeridos por el NRC, de 0.25%.

  2. NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE Y DESARROLLO DEL BALLICO ANUAL. I. PRODUCCIÓN, CALIDAD DEL FORRAJE Y ACUMULACIÓN DE NITRATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Antonio Cueto Wong

    2003-01-01

    ballico se incrementó de 135.4 a 228.4 g kg-1 al aumentar la dosis de nitrógeno de 0 a 390 kg ha-1 ciclo-1. Dosis de estiércol 75 ó 100 t ha-1 produjeron 193.0 y 179.3 g kg-1 de PC, resultando superiores a la aplicación de 0, 25, ó 50 t ha-1. La dosis de 390 kg ha-1 de N causó que la concentración de nitratos fuera superior a 2000 mg kg-1 de N-NO3 en tres de los cuatro cortes del ballico, independientemente del estiércol aplicado. Las concentraciones promedio del ciclo para las dosis de 50 y 100 t ha-1 de estiércol sin fertilizante ueron 1224 y 1725 mg kg-1 de N-NO3, respectivamente. Se encontró que 400 kg ha-1 de N disponible durante el ciclo (aportado por el suelo + mineralizado del estiércol aplicado + nitrógeno del fertilizante es suficiente para alcanzar un buen rendimiento y calidad del ballico italiano y sin riesgo de contaminación por nitratos.

  3. Generadores de radiofrecuencia disponibles en el mercado español / RF generators available in the spanish market

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. de, Andrés; G., Roca; A., Perucho; C., Nieto; D., López.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En España se ha producido un incremento en la realización de Técnicas de Radiofrecuencia (RF), como muestra la reciente encuesta publicada en la Revista Española del Dolor. Desde el Grupo de Interés de la Sociedad Española hemos querido difundir la RF mediante la realización de cursos. Una pregunta [...] repetida en los cursos era ¿Qué "aparatos de RF" existen? En el presente artículo no hemos querido valorar cuáles eran mejores o peores, sino describir sus características técnicas más relevantes. Objetivos: analizar los diferentes generadores de ondas de radiofrecuencia presentes en el mercado español. Abstract in english There has been an important increase in radiofrequency procedures in Spain during the past five years. The Spanish Society RF Interest Group has always wanted to spread the use of RF techniques among pain practitioners. In this paper we analyze the different RF generators available in the spanish ma [...] rket, with their most relevant technical features.

  4. Generadores de radiofrecuencia disponibles en el mercado español RF generators available in the spanish market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. de Andrés

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En España se ha producido un incremento en la realización de Técnicas de Radiofrecuencia (RF, como muestra la reciente encuesta publicada en la Revista Española del Dolor. Desde el Grupo de Interés de la Sociedad Española hemos querido difundir la RF mediante la realización de cursos. Una pregunta repetida en los cursos era ¿Qué "aparatos de RF" existen? En el presente artículo no hemos querido valorar cuáles eran mejores o peores, sino describir sus características técnicas más relevantes. Objetivos: analizar los diferentes generadores de ondas de radiofrecuencia presentes en el mercado español.There has been an important increase in radiofrequency procedures in Spain during the past five years. The Spanish Society RF Interest Group has always wanted to spread the use of RF techniques among pain practitioners. In this paper we analyze the different RF generators available in the spanish market, with their most relevant technical features.

  5. Contribution à l'intelligence territoriale appliquée: catalogue raisonné de l'information territoriale disponible sur internet et sources en Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Devillet, Guénael; Breuer, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Le présent article fait état de la collecte d'informations territoriales pour les acteurs locaux dans l'ensemble de l'Europe (UE 27). Il traite des différentes sources disponibles en Europe de manière centralisée et décentralisée. Un inventaire a été réalisé pour des indicateurs sélectionnés dans le cadre de la méthode CATALYSE de confrontation des besoins des populations avec les services disponibles pour y répondre. Différents exemples de sources d'information pour les territoires (" observ...

  6. LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Germany G; Ninette Cartes E

    2000-01-01

    El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: • Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. • D...

  7. Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ramos Sánchez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se realizó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red.The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Google, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

  8. Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Ramos Sánchez.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se real [...] izó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red. Abstract in english The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Googl [...] e, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

  9. Actividad productiva y empleo de personas con trastorno mental severo: algunas propuestas de actuación basadas en la información disponible.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino López Álvarez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hay un creciente interés, en el campo de la atención comunitaraia a personas con trastorno mental severo, por los temas relacionados con el empleo. Tanto en Estados Unidos como en Europa se están desarrollando a la vez nuevas iniciativas y un número creciente de investigaciones que van aportando nuevo conocimiento a este importante campo de intervención, al que, con más lentitud de la debida, vamos incorporándonos también en nuestro país. En esa situación el artículo parte de la revisión de la información disponible sobre el tema, como base para elaborar y someter a debate algunas líneas de actuación, que recogen también los aspectos más generales de nuestra experiencia en Andalucía. A ese respecto se exponen las características generales que, en nuestra opinión, debería tener un programa destinado a facilitar actividad productiva y empleo a personas con trastorno mental severo en el contexto de nuestro país.

  10. Cuarenta años de investigación sobre la plasticidad del músculo esquelético; conclusiones personales (artículo completo disponible en inglés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Hoppeler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este es un estudio personal altamente subjetivo sobre la investigación llevada a cabo durante los últimos 50 años que documenta los fenómenos y los mecanismos de la plasticidad del tejido muscular esquelético. Enfocaré el trabajo desde una perspectiva histórica y seguiré algunos de los hilos que han despertado mi curiosidad y han guiado mi investigación a lo largo de mi carrera investigadora. Este estudio no es ni exhaustivo ni equilibrado. Representa mis intereses personales y algunos descubrimientos cruciales que han marcado mis objetivos de investigación. He tenido la suerte de llevar a cabo este estudio con colaboradores muy creativos que han sido los que han realizado la mayor parte de esta investigación. También he tenido la suerte de contar con dos tutores excepcionales, ER Weibel y C.R. Taylor, que me han apoyado durante todo el proceso guiándome y dándome consejos e, inicialmente, facilitándome la ayuda económica necesaria. Han fomentado un enfoque global y me han enseñado a combinar la investigación funcional y estructural para lograr una visión integral del rendimiento del sistema. Cuando las herramientas moleculares apropiadas pasaron a estar disponibles a finales de los 90, estas ayudaron a descubrir los mecanismos subyacentes de la plasticidad estructural y funcional del músculo previamente descrita. La idea de que el tejido muscular esquelético activo es determinante para el bienestar físico y para la salud continuará impulsando la investigación mecanicista de la plasticidad muscular en el futuro.

  11. Recursos disponibles para la protección de mujeres migrantes en tránsito por Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío CÁRDENAS-RODRÍGUEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La labor del gobierno mexicano en materia de política migratoria es una estrategia para administrar el flujo de migrantes en tránsito rumbo a Estados Unidos, no para salvaguardar su integridad y derechos, menos aún está diseñada para proteger a las mujeres. En esa medida, el interés de este artículo es hacer evidentes los escasos recursos de protección disponibles para migrantes y la ausencia de perspectiva de género en los recursos de apoyo para mujeres en tránsito por México. A través de entrevistas a autoridades y organismos sociales en la frontera de Tamaulipas y con base en el enfoque del modelo ecológico, se evaluaron los recursos de la política pública mexicana como elementos amortiguadores para los migrantes, frente a riesgos y elementos de vulnerabilidad de la mujer en tránsito.

  12. Agua disponible en monocultivo de soja con cultivos de cobertura y barbechos reducidos en la región semiárida y subhúmeda Pampeana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia Fabiana, Carfagno; Maximiliano Joaquín, Eiza; Alberto, Quiroga; Francisco, Babinec; Celio, Chagas; Roberto, MIchelena.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En ambientes subhúmedos y semiáridos el principal factor de pérdida de agua desde la superficie del suelo es la evaporación. Este proceso puede ser reducido utilizando cultivos de cobertura (CC) que al aumentar la transpiración, reasignan el agua potencialmente evaporada al flujo transpiratorio de l [...] as plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la dinámica del agua bajo los sistemas de cultivo (SC) de soja continua con CC y barbechos de duración reducida. Se estudiaron cuatro CC y tres momentos de secado en un Hapludol y en un Haplustol, evaluando la lámina de agua disponible (LAD) durante dos años. Para el Hapludol, en general, la LAD a la siembra de soja fue mayor o igual en los SC con CC que bajo monocultivo de soja. En el Haplustol sólo en el SC con CC centeno secado tardío la LAD fue mayor al sistema de soja continua. Se concluye que la dinámica hídrica bajo monocultivo de soja es afectada por la inclusión de CC, siendo el centeno la especie mejor adaptada a estos ambientes. Abstract in english In subhumid and semiarid environments, the main factor affecting water loss from the soil surface is evaporation. This process can be reduced by using cover crops (CC) that increase transpiration and potentially reallocate evaporated water to plant transpiration. The aim of this work was to study th [...] e water dynamics under cropping systems (SC) with continuous soybean in two soil great groups, four CC and three fallow lengths. We studied four CC and three drying times under two soils, a Haplustol and a Hapludol, evaluating the available water depth (LAD) for two years. For the Hapludol, in general, the LAD at soybean planting rotated with CC was greater than or equal to the SC under continuous soybean. In the Haplustol, the LAD at soybean planting was greater only in the SC with the late-dried CC rye when compared to the continuous soybeans SC. We conclude that the water dynamics under continuous soybean is affected by the inclusion of CC, where rye is the best species adapted to these environments.

  13. Estimación del gasto cardíaco: Utilidad en la práctica clínica. Monitorización disponible invasiva y no invasiva / Estimating cardiac output: Utility in the clinical practice. Available invasive and non-invasive monitoring

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    X., García; L., Mateu; J., Maynar; J., Mercadal; A., Ochagavía; A., Ferrandiz.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión pretende profundizar en el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco, sus variables y sus condicionantes, así como repasar exhaustivamente las diferentes técnicas disponibles para su monitorización y establecer las situaciones en que el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco nos aporta una información [...] fundamental en el manejo del paciente crítico. La técnica de Fick, utilizada en los inicios para calcular el gasto cardíaco de los pacientes, ha sido sustituida hoy en día en la práctica clínica por los métodos de termodilución (transcardíaca o transpulmonar), litiodilución, biorreactancia, la tecnología basada en el efecto Doppler o la ecocardiografía. El análisis de la onda de pulso ha permitido la obtención de una medida continua y mínimamente invasiva del gasto cardíaco. Otros métodos, como la biorrectancia, el Doppler o la ecocardiografía nos permiten, en la actualidad, obtener medidas del gasto cardíaco de forma no invasiva, rápida y fiable. Abstract in english This aim of this review is to provide a detailed review of the physiologic conditions and variables of the cardiac output, as well as review the different techniques available for its measurement. We also want to establish the clinical situations in which the measurement of cardiac output can add va [...] luable information for the management of critically ill patients. The Fick technique, used in the beginning to calculate cardiac output, has been replaced today by thermodilution techniques (transcardiac or transpulmonary), lithium dilution, bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography. Pulse wave analysis allows a continuous minimally invasive cardiac output measurement. Other methods, such bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography currently provide a valid, fast and non-invasive measurement of cardiac output.

  14. LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Germany G

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: • Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. • Determinar la incidencia del factor tipo de establecimiento educacional en la disponibilidad léxica del inglés como segunda lengua en los alumnos que componen la muestra.The present work is a transectional correlational study among students who learn English as a second language, across the Eight Region at the formal learning schools in Chile. The linguistic level of the available lexicon was explored among samples of students from different secondary schools. The research was planned in terms of general objectives: • Describe the available lexicon produced by students of English as L2 (second language, from different schools. • Know the incidence of the variable type of school in English lexicon availability, produced by students included in the sample.

  15. LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA / Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Germany G; Ninette, Cartes E.

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos ed [...] ucacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: • Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. • Determinar la incidencia del factor tipo de establecimiento educacional en la disponibilidad léxica del inglés como segunda lengua en los alumnos que componen la muestra. Abstract in english The present work is a transectional correlational study among students who learn English as a second language, across the Eight Region at the formal learning schools in Chile. The linguistic level of the available lexicon was explored among samples of students from different secondary schools. The r [...] esearch was planned in terms of general objectives: • Describe the available lexicon produced by students of English as L2 (second language), from different schools. • Know the incidence of the variable type of school in English lexicon availability, produced by students included in the sample.

  16. Internet y recursos en línea como alternativas terapéuticas para trastornos de abuso o dependencia a sustancias: una revisión de los recursos disponibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Orozco Cabal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las intervenciones en línea constituyen una de las tantas opciones terapéuticas disponibles para pacientes con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias y otras condiciones psiquiátricas. No obstante, su utilidad ha sido ampliamente cuestionada a la luz de falta de rigurosidad. Objetivo: Revisar y discutir la literatura existente acerca de los recursos e intervenciones en línea para trastornos por abuso/dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas. Método: Búsqueda sistemática de literatura sobre los recursos e intervenciones en línea relacionados con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias. Resultados: Existen numerosos recursos informativos para el público general, pero la calidad de la información disponible no es siempre adecuada. También hay, aunque en menor número, intervenciones y programas de autoayuda en línea, específicamente para tabaquismo y alcoholismo. No obstante, su efectividad no ha sido determinada en estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados, adecuadamente diseñados. Conclusión: Son necesarios estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados que permitan evaluar la efectividad de este tipo de intervenciones. Los resultados iluminarán el desarrollo de estrategias de intervención integrales que usen esta poderosa herramienta de comunicación.

  17. Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseignement technique

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  18. Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseigement technique

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  19. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia TORRES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temperatura. Al finalizar el estudio, la cantidad de lisina disponible remanente fue de 38,5% (a 25°C; 15,3 % (a 30°C y 14,1% (a 35°C. La cinética de la reacción de deterioro fue de orden uno, dependiente de la temperatura de almacenamiento, según la ecuación de interrelación de Arrhenius, con un valor de energía de activación de 15,17 kcal/mol, por lo que cae dentro del rango de las reacciones de oxidación de lípidos. De acuerdo a las características del producto [contenido de lípidos (17,5%, proteínas (17,3% y una actividad de agua de 0,46], la disminución de lisina pudiera ser explicada por la interacción de productos de oxidación de lípidos con proteínas. Considerando un valor de 0,422g lis/100g producto como punto crítico, se predijo la vida útil del producto a temperaturas diferentes a las evaluadas. Condiciones de almacenamiento por debajo de 30°C, garantizan un mayor período de vida útil: hasta 9 meses a 15°C, 6 meses a 20°C y 3 meses a 28°C, en función del indicador de deterioro evaluado.This study estimated the shelf life of a dietary formula for children with diarrhea, using the decrease of available lysine as an indicator of deterioration. Product samples were packaged in multilaminal pouches (paper-plastic-foil and stored at 25, 30 and 35°C, for two months. The available lysine was measured weekly and the reaction of deterioration kinetics and its relationship with temperature was calculated. At the end of the study, the remainder of available lysine was of 38.5 (at 25°C, 15.3 (at 30°C and 14.1% (at 35°C.The findings of the study indicated a first order reaction kinetics, dependent on the storage temperature based on the Arrhenius approach, with an activation energy of 15.17 kcal/mol, falling within the lipid oxidation range. According to the product characteristics [lipids content (17.5%, protein (17.3% and water activity of 0.46], the decrease of available lysine could be explained by the interaction between lipid oxidation products and proteins. Based on a critical value of 0.422 g lysine/100g product, the product shelf life was predicted at temperatures different from those of experimental conditions. At temperatures below 30°C, the shelf life would be extended up to 9 months at 15°C, 6 months at 20°C and 3 months at 28°C, as a function of the chosen indicator.

  20. Hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad: evidencia disponible diagnóstica y terapéutica / Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the preterm infant: current evidence in diagnosis and treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Bravo; P., Cano; R., Conde; M., Gelabert; P., Pulido; B., Ros; P., Miranda.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La hemorragia de la matriz germinal y la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica son las complicaciones neuroquirúrgicas más frecuentes en los pacientes recién nacidos pretérmino91. La incidencia de estas complicaciones es muy variable según las series consultadas19,36,47,56,61,71,93, pero su prevalencia está e [...] n cualquier caso en aumento debido tanto a la mayor incidencia de embarazos múltiples y partos prematuros en relación al avance de las nuevas técnicas de fertilización, como a la mayor supervivencia de estos pacientes merced a los recientes avances en los cuidados perinatales85. En este contexto resulta esencial disponer de un conocimiento preciso y concreto de las recomendaciones diagnósticas y terapéuticas en referencia a esta entidad. Sin embargo, la evidencia disponible al respecto es a menudo fragmentada e incompleta. El objetivo de la presente revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de los principales aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de la hidrocefalia poshemorrágica asociada a la prematuridad. Para ello se ha solicitado a los miembros del grupo de trabajo de Neurocirugía Pediátrica de la Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía que revisen las cuestiones más relevantes en referencia a esta patología. Esto supone el primer paso para la elaboración de una guía clínica común para el tratamiento de las complicaciones asociadas a la hemorragia intra y periventricular del prematuro. Abstract in english Intraventricular haemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus are the most important neurological complications in preterm infants during the neonatal period91. The prevalence of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage widely varies depending on the population of study19,36,47,56,61,71,93, but [...] it is in any case increasing due both to the higher incidence of multiple and preterm deliveries as well as the longer survival of preterm infants favoured by recent advances in perinatal care85. It is therefore of the utmost convenience to be familiar with the most important clinical evidence regarding this entity. However, the available evidence is often incomplete and piecemeal. The objective of the present review is to summarise the main diagnostic and therapeutic points regarding preterm-related posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. The participants of the working-group in Pediatric Neurosurgery of the Spanish Society of Neurosurgery were asked to write these recommendations down. This hopefully represents the first step towards the definition of a clinical guide in the treatment of complications related to periventricular hemorrhage of the preterm infants.

  1. Recursos disponibles para la protección de mujeres migrantes en tránsito por Tamaulipas / Resources available (few) for the protection of migrant women transit by Tamaulipas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rocío, Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Blanca Delia, Vázquez Delgado.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La labor del gobierno mexicano en materia de política migratoria es una estrategia para administrar el flujo de migrantes en tránsito rumbo a Estados Unidos, no para salvaguardar su integridad y derechos, menos aún está diseñada para proteger a las mujeres. En esa medida, el interés de este artículo [...] es hacer evidentes los escasos recursos de protección disponibles para migrantes y la ausencia de perspectiva de género en los recursos de apoyo para mujeres en tránsito por México. A través de entrevistas a autoridades y organismos sociales en la frontera de Tamaulipas y con base en el enfoque del modelo ecológico, se evaluaron los recursos de la política pública mexicana como elementos amortiguadores para los migrantes, frente a riesgos y elementos de vulnerabilidad de la mujer en tránsito. Abstract in english The work of the Mexican government immigration policy is a strategy to manage the flow of migrants in transit heading for the U.S., not to safeguard their integrity and rights, much less is designed to protect women. To that extent, the interest is to make clear the limited resources available for m [...] igrant protection and the absence of a gender perspective in support resources for women in transit through Mexico. Through interviews with authorities and social organizations on the border of Tamaulipas, and based on the ecological model approach, were evaluated the resources of Mexican public policy as damping elements for migrants face risks and vulnerability elements woman in transit.

  2. Grado de acidez y potencial erosivo de las bebidas energizantes disponibles en Chile / Acidity and erosive potential of energy drinks available in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MC, Fresno; P, Angel; R, Arias; A, Muñoz.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace una década están disponibles en el mercado nacional, tanto bebidas como otros productos energéticos. Su popularidad ha ido en aumento, sin embargo su consumo no está exento de riesgos. La cafeína es el ingrediente activo principal de estas bebidas y el consumo excesivo puede llegar a caus [...] ar alteraciones en la salud general. Mucha gente las bebe a diario sin estar consciente del daño potencial que puede significar para su salud y sus dientes, especialmente en el caso de niños y adolescentes. En Chile, la acidez de estas bebidas es desconocida. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el pH de las bebidas energéticas presentes en el mercado chileno, estableciendo su potencial erosivo sobre los dientes. Metodología: La muestra quedó formada por 8 diferentes bebidas energéticas disponibles en Chile. El pH fue evaluado con un pHmetro calibrado (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH/Ion 510) a 4°C y 17°C. Los resultados obtenidos fueron registrados y analizados estadísticamente. Resultados: El rango de pH osciló entre 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) y 3.30 (Red Bull). El promedio fue 2.88 a 4°C y 2.89 a 17°C. Conclusiones: Todas las muestras estudiadas tuvieron pH ácido, haciendo de ellas bebidas potencialmente erosivas para los dientes. Los valores de pH fueron menores a 4°C que a 17°C, pero sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0.05). Abstract in english For a decade, energy drinks and other energy products have been available in the national market, and their popularity has increased. The consumption is not risk free, though. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in these drinks and an excessive consumption may be dangerous for general health. Man [...] y people drink them daily without being aware of the potential risk they pose on their health and teeth, especially on children and adolescents. Currently, the acidity of those beverages is unknown in Chile. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pH of energy drinks, and correlate it with their erosive potential on teeth. Methodology: 8 different energy drinks available in Chile constituted the sample. pH was measured with a calibrated digital pHmeter (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH / Ion 510) at 4°C and 17°C. The results obtained were registered and statistically analyzed. Results: pH values ranged from 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) to 3.30 (Red Bull) the mean pH was 2.88 and 2.89, at 4°C and 17°C respectively. Conclusions: All of the beverages showed low pH, which makes them potentially erosive for hard dental tissue. The pH values were lower at 4°C than at 17°C, but without statistical significance (p>0.05).

  3. Niveles de calcio y fósforo disponible en gallinas durante 48 semanas en postura / Levels of calcium and available phosphorus in laying hens during 48 weeks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana Angélica, Gutiérrez Arenas; Juan Manuel, Cuca García; Arturo, Pró Martínez; Carlos Miguel, Becerril Pérez; José Luis, Figueroa Velasco.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para evaluar niveles de calcio (Ca) y fósforo disponible (Pd) en gallinas. Se utilizaron 300 gallinas Leghorn Hy-line W36 y se alimentaron con cinco tratamientos, tomando en cuenta los niveles óptimos de encontrados en la literatura. Las dietas fueron: T1, 4.34% Ca y 0.18% [...] Pd; T2, 4.34% Ca y 0.23% Pd; T3, 4.62% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T4, 4.62% Ca y 0.23% Pd y T5, 3.25% Ca y 0.25% Pd. Se midió consumo de alimento, consumo de Ca y de Pd, conversión alimenticia, número de huevos, masa de huevo, peso del huevo, gravedad específica y porcentaje de cascarón. Para número de huevos, masa de huevo, consumo de alimento, conversión alimenticia y peso de huevo, no se encontraron diferencias entre tratamientos (P>0.05). Se observó mayor consumo de Ca (P Abstract in english An experiment was conducted to evaluate levels of calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (AP) in hens. For this study 300 Leghorn Hy-line W36 hens were used. Five treatments were evaluated, level of Ca and AP in the diet: T1, 4.34 and 0.18%; T2, 4.34 and 0.23%; T3, 4.62 and 0.18%; T4, 4.62 and 0.23% [...] and T5, 3.25 and 0.25% (control). The experiment lasted 48 wk. It was measured feed, Ca and AP consumption, number of eggs, egg mass, feed conversion, egg weight, specific gravity and percentage of eggshell. In feed consumption, number of eggs, egg mass, feed conversion and egg weight, there were no differences among treatments (P>0.05). Higher consumption of calcium (P

  4. Validación de la metodología para la determinación cuantitativa de plomo en tintes cosméticos disponibles en el mercado nacional por espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se validó la metodología analítica para determinar cuantitativamente plomo en tintes cosméticos disponibles en el mercado nacional, por el método de espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama. Las muestras se digirieron por digestión húmeda con HNO3 al 65 % m/men horno de microondas; el porcentaje de recuperación para la digestión de muestras de 0,25 g y 0,45 g en 5,00 mL fue de 100,5±0,5. El ámbito de linealidad óptimo fue del límite de detección a 5,0 mg/L con un coeficiente de correlación de 0,9998.Los límites de detección y los límites de cuantificación determinados gráficamente por el método de corredor de errores para regresión lineal fueron de 0,12 ±0,02 mg/L y 0,21±0,02 mg/L, respectivamente. Se evaluó la precisión determinando la repetitividad como desviación estándar de 5 réplicas de un tinte positivo para plomo, de acuerdo con la definición de la ISO,2?2*?, y se obtuvo un valor de 2,3. La veracidad se determinó por medio de los porcentajes de recuperación evaluados, agregando alícuotas de patrones de plomo a muestras de tinte y comparándolo con muestras de igual masa a las que no se les realizó adición. Las muestras de tintes se obtuvieron en puestos de venta, tales como farmacias, suplidoras de belleza,supermercados, centros de ventas de productos naturales y el mercado central de San José. De los tintes analizados, de marca Youthair, de fabricación norteamericana, Doni, Mont D’Or, Matador y Siempre Joven, producidos localmente, contienen acetato de plomo como ingrediente activo

  5. Evaluación del fósforo disponible mediante tres métodos en distintos suelos y manejos productivos / Evaluation of phosphorus available by three methods in different soils and productive managements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Fernández López; Rodolfo, Mendoza.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo (P) es un nutriente de baja solubilidad y movilidad en los suelos, que se encuentra generalmente en situaciones de deficiencia para el crecimiento vegetal, y sólo puede ser repuesto mediante la fertilización. Debido a la variabilidad en la evaluación de la disponibilidad de P en el suelo, [...] se realizó este trabajo con el objetivo de: a) comparar entre sí dos de los métodos más comunes de evaluación de disponibilidad de P del suelo (Bray I y Olsen), y el método de la tirita de papel de filtro embebida en óxido de hierro (Strip); b) estimar cual de los métodos se relaciona mejor con algunas variables vegetales ante distintas condiciones de manejo y tipos de suelos. Se estudiaron suelos de los órdenes Entisol, Alfisol y Vertisol de la provincia de Corrientes en condición natural o cultivado con Citrus, arroz o pasturas, respectivamente. Se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas y químicas, verificando la similitud textural entre los suelos Testigos y Cultivados. Se realizó un ensayo en invernadero de cada uno de los seis suelos con once niveles de P (entre 0-200 mg P por kg de suelo) y luego se los incubó durante 25 días a 28 °C. Al finalizar la incubación se determinó el P disponible mediante los procedimientos recomendados para los métodos de Bray I, Olsen y Strip. Se sembró "rye grass" (Lolium perenne) que se cosechó a los 45 días de la siembra para cuantificar la materia seca aérea y análisis de P en tejido. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que todos los métodos de evaluación de la disponibilidad de P del suelo describieron de manera adecuada y significativa las relaciones entre MS (R² entre 0,35 a 0,95, y valores extremos para el Vertisol y el Entisol), %P (con R² entre 0,92 y 0,95) y P absorbido (R² entre 0,93 y 0,96 y con muy pocas diferencias entre los suelos) con el P extractado por los tres métodos. Sin embargo, la bondad de los ajustes fue diferente entre suelos, extractantes y manejos productivos, y sugieren la existencia de una interacción tripartita que arroja diferentes resultados en el valor final del P disponible. Se concluye que, no necesariamente el método más sencillo en la evaluación de P disponible para el vegetal es el que mejor refleja la relación con la materia seca o con la concentración del P en el tejido. Abstract in english Phosphorus is a nutrient with low soil solubility and mobility and may present limited availability for plant growth. One way to increase phosphorus availability in soil is by fertilization. Due to the variability in the evaluation of phosphorus availability in soil, the study was carried out with t [...] he following objectives: a) to compare two of the most common soil available P methods (Bray I and Olsen), and the iron oxide impregnated filter paper method (Strip); b) to evaluate which of the methods is better related to some plant variables under different managements and soil conditions. The soils selected from Corrientes Province were: 1) Entisol: natural soil as a control and cultivated with Citrus, 2) Alfisol: control and cultivated with rice, 3) Vertisol: control and cultivated with pastures. Physical and chemical soil properties indicated that soils from the same order differed in the textural composition, despite having similar chemical properties, suggesting that the differences among soils can be ascribed to cultivation. In addition, a greenhouse pot trial was conducted.Six soils were fertilized with eleven levels of P (0-200 mg P kg-1) and then incubated during 25 days at 28 °C. After incubation, soil samples were analyzed for P by the Olsen, Bray I and Strip methods. Rye grass was grown in pots during 45 days and the shoot dry matter was harvested and its P content analyzed. The results obtained in this work suggest that the three studied methods of P availability in soils described adequately and significantly the relationship between extracted P and dry matter yield (R² between 0.35 for the Vertisol and 0.95, for the Entisol), % P (R² between 0.92 and 0.95) and a

  6. Available phosphorus in starter diets for meat-type quail / Fósforo disponible en dietas para codornices de engorde en la fase inicial de cría

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Gomes de, Oliveira; Sandra R, Freitas Pinheiro; Karen B, Goulart; Aldrin V, Pires; Frederico de C, Figueiredo; Karoll A. Alfonso, Torres-Cordido.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo es un mineral importante por ser necesario para la óptima tasa de crecimiento y para la mineralización ósea, siendo considerado como el tercer nutriente más caro en los concentrados para no rumiantes. Fue conducido un experimento para evaluar las exigencias de fósforo disponible (Pd) para [...] codornices de engorde en la fase inicial de cría (1 a 21 días de edad). Se utilizaron 375 codornices europeas, linaje LF1, no sexadas, instaladas en compartimientos. El delineamiento experimental utilizado fue enteramente al azar, siendo los tratamientos constituidos por cinco niveles de Pd (0,13; 0,23; 0,33; 0,43 y 0,53%) cada tratamiento contó con cinco repeticiones de 15 aves por repetición. Se evaluó el consumo de concentrado, la ganancia de peso, la conversión alimenticia y la deposición de fósforo, calcio y cenizas en las tibias. Se observó que los niveles de Pd estudiados influenciaron todas las variables analizadas. Fue calculado el nivel de 0,381% de Pd o 0,12% de Pd/Megacaloría de Energía Metabolizable para obtener la mejor calidad ósea, porque permite maximizar la deposición de cenizas en la tibia de las codornices de engorde. Abstract in english Phosphorus is an important mineral for optimum growth and bone mineralization and is considered the third most expensive nutrient in diets for nonruminants. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the available phosphorus requirements (AP) for meat-type quail in the starter phase (1 to 21 days old). [...] One-day-old, unsexed European quail (375) from the LF1 lineage were used for the study and were housed in pens. The experiment had a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0.13, 0.23, 0.33, 0.43 and 0.53% of AP), each of which included five replicates in 15 birds. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and the tibial deposition of phosphorus, calcium, and ash were assessed. The AP levels influenced all studied variables. We calculated that levels of 0.381% AP or 0.12% AP megacalorie of metabolizable energy (% AP/Mcal ME) were best for bone quality related to high tibial ash deposition.

  7. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexia TORRES; Marisa GUERRA; ROSQUETE Yrelur

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temper...

  8. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexia TORRES; Marisa GUERRA; ROSQUETE Yrelur

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temper...

  9. Modelación de la distribución de especies y ecosistemas en el tiempo y en el espacio: una revisión de las nuevas herramientas y enfoques disponibles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricio, Pliscoff; Taryn, Fuentes-Castillo.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar el marco conceptual y metodológico en que se desarrollan las técnicas de modelos de distribución para especies y ecosistemas. Se hace una revisión histórica de los conceptos que fundamentan estas técnicas y se presentan las principales etapas metodológicas [...] involucradas en estos análisis. Se discute cómo estos enfoques son de gran utilidad para el desarrollo de nuevas preguntas en el campo de la biogeografía y de la conservación biológica. Finalmente, se presenta una aplicación de técnicas de modelos de distribución, tomando como caso de estudio Beilschmiedia miersii (belloto del norte). Esta revisión conceptual y metodológica, así como el ejemplo aplicado, buscan clarificar la utilidad y el potencial que tienen los modelos de distribución, con el objetivo de invitar a la investigación en biogeografía y así seguir avanzando en el conocimiento de los patrones espaciales y temporales de la distribución de los organismos. Abstract in english This article aims to present the conceptual and methodological framework in which models techniques for species and ecosystems distribution are developed. An historical review of concepts behind these techniques is made as well as the presentation of the major methodological steps involved in these [...] tests. A discussion on how these approaches are useful for the development of new questions in the field of biogeography and biological conservation is generated. Finally, an application of distribution modeling techniques, using the specie Beilschmiedia miersii (belloto Del Norte) as a study case, is presented. This conceptual and methodological review as well as the example applied, seeks to clarify the usefulness and potential of distribution models techniques, with the objective to go forward in biogeography research and thus, farther progress in understanding spatial and temporal patterns of organism's distribution.

  10. Meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for mass and routine vaccination with available polysaccharide vaccines / Méningite à méningocoque en Afrique subsaharienne: justification de la vaccination de masse et de la vaccination systématique avec les vaccins polyosidiques disponibles / Meningitis meningocócica en el África subsahariana: justificación de la vacunación masiva y rutinaria con las vacunas de polisacáridos disponibles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John B., Robbins; Rachel, Schneerson; Emil C., Gotschlich; Idris, Mohammed; Abdulsalami, Nasidi; Jean-Philippe, Chippaux; Luis, Bernardino; Moussa A., Maiga.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis endémica y epidémica por meningococos del grupo A sigue siendo una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el África subsahariana, pese a la disponibilidad de la vacuna de polisacáridos de meningococos del grupo A, que es barata y segura y proporciona protección en todos los gru [...] pos de edad cuando se administra de acuerdo con las instrucciones. Incluso con un tratamiento óptimo, la meningitis meningocócica tiene una tasa de letalidad del 10% y produce lesiones del sistema nervioso central en al menos un 15% de los pacientes. En el mejor de los casos, la política de la OMS de contención de las epidemias evita aproximadamente un 50% de los casos e ignora la meningitis endémica, que produce unos 50 000 casos anuales. La recomendación de proceder a la vacunación universal con el polisacárido del meningococo del grupo A dos veces durante la lactancia, seguida de la administración de la vacuna tetravalente a los niños de 2 y 6 años, se fundamenta en la eficacia de los polisacáridos capsulares de los grupos A, C, W135 e Y. Esto permitiría eliminar la enfermedad, tanto epidémica como endémica, y preparar el terreno para el uso de conjugados cuando estén disponibles, y probablemente hubiera evitado la reciente epidemia de meningitis por meningococos de los grupos A y W135 registrada en Burkina Faso. Abstract in english Endemic and epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of the safe and inexpensive group A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which is protective at all ages when administered as directed. Despite opti [...] mal therapy, meningococcal meningitis has a 10% fatality rate and at least 15% central nervous system damage. WHO's policy of epidemic containment prevents, at best, about 50% of cases and ignores endemic meningitis, which is estimated at 50 000 cases per year. The effectiveness of group A, C, W135, and Y capsular polysaccharides is the basis for recommending universal vaccination with group A meningococcal polysaccharide twice in infancy, followed by the four-valent vaccine in children aged two and six years. This could eliminate epidemic and endemic disease, prepare for the use of conjugates when they become available, and probably could have prevented the recent epidemics of groups A and W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso.

  11. DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible / DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MAX S, ECHEVERRIA; ROBERTO, VARGAS; PAULA, URZUA; ROBERTO, FERREIRA.

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingres [...] a los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se interpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso) para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes. Abstract in english A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines t [...] he links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak connections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

  12. DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAX S ECHEVERRIA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingresa los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se interpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes.A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines the links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak connections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

  13. Control de admisión para redes móviles AD HOC con base en estimación de ancho de banda disponible / Control of admission for AD HOC mobile network based on estimates available bandwidth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco A, Alzate; Leydi J, Támara.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los algoritmos de control de admisión en redes alambradas pueden monitorear el tráfico sobre cada uno de los enlaces punto-a-punto con el fin de determinar el ancho de banda disponible para los flujos a lo largo de diferentes rutas y basar su decisión en la diferencia entre el ancho de banda disponi [...] ble y el ancho de banda requerido. Infortunadamente, esto no es posible en una red móvil ad hoc (MANET) por varias razones, entre las que se destacan dos: (1) en la MANET, una transmisión entre dos nodos adyacentes consume el ancho de banda de muchos nodos vecinos, lo cual dificulta la estimación del ancho de banda disponible. (2) Un nodo que se admite tiene un efecto sobre la red que va mucho más allá de reducir el ancho de banda disponible en una cantidad previsible; al contrario, puede afectar la distribución espacial de los flujos existentes así como las probabilidades de colisión. En estas condiciones, no es fácil para un algoritmo de control de admisión determinar la magnitud de los flujos que deben ser admitidos para aprovechar los recursos de comunicación sin saturar la red. Este es un artículo de reflexión en el que discutimos algunos de los principales aspectos asociados con la interacción entre estos dos problemas fundamentales y proponemos un nuevo enfoque de investigación al respecto. Abstract in english The admission control algorithms in wired networks can monitor traffic on each of the links point-to-point in order to determine the available bandwidth for the flows along different routes and base their decision the difference between the available bandwidth and the bandwidth required. Unfortunate [...] ly, this is not possible in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) for several reasons, among which two stands out: (1) In the MANET, a transfer between two adjacent nodes consumes the bandwidth of many neighbors, which difficult to estimate the available bandwidth. (2) A node that supports has an effect on the network that goes far beyond reducing the bandwidth available in a predictable amount, on the contrary, it can affect the spatial distribution of existing flows and the likelihood of collision. In these conditions, it is easy for an admission control algorithm to determine the magnitude of the flows should be admitted to exploit the resources of communication without saturating the network. This is a refection article where we discuss some major issues associated with the interaction between these two fundamental problems and propose a new approach to investigation.

  14. Variete Technique du Lambeau Sural dans les Brulures Profondes du Pied

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzoubi, M.; Ettalbi, S.; Elmounjid, S.; J. Fassi; Benchamckha, F.J.; Sakhi, M.; Boukind, E.

    2005-01-01

    Les couvertures des pertes de substance de la jambe, du talon et du pied font souvent appel au lambeau sural, qui reste, de part ses dimensions, une indication limitée. Les Auteurs présentent, à travers deux cas cliniques, une variété technique pour la levée du lambeau sural, permettant d'obtenir des palettes cutanées de grande surface avec une bonne sécurité vasculaire. C'est un lambeau fasciocutané remontant jusqu'à un centimètre du creux poplité et incluant, lors de la levée, l'aponévrose,...

  15. Atributos morfológicos y fisiológicos de genotipos de Brachiaria en un suelo con bajo fósforo disponible y alta saturación de aluminio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mejía Kerguelen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se evaluaron en invernadero en un suelo de Matazul, Meta, Colombia durante 6 semanas, 2 genotipos de Brachiaria (uno mejor adaptado a bajo P, B. decumbens y otro menos adaptado, B. ruziziensis y 8 progenies del cruzamiento entre ellos ( mejores adaptados: H-7, H-40, H-28, H-58; menos adaptados: H-190, H-94, H-82, H-179. Los genotipos mejor adaptados presentaron mayor biomasa aérea, explicada por mayor área foliar, mayor absorción de P en el tallo y mayor volumen de raíz. Las características morfológicas de las raíces, principalmente longitud, peso seco y contenido de P, permiteron mejor adaptación a bajo P disponible en el suelo. El periodo de evaluación fue suficiente para observar diferencias entre progenies.

  16. E-investigación: una introducción para principiantes (y escépticos) a las fuentes de ciencia política disponibles en la web

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Calise; Rosanna De Rosa

    2009-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo de revisión es el de contribuir al seguimiento y el debate de los cambios en el entorno de la investigación electrónica. Vamos a presentar una visión general (adaptado principalmente a los neófitos del ciberespacio) de algunos de los mejores recursos electrónicos disponibles en línea para la ciencia política, la elaboración de nuestra experiencia como editores de IPSA-Portal, el sitio web de la Asociación Internacional de Ciencia Política dedicada a la selección ...

  17. Los principios pedagógicos en cursos de actualización docente disponibles en la web / Pedagogical principles in teacher training courses available on the web

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier, García-Calvo.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las necesidades de cualquier docente es mantenerse al día en relación con las técnicas y procedimientos pedagógicos que potencien el desarrollo del aprendizaje en sus alumnos. Para satisfacer esta necesidad, en los últimos años han surgido diversas plataformas educativas que usan las tecnolog [...] ías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) para actualizar docentes en ejercicio a distancia por medio de cursos basados en la web. Sin embargo, estos desarrollos requieren de un estudio detallado de los procedimientos para diseñar e implementar cursos en línea de manera que se produzca una educación de calidad. En este trabajo se presentan los "principios de la buena práctica pedagógica" propuestos por Chickering y Gamson (1987, 1991) para la educación presencial y se analiza su aplicación a los ambientes de aprendizaje a distancia. Además, se presentan y analizan las estrategias instruccionales y los recursos tecnológicos que se pueden usar para desarrollar cursos dictados a distancia, basados en los principios pedagógicos de Chickering y Gamson y dirigidos a docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Los principios utilizados fueron: a) el contacto entre estudiantes y profesores, b) la cooperación entre los estudiantes, c) el aprendizaje activo, d) la retroalimentación a tiempo, e) el uso apropiado del tiempo, f) las altas expectativas del estudiante, y g) el respeto a los estilos de aprendizaje. Se ilustra cada principio con ejemplos de recursos tecnológicos y estrategias instruccionales usados en un curso de postgrado impartido de manera mixta (presencial y a distancia). Abstract in english One of the needs of any teacher is to keep up to date in relation to the pedagogical techniques and procedures that promote the development of learning in the students. To satisfy this need, several educational platforms have emerged in the last years that make use of information and communication t [...] echnologies (ICT) to update in-service teachers through distance education. Yet, these developments require a detailed study of the procedures to design and implement on-line courses so they produce quality education. In this paper, the "principles of good practice", proposed by Chickering and Gamson (1987, 1991) for face to face instruction, are presented and an analysis is made of their application to distance learning environments. Also, instructional strategies and technological resources which can be used to develop distance education courses, using Chickering and Gamson’s pedagogical principles and aimed at foreign language teachers, are presented and analyzed. The principles used were a) the contact between students and teachers, b) the cooperation of students, c) active learning, d) feedback on time, e) the appropriate use of time, f) the high expectations of students, and g) the respect for learning styles. Each of these principles is illustrated with examples of technological resources used in a graduate course taught partly face to face and partly at distance.

  18. Internet y recursos en línea como alternativas terapéuticas para trastornos de abuso o dependencia a sustancias: una revisión de los recursos disponibles Internet and Online Resources Such as Therapeutic Alternatives for Substance Use Disorders: A Review of Available Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Orozco Cabal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las intervenciones en línea constituyen una de las tantas opciones terapéuticas disponibles para pacientes con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias y otras condiciones psiquiátricas. No obstante, su utilidad ha sido ampliamente cuestionada a la luz de falta de rigurosidad. Objetivo: Revisar y discutir la literatura existente acerca de los recursos e intervenciones en línea para trastornos por abuso/dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas. Método: Búsqueda sistemática de literatura sobre los recursos e intervenciones en línea relacionados con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias. Resultados: Existen numerosos recursos informativos para el público general, pero la calidad de la información disponible no es siempre adecuada. También hay, aunque en menor número, intervenciones y programas de autoayuda en línea, específicamente para tabaquismo y alcoholismo. No obstante, su efectividad no ha sido determinada en estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados, adecuadamente diseñados. Conclusión: Son necesarios estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados que permitan evaluar la efectividad de este tipo de intervenciones. Los resultados iluminarán el desarrollo de estrategias de intervención integrales que usen esta poderosa herramienta de comunicación.Introduction: Online interventions are one of the many treatment options available for patients with substance use disorders and other psychiatric conditions. However, its usefulness has been widely questioned due to a lack of rigorous scientific research. Objective: To review and discuss the literature about online resources and interventions for substance use disorders. Methods: Systematic search of literature on online resources and interventions related to substance use disorders. Results: There are many sources of information for the general public, but the quality of information available is not always appropriate. There are, though in smaller numbers, interventions and online self-help programs specifically for smoking and alcoholism. However, their effectiveness has not been determined in properly designed randomized controlled trials. Conclusion: It is necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of online interventions using rigorous randomized controlled trials. The results illuminate the development of comprehensive intervention strategies that may use this powerful communication tool.

  19. Determinantes de salud y políticas públicas: identificación de indicadores de problemas de salud y factores asociados, basada en datos disponibles / Health and public policy determinants: selection of indicators for health problems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Pradilla; Álvaro, Rueda; Ligia, de Salazar; Jenny Andrea, Vélez; Elsa Patricia, Muñoz.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La planeación en salud requiere de información, que está disponible, pero que no siempre se utiliza. Aunque los sistemas de información en salud aparecieron hace más de tres décadas, las decisiones del sector se dirigen al manejo de enfermedad y no a modificar los factores que la gener [...] a. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la utilidad de datos disponibles en los diferentes sectores, para identificar grupos de población con características similares, asociadas con problemas de salud e identificar marcadores sencillos que orienten la toma de decisiones para solucionarlos. Métodos: Estudio ecológico. Se identificaron, recolectaron y procesaron datos de instituciones públicas y privadas y de estudios recientes. La asociación y correlación entre las diferentes variables permitió identificar aquellas con capacidad para discriminar grupos de población con problemas similares. Resultados: El estrato de vivienda mostró asociación significante con la mayoría de variables y se utilizó para dividir los barrios de la ciudad en cuatro conglomerados. Los barrios pertenecientes a estratos más bajos mostraron deficiencias en vivienda y educación, mayor proporción de población menor de 18 años, promedio de edad de muerte menor, menor estatura y mayor mortalidad perinatal y por accidentes y violencia. En los barrios de nivel medio y alto, se encontraron mejores condiciones de vivienda y tumores y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles como las principales causas de muerte. La conexión a servicios públicos fue similar en los hogares de todos los estratos, excepto el teléfono. El promedio ponderado por estrato y por barrio explica más de 80% de la varianza para la mayoría de las variables analizadas. Se propone que este indicador, disponible en forma permanente, se emplee como instrumento para planes locales de desarrollo, con validaciones periódicas a fin de evaluar su capacidad en el tiempo. Abstract in english Introduction: Health planning requires information from all sectors, usually available, but not used frequently. Information systems in Health appeared more than 3 decades ago but decisions are usually taken on considerations directed to the solution of a manifestation without modification of causal [...] factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of available data to identify population groups with similar characteristics associated to health problems and to identify simple markers to serve as a basis for decisions directed to solve them. Methods: Ecological study. Data were identified, collected and collated from public institutions and from recent studies for analysis. Association and correlation among the different variables identified those with the capacity to discriminate population groups. Household socio economic stratum had a significant association with most variables and was used to divide «Barrios» in four conglomerates. Results: Lower conglomerates presented deficiencies in household and education, larger proportion of young population, lower mean death age, higher mortality caused by accidents and violence, and lower stature. Middle and higher income conglomerates had better household conditions and the principal cause of death was tumors and chronic diseases. Public services were similar for all except telephone. Weighed household stratum by neighborhood «barrio» explained more that 80% of variance for most variables. It is proposed that this marker, available and easy to obtain, the instrument to define local development plans with periodic validations to evaluate its capacity.

  20. Qualidade da informação da internet disponível para pacientes em páginas em português Quality of internet information available to patients on websites in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Del Giglio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pacientes e seus familiares frequentemente procuram na internet informações a respeito de suas doenças. Diabetes mellitus (DM, hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS e infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM são muito prevalentes no Brasil, e informações sobre estas patologias são bastante procuradas na internet. Por isso, buscamos avaliar a qualidade da informação relacionada com estas doenças disponível em português na internet. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas as primeiras 20 páginas em português de cada uma das doenças escolhidas, através do algoritmo de busca do Google®. Como ferramentas para avaliar a qualidade da informação foram utilizados o Discern Questionnarie (DQ e o Health on Net (HON. Para saber se as informações eram adequadas, foram utilizadas as diretrizes (guidelines brasileiras e internacionais para as diferentes comorbidades. RESULTADOS: Ao avaliar o conteúdo das informações disponíveis, 45%, 95%, 85% das páginas continham, respectivamente, a definição de DM, HAS e IAM. Com relação ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento, somente 25% das páginas das três comorbidades apresentavam especificamente esta informação. Somente 15%, 20% e 10% das páginas tinham a certificação pelo HON, respectivamente. Em função do DQ, as páginas obtiveram notas maiores que 50% em 70% das páginas de DM, 65% nas de HAS e 55% nas de IAM. CONCLUSÃO: A informação disponível em português na internet sobre as três patologias escolhidas (DM, HAS e IAM é frequentemente inadequada e insuficiente.OBJECTIVE: Patients and their relatives often look for information about their diseases on the internet. Diabetes mellitus (DM, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI are the most prevalent in Brazil, thus, information on these pathologies is extremely searched for on the internet. For this reason, this study attempted to evaluate the quality of information available in Portuguese on the web regarding these disorders. METHODS: The first 20 websites in Portuguese for each disease through the Google® search algorithm were selected. The Discern Questionnaire (DQ and Health on the Net (HON were used as tools in order to evaluate the quality of information. To assess adequacy, international and Brazilian guidelines for different co-morbidities were used. RESULTS: When evaluating the information content available, 45%, 95%, and 85% of pages had the definition of DM, SAH, and AMI, respectively. Only 25% of the websites regarding the three co-morbidities had specific information on diagnosis and treatment. Only 15%, 20%, and 10% of the websites had HON certification, respectively. Using the DQ approach, scores higher than 50% were obtained in 70% of the DM websites, in 65% of SAH websites, and in 55% of the AMI websites. CONCLUSION: The available information in Portuguese on the internet regarding the three pathologies selected (DM, SAH, and AMI is quite often inadequate and insufficient.

  1. Internet y recursos en línea como alternativas terapéuticas para trastornos de abuso o dependencia a sustancias: una revisión de los recursos disponibles / Internet and Online Resources Such as Therapeutic Alternatives for Substance Use Disorders: A Review of Available Resources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Felipe, Orozco Cabal.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las intervenciones en línea constituyen una de las tantas opciones terapéuticas disponibles para pacientes con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias y otras condiciones psiquiátricas. No obstante, su utilidad ha sido ampliamente cuestionada a la luz de falta de rigurosidad. Obj [...] etivo: Revisar y discutir la literatura existente acerca de los recursos e intervenciones en línea para trastornos por abuso/dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas. Método: Búsqueda sistemática de literatura sobre los recursos e intervenciones en línea relacionados con trastornos por abuso/dependencia a sustancias. Resultados: Existen numerosos recursos informativos para el público general, pero la calidad de la información disponible no es siempre adecuada. También hay, aunque en menor número, intervenciones y programas de autoayuda en línea, específicamente para tabaquismo y alcoholismo. No obstante, su efectividad no ha sido determinada en estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados, adecuadamente diseñados. Conclusión: Son necesarios estudios clínicos aleatorizados y controlados que permitan evaluar la efectividad de este tipo de intervenciones. Los resultados iluminarán el desarrollo de estrategias de intervención integrales que usen esta poderosa herramienta de comunicación. Abstract in english Introduction: Online interventions are one of the many treatment options available for patients with substance use disorders and other psychiatric conditions. However, its usefulness has been widely questioned due to a lack of rigorous scientific research. Objective: To review and discuss the litera [...] ture about online resources and interventions for substance use disorders. Methods: Systematic search of literature on online resources and interventions related to substance use disorders. Results: There are many sources of information for the general public, but the quality of information available is not always appropriate. There are, though in smaller numbers, interventions and online self-help programs specifically for smoking and alcoholism. However, their effectiveness has not been determined in properly designed randomized controlled trials. Conclusion: It is necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of online interventions using rigorous randomized controlled trials. The results illuminate the development of comprehensive intervention strategies that may use this powerful communication tool.

  2. ¿Es necesario disponer de tratamientos con buprenorfina/naloxona para los presos dependientes de opiáceos? / Is the availability of buprenorphine/naloxone therapy for opioid-dependent inmates a necessity?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Marco; A., López-Burgos; L., García-Marcos; C., Gallego; J.J., Antón; A., Errasti.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de programas de tratamiento con agonistas opiáceos (TAO), junto con un abordaje psicosocial, es la forma más efectiva de prevenir recaídas en los pacientes con dependencia a opiáceos. Estos programas disminuyen la morbimortalidad así como las conductas de riesgo de transmisión del VIH [...] y de otras infecciones, mejoran la calidad de vida y la retención en tratamiento, y tienen un impacto positivo sobre los comportamientos asociales, por lo que son muy útiles en presos con antecedente de consumo de opiáceos. Los TAO basados en el uso de buprenorfina/naloxona (B/N), igual que los basados en metadona (MT), están actualmente disponibles en España. El tratamiento diversificado ofrece una alternativa de tratamiento para la dependencia de opioides más individualizada y adaptada a las características de los pacientes. En cuanto a eficacia ambos fármacos son muy similares, pero B/N es más segura, con menor perfil de interacciones con posibilidad de dispensación en farmacias una vez que el paciente sea puesto en libertad, lo que puede ayudar a la reintegración social. Económicamente, el tratamiento con B/N es más costoso que el de MT. Se aconseja disponer de las diferentes modalidades de TAO y que estas se prescriban según las características y necesidades de cada caso, sin que la reclusión menoscabe el derecho al tratamiento farmacológico, que debe ser similar al efectuado extrapenitenciariamente. Abstract in english Agonist therapy (OAT) programs in combination with a psychosocial approach are the most effective way to prevent relapse in opioid-dependent patients. These programs reduce morbidity and risk behaviours for HIV transmission and other infections, improve quality of life and retention in treatment, an [...] d have a positive impact on antisocial behaviour. They are therefore very useful for prisoners with a history of opiate use. OATs based on buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N), along with others using methadone, are currently available in Spain. Diversified treatment offers an alternative treatment for opioid dependence that is more personalized and tailored to the patient's characteristics. As regards effectiveness, both drugs are very similar, but B/N shows a better safety profile and fewer drug-drug interactions and can be dispensed in pharmacies once the patient is released, which can assist with the patient' social reintegration. B/N treatment is more expensive than methadone. It is advisable to have different modes of OAT. These should be prescribed according to the characteristics and needs of each case, without incarceration impeding the right to drug treatment, which should be similar to that performed outside prison.

  3. Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054 / Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elsa E., Barber; Silvia, Pisano; Carolina, Gregui; Gabriela, De Pedro; Sofía, D' Alessandro; Sandra, Romagnoli; Verónica, Parsiale.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007). Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs) disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas [...] nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnóstico de situación válido para los catálogos de la región. Plantea, además, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temática en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay. Abstract in english The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007) are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs) in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to M [...] ercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  4. Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054 Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa E. Barber

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007. Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnóstico de situación válido para los catálogos de la región. Plantea, además, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temática en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay.The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007 are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to Mercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  5. E-investigación: una introducción para principiantes (y escépticos a las fuentes de ciencia política disponibles en la web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Calise

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo de revisión es el de contribuir al seguimiento y el debate de los cambios en el entorno de la investigación electrónica. Vamos a presentar una visión general (adaptado principalmente a los neófitos del ciberespacio de algunos de los mejores recursos electrónicos disponibles en línea para la ciencia política, la elaboración de nuestra experiencia como editores de IPSA-Portal, el sitio web de la Asociación Internacional de Ciencia Política dedicada a la selección y revisión los mejores e-hubs en nuestra disciplina. Sin embargo, al aventurarse en el ciberespacio de la ciencia política, vamos a tratar de ofrecer una comprensión más general de las principales tendencias que afectan la galaxia del internet. Por mucho que estemos tentados sólo para pegarnos a nuestro pequeño planeta, tenemos que ser conscientes de que es parte de, y surge de, un sistema mucho más grande.

  6. Degradabilidad ruminal del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras / Rumen degradation characteristics of the herbage mass samples and the simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RUBÉN, PULIDO; JOHN DAVID, LEAVER.

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica degradativa de forrajes, en muestras de una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L.), manejadas a dos alturas de pradera, alta y baja. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo (FD) y en forraje aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo [...] (FS). La degradabilidad ruminal se estudió usando la técnica de las bolsas de dacrón y los datos fueron ajustados a una ecuación exponencial. La fracción soluble (g/kg MS), de la materia seca (MS) (299 v/s 351, s.e.d.= 5,4), de la materia organica (MO) (304 v/s 376, s.e.d.= 3,3) y del nitrógeno (250 v/s 301, s.e.d.= 6,4), fueron significativamente mayores (P Abstract in english An experiment was carried out in order to describe the ruminal degradation characteristics of forages, in herbage mass samples (FD) and in simulated grazing samples (FS), obtained at two sward heights (high and low) from a permanent pasture (Lolium perenne L.). The degradation kinetics of the sample [...] s was studied using in situ dacron bags. Data collected were fitted according to an exponential equation. The soluble fraction (g/kg DM) of the dry matter (DM) (299 vs. 351, s.e.d.= 5.4), of the organic matter (OM) (304 vs. 376, s.e.d.= 3.3) and of the nitrogen (250 vs. 301, s.e.d.= 6.4) were significantly higher (P

  7. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  8. O uso de adoçantes na gravidez: uma análise dos produtos disponíveis no Brasil The use of sweeteners in pregnancy: an analysis of products available in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torloni

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os adoçantes são freqüentemente utilizados por mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Esta é uma revisão narrativa da literatura a respeito dos adoçantes atualmente comercializados no mercado brasileiro. Existem poucas informações sobre o uso da sacarina e ciclamato na gestação, e seus efeitos sobre o feto. Devido às limitadas informações disponíveis e ao seu potencial carcinogênico em animais, a sacarina e o ciclamato devem ser evitados durante a gestação (risco C. O aspartame tem sido extensivamente estudado em animais, sendo considerado seguro para uso na gestação (risco B, exceto para mulheres homozigóticas para fenilcetonúria (risco C. A sucralose e o acessulfame-K não são tóxicos, carcinogênico ou mutagênicos em animais, mas não existem estudos controlados em humanos. Porém, como esses dois adoçantes não são metabolizados, parece improvável que seu uso durante a gestação possa ser prejudicial (risco B. A estévia, substância derivada de uma planta nativa brasileira, não produz efeitos adversos sobre a gestação em animais, porém não existem estudos em humanos (risco B. Os agentes de corpo usados na formulação dos adoçantes (manitol, sorbitol, xilitol, eritrol, lactilol, isomalte, maltilol, lactose, frutose, maltodextrina, dextrina e açúcar invertido são substâncias consideradas seguras para o consumo humano. Concluindo, segundo as evidências atualmente disponíveis, o aspartame, a sucralose, o acessulfame e a estévia podem ser utilizados com segurança durante a gestação.Sweeteners are frequently used by women of reproductive age. This is a narrative review about the sweeteners currently sold in the Brazilian commerce. There is a few information on the use of saccharin and cyclamates in pregnancy and their effects on the fetus. Due to the limited information available and their carcinogenic potential in animal species, saccharin and cyclamates should be avoided during pregnancy (risk C. Aspartame has been extensively studied in animals and it is considered safe for use during pregnancy (risk B, except by women homozygous for phenylketonuria (risk C. Sucralose and acessulfame-K are not toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic in animals, but there are no controlled studies in humans. However, since these two sweeteners are not metabolized, it is unlikely that their use during pregnancy could be harmful (risk B. Stevia, a substance extracted from a native Brazilian plant, is innocuous in animal pregnancies, but there are no controlled studies in humans (risk B. Body agents found in the composition of artificial sweeteners (mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, erithrol, lactilol, isomalt, maltilol, lactose, fructose, maltodextrin, dextrin, and inverted sugar are substances generally regarded as safe for human consumption. In conclusion, according to the currently available evidence, aspartame, sucralose, acessulfame-K and stevia can be safely used during pregnancy.

  9. EVALUACIÓN ESPACIAL DEL NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE DEL SUELO EN UN CULTIVO DE PAPA cv. SPUNTA EN CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA Spatial evaluation of available soil nitrogen in a potato crop cv. Spunta in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de la Casa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Un análisis espacial del N disponible en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta es necesario a fin de hacer un diagnóstico de la práctica de fertilización localizada y aportar evidencias sobre un potencial problema de riesgo ambiental por lavado de nitratos. Con este propósito se diseñó un esquema de muestreo durante la temporada 2000 que consistió de una grilla rectangular de 3 x 10 estaciones, en dos fechas (21/03 y 14/04 y a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm. El contenido de humedad del suelo en ambas fechas resultó elevado y escasamente variable (CV 52% fue muy superior a la humedad del suelo en ambas fechas. Una comparación localizada del N disponible mostró que en el estrato superficial el contenido de N-NO3- de toda el área fue siempre superior a 7,5 mg kg-1, considerada la disponibilidad mínima para un óptimo crecimiento de los tubérculos. Entre 20 y 40 cm, en cambio, el contenido de N fue menor en ambas fechas, y la cantidad de N en la segunda se presentó por debajo de 7,5 mg kg-1 en 31% del lote. Esta distribución vertical del N-NO3-, con mayor contenido en superficie, no garantiza un consumo uniforme de N entre 0 y 40 cm. Al mismo tiempo, la mayor acumulación de N-NO3- entre 0 y 20 cm demostró que no ocurrió lixiviación en el perfil.A spatial analysis of the available N in a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta is necessary in order to make a diagnosis of the local fertilization practice and to provide evidence on a potential environmental risk problem from nitrate wash. For this purpose a sampling scheme was designed during the 2000 season that consisted of a rectangular grid of 3 x 10 stations. Samples were taken on two dates (21/3 and 14/04 and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm. The soil water content on both dates resulted to be high and hardly variable (coefficient of variation (CV 52% was much higher than the soil water content on both dates. A localized comparison of the available N showed that in the superficial stratum the content of N-NO3- of all the area was always superior to 7.5 mg kg-1, considered the minimal availability for an optimum growth of the tubers. Between 20 and 40 cm, on the other hand, the content of N was smaller on both dates, and the quantity of N of the latter was below 7.5 mg kg-1 in 31% of the area. This vertical distribution of the N-NO3-, with greater content on the surface, does not guarantee a uniform consumption of N between 0 and 40 cm. At the same time, the greater accumulation of N-NO3- between 0 and 20 cm demonstrated that leaching did not occur in the profile.

  10. Présentation Technique - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Tuesday 9 September PRESENTATION TECHNIQUE From 09:00 - 12:00 - bldg. 40, S2-B01 Techniques de mesure: Acquisition, analyse et présentation avec LabVIEW 7 Express National Instruments Switzerland Avec LabVIEW 7 Express, National Instruments inaugure une nouvelle ère pour la programmation graphique dans le monde de la mesure et de l'automatisation. Pour la première fois dans l'histoire de la programmation par flux de données, les antagonismes inconciliables entre la programmation et la configuration se laissent réduire au même dénominateur et sont disponibles dans un environnement de développement intégré. En outre, cette nouvelle version peut-être supportée par une plus large palette de plates-formes et de matériels cibles : de Windows, Linux ou Mac OS X jusqu'aux PDA (assistants personnels) ou aux FPGA embarqués. Avec LabVIEW 7 Express, vous disposez d'un outil logiciel, qui vous permet de construire encore plus vite, plus facilement et à moindres frais vos...

  11. Servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes con trastornos mentales en México / The clinical services available to children and young people with mental illnesses in México / Serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens com perturbações mentais no México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela, Zamora-Carmona.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Na área da saúde, bem-estar físico e mental deveria ser uma prioridade. Porém no México na atenção de saúde mental existem restrições importantes, como o estigma social que prevalece nas doenças mentais, discriminação e violação dos direitos humanos das pessoas afetadas por estas perturbações, o núm [...] ero limitado de serviços clínicos que podem ser acessados , a falta de serviços especializados de saúde, e a tendência dos governos em ignorar esta realidade. Este artigo procura fazer uma breve revisão dos serviços clínicos disponíveis para crianças e jovens mexicanos que tenham alguma perturbação mental. Abstract in spanish En el ámbito de la salud, el bienestar físico y mental debería ser una prioridad. No obstante, en México existen limitantes importantes en la atención a la salud mental, como el estigma social que prevalece hacia las enfermedades mentales, la discriminación y violación a los derechos humanos de las [...] personas afectadas por estos trastornos, el limitado número de servicios clínicos a los que se puede acceder, la falta de servicios de salud especializados, y la tendencia de los gobiernos a omitir esta realidad. En el presente artículo de tipo descriptivo pretendo hacer una breve revisión de los servicios clínicos disponibles para niñas, niños y jóvenes mexicanos que padecen trastornos mentales. Abstract in english In the field of health, physical and mental well-being should be a priority. Nevertheless, in Mexico, the attention given to mental health has important limitations, such as the social stigma that prevails toward mental illnesses; the discrimination and violation of human rights of people affected b [...] y these disorders; the limited number of clinical services which can be accessed; the lack of specialized health services and the tendency of Governments to ignore this reality. This article aims to undertake a brief review of the clinical services available to Mexican children and young people that are affected by a mental disorder.

  12. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market / Capacidad antioxidante, contenido de ácidos fenólicos y cafeína de algunos tipos de café disponibles en el mercado de Rumania

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ion, Trandafir; Violeta, Nour; Mira Elena, Ionica.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, un método sensible RPHPLC fue desarrollado para la determinación simultánea del ácido clorogénico, del ácido cafeico, del ácido vanílico y de la cafeína en las pruebas de café. El método fue aplicado para analizar ocho tipos de café disponibles en el mercado de Rumania, que fueron a [...] nalizados también en cuanto al contenido total de polifenoles y la capacidad antioxidante. La reducción del radical DPPH fue utilizada para determinar la capacidad antioxidante de los extractos de café mientras que el contenido total de polifenoles fue determinado por la espectrofotometría (método Folin Ciocalteu). El contenido total de polifenoles se situó entre 1,98 g GAE/100 g y 4.19 g GAE/100 g mientras que el contenido de cafeína se situó entre 1.89 g/100 g y 3.05 g/100 g. Una gran variabilidad se observó con respecto al contenido de ácido clorogénico en las pruebas de café analizadas, contenido que se situó entre 0.6 y 2.32 g/100 g. Abstract in english In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were pr [...] eviously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  13. Enseignement Technique CERN 2004 - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE Monique Duval tél. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Aimeriez-vous améliorer vos connaissances des applications de Microsoft Office ou d'Outlook ? Un nouveau cours, combinant un cours avec professeur et ...

  14. Estudio biofarmacéutico comparativo de marcas comerciales de tabletas de ciprofloxacino disponibles en el mercado colombiano / A comparative biopharmaceutical study of brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis A., Franco-Ospina; Germán E., Matiz-Melo; Indira B., Pájaro-Bolívar.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la equivalencia biofarmacéutica de marcas comerciales de Ciprofloxacino 500 mg disponibles en el mercado colombiano. Métodos: Se tomaron 12 productos comerciales de Ciprofloxacino tabletas 500 mg, adquiridos en droguerías y farmacias de cuatro de las principales ciudades del paí [...] s, a los cuales se les realizaron los siguientes ensayos: Identificación del principio activo por HPLC, contenido de ingrediente activo, uniformidad de dosificación, pruebas de desintegración y disolución; además se compararon los perfiles de disolución de los productos frente a uno tomado como referencia. Los resultados se analizaron a fin de establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas y posible intercambiabilidad entre los productos evaluados. Resultados: El análisis comparativo de los productos, permitió evidenciar marcadas diferencias en cuanto a la liberaciónin vitrodel principio activo, con uno de los productos incumpliendo este importante parámetro de calidad. Todos los productos evaluados cumplen con las especificaciones oficiales de identificación y valoración del principio activo, uniformidad de dosificación y tiempo de desintegración. En cuanto a la cinética de disolución se encontraron diferencias entre las formulaciones, con productos de deficiente Eficiencia de Disolución (ED) y que a pesar de cumplir con la especificación a Q30, se disuelven muy lentamente. Conclusiones: Once productos cumplen con todas las especificaciones establecidas en la USP-33/NF28. Los resultados de este trabajo constituyen un valioso aporte para en un futuro cercano y en función de las políticas nacionales, poder establecer bioequivalencia entre estos productos. Abstract in english Objective: Determining the biopharmaceutical equivalency of 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market (i.e. comparing different trademarks). Methods: Twelve commercial 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets were obtained from drugstores and pharmacies in Colombia’s four major cities. They [...] were submitted to the following assays: HPLC identification of active ingredients, active ingredient content, dose uniformity, disintegration and dissolution tests and comparing the products’ dissolution profiles to that of the innovator. The results were analyzed to establish statistically significant differences and possible inter-changeability between the products being tested. Results: Comparative analysis of the products revealed marked differences regardingin vitrorelease of the active principle (one product failing this important quality parameter). All the products tested here complied with the official specifications for identifying and assaying the active principle, dosage unit uniformity and the disintegration test. Regarding dissolution kinetics, differences were found between formulations as some products had poor dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolved very slowly despite complying with the Q30specification. Conclusions: 11 products complied with USP33-NF28specifications (guidelines on specifications for impurities in antibiotics). This work has made a valuable contribution towards establishing these products’ bioequivalence in the near future regarding national policy.

  15. Estudio biofarmacéutico comparativo de marcas comerciales de tabletas de ciprofloxacino disponibles en el mercado colombiano / A comparative biopharmaceutical study of brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis A, Franco-Ospina; Germán E, Matiz-Melo; Indira B, Pájaro-Bolívar.

    2012-08-15

    Full Text Available ObjetivoDeterminar la equivalencia biofarmacéutica de marcas comerciales de Ciprofloxacino 500 mg disponibles en el mercado colombiano. MétodosSe tomaron 12 productos comerciales de Ciprofloxacino tabletas 500 mg, adquiridos en droguerías y farmacias de cuatro de las principales ciudades del país, a [...] los cuales se les realizaron los siguientes ensayos: Identificación del principio activo por HPLC, contenido de ingrediente activo, uniformidad de dosificación, pruebas de desintegración y disolución; además se compararon los perfiles de disolución de los productos frente a uno tomado como referencia. Los resultados se analizaron a fin de establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas y posible intercambiabilidad entre los productos evaluados. ResultadosEl análisis comparativo de los productos, permitió evidenciar marcadas diferencias en cuanto a la liberaciónin vitrodel principio activo, con uno de los productos incumpliendo este importante parámetro de calidad. Todos los productos evaluados cumplen con las especificaciones oficiales de identificación y valoración del principio activo, uniformidad de dosificación y tiempo de desintegración. En cuanto a la cinética de disolución se encontraron diferencias entre las formulaciones, con productos de deficiente Eficiencia de Disolución (ED) y que a pesar de cumplir con la especificación a Q30, se disuelven muy lentamente. ConclusionesOnce productos cumplen con todas las especificaciones establecidas en la USP-33/NF28. Los resultados de este trabajo constituyen un valioso aporte para en un futuro cercano y en función de las políticas nacionales, poder establecer bioequivalencia entre estos productos. Abstract in english ObjectiveDetermining the biopharmaceutical equivalency of 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets available on the Colombian market (i.e. comparing different trademarks). MethodsTwelve commercial 500 mg ciprofloxacin tablets were obtained from drugstores and pharmacies in Colombia’s four major cities. They wer [...] e submitted to the following assays: HPLC identification of active ingredients, active ingredient content, dose uniformity, disintegration and dissolution tests and comparing the products’ dissolution profiles to that of the innovator. The results were analyzed to establish statistically significant differences and possible inter-changeability between the products being tested. ResultsComparative analysis of the products revealed marked differences regardingin vitrorelease of the active principle (one product failing this important quality parameter). All the products tested here complied with the official specifications for identifying and assaying the active principle, dosage unit uniformity and the disintegration test. Regarding dissolution kinetics, differences were found between formulations as some products had poor dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolved very slowly despite complying with the Q30specification. Conclusions11 products complied with USP33-NF28specifications (guidelines on specifications for impurities in antibiotics). This work has made a valuable contribution towards establishing these products’ bioequivalence in the near future regarding national policy.

  16. Degradabilidad ruminal del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Rumen degradation characteristics of the herbage mass samples and the simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN PULIDO

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica degradativa de forrajes, en muestras de una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., manejadas a dos alturas de pradera, alta y baja. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo (FD y en forraje aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo (FS. La degradabilidad ruminal se estudió usando la técnica de las bolsas de dacrón y los datos fueron ajustados a una ecuación exponencial. La fracción soluble (g/kg MS, de la materia seca (MS (299 v/s 351, s.e.d.= 5,4, de la materia organica (MO (304 v/s 376, s.e.d.= 3,3 y del nitrógeno (250 v/s 301, s.e.d.= 6,4, fueron significativamente mayores (PAn experiment was carried out in order to describe the ruminal degradation characteristics of forages, in herbage mass samples (FD and in simulated grazing samples (FS, obtained at two sward heights (high and low from a permanent pasture (Lolium perenne L.. The degradation kinetics of the samples was studied using in situ dacron bags. Data collected were fitted according to an exponential equation. The soluble fraction (g/kg DM of the dry matter (DM (299 vs. 351, s.e.d.= 5.4, of the organic matter (OM (304 vs. 376, s.e.d.= 3.3 and of the nitrogen (250 vs. 301, s.e.d.= 6.4 were significantly higher (P<0.05 for simulated samples than for the herbage mass samples. The potential degradability (g/kg DM of DM, OM and nitrogen was significantly higher on FS compared with the FD (P<0.05. The effective degradability for the FS samples was greater than for FD samples, either for DM (474 vs. 508, s.e.d.= 13.0, OM (490 vs. 529, s.e.d.= 11.6, or nitrogen (351 vs. 419, s.e.d.= 10.0. A significant greater effect (P<0.05 of the low sward height on the effective degradability was found for the nitrogen only.

  17. Evaluación del uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles para el perfil de medicina transfusional / Evaluation of the use of databases available for students and faculty of the transfusion medicine profile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Iris, Valdespino Alberti; Tania, García Peralta; Raquel, Levón Herrera; Mariela, Forrellat Barrios.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las habilidades en el uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles en la Red del Sistema Nacional de Salud y establecer estrategias a partir de los resultados alcanzados, se aplicó una encuesta de competencias informacionales a 7 profesores y 11 estudiantes de la carrera [...] Licenciatura en Tecnología de la Salud, en el perfil Medicina Transfusional, en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Enrique Cabrera". La encuesta identificó el estado del conocimiento sobre búsquedas bibliográficas, la utilización de las fuentes de información y el acceso a las tecnologías de la información. Se tuvieron en cuenta los aspectos éticos, y se protegió en todo momento la identidad de los entrevistados. Los resultados de la experiencia demuestran que la mayoría de los profesores conocen y usan las bases de datos PUBMED e HINARI, de ellos 16,7 % requiere del apoyo de un especialista; los alumnos tienen un total desconocimiento de las bases de datos cuya consulta facilita Infomed. Los docentes y los alumnos desconocen la existencia de la base de datos DYNAMED, mientras que el buscador más conocido y visitado por estos es Google. Se concluye que existe una deficiente competencia informacional. A partir de los resultados alcanzados se recomienda desarrollar habilidades mediante talleres y otras actividades curriculares de alfabetización informacional. Abstract in english The paper aims to explore the students' and faculty's abilities in the use of data bases available in the Health System Network. An informational competence survey to 7 teachers and 11 students of the Health Technologies program (Transfusional Medicine branch) was applied in "Enrique Cabrera" Facult [...] y of Medicine. The survey identified the knowledge about bibliography search and usage of information sources. Ethics procedures, such as anonymity, were followed. The results show that most of the professors know and use the data bases PUBMED e HINARI. 16.7 % of them require the help of a specialist. On the other hand, students showed total ignorance of the data bases available in Infomed. Teachers and students do not use nor know DYNAMED database; meanwhile the more visited search engine is Google. We can conclude that there is a deficient informational competence so we recommend developing information related abilities through workshops and other curricula activities.

  18. Biodistribution et effet biologique des nanoparticules utilisant des techniques d’imagerie multimodale : (Imagerie de résonance magnétique)

    OpenAIRE

    Faraj, Achraf Al,

    2009-01-01

    En raison de leurs propriétés uniques, des nanoparticules industriellement fabriquées comme les nanotubes de carbone (NTC) ont révolutionné le domaine de la nanotechnologie. Il apparait nécessaire de développer des techniques d’investigation in vivo basées sur les propriétés intrinsèques de ces particules et permettant un suivi longitudinal pour évaluer leur risque après inhalation accidentelle par voie respiratoire. Un protocole d’IRM pulmonaire non-invasive utilisant l’hélium-3 hyper polari...

  19. Les écoulements par RMN à gradient pulsé Pulsed Gradient Nmr Techniques for Studying Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebon L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nous présentons ici les techniques de RMN à gradient pulsé qui permettent d'étudier les écoulements multiphasiques en canalisation ou en milieu poreux. Les principaux avantages sont de pouvoir travailler sur des milieux non transparents et d'accéder à des échelles de longueurs faibles. On montre qu'il est possible d'obtenir des informations locales sur l'écoulement, telles que le profil de vitesse et ses fluctuations dans les écoulements diphasiques, ou les cartes de distribution des probabilités de déplacement dans des échantillons poreux hétérogènes. Pulsed gradient NMR techniques are presented here. They allow the study of multiphase flow in pipes as well as porous media. The main advantages are the possibilities of studying non transparent media at small length scales. We show that it is possible to obtain local information on the fluid flow, such as velocity profiles in two phase systems, or maps of distribution of displacement probabilities in heterogeneous porous media.

  20. Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido, R; Wood, C. D.; J.D. Leaver

    1998-01-01

    Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA) por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usando la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994). Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de mat...

  1. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  2. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  3. La prevención primaria con aspirina de enfermedades cardiovasculares en personas diabéticas: revisión de las pruebas disponibles / Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients: a review of currently available aests

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen, Maciá Bobes; Aránzazu, Ronzón Fernández; Elisa, Fernández García.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El beneficio del tratamiento con aspirina en la reducción del riesgo de infarto de miocardio, accidente vascular cerebral y muerte de origen vascular, está bien documentado en personas con enfermedad cardiovascular previa, incluido el subgrupo portador de una diabetes mellitus. Sin embargo el papel [...] de la aspirina en prevención primaria es menos claro y objeto de discusión: los resultados de los ensayos clínicos disponibles no son consistentes, aunque los meta-análisis son favorables en algunos aspectos. Parece existir una disparidad entre el tipo de beneficio (cuando se observa) y el sexo. Y en particular los resultados son contradictorios en personas diabéticas, las cuales representan un pequeño porcentaje de la muestra de población incluida en los estudios. A pesar de esto, la American Diabetes Association desde 1997, y otras sociedades científicas (incluidas varias españolas) desde tiempos más recientes, recomiendan el uso de aspirina a dosis bajas en prevención primaria en todo paciente diabético mayor de 40 años, tipo 1 o tipo 2; y en todos los menores de 40 y mayores de 21 años que presenten otro factor de riesgo cardiovascular, además de la diabetes (antecedentes familiares de enfermedad vascular, hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo, dislipidemia o albuminuria). En este trabajo se revisan los resultados de los ensayos clínicos randomizados y controlados sobre la prevención cardiovascular primaria con aspirina, en los que se podrían apoyar las directrices oficiales de la American Diabetes Association, y se llega a la conclusión de que no existen actualmente pruebas científicas suficientes para sostenerlas. Abstract in english The benefits of aspirin treatment in reducing the risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents and vascular death is well-documented among individuals having prior cardiovascular disease, including the subgroup with diabetes mellitus. The role of aspirin in primary prevention is less cle [...] ar and debatable: the results of the clinical trials currently available are not consistent, although the meta-analyses are favorable in some aspects. There seems to be a disparity between the type of benefit (when found to exist) and gender, the findings being particularly contradictory for diabetic subjects, totalling a minor percentage of the population sample included in the studies. Despite this fact, in 1997, the American Diabetes Association and more recently other scientific societies (including several Spanish societies) have been recommending the use of aspirin in low doses in primary prevention in all type 1 or type 2 diabetic patients over 40 years of age and in all those within the 21-40 age range having any other cardiovascular risk factor in addition to diabetes (family history of vascular disease, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia or albuminuria). This study reviews the findings of the randomized, controlled clinical trials on primary cardiovascular prevention with aspirin, on which the official American Diabetes Association guidelines might be based, the conclusion being reached that there is not currently sufficient scientific evidence to uphold these guidelines.

  4. La prevención primaria con aspirina de enfermedades cardiovasculares en personas diabéticas: Revisión de las pruebas disponibles / Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases in Diabetic Patients: A Review of Currently Available Tests

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen, Maciá Bobes; Aránzazu, Ronzón Fernández; Elisa, Fernández García.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El beneficio del tratamiento con aspirina en la reducción del riesgo de infarto de miocardio, accidente vascular cerebral y muerte de origen vascular, está bien documentado en personas con enfermedad cardiovascular previa, incluido el subgrupo portador de una diabetes mellitus. Sin embargo el papel [...] de la aspirina en prevención primaria es menos claro y objeto de discusión: los resultados de los ensayos clínicos disponibles no son consistentes, aunque los meta-análisis son favorables en algunos aspectos. Parece existir una disparidad entre el tipo de beneficio (cuando se observa) y el sexo. Y en particular los resultados son contradictorios en personas diabéticas, las cuales representan un pequeño porcentaje de la muestra de población incluida en los estudios. A pesar de esto, la American Diabetes Association desde 1997, y otras sociedades científicas (incluidas varias españolas) desde tiempos más recientes, recomiendan el uso de aspirina a dosis bajas en prevención primaria en todo paciente diabético mayor de 40 años, tipo 1 o tipo 2; y en todos los menores de 40 y mayores de 21 años que presenten otro factor de riesgo cardiovascular, además de la diabetes (antecedentes familiares de enfermedad vascular, hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo, dislipidemia o albuminuria). En este trabajo se revisan los resultados de los ensayos clínicos randomizados y controlados sobre la prevención cardiovascular primaria con aspirina, en los que se podrían apoyar las directrices oficiales de la American Diabetes Association, y se llega a la conclusión de que no existen actualmente pruebas científicas suficientes para sostenerlas. Abstract in english The benefits of aspirin treatment in reducing the risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents and vascular death is well-documented among individuals having prior cardiovascular disease, including the subgroup with diabetes mellitus. The role of aspirin in primary prevention is less cle [...] ar and debatable: the results of the clinical trials currently available are not consistent, although the meta-analyses are favorable in some aspects. There seems to be a disparity between the type of benefit (when found to exist) and gender, the findings being particularly contradictory for diabetic subjects, totalling a minor percentage of the population sample included in the studies. Despite this fact, in 1997, the American Diabetes Association and more recently other scientific societies (including several Spanish societies) have been recommending the use of aspirin in low doses in primary prevention in all type 1 or type 2 diabetic patients over 40 years of age and in all those within the 21-40 age range having any other cardiovascular risk factor in addition to diabetes (family history of vascular disease, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia or albuminuria). This study reviews the findings of the randomized, controlled clinical trials on primary cardiovascular prevention with aspirin, on which the official American Diabetes Association guidelines might be based, the conclusion being reached that there is not currently sufficient scientific evidence to uphold these guidelines.

  5. Optimization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Leondes, Cornelius T

    1997-01-01

    Optimization Techniques is a unique reference source to a diverse array of methods for achieving optimization, and includes both systems structures and computational methods. The text devotes broad coverage toa unified view of optimal learning, orthogonal transformation techniques, sequential constructive techniques, fast back propagation algorithms, techniques for neural networks with nonstationary or dynamic outputs, applications to constraint satisfaction,optimization issues and techniques for unsupervised learning neural networks, optimum Cerebellar Model of Articulation Controller systems, a new statistical theory of optimum neural learning, and the role of the Radial Basis Function in nonlinear dynamical systems.This volume is useful for practitioners, researchers, and students in industrial, manufacturing, mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering.Key Features* Provides in-depth treatment of theoretical contributions to optimal learning for neural network systems* Offers a comprehensive treatmen...

  6. Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome; Proteomique fonctionnelle dediee aux Metalloproteases Matricelles (MMPs): developpement d'une methode extremement sensible permettant la detection des formes actives des MMPs dans des proteomes complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, A

    2007-07-15

    The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows us to identify active forms of gelatinases (M.M.P.-2 and -9) in an indirect manner by comparing the results of tumour samples treated with the photoaffinity probe and the results of tumour samples analysed in zymography. These studies indicate that the protein expression levels of active forms of M.M.P. are extremely low (fmoles) and do not permit any characterisation of those forms of M.M.P. by mass spectrometry, constituting a genuine challenge which can be approached by the development of new photoaffinity probes incorporating a biotin-group. The example of this class of proteins expressed in very low abundance under active form implicates to grant efforts to develop new strategies allowing the capture of the targeted proteins. (author)

  7. Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt / Validation des nécessaires permettant de tester ponctuellement la teneur en iode du sel: expériences indiennes / Validación de kits de determinación in situ del contenido de yodo de la sal: experiencia en la India

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chandrakant S., Pandav; Narendra K., Arora; Anand, Krishnan; Rajan, Sankar; Smita, Pandav; Madhu G., Karmarkar.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos por carencia de yodo son un grave problema de salud pública, y la yodación de la sal es la intervención más empleada para eliminarlos. Sin embargo, es fundamental vigilar regularmente el contenido de yodo de la sal para asegurar el éxito y la sostenibilidad de esa intervención. El mét [...] odo empleado tradicionalmente para medir el contenido de yodo, la valoración yodométrica, plantea problemas relacionados con su accesibilidad y costo. Los kits más recientes para análisis in situ son baratos, apenas exigen adiestramiento, y permiten obtener resultados inmediatos. Partiendo de los datos aportados por estudios de evaluación de la disponibilidad de sal yodada en dos Estados de la India, Madhya Pradesh y el Territorio de Delhi, procedimos a analizar la utilidad del kit sobre el terreno. En Delhi se obtuvieron muestras de sal de 30 escuelas, empleando para ello la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados del Programa Ampliado de Inmunización (EPI). Las mediciones del contenido de yodo mediante el kit fueron efectuadas por un solo observador. Las muestras de sal de Madhya Pradesh procedían de 30 conglomerados rurales y 30 urbanos, identificados mediante la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados del EPI a partir de datos censales. En cada grupo, se obtuvieron muestras de sal a partir de 10 hogares seleccionados al azar y de todos los minoristas. Los 15 investigadores participantes en el estudio calcularon el contenido de yodo de las muestras de sal empleando el kit sobre el terreno. Todas las muestras se llevaron al laboratorio central de Delhi, donde el contenido de yodo se determinó mediante la valoración yodométrica como método de referencia. El grado de coincidencia entre los niveles obtenidos con el kit y los obtenidos mediante la valoración disminuyó paralelamente al aumento del número de observadores. Aunque la sensibilidad no se vio demasiado afectada por el aumento del número de observadores (93,3% para un solo observador, y 93,9% para varios observadores), la especificidad disminuyó pronunciadamente (90,4% para un solo observador, y 40,4% para varios observadores). Considerando la baja especificidad y el número consiguientemente elevado de falsos positivos obtenidos cuando lo usaron varios observadores (« condiciones reales »), cabe concluir que el kit tendía a sobreestimar sistemáticamente la disponibilidad de sal yodada. Puesto que esa sobreestimación podría conducir a la complacencia, mientras no se disponga de una alternativa válida debería seguirse utilizando el método de valoración para controlar el contenido de yodo de la sal en todos los niveles, desde el productor hasta el consumidor, a fin de garantizar la eficacia del programa. Abstract in english Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditiona [...] l method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samples in the field using the kit. All the samples were brought

  8. La valuación de empresas cotizadas en México, mediante la metodología del modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible: Relaciones con la valuación del mercado / Valuation of Companies Quoted in Mexico, by means of the Methodology of the Model of Cash flow Available: Relations with Valuation of the Market

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Luisa, Saavedra.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue aplicar el modelo de Flujo de efectivo disponible para determinar el valor de un grupo de empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores para comparar los valores obtenidos con el precio de mercado. La revisión de la literatura del modelo de Flujo de Efect [...] ivo Disponible permitió identificar y describir las principales variables que contiene el mismo, con el fin de proponer una metodología de aplicación a las empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de valores, considerando que sólo se contaba con información pública. Con la metodología propuesta se aplicó el modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible a las empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, con el fin de determinar su valor y tratar de encontrar si existe algún patrón de comportamiento del modelo al valuar a este conjunto de empresas, por un periodo de 10 años de 1991 a 2000. Encontramos que el modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible sigue una tendencia muy similar al precio de mercado, lo cual estaría indicando a este modelo como el más adecuado para valuar a este conjunto de empresas tomando, desde luego, el valor de mercado como patrón de referencia. Abstract in english The objective of this investigation was to apply the model of Cash flow available to determine the value of a group of companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of Values, and of comparing the values obtained with the price of market. The revision of the Literature of the model of Cash flow Avail [...] able allowed to identify and to describe the main variables that he himself contains, with the objetive of proposing a methodology of application to the companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of values, considering that single was counted on public information. With the propose methodology the model of Cash flow Available was applied to the companies that quote in stock-market Mexican of Values, with the purpose of determine their value and of try to find if some pattern of behavior of the model when estimating to this set of companies exists, by a period of 10 years from 1991 to 2000. We found that the model of Cash flow Available follows a very similar tendency at the cost of market, which would be indicating to this model like the most adapted to estimate to this set of companies taking, of course, the value from market like reference pattern.

  9. Miscellaneous Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    Nondestructive way of determining the food quality is the need of the hour. Till now major methods such as colour measurements and their modeling; machine vision systems; X-ray, CT and MRI; NIR spectroscopy; electronic nose and tongue; and ultrasonic technology have been discussed in detail. These techniques, in general, are considered to be sophisticated and costly, and therefore probably are not being adopted as fast as it should be. I am however of the reverse opinion. While going through these techniques, it has been seen that majority of quality parameters have been measured and correlated with the signals obtained using different equipment.

  10. Electroforming technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigrodski, A J; Malcamp, C; Rogers, W A

    1998-01-01

    Electroforming technology is used to form substructures for porcelain inlays and crowns. This technique may be used as an alternative to the currently available porcelain-fused-to-metal and all-ceramic systems. Composed of pure 24 K gold deposited directly onto a duplicate die, electroformed copings are relatively thin (0.2 mm), highly biocompatible, and present a marginal accuracy of 20 microns on average. The equipment is relatively easy to use and therefore makes this technique attractive to small ceramics laboratories. The esthetic advantages of a gold colored substructure, the reduced thickness of the coping, and the improved fit of the gold collar when it is used, present a restorative alternative to the dentist, to the ceramist, and to the patient. PMID:10483416

  11. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  12. Appareil permettant la caractérisation thermique de substrats et matériaux à forte conductibilité pour micro-électronique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Pierre; Haussonne, Jean-Marie; Lostec, Jean

    1993-04-01

    The thermal characterization of aluminum nitride AIN substrates is an important task for microelectronics. The usual method, so called “laser-flash", can hardly been used for substrates, as it needs samples with a thickness higher than 3 mm. This method has been recently modified, but involves a heavy equipment to be used. We have developed in C.N.E.T. Lannion a method on the principle of the measurement of the thermal flux through a sample placed in a known thermal gradient. This method was first developed to characterize low thermal conductivity samples. We then adapted it to the new problem related to the characterization of high thermal conductivity substrates as AIN ones, the thermal conductivity of which being as high as 200 W/m.K. The apparatus we developed, that is now commercially available, allows to measure directly in some minutes the thermal conductivity of samples with an accuracy of 10% in a range values of 10 to 400W/m.K. La caractérisation thermique des substrats en nitrure d'aluminium AIN est un problème actuel en micro-électronique. La méthode classique dite du “flash-laser”, est mal adaptée à ce type de matériau, car nécessitant des échantillons d'épaisseur supérieure à 3 mm. Cette méthode a été nouvellement adaptée mais au prix d'un investissement relativement lourd. Nous avons développé au C.N.E.T. Lannion une méthode de caractérisation basée sur le principe de la mesure du flux thermique traversant un échantillon soumis à un gradient thermique connu. Originellement conçue pour la caractérisation de substrats de faible conductivité, cette méthode a été adaptée au problème posé par l'apparition de substrats tel le nitrure d'aluminium AIN de conductivité thermique pouvant être supérieure à 200 W/m.K. L'appareil mis au point, maintenant commercialisé, permet la détermination directe de la conductibilité thermique en quelques minutes avec une précision de l'ordre de 10 % pour une gamme de valeur de 10 à 400W/m.K.

  13. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  14. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Perthuis E.

    2006-01-01

    L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationale...

  15. Fontes de informação em educação a distância disponíveis em meio eletrônico nas universidades federais brasileiras Information sources in distance education, available in the electronic environment in brazilian federal universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Martins de Medeiros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available [Portuguese]Este estudo objetivou conhecer organizações como fontes de informação sobre Educação a Distância (EaD disponíveis nas Universidades Públicas Federais Brasileiras. Para avaliar uma fonte, é fundamental identificar a instituição responsável por sua compilação. A credibilidade da organização é que determinará o grau de confiabilidade das informações. Os resultados preliminares apontam que as fontes de informação em EaD necessitam melhorar a qualidade dos dados apresentados, visando as necessidades informacionais dos usuários. Dessa forma, proporcionarão um ambiente bem estruturado, com diversos recursos de comunicação disponíveis que possibilitam a interação e viabilizam a construção do conhecimento e o desenvolvimento de competências neste espaço alternativo de educação.[English]This study was planned to recognize institutions as sources of information about Distance Education, available in Brazilian Federal Public Universities. In order to evaluate a source, it is fundamental to identify the institution responsible for its compilation. The credibility of the institution will determine the degree of reliability on the information. Preliminary results show that the sources of information in Distance Education need quality improvement of offered data, for purposes of meeting users information needs, by providing a well- structured environment, with varied available communication resources to enable interaction and make the construction of knowledge and development of competences possible in this alternative education environment.

  16. Rehabilitative techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with neuro-ophthalmological diseases at different levels of the afferent visual pathways with special regard to visual field defects, their functional impact, and their rehabilitation. The nature of these impairments and their significance for activities of daily living can be quite varied; an exact assessment of the residual function is required to determine specific rehabilitation approaches. Rehabilitation aims to compensate for the visual deficits by means of specific training and visual aids. Visual field defects in the center cause reading disability. Preconditions for reading are a sufficient size of the reading visual field or perceptual span and sufficient resolution of the retinal area used for reading. In central scotoma, as in macular or optic nerve disease, reading ability can be regained by eccentric fixation plus text magnification. In hemianopia, reading depends on the amount of sparing in the center, the side of the defect, and adaptive strategies. Field defects in the periphery cause orientation and mobility problems. In constricted fields, tactile training with a cane is indicated; in hemianopia, explorative saccadic training is effective. With the appropriate technique, rehabilitation can be very successful, and quality of life can be regained in most patients. PMID:21601070

  17. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectrometry and many of them home-built: electrostatic ion storage devices, accelerator mass spectrometers (i.e., sector instruments), reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and ion traps. The experimental results presented in this volume were obtained with such instruments. Detection schemes are detailed, both for the identification of neutral products and charged ones. In delayed dissociation experiments, prompt dissociation is a problem as all the fragmentation is then not sampled; an example is photo-induced electron transfer to an ammonium group and subsequent hydrogen loss. A way to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.

  18. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or enriching it with oxygen. Several examples are given of the influence of these operational parameters on possible fuel savings.

  19. Parallel pic plasma simulation through particle decomposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briguglio, S.; Vlad, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Di Martino, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. for Software Tecnology and Parallel Systems]|[Naples, Univ. `Federico II` (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica

    1998-02-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are among the major candidates to yield a satisfactory description of the detail of kinetic effects, such as the resonant wave-particle interaction, relevant in determining the transport mechanism in magnetically confined plasmas. A significant improvement of the simulation performance of such codes con be expected from parallelization, e.g., by distributing the particle population among several parallel processors. Parallelization of a hybrid magnetohydrodynamic-gyrokinetic code has been accomplished within the High Performance Fortran (HPF) framework, and tested on the IBM SP2 parallel system, using a `particle decomposition` technique. The adopted technique requires a moderate effort in porting the code in parallel form and results in intrinsic load balancing and modest inter processor communication. The performance tests obtained confirm the hypothesis of high effectiveness of the strategy, if targeted towards moderately parallel architectures. Optimal use of resources is also discussed with reference to a specific physics problem. [Italiano] I codici Particle-in-cell (PIC) sono considerati tra i piu` promettenti candidati per ottenere una descrizione soddisfacente e dettagliata degli effetti cinetici, quali per esempio l`interazione risonante particella-onda, rilevanti nel determinare i meccanismi di trasporto che interessano il confinamento del plasma. Un significativo miglioramento delle prestazioni della simulazione puo` essere ottenuto distribuendo la popolazione di particelle tra diversi processori in parallelo. La parallelizzazione di un codice ibrido MHD-girocinetico e` stata effettuata, in ambiente HPF, utilizzando la tecnica di `decomposizione per particelle`, ed e` stata provata sul sistema parallelo IBM SP2. La tecnica adottata richiede uno sforzo moderato per la trasformazione del codice in versione parallela, permette un intrinseco bilanciamento tra i processori del carico di lavoro e necessita di una modesta comunicazione tra processori. I risultati ottenuti confermano l`ipotesi di alta efficenza di tale strategia, se applicata ad architetture moderatamente parallele. Si discute inoltre l`uso ottimale delle risorse con riferimento ad uno specifico esempio fisico.

  20. Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles / Pediculus capitis: Available therapies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROBERTO P, ROSSO A; M. SOLEDAD, RAMÍREZ G; MARISA, TORRES H.

    Full Text Available Pediculosis es la infestación del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a más de 15% de la población general y a más de 30% de la población infantil. Los fármacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero ha [...] sta 20% de la población se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos compuestos activos, entre ellos: lindano, derivados piretroides, crotamitón, tiabendazol, malatión, carbaryl y cotrimoxazol. De cada uno, se discute el mecanismo de acción, características farmacológicas, efectividad y efectos adversos Abstract in english Head lice infestation is very common. It is one of most frequent diseases in the childhood. In 1996, 15% of the people in the world and 30% of infant were infected. The drugs used at the moment are very effective but the people get reinfested after two months, so to avoid it, it is important to trea [...] t all contacts. There are different active compounds like lindane, pyrethins, crotamiton, thiabendazole, malathion, carbaryl and sulpha/trimethoprim. For each of these, we discuss their action, pharmacology characteristics, effectiveness and adverse effects.

  1. Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles Pediculus capitis: Available therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO P ROSSO A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediculosis es la infestación del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a más de 15% de la población general y a más de 30% de la población infantil. Los fármacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero hasta 20% de la población se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos compuestos activos, entre ellos: lindano, derivados piretroides, crotamitón, tiabendazol, malatión, carbaryl y cotrimoxazol. De cada uno, se discute el mecanismo de acción, características farmacológicas, efectividad y efectos adversosHead lice infestation is very common. It is one of most frequent diseases in the childhood. In 1996, 15% of the people in the world and 30% of infant were infected. The drugs used at the moment are very effective but the people get reinfested after two months, so to avoid it, it is important to treat all contacts. There are different active compounds like lindane, pyrethins, crotamiton, thiabendazole, malathion, carbaryl and sulpha/trimethoprim. For each of these, we discuss their action, pharmacology characteristics, effectiveness and adverse effects.

  2. Formation sécurité : places disponibles dans les sessions de juin

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    Il reste des places dans les formations sécurité suivantes. Pour les mises à jour et les inscriptions, veuillez vous reportez au catalogue des formations sécurité. Safety in Cryogenics level 1, 14 juin, en anglais, 3 heures, 9h00 – 12h00 (5 places) Radiological Protection, 18 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Radiological Protection, 22 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 08h30 – 12h30 (15 places) Sécurité Radiologique, 22 juin, en français, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Conduite de chariots élévateurs, 24-25 juin, en français, 2 jours, 8h00 – 17h30 (3 places) 

  3. Lutte contre les cercosporioses du bananier aux Antilles françaises - Évaluation et amélioration des techniques disponibles d’épandage aérien et terrestre Fighting Banana Sigatoka diseases in the French West Indies - Evaluation and improvement of available aerial and ground treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARRÉ, Maÿlis ; COTTEUX, Éric ; ROMBAUT, Marc ; GRIMBUHLER, Sonia ; DIDELOT, Dominique

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimiser les traitements aériens et trouver des solutions alternatives terrestres sont les objectifs du projet de recherche Optiban, afin d’aider les acteurs de la filière antillaise de production de bananes à lutter efficacement contre les maladies du bananier tout en respectant les réglementations et en préservant l’environnement. Focus sur les différents travaux engagés et les premiers résultats des études.Banana growers in the French West Indies have to face a major stake today: to fight effectively against the Sigatoka diseases (the yellow one for years and the black one since the end of 2010, while respecting regulations on aerial application and protected areas. The Optiban project was launched in 2008 to improve aerial application and find ground alternative solutions, which have to be efficient and to meet the expectations of the industry.

  4. Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras / Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Pulido; C. D., Wood; J.D., Leaver.

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA) por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usan [...] do la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994). Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979). La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g) fue mayor (P Abstract in english An experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD) and simulated grazing samples (FA), at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data coll [...] ected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P

  5. Levels of available phosphorus and calcium for broilers from 8 to 35 days of age fed rations containing phytase Níveis de fósforo disponível e de cálcio para frangos de corte de 8 a 35 dias de idade alimentados com rações contendo fitase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimar Cardoso Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments using Cobb broiler chicks from 8 to 35 days of age were carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing levels of calcium and available phosphorus in diets supplemented with 500 ftu phytase/kg on the performance of the birds, the content of ashes in the tibia, the metabolizable energy of the diet, and the metabolizability of the dry matter and crude protein. It was used 1,404 broiler chicks in the experiment 1 to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, food conversion and percentage of the ashes in the tibia. In the experiment 2, simultaneously carried out with experiment 1, a total of 390 birds were transferred to a metabolism room to determine the metabolizable energy and metabolizability of the dry matter and crude protein. It was used in the two experiments, a complete random design in a 3 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme with three levels of available phosphorus (0.375; 0.325; and 0.275% and four levels of calcium (0.85; 0.75; 0.65 and 0.55% in the diets, supplemented with phytase. It was also used a control diet without phytase, based on corn and soybean bran, formulated with 0.425% of available phosphorus and 0.85% of calcium. In the experiment 1, the reduction of levels of calcium and phosphorus did not cause a significant difference on the performance and percentage of bone ashes. The levels of calcium and available phosphorus used in the experiment 2 can be reduced down to 0.65 and 0.325%, respectively, because the effects are similar to those obtained with the currently suggested levels.Dois experimentos com pintos de corte da linhagem Cobb no período de 8 a 35 dias de idade foram realizados para avaliar o efeito da redução dos níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações suplementadas com 500 ftu de fitase/kg sobre o desempenho das aves, o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a energia metabolizável (EMAn da dieta e a metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 1.404 pintos de corte para avaliação do consumo de ração, do ganho de peso, da conversão alimentar e da porcentagem de cinzas na tíbia. No experimento 2, conduzido simultaneamente ao primeiro, um total de 390 aves foram transferidas para uma sala de metabolismo para determinação da EMAn e da metabolizabilidade da MS e PB. Nos dois experimentos, utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 × 4 + 1, com três níveis de fósforo disponível (0,375; 0,325 e 0,275% e quatro níveis de cálcio (0,85; 0,75; 0,65 e 0,55% nas dietas, suplementadas com fitase. Também foi usada uma dieta controle sem fitase, à base de milho e farelo de soja, formulada com 0,425% de fósforo disponível e 0,85% de cálcio. No experimento 1, a redução dos níveis de cálcio e fósforo não ocasionou diferença significativa no desempenho e na porcentagem de cinzas ósseas. Os níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível utilizados no experimento 2 podem ser reduzidos em até 0,65 e 0,325%, respectivamente, pois os efeitos são semelhantes aos obtidos com os níveis atualmente recomendados.

  6. Bothrops ayerbei FOLLECO-FERNÁNDEZ, 2010 Y Bothrops rhomboatus GARCÍA, 1896 (SERPENTES: VIPERIDAE) SON UN NOMBRE NO DISPONIBLE Y UN NOMEN DUBIUM, RESPECTIVAMENTE / Bothrops ayerbei FOLLECO-FERNÁNDEZ, 2010 AND Bothrops rhomboatus GARCÍA, 1896 (SERPENTES: VIPERIDAE) ARE AN UNAVAILABLE NAME AND A NOMEN DUBIUM, RESPECTIVELY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor E., Ramírez-Chaves; Sergio, Solari.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se argumentan las razones por las cuales el binomio Bothrops ayerbei Folleco-Fernández, 2010, no constituye un nombre disponible de acuerdo a la reglamentación del vigente Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica debido a que este no permitía la publicación de nuevos tax [...] ones en revistas electrónicas previas al año 2011. Adicionalmente, se presentan las razones por la cual el binomio Bothrops rhomboatus García, 1896, también escrito como Bothrops rhombeatus, representa un nomen dubium dada la carencia de material tipo y una compleja historia que impiden su asignación taxonómica correcta. Abstract in english In this work, we present and discuss the reasons for which the binomen Bothrops ayerbei Folleco-Fernández, 2010, constitutes an unavailable name according to the rules of the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, because the code allows no the publication of new taxa in electronic j [...] ournals before 2011. In addition, we present the reasons for which the binomen Bothrops rhomboatus García, 1896, which has also been written as Bothrops rhombeatus, constitutes a nomen dubium given the lack of type material and its troubled history that hamper a correct taxonomic assignation.

  7. Níveis de fósforo disponível e cálcio em rações suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases de crescimento e final Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets supplemented with phytase for broilers in the growing and finishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações com fitase para frangos de corte da linhagem Cobb nas fases de crescimento (22 a 35 dias e final (36 a 42 dias. Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 3 × 4 + 1, composto de três níveis de Pdisp (0,36; 0,31; 0,26% na fase de crescimento e 0,33; 0,28; 0,23% na final, quatro níveis de cálcio (0,82; 0,72; 0,62; 0,52% para a fase de crescimento e 0,76; 0,66; 0,56; 0,46% para a final e um nível de suplementação da fitase (500 ftu/kg. As rações controle não foram suplementadas com fitase e continham, respectivamente, os seguintes níveis de Pdisp e cálcio: 0,41 e 0,82% (fase de crescimento e 0,38 e 0,76% (final. Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 35 e 42 dias de idade, avaliaram-se o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, foram determinados os valores energéticos das rações (EMAn e os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (CMMS. Na fase de crescimento, a redução do cálcio e Pdisp para 0,52 e 0,26%, respectivamente, não comprometeu o desempenho, a mineralização óssea, a EMAn e o CMMS. Na fase final, a redução do cálcio e fósforo disponível para 0,56 e 0,28%, respectivamente, não comprometeu o desempenho, a EMAn e o CMMS e melhorou a mineralização óssea. Os níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações para frangos de corte podem ser reduzidos para 0,52 e 0,26% na fase de crescimento e 0,56 e 0,28% na fase final desde que essa redução seja combinada com a suplementação de fitase no nível de 500 ftu/kg de ração.Calcium and available phosphorus (aP levels in diets with phytase for Cobb broilers in the growing (22 to 35 days and finishing phases (36 to 42 days of age were evaluated. A 3 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme, with three aP levels (0.36, 0.31, 0.26% in the growing phase and 0.33, 0.28, 0.23% in the finishing phase, four calcium levels (0.82, 0.72, 0.62, 0.52% in the growing phase and 0.76, 0.66, 0.56, 0.46% in the finishing phase, and one level of supplementation of phytase (500 ftu/kg was used. Control diets were not supplemented with phytase and they contained, respectively, the following levels of aP and calcium: 0.41 and 0.82% (growing phase and 0.38 and 0.76 (finishing phase. In the performance assays, at 35 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays, the energy values of diets (AMEn and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. In the growing phase, the reduction of the calcium and aP to 0.52 and 0.26%, respectively, did not compromise performance, bone ash, AMEn or MCDM. In the finishing phase, the reduction of the calcium and aP to 0.56 and 0.28%, respectively, did not compromise performance, AMEn or MCDM; in addition to improving bone ash. The levels of calcium and aP of diet can be reduced to 0.52 and 0.26% in the growing phase, and to 0.56 and 0.28% in the finishing phase, provided that this reduction is combined with supplementation of fitase at 500 ftu/kg of the diet.

  8. Visualization techniques for wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiannis, Marios

    2012-01-01

    Les réseaux de capteurs sans fil, comme tous les réseaux sans fil, dépendent de facteurs environnementaux qui affectent leur fonctionnement. A cet effet, les chercheurs ont besoin d'outils qui leur permettent de mesurer ces facteurs, et d'évaluer leur impact sur la performance des algorithmes et des protocoles de communication en phase de recherche et développement. Les réseaux de capteurs sans fil on ceci d'unique que chaque capteur pris individuellement n'a qu'une utilité marginale, alors q...

  9. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  10. Diagnostic tests in HIV management: a review of clinical and laboratory strategies to monitor HIV-infected individuals in developing countries / Tests diagnostiques et prise en charge des infections à VIH: revue des méthodes cliniques et analytiques permettant le suivi des personnes contaminées dans les pays en développement / Pruebas diagnósticas en el manejo de la infección por VIH: estudio de las estrategias clínicas y de laboratorio empleadas para controlar a las personas infectadas por el VIH en los países en desarrollo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    April D, Kimmel; Elena, Losina; Kenneth A, Freedberg; Sue J, Goldie.

    2006-07-10

    Full Text Available Realizamos una revisión sistemática de la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas como medio de seguimiento clínico y de laboratorio de las personas infectadas por el VIH en los países en desarrollo. La información sobre pruebas diagnósticas reunida a partir de bases de datos computadorizadas, de las p [...] ublicaciones y de Internet se clasificó como clínica (información sobre los pacientes distinta de los datos de laboratorio), inmunológica (información sobre pruebas inmunológicas) o virológica (información sobre pruebas virológicas). De los 51 estudios seleccionados para la revisión, 28 evaluaron pruebas inmunológicas, 12 pruebas virológicas, y 7 pruebas clínicas e inmunológicas. Los métodos de evaluación de la eficacia fueron principalmente la sensibilidad y la especificidad en el caso de las pruebas clínicas, y los coeficientes de correlación en el caso de las pruebas inmunológicas y virológicas. Entre las primeras, la mayoría de las medidas de eficacia de las pruebas revelaron una sensibilidad superior al 70% y una especificidad superior al 65%. En la categoría de pruebas inmunológicas, los coeficientes de correlación oscilaron entre 0,54 y 0,99 para diferentes técnicas de recuento de CD4, mientras que la correlación (r) entre los recuentos de CD4 y de linfocitos totales se situó entre 0,23 y 0,74. En cuanto a las pruebas virológicas, los coeficientes de correlación para diferentes técnicas de cuantificación del ARN del VIH fueron de entre 0,54 y 0,90. A la hora de realizar nuevas investigaciones en el futuro, será necesario consensuar el diseño de los estudios, y reunir y notificar datos de utilidad para las instancias decisorias. Recomendamos clasificar la información en categorías clínicamente pertinentes, utilizar una definición coherente de enfermedad en todos los estudios, y proporcionar medidas tanto de asociación como de exactitud. Abstract in english We conducted a systematic review on the performance of diagnostic tests for clinical and laboratory monitoring of HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Diagnostic test information collected from computerized databases, bibliographies and the Internet were categorized as clinical (non-laborato [...] ry patient information), immunologic (information from immunologic laboratory tests), or virologic (information from virologic laboratory tests). Of the 51 studies selected for the review 28 assessed immunologic tests, 12 virologic tests and seven clinical and immunologic tests. Methods of performance evaluation were primarily sensitivity and specificity for the clinical category and correlation coefficients for immunologic and virologic categories. In the clinical category, the majority of test performance measures was reported as >70% sensitive and >65% specific. In the immunologic category, correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.99 for different CD4 count enumeration techniques, while correlation for CD4 and total lymphocyte counts was between r = 0.23 and r = 0.74. In the virologic category, correlation coefficients for different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) quantification techniques ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.90. Future research requires consensus on designing studies, and collecting and reporting data useful for decision-makers. We recommend classifying information into clinically relevant categories, using a consistent definition of disease across studies and providing measures of both association and accuracy.

  11. Télédétection SAR interférométrique de zones urbaines en bande L à partir de l'utilisation des techniques d'analyse spectrale polarimétriques et multi-bases

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dans cette thése, des techniques d'analyse spectrale sont généralisées afin de traiter des données polarimétriques SAR interférométriques multi-bases. Ces algorithmes polarimétriques de traitement multi-capteurs sont décrits d'une manièere mathématique rigoureuse et appliqués aux zones urbaines. Ils permettent d'estimer la hauteur des diffuseurs, le mécanisme de rétrodiffusion et la réflectivité polarimétrique. A partir des observations mono-base POLInSAR, un modèle numérique d'élévation d'un...

  12. Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pulido

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usando la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994. Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979. La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g fue mayor (PAn experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD and simulated grazing samples (FA, at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data collected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P<0.05 from herbage mass samples than simulated grazing samples at 12, 21, and 27 hours of incubation (161.7 v/s 150.6, s.e.d.= 4.23; 217.6 v/s 209.2, s.e.d.= 3.65; and 242.1 v/s 234.7, s.e.d.= 3.34, respectively. However, after 27 hours of incubation, no significant effect (P0.05 of type of sample, either on the amount of gas produced or on the kinetic of fermentation, were found. The dry matter disappearance after 96 hours of incubation was significantly lower (P<0.05 for herbage mass samples compared with simulated grazing samples (0.908 v/s 0.873, s.e.d.= 0.005, but with no effect of sward height (P0.05. These findings show the benefits of complementing in vitro gas production measurements with post digestion residue determinations to improve the knowledge on the nutritive value of feed fermented in the rumen

  13. Guía para el tratamiento de lactantes con alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca: Ficha comparativa de las fórmulas especiales disponibles en el mercado español Guideline for the treatment of infants with allergy to cow milk proteins: comparative data sheet of the specific formulae available on the Spanish market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Goicoechea Manzanares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca (APLV es una enfermedad de elevada incidencia y prevalencia. Su tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de las proteínas de la leche de vaca de la dieta, mediante lactancia materna exclusiva y, en caso de uso de fórmulas adaptadas, con el uso de fórmulas especiales, como fórmulas derivadas de proteínas lácteas altamente hidrolizadas, de fórmulas derivadas de proteínas vegetales o de fórmulas elaboradas a partir de aminoácidos biosintéticos (fórmulas elementales. Estas fórmulas suponen un coste económico considerable y un importante campo comercial para las industrias alimentaria y farmacéutica. Dado el continuo avance científico y técnico, son muchas las modificaciones que se presentan en la elaboración de dichas fórmulas y en las normas para su correcto manejo y muy numerosas las publicaciones sobre diferentes aspectos relativas a las mismas.
    En el presente trabajo pretendemos revisar las últimas modificaciones debidas a los nuevos conocimientos y a la experiencia clínica acumulada sobre prevención y tratamiento de la APLV. Además, se revisa la importancia de los aspectos nutricionales en todos los lactantes y niños pequeños que reciben fórmulas alimentarias especiales y dietas de exclusión y se presentan las principales características compositivas de las fórmulas disponibles en el mercado español y las recomendaciones de los organismos reguladores.

    Allergy to cow milk proteins (ACMP is a disease having high incidence and prevalence. Its treatment consists in the elimination of cow milk proteins, using maternal breastfeeding exclusively and, in the case of adapted formulae, with the use of special formulae such as highly hydrolyzed lactic protein derived formulae, vegetables protein derived formulae or formulae elaborated from biosynthetic aminoacids (Elemental formulae. These formulae entail a considerable financial cost and provide an important commercial field for the food and drug industry. Given the continuous scientific and technical advance, there are many modifications that occur in the elaboration of these formulae and on the guidelines for their correct handling and there are many publications on the different aspects of them. In the present work, we have aimed to review the recent modifications due to the newer knowledge and clinical experience accumulated on prevention and treatment of ACMP. In addition, the importance of the nutritional aspects in all infants and small children who receive special feeding formulae and diets of exclusion and that have the principle

  14. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  15. Training techniques for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used training techniques in relation to cost-effective, prevention-oriented Quality Assurance are examined. Important questions are whether training techniques teach cost effectiveness and whether the techniques are, themselves, cost effective. To answer these questions, criteria for evaluating teaching techniques for cost effectiveness were developd, and then commonly used techniques are evaluated in terms of specific training program objectives. Motivation of personnel is also considered important to the success of a training program, and methods are outlined by which recognition of the academic quality of industrial training can be used as a motivational technique

  16. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Angio-CT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In over 1000 body CT studies different techniques of fast contrast medium injection were used: single bolus injection, continuous fast drip infusion and multiple sequential bolus injections. Advantages and indications of different techniques are evaluated. (orig.)

  18. Persian fencing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reprodu...

  19. Technique and Arts Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Samuel

    1990-01-01

    Contends that the technological mentality will lead to greater emphasis on technique, defined as using technological methods in nonmechanical or nonmachine context. Argues that greater focus on technique implies many dangers including placing form over content and a loss of spirituality. Analyzes technique from several perspectives and the…

  20. Single nanoparticle measurement techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Mailly, D.; Benoit, A.

    1999-01-01

    Various single particle measuring techniques are briefly reviewed and the basic concepts of a new micro-SQUID technique are discussed. It allows measurements of the magnetization reversal of single nanometer-sized particles at low temperature. The influence of the measuring technique on the system of interest is discussed.

  1. RTDrift, modèle permettant d’évaluer en temps réel les risques environnementaux liés à la dérive des produits phytosanitaires

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, Frédéric; Massinon, Mathieu; Verstraete, Arnaud; Destain, Marie-France

    2011-01-01

    Un modèle, RTDrift, a été développé pour estimer la contamination causée par la dérive pour les pulvérisateurs à rampe en cours de traitement. Un pulvérisateur a été équipé de capteurs pour mesurer les paramètres de la dérive dont la pression de pulvérisation, les mouvements de rampe, la vitesse et direction du vent, la température et l’humidité ainsi que la géo-localisation. Pour chaque position successive des buses, un modèle de diffusionadvection gaussien avec sédimentation ...

  2. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  4. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These “Quality Attribute Techniques” target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  5. Estudio sobre la pertinencia del uso de las normas disponibles del Raven en adultos mayores chilenos / Study on the relevance of using available norms Raven in Chileans older adults / Estudo sobre a pertinência da utilização das normas disponíveis de Raven em idosos chilenos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Alarcón Paz; Vanessa, Díaz Valenzuela; Jacqueline, Hernández Rosales; Claudia, Estrada Goic.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da inteligência na população idosa tem aumentado sua importância devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida. Este estudo está centrado na relevância das normas disponíveis para o teste de Matrizes Progressivas de Raven para essa população. Foram utilizadas as normas de Colchester (1942, ci [...] tado por Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), as mais completas disponíveis. Participaram 102 idosos voluntários (com idade superior a 60 anos). O desenho do estudo foi não experimental transversal correlacional. Os resultados indicam que as normas são pouco exigentes para esse grupo e que existem diferenças significativas entre os adultos da terceira e quarta idade, privilegiando o primeiro grupo. O índice de discrepância mostrou alta sensibilidade, indicando que a distribuição de pontuações esperadas não corresponde a da população em geral. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à necessidade de atualização das normas e da consideração das novas características desse período vital. Abstract in spanish La evaluación de la inteligencia en población adulto mayor ha aumentado su relevancia debido al incremento de la esperanza de vida. Este estudio centra su interés en la pertinencia de normas disponibles para el Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven para dicha población. Se utilizaron normas de Colch [...] ester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), las más completas existentes. Participaron 102 adultos mayores voluntarios (más de 60 años). El diseño fue no experimental transversal correlacional. Los resultados indican que las normas resultan poco exigentes para ese grupo y que existen diferencias significativas entre los adultos de la tercera y cuarta edad, privilegiando a los del primer grupo. El índice de discrepancia mostró alta sensibilidad, indicando que la distribución de puntajes esperados no se corresponde al de la población general. Se discuten los resultados en torno a la necesidad de actualización de las normas y la consideración de las nuevas características de este periodo vital. Abstract in english The assessment of intelligence in the elderly population has increased its importance in terms of increased life expectancy. The present study focuses its interest on the relevance of available norms for Raven Progressive Matrices Test in the evaluation of elderly population. Standards were used Col [...] chester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008), the most comprehensive available. The non-probability sample involved 102 elderly (aged over 60 years old) who were volunteers. The study used a non-experimental cross-correlation design. The results indicate that the current norms are not very demanding for the aging population, and that there are significant differences between adults of the third and fourth age, better for the first group. Moreover, the discrepancy index showed high sensitivity, indicating that the expected distribution of scores does not correspond to the general population. Results are discussed regarding the need to update the norms and the consideration of the new features involved in this vital period.

  6. The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence / Efficacité des politiques de réduction des acides gras trans alimentaires: une revue systématique des données probantes / La eficacia de las estrategias para reducir las grasas trans en la dieta: examen sistemático de los datos disponibles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shauna M, Downs; Anne Marie, Thow; Stephen R, Leeder.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar sistemáticamente los datos disponibles sobre la eficacia de las estrategias (incluida la autorregulación) dirigidas a reducir los ácidos grasos de tipo trans (AGT) de producción industrial en los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las bases de datos Medline, Embase y Cinahl para id [...] entificar artículos revisados por expertos en los que se estudiara el efecto de las estrategias acerca de las grasas trans. Además, también se buscaron artículos de literatura gris en las primeras 20 páginas de resultados de Google. Los estudios se incluyeron cuando: (i) se trataba de un estudio empírico que se desarrolló en un entorno del «mundo real» (esto es, se excluyeron estudios de modelamiento); (ii) se examinaba una estrategia relacionada con los AGT que incluyera, por ejemplo, etiquetado, límites voluntarios o prohibiciones; y (iii) se examinaba el efecto de una estrategia sobre los niveles de AGT en los alimentos, la dieta de las personas, la sangre o la leche materna. RESULTADOS: Veintiséis artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. De ellos, cinco incluyeron una autorregulación voluntaria; ocho, sólo etiquetado; cuatro, etiquetado y límites voluntarios; cinco, prohibiciones locales y cuatro, prohibiciones nacionales. En su conjunto, todas las estrategias redujeron el nivel de AGT en los alimentos. Por regla general, los niveles de grasas saturadas aumentaron o disminuyeron según el tipo de producto, y el contenido total de grasa permaneció estable. Las prohibiciones locales y nacionales resultaron ser las más eficaces a la hora de eliminar los AGT de los alimentos, mientras que el etiquetado obligatorio y los límites voluntarios obtuvieron resultados variados, dependiendo, en su mayor parte, de la categoría de alimento. CONCLUSIÓN: Las estrategias dirigidas a la reducción del contenido de AGT en los alimentos estuvieron asociadas a reducciones significativas de los niveles de AGT sin un aumento del contenido total en grasas. Estas estrategias son factibles, viables y pueden tener un efecto sobre la salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of policies, including self-regulation, aimed at reducing industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food. METHODS: The Medline, Embase and Cinahl databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles examining the effect [...] of TFA policies. In addition, the first 20 pages of Google searches were examined for articles from the grey literature. A study was included if: (i) it was empirical and conducted in a "real-world" setting (i.e. modelling studies were excluded); (ii) it examined a TFA policy involving, for example, labelling, voluntary limits or bans; and (iii) it examined a policy's effect on TFA levels in food, people's diets, blood or breast milk. FINDINGS: Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 involved voluntary self-regulation; 8, labelling alone; 4, labelling and voluntary limits; 5, local bans and 4, national bans. Overall, the TFA content of food decreased with all types of policy intervention. In general, saturated fat levels increased or decreased, depending on the product type, and total fat content remained stable. National and local bans were most effective at eliminating TFAs from the food supply, whereas mandatory TFA labelling and voluntary TFA limits had a varying degree of success, which largely depended on food category. CONCLUSION: Policies aimed at restricting the TFA content of food were associated with significant reductions in TFA levels, without increasing total fat content. Such policies are feasible, achievable and likely to have an effect on public health.

  7. Caracterización por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas del thinner comercialmente disponible en la ciudad de Cartagena / Characterization by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Commercially Available Thinner in the City of Cartagena / Caracterização por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas do Tíner comercialmente disponível na cidade de Cartagena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson, Maldonado; Katia, Noguera; Jesús, Olivero.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O Tíner é um dos produtos de maior utilização na indústria das pinturas, lubrificantes e colas. Sua composição é variável conforme a seu uso e qualidade. No entanto, a exposição crônica é uma preocupação devido a que pode afetar órgãos principais tais como pulmões, fígados, rins e glândulas suprarre [...] nais. Neste estudo foi caracterizada a composição de várias amostras de Tíner, disponíveis comercialmente na cidade de Cartagena. Doze amostras de Tíner foram recoletadas em diferentes lojas e analisadas por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (GC/MS). Os resultados mostraram que não só a composição, más também a distribuição relativa dos componentes presentes nas amostras são variáveis. Trinta e dois compostos foram detectados, entre os que se encontram: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno e etilbenceno, com frequências de aparição de 91.7, 66.7, 75.0 e 66.7%, respectivamente. O desconhecimento do risco de intoxicação, gerado ao manipular este tipo de misturas, pode ser a causa de muitos dos problemas de saúde em pessoas expostas ao Tíner, tanto nas atividades laborais quanto domésticas. Uma mineração de dados mostrou a associação potencial entre os componentes do Tíner e manifestações clínicas, as quais incluem dano renal e hepático, perda de cabelo, alterações hematológicas, dermatite, ansiedade e problemas de equilíbrio, entre outras. Em conclusão, o Tíner possui grande variabilidade tanto em seus componentes quanto na proporção relativa dos mesmos. Os efeitos prejudiciais na saúde por exposição direta ou indireta a estes componentes têm sido amplamente descritos na literatura. Abstract in spanish El thinner es uno de los productos de mayor utilización en la industria de las pinturas, lubricantes y pegamentos. Su composición es variable de acuerdo con su uso y calidad. Sin embargo, la exposición crónica es una preocupación debido a que puede afectar órganos principales tales como pulmones, hí [...] gado, riñón y glándulas suprarrenales. En este estudio fue caracterizada la composición de varias muestras de thinner, disponibles comercialmente en la ciudad de Cartagena, que fueron recolectadas en diferentes almacenes y analizadas por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Los resultados mostraron que no solo la composición, sino también la distribución relativa de los componentes presentes en las muestras son variables. Treinta y dos compuestos fueron detectados, entre los que se encuentran: tolueno, o-xileno, p-xileno y etilbenceno, con frecuencias de aparición de 91,7%, 66,7%, 75,0% y 66,7%, respectivamente. El desconocimiento del riesgo de intoxicación, generado al manipular este tipo de mezclas, puede ser la causa de muchos de los problemas de salud en personas expuestas al thinner, tanto en actividades laborales como domésticas. Una minería de datos mostró la asociación potencial entre los componentes del thinner y manifestaciones clínicas, las cuales incluyen daño renal y hepático, pérdida de cabello, alteraciones hematológicas, dermatitis, ansiedad y problemas de equilibrio, entre otras. En conclusión, el thinner posee gran variabilidad tanto en sus componentes como en la proporción relativa de los mismos. Los efectos perjudiciales en la salud por exposición directa o indirecta a estos componentes han sido ampliamente descritos en la literatura. Abstract in english Thinner is a widely used product in the industry of paints, lubricants and adhesives. Its composition varies according to its use and quality. However, its chronic exposure is a concern, because it can affect major organs such as lungs, liver, kidney and the adrenal glands. This study characterizes [...] the composition of several thinner samples commercially available in the city of Cartagena. Twelve samples were collected in different stores, these were then analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that not only the composition but also the rel

  8. Estudio sobre la pertinencia del uso de las normas disponibles del Raven en adultos mayores chilenos Estudo sobre a pertinência da utilização das normas disponíveis de Raven em idosos chilenos Study on the relevance of using available norms Raven in Chileans older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alarcón Paz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de la inteligencia en población adulto mayor ha aumentado su relevancia debido al incremento de la esperanza de vida. Este estudio centra su interés en la pertinencia de normas disponibles para el Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven para dicha población. Se utilizaron normas de Colchester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, las más completas existentes. Participaron 102 adultos mayores voluntarios (más de 60 años. El diseño fue no experimental transversal correlacional. Los resultados indican que las normas resultan poco exigentes para ese grupo y que existen diferencias significativas entre los adultos de la tercera y cuarta edad, privilegiando a los del primer grupo. El índice de discrepancia mostró alta sensibilidad, indicando que la distribución de puntajes esperados no se corresponde al de la población general. Se discuten los resultados en torno a la necesidad de actualización de las normas y la consideración de las nuevas características de este periodo vital.A avaliação da inteligência na população idosa tem aumentado sua importância devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida. Este estudo está centrado na relevância das normas disponíveis para o teste de Matrizes Progressivas de Raven para essa população. Foram utilizadas as normas de Colchester (1942, citado por Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, as mais completas disponíveis. Participaram 102 idosos voluntários (com idade superior a 60 anos. O desenho do estudo foi não experimental transversal correlacional. Os resultados indicam que as normas são pouco exigentes para esse grupo e que existem diferenças significativas entre os adultos da terceira e quarta idade, privilegiando o primeiro grupo. O índice de discrepância mostrou alta sensibilidade, indicando que a distribuição de pontuações esperadas não corresponde a da população em geral. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à necessidade de atualização das normas e da consideração das novas características desse período vital.The assessment of intelligence in the elderly population has increased its importance in terms of increased life expectancy. The present study focuses its interest on the relevance of available norms for Raven Progressive Matrices Test in the evaluation of elderly population. Standards were used Colchester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, the most comprehensive available. The non-probability sample involved 102 elderly (aged over 60 years old who were volunteers. The study used a non-experimental cross-correlation design. The results indicate that the current norms are not very demanding for the aging population, and that there are significant differences between adults of the third and fourth age, better for the first group. Moreover, the discrepancy index showed high sensitivity, indicating that the expected distribution of scores does not correspond to the general population. Results are discussed regarding the need to update the norms and the consideration of the new features involved in this vital period.

  9. Eficácia das vacinas comercialmente disponíveis contra a infecção pelo papilomavírus em mulheres: revisão sistemática e metanálise / Efficacy of commercially available vaccines against HPV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis / Eficacia de las vacunas disponibles en el mercado contra la infección por papilomavirus en mujeres: revisión sistemática y metaanálisis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Cristina Fonseca de, Araujo; Rosângela, Caetano; Jose Ueleres, Braga; Frances Valéria, Costa e Silva.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Infecção persistente por HPV é condição necessária para ocorrência de câncer do colo de útero. Visando a reduzir sua incidência, foram desenvolvidas vacinas profiláticas contra HPV, existindo duas formulações comercialmente disponíveis: bivalente (subtipos 16 e 18) e quadrivalente (6, 11, 16 e 18). [...] Realizou-se uma metanálise da eficácia dessas vacinas em mulheres, com foco na avaliação estratificada por desfechos clínicos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) publicados entre 2000 e 2009 foram identificados com base em busca no MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane e LILACS, e avaliados por dois revisores independentes. Seis ECR foram incluídos na metanálise. As vacinas reduziram o risco de ocorrência de lesões precursoras da neoplasia, com eficácia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para NIC 2 e 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para NIC 3, nas análises por protocolo. As eficácias nas análises por intenção de tratar foram menores: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) e 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para avaliação de sua eficácia sobre a incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo de útero são necessários estudos com maior tempo de seguimentos. Abstract in spanish La infección persistente por VPH es una condición necesaria para la aparición de cáncer del cuello del útero. Con el fin de reducir la incidencia se han desarrollado vacunas profilácticas contra el VPH, existiendo dos formulaciones disponibles comercialmente: bivalentes (tipos 16, 18) y tetravalente [...] (6, 11, 16 y 18). Se realizó un meta-análisis de la eficacia de estas vacunas en las mujeres, centrándose en la evaluación estratificada por los resultados clínicos. Se identificaron ensayos controlados aleatorios (ECA) publicados entre 2000 y 2009 en las basis MEDLINE, LILACS y Cochrane Library, y evaluados por dos revisores independientes. Seis ECA fueron incluidos. La vacuna reduce el riesgo de las lesiones precursoras del cáncer, con una eficacia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para CIN 2 y 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para CIN 3, en el análisis por protocolo. La eficiencia en el análisis por intención de tratar fue menor: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) y 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para evaluar su efectividad en la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer cervical, se necesitan estudios con un seguimiento más prolongado. Abstract in english Persistent HPV infection is a necessary condition for the occurrence of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been developed to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Two vaccines are commercially available: bivalent (types 16, 18) and quadrivalent (6, 11, 16 and 18). This study aimed to [...] perform a systematic review and metaanalysis of the HPV vaccines' efficacy in women, focusing its performance stratified by clinical outcomes. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published between 2000 and 2009 were identified from searches of MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library, and evaluated by two independent reviewers. Six RCT were selected. The vaccines reduced the risk of precursor lesions of cervical cancer, presenting efficacy of 97% (95%CI: 90-99) for CIN 2 and 96% (95%CI: 89-99) for CIN 3, in the per protocol analysis. The efficacies in the analysis by intention to treat were smaller: 63% (95%CI: 52-71) and 42% (95%CI: 26-55), respectively. In order to evaluate its effectiveness on the incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer, longer-term studies will be needed.

  10. Eficácia das vacinas comercialmente disponíveis contra a infecção pelo papilomavírus em mulheres: revisão sistemática e metanálise / Efficacy of commercially available vaccines against HPV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis / Eficacia de las vacunas disponibles en el mercado contra la infección por papilomavirus en mujeres: revisión sistemática y metaanálisis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Cristina Fonseca de, Araujo; Rosângela, Caetano; Jose Ueleres, Braga; Frances Valéria, Costa e Silva.

    Full Text Available Infecção persistente por HPV é condição necessária para ocorrência de câncer do colo de útero. Visando a reduzir sua incidência, foram desenvolvidas vacinas profiláticas contra HPV, existindo duas formulações comercialmente disponíveis: bivalente (subtipos 16 e 18) e quadrivalente (6, 11, 16 e 18). [...] Realizou-se uma metanálise da eficácia dessas vacinas em mulheres, com foco na avaliação estratificada por desfechos clínicos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) publicados entre 2000 e 2009 foram identificados com base em busca no MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane e LILACS, e avaliados por dois revisores independentes. Seis ECR foram incluídos na metanálise. As vacinas reduziram o risco de ocorrência de lesões precursoras da neoplasia, com eficácia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para NIC 2 e 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para NIC 3, nas análises por protocolo. As eficácias nas análises por intenção de tratar foram menores: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) e 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para avaliação de sua eficácia sobre a incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo de útero são necessários estudos com maior tempo de seguimentos. Abstract in spanish La infección persistente por VPH es una condición necesaria para la aparición de cáncer del cuello del útero. Con el fin de reducir la incidencia se han desarrollado vacunas profilácticas contra el VPH, existiendo dos formulaciones disponibles comercialmente: bivalentes (tipos 16, 18) y tetravalente [...] (6, 11, 16 y 18). Se realizó un meta-análisis de la eficacia de estas vacunas en las mujeres, centrándose en la evaluación estratificada por los resultados clínicos. Se identificaron ensayos controlados aleatorios (ECA) publicados entre 2000 y 2009 en las basis MEDLINE, LILACS y Cochrane Library, y evaluados por dos revisores independientes. Seis ECA fueron incluidos. La vacuna reduce el riesgo de las lesiones precursoras del cáncer, con una eficacia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99) para CIN 2 y 96% (IC95%: 89-99) para CIN 3, en el análisis por protocolo. La eficiencia en el análisis por intención de tratar fue menor: 63% (IC95%: 52-71) y 42% (IC95%: 26-55), respectivamente. Para evaluar su efectividad en la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer cervical, se necesitan estudios con un seguimiento más prolongado. Abstract in english Persistent HPV infection is a necessary condition for the occurrence of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been developed to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Two vaccines are commercially available: bivalent (types 16, 18) and quadrivalent (6, 11, 16 and 18). This study aimed to [...] perform a systematic review and metaanalysis of the HPV vaccines' efficacy in women, focusing its performance stratified by clinical outcomes. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published between 2000 and 2009 were identified from searches of MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library, and evaluated by two independent reviewers. Six RCT were selected. The vaccines reduced the risk of precursor lesions of cervical cancer, presenting efficacy of 97% (95%CI: 90-99) for CIN 2 and 96% (95%CI: 89-99) for CIN 3, in the per protocol analysis. The efficacies in the analysis by intention to treat were smaller: 63% (95%CI: 52-71) and 42% (95%CI: 26-55), respectively. In order to evaluate its effectiveness on the incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer, longer-term studies will be needed.

  11. Asian Rhinoplasty Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Léonard; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Asian rhinoplasty is a broad term that refers to a set of rhinoplasty techniques commonly used in Asian populations. Although these techniques are well developed and documented in Asian languages, there are relatively few English-language articles on the subject, and even fewer on current debates and controversies among plastic surgeons. Knowledge of these different techniques is essential to perform an adequate rhinoplasty in Asians. For Western patients, reduction rhinoplasty with dorsal hu...

  12. Semiconductor Modeling Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Xavier, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This book describes the key theoretical techniques for semiconductor research to quantitatively calculate and simulate the properties. It presents particular techniques to study novel semiconductor materials, such as 2D heterostructures, quantum wires, quantum dots and nitrogen containing III-V alloys. The book is aimed primarily at newcomers working in the field of semiconductor physics to give guidance in theory and experiment. The theoretical techniques for electronic and optoelectronic devices are explained in detail.

  13. Développer localement une pratique collaborative centrée sur les enseignements SHS pour des étudiants en sciences et techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Alain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Le premier objet de cet article est de présenter et décrire l'expérience locale d'une communauté ouverte d'enseignants partageant une problématique commune: la mise en place et le développement d'enseignements de sciences humaines et sociales pour des étudiants de sciences et techniques. Cette description attachée au fonctionnement concret de telles « micro » communautés constitue, en soi, une originalité de notre approche. En effet, alors qu'elles sont très probablement nombreuses dans les universités françaises, elles sont finalement très peu présentées et analysées dans leur dynamique collégiale et évolutive. D'autre part il s'agit de montrer que la théorie des communautés de pratique constitue un cadre très pertinent pour analyser a posteriori cette expérience locale et mieux en comprendre les enjeux et conditions. Ce cadre théorique nous permet finalement de tirer des conclusions sur l'avenir possible de cette initiative locale par une analyse des conditions qui lui permettent encore d'évoluer dont l'une d'elle est d'adosser la collaboration en vu de construire de nouveaux enseignements en SHS à des projets de recherche.

  14. Persian fencing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

  15. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  16. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  17. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  18. Scientific techniques in Egyptology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.)

  19. Scientific techniques in Egyptology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.W.A.

    1987-04-01

    The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.).

  20. Communication Analysis modelling techniques

    OpenAIRE

    España, Sergio; González, Arturo; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we ref...

  1. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  2. X-ray techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter covers the basic techniques utilized in podiatric radiology. It covers the most frequently used projections, along with a discussion of x-ray film, its composition, intensifying screens, their uses, and definitions needed to understand the characteristics, and how to make a decision about these characteristics, when developing an office technique

  3. Ecocardiografía de contraste: historia, características de las microburbujas y técnicas instrumentales / Contrast echocardiography: history, micro bubble characteristics and instrumental techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Cubides; Gustavo, Restrepo; Dagnóvar, Aristizábal; Ana, Múnera.

    2006-04-22

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe la historia de la ecocardiografía de contraste, las características físicas de las microburbujas de los agentes de contraste, las principales herramientas instrumentales (índice mecánico, foco y enfoque, número de imágenes por segundo) y las técnicas ecocardiográficas (segunda [...] armónica, armónica de fusión, segunda armónica de pulso invertido, imagen intermitente, angio y densitometría acústica) actualmente disponibles para uso clínico. Abstract in english This article describes the history of contrast echocardiography, the physical characteristics of the contrast agents’ micro bubbles, the main instrumental tools (mechanical index, focus and focusing, frame rate), and the echocardiography techniques (second harmonic imaging, fusion harmonic, power pu [...] lse inversion imaging, triggered imaging, intermittent harmonic power Doppler, color power angio and acoustic densitometry), actually available for clinical use.

  4. Ecocardiografía de contraste: historia, características de las microburbujas y técnicas instrumentales Contrast echocardiography: history, micro bubble characteristics and instrumental techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cubides

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe la historia de la ecocardiografía de contraste, las características físicas de las microburbujas de los agentes de contraste, las principales herramientas instrumentales (índice mecánico, foco y enfoque, número de imágenes por segundo y las técnicas ecocardiográficas (segunda armónica, armónica de fusión, segunda armónica de pulso invertido, imagen intermitente, angio y densitometría acústica actualmente disponibles para uso clínico.This article describes the history of contrast echocardiography, the physical characteristics of the contrast agents’ micro bubbles, the main instrumental tools (mechanical index, focus and focusing, frame rate, and the echocardiography techniques (second harmonic imaging, fusion harmonic, power pulse inversion imaging, triggered imaging, intermittent harmonic power Doppler, color power angio and acoustic densitometry, actually available for clinical use.

  5. Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos independentes, um na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias e outro na fase inicial (8 a 21 dias de idade, foram realizados com frangos de corte para avaliar níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações suplementadas com 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração. Cada experimento constou de um ensaio de desempenho e outro de metabolismo e foi conduzido em esquema fatorial (3 × 4 + 1, sendo três níveis de Pdisp (0,42; 0,37; 0,32% na fase pré-inicial e 0,39; 0,34; 0,29% na fase inicial, quatro níveis de cálcio (0,94; 0,84; 0,74; 0,64% na fase pré-inicial e 0,88; 0,78; 0,68; 0,58% na fase inicial mais uma ração controle. O controle correspondeu à única ração sem fitase e continha 0,47% de Pdisp e 0,94% de cálcio (fase pré-inicial ou 0,44% de Pdisp e 0,88% de cálcio (fase inicial. Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, determinaram-se a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn das rações e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CMMS. Na fase pré-inicial, os níveis de cálcio influenciaram o consumo de ração, a EMAn e o CMMS e, na fase inicial, afetaram o conteúdo de cinzas ósseas, a EMAn e o CMMS. Os níveis de Pdisp influenciaram o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a EMAn e o CMMS na fase pré-inicial e as cinzas ósseas e o CMMS na fase inicial. Adicionando 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração, é possível reduzir, respectivamente, os níveis de cálcio e Pdisp para 0,64% e 0,37% na fase pré-inicial e 0,58% e 0,29% na fase inicial, pois essa redução não tem efeito negativo sobre o desempenho e a mineralização óssea dos frangos de corte nessas fases.Two independent experiments, one in pre-starter phase (1 to 7 days and the other in the starter phase (8 to 21 days of age, were carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4 + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase, four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase. In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

  6. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  7. Extended piano techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vaes, Luc Paul Frank

    2009-01-01

    So-called "extended techniques" have suffered a consistent lack of understanding from a theoretical, historical and practical point of view. Although most of them – e.g. playing directly on the strings, cluster- and glissando-techniques – exist in a substantial part of the repertoire for the piano and have done so for more than a couple of centuries now, the use of the techniques on stage still sparks off negative reactions by audiences, composers, performers and tuners as well as owners of p...

  8. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  9. Spectrometric techniques 4

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume IV discusses three widely diversified areas of spectrometric techniques. The book focuses on three spectrometric methods. Chapter 1 discusses the phenomenology and applications of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), the most commonly used optical technique that exploit the Raman effect. The second chapter is concerned with diffraction gratings and mountings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region. Chapter 3 accounts the uses of mass spectrometry, detectors, types of spectrometers, and ion sources. Physicists and chemists will find the book a go

  10. Approximation techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Komzsik, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  11. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  12. Disagreements around techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern man lives in disagreement with its techniques. Technical progress is the foundation of its material and spiritual existence, but he does not like it. Specialization, difficult understanding of the technical procedures and the price that has to be paid for technical progress, have led to a deep-going enstrangement. Therefore the question: What kind of human function has our technique. It is understood as an extension and perfection of our bodily organs, in order to increase our ability to see and to hear enormously, and to intervene formatively in the existing reality. Technique is therefore an instrument of comprehensive self-realization of man. (orig./GL)

  13. Spectrometric techniques 3

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume III presents the applications of spectrometric techniques to atmospheric and space studies. This book reviews the spectral data processing and analysis techniques that are of broad applicability.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the instrumentation used for obtaining field data. This text then reviews the contribution that space-borne spectroscopy in the thermal IR has made to the understanding of the planets. Other chapters consider the instruments that have recorded the planetary emission spectra. This book discusses as well

  14. Complete denture impressioning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kois, J C; Fan, P P

    1997-07-01

    This article describes a technique that simplifies the making of an edentulous arch impression before the fabrication of a complete denture. Making an impression of an edentulous arch requires a unique combination of managing movable soft tissue commensurate with integrating different materials and a technique for accurate reproduction. The technique described requires a two-phase approach using a syringeable addition silicone during the border molding process and a condensation silicone wash material to capture the soft tissue while the functional border molding is repeated. These more recently developed products allow us to achieve similar results and are easier, faster, and more predictable than those products used previously. PMID:9533331

  15. Plant tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  16. Nanofabrication techniques and principles

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This volume updates scientists and engineers on the state of the art in various key techniques used to fabricate nanoscale structures. As well as covering lithographic creation of nano features, it focuses on new and revolutionary devices such as biosensors.

  17. Biaxial compression test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansard, E. T.

    1975-01-01

    Fixture and technique have been developed for predicting behavior of stiffened skin panels under biaxial compressive loading. Tester can load test panel independently in longitudinal and transverse directions. Data can also be obtained in combined mode.

  18. Symbolic rewriting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Weispfenning, Volker; Grabmeier, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Symbolic rewriting techniques are methods for deriving consequences from systems of equations, and are of great use when investigating the structure of the solutions. Such techniques appear in many important areas of research within computer algebra: • the Knuth-Bendix completion for groups, monoids and general term-rewriting systems, • the Buchberger algorithm for Gröbner bases, • the Ritt-Wu characteristic set method for ordinary differential equations, and • the Riquier-Janet method for partial differential equations. This volume contains invited and contributed papers to the Symbolic Rewriting Techniques workshop, which was held at the Centro Stefano Franscini in Ascona, Switzerland, from April 30 to May 4, 1995. That workshop brought together 40 researchers from various areas of rewriting techniques, the main goal being the investigation of common threads and methods. Following the workshops, each contribution was formally refereed and 14 papers were selected for publication.

  19. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  20. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  1. Imaging Techniques in Orthopedics

    OpenAIRE

    H. Zekavat

    2008-01-01

    The principles and limitations of current imaging modalities are described. It may help to determine the most effective radiologic technique, minimizing the cost of examination as well as the exposure to ra-diation. It is important to choose the appropriate mo-dality for specific types of orthopedic abnormalities. It is important to reemphasize that conventional ra-diography remains the most effective tool for demon-strating a bone and joint abnormality. "nUse of radiological techniques ...

  2. Microscale diagnostic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Kenny

    2005-01-01

    Microscale Diagnostic Techniques highlights the most innovative and powerful developments in microscale diagnostics. It provides a resource for scientists and researchers interested in learning about the techniques themselves, including their capabilities and limitations. The fields of Micro- and Nanotechnology have emerged over the past decade as a major focus of modern scientific and engineering research and technology. Driven by advances in microfabrication, the investigation, manipulation and engineering of systems characterized by micrometer and, more recently, nanometer scales have becom

  3. Digital Watermarking Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhjot Kaur Chahal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available More the development of the multimedia, more the digitalization, the more is the access to internet. This fast rate of enhancement gives a sense of protection and authentication.  Digital watermarking technology provides a strong solution to insecurity created by digitalization. In this paper, our focus is on the basic concepts of watermarking, their characterisation, their techniques. Extending more, we will elaborate one of the latest technique of watermarking named as “Discrete Cosine Transform” (DCT.

  4. Multiple Antenna Technique (MIMO)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibn Azad, Muhammad Razin

    2012-01-01

    In the wireless communication field, multiple antennas are gaining increased interests because of their dramatic increase in capacity and speed of data transmissions. The purpose of this thesis is to give a brief look into multiple antenna techniques with the main focus on MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output). Basic principles of the entire popular multiple antenna techniques are briefly discussed here. For better understanding of multiple antennas, basic parameters and antenna mechanis...

  5. Chimney technique; Schornsteintechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, G.

    1997-11-01

    Modern low temperature plants or calorific value equipments are now standard in building new dwellings. However, an important part of the whole system of the combustion plant, chimney technique, is often ignored. But modern heating systems are dependent on suitable exhaust gas technique. (orig.) [Deutsch] Moderne Niedertemperaturanlagen oder Brennwertgeraete sind beim Wohnungsneubau mittlerweile Standard. Allerdings wird oft ein wesentlicher Teil des Gesamtsystems Feuerungsanlage ausser Acht gelassen: die Schornsteintechnik. Aber gerade die modernen Heizsysteme sind unabdingbar auf die passende Abgasanlagentechnologie angewiesen. (orig.)

  6. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  7. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advan...

  8. Next generation initiation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tom; Derber, John; Zupanski, Milija; Cohn, Steve; Verlinde, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional data assimilation strategies can generally be classified as either current or next generation, depending upon whether they are used operationally or not. Current-generation data-assimilation techniques are those that are presently used routinely in operational-forecasting or research applications. They can be classified into the following categories: intermittent assimilation, Newtonian relaxation, and physical initialization. It should be noted that these techniques are the subject of continued research, and their improvement will parallel the development of next generation techniques described by the other speakers. Next generation assimilation techniques are those that are under development but are not yet used operationally. Most of these procedures are derived from control theory or variational methods and primarily represent continuous assimilation approaches, in which the data and model dynamics are 'fitted' to each other in an optimal way. Another 'next generation' category is the initialization of convective-scale models. Intermittent assimilation systems use an objective analysis to combine all observations within a time window that is centered on the analysis time. Continuous first-generation assimilation systems are usually based on the Newtonian-relaxation or 'nudging' techniques. Physical initialization procedures generally involve the use of standard or nonstandard data to force some physical process in the model during an assimilation period. Under the topic of next-generation assimilation techniques, variational approaches are currently being actively developed. Variational approaches seek to minimize a cost or penalty function which measures a model's fit to observations, background fields and other imposed constraints. Alternatively, the Kalman filter technique, which is also under investigation as a data assimilation procedure for numerical weather prediction, can yield acceptable initial conditions for mesoscale models. The third kind of next-generation technique involves strategies to initialize convective scale (non-hydrostatic) models.

  9. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  10. Imaging Techniques in Orthopedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zekavat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles and limitations of current imaging modalities are described. It may help to determine the most effective radiologic technique, minimizing the cost of examination as well as the exposure to ra-diation. It is important to choose the appropriate mo-dality for specific types of orthopedic abnormalities. It is important to reemphasize that conventional ra-diography remains the most effective tool for demon-strating a bone and joint abnormality. "nUse of radiological techniques differs in evaluating the presence, type, and extent of various bone, joint, and soft-tissue abnormalities. Therefore, both the ra-diologist and orthopedic surgeon must know the in-dication for use of each technique, the limitations of a particular modality, and the appropriate imaging ap-proaches for abnormalities at specific sites. The ques-tion; "what modality should I use for this particular problem?" is frequently asked by radiologists and or-thopedic surgeons. Although numerous algorithms are available to evaluate various problems at different anatomic sites, the answer cannot always be clearly stated. "nThe choice of techniques for imaging bone and soft-tissue abnormalities is dictated not only by clinical presentation, but also by equipment availability, ex-pertise, and cost. Restriction may also be imposed by the needs of individual patients. Most of the time, the choice of imaging technique is dictated by the type of suspected abnormality. The purpose of this study was to review imaging techniques in orthopedics.

  11. Modern lithography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the development trends of modern lithography techniques. As a mainstream technique for VLSI fabricator, the optical lithography is advancing towards its resolution limitation; meantime, it faces the technical challenge from VLSI fabricating industry more and more. Today, the resolution of optical lithography is not enough to satisfy the fast development requirements of semiconductor industry even if the complex RET (Revolution enhancement techniques) are used in the optical lithography. Hence the NGL (Next generation lithography) techniques, such as XRL (X-ray lithography), SCALPEL (Scanning anger limited project electronic beam lithography), EBDW (Electronic beam direction writing), EUVL (Extreme ultraviolet lithography), and IPL (Ion beam project lithography) will be introduced into VLSI fabricator application for 100-70 nm line-width. Based on the NGL technique development trends and in view of the multiplicity of market inquiry, authors think every NGL technique will have its survival space. However, when the characteristic width of lithography advanced into nano-meter scale (? 100 nm), only the lithography imaging at atomic level will be the last winner. (authors)

  12. Speciation techniques in radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speciation refers to the use of different fractionation techniques by which information on radionuclide species can be obtained. Techniques fractionating species according to size and charge properties allows information on size classes and reactivity classes to be obtained. Fractionation of radionuclides should take place in situ, at site or shortly after sampling. There are some few in situ size fractionation techniques for radionuclides in waters. In sea water large capacity (tangential flow systems) is needed, while hollow fibre systems can often be applied for rivers and lakes. By interphasing chromatographic systems (ion exchange columns) with hollow fibres, in situ sampling, size and charge fractionation can be performed simultaneously. For small volume soil waters in situ suction techniques may suffer from methodological effects. Structural information on radioactive particles or colloids can be attained by using different electron microscopy techniques. Separation of radionuclide species in solid samples is still an analytical challenge. Grain size analysis and determination of radionuclides associated with the sand, silt, clay and colloidal fractions should be combined with sensitive surface analytical techniques. Reactivity studies using extraction reagents can be useful for distinguishing between reversible and irreversible (or slow reversible) kinetics processes. Repeated extractions with inert electrolytes (or by lowering pH gradually) should reflect if reversible processes (e.g. physical, electrochemical sorption) take place. In contrast, information on irreversible processes (e.g chemisorption) is obtained if strong red/ox agents are needed for dissolution of species (binding rupture). The paper will focus on available size or charge fractionation techniques which should be useful within radioecology

  13. Handbook of laboratory techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

  14. Communication Analysis modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we refer to business activities as communicative events. Message Structures is a technique based on structured text that allows specifying the messages associated to communicative events. Event Specification Templates are a means to organise the requirements concerning a communicative event. This report can be useful to analysts and business process modellers in general, since, according to our industrial experience, it is possible to apply many Communication Analysis concepts, guidelines and criteria to other business process modelling notation...

  15. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  16. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components (bioactive food components or as an emulsifying technique. Pulsed electrical field can be effective in microorganisms destruction, as well as a pretreatment to drying. Some of these techniques has already found its application in food industry of several high industry developed countries.

  17. Neutron visual sensing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron visual sensing technique is a technology to extract physical quantities from the information on inner structures of complex materials or machineries which have been visualized and recorded by using neutron beams. Research and utilization of this technique is now under worldwide development since it can provide the information that is not possible by X-ray radiography. We show how to use stationary neutron sources (Research reactors) in chapter 2, and how to utilize pulsed neutron source (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex, J-PARC). Also the production of micro-element analyzer by an enterprise using the knowledge on radiological equipment is described as an example. (author)

  18. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  19. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  20. Biomedical techniques. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first of total of four volumes to appear as part of a manual providing coverage of issues related to diagnostic imaging procedures. Eight different authors have made contributions on the following topics: Bioelectrical signals; measuring techniques and measuring instruments in internal medicine; high-tech laboratory procedures for medical analyses; X-ray techniques; magnetic resonance imaging; the use of ultrasound to obtain medical images; nuclear medicine and thermography along with thermographic devices on based radiometrical methods of detection. (MG) With 260 figs

  1. Digital image compression techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rabbani, Majid

    1991-01-01

    In order to utilize digital images effectively, specific techniques are needed to reduce the number of bits required for their representation. This Tutorial Text provides the groundwork for understanding these image compression tecniques and presents a number of different schemes that have proven useful. The algorithms discussed in this book are concerned mainly with the compression of still-frame, continuous-tone, monochrome and color images, but some of the techniques, such as arithmetic coding, have found widespread use in the compression of bilevel images. Both lossless (bit-preserving) an

  2. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2006-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to ext

  3. Millimicrosecond pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ian A D

    1959-01-01

    Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

  4. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  5. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  6. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  7. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  8. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention, was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out. (orig.)

  9. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp......-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  10. Application d'une technique de modelisation aerodynamique conceptuelle sur la simulation d'un pilote automatique a commande optimale pour un avion d'affaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollender-Moreau, Olivier

    Ce document présente, dans le cadre d'un contexte conceptuel, une méthode d'enchaînement servant à faire le lien entre les différentes étapes qui permettent de réaliser la simulation d'un aéronef à partir de ses données géométriques et de ses propriétés massiques. En utilisant le cas de l'avion d'affaires Hawker 800XP de la compagnie Hawker Beechcraft, on démontre, via des données, un processus de traitement par lots et une plate-forme de simulation, comment (1) modéliser la géométrie d'un aéronef en plusieurs surfaces, (2) calculer les forces aérodynamiques selon une technique connue sous le nom de Vortex Lattice Method, (3) construire un modèle de vol servant à la simulation des aéronefs pour leur enveloppe de vol en ajoutant des fonctions supplémentaires, (4) construire un modèle de turbosoufflante simplifié, (5) développer un algorithme d'équilibre (trim) du mouvement longitudinal, (6) développer des algorithmes de contrôle à commande moderne, (7) développer certaines fonctions d'un système de pilotage automatique, et (8) rassembler le tout sous une même plate-forme de simulation. Afin de supporter ce travail, une application publique Matlab, connue sous le nom de Tornado, est utilisée conjointement avec d'autres fonctions pour la conception du modèle de vol aérodynamique. D'ailleurs, il sera démontré que le modèle de vol, quoiqu'il soit quand même crédible, ne concorde pas tout à fait avec les données de référence. Par contre, puisque le modèle des moteurs fonctionne bien, que l'algorithme d'équilibrage du mouvement longitudinal fonctionne bien et que les pôles des systèmes dynamiques concordent avec la littérature, les tests dynamiques effectués au sein de la plate-forme de simulation permettent d'obtenir des résultats fonctionnels et crédibles. D'ailleurs, deux systèmes d'augmentation de la stabilité basés sur la méthode de contrôle moderne LQR et couvrant l'enveloppe de vol de l'aéronef via un système d'ordonnancement des gains sont implémentés respectivement selon les mouvements longitudinal et latéral. Ces fonctions fonctionnent bien et permettent de rencontrer les qualités de vol requises pour un avion d'affaires. Finalement, certaines fonctions concernant un système de pilotage automatique sont implémentées. Dans le cas du mouvement latéral, ces fonctions sont basées sur les méthodes de contrôle modernes et couvrent la totalité de l'enveloppe de vol; mais en ce qui concerne le mouvement longitudinal, elles sont basées sur des algorithmes d'équilibre difficile à gérer pour implémenter sur toute l'enveloppe de vol, c'est pourquoi les tests présentés sont limités à des scénarios bien précis. Dans les deux cas, les essais effectués donnent d'assez bons résultats.

  11. Computerized tomography: Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is an introduction to the physical and technical fundamentals of computerized tomography. The measuring and imaging mechanisms of the various CT techniques are described with a view to relevant medical perspectives and potential side effects. Particular regard is given to magnetic resonance tomography. (orig./MG)

  12. Counseling Couples: Cognitive Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ellen M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains six articles illustrating techniques used in working with adult dyads at the Marriage Council of Philadelphia. Describes cognitive therapy, values analysis, and individual interview methods. Discusses effects of rape on couple adjustment, interrelationships of sexual adjustment and marital satisfaction, and a 20-year longitudinal study of…

  13. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  14. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food scientists use standards and calibrations to relate the concentration of a compound of interest to the instrumental response. The techniques used include classical, single point, and inverse calibrations, as well as standard addition and internal standards. Several fundamental criteria -- sel...

  15. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  16. New Radiography Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the quality of radiographic images involves several aspects: the X ray source, the device used to obtain the image, the optical array in the process and the image manipulation. We give a brief and general view of these different aspects and new techniques for radiography

  17. Murine Kidney Transplant Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenter, Robert; Jain, Swati; Ruller, Chelsea M; Nydam, Trevor L; Jani, Alkesh H

    2015-01-01

    The first mouse kidney transplant technique was published in 1973(1) by the Russell laboratory. Although it took some years for other labs to become proficient in and utilize this technique, it is now widely used by many laboratories around the world. A significant refinement to the original technique using the donor aorta to form the arterial anastomosis instead of the renal artery was developed and reported in 1993 by Kalina and Mottram (2) with a further advancement coming from the same laboratory in 1999 (3). While one can become proficient in this model, a search of the literature reveals that many labs still experience a high proportion of graft loss due to arterial thrombosis. We describe here a technique that was devised in our laboratory that vastly reduces the arterial thrombus reported by others (4,5). This is achieved by forming a heel-and-toe cuff of the donor infra-renal aorta that facilitates a larger anastomosis and straighter blood flow into the kidney. PMID:26555373

  18. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  19. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  20. Monochromator alignment technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and high precision technique is developed for the monochromator alignment. The alignment setup is composed of two He/Ne lasers, a penta-prism, a flat mirror, and other common alignment aids. The alignment principle and the setup is described. An example of how to align Synchrotron Radiation Research Center 1-m-Seya monochromator is presented as well

  1. A video authentication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system

  2. FOCUSED CRAWLING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Mishra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for more and more specific reply to a web search query has prompted researchers to work on focused web crawling techniques for web spiders. Variety of lexical and link based approaches of focused web crawling are introduced in the paper highlighting important aspects of each.

  3. Analysis and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology associated with the use of organic coolants in nuclear reactors depends to a large extent on the determination and control of their physical and chemical properties, and particularly on the viability, speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy (depending on the intended usage) of the methods employed in detection and analytical determination. This has led to the study and development of numerous techniques, some specially designed for the extreme conditions involved in working with the types of product in question and others adapted from existing techniques. In the specific case of polyphenyl and hydropolyphenyl mixtures, which have been the principal subjects of study to date and offer greatest promise, the analytical problems are broadly as follows: Composition of initial product or virgin coolant composition of macro components and amounts of organic and inorganic impurities; Coolant during and after operation. Determination of gases and organic compounds produced by pyrolysis and radiolysis (degradation and polymerization products); Control of systems for purifying and regenerating the coolant after use. Dissolved pressurization gases; Detection of intermediate products during decomposition; these are generally very unstable (free radicals); Degree of fouling and film formation. Tests to determine potential formation of films; Corrosion of structural elements and canning materials; Health and safety. Toxicity, inflammability and impurities that can be activated. Although some of the above problems are closely interrelated and entail similar techniques, they vary as to degree of difficulty. Another question is the difficulty of distinguishing clearly between techniques for determining physical and physico-chemical properties, on one hand, and analytical techniques on the other. Any classification is therefore somewhat arbitrary (for example, in the case of dosimetry and techniques for determining mean molecular weights or electrical conductivity). For any analytical technique to be efficient two pre-requisites must be met: The sample must be truly representative; and the results must be available at the time when required. The papers mentioned here are PL-194/3, PL-194/4, PL-194/6, PL-194/7, PL-194/8 and PL-194/11, of which abstracts are given in Section III

  4. Web Prefetching Techniques in Real Environments

    OpenAIRE

    DE LA OSSA PÉREZ, BERNARDO ANTONIO

    2012-01-01

    Esta tesis estudia la aplicación a la World Wide Web (WWW) de las técnicas de prebúsqueda desde un punto de vista realista y práctico. La prebúsqueda se aplica a la web para reducir la latencia percibida por los usuarios ya que, básicamente, consiste en predecir y preprocesar los siguientes accesos de los usuarios. Hasta ahora, la literatura disponible acerca de la prebúsqueda web se ha concentrado en cuestiones teóricas y no ha considerado algunos de los problemas que aparecen al impl...

  5. Microwave medical imaging using level set techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Irishina Kovaleva, Natalia Yurievna

    2009-01-01

    El cáncer de mama es una de las enfermedades que causan una mayor mortalidad entre las mujeres. Se estima que, sólo en Europa, una mujer es diagnosticada de esta enfermedad cada 2 minutos y medio, y que una muere cada 7 minutos y medio. Para su cura es fundamental la deteccin temprana de los pequeños tumores. Si éstos son detectados a tiempo, los tratamientos que existen hoy en da son mucho más efectivos. En consecuencia, es de fundamental disponer de tecnologías especializadas que puedan lle...

  6. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among the scientists of the country to use this technique. The NA and BTD provides service to outside users for research and development purpose and many scientists have availed of this service. (author)

  7. Sheet GT1-3. Reflections based on available data in Augeres about the efficiency of water processing - Evolution perspectives and recommendations; Fiche GT1-3. Reflexions sur l'efficacite du traitement des eaux sur la base des donnees disponibles a Augeres - Perspectives d'evolution et recommandations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    As the resurgence of waters from rehabilitated uranium mining sites is a potential cause of contamination for the environment, this document first recalls the legal framework for mining water processing and technical choices, and recent technical evolutions. It reports an investigation performed level with the Augeres water processing plant. This investigation aimed at determining under which form radionuclides are released in the environment. It also assessed the efficiency of the last modifications brought to water processing in this plant in terms of radiological quality improvement. Finally, the authors propose a synthesis of mining water processing techniques

  8. Network acceleration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  9. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  10. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Nuclear Techniques in agriculture research and the resulting vast improvements in agricultural production over the past 50 years are reviewed. The economic benefits of these improved agricultural technologies in the areas of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Animal Health and Production, Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition and Food and Environmental Protection will be considered. Special emphasis will be given to Insect and Pest Control based on the Sterile Insect Technique. This novel approach has been applied in various large-scale programmers and is considered as the most species specific and environmentally safe method of controlling insects over large areas. Also considered will be the benefits accruing to developing countries through improved possibilities in food production and export markets

  11. New measurements techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni

    uncertainties to the measurement process. Optical techniques may help overcoming this problem because the sensing element is not a bulky instrument, but a beam of light that does not change the properties of sound. Optical methods are thus non-invasive and can thereby enhance the current state of the art in the......Acoustic measurements are traditionally based on transducers, and in particular, the most advanced measurement techniques are nowadays based on transducer arrays. This poses a fundamental problem, namely the influence of the transducer itself on the actual properties of sound when the transducer is...... measurement of sound. The present PhD study primarily examines the use of the acousto-optic effect, that is, the interaction between sound and light, as a means to characterize acoustic fields. The acousto-optic measuring principle does not provide a direct measure of the pressure, but the integral of the...

  12. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

    2000-03-16

    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  13. Exoplanet Detection Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra A; Laughlin, Greg P; Macintosh, Bruce; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Sahlmann, Johannes; Yee, Jennifer C

    2015-01-01

    We are still in the early days of exoplanet discovery. Astronomers are beginning to model the atmospheres and interiors of exoplanets and have developed a deeper understanding of processes of planet formation and evolution. However, we have yet to map out the full complexity of multi-planet architectures or to detect Earth analogues around nearby stars. Reaching these ambitious goals will require further improvements in instrumentation and new analysis tools. In this chapter, we provide an overview of five observational techniques that are currently employed in the detection of exoplanets: optical and IR Doppler measurements, transit photometry, direct imaging, microlensing, and astrometry. We provide a basic description of how each of these techniques works and discuss forefront developments that will result in new discoveries. We also highlight the observational limitations and synergies of each method and their connections to future space missions.

  14. Monte Carlo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The course of ''Monte Carlo Techniques'' will try to give a general overview of how to build up a method based on a given theory, allowing you to compare the outcome of an experiment with that theory. Concepts related with the construction of the method, such as, random variables, distributions of random variables, generation of random variables, random-based numerical methods, will be introduced in this course. Examples of some of the current theories in High Energy Physics describing the e+e- annihilation processes (QED, Electro-Weak, QCD) will also be briefly introduced. A second step in the employment of this method is related to the detector. The interactions that a particle could have along its way, through the detector as well as the response of the different materials which compound the detector will be quoted in this course. An example of detector at LEP era, in which these techniques are being applied, will close the course. (orig.)

  15. Weld braze technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanne, Jr., William R. (Aiken, SC); Kelker, Jr., John W. (North Augusta, SC); Alexander, Robert J. (Aiken, SC)

    1982-01-01

    High-strength metal joints are formed by a combined weld-braze technique. A hollow cylindrical metal member is forced into an undersized counterbore in another metal member with a suitable braze metal disposed along the bottom of the counterbore. Force and current applied to the members in an evacuated chamber results in the concurrent formation of the weld along the sides of the counterbore and a braze along the bottom of the counterbore in one continuous operation.

  16. Imaging techniques in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a wide range of imaging techniques in medicine, e.g. radiography, digital radiography, CT, cardiography, scintiscanning, magnetic resonance tomography. All images of structures, organs, or parts of organs, whether generated by visible light or by other electromagnetic waves (e.g. high-frequency or X-ray radiation), result from an interaction between radiation and object. Today, ultrasonic waves in the MHz range are being used to an increasing extent. (orig./HP)

  17. Management of science technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book mentions change of environment and management of technique, business environment in information age technology and management such as classification of technology, innovation of technology and meaning of technology management, item innovation and technology about meaning of item development, innovation and item development, creation of item concept and item development, process of product innovation, product activity, product innovation product innovation and technology, development of product innovation, technology and marketing innovation, innovation of skill of marketing information system and globalization.

  18. Visual Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Keim, Daniel A.; Ward, Matthew O.

    2002-01-01

    Never before in history has data been generated at such high volumes as it is today. Exploring and analyzing the vast volumes of data has become increasingly difficult. Information visualization and visual data mining can help to deal with the flood of information. The advantage of visual data exploration is that the user is directly involved in the data mining process. There are a large number of information visualization techniques that have been developed over the last two decades to suppo...

  19. Colorimetric protein assay techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapan, C V; Lundblad, R L; Price, N C

    1999-04-01

    There has been an increase in the number of colorimetric assay techniques for the determination of protein concentration over the past 20 years. This has resulted in a perceived increase in sensitivity and accuracy with the advent of new techniques. The present review considers these advances with emphasis on the potential use of such technologies in the assay of biopharmaceuticals. The techniques reviewed include Coomassie Blue G-250 dye binding (the Bradford assay), the Lowry assay, the bicinchoninic acid assay and the biuret assay. It is shown that each assay has advantages and disadvantages relative to sensitivity, ease of performance, acceptance in the literature, accuracy and reproducibility/coefficient of variation/laboratory-to-laboratory variation. A comparison of the use of several assays with the same sample population is presented. It is suggested that the most critical issue in the use of a chromogenic protein assay for the characterization of a biopharmaceutical is the selection of a standard for the calibration of the assay; it is crucial that the standard be representative of the sample. If it is not possible to match the standard with the sample from the perspective of protein composition, then it is preferable to use an assay that is not sensitive to the composition of the protein such as a micro-Kjeldahl technique, quantitative amino acid analysis or the biuret assay. In a complex mixture it might be inappropriate to focus on a general method of protein determination and much more informative to use specific methods relating to the protein(s) of particular interest, using either specific assays or antibody-based methods. The key point is that whatever method is adopted as the 'gold standard' for a given protein, this method needs to be used routinely for calibration. PMID:10075906

  20. Pipeline Leak Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leak detection systems range from simple, visual line walking and checking ones to complex arrangements of hard-ware and software. No one method is universally applicable and operating requirements dictate which method is the most cost effective. The aim of the paper is to review the basic techniques of leak detection that are currently in use. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and some indications of applicability are outlined.

  1. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  2. COMPUTER ASSISTED AUDIT TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    ION LUNGU; TEODORA V?TUIU

    2007-01-01

    Today, the environment based on informatics influences continuously auditors’ work, because it creates new opportunities and new risks, additional rules in what concerns security, fairness and acceptable margin of error. The growth of the systems’ complexity, especially the informatics accounting Systems of ERP type (Enterprise Resource Planning), so as the large volume of transactions registered at present have lead to the replacement of the „manual”, classic audit techniques with modern tec...

  3. Digital techniques in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Antonov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a new approach to the study of issues of quality wood and definition of biometric indicators seeds. Analyzed modern methods of studying these issues, their comparative analysis, and shows the accuracy of the application of the digital technique in these studies. Based on these studies can be recommended to use this method in forestry, reducing processing time and will create a bank of digital data of various samples.

  4. Parallel MATLAB Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Ashok,; Samsi, Siddharth; Gadepally, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we show why parallel MATLAB is useful, provide a comparison of the different parallel MATLAB choices, and describe a number of applications in Signal and Image Processing: Audio Signal Processing, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Processing and Superconducting Quantum Interference Filters (SQIFs). Each of these applications have been parallelized using different methods (Task parallel and Data parallel techniques). The applications presented may be considered representative of ...

  5. LDAP Injection Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Maria ALONSO; Antonio GUZMAN; Marta BELTRAN; Rodolfo BORDON

    2009-01-01

    The increase in the number of databases accessed only by some applications has made code injection attacks an important threat to almost any current system. If one of these applications accepts inputs from a client and executes these inputs without first validating them, the attackers are free to execute their own queries and therefore, to extract, modify or delete the content of the database associated to the application. In this paper a deep analysis of the LDAP injection techniques is pres...

  6. Kinetic Activation Relaxation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC...

  7. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  8. [Progress in imaging techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Kazuaki; Otsuka, Tsukasa

    2013-05-01

    Today it is common to perform real-time diagnosis and treatment via live broadcast as a method of education and to spread new technology for diagnosis and therapy in medical fields. Live medical broadcasts have developed along with broadcast technology. In the early days, live video feeds were sent from operating rooms to classrooms and lecture halls in universities and hospitals. However, the development of imaging techniques and communication networks enabled live broadcasts that bi-directionally link operating rooms and meeting halls during scientific meetings and live demonstration courses. Live broadcasts therefore became an important method for education and the dissemination of new medical technologies. The development of imaging techniques has contributed to more realistic live broadcasts through such innovative techniques as three-dimensional viewing and higher-definition 4K technology. In the future, live broadcasts will be transmitted on personal computers using regular Internet connections. In addition to the enhancement of image delivery technology, it will also be necessary to examine the entire image delivery environment carefully, including issues of security and privacy of personal information. PMID:23789334

  9. Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the modern point of view, audit takes intoaccount especially the information systems representingmainly the examination performed by a professional asregards the manner for developing an activity by means ofcomparing it to the quality criteria specific to this activity.Having as reference point this very general definition ofauditing, it must be emphasized that the best known segmentof auditing is the financial audit that had a parallel evolutionto the accountancy one.The present day phase of developing the financial audithas as main trait the internationalization of the accountantprofessional. World wide there are multinational companiesthat offer services in the financial auditing, taxing andconsultancy domain. The auditors, natural persons and auditcompanies, take part at the works of the national andinternational authorities for setting out norms in theaccountancy and auditing domain.The computer assisted audit techniques can be classified inseveral manners according to the approaches used by theauditor. The most well-known techniques are comprised inthe following categories: testing data techniques, integratedtest, parallel simulation, revising the program logics,programs developed upon request, generalized auditsoftware, utility programs and expert systems.

  10. Autocontrol technique of combined centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design characteristic of the autocontrol technique of the combined centrifuge is introduced. Digital technique, vary structure control and interface technique, graphical display techniques, digital communication technique as well as electronic technique are applied in the course of research. Automation in the operation of large scale combined centrifuges and the course of combined test has been realized and it can coordinate with other systems of status monitoring, data collecting and centrifugal force-aerodynamic force matched load automatically

  11. Enseignement technique/Technical Training

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Bureautique et techniques administratives/Office Automation & Administrative Techniques - Premiers pas/Getting started - E-Mail - Management Tools - WWW - Applications bureautiques/Office applications

  12. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  13. Monopulse principles and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Samuel M

    2011-01-01

    Monopulse is a type of radar that sends additional information in the signal in order to avoid problems caused by rapid changes in signal strength. Monopulse is resistant to jamming which is one of the main reasons it is used in most radar systems today. This updated and expanded edition of an Artech House classic offers you a current and comprehensive treatment of monopulse radar principles, techniques, and applications. The Second Edition features two brand new chapters, covering monopulse countermeasures and counter-countermeasures and monopulse for airborne radar and homing seekers.This es

  14. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  15. [Imaging techniques and pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maihöfner, C; Bingel, U

    2015-10-01

    Over the last 15 years, functional brain imaging techniques have provided critical insights into cortical, subcortical and even spinal mechanisms involved in pain perception and pain modulation in humans. The pivotal contribution of brain imaging studies conducted in Germany have thereby been internationally acknowledged. One of the key challenges for the next decade is to shift the focus from studies in healthy volunteers to different clinical populations suffering from chronic pain to characterize CNS mechanisms, as well as neurobiological predictors and resilience factors of pain chronification. Ultimately, the knowledge gained by this work may help identify individual or syndrome-specific CNS changes as biomarkers to make therapeutic decisions. PMID:26351124

  16. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed. PMID:24330043

  17. Optical Techniques in Optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially-controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities. PMID:26412943

  18. Virtual facebow technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Garmendia, Asier; Minguez, Rikardo; Brizuela, Aritza; Pradies, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    This article describes a virtual technique for transferring the location of a digitized cast from the patient to a virtual articulator (virtual facebow transfer). Using a virtual procedure, the maxillary digital cast is transferred to a virtual articulator by means of reverse engineering devices. The following devices necessary to carry out this protocol are available in many contemporary practices: an intraoral scanner, a digital camera, and specific software. Results prove the viability of integrating different tools and software and of completely integrating this procedure into a dental digital workflow. PMID:26372628

  19. Developing techniques for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for decontamination of NPP equipment are described. the Lomn-process (oxide film removal from the LWR circuit using Lomi-reagent, based on vanadium ions, picolinate and formate) and Pod-process decontamination by oxidation using reagent based on permanganates in nitric acid, and citric- and oxalic acid solutions) are considered. Examples of BWR and PWR reactor decontamination are given. Attention is paid to the problems of decontamination of tools, equipment, clothing, respirators, cables etc, using freon-113. Commercial prospective advantages of decontamination are shown

  20. DNA Microarray Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakare SP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

  1. Neutron interference imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron interference imaging technique has been developed for these years with several methods. Here we introduce recent results of neutron interference method. The neutron interference imaging experiment with two absorption gratings has been done. We develop new way to fabricate absorption gratings for neutron with the pitch of 150 ?m, 180 ?m, and 200 ?m. Small break in an acrylic plate was observed. We expect that the neutron interference imaging method can become new method of a nondestructive inspection method for reinforced plastics and composite material such as CFRP and so on especially installed at compact neutron source which is being developed in RIKEN now. (author)

  2. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  3. Distancing Techniques in Fassbinder's

    OpenAIRE

    Tyson, Peter K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Fontane’s ambiguity and complexity in his novel Effi Briest appealed to Fassbinder’s love of intricate social relations. Fontane presents Effi mainly in a restrained neutral manner although it can be argued that the author’s meta-voice adds some touches of subtle criticism. Fassbinder’s approach to Effi in his film of the novel is more distanced, critical and ironic. Clearly influenced by Brecht’s idea of “Verfremdung”, Fassbinder uses an array of distancing techniques in ...

  4. Potentiel de production de biogaz à partir de résidus agricoles ou de cultures dédiées en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Almansour, Jean-François Bonnet et Manuel Heredia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Et si on destinait une part importante des résidus agricoles à la production de biogaz ? Encore faut-il évaluer les ressources mobilisables, les taux de résidus disponibles, les moyens de collecte permettant la production ainsi que les rendements envisageables en fonction des cultures utilisées. L'étude présentée ici laisse entrevoir un potentiel important largement sous-estimé.

  5. Charge Breeding Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F

    2004-01-01

    The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

  6. Techniques de hacking

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

  7. Landing techniques in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobietti, Roberto; Coleman, Simon; Pizzichillo, Eduardo; Merni, Franco

    2010-11-01

    Knee injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament lesions and patellar tendonitis are very frequent in volleyball, and are often attributed to micro traumas that occur during the landing phase of airborne actions. The aim of the present study was to compare different jumping activities during official men's and women's volleyball games. Twelve top-level matches from the Italian men's and women's professional leagues were analysed. The jumps performed during the games were classified according to the landing technique used by the player (left or right foot or both feet together), court position, and ball trajectory. Chi-square analyses were performed to detect differences in landing techniques between the sexes, court positions, and trajectories when serving, attacking, blocking, and setting. Significant differences (P players were more likely to use a one-footed landing. The present results should help coaches and physiotherapists to devise appropriate training and prevention programmes, and reveal the need for further detailed biomechanical investigations of the relationships between landings and knee injuries. PMID:20967671

  8. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

  9. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubrano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  10. Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 2): Transferencias nerviosas intraplexuales / Nerve Reconstruction Techniques in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Surgery (Part 2): Intraplexal nerve transfers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; D., Robla-Costales; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nervio [...] sa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc., para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En una primera entrega se analizaron las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales; este trabajo viene a complementar al anterior revisando las transferencias intraplexuales, y así completando el análisis de las transferencias nerviosas disponibles en la cirugía del plexo braquial. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in rec

  11. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  12. DNA Vaccination Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissolo, Nicolás; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory, demyelinating, and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. Although the etiology of MS remains unknown, several lines of evidence support the notion that autoimmunity against components of the myelin sheath plays a major role in susceptibility to and development of the disease. At present, there are no approved MS therapies aimed specifically toward downregulating antigen-specific autoreactive immune cells. One antigen-specific approach that appears promising for the treatment of MS is DNA vaccination. This technique has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials while maintaining safety.Here, we describe the generation of DNA vaccines containing immunologically relevant antigens of MS. Moreover, we present a detailed protocol for the prophylactic and therapeutic administration of DNA vaccines via intramuscular injection targeting on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model resembling MS. PMID:24973869

  13. New accelerating techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selection of new accelerating techniques is presented. The criterion for having selected a certain scheme was the promise to achieve high accelerating gradients. All schemes belong to one of three essentially different classes: - Near field accelerators, where the particles travel on straight trajectories in free space. The accelerating field, parallel to the trajectory, is guided by a nearby structure with dimensions of the order of the R.F. wave-length (grating accelerator) or the bunch length (wakefield accelerator). - Far-field accelerators. The particles travel in free space on curved trajectories and the acceleration takes place in transverse direction by an el.-magn. beam in free space or weakly guided (inverse free-electron-laser accelerator). - Media accelerators. The particles travel on straight trajectories in a medium (gas, plasma) and are accelerated either by el. magn. or el.-static fields parallel to their trajectory (beam wave accelerators, beam front accelerators, plasma beat-wave accelerator). 31 refs.

  14. New vitrification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has developed a new direct-induction cold-crucible glass melting technique to the industrial stage. Process equipment is no longer subject to previous limitations on the glass melting temperature and capacity, making it possible in future facilities to vitrify not only high-level but also low- and intermediate-level liquid wastes. In the new vitrification facilities the liquid evaporation capacity has been increased by adding a head-end concentration step prior to calcining, and by increasing the calciner evaporation capacity. Vitrification furnace performance has been enhanced by increasing the melting capacity as well as the melting temperature to produce a wider range of glass formulations. Consequently, liquid waste vitrification now includes two types of facilities for high-level wastes and for low-to intermediate-level wastes

  15. Techniques virales avancées

    CERN Document Server

    Filiol, Éric

    2007-01-01

    Cet ouvrage traite de techniques avancées de la virologie informatique selon une double perspective: l'analyse de la défense antivirale et les différentes phases d'une attaque à l'aide d'un code malveillant. Le point de vue adopté est celui de l'attaquant dans la mesure où c'est le seul qui permet réellement à celui qui a la responsabilité de défendre un système, de comprendre ce qui peut se passer et d'envisager les solutions à mettre en œuvre. L'approche retenue fait intervenir l'utilisation de systèmes booléens originaux, la théorie de la complexité et la théorie de la calculabilité. À part

  16. Nuclear techniques in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear physics has played a large role in medical treatment and diagnosis, from the technologies used in nuclear physics experiments to nuclear reactions. Particle detector technology from experimental nuclear and particle physics is the basis of the various tomographic imaging modalities such as: the radioactive tracers used in nuclear medicine result from neutron induced reactions using nuclear reactor facilities; cyclotron production of short-lived isotopes which allows metabolism of brain and cardiac tissue to be measured; in-vivo neutron activation analysis which allows the measurement of trace elements in the body. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate some of those techniques such as, particle-beam treatments, neutron activation analyses, magnetic resonance imaging, and the physics involved. 5 figs., 1 tab., ills

  17. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  18. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlling the spread of radioactive contamination during work on nuclear systems is one of the tougher jobs we face as radiation, safety specialists. Discussion will include airborne, waterborne, fixed and loose surface contamination engineered controls of the past and present. With increased emphasis on getting jobs done faster, safer and better, we need to look at innovative ways to control the spread of radioactive contamination. This class will show the student the latest techniques in confining the spread of radioactive contamination to the environment and improved methods to reduce the number of skin and clothing contamination that can occur. Discussions and demonstrations will provide choices concerning work practices and products that confine the spread of contamination. The class will have a number of tools and pieces of equipment used at Hanford and other nuclear facilities, that will passed around for the student to have ''hands on'' training

  19. Tracer technique in casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of silumine modification studies are described. The following modificators have been used: sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, cryolite labelled with sodium-24 as well as potassium chloride labelled with potassium-42 and phosphoric copper labelled with phosphorus-32. The following factors have been identified as results of the investigations: the effects of modificator chemical composition, temperature and feeding technique on the residual sodium and phosphorus content in silumines; sodium and potassium amounts transfered into the alloys from the salt constituents of fluxes; the effects of the melt maturing time on sodium and phosphorus losses at various temperatures with degassing by hexachloroethane and chlorine and the same during remelting. Some results are also presented concerning the effects of chemical composition and a number of metallurgical factors on grey iron tightness

  20. Differential doppler heterodyning technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars

    1971-01-01

    Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating the...... detected doppler frequency. It is found that the doppler frequency for this particular setup is independent of the direction of detection. Investigations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) show that the maximum SNR-considering the optical setup-is obtained by measuring the frequency difference between two...... doppler-shifted beams rather than by measuring the shift of a single beam by comparing it with a reference beam. Measurements seem to be in agreement with the theoretical consideration...

  1. Techniques for fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is given of the basis for an analysis of combustable materials and potential ignition sources in a spacecraft. First, the burning process is discussed in terms of the production of the fire signatures normally associated with detection devices. These include convected and radiated thermal energy, particulates, and gases. Second, the transport processes associated with the movement of these from the fire to the detector, along with the important phenomena which cause the level of these signatures to be reduced, are described. Third, the operating characteristics of the individual types of detectors which influence their response to signals, are presented. Finally, vulnerability analysis using predictive fire modeling techniques is discussed as a means to establish the necessary response of the detection system to provide the level of protection required in the application.

  2. Immunoassay separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for effecting the immunoassay of a multiplicity of samples, each possibly containing an antigen or an antibody to be assayed, is discussed. Each sample is incubated with a solution containing a detectable antigen or antibody to form a multiplicity of mixtures, each mixture containing as components antigen-antibody, non-complexed antigen and non-complexed antibody. At least one of the components of the said mixture is separated by adsorption. There after, quantity of detectable antigen or antibody is detected in one of the non-adsorbed portions of the mixture. An improvement, compared to other techniques, is the continuous and sequential separation of at least one component, which is intended to be separated from each said multiplicity of mixtures

  3. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy. Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction. Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other. Deriving contours for planning teletherapy. Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit. Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs. Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  4. Geological data integration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

  5. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy; Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction; Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other; Deriving contours for planning teletherapy; Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit; Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs; Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  6. Changes in urological surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Üçer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laparoscopic and afterwards robotic techniques have constituted most of urologic surgery procedures. Open surgery may give place to robotic surgery due to possible widespread use of robots in the future. Studies, that compare these two techniques are usually designed about radical prostatectomy, since it is the most common operation performed by using these techniques. In literature,robotic surgery seems more advantageous than other techniques but the most important disadvantage of this technique is cost-effective problems. In present review,history of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery, and comparison of advantages, disadvantages and cost of these techniques have been discussed with literature.

  7. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such an analysis of the internal environment allows the organization to identify its resources and capabilities as best as possible, in relation to the threats and opportunities brought about by the crisis situations. Authors’ Contribution The research allows the identification of the organizational behaviour of resource and capabilities capitalization that must be adopted during the economic crisis. The study may be useful to both the academic and the business environment.

  8. LIBRARY MANAGEMENT : A TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Rahul Hanmant

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Today we are living in digital age, or now we are living in techno age. In Six month there is new invention in all the technical things. When we expert in one technology there is new and added techniques for that there is challenge for everyone who faces technology. When we compare with library there is also new challenges for library services. In some extent we see that Library Automation and E-Security are the new advanced things. For Librarian he should manage all the things. In Academic libraries most of the Librarian facing problem of management. When we evaluate work there are various parameters and test to solve problem. Management is the art of getting things done by a group of people with the effective utilization of available resources. An introduction cannot be treated as a managing body running any organization. A minimum of two persons are essential to form a management. These persons perform the function in order to achieve the objectives of an organization. Def: Peter Drucker, :-“Management is an organ, organs can be described and defined only through their functions.”

  9. Novel polarimetery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Neeraj

    2007-05-01

    Polarization specific measurements are advancing the capabilities of scientific instruments looking for ever smaller effects and material parameters. For example, the magneto-optical nonlinear Faraday effect can be used to characterize various electric and magnetic polarizability parameters of an individual molecule. Another major application is detection of desired particles in a highly scattering environment, the physical effect of which has been extensively researched, and is being overcome by using time-gated and polarization techniques. The polarimeter sensitivity is limited by the extinction-ratio obtained from polarizers. Of available polarizer materials, naturally occurring Calcite crystals provide the best extinction ratios because of their good optical homogeneity and high birefringence. However, there is a need for polarization determination with higher sensitivities, and thus a necessity to find better polarizing materials and methods. I developed a next-generation polarimeter in an attempt to sensitively detect the second-order Faraday effect, along with a substance's chirality and Verdet constant. Also, I developed a device uniquely able to sensitively detect chiral signatures in the presence of massive depolarizing scattering. In addition, I begun developing a novel type of polarimeter based on the highly-polarization-sensitive nonlinear-optical process of harmonic generation, whose required crystals can be grown with extremely high quality.

  10. Advanced qualification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturing List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space environment, QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. The use of a 10 keV X-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10 keV X-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DOD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. (authors). 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Uncertainty analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of the uncertainty affecting Performance Assessments, as well as their propagation to dose and risk results is discussed. The analysis is focused essentially on the uncertainties introduced by the input parameters, the values of which may range over some orders of magnitude and may be given as probability distribution function. The paper briefly reviews the existing sampling techniques used for Monte Carlo simulations and the methods for characterizing the output curves, determining their convergence and confidence limits. Annual doses, expectation values of the doses and risks are computed for a particular case of a possible repository in clay, in order to illustrate the significance of such output characteristics as the mean, the logarithmic mean and the median as well as their ratios. The report concludes that provisionally, due to its better robustness, such estimation as the 90th percentile may be substituted to the arithmetic mean for comparison of the estimated doses with acceptance criteria. In any case, the results obtained through Uncertainty Analyses must be interpreted with caution as long as input data distribution functions are not derived from experiments reasonably reproducing the situation in a well characterized repository and site

  12. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  13. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  14. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  15. A Topological Technique for Regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantingham, Patricia L.; Brantingham, Paul J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a mathematical technique for building perceptual models of urban areas. Uses techniques to model perceptual neighborhoods within a city and to explore how residential burglary rates vary between the interiors and borders of the neighborhood. (Author/MA)

  16. Aplicación de las técnicas de biología molecular en oncología oral Application of molecular biology techniques in oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López-Durán

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de revisión se propone exponer las principales técnicas de biología molecular disponibles actualmente para los investigadores, en el campo del cáncer y precáncer oral, clasificadas según el tipo de material biológico del que se disponga para iniciar la investigación. Éste puede ser ADN, ARN o proteínas. La explicación de cada técnica comprenderá una breve sistemática del proceso, así como sus ventajas, inconvenientes y estado de actividad actual. Todo ello con la finalidad de esclarecer las aplicaciones, pronto indispensables, de las técnicas más destacadas, en el diagnóstico precoz, pronóstico y tratamiento individualizado del carcinoma oral. Entre las técnicas más útiles en este proceso se encuentran: la electroforesis en gel, las técnicas de hibridación, la tecnología microarray, los biochips, la PCR convencional, la cuantitativa o la transcriptasa inversa, las técnicas de Southern, Northern y Western blot, la secuenciación de ADN, la clonación de genes, la inmunohistoquímica, el ensayo ELISA y la citometría de flujo. Destacan en particular por su gran utilidad, la tecnología microarray, los biochips y la PCR.This article summarizes the main techniques in the area of molecular biology that are available for the investigation of oral cancer and precancer. They have been classified depending on the biological material we expect to analyze, which can be DNA, RNA or proteins. The explanation for each technique includes a brief description of its basics, as well as some advantages, drawbacks and current use of the technique. Our aim is to throw light on the applications of these techniques, soon indispensable for most studies, in the early diagnosis, prognosis and individualized treatment of oral carcinoma. The most useful techniques for this objective are nowadays: gel electrophoresis, hybridation, microarray technology, biochips, PCR (conventional, quantitative or reverse transcriptase, Southern, Northern and Western blot studies, DNA sequenciation, cloning, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and flow citrometry. Some techniques that deserve a special mention due to their greater usefulness in the area of oral cancer are microarray technology, biochips and PCR.

  17. Advanced qualification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments

  18. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  19. Advanced qualification techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, P. S.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Meisenheimer, T. L.; Fleetwood, D. M.

    1994-06-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML 'builds in' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structure-to-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish 'process capability' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co-60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SCC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

  20. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  1. OPTIMISATION'S TECHNIQUES OF HULL SHAPES USING CFD RANSE SIMULATIONS WITH LOW NUMBER OF CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Agrusta, Andrea Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Negli ultimi anni le tecniche di idrodinamica numerica CFD hanno permesso di effettuare simulazioni al computer riguardanti l’ interazione tra solidi e fluidi. L’utilizzo dei software CFD permette una simulazione assolutamente realistica dei fenomeni idrodinamici, permettendo al progettista/programmatore di analizzare in tempi relativamente brevi molteplici soluzioni, onde sceglierne la migliore e di conseguenza molteplici macro o micro modifiche sulla carena prescelta, per valutarne l’impatt...

  2. Survey of Nearest Neighbor Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    The nearest neighbor (NN) technique is very simple, highly efficient and effective in the field of pattern recognition, text categorization, object recognition etc. Its simplicity is its main advantage, but the disadvantages can't be ignored even. The memory requirement and computation complexity also matter. Many techniques are developed to overcome these limitations. NN techniques are broadly classified into structure less and structure based techniques. In this paper, we present the survey of such techniques. Weighted kNN, Model based kNN, Condensed NN, Reduced NN, Generalized NN are structure less techniques whereas k-d tree, ball tree, Principal Axis Tree, Nearest Feature Line, Tunable NN, Orthogonal Search Tree are structure based algorithms developed on the basis of kNN. The structure less method overcome memory limitation and structure based techniques reduce the computational complexity.

  3. New techniques in quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GPU Nuclear Corp. has a multifaceted quality assurance (QA) program. This program includes a comprehensive QA organization to help ensure its implementation. The QA organization employs various techniques in assuring quality at GPU Nuclear. These techniques not only include the typical QA/quality-control verification activities, i.e., QA engineering, quality control, and audits, but also include some new innovative techniques. Several new techniques have been developed for verifying activities. These techniques include monitoring and functional audits of safety systems. Several new techniques for assessing performance and adequacy and effectiveness of plant and QA programs, such as plant assessments and QA systems engineering evaluations, have also been developed. This paper provides an overview of these and other new techniques being employed by GPU Nuclear's QA organization

  4. Improved Astronomical Image Reproducing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Beom

    1993-12-01

    Astronomical plates have a very large density range(dynamical range). Many exposed astronomical photographic plates do not provide detailed structures for very high densities, and some include hidden images for very low densities. The former can be fixed through 'Unsharp Masking' technique and the latter through 'Image Amplification' technique. Besides, we can find intrinsic colors of celestial bodies through 'Tri Color Composition' technique. Images of several plates which were observed from Sobaek Observatory with 61cm telescope are reproduced by the three kinds of image reproducing techniques. As reproduced image examples, we display an Orion nebula and a waxing crescent moon images through unsharp masking technique and an M81 image through image amplification technique. An Orion nebula and a Dumbbell nebula images are also given as results of tri color composition technique.

  5. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    Provost David L. Potter of George Mason University chaired a joint task force and presented a report entitled ``Powerful Partnerships : A Shared Responsibility for Learnin'' in June 1998. The main goal is to make a difference in the quality of student learning. Further, it is important to assess this difference and document it. Clifford O. Young, Sr., & Laura Howzell Young of California State University, San Bernardino argue that a new paradigm for assessment, a learning paradigm, must be constructed to measure the success of new kinds of educational practices. Using two survey instruments, the Instruction Model Learning Model Questionnaire (IMLMQ) and the Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness (SETE), they compared students' responses to the course when taught with traditional methods and with interactive methods. The results suggest that neither instrument effectively measures the kinds of learning promoted under the new paradigm. Linn, Baker, & Dunbar recommend that these newer assessment practices should be more authentic, that is, to involve students in the actual or simulated performance of a task or the documentation of the desired competency in a portfolio. Cerbin says that one of the most unfortunate consequences of a summative emphasis is that it inhibits open and productive discussions about teaching; in essence, it marginalizes the types of activity that could lead to better teaching (Cerbin, 1992). William Cerbin, who is the Director of the Center for Effective Teaching and learning, University Assessment Coordinator, and Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse is a recognized expert in the areas of cognition, language, and development. Edgerton, Hutchings, & Quinlan indicate that Teaching Portfolios may contain evidence of students' learning, but such information is optional, and when included, it may be only one of many pieces of material. Seldin, also supports this and stresses that the interplay between the instructor and the learner should be carefully observed and monitored. Forrest says that Student Portfolios, which document learning in more detail, seldom reveal how teaching contributes to students' progress. Cerbin further indicates that a course portfolio is essentially, a like a manuscript of scholarly work in progress. In this example, it is a work that explains what, how, and why students learn or do not learn in a course. In this paper, the author reports on a dozen techniques that could perhaps be used to document assessment of student learning. References : Cerbin, W. (1993). Fostering a culture of teaching as scholarship. The Teaching Professor, 7(3), 1-2. Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P., & Quinlan, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: Capturing the scholarship in teaching. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Forrest, A. (1990). Time will tell: Portfolio-assisted assessment of general education. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Linn, R., Baker, E., & Dunbar, S. (1991). Complex, Performance-based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Educational Researcher, 20 (8), 15-21. Narayanan, M. (2003). Assessment in Higher Education: Partnerships in Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio. Bolton, MA: Anker. Young, C. O., Sr., & Young, L. H. (1999). Assessing Learning in Interactive Courses. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10 (1), 63-76.

  6. ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwasi Asamoah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

  7. Aplicación de las técnicas de biología molecular en oncología oral / Application of molecular biology techniques in oral cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., López-Durán; J., Campo-Trapero; J., Cano-Sánchez; R., Díez-Pérez; A., Bascones-Martínez.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de revisión se propone exponer las principales técnicas de biología molecular disponibles actualmente para los investigadores, en el campo del cáncer y precáncer oral, clasificadas según el tipo de material biológico del que se disponga para iniciar la investigación. Éste puede ser ADN [...] , ARN o proteínas. La explicación de cada técnica comprenderá una breve sistemática del proceso, así como sus ventajas, inconvenientes y estado de actividad actual. Todo ello con la finalidad de esclarecer las aplicaciones, pronto indispensables, de las técnicas más destacadas, en el diagnóstico precoz, pronóstico y tratamiento individualizado del carcinoma oral. Entre las técnicas más útiles en este proceso se encuentran: la electroforesis en gel, las técnicas de hibridación, la tecnología microarray, los biochips, la PCR convencional, la cuantitativa o la transcriptasa inversa, las técnicas de Southern, Northern y Western blot, la secuenciación de ADN, la clonación de genes, la inmunohistoquímica, el ensayo ELISA y la citometría de flujo. Destacan en particular por su gran utilidad, la tecnología microarray, los biochips y la PCR. Abstract in english This article summarizes the main techniques in the area of molecular biology that are available for the investigation of oral cancer and precancer. They have been classified depending on the biological material we expect to analyze, which can be DNA, RNA or proteins. The explanation for each techniq [...] ue includes a brief description of its basics, as well as some advantages, drawbacks and current use of the technique. Our aim is to throw light on the applications of these techniques, soon indispensable for most studies, in the early diagnosis, prognosis and individualized treatment of oral carcinoma. The most useful techniques for this objective are nowadays: gel electrophoresis, hybridation, microarray technology, biochips, PCR (conventional, quantitative or reverse transcriptase), Southern, Northern and Western blot studies, DNA sequenciation, cloning, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and flow citrometry. Some techniques that deserve a special mention due to their greater usefulness in the area of oral cancer are microarray technology, biochips and PCR.

  8. Cooperative techniques for interference management in wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lameiro Gutiérrez, Christian

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN: La interferencia supone el mayor factor limitante de las redes de comunicaciones inalámbricas. En contraposición a las técnicas de gestión actual de la misma, consistentes en repartir los recursos disponibles entre los usuarios de manera ortogonal, esta tesis proporciona un amplio estudio de técnicas de cooperación entre usuarios, que, sustentándose en resultados de teoría de la información, tienen como objetivo gestionar la interferencia de manera activa y, en consecuencia, más efic...

  9. Practical hacking techniques and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Examining computer security from the hacker''s perspective, Practical Hacking Techniques and Countermeasures employs virtual computers to illustrate how an attack is executed, including the script, compilation, and results. It provides detailed screen shots in each lab for the reader to follow along in a step-by-step process in order to duplicate and understand how the attack works. It enables experimenting with hacking techniques without fear of corrupting computers or violating any laws.Written in a lab manual style, the book begins with the installation of the VMware® Workstation product and guides the users through detailed hacking labs enabling them to experience what a hacker actually does during an attack. It covers social engineering techniques, footprinting techniques, and scanning tools. Later chapters examine spoofing techniques, sniffing techniques, password cracking, and attack tools. Identifying wireless attacks, the book also explores Trojans, Man-in-the-Middle (MTM) attacks, and Denial of S...

  10. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Tilp; Michael Rindler

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Si...

  11. Further development of learning techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolino, Antonia; Calabro, Antonello; Cassel, Sofia; Chen, Yu-Fang; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Merten, Maik; Sabetta, Antonino; Steffen, B.

    2011-01-01

    The CONNECT Integrated Project aims at enabling continuous composition of networked systems, by developing techniques for synthesizing connectors. A prerequisite for synthesis is to learn about the interaction behavior of networked peers. The role of WP4 is to develop techniques for learning models of networked peers and middleware through exploratory interaction. During Y1 of CONNECT, exploratory work was performed to understand the requirements for learning techniques in the CONNECT process...

  12. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  13. Semiconductor-laser modulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three simple modulation techniques for semiconductor lasers have been described. The first technique employs a single constant current source and is suitable for low frequency modulation up to 500 Khz. The second and third techniques employ two constant current sources each with current summing of subtraction and are suitable for higher frequency modulation up to several MHz. Schematic diagrams of designed, developed and tested circuits, implementing each of the above mentioned schemes, have also been presented. (author)

  14. Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Lajcik

    2012-01-01

    Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, ...

  15. A summary of virtualization techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Haro, Fernando; Freitag, Fèlix; Navarro Moldes, Leandro; Hernández Sánchez, Efraín; Farías Mendoza, Nicandro; Guerrero Ibáñez, Juan Antonio; González Potes, Apolinar

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, virtualization is a technology that is applied for sharing the capabilities of physical computers by splitting the resources among OSs. The concept of Virtual Machines (VMs) started back in 1964 with a IBM project called CP/CMS system. Currently, there are several virtualization techniques that can be used for supporting the execution of entire operating systems. We classify the virtualization techniques from the OS view. First, we discuss two techniques that executes modified gu...

  16. Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lajcik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

  17. Algorithms Design Techniques and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alsuwaiyel, M H

    1999-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential part of every scientific discipline. It has two components: (1) problem identification and formulation, and (2) solution of the formulated problem. One can solve a problem on its own using ad hoc techniques or follow those techniques that have produced efficient solutions to similar problems. This requires the understanding of various algorithm design techniques, how and when to use them to formulate solutions and the context appropriate for each of them. This book advocates the study of algorithm design techniques by presenting most of the useful algorithm desi

  18. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  19. Optical techniques in regenerative medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, tissue engineers largely rely on destructive and time-consuming techniques that do not allow in situ and spatial monitoring of tissue growth. Furthermore, once the therapy is implanted in the patient, clinicians are often unable to monitor what is happening in the body. To tackle these barriers, optical techniques have been developed to image and characterize many tissue properties, fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, and characterize the properties of the scaffolds. Optical Techniques in Regenerative Medicine illustrates how to use optical imaging techniques and

  20. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  1. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2006-01-01

    Only book on Permanent Scatterer technique of radar interferometryExplains the Permanent Scatterer technique in detail, possible pitfalls, and details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS techniqueThe use of Permanent Scatterer allows very precise measurements of the displacement of hundreds of points per square kilometerDescribes the only technique currently able to perform displacement measurements in the past, utilizing the ERS satellite data archive using data acquired from 1992-presentShows how to interpret

  2. Comparison of Composite Restoration Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Katona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly presents the classification, and possible ways of application of composites. Our objective was to compare three different restoration technique in class II cavity preparations, with the aim to determine which technique is the most advantageous in practical point of view. Artificial teeth fabricated from self-curing acrylic resin were used as models. Comparison of marginal sealing was performed macroscopically via direct visual inspection and via tactile control. Two parameters were examined on esthetic evaluation, which were the anatomical shape and the optical appearance. The time required to prepare the restorations were also measured. After the evaluation of the results, the bulk-fill technique was demonstrated to require the shortest time to be performed. This was followed by the oblique (Z technique, whereas the horizontal incremental technique appeared to be the most time-consuming method. Based on the esthetic evaluation, a remarkable difference can be observed between the bulk-fill technique and the other two incremental techniques, while the mean scores for the oblique and the horizontal techniques were comparable. Based on the results of the visual inspection and instrumental examination, there were no differences in terms of marginal sealing between the three applied methods. Based on these, the use of the appropriate incremental technique can reduce the development of secondary caries and increasing the longevity of composite restorations.

  3. Utilidad de las técnicas de imagen en el hiperparatiroidismo secundario / Usefulness of imaging techniques in secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Vicente, Torregrosa; I., Félez; D., Fuster.

    Full Text Available En los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica que desarrollan hiperparatiroidismo secundario (HPTS), las técnicas de imagen pueden ser de utilidad, fundamentalmente para valorar la localización, el tamaño y el funcionalismo de las glándulas paratiroides. Esta revisión valora las técnicas de imagen d [...] e las que se dispone actualmente para evaluar las glándulas paratiroides en el contexto del HPTS. Se hace referencia a: 1) ecografía cervical (modo B, Doppler, Doppler-color y power-Doppler); 2) estudios gammagráficos (talio, 99mTc-MIBI y 99mTc-tetrofosmin), incluyendo técnicas especiales de adquisición de imágenes (Pinhole, SPECT); 3) estudios PET (tomografía por emisión de positrones); 4) tomografía computarizada (TC) y resonancia magnética, y 5) escáneres híbridos (SPECT/TC y PET/TC). Nuestra recomendación es practicar, en todos los pacientes con HPTS que no responden inicial y fácilmente al tratamiento médico, una gammagrafía con 99mTc-MIBI que puede complementarse con un Eco-Doppler color. Si la gammagrafía es positiva y, tras gradación de la intensidad de captación, alguna de las glándulas (no ectópicas) presenta un índice intenso, aunque se puede intentar intensificar el tratamiento, debería pensarse en la realización de una paratiroidectomía. Si la gammagrafía es positiva y, tras gradación de la intensidad de captación, ninguna de las glándulas (no ectópicas) presenta un índice intenso, debería intentarse la intensificación del tratamiento, y si no existe buena respuesta, considerar la paratiroidectomía. Si la gammagrafía es negativa, debería practicarse un PET si se dispone de dicha prueba. En caso de no disponer de PET, lo aconsejable sería realizar una resonancia magnética. Abstract in english For patients with chronic renal failure who develop secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), imaging techniques can be useful, especially to evaluate the location, size and functional status of parathyroid glands. This review analyzes all available imaging procedures in the context of SHPT. We evaluate [...] : 1) Cervical ultrasound (B-mode, Doppler, colour-Doppler and power-Doppler), 2) Scintigraphic studies (Tallium, 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-tetrofosmin), including non-standard image acquisition techniques (Pinhole, SPECT), 3) Positron emission tomography (PET), 4) Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 5) hybrid scanners (SPECT/CT and PET/CT). Our recommendation is that SHPT patients who are initially non responders to medical therapy should be investigated using parathyroid scintigraphy and cervical ultrasound. 99mTc-MIBI uptake can be graded in a semiquantitative scale. Intense uptake indicates a low probability of success using medical treatment and parathyroidectomy should be considered. A moderate to faint uptake indicates that a more intensive medical therapy would probably be beneficial. In the case of no uptake of 99mTc-MIBI, PET should be performed. Where this is not available, MRI could be a possible alternative.

  4. REDVET y RECVET están disponibles desde la biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos artículos publicados en REDVET y en RECVET son inmediatamente accesibles desde la Biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia, con sede en Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia, Suramérica, donde las dos revistas científicas editadas por Veterinaria Organización aparece en el área de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia junto a la Bases de datos bibliográficas de la Biblioteca Agropecuaria de Colombia (BAC del Centro Internacional de Agricultura tropical (CIAT y la Biblioteca de la FAO (Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación.

  5. Perfil nutricional y microbiológico de los embutidos de soya disponibles en Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Monge; María Laura, Arias; Thelma, Alfaro; Manuel, Jiménez.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la calidad nutricional y microbiológica de 80 muestras de embutidos de soya (50% mortadela y 50% salchicha). El promedio de proteína en la mortadela fue de 17,5g/100 g y en la salchicha 20g/100g. El contenido de grasa total fue de 5.5g/100g para ambos productos; no obstante, se hallaron d [...] iferencias altamente significativas (0.0000) en el contenido de los diferentes ácidos grasos entre ambos productos y en las muestras de un mismo producto dependiendo de la industria que los elaborara. Las mayores diferencias se evidenciaron en los niveles de ácido palmítico (C16:0), ácido oleico (C18:1) y ácido linoleico (C18:2). En ninguna muestra se evidenció la presencia de colesterol. El índice de aterogenicidad promedio para mortadela fue 0.55 y para salchicha 0.59. El consumo de 25 gramos de proteína de soya derivada de estos embutidos puede generar aportar entre el 20-90% de la cantidad de ácidos grasos saturados recomendada por día. Así mismo, puede brindar entre el 12-70% de la cantidad de ácidos graso s poliinsaturados recomendada por día. Estas variaciones responden a las importantes diferencias en la especiación de ácidos grasos evidenciadas según la marca del producto. El 20% de los embutidos estudiados mostraron niveles de coliformes totales> 10(4)/g, lo cual fue más frecuente en la salchicha. El 60% de las muestras de este embutido y el 10% de las muestras de mortadela mostraron niveles de psicrótrofos > 10(6)/g. En ninguna de las muestras se evidenció Escherichia coli y en el 5% Clostridium perfringens en niveles mayores a 10²/g. Los resultados señalan la urgente necesidad de implementar un sistema de control de calidad de los embutidos de soya, antes que las autoridades de salud consideren respaldar las campañas nutricionales que promuevan el consumo de los mismos. Abstract in english Nutritional and microbiological profile of soy bean sausages available in Costa Rica. The nutritional and microbiological quality of 80 soybean sausage samples (50% frankfurter and 5% sausage mortadela) was studied. On average, the protein content was 17 ,5g/100g in sausage mortadela and 20g/100g in [...] frankfurter.the mean total fat content was 5,5g/100g for both products. However when products of different manufacture industries were compared, a highly significant difference (p= 0,0000) in the fatty acids speciation between both groups and between samples of the same product were found. Bigger differences were found in the content of palmitic acid(C16:0), oleic acid (C18:l) and linoleic acid (C18:2). Cholesterol was not detected in samples analyzed. On average the atherogenicity index was 0,55 for sausage mortadela and 0,59 for frankfurter. A consumption of 25 grams of soybean protein from these sausages can bring an intake of saturated fatty acids between 20-90% of the daily recommendation. Likewise, they can supply between 12-70% of the recommended daily polyunsaturated fattly acids. These variations are owing to the big difference in fatty acids speciation in each sausage brand. Around 20% of soybean sausages studied showed total coliform levels above l0(4)/g, being more frequent in sausage mortadela. Also 60% of this product and 10% of frankfurters showed psychrotroph levels of 10(6)/g. Clostridium perfringens, in levels above 10²/g was evidenciated in 5% of samples, Escherichia coli was not isolated from them. The findings of this study suggest the urgent need for implementing a quality control system for soybean sausages, before national health authorities consider to support nutritional campaings that promote their consumption.

  6. Ya se dispone de antirretrovíricos contra el VIH y el sida: ¿Es necesaria ahora la prevención?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aggleton

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available New antiretroviral agents have radically changed the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. In many patients, this treatment has produced substantial improvement, as well as marked reductions in circulating viral particles. Furthermore, there has been a decrease in mortality from AIDS complications resulting from the use of very active retroviral therapy (VART. A source of concern, however, is the current perception that the disease, though not yet curable, can be successfully treated with this new therapy, since this notion could be changing the public's attitude toward the continued need for preventive measures.

  7. Estudo do desgaste abrasivo das resinas compostas disponíveis no mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carlos Bianchi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a proposal to assess the abrasive wear of composite resins available in the national market, which are materials largely used in dental clinics for functional and aesthetic tooth restorations. This was achieved by utilizing an experimental set-up on which a dynamic disc covered with proper porcelain (representing hardness close to the human teeth wears a static disc covered with the resin tested under a constant and pre-determined load. Thus, by means of this set-up and keeping a behavioral status needed to the calculus for all tests, the aggressiveness (referred as to letter k for all tests was analyzed. Due to the fact that resin characteristic revels how weary the material has become to the abrasion process with other harder material, the strength to wear for such resins was observed. Therefore, a real classification for these materials with their strength to the abrasion wear was made, which is a very important factor in the influence on their lifetime in dental restorations. The classification in descending order for those resins is presented as following: HELIOMOLAR RO, DURAFILL, FILTEK A110, HELIO FILL, POINT 4, FLOW IT; NATURAL FLOW, SUPRAFILL, FILTEK P60, FILTEK Z250, TETRIC FLOW, REVOLUTION, PRODIGY, TETRIC CERAM, HERCULITE, FILLMAGIC, TPH, CHARISMA, Z100.

  8. Bioensayo microbiano para estimar los nutrimentos disponibles en los abonos organicos: calibracion en el campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se demostr6 recientemente que el aumento nude la biomasa microbiana en una mezcla de sue- calo: abono organico (9:1, suplementada con gluco- sa como fuente de carbono, fue proporcional al crecimiento de una planta indicadora (sorgo cre- cida en el mismo sustrato. En la presente investi- gaci6n se determina si este bioensayo es de utili- dad como gufa en la fertilizaci6n de los cultivos con abonos organicos, mediante la siembra en el campo de chile dulce (Capsicum annuum L. y to- mate (Lycopersicum esculentum L. como plantas indicadoras. Los tratamientos consistieron de sue- 10 solo 0 en mezcla con 10% de abonos organicos amende contenido de nutrimentos contrastante a saber: pollinaza (CM, compost (C, bocashi (B, vermi- macompost (V y broza de cafe (Br. En el bioensa- vermicomyo microbiano se utiliz6 un disefio de bloques randocompletos al azar con 6 repeticiones, la biomasa microbiana (BM se midi6 2 dfas despues de in- cubar con glucosa. En los ensayos de campo las plantas indicadoras se sembraron en un disefio de bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. En chile dulce se midi6 el peso seco (600 C de la comparte aerea de la planta (PSC y el peso fresco de frutos verdes (PFF a los 97 dfas despues de la Microsiembra. El peso seco de la parte aerea de las amendplantas de tomate (PST fue medido a los 32 dfas. Los abonos organicos CM, C y B indujeron la mayor BM y tambien el mayor PSC, PFF Y PST, indicaci6n de que fueron los de mayor y mas in- mediato suministro de nutrimentos, contrario al y Br que mostraron los valores mas bajos para es- tas variables (P<0.05. Estos 2 abonos, respecto vatratamiento de CM presentaron 3 y 5 veces menos BM y 2 Y 4 veces menos biomasa aerea, respecti- vamente (P<0.05. Las correlaciones altas obteni- codas entre la BM y el PSC (r=0.87 y entre la BM y el PST (r= 0.93, permiten concluir que bioensayo microbiano es un metoda promisorio para pronosticar el suministro de nutrimentos orlos abonos organicos a los cultivos bajo condicio- determines de campo y en consecuencia puede ser una excelente gufa en su dosificaci6n.

  9. Mecanismos de adaptación de maíz asociado a glomus spp. en suelos con bajo fósforo disponible

    OpenAIRE

    Roveda, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    La deficiencia de fósforo es uno de los mayores limitantes para la productividad agrícola en el trópico. Esta investigación está orientada a estudiar los mecanismos de adaptación de maíz asociado a Glomus spp. La investigación se realizó bajo condiciones controladas en los laboratorios del Corpoica. El diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques completos al azar, con seis tratamientos y seis repeticiones: tres tratamientos con 1, 40 y 100 mg·kg-1 de P en el suelo y los anteriores niveles...

  10. Prédiction des propriétés de rétention en eau des sols : outils disponibles et perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruand, Ary; Cousin, Isabelle; Richard, Guy

    2003-01-01

    La prédiction des propriétés de rétention en eau des sols a fortement mobilisé la communauté des physiciens du sol au cours des trois dernières décennies. La raison en est simple : la connaissance de ces propriétés est nécessaire à l'appréciation des potentialités d'un sol à supporter telle ou telle culture. De très nombreux travaux ont par conséquent été conduits dans ce domaine. On doit cependant reconnaître qu'il reste beaucoup à faire tant la « demande » se fait de plus en plus exigeante....

  11. Recursos disponibles para la recuperación de información sobre salud en Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guillermo Elizondo Herrera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El Internet se ha convertido en un fenómeno social en nuestros tiempos y en un apoyo vital para el desarrollo de las investigaciones en salud.El hecho de que es una herramienta para recuperar información e investigar no se discute.Las ciencias de la información avanzan a grandes pasos y los profesionales en salud que se apoyan o tienen contacto con la realidad de Internet,encuentran difícil seguir este paso,lo que disminuye la efectividad y eficiencia con que se utiliza este recurso.Motivado en los hechos previos,se realizó una revisión de algunos recursos encontrados en la red de redes,Internet,y se plantea una estrategia de búsqueda de información para recuperarla en un motor de búsqueda y,así,resolver las preguntas clínicas diarias.En especial,se focaliza la revisión del tema sobre los motores de búsqueda Pubmed y Google.Basado inicialmente en la construcción de una pregunta para hallar información mediante la metodología PICO,el profesional se orienta para definir los términos de búsqueda que le permitirán recuperar información con varios niveles de rigurosidad científica y aplicable a varias latitudes.Finalmente,se comentan algunas limitaciones que existen en torno a la recuperación de información y las oportunidades que ofrecen las iniciativas para la Web semántica.

  12. Recursos disponibles para la recuperación de información sobre salud en Internet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Guillermo, Elizondo Herrera.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El Internet se ha convertido en un fenómeno social en nuestros tiempos y en un apoyo vital para el desarrollo de las investigaciones en salud.El hecho de que es una herramienta para recuperar información e investigar no se discute.Las ciencias de la información avanzan a grandes pasos y los profesio [...] nales en salud que se apoyan o tienen contacto con la realidad de Internet,encuentran difícil seguir este paso,lo que disminuye la efectividad y eficiencia con que se utiliza este recurso.Motivado en los hechos previos,se realizó una revisión de algunos recursos encontrados en la red de redes,Internet,y se plantea una estrategia de búsqueda de información para recuperarla en un motor de búsqueda y,así,resolver las preguntas clínicas diarias.En especial,se focaliza la revisión del tema sobre los motores de búsqueda Pubmed y Google.Basado inicialmente en la construcción de una pregunta para hallar información mediante la metodología PICO,el profesional se orienta para definir los términos de búsqueda que le permitirán recuperar información con varios niveles de rigurosidad científica y aplicable a varias latitudes.Finalmente,se comentan algunas limitaciones que existen en torno a la recuperación de información y las oportunidades que ofrecen las iniciativas para la Web semántica.

  13. LA COMPTABILITÉ DES ACTIFS OU DES IMMOBILISATIONS NON COURANTS ET DISPONIBLES POUR VENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Dorel ILINCU??

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available IFRS 5 Actifs non courants destinés à être vendus et activités abandonnées prévoie qu’une entité cataloguera un actif immobilisé (ou groupe d’actifs destinés à la cession comme destiné à être vendu, si sa valeur comptable est récupérée premièrement par une opération de vente et non pas par son utilisation continue. Les règlements comptables de Roumanie prévoient le transfert des actifs immobilisés destinés à être vendus aux stocks.

  14. [Operative technique: The clitoral transposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, A; Lousquy, R; Arfi, A; Haddad, B; Paniel, B J; Touboul, C

    2015-10-01

    Female sexual mutilations result in an important physical and mental suffering. A large number of women have been affected and require a global management, including surgical clitoral transposition. This surgical technique is allowing a rapid improvement of clinical symptoms. In this article, we will describe the indications and operative technique of the clitoral transposition. PMID:25818112

  15. Software Testing Techniques and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Isha; Sunita Sangwan

    2014-01-01

    Software testing provides a means to reduce errors, cut maintenance and overall software costs. Numerous software development and testing methodologies, tools, and techniques have emerged over the last few decades promising to enhance software quality. This paper describes Software testing, need for software testing, Software testing goals and principles. Further it describe about different Software testing techniques and different software testing strategies.

  16. Multi Attribute Decision Making Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many times situation are arise where there aremany factors or parameters on which a decision is based.The problem becomes more complex with these multiparameters. In this paper we propose multi attribute decisionmaking techniques. The techniques will provide a solution tofind out the best alternative among the given attributes.Three methods for decision making are proposed in thispaper.

  17. Multi Attribute Decision Making Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Many times situation are arise where there aremany factors or parameters on which a decision is based.The problem becomes more complex with these multiparameters. In this paper we propose multi attribute decisionmaking techniques. The techniques will provide a solution tofind out the best alternative among the given attributes.Three methods for decision making are proposed in thispaper.

  18. Exponential Finite-Difference Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses use of explicit exponential finite-difference technique to solve various diffusion-type partial differential equations. Study extends technique to transient-heat-transfer problems in one dimensional cylindrical coordinates and two and three dimensional Cartesian coordinates and to some nonlinear problems in one or two Cartesian coordinates.

  19. Resiliency Techniques in School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen; Gilroy, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    School psychologists can help build resilience in youth in many ways. This article offers a list of some easy techniques to use when working with individuals or groups, most based on basic cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) techniques. They include: (1) Emotional awareness; (2) Emotional Regulation; (3) Cognitive Flexibility; (4) Self-efficacy; and…

  20. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  1. Theorists and Techniques: Connecting Education Theories to Lamaze Teaching Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgurski, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Should childbirth educators connect education theory to technique? Is there more to learning about theorists than memorizing facts for an assessment? Are childbirth educators uniquely poised to glean wisdom from theorists and enhance their classes with interactive techniques inspiring participant knowledge and empowerment? Yes, yes, and yes. This article will explore how an awareness of education theory can enhance retention of material through interactive learning techniques. Lamaze International childbirth classes already prepare participants for the childbearing year by using positive group dynamics; theory will empower childbirth educators to address education through well-studied avenues. Childbirth educators can provide evidence-based learning techniques in their classes and create true behavioral change. PMID:26848246

  2. Techniques de jeu de role. (Role Playing Techniques.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufeu, Bernard

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for warming up, establishing group rapport, and setting in motion a role-playing activity are outlined. These involve physical games, communication exercises, oral skill development, and creative thinking. (MSE)

  3. Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Alpay

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Atilla Alpay, Suat Hayri Ugurbas, Berktug ErdoganDepartment of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TurkeyPurpose: To compare various techniques of pterygium surgery including bare sclera, intraoperative mitomycin C application, conjunctival flap reconstruction, and conjunctival autografting technique.Methods: This study is designed to compare 4 currently used techniques in order to determine the complication and recurrence rates after pterygium exision. Included in the study were 77 eyes from 60 patients. Bare sclera technique was used to treat 21 primary pterygia; mitomycin C was used to treat 20 (16 primary, 4 recurrent pterygia; 18 (17 primary, 1 recurrent pterygia were treated by conjuntival flap reconstruction; and 18 (9 primary, 9 recurrent pterygia were treated by conjunctival autografting technique. All patients who underwent surgery were followed up for between 6 months and 2 years.Results: Eight recurrences (38.09% were observed in the bare sclera group whereas there were 5 (25% recurrences in the mitomycin C group. In the conjunctival flap reconstruction group, 6 (33.33% recurrences were detected. In the conjunctival autografting group, 3 recurrences were  observed. There were no major complications threatening visual ability in the surgical patients.Conclusion: A comparison of the groups demonstrated that the recurrence rate was highest in the bare sclera group, and lowest in conjunctival autografting and mitomycin C treatment groups respectively. Although the conjunctival autografting technique is a more difficult and time consuming technique than the others, cosmetic and surgical results were found to be superior. We advise conjunctival autografting for the treatment of pterygium in view of the high recurrence rates of other techniques, and the possible complications of mitomycin C treatment for benign disease.Keywords: pterygium, comparing, techniques, mitomycin C

  4. Statistical Techniques for Project Control

    CERN Document Server

    Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    A project can be simple or complex. In each case, proven project management processes must be followed. In all cases of project management implementation, control must be exercised in order to assure that project objectives are achieved. Statistical Techniques for Project Control seamlessly integrates qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques for project control. It fills the void that exists in the application of statistical techniques to project control. The book begins by defining the fundamentals of project management then explores how to temper quantitative analysis with qualitati

  5. SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATION – DIRECT TABLETTING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Pradnya B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct tabletting technique is the modern and the most efficient process used in tablet manufacturing and has been successfully employed for various poorly soluble and poorly compressible drugs. Spherical agglomeration is particle engineering technique which involves the transformation of fine crystals into spherical shape particles which enhances the powder properties such as particle size, shape, flow properties, solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical drug substances. This technique can also be applied to sustain the drug release from solid dosage forms. The present article is on the detailed comprehensive review about advantages and disadvantages, mechanism, different manufacturing methods of spherical agglomerates and characterization of spherical agglomerates.

  6. Food Physics and Radiation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  7. Food physics and radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  8. PIGE technique implementation at ININ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policroniades, R.; Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Méndez-Garrido, B.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present a general overview about the implementation at ININ of a Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis technique, based on the bombardment of samples by protons and deuterons at different energies within our tandem accelerator facility. As it is well known, this technique is based on the detection of ?-rays emitted by nuclei in a target following a charged particle irradiation. The main feature of this technique, apart from being non-destructive and low time consuming, is that it allows a multi-elemental analysis of a sample, permitting an isotopic identification of many nuclides. Advances and some preliminary results are presented.

  9. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  10. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  11. Fault Diagnosis Using Adaptive Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siahi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by use of adaptive technique, a new method for fault detection and isolation is investigated. In the proposed method, estimation of fault signal obtains that it provides significant information about fault characteristics including size and severity of the fault, which are essential for many applications. The proposed technique is examined on a model of an aircraft and reconstructed fault signal is obtained. The simulation results are compared with the results achieved by use of sliding mode technique. Simulation results and comparison illustrate the capability of the proposed method.

  12. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  13. Technical parameters to decrease the radiation dose from conventional and digital radiographs; Elements technologiques permettant de reduire la dose en radiologie conventionnelle et numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulquier, J.N. [Service de radiotherapie, Hopital Tenon, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-11-15

    Reducing radiation dose while maintaining adequate image quality on conventional and digital radiographs requires optimal use of the unit. Additional filtration avoids unnecessary tissue exposure and improves photon transmission. Automatic exposure control may reduce exposure and dose. The volume of tissue imaged must be limited by the use of diaphragms and shutters or compression. Sensitive detectors with increased photon detection also contribute to reduce dose. Radiographic films combined to rare-earth screens also afford a good photon-conversion efficiency. Large area flat panel amorphous silicon x-ray sensors may also reduce dose up to 50% compared to films. Finally, calculation of the Kerma-area product independent of the source distance constitutes an important indicator of radiation dose. (author)

  14. Modèle des voies réflexes et cérébelleuses, permettant le calcul de fonctions inverses et la commande d'un segment mécanique mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Darlot, Christian; Ebadzadeh, Mohamadmehdi; Tondu, Bertrand

    2004-01-01

    La commande et le contrôle des mouvements des membres par les voies cérébelleuses et réflexes sont modélisées au moyen d'un circuit dont la structure est déduite de contraintes fonctionnelles. 1/ La première contrainte est que les mouvements rapides des membres doivent être précis, quoiqu'ils ne puissent pas être commandés en boucle fermée au moyen de signaux sensoriels. Les voies qui préparent les ordres moteurs doivent donc contenir des fonctions inverses approximées des fonctions biomécani...

  15. Les cultures transgéniques permettent-elles de réduire l’usage des produits phytosanitaires ? Considérations à partir du cas du soja tolérant au glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Sylvie

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’interroge sur l’impact des cultures transgéniques sur l’emploi des pesticides, objet de nombreux débats. Sont examinés les résultats de plusieurs études portant sur le bilan des premières années d’utilisation à grande échelle des OGM aux États-Unis, plus particulièrement du soja tolérant au glyphosate. Les travaux analysés présentent des résultats variables, surtout pour les années récentes, selon les méthodes choisies et le type d’extrapolations faites. Divers facteurs expliquant l’accroissement de l’emploi global du glyphosate sont passés en revue. Mais l’estimation des quantités d’herbicides utilisées qui dépendent de nombreux facteurs n’est pas un indicateur valide de l’impact des cultures transgéniques sur l’environnement.

  16. Experimental techniques and measurement accuracies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.; DiIorio, G.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H.

    1985-02-01

    A brief description of the experimental tools available for fusion neutronics experiments is given. Attention is paid to error estimates mainly for the measurement of tritium breeding ratio in simulated blankets using various techniques.

  17. Experimental techniques and measurement accuracies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, E.F.; DiLorio, G.; Maekawa, H.; Nakamura, T.; Yule, T.J.

    1985-07-01

    A brief description of the experimental tools available for fusion neutronics experiments is given. Attention is paid to error estimates mainly for the measurement of tritium breeding ratio in simulated blankets using various techniques.

  18. Radiographic imaging techniques of artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic imaging technique is an NDT method, which can be used to inspect artefacts without damaging its future value. By using this method the internal structure of the artefact and their manufacturing process can be determined and confirmed. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) with the cooperation of Department of Museum and Antiquities (JMA) have conducted several initial investigations on archaeological artefacts using radiographic technique. The study shows that radiographic technique is able to provide useful information on the internal structure of those artefacts and as well as it manufacturing processes. In this paper, the general status of radiographic technique that have been developed in MINT and used to study the archaeological artefacts for the purpose of conservation and restoration is presented. (Author)

  19. Piggy-back microtransfer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, L W; Fuccillo, D A; Sever, J L

    1969-12-01

    A new microtransfer technique is described which uses a modified, V-bottom, disposable, 96-cup plastic plate that permits serial dilutions and direct rapid transfer to a recipient micro cell culture plate. PMID:5370662

  20. [Impressions techniques--Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levartovsky, S; Masri, M; Alter, E; Pilo, R

    2012-10-01

    A dental impression is a positive replica of the teeth, the surrounding gingiva and the border between them; the purpose of which is to create an accurate master model. Two major techniques for impressions exist today: The conventional and the digital impressions. The current article describes both techniques. In the conventional impressions, it is important to choose a proper tray, stock or custom, and to mix the material properly. The commonly used impression techniques for making a conventional impression are described with a review on the effect of the technique on its accuracy. The effect of the wash bulk on the accuracy of the stone dies and/or the restoration is discussed, as well. The digital impressions with their advantages and disadvantages are described in comparison to the conventional impressions. Although, digital impressions eliminate some of the negative characteristics of conventional impressions, proper soft-tissue management and isolation of tooth preparation margins is still mandatory. PMID:23367724

  1. Radiotracer techniques in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive tracers particularly short-lived radioisotopes frequently offers advantages over conventional methods of analyses. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. Essentially, radiotracer techniques offer a safe, cost effective and powerful tool in the assessment, management and protection of water resources. The Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria of late has been offering consultancy services to some industries in the area of radiotracer technique. The first nuclear reactor in Nigeria, the MNSR, is expected to be commissioned in the Centre very soon. Many short-lived radioisotopes such as Cu-64, Ga-72, Br-82, Hg-197 etc which are very important in hydrological studies can be produced by the MNSR facility. This article reports on the basic principles of the technique and its roles in hydrology

  2. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Phade, Sachin V.; Manuel Garcia-Toca; Kibbe, Melina R

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific ar...

  3. Computational Techniques in Manufacturing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mádl; ?ermák, J; M. Vrabec

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturing processes are complex and therefore difficult to plan by software. The present state in computational techniques in manufacturing technology as well as software applications at the Department of Manufacturing Technology of CTU in Prague are discussed in this article. Computational techniques may help to solve many manufacturing problems as such programs in the field of process planning have been developed. However, due to the complexity of manufacturing processes, complete plann...

  4. AI Game-Playing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Nau, Dana S.

    1999-01-01

    In conjunction with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence's Hall of Champions exhibit, the Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence held a panel discussion entitled "AI Game-Playing Techniques: Are They Useful for Anything Other Than Games?" This article summarizes the panelists' comments about whether ideas and techniques from AI game playing are useful elsewhere and what kinds of game might be suitable as "challenge problems" for future research.

  5. A compendium of modelling techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, J

    2010-01-01

    This Integration Insight provides a brief overview of the most popular modelling techniques used to analyse complex real-world problems, as well as some less popular but highly relevant techniques. The modelling methods are divided into three categories, with each encompassing a number of methods, as follows: 1) Qualitative Aggregate Models (Soft Systems Methodology, Concept Maps and Mind Mapping, Scenario Planning, Causal (Loop) Diagrams), 2) Quantitative Aggregate Models (Function fitting a...

  6. Biophysical chemistry principles and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Avinash

    2009-01-01

    The book discusses the major physic-chemical forces important to biological systems and the applications of such forces in modern analytical techniques. The book promises to be extremely useful to undergraduate and post-graduate students of Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Science and Medical Sciences Besides other disciplines of life sciences in general. The book, while promising to be a hand book for all conventional analytical techniques used in life sciences such as Spectrophotometer, Mass spectrometry, Centrifugation, Chromatography, electrophoresis, Isotopic tr

  7. Experimental technique of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented that the classifications, structures and components of neutron reflectometer (NR), as well s functions and parameters of each components, detailed characters of NR facility 'PRN-2M'. Based on the practical experiments, the basic experimental techniques, the measurement and the related experimental settings are described, including the choice of experimental conditions, adjustments of polarized neutron beam line, basic experimental technique and approach of measurement. The above can be an instruction for NR experiments and a reference for NR construction. (authors)

  8. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  9. Discovering the Botnet Detection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Aneel; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T.

    Botnet is a network of compromised computers. It just fellow the master slave concept. Bots are comprised computers and do the tasks what ever their master orders them. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is used for the communication between the master and bots. Information is also encrypted to avoid the effect of third party. In this paper we discuss the Botnets detection techniques and comparative analysis of these techniques on the basis of DNS query, History data and group activity.

  10. A disposition of interpolation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Knotters, M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A large collection of interpolation techniques is available for application in environmental research. To help environmental scientists in choosing an appropriate technique a disposition is made, based on 1) applicability in space, time and space-time, 2) quantification of accuracy of interpolated values, 3) incorporation of ancillary information, and 4) incorporation of process knowledge. The described methods include inverse distance weighting, nearest neighbour methods, geostatistical inte...

  11. QVOA techniques for fracture characterization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vladimir, Sabinin.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrollan nuevas técnicas de cálculo en el análisis del factor de calidad frente a la distancia fuente receptor y el acimut (QVOA) para caracterización de fracturas. Estas técnicas se aplican a datos sintéticos superficiales de reflexión con ruido. [...] Abstract in english New computational techniques of QVOA analysis (Quality factor Versus Offset and Azimuth) for fracture characterization are developed. The techniques are applied to synthetic surface data of reflection with noise. [...

  12. Perioperative Acupuncture and Related Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyak, Grigory V.; Sessler, Daniel I

    2005-01-01

    Acupuncture and related techniques are increasingly practiced in conventional medical settings, and the number of patients willing to use these techniques is increasing. Despite more than 30 years of research, the exact mechanism of action and efficacy of acupuncture have not been established. Furthermore, most aspects of acupuncture have yet to be adequately tested. There thus remains considerable controversy about the role of acupuncture in clinical medicine.

  13. Comparison of Composite Restoration Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Katona, András; Barrak, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    This article briefly presents the classification, and possible ways of application of composites. Our objective was to compare three different restoration technique in class II cavity preparations, with the aim to determine which technique is the most advantageous in practical point of view. Artificial teeth fabricated from self-curing acrylic resin were used as models. Comparison of marginal sealing was performed macroscopically via direct visual inspection and via tactile control. Two param...

  14. Outlier Detection: Applications And Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Outliers once upon a time regarded as noisy data in statistics, has turned out to be an important problem which is being researched in diverse fields of research and application domains. Many outlier detection techniques have been developed specific to certain application domains, while some techniques are more generic. Some application domains are being researched in strict confidentiality such as research on crime and terrorist activities. The techniques and results of such techniques are not readily forthcoming. A number of surveys, research and review articles and books cover outlier detection techniques in machine learning and statistical domains individually in great details. In this paper we make an attempt to bring together various outlier detection techniques, in a structured and generic description. With this exercise, we hope to attain a better understanding of the different directions of research on outlier analysis for ourselves as well as for beginners in this research field who could then pick up the links to different areas of applications in details.

  15. Microscopy techniques in flavivirus research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mun Keat; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Tan, Terence Tze Tong; Tan, Suat Hoon; Ng, Mah Lee

    2014-04-01

    The Flavivirus genus is composed of many medically important viruses that cause high morbidity and mortality, which include Dengue and West Nile viruses. Various molecular and biochemical techniques have been developed in the endeavour to study flaviviruses. However, microscopy techniques still have irreplaceable roles in the identification of novel virus pathogens and characterization of morphological changes in virus-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy contributes greatly in understanding the fundamental viral protein localizations and virus-host protein interactions during infection. Electron microscopy remains the gold standard for visualizing ultra-structural features of virus particles and infected cells. New imaging techniques and combinatory applications are continuously being developed to push the limit of resolution and extract more quantitative data. Currently, correlative live cell imaging and high resolution three-dimensional imaging have already been achieved through the tandem use of optical and electron microscopy in analyzing biological specimens. Microscopy techniques are also used to measure protein binding affinities and determine the mobility pattern of proteins in cells. This chapter will consolidate on the applications of various well-established microscopy techniques in flavivirus research, and discuss how recently developed microscopy techniques can potentially help advance our understanding in these membrane viruses. PMID:24530363

  16. Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.RAVI TEJA#1 , R.R.V.S.S.ABHISHEK *2 , P.RAM MANINTH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sciences. This paper mainly discusses about the human face recognition with the help of different tactics and techniques like “Eigen faces for Recognition” and “Feature Based Recognition: Elastic Bunch Graph Matching”. The scanning technique such as 4-D laser scanning is still under discussion since for recognition technique it is necessary, The real world is CCTV technology and similarity between the human and computer recognition.This technology is outstanding in the capturing image of faces such as criminal investigation, terrorists identification, medical purposes like plastic surgery .It provides almost security and reliability compared to the other techniques. In future this technology will be the most convenient and secure technique. This will over through all the current security traits and become a efficient security measure

  17. Stapedotomy: the JB Causse technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, J B; Lopez, A; Juberthie, L; Olivier, J C

    1991-09-01

    The Jean-Bernard Causse technique of stapedotomy, derived from Jean René Causse "Teflon-interposition" technique, offers an optimum reconstitution of the function of the annular ligament of the stapes footplate. The quantity and quality of hearing depend significantly, among other things, on the function of the stapes footplate annular ligament. Its impedance keeps the perilymph motion within a physiological acoustic amplitude quantum level unless the movements are so excessive as in barotrauma and acoustic trauma which would have overworked even the annular ligament of a normal footplate. This surgical technique permits snorkling, scuba-diving, airplane landing, eustachian tube dysfunction after surgery as in a normal individual who did not undergo otosclerosis surgery. A comparative study on the postoperative hearing based on 3,000 out of 14,000 cases done by J C Bausse technique, 127 cases with small fenestra technique and 267 cases of complete platinectomy showed too large stapedotomy gives poor high tones and too small stapedotomy poor low tones. Five year follow-up on the hearing loss indicated that total platinoctomy has 1.7 times more alteration of 4 kHz frequency in comparison to the technique reconstituting the annular ligament. Yearly audiogram to check the evolution of cochlear otospongiosis may lead the surgeon to prescribe sodium fluoride if the mid-frequencies are deteriorating and vascular drugs if the high pitch frequencies are deteriorating. PMID:1781646

  18. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punia Supriya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies" at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  20. Analytical applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions from some of the world's leading nuclear analysts included in this book describe a variety of nuclear techniques and applications, such as those in the fields of environment and health, industrial processes, non-destructive testing, forensic and archaeological investigations and cosmochemistry, and in method validation. The descriptive articles demonstrate the advantages of nuclear techniques in, for example, analysing trace elements in submilligram samples in a single strand of hair or in kilogram samples of municipal waste. Halogenated organic compounds as well as major and trace inorganic constituents are analysed in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. Several different techniques are applied to investigate the authenticity of art objects and the origin of extraterrestrial material. Many applications of nuclear analytical techniques in industrial process control or in the production of high-tech materials are described, highlighting the socioeconomic benefit of these techniques in our daily lives. The book is intended to stimulate students, teachers and non-nuclear scientists to take the 'nuclear' option into consideration when deciding on a new field of study or an alternative analytical technique

  1. Acquisition system and signal processing for large-scale high-resolution microelectrode arrays neurointerfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Imfeld, Kilian; Farine, Pierre-André

    2009-01-01

    Les interfaces neuronales basées sur une matrice de micro-électrodes (MEA) permettent la stimulation et la mesure de réseaux neuronaux in vivo et in vitro. La méthodologie in vitro est couramment employée pour étudier et modéliser des mécanismes d'apprentissage et de mémorisation de complexité moyenne dans des réseaux neuronaux de grande taille. Les plates-formes MEA actuellement disponibles commercialement pour l'électrophysiologie in vitro permettent l'enregistrement d'environ 100 électrod...

  2. Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 1): Transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales / Nerve reconstruction techniques in traumatic brachial plexus surgery (Part 1): Extraplexal nerve transfers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los años '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia n [...] erviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc, para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En esta primera parte se analizan las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales, para luego hacer lo propio con las intraplexuales, en una segunda entrega. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexus traumatic injuries, the present article has been written in order to clarify the concerne

  3. Modified technique in treating recurrent priapism: a technique report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent ischemic priapism is a problem in clinical treatment. Most of the cases require more invasive surgery to shunt the blood stasis. We introduce a modified technique in treating recurrent ischemic priapism. The technique described is applied to acute ischaemic priapic episodes in patients with a history of stuttering priapism. It was carried out by a Winter's shunt combined with a continuous cavernosal irrigation system. Priapism was effectively resolved on the patients without recurrence. The four patients who received this treatment recovered most sexual function after 6 months follow-up.

  4. Mutation techniques in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the use of mutation techniques for generating and selecting desired genetic variation in crop and model plant species has significantly increased over the past decade. This was mainly due to: (1) successful application of in vivo mutation techniques in the breeding of new, improved crop varieties; (2) new opportunities for induced mutation using in vitro techniques for improving vegetatively propagated crops; (3) emerging possibilities for applying in vitro selection of mutagenized cells and tissues; (4) increasing application of doubled haploids (DHs) for the rapid selection and shortening of the breeding cycle of improved varieties from desired mutants, and for the development of F1 performing DH lines from heterotic hybrids; (5) advancement of rapid, often non-destructive, mass screening methods; (6) enhanced demand for morphological, developmental and biochemical mutants of various species for studies on the molecular genetics of plant differentiation and development or on plant physiology; (7) wider availability of gene transformation technology that allows the transfer of desired mutated genes from model or other plant species to the desired crop plant (shuttle mutagenesis); and (8) application of mutation techniques for generating DNA polymorphism and for mapping particular genes. An overview of the results of applying mutation techniques for crop improvement is given. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Review of uranium bioassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, α-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: α-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided

  6. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

  7. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  8. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  9. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Wesson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  10. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?(2)(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?(2)(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  11. Review of uranium bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, {alpha}-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: {alpha}-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided.

  12. Twin - Arch technique. Revival of the "edgewise -Technique"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Karp

    2012-01-01

    The SNB – Bracket brings a new dimension into the orthodontic world which is most apparent in extraction cases. Its Teflon – like material has a very low friction coefficient thus, reducing the treatment time considerably. Through the use of low dimensioned arch wires, the Twin – Arch Technique becomes a Light – wire system and simultaneously provides good anchorage and torque control.

  13. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  14. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projections of charged particle beam current density (profiles) are frequently used as a measure of beam position and size. In conventional practice only two projections, usually horizontal and vertical, are measured. This puts a severe limit on the detail of information that can be achieved. A third projection provides a significant improvement. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) uses three or more projections to reconstruct 3-dimensional density profiles. At the 200 MeV H-linac, we have used this technique to measure beam density, and it has proved very helpful, especially in helping determine if there is any coupling present in x-y phase space. We will present examples of measurements of current densities using this technique

  15. Advanced techniques in GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For almost 20 years, advanced techniques have been developed and tested at the GEO 600 laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector. Many of these innovations have improved the sensitivity of GEO 600 and could be shown to be consistent with stable and reliable operation of gravitational wave detectors. We review the performance of these techniques and show how they have influenced the upgrades of other detectors worldwide. In the second half of the paper, we consider how GEO 600 continues to pioneer new techniques for future gravitational wave detectors. We describe some of the new methods in detail and present new results on how they improve the sensitivity and/or the stability of GEO 600 and possibly of future detectors. (paper)

  16. Advanced X ray fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of analytical techniques is to obtain in a nondestructive way the chemical composition and physical characteristics of individual particles, for example airborne particles or particles from soil dust or from a specific emission source. Detailed information on the composition and physical characteristics of individual particles is of importance in environmental pollution studies and forensic investigations, and it can be helpful in solving many other analytical problems. In a similar way, analyses of minute samples are carried out to quantify the degree of heterogeneity of the material with respect to element concentration, determination of porosity and identification of regions with the highest accumulation of the essential elements. Another goal that is difficult to achieve is to carry out a bulk chemical composition analysis not under laboratory conditions but in situ. For various reasons, there is very often a need to identify and quickly evaluate the chemical composition of a material in the field or to monitor an area in search of the places with the greatest abundance of an element. The aim is to carry out the analytical process outside the laboratory with minimal or no sample preparation. The X ray fluorescence (XRF) technique in the energy dispersive mode (EDXRF) has been used to deal with these analytical problems. XRF spectrometry is a well established instrumental analytical technique used for chemical composition analysis. XRF is a non-destructive multielement technique capable of determining elements with atomic number Z ? 11 (sodium) in different matrices. The samples to be analysed require minimal or no preparation, and the technique is regarded as non-destructive. Typical relative detection limits vary from about 0.1 to 10 mg/kg, and in special configurations they can reach values as low as 1 mg/kg. The technique is based on measurements of the characteristic X ray radiation emitted by atoms following their de-excitation to the ground electronic state. The excitation of the atoms is achieved by means of a photoelectric effect in which primary photons from an external source, for example photons emitted by an X ray tube or by a radioisotope source, illuminate the specimen and interact with inner atomic shell electrons. An advanced EDXRF laboratory spectrometer utilizing a focused X ray beam has been used for the identification of individual particles. Microbeam XRF is a unique technique that can provide information on the distribution of elements within a heterogeneous specimen. This method is also suitable for the determination of elements in minute samples such as individual particles. It has capabilities similar to those of electron probe micro X ray analysis (EPMXA), with an inferior spatial resolution of about 10 mm (versus 0.1 mm for EPMXA) but much better detection limits for heavy metals. The microbeam XRF technique has been used to obtain spatially resolved images of element distribution in samples. Using the same spectrometer, the computerized tomographic (CT) imaging measurements are carried out with a spatial resolution of better than 20 mm. The CT imaging is performed with two detectors simultaneously in absorption and emission mode, providing information about the density and element distribution within the object. The XRF technique has also been selected to perform in situ chemical composition analysis. XRF spectrometry is usually used for the field applications owing to its several advantages over other chemical or spectrophotometric methods. The XRF technique is a non-destructive method, it requires a minimum of sample preparation, it has the capability to analyse solid and liquid samples, it is a multielement technique and there are portable battery operated XRF spectrometers available. For the successful application of XRF for in situ measurements, dedicated instruments are constructed and robust quantitative analytical methods have been developed. The microbeam XRF technique was used to investigate the presence of depleted uranium (DU) rich particles in air and soil p

  17. Radionuclide techniques in clinical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monograph has been written describing the principles underlying the radionuclide tracer methods used to investigate clinical conditions. The introductory chapters include information on the production of safe and efficacious radionuclides, their biological radiation effects and their method of detection by various counting techniques. The remaining chapters deal with the many applications of radionuclide tracer techniques including 1) the measurement of the volume of distribution or the mass of a substance within the body, 2) the measurement of radionuclide absorption, clearance and organ uptake, 3) the measurement of blood flow, 4) simulation of physiological systems and 5) radioimmunoassay and related techniques. The Appendix lists 42 radionuclides with information on their radioactive properties, their production method and their clinical use. (U.K.)

  18. New techniques in neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New neutron sources being planned, such as the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) or the European Spallation Source (ESS), will provide an order of magnitude flux increase over what is available today, but neutron scattering will still remain a signal-limited technique. At the same time, the development of new materials, such as polymer and ceramic composites or a variety of complex fluids, will increasingly require neutron-based research. This paper will discuss some of the new techniques which will allow us to make better use of the available neutrons, either through improved instrumentation or through sample manipulation. Discussion will center primarily on unpolarized neutron techniques since polarized neutrons will be the subject of the next paper. (author)

  19. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487

  20. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)

  1. Techniques of fusion burn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review and systematization of the D-T fusion burn control techniques in the fusion tokamak-reactor plasma are given in the paper. Passive stabilization techniques and the methods of active control over the overheating instability are discussed. The active control methods related to a cold, time-profiled fueling of the reactor by injection of solid fuel pellets into the plasma column core are considered in detail. A possibility of the overheating instability self-stabilization due to a displacement of the magnetic surfaces out of the torus at rather high plasma pressures is analyzed. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  2. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  3. Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

  4. Data Mining Concepts and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jiawei; Pei, Jian

    2011-01-01

    The increasing volume of data in modern business and science calls for more complex and sophisticated tools. Although advances in data mining technology have made extensive data collection much easier, it's still always evolving and there is a constant need for new techniques and tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge. Since the previous edition's publication, great advances have been made in the field of data mining. Not only does the third of edition of Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques continue the tradition of equipping you with an understandin

  5. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of techniques for recombinant incorporation of selenium and subsequent purification and crystallization of the resulting labelled protein. Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included

  6. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cacciamano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  7. Clustering Techniques for Marbles Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Caldas-Pinto, J R; Ramos, V; Ramalho, M; Pina, Pedro; Ramos, Vitorino; Ramalho, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Automatic marbles classification based on their visual appearance is an important industrial issue. However, there is no definitive solution to the problem mainly due to the presence of randomly distributed high number of different colours and its subjective evaluation by the human expert. In this paper we present a study of segmentation techniques, we evaluate they overall performance using a training set and standard quality measures and finally we apply different clustering techniques to automatically classify the marbles. KEYWORDS: Segmentation, Clustering, Quadtrees, Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), Simulated Annealing (SA).

  8. High-speed pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Coekin, J A

    1975-01-01

    High-Speed Pulse Techniques covers the many aspects of technique in digital electronics and encompass some of the more fundamental factors that apply to all digital systems. The book describes the nature of pulse signals and their deliberate or inadvertent processing in networks, transmission lines and transformers, and then examines the characteristics and transient performance of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Some of the problems associated with the assembly of these into viable systems operating at ultra high speed are also looked at. The book examines the transients and w

  9. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

    2011-10-01

    This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a wide spectrum of technological areas, such as medical imaging, pharmaceutical industry, analytical instrumentation, aerospace, remote sensing, lidars and ladars, surveillance, national defense, corrosion imaging and monitoring, sub-terrestrial and marine imaging. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios, and demanding design parameters such as speed, signal-to-noise ratio, high specificity, high contrast and spatial resolution, high-scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environment, necessitate the development of a multifunctional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, operating on diverse detection and imaging principles. Finally, pattern recognition and image processing algorithms can significantly contribute to enhanced detection and imaging, including object classification, clustering, feature selection, texture analysis, segmentation, image compression and color representation under complex imaging scenarios, with applications in medical imaging, remote sensing, aerospace, radars, defense and homeland security. We feel confident that the exciting new contributions of this special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques will appeal to the technical community. We would like to thank all authors as well as all anonymous reviewers and the MST Editorial Board, Publisher and staff for their tremendous efforts and invaluable support to enhance the quality of this significant endeavor.

  10. Ingénierie système appliquée à la gestion des données techniques en entreprise étendue : Application aux boucles de conception / simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Cette thèse analyse l'évolution des technologies numériques et des méthodes applicables aux systèmes de gestion des données dans le contexte de l'entreprise étendue. De nos jours, dans le contexte de développement de produit en aéronautique, les projets évoluent vers des partenariats à grande échelle. Une grande quantité de données créées pour ce développement de produit doit alors être traitée et contrôlée d'une manière logique entre les différents partenaires. En effet, le besoin de permett...

  11. Modélisation et conception d'outils robotises et de techniques de fraisage pour l'arthroplastie total du genou

    OpenAIRE

    Plaskos, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    La chirurgie assistée par ordinateur a amené une valeur ajoutée significative aux interventions médicales, en fournissant des outils de mesures permettant au chirurgien de quantifier et contrôler leurs gestes. En orthopédie et notamment pour la pose de prothèse totale de genou (PTG), la chirurgie assistée par ordinateur a réduit de manière significative les variations d'alignement et de position, paramètres directement corrélés aux échecs précoces nécessitant une chirurgie de reprise. Les cli...

  12. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  13. Advances of the IBIC technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breese, M.B.H.; Laird, J.S.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique has been used for a wide variety of analytical applications in the study of semiconductor materials. This paper briefly reviews these uses and identifies those areas which require further development in order to facilitate the more widespread use of the IBIC method. Progress towards implementing these improvements is discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  15. Measurements Techniques for Gyrotron characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments planned for the characterization of the 35GHz girotron, which is being built at the Plasma Laboratory of INPE, are described. The methods of the measurements are presented and the required instrumentation and devices are specified. Special attention is given to the measurement techniques of the resonator electric field profile. (author)

  16. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Kloch, Allan; Stubkjær, Kristian

    interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  17. New techniques in digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art presentation of important advances in the field of digital holography, detailing advances related to fundamentals of digital holography, in-line holography applied to fluid mechanics, digital color holography, digital holographic microscopy, infrared holography, special techniques in full field vibrometry and inverse problems in digital holography

  18. Museum Techniques in Fundamental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Some museum techniques and methods can be used in fundamental educational programs without elaborate buildings or equipment; exhibitions should be based on valid presumptions and should take into account the "common sense" beliefs of people for whom the exhibit is designed. They can be used profitably in the economic development of local cultural…

  19. Techniques in carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular carotid artery interventions are unforgiving of mistakes and poor technique. The approach should be team based where all members of the team are experienced and know their jobs perfectly. This, combined with a deep knowledge of the equipment and the anatomy will reduce complications to a minimum. Patient selection and the experience of knowing how to 'get out of jail' are also vital

  20. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  1. Biomedical engineering and rehabilitation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors outline the programmes set up by the ORIS for the development of biomaterials and rehabilitation products using the radiochemical techniques. They then discuss the development of instruments designed to make the handling and use of radioactive isotopes easier for users

  2. Remote sensing data processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient digital techniques are presented for processing remote sensing images and data, Digital transformations, digital filtering, local space operators, data compression, pattern recognition and geometrical transformations are in particular described to obtain useful environmental maps and data. A special processing procedure to integrate images and data given by different remote sensing systems is also presented. Next future trends are finally outlined

  3. Remote sensing data processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient digital techniques are presented for processing remote sensing images and data. Digital transformations, digital filtering, local space operators, data compression, pattern recognition and geometrical transformations are in particular described to obtain useful environmental maps and data. A special processing procedure to integrate images and data given by different remote sensing systems is also presented. Next future trends are finally outlined. 7 refs

  4. Nuclear Techniques in Surface Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this lecture is to give a general idea of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques used in surface characterization that has grown in an explosive way during the last decades: Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Coulomb Excitation Backscattering Spectrometry (CEBS) and channelling

  5. Triangulation of Data Analysis Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, as in other disciplines, the concepts of validity and reliability are considered essential to give an accurate interpretation of results. While in quantitative research the idea is well established, in qualitative research, validity and reliability take on a different dimension. Researchers like Miles and Huberman (1994 and Silverman (2000, 2001, have shown how these issues are addressed in qualitative research. In this paper I am proposing that the same corpus of data, in this case the transcripts of focus group discussions, can be analysed using more than one data analysis technique. I refer to this idea as ‘triangulation of data analysis techniques’ and argue that such triangulation increases the reliability of the results. If the results obtained through a particular data analysis technique, for example thematic analysis, are congruent with the results obtained by analysing the same transcripts using a different technique, for example correspondence analysis, it is reasonable to argue that the analysis and interpretation of the data is valid.

  6. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    . Ramageri; Bharati M.

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

  7. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  8. Digital synchronization and communication techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.

  9. New Techniques for Particle Acclerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1990-06-01

    A review is presented of the new techniques which have been proposed for use in particle accelerators. Attention is focused upon those areas where significant progress has been made in the last two years--in particular, upon two-beam accelerators, wakefield accelerators, and plasma focusers.

  10. Advances phase-lock techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, James A

    2008-01-01

    From cellphones to micrprocessors, to GPS navigation, phase-lock techniques are utilized in most all modern electronic devices. This high-level book takes a systems-level perspective, rather than circuit-level, which differentiates it from other books in the field.

  11. Image Denoising Techniques Preserving Edges

    OpenAIRE

    N Radhika, Dr.; Antony, Tinu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to propose an image denoising technique and compare it with image denoising using ridgelets. The proposed method uses slantlet transform instead of wavelets in ridgelet transform. Experimental result shows that the proposed method is more effective than ridgelets in noise removal. The proposed method is effective in compressing images while preserving edges.

  12. Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

  13. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the analyst. This video material carefully documents several options in the process of quantitatively weighing and transferring a solid, quantitatively transferring a liquid aliquot with a pipet, and the process of quantitative volumetric titration. There are many local variants in each of these procedures. For example, some prefer to transfer solid with a weighing spoon, some with a finger held bottle, and some with a paper-strap held bottle. Students should follow the local preference, but should be aware of other acceptable options. Whatever the technique option chosen, the procedure must be done reproducibly, if analysis quality is to be optimized. Acknowledgments Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis was created with support from Project SERAPHIM and the NSF Directorate for Education and Human Resources, grant MDR-9154099.

  14. Modelisation du Signal Radar EN Milieu Stratifie et Evaluation de Techniques de Mesure de L'humidite du Sol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Johanne

    La presente etude se penche sur des problemes relies a l'echantillonnage de l'humidite de sol et a l'estimation du signal radar sur sols nus. Le travail se divise en deux volets. Le volet 1 evalue trois techniques de mesure de l'humidite du sol (gravimetrie, reflectometrie temporelle et sonde dielectrique) et deux protocoles d'echantillonnage. Dans le volet 2, un modele de simulation du signal en milieu stratifie est developpe, et les estimes de signal obtenus sont compares aux estimes bases uniquement sur une valeur moyenne d'humidite du sol prise sur une profondeur fixe d'echantillonnage. Les differences entre les deux estimes dependent de la frequence et du choix judicieux de la profondeur d'echantillonnage; elles sont plus importantes aux faibles angles et en polarisation HV, puis VV. Le modele de simulation a aussi ete utilise pour etudier la profondeur de penetration du signal et en deduire la profondeur optimale d'echantillonnage en tenant compte des caracteristiques du signal. Une variation de 25 ^circ de l'angle d'incidence a peu d'effet sur la profondeur de penetration en bande Ku; l'ecart reste inferieur ou egal a 0,5 cm en bande C mais peut atteindre 1,3 cm en bande L. L'impact de la polarisation est nul en bande Ku mais croi t avec l'angle d'incidence en bande C et L. A 50^circ, il est, en moyenne de 1 cm en bande C et de 2 cm en bande L. En polarisation VV, la profondeur croi t avec une augmentation de l'angle alors que l'effet est inverse en polarisation HH. Deux methodes pour estimer la profondeur d'echantillonnage en conditions operationnelles sont presentees. Lorsqu'on inverse un modele pour estimer l'humidite du sol a partir du signal, ces methodes permettent aussi d'estimer l'epaisseur de sol representee par l'humidite ainsi estimee.

  15. Application of multiobjective evolutionary techniques for robust portfolio optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Garcia Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Uno de los problemas básicos a los que se enfrenta un inversor es el de elegir la forma más adecuada de repartir el capital entre las distintas alternativas disponibles. Cada una de estas posibles combinaciones, denominadas carteras de inversión, se caracteriza por tener una serie de rasgos que las hacen más o menos deseables en función de las preferencias del interesado. Es por esto por lo que el problema de determinar la proporción de capital a asignar a cada tipo de activo financiero, la o...

  16. Radiochromic technique for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    he radio-chromic technique in radiation dosimetry for protection of patients and occupational workers are known to health physicist and dosimetrist since long. But with the recent advances in polymer science, measurement techniques and understanding of physical phenomenon responsible for color change on radiation sensitive objects, the technique is progressing very well for personal accidental dose measurements, online dose mapping of patients during radiotherapy treatment without any further processing, and radiation industries. These dosimeters, with very high spatial resolution and relatively low spectral sensitivity variation, are insensitive to visible light, thus offering ease of handling. Radiochromic dosimeters color directly and do not require chemical processing wherein a color change (colorless to blue, red, green, etc.) indicates exposure to radiation. Image formation occurs as a dye-forming or a polymerization process, in which energy is transferred from an energetic photon or particle to the receptive part of the leuco-dye or colorless photomonomer molecule, initiating color formation through chemical changes. In recent years, various radiochromic dosimeters have also been used for nonclinical applications such as blood irradiation, radiation processing, and reference standard. The Paper highlights the national and international status of the techniques including responsible physical - chemical phenomenon, standard commercial products with its futuristic applications for mapping of radiation doses and radiation dose estimation in nuclear/radiological emergency. The Paper highlights the R and D efforts carried out at DLJ to establish radiochromic techniques based on radiochromic dyes and substituted diacytelene first time in India. The radiochromic films based on pH sensitive dyes, leuco dyes and substituted diacytelene using a suitable polymer as a host matrix has been developed at DLJ and characterized using standard techniques. The radiochromic films based on pH sensitive dyes, leuco dyes are useful in radiation processing industries. Few pH sensitive and leuco dye based films dose range. 1 kGy to 4 kGy have also been developed and evaluated. The results were satisfactory. The leuco dyes are not suitable for radiation dose measurements in cGy range. Therefore, substituted diacytelene has been chosen to estimate the radiation doses in cGy range. The substituted diacetylene based radiochromic films are sensitive from 10 cGy to 40 Gy. The dose response, dose rate response, energy response, color stability and UV response of the dosimeter has been carried out. A credit size Instant Alert Chemical Radiation dosimeter has been fabricated covered with UV protective film. The developed film responds to radiochromic changes in cGy range above 22°C only. Further R and D efforts have been made to observe radiochromic changes below 22°C. The results are encouraging from 0°C to 60°C. (author)

  17. Nanosecond decay-time techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repetitive time-selection technique of fluorescence decay-time measurement as devised by Becquerel in 1859 is limited by the mechanics of the apparatus to a decay-time range of ?10-4 s. In the original device the fluorescent spot was permitted to move repeatedly past an area of constant illumination and the spot was thereafter observed repeatedly at predetermined time intervals after passage through the illuminated area. In an electronic equivalent of this technique (cf. Dreeskamp and Burton, Phys. Rev. Letters, 2, (1959) 45, the luminescent region remains in constant position but the beam from a 30-kV X-ray tube is interrupted after ? 0.8 ns and the luminescence produced (during a time of ? 0.4 ns) is thereafter observed repetitively, at predetermined time intervals after the beginning of the cut-off of illumination by the X-ray tube, via an image converter and photomultiplier system. By the use of this technique we have observed decay phenomena which are complete in several nanoseconds and the decay times of which can be established, for example, as 2.2 ± 0.1 ns. The special virtues of this technique are that the decay curve established is, in principle, not affected by the decay constants of the various parts of the electronic system and is extendable over a broad range of intensity (a factor of 100). Further, the actual curve can be established with a high degree of accuracy so that one is not constrained by preconceived notions to assuming a first-power decay law and the selection of a decay constant based on such a notion. Indeed, although we have now found that in many cases (e.g., p-terphenyl scintillator in benzene or cyclohexane solvent) an initial part of the decay curve is apparently first order, we are yet to observe a case in which the decay is singularly first order over the entire observation range made accessible by this technique. Recent improvements in the accuracy of the technique have made possible a clearer understanding of the mechanism of excitation transfer, and the structure of the luminescent system and the mechanism of quenching. The apparatus is described, some more recent results are given and some speculations regarding the nature of the excitation transfer and quenching mechanisms involved in nanosecond decay are presented. (author)

  18. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mang, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: thomas.mang@meduniwien.ac.at; Graser, Anno [Department of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Campus, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Schima, Wolfgang [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Maier, Andrea [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions.

  19. Abel inversion using transform techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for calculating the reconstruction of a circularly symmetric two-dimensional function from its projection, a relation known as the Abel inversion. This technique differs from techniques used previously by using integral transforms for its implementation. The frequency-domain analysis allows for experimentally obtained data, which is often noisy and off-center, to be dealt with in a systematic, rational manner. The formulation of the Abel inversion in terms of transforms, the filtering of the noise, and the estimate of the off-center shift are discussed. Sample calculations of simulated noisy data and the application of the method to an image of a laser sustained plasma are presented

  20. Graph partitioning advance clustering technique

    CERN Document Server

    Madhulatha, T Soni

    2012-01-01

    Clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, Clustering is the process of grouping the data into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters. Dissimilarities are assessed based on the attribute values describing the objects. Often, distance measures are used. Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique, where interesting patterns and structures can be found directly from very large data sets with little or none of the background knowledge. This paper also considers the partitioning of m-dimensional lattice graphs using Fiedler's approach, which requires the determination of the eigenvector belonging to the second smallest Eigenvalue of the Laplacian with K-means partitioning algorithm.

  1. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  2. Simulation techniques for cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dolag, K; Schindler, S; Diaferio, A; Bykov, A M

    2008-01-01

    Modern cosmological observations allow us to study in great detail the evolution and history of the large scale structure hierarchy. The fundamental problem of accurate constraints on the cosmological parameters, within a given cosmological model, requires precise modelling of the observed structure. In this paper we briefly review the current most effective techniques of large scale structure simulations, emphasising both their advantages and shortcomings. Starting with basics of the direct N-body simulations appropriate to modelling cold dark matter evolution, we then discuss the direct-sum technique GRAPE, particle-mesh (PM) and hybrid methods, combining the PM and the tree algorithms. Simulations of baryonic matter in the Universe often use hydrodynamic codes based on both particle methods that discretise mass, and grid-based methods. We briefly describe Eulerian grid methods, and also some variants of Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods.

  3. Video Compression Techniques: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents, the review of various compression algorithms used for the video compression. The video compression has become a basic requirement in the modern digital scenario. The video compression is started with the Motion JPEG and Motion JPEG2000. In which the each frame is consider as a picture for the JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression respectively. But these techniques do not use the video compression at all. Video signal has high temporal redundancies due to the high correlation between successive frames. Actually, this redundancy has not been exploited enough by these video compression techniques. So the MPEG is exploited as a solution to this problem. But the MPEG is slow due to 3D transformations of the video blocks. So the Accordion based video compression is found to be a better idea.

  4. Imaging techniques in gynecologic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of invasive and noninvasive procedures are used in the radiological detection and staging of pelvic malignancies. In recent years - particularly with the advent of the cross-sectional imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, CT, and MRI - less invasive techniques have become more important than the older diagnostic modalities in the diagnosis and staging of pelvic malignancies. In addition to the advantage of being noninvasive, these modalities can aid physicians in determining the entire degree and extent of a patient's pathological process. Radiologists have also become more involved in the management of patients with gynecologic malignancies by performing transcatheter intraarterial infusion and occlusion, percutaneous biopsies, aspiration and injection of cystic or necrotic neoplasms, and nephrostomy. In this chapter, the author discusses the applications of all available imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. The primary emphasis is on the diagnosis of ovarian and cervical cancer

  5. Non destructive assay (NDA) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the IAEA Safeguards System the basic verification method used is nuclear material accountancy, with containment and surveillance as important complementary measures. If nuclear material accountancy is to be effective, IAEA inspectors have to make independent measurements to verify declared material quantities. Most of the equipment available to the inspectors is designed to measure gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by various nuclear materials. Equipment is also available to measure the gross weight of an item containing nuclear material. These types of measurement techniques are generally grouped under the title of nondestructive assay (NDA). The paper describes the NDA techniques and instruments used to verify the total amount of nuclear material held at a nuclear facility. (author)

  6. Data mining concepts and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jiawei

    2005-01-01

    Our ability to generate and collect data has been increasing rapidly. Not only are all of our business, scientific, and government transactions now computerized, but the widespread use of digital cameras, publication tools, and bar codes also generate data. On the collection side, scanned text and image platforms, satellite remote sensing systems, and the World Wide Web have flooded us with a tremendous amount of data. This explosive growth has generated an even more urgent need for new techniques and automated tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge.Like the first edition, voted the most popular data mining book by KD Nuggets readers, this book explores concepts and techniques for the discovery of patterns hidden in large data sets, focusing on issues relating to their feasibility, usefulness, effectiveness, and scalability. However, since the publication of the first edition, great progress has been made in the development of new data mining methods, systems, and app...

  7. Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

  8. Image production techniques in biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the 1950s, the only practicable way of obtaining useful images of the internal structure of the intact human body was by means of traditional x-radiography. The choice of methods has since been enormously expanded by the development of new techniques. Presently the two imaging techniques which are attracting most interest in the medical field are digital radiography and nuclear magnetic resonance. This excitement should not be allowed to eclipse the importance of developments in ultrasound and radionuclides. Moreover, conventional radiography will remain the primary imaging method for the foreseeable future. Computed tomography is meanwhile enjoying something of a resurgence. Diaphanography, thermography and microwave imaging show promise in specialised applications. Electrical impedance mapping is a newcomer which may prove to be significant. The increase in digital picture information has resulted in the new and important technology of picture archiving and communication

  9. Bases of technique of sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Druz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the biomechanical consistent patterns of a movement of a body providing the highest speed of sprinting. Material and Methods: the analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the considered problem, the anthropometrical characteristics of the surveyed contingent of sportsmen, the analysis of high-speed shootings of the leading runners of the world. Results: the biomechanical bases of technique of sprinting make dispersal and movement of the general center of body weight of the sportsman on a parabolic curve in a start phase taking into account the initial height of its stay in a pose of a low start. Its further movement happens on a cycloidal trajectory which is formed due to a pendulum movement of the extremities creating the lifting power which provides flight duration more in a running step, than duration of a basic phase. Conclusions: the received biomechanical regularities of technique of sprinting allow increasing the efficiency of training of sportsmen in sprinting.

  10. Nuclear techniques in food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination

  11. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  12. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vicianova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe. The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System, functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  13. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future

  14. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  15. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  16. Imaging for new radiotherapy techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Schlemmer, H.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy could be considerably improved by the recent development of three-dimensional intensity-modulated radiation therapy. This technique allows the concept of so-called dose painting or adaptive dose distribution to be implemented with improved aligning of the dose distribution along the complex geometric arrangements of the tumour and the surround healthy critical structures. This enables the radiation dose in the tumour to be increasingly enhanced while sparing the normal tissue. Fu...

  17. Ventricular mechanics: techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca, Maria Clara N; Haraldsson, Henrik; Ordovas, Karen G

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance assessment of regional myocardial function is a novel potentially important tool for early identification of cardiac pathology. Many cardiac magnetic resonance techniques have been developed for detection and quantification of regional strain abnormalities including steady-state free-precession CINE, tagging, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes, strain encoding imaging, and feature tracking. Potential clinical applications of magnetic resonance strain imaging include early detection of systolic dysfunction in heart failure patients with both ischemic and nonischemic etiologies. PMID:25476669

  18. Video Compression Techniques: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay; Mahesh Prasad Parsai

    2014-01-01

    This article presents, the review of various compression algorithms used for the video compression. The video compression has become a basic requirement in the modern digital scenario. The video compression is started with the Motion JPEG and Motion JPEG2000. In which the each frame is consider as a picture for the JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression respectively. But these techniques do not use the video compression at all. Video signal has high temporal redundancies due to the high correlation b...

  19. Artificial Intelligence Techniques and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell, Jaime G.; Sleeman, Derek

    1982-01-01

    Two closely related aspects of artificial intelligence that have received comparatively little attention in the recent literature are research methodology, and the analysis of computational techniques that span multiple application areas. We believe both issues to be increasingly significant as Artificial Intelligence matures into a science and spins off major application efforts. It is imperative to analyze the repertoire of AI methods with respect to past experience, utility in new domains,...

  20. Embodying embodied design research techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle; Tomico, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The value of engaging the full gamut of sensory motor skills in the design and use of smart objects and systems is increasingly recognized. Yet methods for arriving at robust and reliable outcomes for their development are not fully understood, nor are they easily reported or transferred through typical conference presentations and paper submissions. New forms of knowledge transfer, such as pictorials (e.g., DIS and RTD conferences), and video are enabling enhanced, image-enriched reporting of outcomes. Yet appropriate transfer of embodied research methods remains elusive. In this workshop we propose to investigate how embodied research techniques may be used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engaging in oral presentations, participants will lead other workshop participants through a proven embodied method or approach. Small groups will create mash-ups of techniques, exploring ways that the new approaches might coherently be reported. Participants will be encouraged to experiment with different recording techniques, including body-mounted sensing and recording devices, as well as less conventional approaches. The intention is to find appropriate ways of reporting embodied experiments, so that intangible elements are not lost. Participants will be supported to reflect on unfolding discoveries, to share impressions, as well as outcomes, including documentation experiments that aim to tangibly capture and communicate the processes undertaken. Embodied ideation, communication and collaboration techniques enable enhanced creative engagement and assist creativity [2]. By applying such methods to the problem of their reporting, we hope to deepen understanding of how to move towards enriched, nuanced and repeatable methods for embodied design and knowledge transfer. Crucially, our intention is not simply to find the next form of research reporting. Rather, this workshop will engage participants in an experimental enquiry into embodied research reporting, so that this question may become an active area of inquiry moving forward.

  1. Transgenesis techniques - Principles and protocols

    OpenAIRE

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-01-01

    Elizabeth J. Cartwright, from the University of Manchester, states that this volume “It is designed to become an invaluable source of information in any lab currently involved in transgenic techniques, as well as for researchers who are newcomers to the field”. I am pretty sure that the reader will be satisfied about this sentence and in agreement with both the volume’s Editor and the writer of this review that what so unconditionally stated exactly match both the volume con...

  2. Data mining and visualization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Whitney, Paul (Richland, WA); Thomas, Jim (Richland, WA)

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  3. Study Of Multimedia Watermarking Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chhaya S. Gosavi; C. S. Warnekar

    2010-01-01

    With the recent burgeoning of networked multimedia systems, techniques are needed to prevent illegal copying / forgery in distributed digital audio/ visual/text document. It may be also desirable to determine where and by how much the multimedia file has been changed from the original due to attacks. This is attributed to increasing instances of hacking during digital communication Digital watermarking has been proposed as a solution to the above problem to protect multimedia document. There ...

  4. Climbing techniques for bridge inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslan, Erol C.

    1998-03-01

    California has about 24,000 publicly owned bridges that require routine structural evaluations to comply with National Bridge Inspection Standard (NBIS) mandates. Of these, about 800 are identified as possessing fatigue prone or fracture critical details requiring thorough tactile investigations. Gaining access to bridge elements to perform these investigations has become increasingly difficult and costly. The traditional uses of under bridge inspection trucks, lift equipment and rigging are economically and practically limited by bridge size, structure type, traffic demands and support costs. In some cases, bridges that have become damaged by earthquakes cannot safely support the loads of heavy personnel lift equipment. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)'s Office of Structural Materials and Office of Structure Maintenance and Investigations evaluated the use of rock climbing and mountaineering techniques as an alternative means of gaining access for bridge inspections. Under a small research grant, a bridge climbing training course was developed through a local University of California outdoor recreation group and 7 engineers and technicians were initially trained. A comprehensive Code of Safe Practices was created and standards of training, procedures and equipment required for bridge inspections were established. A successful climb investigation on a large, previously inaccessible arch bridge was completed at the end of the training that proved the techniques safe, economical and effective. Within one year, 20 bridge maintenance engineers were trained, and a formal program was established to organize, schedule, equip and certify engineers and technicians for bridge climbing. Several other offices within Caltrans as well as the California Department of Water Resources have since adopted these techniques for specialized structural inspection tasks. Climbing techniques are now used routinely in California as an alterative means of gaining access to bridges and structures, and over 100 bridges have been identified as those where climbing is the only means available to perform structural investigations.

  5. Survey on FPGA Routing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Nagalakshmi Venugopal; R. Manimegalai

    2012-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a programmable integrated circuit, has gained great popularity in the circuit design. Routing is an important part of FPGA design step which determines therouting in horizontal and vertical channels of FPGA. In this paper, a number of routing techniques are reviewed. FPGA routing can be achieved in various approaches like based on geometric routing, andbased on Boolean Satisfiability. The algorithms based on geometric routing are proved to be efficient al...

  6. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU; M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or bala...

  7. Sampling techniques in metalexicographic research

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowska, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    A careful examination of lexicographic papers reveals that sampling techniques are generally neglected by metalexicographers. Authors rarely document, still less discuss, the sampling schemes used. This is surprising in view of the fact that sampling is actually something many researchers do when they wish to make generalizations about the whole dictionary text, usually too large to be studied in its entirety. Not rarely samples consisting of one stretch only, usually selected judgmentally, a...

  8. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Punia Supriya; Bala Rajni; Rana A C

    2012-01-01

    In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation o...

  9. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M

    2011-01-01

    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  10. Electromigration techniques theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

  11. Removal techniques for failed implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowkett, A; Laverty, D; Patel, A; Addy, L

    2016-02-12

    The use of dental implants is an accepted and predictable way of replacing missing or lost teeth. However, implants can and will fail and there are a variety of reasons why this occurs, which the practitioner should understand. In some instances failed implants may require removal and, therefore, practitioners should be aware of techniques that can be used to remove failed implants to potentially enable future rehabilitation of an edentulous region. PMID:26868795

  12. Mirage technique in anisotropic solids

    OpenAIRE

    Quelin, X.; Perrin, B.; Louis, G. (collab.)

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of heat diffusion in an anisotropic medium are presented. The solution of the 3D thermal conduction equation in an orthorhombic medium is calculated by the mean of a Fourier transforms method. Experiments were performed on an orthorhombic polydiacetylene single crystal sample. The temperature field at the sample surface was determined using the photothermal probe beam deflection technique. Then the 3 coefficients of the thermal conductivity tensor have be...

  13. Techniques for monitoring intrinsic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abundance ratio of 13C to 12C was proposed as a measure of the effectiveness of remediation of hydrocarbon contamination, based on the mass differences between the two isotopes and the known preference of biological processes for the lighter isotope. In addition to monitoring changes in total hydrocarbon it should also be possible to track individual components using this technique. Tracking individual hydrocarbons could confirm degradation of individual components of C5+ mixtures in the field. 13 refs., 2 figs. i

  14. Intermittent Drug Techniques for Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, Stephanie; Joshi, Kajal; Mansour, Mouhamad; Adams, Clive E.

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent drug techniques refer to the “use of medication only during periods of incipient relapse or symptom exacerbation rather than continuously.” The aim is to reduce the risk of adverse effects of antipsychotics by “reducing long-term medication exposure for patients who are receiving maintenance treatment while limiting risk of relapse,” with a further goal of improving social functioning resulting from the reduction of antipsychotic-induced side effects. We reviewed the effects of d...

  15. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Djilani Abdelouaheb; Legseir Belgacem; Soulimani Rachid; Dicko Amadou; Younos Chaffique

    2006-01-01

    A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This articl...

  16. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Sharif; Sajjad Mohsin; Muhammad Younas Javed

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures), Hidden Markov Model (HMM), geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and proce...

  17. Rediscovery of an Extraction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    The technique consists of putting a few milliliters of the aqueous sample in a mortar and adding enough anhydrous sodium sulfate to react with all of the water. The thick paste is then ground up several times with a pestle and the appropriate solvent. The liquid water phase has been remove by formation of the hydrated salt; this results in rapid and quantitative extraction. The Soxhlet apparatus may be used instead if heat and time are of no concern.

  18. Recent Developments in Tolerancing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Purohit

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical tolerances are specified in conjunction with part geometry, material type andother technical specifications during the design of mechanical components and assemblies., These tolerances ensure the expected design function, and provide guidelines for the manufactureof designed parts. However, assigning proper tolerances for a design is a non-trivial task. Thispaper reviews the recent developments in the field of tolerancing techniques, particularly withreference to the use of computers, cost tolerance relationship and tolerance design for qualityimprovement of the product.

  19. Groundwater Solution Techniques: Environmental Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kawi BIDIN; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Abdullah, Mohd Harun; Sarva Mangala PRAVEENA

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater models provide a scientific tool for various groundwater studies which include groundwater flow, solute transport, heat transport and deformation. However, without a good understanding of a model, modeling studies are not well designed or the model does not represent the natural system which being modeled long term effects may results. Thus, this review has focused and reviewed the types of solution techniques in terms of advantages and limitations. The findings are vital to impro...

  20. Industrialisation d'une technologie innovante : lien entre les variables techniques, tactiques et stratégiques

    OpenAIRE

    Petetin, François

    2012-01-01

    L’innovation, bien que clé pour le développement des entreprises peut être extrêmement compliquée. L’incertitude associée à la valeur qu’elle peut générer est souvent très dissuasive. Pour des petites entreprises, gérer un projet d’innovation de rupture technologique représente un challenge important. Dans ce travail de thèse, nous nous concentrons sur cette problématique. Dans le cadre d’une recherche-action menée dans la PME L’Hotellier, nous avons mis au point une méthode permettant de fac...

  1. Imaging techniques in thyroid diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging techniques were discussed in a comprehensive manner and in consideration of the rapid recent progress. 30 papers were presented on the subjects of, roughly, radiology, nuclear medicine, and sonography. Apart from conventional radiodiagnostics, which may even yield epidemiological information, the first section also discussed pneumatological functional analysis as a mean of diagnosing tracheal insufficiencies. Thyroid CT is the method of choice in the mediastinal manifestations of thyroid diseases and in examinations of the organs next to the thyroid. Orbital CT yields completely new findings on the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and therapy of endocrineous orbitopathy. - While the diagnostic value of nuclear spin tomography remains uncertain, thyroid scintiscanning has reached maturity by now. In contrast to scanners, which give a general image, the ? camera can detect regional functional phenomena. Fluorescence scintiscanning, apart from quantification of intrathyroid iodine, enables scintigraphic imaging of the thyroid without incorporation of radioactivity. - The recent progress in thyroid sonography has been dramatic. Apart from the simple and reproducible technique of volumetry, nonstandard echo structures indicate diffuse or focal fine tissue lesions, and sonography has therefore become an accepted technique prior to fine needle biopsy or scintiscanning. (orig.)

  2. Computational intelligence techniques in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Ghali, Neveen I

    2013-12-01

    Computational intelligence (CI) is a well-established paradigm with current systems having many of the characteristics of biological computers and capable of performing a variety of tasks that are difficult to do using conventional techniques. It is a methodology involving adaptive mechanisms and/or an ability to learn that facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments, such that the system is perceived to possess one or more attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery, association and abstraction. The objective of this article is to present to the CI and bioinformatics research communities some of the state-of-the-art in CI applications to bioinformatics and motivate research in new trend-setting directions. In this article, we present an overview of the CI techniques in bioinformatics. We will show how CI techniques including neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief network, fuzzy logic, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems and support vector machines, could be successfully employed to tackle various problems such as gene expression clustering and classification, protein sequence classification, gene selection, DNA fragment assembly, multiple sequence alignment, and protein function prediction and its structure. We discuss some representative methods to provide inspiring examples to illustrate how CI can be utilized to address these problems and how bioinformatics data can be characterized by CI. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are also presented and an extensive bibliography is included. PMID:23891719

  3. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J; Norris, David G; Poser, Benedikt A

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in-plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some implementations SMS techniques can reduce radiofrequency (RF) power deposition. In this review the current state of the art of SMS imaging is presented. In the Introduction, a historical overview is given of the history of SMS excitation in MRI. The following section on RF pulses gives both the theoretical background and practical application. The section on encoding and reconstruction shows how the collapsed multislice images can be disentangled by means of the transmitter pulse phase, gradient pulses, and most importantly using multichannel receiver coils. The relationship between classic parallel imaging techniques and SMS reconstruction methods is explored. The subsequent section describes the practical implementation, including the acquisition of reference data, and slice cross-talk. Published applications of SMS imaging are then reviewed, and the article concludes with an outlook and perspective of SMS imaging. Magn Reson Med 75:63-81, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26308571

  4. Microirradiation techniques in radiobiological research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guido A Drexler; Miguel J Ruiz-Gómez

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to review the uses of laser microirradiation and ion microbeam techniques within the scope of radiobiological research. Laser microirradiation techniques can be used for many different purposes. In a specific condition, through the use of pulsed lasers, cell lysis can be produced for subsequent separation of different analytes. Microsurgery allows for the identification and isolation of tissue sections, single cells and subcellular components, using different types of lasers. The generation of different types of DNA damage, via this type of microirradiation, allows for the investigation of DNA dynamics. Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. There are only a limited number of facilities worldwide where radiobiological experiments can be performed. In the beginning, research was mostly focused on the bystander effect. Nowadays, with more sophisticated molecular and cellular biological techniques, ion microirradiation is used to unravel molecular processes in the field of radiobiology. These include DNA repair protein kinetics or chromatin modifications at the site of DNA damage. With the increasing relevance of charged particles in tumour therapy and new concepts on how to generate them, ion microbeam facilities are able to address unresolved questions concerning particle tumour therapy.

  5. Control technique for planetary rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Ichiro; Kubota, Takashi; Adachi, Tadashi; Saitou, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Sinya

    1994-01-01

    Beginning next century, several schemes for sending a planetary rover to the moon or Mars are being planned. As part of the development program, autonomous navigation technology is being studied to allow the rover the ability to move autonomously over a long range of unknown planetary surface. In the previous study, we ran the autonomous navigation experiment on an outdoor test terrain by using a rover test-bed that was controlled by a conventional sense-plan-act method. In some cases during the experiment, a problem occurred with the rover moving into untraversable areas. To improve this situation, a new control technique has been developed that gives the rover the ability of reacting to the outputs of the proximity sensors, a reaction behavior if you will. We have developed a new rover test-bed system on which an autonomous navigation experiment was performed using the newly developed control technique. In this outdoor experiment, the new control technique effectively produced the control command for the rover to avoid obstacles and be guided to the goal point safely.

  6. Advances in proteomics analytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Farrokhi Yekta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are fundamental components of cells which mediate many essential biological processes. Proteomics is a rapidly growing field for the study of proteome, the protein complement expressed by the genome of an organism or cell type. The large-scale analysis of proteins leads to a more comprehensive view of molecular and cellular pathways that improves the overall understanding of the complex processes supporting the living systems. The analysis of proteome is significantly challenging due to high dynamic range and difficulties in assessment of low abundance proteins and the absence of efficient purification and identification techniques. A variety of methods have been utilized for protein studies including gel-based techniques, protein microarrays, mass spectrometry-based approaches such as MALDI and SELDI, high and ultra-performance liquid chromatography and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. NMR spectroscopy and X-Ray crystallography methods are also used for structural study of proteins. This review aims to give a brief overview of some of the above techniques and their most recent advances. We also introduce Proteominer, a recent protein enrichment technology for the exploration of the entire proteome content.

  7. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  8. Lead Extraction: "Drag Through" Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop K. Gupta

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of extraction techniques of chronic pacemaker and defibrillator leads is to present an approach that is successful in extracting all leads and minimizes or eliminates complications. To extract a chronically implanted intravascular device, the device must be separated from the encapsulating inflammatory tissue. Three ablation techniques are currently used: mechanical, laser and electrosurgical. Indirect traction is traction applied by an instrument such as a snare passed into the heart, usually through a femoral vein. The lead is entrapped in the snare, and pulling or pushing applies traction. 1,2 The safety of this technique is enhanced by the ability to avoid those problems associated with the binding sites in the superior veins and right atrium. Indirect traction is more successful than direct traction. Countertraction is a method of safely extracting an electrode entrapped in fibrous tissue at the electrode-myocardial interface. It is defined as the countering of the traction on the lead by a sheath. A sheath of slightly larger diameter is passed over the lead to a point about 1 cm from the heart wall. Traction is applied on the lead, pulling the myocardial wall to the edge of the sheath, which counters the traction. Because only the scar tissue is present between the sheath and the heart wall, cardiac tissue is not in jeopardy.

  9. Analyse Statistique des Anisotropies du Fond Diffus Cosmologique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douspis, Marian

    2000-12-01

    Les détections de fluctuations de température du fond diffus cosmologique (CMB pour''Cosmic Microwave Background'' ) s'accumulent depuis près de 10 ans.La connaissance du spectre angulaire des fluctuations nous permet d'avoir accès à la physique de l'universlorsqu'il avait environ100 000 ans et donc de déterminerles paramètres cosmologiques.Ce manuscrit présentedifférentes méthodes statistiques qui permettent de passer de l'information disponible sur les observations du CMB aux paramètres cosmologiques. Après unedescription du CMB au sein du modèle du Big-Bang et de l'inflation, je montre que la méthode de vraisemblance permet d'estimer les puissances en bande ou les paramètres cosmologiques à partir d'une carte ou d'un ensemble de pixels (étude des expériences COBE, MAX et Saskatoon).Ensuite, je décris les méthodes qui permettent d'utiliser les puissances en bandedes observations du CMB publiées dans la littérature pour déterminer les paramètres cosmologiques. Ces méthodes sont plus rapides que l'analyse de vraisemblance mais supposent différentes hypothèses sur lesquelles j'insiste. A partir des analyses de vraisemblance que j'ai effectuées, j'ai pu développé d'une part, uneméthode approximative quipermet de mieuxreproduire la forme de la fonction de vraisemblance, et d'autre part une nouvelle technique pour estimer la qualité d'ajustement des modèles préférés. Ces techniques ont été appliquées sur les données actuelles,incluant les plus récentes BOOMERANG et MAXIMA, pour déterminer les paramètres cosmologiques. Les conclusions sont présentées dans ce mémoire.Enfin, une dernière partie est dédiée à l'expérience ARCHEOPS, expérience ballon basée sur la technologie de Planck.

  10. A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    John Justin M; Manimurugan S

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their sec...

  11. A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Justin M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.

  12. Recoil thin layer activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is a technique for labelling a surface with small amounts of radioactivity. Provided that the depth profile of this radioactivity is known, and that the decay is accompanied by gamma ray emission, measurement of the remaining gamma activity enables any losses of the surface to be detected. These losses can be by wear, erosion or corrosion. There have been many industrial applications fo this technique as it provides a direct, on-line determination of surface loss and this can be measured through several centimetres of steel. The implanted TLA activity is created by nuclear reaction with substrate atoms that result from directing a sub-atomic particle beam into a surface. There are difficulties in doing this with plastic or composite surfaces because these substrates usually lack suitable target atoms. Furthermore, the surfaces are liable to damage due to heating and charging effect from the ion beam. In the work reported here, an alternative technique has been investigated. This uses a sacrificial foil in front of the surface that is to be activated. The nuclear reactions that generate the radioactive product occur in the foil by bombarding it with an energetic heavy ion beam. The foil is thin enough that these recoil products can exit through the foil, and be implanted into the backing substrate. As the reaction products recoil at some angle to the incident beam direction, the incident ions can be blocked from reaching the substrate. The recoil TLA technique has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally in this report. The reaction H(/sup 7/Li, n)/sup 7/Be which has a 53 day half-life. Good agreement was achieved between theory and experiment. However, the levels of activity that could be implanted are much lower than for direct TLA, with the consequence that measurement of implanted activity would take longer, and need more efficient detectors. While longer activation times can compensate, it was found that due to damage sustained by the sacrificial foil, it would be difficult to maintain constant implantation conditions. Finally, the contamination caused by generation of the /sup 7/Li ion beam impacted on some other accelerator applications. An alternative to the recoil TLA technique is proposed, based on direct implantation of a radioactive ion. (author). 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs., 2 appendices

  13. Research Techniques Made Simple: Skin Carcinogenesis Models: Xenotransplantation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Maria Rosaria; Antonini, Dario; Cirillo, Luisa; Missero, Caterina

    2016-02-01

    Xenotransplantation is a widely used technique to test the tumorigenic potential of human cells in vivo using immunodeficient mice. Here we describe basic technologies and recent advances in xenotransplantation applied to study squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin. SCC cells isolated from tumors can either be cultured to generate a cell line or injected directly into mice. Several immunodeficient mouse models are available for selection based on the experimental design and the type of tumorigenicity assay. Subcutaneous injection is the most widely used technique for xenotransplantation because it involves a simple procedure allowing the use of a large number of cells, although it may not mimic the original tumor environment. SCC cell injections at the epidermal-to-dermal junction or grafting of organotypic cultures containing human stroma have also been used to more closely resemble the tumor environment. Mixing of SCC cells with cancer-associated fibroblasts can allow the study of their interaction and reciprocal influence, which can be followed in real time by intradermal ear injection using conventional fluorescent microscopy. In this article, we will review recent advances in xenotransplantation technologies applied to study behavior of SCC cells and their interaction with the tumor environment in vivo. PMID:26802242

  14. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  15. Deconvolution Method for TOFD Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time of flight diffraction(TOFD) method is used in nondestructive tests of piping and pressure vessels because of its advantages over a pulse echo technique: its speed, objectivity, repeatability and its insensitivity to specimen surface conditions and discontinuity orientation. But it is the one of weak points in TOFD method that it has the dead zone in sub-surface resolution induced by lateral waves. We solved the dead-zone problem near the sub-surface by using the deconvolution method and the developed ultrasonic testing system showed high performance

  16. Deconvolution Method for TOFD Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Heum; Kim, Sun Hyoung; Kong, Yong Hae [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weon Heum [Acohlap, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    Time of flight diffraction(TOFD) method is used in nondestructive tests of piping and pressure vessels because of its advantages over a pulse echo technique: its speed, objectivity, repeatability and its insensitivity to specimen surface conditions and discontinuity orientation. But it is the one of weak points in TOFD method that it has the dead zone in sub-surface resolution induced by lateral waves. We solved the dead-zone problem near the sub-surface by using the deconvolution method and the developed ultrasonic testing system showed high performance

  17. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  18. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  19. Liquid wastes. Membrane separation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEA Cadarache laboratory is involved in researches concerning applications of membrane techniques for ionic, molecular and particulate separation: reverse osmosis, nano-filtration, ultrafiltration, and micro-filtration. Non-nuclear applications are related to various industries (mechanics, paper, food, textile, surface treatment, etc.). Nuclear applications in the field of liquid waste decontamination, concern the concentration of mineral suspension and the control of their salinity through micro-filtration, as well as the radiochemical decontamination of highly or medium saline effluents through nano-filtration

  20. Conventional colonoscopy: Technique, indications, limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonoscopy has long been the gold standard for the diagnosis of colonic diseases. Recently, with the advent of CT colonografy, new alternatives seem to appear on the horizon, which seem to finally overcome some of colonoscopy's drawbacks like procedure related pain and discomfort during the examination. Polyp miss rate and the fact that not always the caecum can be reached are also the basis of debate. This article gives an overview about current technique, indications and limitations of diagnostic colonoscopy as well as a potential prospect for the future, discussing novel imaging technologies ranging from magnification endoscopy to virtual histopathology

  1. Conventional colonoscopy: Technique, indications, limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, Michael [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Michael.Haefner@meduniwien.ac.at

    2007-03-15

    Colonoscopy has long been the gold standard for the diagnosis of colonic diseases. Recently, with the advent of CT colonografy, new alternatives seem to appear on the horizon, which seem to finally overcome some of colonoscopy's drawbacks like procedure related pain and discomfort during the examination. Polyp miss rate and the fact that not always the caecum can be reached are also the basis of debate. This article gives an overview about current technique, indications and limitations of diagnostic colonoscopy as well as a potential prospect for the future, discussing novel imaging technologies ranging from magnification endoscopy to virtual histopathology.

  2. Negotiation Techniques (That Really Work!)

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffman, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Sales is all about negotiation. Price. Delivery. Terms. And every day, salespeople leave money on the table. They just don't have the skills to get what they want. Now Stephan Schiffman, drawing on years of experience, shows you how to nail the sale, hit quotas, and boost the bottom line. Schiffman-style negotiation is all about getting the best deal. And he outlines specific techniques to get there. Things can be tough out there. But with Schiffman's negotiation skills in your pocket, you can do battle and win.

  3. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  4. Pinch technique: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2009-08-01

    We review the theoretical foundations and the most important physical applications of the Pinch Technique (PT). This general method allows the construction of off-shell Green’s functions in non-Abelian gauge theories that are independent of the gauge-fixing parameter and satisfy ghost-free Ward identities. We first present the diagrammatic formulation of the technique in QCD, deriving, at one loop, the gauge independent gluon self-energy, quark-gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex, together with their Abelian Ward identities. The generalization of the PT to theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking is carried out in detail, and the profound connection with the optical theorem and the dispersion relations are explained within the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. The equivalence between the PT and the Feynman gauge of the Background Field Method (BFM) is elaborated, and the crucial differences between the two methods are critically scrutinized. A variety of field theoretic techniques needed for the generalization of the PT to all orders are introduced, with particular emphasis on the Batalin-Vilkovisky quantization method and the general formalism of algebraic renormalization. The main conceptual and technical issues related to the extension of the technique beyond one loop are described, using the two-loop construction as a concrete example. Then the all-order generalization is thoroughly examined, making extensive use of the field theoretic machinery previously introduced; of central importance in this analysis is the demonstration that the PT-BFM correspondence persists to all orders in perturbation theory. The extension of the PT to the non-perturbative domain of the QCD Schwinger-Dyson equations is presented systematically, and the main advantages of the resulting self-consistent truncation scheme are discussed. A plethora of physical applications relying on the PT are finally reviewed, with special emphasis on the definition of gauge-independent off-shell form-factors, the construction of non-Abelian effective charges, the gauge-invariant treatment of resonant transition amplitudes and unstable particles, and finally the dynamical generation of an effective gluon mass.

  5. Measurements techniques for transportation noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The noise from transport systems (roads, railways and aircraft) are increasing more and more both in space and in time and, therefore, they are still the major factor responsible for environmental noise pollution. The population exposed to transport noise is also increasing, and the corresponding health effects on people (i.e. annoyance and sleep disturbance) become more severe. Due to this current situation international and national legislation has been issued and implemented to reduce the harmful effects of such noise. This paper describes the techniques prescribed by recent Italian legislation to measure road, railway and aircraft noise. (author)

  6. Detailed fuel spray analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularz, E. J.; Bosque, M. A.; Humenik, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel spray analyses which are a necessary input to the analytical modeling of the complex mixing and combustion processes which occur in advanced combustor systems are discussed. It is anticipated that by controlling fuel air reaction conditions, combustor temperatures can be better controlled, leading to improved combustion system durability. The capability to measure liquid droplet size, velocity, and number density throughout a fuel spray and to utilize this measurement technique in laboratory benchmark experiments was demonstrated. The experiment to characterize fuel sprays is described. The experiments and data are useful for application to and validation of turbulent flow modeling to improve the design systems of future advanced technology engines.

  7. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  8. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  9. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Vicianova

    2015-01-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polyg...

  10. Analytical techniques in radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation processing which applies gamma, X rays , or fast electrons for inducing the changes in the material's chemical, physical of biological properties has been introduced in many fields. Quite a few applications are related to the health and environmental protection. Sterilization of health-care products and food irradiation belongs to the first group. The second covers flue gas and wastewater treatment .Radiation sterilization or food irradiation plants are in regular operation in many countries all over the world. Their role in medical hygiene, food borne diseases control, tissue banking can not be overestimated.Quality control is a very important issue concerning these processes; dosimetry, microbiology, content of pollutants and radiolytic products are all based on physico-chemical and biological analyses . Since the changes are very small and concentration of investigated substances very low, advanced or special development methods have to be applied. They concern photometry, ESR, luminescence and others. Regarding environmental protection, first introduced limits for emission of pollutants concerned gram quantities. Nowadays emission limits for sulphur and nitrogen oxides, small diameter particulate (smaller than 2.5 or 10 microns) are given in milligrams, while concentrations of heavy metals (including mercury) or poly aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e. dioxins) are in nanograms even. Therefore, monitoring techniques are of the biggest importance for implementation of radiation technologies for environment conservation. Two industrial plants for flue gas purification at coal fired power stations are in operation. The monitoring system for ppm's quantities of nitrogen and sulphur oxide, ammonium, ozone are substantial components of the system. The by-product being used as a fertilizer is controlled for composition and heavy metal content. The technology can be used for VOC and PAH (dioxins) control as well, HCPL/MS techniques should be used in this case and sampling is quite a sophisticated procedure. Stable isotope tracers are utilized to investigate process mechanism as well. Wastewater pollutants treatment plant using electron accelerator as a source of radiation has been constructed as well. HCLP/MS and other techniques are used to record performance of the plant. Solutions presented in the paper are the example of the role which analytical techniques play in modern technology development. (author)

  11. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures, Hidden Markov Model (HMM, geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and processes are also discussed along with the solutions provided by different authors.

  12. Abstractions on test design techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wendland, Marc-Florian

    2014-01-01

    Automated test design is an approach to test design in which automata are utilized for generating test artifacts such as test cases and test data from a formal test basis, most often called test model. A test generator operates on such a test model to meet a certain test coverage goal. In the plethora of the approaches, tools and standards for model-based test design, the test design techniques to be applied and test coverage goals to be met are not part of the test model, which may easily le...

  13. Personalization techniques and recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Uchyigit, Gulden

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the Internet has resulted in huge amounts of online information, a situation that is overwhelming to the end users. To overcome this problem, personalization technologies have been extensively employed. The book is the first of its kind, representing research efforts in the diversity of personalization and recommendation techniques. These include user modeling, content, collaborative, hybrid and knowledge-based recommender systems. It presents theoretic research in the context of various applications from mobile information access, marketing and sales and web services,

  14. Development of applied optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report resents the status of researches on the applications of lasers at KAERI. A compact portable laser fluorometer detecting uranium desolved in aqueous solution was built. The laser-induced fluorescence of uranium was detected with a photomultiplier tube. A delayed gate circuit and an integrating circuit were used to process the electrical signal. A small nitrogen laser was used to excite uranium. The detecting limit is about 0.1 ppb. The effect of various acidic solutions was investigated. Standard addition technique was incorporated to improve the measuring accuracy. This instrument can be used for safety inspection of workers in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (Author)

  15. EPR techniques for space biodosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Hayes, R.; Kenner, G.; Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.

    1996-12-31

    Retrospective dosimetry of tooth enamel has become an increasingly complex and difficult discipline to undertake while still attaining accuracy. The paper provides a review of the major obstacles, advances and pertinent phenomenon associated with low level retrospective dosimetry of human tooth enamel. Also covered is the many sources of error in EPR dosimetry, their potential solutions, as well as the different analysis and scanning techniques in use with their prospective pros and cons. Prospective directions for new approaches, methods, and instruments are also reviewed.

  16. Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirovski, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

  17. Gas Well Testing Analysis Using Finite-Difference Models and Optimization Techniques Analyse d'essais de puits de gaz par des modèles utilisant la méthode des différences finies et par des techniques d'optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darderes E. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In reservoir engineering studies of gas fields, three important parameters are needed: the permeability-thickness product, the skin factor, and the inertial-turbulent factor. Several methods have been proposed to determine these parameters from gas well tests. The most powerful one is the pseudo-steady state analysis, where a linear dependence on a semilogarithmic plot is found between the real gas pseudo-pressure and time. Another one is the type-curve matching. Both have drawbacks because they can be rigorously applied only to specific cases. An automated type-curve match, which provides a general method to analyze well test data, is presented in this paper. It is based on the adjustment of a numerical model to gas well test data, by means of optimization techniques. The numerical model is the solution of the second order strongly non-linear partial differential equation which rules the radial flow of real gases towards a well. The differential equation is solved by finite-differences, taking into account the variation of gas properties with pressure. In order to simulate any gas well test, appropriate initial and boundary conditions are imposed. The least squares method is used to minimize residual differences between actual pressures measured during test and computed pressures. Two optimization techniques are applied to obtain the best estimate of parameters that minimize the sum of the square of the residuals: the univariate method of Fibonacci [1] and the multivariate method of Marquardt [1, 2]. This procedure is applied to a single-rate and a two-rate drawdown test. Numerical results showed excellent agreement with well test data. Les études de gisements de gaz rendent indispensables la connaissance de trois paramètres importants : la capacité de flux (produit de la perméabilité par l'épaisseur de la couche productrice, l'effet de peau et le facteur d'inertie et de turbulence. On connaît plusieurs méthodes pour déterminer ces paramètres à partir d'essais de puits de gaz. Une des plus performantes est l'analyse du régime pseudo-permanent pour lequel on trouve, sur un graphique semi-logarithmique, une relation linéaire entre la pseudo-pression d'un gaz réel et le temps. Une autre méthode est l'ajustement à des courbes types. Les deux méthodes présentent l'inconvénient de ne pouvoir être rigoureusement appliquées qu'à des cas spécifiques. Cet article expose une méthode générale permettant d'analyser les données des essais de puits par ajustement automatisé des courbes types. Elle est basée sur le meilleur accord d'un modèle numérique avec les données obtenues dans les essais de puits de gaz grâce à des techniques d'optimisation. Le modèle numérique fournit la solution d'une équation différentielle à dérivées partielles du 2e ordre et fortement non linéaire qui régit le flux radial des gaz réels vers un puits de production. L'équation différentielle est résolue par la méthode des différences finies en tenant compte des variations des propriétés des gaz avec la pression. Pour simuler n'importe quel type d'essais de puits de gaz, on impose des conditions initiales et aux limites appropriées. On minimise les différences résiduelles entre les pressions réelles mesurées pendant l'essai et les pressions calculées par la méthode des moindres carrés. On utilise deux techniques d'optimisation pour obtenir la meilleure estimation des paramètres qui minimisent la somme des carrés des résidus : la méthode monovariante de Fibonacci [1] et la méthode polyvariante de Marquardt [1, 2]. On applique ce mode opératoire à des essais de puits menés à un débit constant et à deux débits constants. Les résultats numériques concordent très bien avec les données des essais de puits.

  18. Adaptation des techniques de forage à la recherche et à l'équipement des stockages souterrains de gaz naturel Adapting Drilling Techniques to the Search for and Equipment of Underground Natural-Gas Storage Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandin J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour répondre à la modulation annuelle de la consommation de gaz, le Gaz de France a décidé, il y a une trentaine d'années, de stocker du gaz, soit dans des nappes aquifères, soit dans des cavités salines. La recherche de structures géologiques aptes à recevoir ce gaz, la réalisation et l'équipement de puits d'exploration ou d'exploitation, l'entretien de ces puits et le contrôle des stockages ont été confiés au Département réservoirs souterrains de la Direction des études et techniques nouvelles. Les phases d'exploration et de développement d'un stockage souterrain nécessitent le forage de puits du type pétrolier. Ces sondages permettent, d'une part la récupération d'un maximum de renseignements concernant les différentes couches géologiques traversées et l'évaluation de leur aptitude à stocker le gaz, et d'autre part, d'assurer une exploitation optimale et fiable du stockage dans les meilleures conditions de sécurité. La pratique acquise dans l'exécution de ces forages par le Gaz de France lui a permis d'adapter aux stockages souterrains de nombreuses techniques des forages pétroliers. Parallèlement des procédés originaux ont pu être mis au point pour répondre à certaines exigences particulières du forage des puits de réservoirs souterrains, notamment à celles concernant le bon calibrage du trou foré ou la qualité des cimentations des cuvelages. L'article présente l'ensemble de ces adaptationset pratiques originales; bien que ne prétendant rien d'autre qu'apporter une contribution au chapitre problèmes particuliers des forages pour stockages souterrains de la technique pétrolière, certaines de celles-ci devraient pouvoir, en retour, trouver des applications intéressantes dans les forages pétroliers de moyenne profondeur. About 30 years ago and with a view to keep pace with the annual variation of gas consumption, Gaz de France decided to store gas in either aquifer layers or salt cavities. The search for geological structures suitable for holding this gas, the drilling and equipment of exploration or production wells, their maintenance and the controlling of such storage facilities were entrusted to the Underground Reservoirs Department of the Service for Research and New Technologies. The exploration and development phases of an underground storage facility require the drilling of petroleum-type wells. Such boreholes are used to recover the maximum amount of information concerning the different geological layers crossed and to assess their suitability for storing gas. At the same time, they must be capable of ensuring the optimal and reliable exploitation of the storage facilities under the best possible safety conditions. The practical drilling experience acquired by Gaz de France enabled it to adapt many petroleum drilling techniques to underground storage facilities. At the same time, original procedures were developed to cope with various specific requirements inherent to drilling wells into underground reservoirs, particularly requirements concerning the proper sizing of boreholes and casing cementation quality. This article describes all these adaptations and original developments. Primarily a contribution to the field of Specific Problems in Boreholes for Underground Storage Facilitiesamong petroleum technologies, some of these developments should in turn result in interesting applications in medium-depth oil and gas wells.

  19. Pipeline leak location using radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eapen, A.C.; Ajmera, R.L.; Agashe, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    A radiotracer technique has been developed for the determination of leak rate as well as leak location in underground pipelines of small and medium diameter. This technique is compared with other techniques presently available for solving similar problems. A field test employing the new technique for an underground naphtha pipeline of M/s Carbide Chemicals Company is described in detail.

  20. Advanced Nanomeasuring Techniques for Surface Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Salah H. R.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced precise and accurate nanomeasurement techniques play an important role to improve the function and quality of surface characterization. There are two basic approaches, the hard measuring techniques and the soft computing measuring techniques. The advanced soft measuring techniques include coordinate measuring machines, roundness testing facilities, surface roughness, interferometric methods, confocal optical microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and computed tomography at the level ...