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Sample records for techniques disponibles permettant

  1. Boilers. Comparison of the main available techniques for boilers to comply with new regulations; Les chaudieres, comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations

    Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

    1997-12-31

    The main techniques, presently available, that can lead to a consequent decrease in pollutant emissions, are presented pointing out their advantages and drawbacks: sulfur oxide emissions can be lowered by fuel processing and fume desulfurization (through desulfurizer in situ injection or a downstream treatment for solid and liquid fuels); NOx emissions are decreased through fume recycling, low-NOx burners, air staging (OFA), combustion chamber over-dimensioning, combustion air temperature reduction, re-burning (IFR), injection of de-nitrifying agents (at high temperature without catalysts, at low temperature with catalysts). Associations of these techniques are also discussed. Ash processing is studied for coal and fuel oil, depending on the NOx and SOx previously selected cleansing techniques

  2. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Places disponibles*/Places available **

    2003-01-01

    * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) Plannification de projet avec MS-Project/Project Scheduling with MS-Project : 2 sessions : 23.10 & 4.11.03 and 18 &25.11.03 (2 jours/2 days - langue à définir/language to be defined) AutoCAD 2002 – Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11...

  3. Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l'enseignement de la thermodynamique technique

    Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2005-01-01

    Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé Diag Sim capable d'estimer les propriétés d'un corps pur et de tracer n'importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés.

  4. Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l’enseignement de la thermodynamique technique

    Jean-Noël Jaubert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé DiagSim capable d’estimer les propriétés d’un corps pur et de tracer n’importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés. [English] The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This technology tool is particularly useful when teaching engineering students the basic concepts of technical thermodynamics.

  5. Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l’enseignement de la thermodynamique technique

    Jean-Noël Jaubert

    2005-01-01

    [Français] Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé DiagSim capable d’estimer les propriétés d’un corps pur et de tracer n’importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés. [English] The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This tech...

  6. Heating plants. Comparison between the main available techniques that allow heating plants to respect the new regulations; Les chaudieres. Comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations

    Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the main methods available today to improve the thermal and environmental performances of heating plants and burners and points out the technical and economical advantages and drawbacks of these methods. The methods are described according to the type of pollutant: SO{sub x} (fuel treatment, smokes desulfurization, in-situ desulfurizers injection, lime treatment of solid and liquid fuels), NO{sub x} (smokes recycling, low-NO{sub x} burners, air staging, over-dimensioning of combustion chambers, reduction of combustion air temperature, re-burning, denitrifier injection, combination of several methods), dusts (filters and cyclones). (J.S.)

  7. BAT - BREF - IPPC or MTD: the ''best available techniques''; BAT - Bref - IPPC ou encore MTD: les ''meilleures techniques disponibles''

    Chefdebien, H. de [Federation Nationale des Activites de la Depollution et de l' Environnement, FNADE, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2001-08-01

    The notion of 'best available techniques' (BAT) in waste management (in French: 'meilleures techniques disponibles' or MTD) is defined in the European directive no 96/61/EC from October 10, 1996, also called IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention Control) directive. Its aim is to minimize the overall noxious effects of the industrial activities inside the European Union (air, water and ground pollution, noise, smells, accidents, excess of resources consumption etc..). BAT reference documents (named 'BREFs') are elaborated for each domain of activity by the European IPPC Bureau. This article presents the content of the BREFs relative to waste management and the criteria retained for the determination of the BATs in this domain. It precises the possible relations between the BREFs and the existing directives and environmental standards. Then it stresses on the importance of the BREF in wastes incineration. (J.S.)

  8. Places disponibles/Places available

    2004-01-01

    Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : / Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 13 - 17.9.2004 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.9.2004 (4 jours) Programmation S...

  9. Places disponibles/Places available

    2004-01-01

    Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Off...

  10. A Study on the Suitable Techniques for Improving the Flow Properties of the Egyptian Waxy Crude Oils Étude des techniques permettant d'améliorer l'écoulement des pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique

    El-Eman N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, three different techniques were used for improving the flow properties of three Egyptian waxy crude oils (M-96, GPY-3 and Khalda. These techniques are : dilution, heating and chemical treatment. The improvement efficiency for each technique was investigated by measuring the rheological properties and the pour point as well. Also, the effect of each improvement technique on the power requirement was studied through calculation of the reduction in the pipeline pressure loss. The studied techniques have shown promising results in improving the flow properties of the tested crudes. However, the most suitable technique for a specific crude should be decided in the light of the technical features studied in the present paper in addition to an economical study which should be performed on each case individually. Cet article rend compte des essais effectués pour améliorer les caractéristiques d'écoulement de trois pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique (M-96, GPY-3 et Khalda. Trois techniques différentes ont été mises en oeuvre : dilution, chauffage et traitement chimique. L'efficacité de chacune de ces techniques a été évaluée par la mesure des propriétés rhéologiques et du point d'écoulement. De plus, on a étudié l'effet de ces diverses techniques sur les besoins énergétiques en calculant la réduction de la perte de charge en pipeline. Les techniques envisagées ont apporté des résultats prometteurs quant à l'amélioration des caractéristiques d'écoulement des bruts étudiés. Toutefois, pour choisir la technique la plus appropriée à un pétrole brut spécifique, il faudrait combiner les données techniques apportées par cet article avec une étude d'ordre économique effectuée pour chaque cas individuel.

  11. COSTE SALARIAL Y RENTA DISPONIBLE DEL TRABAJADOR

    Antonio Prez Carrasco

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Se expone la relacin entre el coste laboral y la renta disponible del trabajador, as como el anlisis de las consecuencias sobre el salario derivadas de la cotizacin a la Seguridad Social. The relationship between labour costs and disposable income of the workers is exposed as well as the analysis of the impact on wages resulting from contributions to Social Security.

  12. Plusieurs aspects importants permettant d’aborder la santé des personnes au travail

    Esther Cloutier

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Bonjour chers lecteurs. Nous avons encore des statistiques impressionnantes à vous présenter pour amorcer cette huitième année d’existence de PISTES. Au cours des six derniers mois, nous avons dépassé le nombre de 10 000 serveurs branchés en moyenne par mois, ce qui correspond à un nombre minimal de 30 000 lecteurs mensuellement. Encore une fois, ce numéro touche plusieurs aspects importants permettant d’aborder la santé des personnes au travail. Dans leur article, Sandrine Caroly et Pascale ...

  13. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Sansores Raúl H.; Ramírez-Venegas Alejandra; Espinosa-Martínez Marlene; Sandoval Ricardo A

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (í...

  14. Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l'enseignement de la thermodynamique technique

    Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This technology tool is particularly useful when teaching engineering students the basic concepts of technical thermodynamics.

  15. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Sansores Raúl H

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente. El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8, sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar.

  16. EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL

    M.ª Begoña Gómez Devís

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research pretends to show the degree of semantic merging between the available lexis of Spanish and Catalan from Valencia in 2nd year baccalaureate students. The global inter-linguistic compatibility for speakers of both linguistic communities in the seventeen semantic groups studied will show the high level of coincidence in both languages in contact. This is due to the fact that the lexis used in specifi c communicative situations is similar in both.

    El presente trabajo pretende mostrar el grado de convergencia semántica entre el léxico disponible del español y del catalán de Valencia en los estudiantes de segundo de bachillerato. La compatibilidad global interlingüística de los hablantes de ambas comunidades lingüísticas en los diecisiete campos semánticos mostrará un alto nivel de coincidencia en las dos lenguas en contacto. Esto se debe a que el léxico usado en situaciones comunicativas concretas es similar en las diferentes lenguas de cultura.

  17. EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL EL LÉXICO DISPONIBLE DE VALENCIA: CONVERGENCIA CONCEPTUAL

    M.ª Begoña Gómez Devís

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende mostrar el grado de convergencia semántica entre el léxico disponible del español y del catalán de Valencia en los estudiantes de segundo de bachillerato. La compatibilidad global interlingüística de los hablantes de ambas comunidades lingüísticas en los diecisiete campos semánticos mostrará un alto nivel de coincidencia en las dos lenguas en contacto. Esto se debe a que el léxico usado en situaciones comunicativas concretas es similar en las diferentes lenguas de cultura.The present research pretends to show the degree of semantic merging between the available lexis of Spanish and Catalan from Valencia in 2nd year baccalaureate students. The global inter-linguistic compatibility for speakers of both linguistic communities in the seventeen semantic groups studied will show the high level of coincidence in both languages in contact. This is due to the fact that the lexis used in specifi c communicative situations is similar in both.

  18. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Raúl H Sansores

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente. El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8, sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar.Objective. To describe smoking cessation therapies available in Mexico. Material and Methods. Literature review of meta-analysis, controlled clinical trials, and behavioral therapy studies. Results. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions showed a good chance of success on average, expressed as the ratio of the active drug vs. placebo cessation therapy outcomes (ratios of 39, 78, 79, 117, and 119%, for nicotine chewing gum, bupropion, nicotine patch, inhaler, and nicotine nasal spray, respectively. Behavioral therapy showed satisfactory results, (OR= 3.8 however, more research is needed to establish its effectiveness. Conclusions. Emphasis is made on the need to combine behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy, to increase the likelihood of successful smoking cessation.

  19. non disponible

    Bouchet, Stéphanie

    1993-01-01

    Avec pour objectifs la modélisation des mécanismes de croissance par transport en phase gazeuse et l'influence du vecteur gravité sur l'anisotropie et la cinétique de croissance, des expériences ont été préparées et réalisées sur terre, en microgravité et en hypergravité. Les matériaux choisis sont le ternaire Pb0,8Sn0,2Te par transport physique et le binaire GaAS sur des demi-billes orientées de GaAs par transport chimique.Une étude thermodynamique des différentes pressions partielles des él...

  20. Observation du trafic malveillant l'aide d'un cadriciel permettant la composition et la paralllisation d'inspecteurs de points d'interconnexion

    Alberdi, Ion

    2010-01-01

    Notre thse stipule qu'au vu de l'ampleur des agissements malveillants dans l'Internet, les logiciels d'extrmit doivent tre surveills. Pour limiter le nombre de points de surveillance, nous proposons de surveiller les logiciels depuis un point d'interconnexion. Nous avons dans ce but conu Luth, un outil permettant de composer et de parallliser un ensemble d'inspecteurs de points d'interconnexion (appels MI) qui implmentent des mini IDS, IPS ou pare-feux, tout en vrifiant la correctio...

  1. Le raisonnement et les avancées techniques permettent de réduire la fertilisation azotée : le cas de Farmstar-colza®

    Lagarde Fabien

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The practices of nitrogen fertilization are really changing, due to the new farming context including environmental, economical, and energetic constraints. In 2005, 90% of the producers said they used a method to adapt nitrogen supplies in their fields and more than 40% among them used the CETIOM method “réglette azote”. Since 2004, a new system, called Farmstar-colza® based on satellite observation has been developed by Infoterra France, a subsidiary of the EADS group. With this technology, it’s possible to draw a map of the fields with nitrogen supply advices and to practice modular apply on the crops. Moreover, this technology increases the precision of the crop nitrogen absorption assessment. Therefore, in the future it seems possible to improve the estimated need of nitrogen to grow oil seed rape in order to get a good energetic balance with an optimum oil rate as well as high yields.

  2. Talco y carbonato básico de magnesio como aportantes de magnesio disponible al suelo

    Carmen Rosa Goméz Laverde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediante dos ensayos de laboratorio se realizó un estudio sobre la solubilización de carbonato básico de magnesio y de talco para juzgar estas fuentes como aportantes de magnesio disponible. Los minerales finamente molidos se aplicaron en dosis equivalente a 3,6 meq/100 g a muestras de tres suelos de pH diferente. En el ensayo I las muestras de suelo más la fuente de magnesio se Incubaron en recipientes cerrados, a 18

  3. Talco y carbonato básico de magnesio como aportantes de magnesio disponible al suelo

    Carmen Rosa Goméz Laverde; Gabriela Estrada Estrada

    2009-01-01

    Mediante dos ensayos de laboratorio se realizó un estudio sobre la solubilización de carbonato básico de magnesio y de talco para juzgar estas fuentes como aportantes de magnesio disponible. Los minerales finamente molidos se aplicaron en dosis equivalente a 3,6 meq/100 g a muestras de tres suelos de pH diferente. En el ensayo I las muestras de suelo más la fuente de magnesio se Incubaron en recipientes cerrados, a 18

  4. Recursos disponibles para la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de futbolistas

    Macarena Lorenzo Fern\\u00E1ndez; M. Reyes Bueno Moreno

    2012-01-01

    La retirada deportiva es a menudo una etapa de crisis que requiere exigencias y ciertos ajustes a nivel ocupacional, financiero, social y psicológico (Cury, Ferreira y Leite de Barros, 2008). En línea con las contribuciones recientes al tema de la retirada deportiva y la posterior empleabilidad, el presente trabajo pretende analizar de modo descriptivo los recursos disponibles para hacer frente a la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de los jugadores profesionales de un club de...

  5. Capacidad de comunicaciones disponible para cómputo paralelo en redes locales instaladas

    Tinetti, Fernando Gustavo; Quijano, Antonio Adrián

    2002-01-01

    Uno de los grandes desafíos del cómputo paralelo en las redes locales instaladas y que se pueden aprovechar como máquinas paralelas lo constituyen las comunicaciones. Si bien existen numerosos reportes y se ha aceptado que la mayoría de las máquinas de las redes locales instaladas no tienen carga de procesamiento de manera continua, no se tiene mucha información con respecto a la capacidad disponible de comunicaciones en estas redes que pueden ser afectadas por varios factores como el propio ...

  6. Niveles de calcio y fsforo disponible en gallinas durante 48 semanas en postura

    Diana Anglica Gutirrez Arenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiz un experimento para evaluar niveles de calcio (Ca y fsforo disponible (Pd en gallinas. Se utilizaron 300 gallinas Leghorn Hy-line W36 y se alimentaron con cinco tratamientos, tomando en cuenta los niveles ptimos de encontrados en la literatura. Las dietas fueron: T1, 4.34% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T2, 4.34% Ca y 0.23% Pd; T3, 4.62% Ca y 0.18% Pd; T4, 4.62% Ca y 0.23% Pd y T5, 3.25% Ca y 0.25% Pd. Se midi consumo de alimento, consumo de Ca y de Pd, conversin alimenticia, nmero de huevos, masa de huevo, peso del huevo, gravedad especfica y porcentaje de cascarn. Para nmero de huevos, masa de huevo, consumo de alimento, conversin alimenticia y peso de huevo, no se encontraron diferencias entre tratamientos (P>0.05. Se observ mayor consumo de Ca (P<0.05 en las gallinas de los tratamientos T3 y T4 (4.80 y 4.81 g ave-1 da-1 ; en cuanto a consumo de fsforo disponible, las gallinas del T5 consumieron ms (P<0.05 que las dems (0.258 g ave -1 da-1 . Para gravedad especfica, hubo mejores resultados con T1, T3 y T4 (1.0837, 1.0841, y 1.0840; P<0.05. En porcentaje de cascarn se observaron mejores resultados con las gallinas de T1, T2, T3 y T4 (P<0.05. Se concluye que las concentraciones de Ca sugeridas por el NRC (1994, no son suficientes para mxima calidad del cascarn; sin embargo, los niveles de Pd 0.18 y 0.23% son menores a los sugeridos por el NRC, de 0.25%.

  7. Correlacion entre metodos de analisis de Zn disponible en cuatro ordenes de suelos de Costa Rica

    Eloy Molina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizo una comparación entre métodos analisis del Zn disponible en 4 ordenes de sue- Analytilos de Costa Rica (Ultisoles, Vertisoles, Andisoles Inceptisoles, 25 de c/u, utilizando las siguientes soluciones extractoras: Olsen Modificado, Meh- lich 3, Morgan Modificado, DTPA y HC1. Las cantidades de Zn extrafdas dependieron de la natu- raleza qufmica de la solucion extractora. El HCl presento los contenidos mas altos de Zn en los chasuelos, excepto en Vertisoles. Las soluciones que hicontienen el agente quelante EDTA (Olsen Modi- ficado y Mehlich`3, extrajeron niveles interme- Modidios de Zn, en tanto que los metodos que contie- Den el quelato DTPA (Morgan Modificado y DT - PA, obtuvieron los valores mas bajos. Las corre- laciones de Zn extrafble entre los 5 metodos fue- signifirOD significativas en la mayona de los casos, tanto nivel de orden de suelos como en el conjunto de indivilos 100 suelos analizados. Los coeficientes de co- rrelacion mas altos, se presentaron entre Mehlich Morgan Modificado y DTPA. Las correlaciones Modifueron consistentes en los 4 ordenes, 10 que indica que estas soluciones poseen un amplio margen de adaptacion a diferentes tipos de suelo, siendo una caractenstica ventajosa para la selección de un metodo de analisis. El Olsen Modificado fue mas slighteficiente para la extraccion de Zn en suelos de pH ligeramente acido 0 neutro (Vertisoles e Inceptiso- les, que en suelos acidos (Ultisoles y Andisoles. EI HCI extrajo cantidades muy aItas de Zn que Moraparentementestan relacionadas con formas no disponibles para lag plantas. Se concluye que lag soluciones Mehlich 3, Morgan Modificado y DT - PA son semejantes en la forma de extraer Zn dispo- Dible, y podrian seT una altemativa para sustituir el metoda tradicional de Olsen Modificado utilizado en Costa Rica. Sin embargo,la eficiencia de ellas no puede seT establecida sino a traves de log estudios de correlacion contra rendimiento en invernadero y campo.

  8. Recursos disponibles para la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de futbolistas

    Macarena Lorenzo Fern\\u00E1ndez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La retirada deportiva es a menudo una etapa de crisis que requiere exigencias y ciertos ajustes a nivel ocupacional, financiero, social y psicológico (Cury, Ferreira y Leite de Barros, 2008. En línea con las contribuciones recientes al tema de la retirada deportiva y la posterior empleabilidad, el presente trabajo pretende analizar de modo descriptivo los recursos disponibles para hacer frente a la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de los jugadores profesionales de un club de fútbol. Para ello se ha elaborado el Cuestionario para el Diagnóstico de la Empleabilidad en Deportistas de Élite. Los resultados indican que para hacer frente de forma adaptativa a la retirada deportiva los futbolistas del club necesitan instaurar una conciencia de futuro, planificar su retirada deportiva, ahorrar y formarse, y por otro lado, se debe fortalecer el capital humano acumulado, apoyo social percibido y habilidades, estrategias y capacidades adquiridas tras la práctica deportiva.

  9. Sistema de gestión de asignación de aguas disponibles

    Aida María Saúco Peña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los problemas del adecuado manejo de los recursos hidráulicos, que pueden surgir en una evaluación ambiental, tienen quever con decisiones sobre el uso del agua que afectan la cantidad o calidad del agua super!cial o subterránea. Precisamente elpresente trabajo está enmarcado en el objetivo de realizar un sistema software titulado: “Balance de Aguas”, que informatice los procesos de asignación de aguas disponibles en el país, basado en la idea de controlar las entregas de agua que se establecen a diferentes entidades usuarias, a la vez quese recepcionen las demandas de estos y teniendo en cuenta las condiciones de cada una de las fuentes de abasto (reguladas, no reguladas y subterráneas al inicio del año. El propósito fundamental es la consolidación del sistema, así como la documentación de los pasos en su desarrollo ingenieril, paralo cual se hace un estudio exhaustivo de los principales modelos, metodologías y herramientas para el desarrollo, así como de las tendencias actuales, permitiendo el análisis para seleccionar las más adecuadas que apoyen la solución del problema. En correspondencia con los objetivos propuestosla implantación del sistema facilita el manejo de los recursos hidráulicos.

  10. Sistema de gestión de asignación de aguas disponibles

    Aida María Saúco Peña

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Los problemas del adecuado manejo de los recursos hidráulicos, que pueden surgir en una evaluación ambiental, tienen que ver con decisiones sobre el uso del agua que afectan la cantidad o calidad del agua superficial o subterránea. Precisamente el presente trabajo está enmarcado en el objetivo de realizar un sistema software titulado: “Balance de Aguas”, que informatice los procesos de asignación de aguas disponibles en el país, basado en la idea de controlar las entregas de agua que se establecen a diferentes entidades usuarias, a la vez que se recepcionen las demandas de estos y teniendo en cuenta las condiciones de cada una de las fuentes de abasto (reguladas, no reguladas y subterráneas al inicio del año. El propósito fundamental es la consolidación del sistema, así como la documentación de los pasos en su desarrollo ingenieril, para lo cual se hace un estudio exhaustivo de los principales modelos, metodologías y herramientas para el desarrollo, así como de las tendencias actuales, permitiendo el análisis para seleccionar las más adecuadas que apoyen la solución del problema. En correspondencia con los objetivos propuestos la implantación del sistema facilita el manejo de los recursos hidráulicos

  11. RESEÑA DEL SOFTWARE DISPONIBLE EN COLOMBIA PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS EN CADENAS DE ABASTECIMIENTO

    VALENTINA GUTIÉRREZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de los diferentes tipos de inventario a lo largo de una cadena de abastecimiento es un problema complejo que, en la mayoría de los casos de la industria colombiana e internacional, se aborda mediante la implementación de herramientas de software. Sin embargo, la decisión de implementar dichas herramientas está en muchos casos limitada por la capacidad financiera para invertir en ellas y por el desconocimiento de la oferta de software disponible en Colombia. Este artículo presenta una reseña del software disponible en Colombia para la gestión de inventarios con el fin de brindar a las empresas que se enfrentan a la decisión de implementar un software, una herramienta de soporte que indique cuál es la oferta en Colombia y cuáles son las características de los sistemas disponibles. Para esto se presenta primero el estado del arte, en el cual se identifica el resultado de la revisión de la literatura y el uso de las herramientas de software en la industria colombiana. Seguidamente se presenta la caracterización de los productos de software disponibles en el país. Dicha caracterización permite identificar la configuración general de los productos, los módulos de gestión con los que cuenta, las opciones de integración con otras herramientas informáticas, y la información general de precios e instalación. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones del estudio y las futuras oportunidades de investigación.

  12. Relação entre o zinco "disponível", por diferentes extratores, e as frações de zinco em amostras de solos

    M. F. G. Oliveira; R. F. Novais; J. C. L. Neves; Vasconcellos, C.A.; V. M.C. Alves

    1999-01-01

    Para determinar o zinco "disponível" do solo para plantas, vários procedimentos de extração têm sido desenvolvidos. Uma alternativa utilizada no estudo de extratores do Zn "disponível" refere-se ao fracionamento do Zn total do solo, com vistas em entender suas reações no solo e o comportamento dos extratores. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a dependência existente entre o teor de Zn disponível, por diferentes extratores, e as frações deste elemento no solo e características dos solos. Para is...

  13. Actividad productiva y empleo de personas con trastorno mental severo: algunas propuestas de actuacin basadas en la informacin disponible.

    Marcelino Lpez lvarez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hay un creciente inters, en el campo de la atencin comunitaraia a personas con trastorno mental severo, por los temas relacionados con el empleo. Tanto en Estados Unidos como en Europa se estn desarrollando a la vez nuevas iniciativas y un nmero creciente de investigaciones que van aportando nuevo conocimiento a este importante campo de intervencin, al que, con ms lentitud de la debida, vamos incorporndonos tambin en nuestro pas. En esa situacin el artculo parte de la revisin de la informacin disponible sobre el tema, como base para elaborar y someter a debate algunas lneas de actuacin, que recogen tambin los aspectos ms generales de nuestra experiencia en Andaluca. A ese respecto se exponen las caractersticas generales que, en nuestra opinin, debera tener un programa destinado a facilitar actividad productiva y empleo a personas con trastorno mental severo en el contexto de nuestro pas.

  14. Influência de algumas características do solo nos teores de boro disponível

    G. B. Ferreira; R. L. F. Fontes; M. P. F. Fontes; V. H. Alvarez V.

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a utilização da água quente e CaCl2 5 mmol L-1 como extratores de B disponível, usando forno de microondas como fonte de aquecimento, e estudar a influência de algumas características do solo nos teores de B extraído. A dosagem de B nos extratos foi feita com azometina-H. Executou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação em fatorial completo 17 solos x 6 doses de B (0, 0,15, 0,30, 0,60, 0,90 e 1,50 mg dm-3), com três repetições, em blocos ao acaso, usando o milho...

  15. LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning

    Patricia Germany G; Ninette Cartes E

    2000-01-01

    El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: • Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. • D...

  16. Cuarenta aos de investigacin sobre la plasticidad del msculo esqueltico; conclusiones personales (artculo completo disponible en ingls

    Hans Hoppeler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este es un estudio personal altamente subjetivo sobre la investigacin llevada a cabo durante los ltimos 50 aos que documenta los fenmenos y los mecanismos de la plasticidad del tejido muscular esqueltico. Enfocar el trabajo desde una perspectiva histrica y seguir algunos de los hilos que han despertado mi curiosidad y han guiado mi investigacin a lo largo de mi carrera investigadora. Este estudio no es ni exhaustivo ni equilibrado. Representa mis intereses personales y algunos descubrimientos cruciales que han marcado mis objetivos de investigacin. He tenido la suerte de llevar a cabo este estudio con colaboradores muy creativos que han sido los que han realizado la mayor parte de esta investigacin. Tambin he tenido la suerte de contar con dos tutores excepcionales, ER Weibel y C.R. Taylor, que me han apoyado durante todo el proceso guindome y dndome consejos e, inicialmente, facilitndome la ayuda econmica necesaria. Han fomentado un enfoque global y me han enseado a combinar la investigacin funcional y estructural para lograr una visin integral del rendimiento del sistema. Cuando las herramientas moleculares apropiadas pasaron a estar disponibles a finales de los 90, estas ayudaron a descubrir los mecanismos subyacentes de la plasticidad estructural y funcional del msculo previamente descrita. La idea de que el tejido muscular esqueltico activo es determinante para el bienestar fsico y para la salud continuar impulsando la investigacin mecanicista de la plasticidad muscular en el futuro.

  17. Recursos disponibles para la protección de mujeres migrantes en tránsito por Tamaulipas

    Rocío CÁRDENAS-RODRÍGUEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La labor del gobierno mexicano en materia de política migratoria es una estrategia para administrar el flujo de migrantes en tránsito rumbo a Estados Unidos, no para salvaguardar su integridad y derechos, menos aún está diseñada para proteger a las mujeres. En esa medida, el interés de este artículo es hacer evidentes los escasos recursos de protección disponibles para migrantes y la ausencia de perspectiva de género en los recursos de apoyo para mujeres en tránsito por México. A través de entrevistas a autoridades y organismos sociales en la frontera de Tamaulipas y con base en el enfoque del modelo ecológico, se evaluaron los recursos de la política pública mexicana como elementos amortiguadores para los migrantes, frente a riesgos y elementos de vulnerabilidad de la mujer en tránsito.

  18. EVALUACIÓN DE LOS PARAMETROS DE CALIDAD PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE FÓSFORO DISPONIBLE EN SUELOS

    Johnbrynner García Galvis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existen varios procedimientos para la determinación de fósforo disponible en suelos, en donde el fósforo es cuantificado por métodos colorimétricos por medio del desarrollo de un complejo coloreado azul (ácido fosfomolíbdico; en uno, el color se presenta al utilizar como agente reductor ácido ascórbico y en el otro al emplear cloruro estannoso; ambos métodos utilizan la misma solución extractora de Bray II, cuya importancia radica en que presenta una muy buena correlación con la respuesta de cultivos en suelos ácidos, como lo son la mayoría de suelos de Colombia.  Al comparar las dos metodologías se encontró que el método más sensible y con los mejores límites de detección y cuantificación para la determinación de fósforo es el que utiliza como agente reductor ácido ascórbico y tartrato de antimonio y potasio. También se observó al evaluar la precisión del sistema y del método que, tanto los coeficientes de variación, como las desviaciones estándar, fueron menores en este método, por tanto se considera como el método más preciso para la determinación de fósforo.

  19. Exigência em fósforo disponível para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo

    Pezzato Luiz Edivaldo; Rosa Maria Julia Santa; Barros Margarida Maria; Guimarães Igo Gomes

    2006-01-01

    O fósforo se destaca como um dos minerais mais importantes na nutrição animal. Apresenta-se pouco disponível em alimentos de origem vegetal por estar quimicamente ligado a outros minerais e nutrientes, em que se denomina fósforo fítico ou fitato. Desta forma, objetivou-se avaliar diferentes níveis de fósforo disponível em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), por meio do ganho em peso, do consumo de ração aparente, da conversão alimentar aparente, da eficiência alim...

  20. Enseignement technique : Sminaire de l'enseignement technique

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bt. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une dmarche de qualit totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau sminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacr la prsentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacit dans l'amlioration de la qualit des produits. Cette mthode, permettant d'assurer une qualit optimum l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fonde sur deux concepts de base: le suivi et le pilotage des procds industriels par cartes de contrle, et l'tude des capabilits des systmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  1. Enseignement technique : Sminaire de l'enseigement technique

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bt. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une dmarche de qualit totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau sminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacr la prsentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacit dans l'amlioration de la qualit des produits. Cette mthode, permettant d'assurer une qualit optimum l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fonde sur deux concepts de base: le suivi et le pilotage des procds industriels par cartes de contrle, et l'tude des capabilits des systmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  2. LEXICO DISPONIBLE EN INGLES COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA EN INSTRUCCION FORMALIZADA Lexicon availability in English as a second language in formal learning

    Patricia Germany G

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un estudio transeccional correlacional realizado con alumnos que estudian inglés como segunda lengua en la enseñanza formal de la Octava Región de Chile. Se exploró el nivel lingüístico del léxico disponible, en muestras de estudiantes de distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. Los objetivos generales de la investigación son: • Describir el léxico disponible de estudiantes de inglés como segunda lengua en distintos tipos de establecimientos educacionales. • Determinar la incidencia del factor tipo de establecimiento educacional en la disponibilidad léxica del inglés como segunda lengua en los alumnos que componen la muestra.The present work is a transectional correlational study among students who learn English as a second language, across the Eight Region at the formal learning schools in Chile. The linguistic level of the available lexicon was explored among samples of students from different secondary schools. The research was planned in terms of general objectives: • Describe the available lexicon produced by students of English as L2 (second language, from different schools. • Know the incidence of the variable type of school in English lexicon availability, produced by students included in the sample.

  3. Relação entre o zinco "disponível", por diferentes extratores, e as frações de zinco em amostras de solos

    M. F. G. Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar o zinco "disponível" do solo para plantas, vários procedimentos de extração têm sido desenvolvidos. Uma alternativa utilizada no estudo de extratores do Zn "disponível" refere-se ao fracionamento do Zn total do solo, com vistas em entender suas reações no solo e o comportamento dos extratores. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a dependência existente entre o teor de Zn disponível, por diferentes extratores, e as frações deste elemento no solo e características dos solos. Para isto, amostras de doze solos da camada de 0-20 cm de profundidade, correspondendo aos grandes grupos de Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro (LE, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LV, Latossolo Amarelo (LA, Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo (PV e Areia Quartzosa (AQ, receberam as doses de 0 e 20 mg dm-3 de Zn e foram incubadas por 30 dias. O Zn extraível por DTPA-TEA-CaCL2, HCl (0,1 mol L-1, Mehlich-1 (M-1 e Mehlich-3 (M-3 foi determinado. Essas amostras dos solos foram também submetidas ao fracionamento de Zn, determinando-se Zn trocável (Zntr, ligado à matéria orgânica (Znmo, ligado a óxido de manganês (ZnMn, ligado a óxido de ferro amorfo (ZnFea e ligado a óxido de ferro cristalino (ZnFec. Concluiu-se que os extratores DTPA e M-3 revelaram maior sensibilidade às características do solo relacionadas com o fator capacidade (poder tampão. Os extratores M-1 e HCl apresentaram menor sensibilidade e menor correlação com estas características, considerando seu maior poder de extração e conseqüente menor desgaste. A relação Zn recuperado pelo extrator/Zn aplicado ao solo demonstrou ser a característica que melhor se correlacionou com características do solo relacionadas com o fator capacidade de Zn. A fração de Zn trocável foi a maior responsável pela quantidade de Zn obtido pelos extratores testados. As frações de Zntr, Znmo, ZnMn, ZnFea e ZnFec não foram suficientes para explicar, em todos os casos, o zinco recuperado pelos extratores.

  4. Caracterización morfológica y contenido de almidón resistente y disponible en bananos (Musa sapientum) exportables del Ecuador

    Edison Omar Martínez-Mora

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: La investigación tuvo como objetivo fundamental, la caracterización morfológica del almidón nativo de banano (Musa sapientum), contenido en almidón resistente (AR) y disponible (AD), de las variedades de banano de exportación: Cavendish (AC), Filipino (AF), Orito (AO) y Valery (AV).Material y Métodos: Se determinó tamaño y forma del gránulo de almidón a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido. La cuantificación del AR por medición de su fracción no hidrolizada, luego de un ...

  5. ESTIMACIN DE LA VIDA TIL DE UNA FRMULA DIETTICA EN FUNCIN DE LA DISMINUCIN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE

    Alexia TORRES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determin la vida til de una frmula diettica para nios con sndrome diarrico, empleando la disminucin de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plstico-aluminio y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cintica de la reaccin de deterioro y su relacin con la temperatura. Al finalizar el estudio, la cantidad de lisina disponible remanente fue de 38,5% (a 25C; 15,3 % (a 30C y 14,1% (a 35C. La cintica de la reaccin de deterioro fue de orden uno, dependiente de la temperatura de almacenamiento, segn la ecuacin de interrelacin de Arrhenius, con un valor de energa de activacin de 15,17 kcal/mol, por lo que cae dentro del rango de las reacciones de oxidacin de lpidos. De acuerdo a las caractersticas del producto [contenido de lpidos (17,5%, protenas (17,3% y una actividad de agua de 0,46], la disminucin de lisina pudiera ser explicada por la interaccin de productos de oxidacin de lpidos con protenas. Considerando un valor de 0,422g lis/100g producto como punto crtico, se predijo la vida til del producto a temperaturas diferentes a las evaluadas. Condiciones de almacenamiento por debajo de 30C, garantizan un mayor perodo de vida til: hasta 9 meses a 15C, 6 meses a 20C y 3 meses a 28C, en funcin del indicador de deterioro evaluado.This study estimated the shelf life of a dietary formula for children with diarrhea, using the decrease of available lysine as an indicator of deterioration. Product samples were packaged in multilaminal pouches (paper-plastic-foil and stored at 25, 30 and 35C, for two months. The available lysine was measured weekly and the reaction of deterioration kinetics and its relationship with temperature was calculated. At the end of the study, the remainder of available lysine was of 38.5 (at 25C, 15.3 (at 30C and 14.1% (at 35C.The findings of the study indicated a first order reaction kinetics, dependent on the storage temperature based on the Arrhenius approach, with an activation energy of 15.17 kcal/mol, falling within the lipid oxidation range. According to the product characteristics [lipids content (17.5%, protein (17.3% and water activity of 0.46], the decrease of available lysine could be explained by the interaction between lipid oxidation products and proteins. Based on a critical value of 0.422 g lysine/100g product, the product shelf life was predicted at temperatures different from those of experimental conditions. At temperatures below 30C, the shelf life would be extended up to 9 months at 15C, 6 months at 20C and 3 months at 28C, as a function of the chosen indicator.

  6. Criterios más utilizados para la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información en salud disponibles en Internet

    Elizabeth Ramos Sánchez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La evaluación de la calidad de los recursos de información disponibles en Internet es una preocupación importante para sus usuarios. Con el objetivo de identificar los criterios más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de los documentos recuperados en la red y sus sitios de referencia, se realizó una revisión del tema con el auxilio de los conocidos buscadores Google, Yahoo, Altavista, en las bases de datos Medline y DoIS, así como en revistas especializadas. La calidad de la información de los sitios de salud disponibles en Internet es muy variable, desde excelente hasta muy pobre, debido a la libertad de publicación existente y la ausencia de proceso de revisión. A pesar de la diversidad de normas y guías desarrolladas para la evaluación, los criterios de Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman y Grassian, pioneros en esta materia, presentan altos índices de citación entre los trabajos más actuales. Aunque no existe consenso entre los autores sobre el conjunto de principios y criterios a utilizar, es posible identificar elementos comunes en sus propuestas. Son muchos los sitios que no reúnen los más mínimos patrones de calidad. Es necesario, por ende, desarrollar habilidades, tanto para la búsqueda como para la evaluación de la calidad de la información disponible en los sitios. Sin una valoración previa, nunca deberá considerarse como un recurso de información para una investigación científica, un sitio o un documento recuperado en la red.The quality assessment of information resources available in Internet is a great concern for users. A review was carried out, aim at identifying the most used criteria to assess quality of web retrieval documents and its sites of references with the assistance of the well known search engines: Google, Yahoo, Altavista, in Medline and DoIS databases and specialized journals. The information quality from the health sites available in Intenet is diverse, varying from excellent to very poor, due to publication freedom and also the lack of review process. In spite of the diversity of patterns and guides developed for the assessment, the Caywood, Ciolek, Smith, Tilman, and Grassian criteria, pioneers in this field, presented the highest citation indexes among the most actual researches. Although the authors are not agree with the principles and criteria to be used, the identification of common elements in their proposals is possible. Most of the sites did not fulfill the minimal quality patterns. The development of abilities for searching and quality assessment, is needed. Without a previous assessment, a site or a web retrieved document could be never considered as an information resource for a scientific research.

  7. Recursos bibliográficos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias y residuos peligrosos y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005

    Javier Sanz-Valero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Internet se ha convertido en una fuente de información biomédica cada vez más utilizada. La documentación producida por las instituciones públicas y privadas, en relación con las sustancias peligrosas que se pueden recuperar en Internet, es fundamental para la prevención de este tipo de riesgos.Objetivo. Localizar y revisar los documentos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias peligrosas, residuos peligrosos, incluyendo inertes, y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005. Material y método. Estudio descriptivo transversal de los resultados de las búsquedas bibliográficas efectuadas en Internet, en las correspondientes bases de datos. Resultados. Se han reconocido 162 registros que cumplen con los requisitos señalados en la metodología preestablecida. Discusión. Con respecto a la documentación medioambiental pre- sente en Internet, parece conveniente incrementar su difusión y mejorar su clasificación y accesibilidad.

  8. CALCULANDO EL NIVEL DE RECURSOS DISPONIBLES A PARTIR DEL REGISTRO FUNERARIO MESOAMERICANO (Calculating the Available Resource Level from the Mesoamerican Mortuary Record

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo del nivel de recursos disponibles a partir del registro funerario no solo es posible sino que arroja resultados espectaculares que aclaran cuestiones tan fundamentales como la naturaleza del cambio demográfico. Constituye un nuevo logro relevante de la arqueología de los fenómenos sociales como disciplina verdaderamente científica. Su aplicación a la Mesoamérica prehispánica confirma la coincidencia entre los resultados obtenidos para este nuevo parámetro en las tierras bajas mayas y los de la cuenca del río Balsas (México durante el Clásico Tardío. ENGLISH: The calculation of the availability of resources from the mortuary record is possible and yields dramatic results that clarify fundamental questions such as the nature of demographic change. It is a new and important achievement of the archaeology of social phenomena as a truly scientific discipline. Its application to prehispanic Mesoamerica confirms the similarity of the results obtained in the Mayan lowlands and those from the Balsas river basin in Mexico during the Late Classic.

  9. Recursos disponibles para la proteccin de mujeres migrantes en trnsito por Tamaulipas / Resources available (few) for the protection of migrant women transit by Tamaulipas

    Roco, Crdenas-Rodrguez; Blanca Delia, Vzquez Delgado.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La labor del gobierno mexicano en materia de poltica migratoria es una estrategia para administrar el flujo de migrantes en trnsito rumbo a Estados Unidos, no para salvaguardar su integridad y derechos, menos an est diseada para proteger a las mujeres. En esa medida, el inters de este artculo [...] es hacer evidentes los escasos recursos de proteccin disponibles para migrantes y la ausencia de perspectiva de gnero en los recursos de apoyo para mujeres en trnsito por Mxico. A travs de entrevistas a autoridades y organismos sociales en la frontera de Tamaulipas y con base en el enfoque del modelo ecolgico, se evaluaron los recursos de la poltica pblica mexicana como elementos amortiguadores para los migrantes, frente a riesgos y elementos de vulnerabilidad de la mujer en trnsito. Abstract in english The work of the Mexican government immigration policy is a strategy to manage the flow of migrants in transit heading for the U.S., not to safeguard their integrity and rights, much less is designed to protect women. To that extent, the interest is to make clear the limited resources available for m [...] igrant protection and the absence of a gender perspective in support resources for women in transit through Mexico. Through interviews with authorities and social organizations on the border of Tamaulipas, and based on the ecological model approach, were evaluated the resources of Mexican public policy as damping elements for migrants face risks and vulnerability elements woman in transit.

  10. Grado de acidez y potencial erosivo de las bebidas energizantes disponibles en Chile / Acidity and erosive potential of energy drinks available in Chile

    MC, Fresno; P, Angel; R, Arias; A, Muoz.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace una dcada estn disponibles en el mercado nacional, tanto bebidas como otros productos energticos. Su popularidad ha ido en aumento, sin embargo su consumo no est exento de riesgos. La cafena es el ingrediente activo principal de estas bebidas y el consumo excesivo puede llegar a caus [...] ar alteraciones en la salud general. Mucha gente las bebe a diario sin estar consciente del dao potencial que puede significar para su salud y sus dientes, especialmente en el caso de nios y adolescentes. En Chile, la acidez de estas bebidas es desconocida. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el pH de las bebidas energticas presentes en el mercado chileno, estableciendo su potencial erosivo sobre los dientes. Metodologa: La muestra qued formada por 8 diferentes bebidas energticas disponibles en Chile. El pH fue evaluado con un pHmetro calibrado (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH/Ion 510) a 4C y 17C. Los resultados obtenidos fueron registrados y analizados estadsticamente. Resultados: El rango de pH oscil entre 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) y 3.30 (Red Bull). El promedio fue 2.88 a 4C y 2.89 a 17C. Conclusiones: Todas las muestras estudiadas tuvieron pH cido, haciendo de ellas bebidas potencialmente erosivas para los dientes. Los valores de pH fueron menores a 4C que a 17C, pero sin diferencias estadsticamente significativas (p>0.05). Abstract in english For a decade, energy drinks and other energy products have been available in the national market, and their popularity has increased. The consumption is not risk free, though. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in these drinks and an excessive consumption may be dangerous for general health. Man [...] y people drink them daily without being aware of the potential risk they pose on their health and teeth, especially on children and adolescents. Currently, the acidity of those beverages is unknown in Chile. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pH of energy drinks, and correlate it with their erosive potential on teeth. Methodology: 8 different energy drinks available in Chile constituted the sample. pH was measured with a calibrated digital pHmeter (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH / Ion 510) at 4C and 17C. The results obtained were registered and statistically analyzed. Results: pH values ranged from 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) to 3.30 (Red Bull) the mean pH was 2.88 and 2.89, at 4C and 17C respectively. Conclusions: All of the beverages showed low pH, which makes them potentially erosive for hard dental tissue. The pH values were lower at 4C than at 17C, but without statistical significance (p>0.05).

  11. Validacin de la metodologa para la determinacin cuantitativa de plomo en tintes cosmticos disponibles en el mercado nacional por espectroscopia de absorcin atmica con llama

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se valid la metodologa analtica para determinar cuantitativamente plomo en tintes cosmticos disponibles en el mercado nacional, por el mtodo de espectroscopia de absorcin atmica con llama. Las muestras se digirieron por digestin hmeda con HNO3 al 65 % m/men horno de microondas; el porcentaje de recuperacin para la digestin de muestras de 0,25 g y 0,45 g en 5,00 mL fue de 100,50,5. El mbito de linealidad ptimo fue del lmite de deteccin a 5,0 mg/L con un coeficiente de correlacin de 0,9998.Los lmites de deteccin y los lmites de cuantificacin determinados grficamente por el mtodo de corredor de errores para regresin lineal fueron de 0,12 0,02 mg/L y 0,210,02 mg/L, respectivamente. Se evalu la precisin determinando la repetitividad como desviacin estndar de 5 rplicas de un tinte positivo para plomo, de acuerdo con la definicin de la ISO,2?2*?, y se obtuvo un valor de 2,3. La veracidad se determin por medio de los porcentajes de recuperacin evaluados, agregando alcuotas de patrones de plomo a muestras de tinte y comparndolo con muestras de igual masa a las que no se les realiz adicin. Las muestras de tintes se obtuvieron en puestos de venta, tales como farmacias, suplidoras de belleza,supermercados, centros de ventas de productos naturales y el mercado central de San Jos. De los tintes analizados, de marca Youthair, de fabricacin norteamericana, Doni, Mont DOr, Matador y Siempre Joven, producidos localmente, contienen acetato de plomo como ingrediente activo

  12. Elements for the determination of the best possible technique for the domestic wastes incinerators; Elements pour la determination de la meilleure technique disponible pour les incinerateurs de dechets menagers

    Chefdebien, H. de [Federation Nationale des Activites de la Depollution et de l' Environnement (FNADE), 75 - Paris (France); Descat, M. [Syndicat National du Traitement et de la Valorisation des Dechets Urbains et Assimiles (SVDU), 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Without NO{sub x} up-take device, the incinerators contribute to 1,2% of the NO{sub x} emissions, in France. Two processes are industrially implemented. The SNCR which enables to obtain less than 200 mg/Nm{sup 3} and the SCR which reaches less than 80 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The SCR cost is approximately more expensive than with the SNCR. This document evaluates and compares the two processes, taking into account the regulation framework and the environmental policy and the plan of protection of the atmosphere (PPA). (A.L.B.)

  13. Diseño en ingeniería orientada a la capacidad tecnológica disponible; Engineering Design to the Available Technological Capacity Oriented

    Genovevo F Morejón Vizcaíno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos de los resultados de la tesis doctoral: "Primera etapa del proceso de desarrollo de unhidromotor de alto par: Conceptualización y prototipo analítico". Se analiza un nuevo enfoque de diseño deingeniería con gran interés para los países que poseen una baja capacidad tecnológica en su industriametalmecánica, denominado: Desarrollo de nuevos productos orientado a la capacidad tecnológica disponible.La característica distintiva de esta metodología es el empleo de la capacidad tecnológica contenida en losproductos normalizados para diseñar otros con el objetivo de satisfacer necesidades sociales. Asimismo, sepropone una aplicación sobre el desarrollo de un nuevo tipo de hidromotor de pistones radiales llamado,hidromotor con cilindros tubulares radiales. (HCTR, el cual posee prestaciones competitivas y puede serconstruido por los países del tercer mundo. El objetivo de este trabajo no es dar una explicación pormenorizadade la metodología, sino mostrar su existencia y la gran utilidad que esta posee.  This paper presents the work of a doctoral thesis on "First stage of the process of development of a hydro-motor of high torque: conceptualisation and analytic prototype". A new focus of design is discussed. It isconvenient for the countries that possess a low technological capacity in industry. This new focus was nominatedas the process of development of new products guided to the available technological capacity, and theirdistinctive characteristic is that it uses the technological capacity contained in the products normalised todesign products to satisfy social necessities, that in another way they are impossible to design for theirelaboration demands. In an application of this procedure, a new type of hydro-motor of radial pistons wasobtained with competitive benefits that it can be built by the countries of the third world. The objective of thispaper is not to give an itemised explanation of the methodology, But showing its existence and the great utilitythat this it possesses.

  14. Estudio sobre la pertinencia del uso de las normas disponibles del Raven en adultos mayores chilenos Estudo sobre a pertinência da utilização das normas disponíveis de Raven em idosos chilenos Study on the relevance of using available norms Raven in Chileans older adults

    Cristina Alarcón Paz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de la inteligencia en población adulto mayor ha aumentado su relevancia debido al incremento de la esperanza de vida. Este estudio centra su interés en la pertinencia de normas disponibles para el Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven para dicha población. Se utilizaron normas de Colchester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, las más completas existentes. Participaron 102 adultos mayores voluntarios (más de 60 años. El diseño fue no experimental transversal correlacional. Los resultados indican que las normas resultan poco exigentes para ese grupo y que existen diferencias significativas entre los adultos de la tercera y cuarta edad, privilegiando a los del primer grupo. El índice de discrepancia mostró alta sensibilidad, indicando que la distribución de puntajes esperados no se corresponde al de la población general. Se discuten los resultados en torno a la necesidad de actualización de las normas y la consideración de las nuevas características de este periodo vital.A avaliação da inteligência na população idosa tem aumentado sua importância devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida. Este estudo está centrado na relevância das normas disponíveis para o teste de Matrizes Progressivas de Raven para essa população. Foram utilizadas as normas de Colchester (1942, citado por Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, as mais completas disponíveis. Participaram 102 idosos voluntários (com idade superior a 60 anos. O desenho do estudo foi não experimental transversal correlacional. Os resultados indicam que as normas são pouco exigentes para esse grupo e que existem diferenças significativas entre os adultos da terceira e quarta idade, privilegiando o primeiro grupo. O índice de discrepância mostrou alta sensibilidade, indicando que a distribuição de pontuações esperadas não corresponde a da população em geral. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à necessidade de atualização das normas e da consideração das novas características desse período vital.The assessment of intelligence in the elderly population has increased its importance in terms of increased life expectancy. The present study focuses its interest on the relevance of available norms for Raven Progressive Matrices Test in the evaluation of elderly population. Standards were used Colchester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, the most comprehensive available. The non-probability sample involved 102 elderly (aged over 60 years old who were volunteers. The study used a non-experimental cross-correlation design. The results indicate that the current norms are not very demanding for the aging population, and that there are significant differences between adults of the third and fourth age, better for the first group. Moreover, the discrepancy index showed high sensitivity, indicating that the expected distribution of scores does not correspond to the general population. Results are discussed regarding the need to update the norms and the consideration of the new features involved in this vital period.

  15. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE

    Alexia TORRES; Marisa GUERRA; Yrelur ROSQUETE

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temper...

  16. Exigência em fósforo disponível para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo Dietary phosphorus requirement for fingerlings Nile Tilápia

    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato; Maria Julia Santa Rosa; Margarida Maria de Barros; Igo Gomes Guimarães

    2006-01-01

    O fósforo se destaca como um dos minerais mais importantes na nutrição animal. Apresenta-se pouco disponível em alimentos de origem vegetal por estar quimicamente ligado a outros minerais e nutrientes, em que se denomina fósforo fítico ou fitato. Desta forma, objetivou-se avaliar diferentes níveis de fósforo disponível em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), por meio do ganho em peso, do consumo de ração aparente, da conversão alimentar aparente, da eficiência alim...

  17. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE

    Alexia TORRES; Marisa GUERRA; ROSQUETE Yrelur

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temper...

  18. Exigência de fósforo disponível para tilápia-do-nilo (35 a 100 g Available phosphorus requirement of Nile tilapia (35 to 100 g

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a exigência de fósforo disponível para tilápias-do-nilo. Utilizaram-se 144 peixes com peso vivo inicial de 35,33 ± 0,66 g, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Foram fornecidas dietas com 29,0% PB, 2.980 kcal/kg de energia digestível (ED e quatro níveis de fósforo disponível (0,25; 0,35; 0,45 ou 0,55%, obtidos pela utilização de fosfato bicálcico como fonte de fósforo. As dietas foram fornecidas aos peixes três vezes por dia, até aparente saciedade, durante 46 dias. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de fósforo disponível na dieta sobre o índice hepatossomático, a taxa de sobrevivência e os teores de água e proteína bruta na carcaça. O aumento dos níveis de fósforo disponível na dieta promoveu aumento linear do ganho de peso médio, da excreção de fósforo e dos teores de cinza na carcaça e de cinzas, cálcio e fósforo nos ossos. Houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de fósforo disponível sobre o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e a taxa de eficiência protéica, que foram melhores nos níveis 0,37; 0,48 e 0,48% de fósforo disponível, respectivamente. A exigência de fósforo disponível para tilápia-do-nilo de 35 a 100 g é de 0,48% (0,53% na matéria seca.The objective of this work was to determine the available phosphorus requirement of Nile tilapia. A total of 144 fishes with initial weight 35.33 ± 0,66g LW were distributed to a completely randomized blocks design, with four treatments and three replicates. Diets with 29.0% CP and 2980 kcal/kg DE and four available phosphorus levels (0.25; 0.35; 0.45 e 0.55% were used. The dicalcium phosphate was used as phosphorus source. The diets were fed to the fishes three times a day to apparent satiation, during 46 days. No significant effect of dietary available phosphorus on hepatosomatic index, survival rate and carcass water and protein contents were observed. The increase of available phosphorus levels in the diet promoted linear increase of average weight gain and phosphorus excretion, and content of ash in carcass and ashes, calcium. There was a quadratic effect of dietary available phosphorus on feed intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio and the best values were obtained with 0.37, 0.48 and 0.48%, respectively. Dietary requirement of available phosphorus for Nile tilapia from 35 to 100 g is 0.48% (0.53% DM.

  19. Extratores de silício disponível em escórias e fertilizantes Extractors of available silicon in slags and fertilizers

    H. S. Pereira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos para quantificar o silício (Si disponível em fertilizantes e escórias não têm sido confiáveis até o momento. Neste estudo, determinou-se o Si extraído de diversas fontes, utilizando como extratores: Na2CO3 + NH4NO3, variando concentração, tempo de agitação e de reação; água; HCl 0,5 mol dm-3; Na2CO3 a 50 g dm-3; ácido cítrico a 50 g dm-3; ácido acético 0,5 mol dm-3; resina trocadora de cátions (Amberlite IRC-50, pK 6,1, além do método da coluna de lixiviação. Paralelamente, desenvolveu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, com arroz irrigado, com aplicação de 125 kg ha-1 de Si total, proveniente de 12 fontes. O tempo de agitação mostrou não ser fundamental na determinação do Si, embora o resultado de três horas tenha sido superior estatisticamente aos demais. As concentrações de 10 + 16 g dm-3 e 30 + 48 g dm-3 de Na2CO3 + NH4NO3 mostraram-se as mais promissoras na extração de Si; por isso a menor concentração (10 + 16 g dm-3 foi escolhida para avaliar as fontes quanto ao tempo de repouso. Durante o período de repouso, verificou-se que todas as fontes apresentaram aumento na liberação de Si ao longo do tempo, tendo o período de 5 a 9 dias apresentado melhor correlação entre o Si extraído pelo arroz e o Si recuperado na análise das várias fontes. A extração com Na2CO3 + NH4NO3 dos fertilizantes com Si pode representar, com um bom grau de confiabilidade, o potencial de liberação deste elemento no solo e aproveitamento pelas plantas. As fontes mais eficientes na liberação de Si para o arroz foram a Rhodia, seguida da Wollastonita, enquanto as fontes MB-4 e escórias de alto-forno foram as que menos liberaram Si. Os extratores ácidos demonstraram ser mais eficientes na extração de Si das escórias de alto-forno e pouco eficientes com a Wollastonita. A água foi o extrator com a menor taxa de recuperação de Si das fontes testadas. Os extratores que apresentaram melhores correlações entre o Si recuperado e o Si extraído pela cultura do arroz foram a resina Amberlite e o Na2CO3 10 g dm-3 + NH4NO3 16 g dm-3, seguidos pela coluna de lixiviação.Methods to quantify available silicon (Si in fertilizers and slags are not yet sufficiently trustworthy. In this study, Si extracted from several sources was analyzed, using the extractors: Na2CO3 + NH4NO3 in varying concentration, time of agitation and of reaction; water; HCl 0,5 mol dm-3; 50 g dm-3 of Na2CO3; 50 g dm-3 of citric acid; 0,5 mol dm-3 of acetic acid; acid cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-50, pK 6.1; and the leaching column method. A greenhouse experiment, where 125 kg ha-1 of total Si from 12 different sources was applied on irrigated rice, was also conducted. For the determination of Si, shaking duration was not essential, although 3 h of shaking entailed a statistically superior result. The concentrations of 10 + 16 g dm-3 and 30 + 48 g dm-3 of Na2CO3 + NH4NO3 proved to be the most promising for Si extraction. The smaller concentration (10 + 16 g dm-3 was therefore chosen to evaluate Si sources in relation to settling time. All Si sources increased solubility during the rest time period. The best correlation between Si uptake by the rice plants and Si detected in the various analyzed sources was found in the period between day 5 and 9. According to the results, extractor Na2CO3 + NH4NO3 evaluates Si in fertilizers adequately and can be used as method to determine the potential Si release in the soil and its availability for plants. The most efficient source for Si solubilization for rice was Rhodia, followed by Wollastonita, while the sources MB-4 and blast furnace slag provided less available Si. The acid extractors were more efficient at extracting Si from blast furnace slags and less efficient with Wollastonita. Water was the extractor that presented the lowest Si recovery rate. The best correlation between Si contents and uptake by the rice crop were achieved by the extractors resin Amberlite and Na2CO3 10 g dm-3 + NH4NO3 16 g dm-3, followed by the column-method.

  20. Modelagem e quantificação da incerteza espacial do potássio disponível no solo por simulações estocásticas

    Ismênia Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho da simulação sequencial gaussiana (SSG e da simulação sequencial indicatriz (SSI na modelagem da incerteza das predições do K disponível em área de cana-de-açúcar, e comparar as simulações com o método já consagrado de krigagem ordinária (KO. Uma malha amostral com 626 pontos foi instalada em área de 200 ha, no Município de Tabapuã, em São Paulo. As simulações reproduziram a variabilidade dos dados amostrais de K disponível, enquanto a KO superestimou os baixos teores de K e subestimou os altos. O mapa de desvio-padrão obtido a partir da KO mostrou menor variação ao longo da área de estudo, quando comparado aos mapas obtidos a partir das simulações. A SSI obteve acurácia 22% superior à obtida pela SSG, na modelagem da função de distribuição condicional do K. As simulações apresentam maior eficiência que a KO para modelar incerteza na distribuição espacial do K. A SSI apresenta melhor desempenho que a SSG na estimativa dos teores de K disponível, em área de cana-de-açúcar.

  1. Absorção de água pelas plantas: água disponível versus extraível e a produtividade das culturas Water absorption by plants: available versus extractable soil water and crop production

    Reimar Carlesso

    1995-01-01

    Um aspecto importante, no entendimento da relação entre a absorção de água e a produção das culturas, é como ocorre o balanço no suprimento de água do solo para satisfazer a demanda evaporativa da atmosfera. O suprimento de água é determinado pela habilidade da cultura em utilizar a água armazenada no solo e, a demanda, por outro lado, é determinada pela combinação dos fatores meteorológicos interagindo com o "dossel" vegetativo da cultura. Apesar da abundante literatura disponível, diferente...

  2. Animation et culture scientifique et technique : l'observatoire astroamateur de Narbonne

    Cazenove, J.

    2013-01-01

    L'Observatoire Astronomique amateur de Narbonne dont nous présentons les principales réalisations est une structure périscolaire permettant aux élèves de faire des Sciences pratiques techniques et culturelles, en dehors de toute contrainte imposée par un programme officiel. The demands of the official curriculum and the requirements of the scientific method used in the teaching of Physics don't allow us too much latitude in the classroom. Therefore the means to have full discretion to act are...

  3. DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability

    MAX S ECHEVERRIA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingresa los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se interpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes.A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines the links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak connections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

  4. Etude de techniques de classement "Machines à vecteurs supports" pour la vérification automatique du locuteur

    Kharroubi, Jamal

    2002-01-01

    Les SVM (Support Vector Machines) sont de nouvelles techniques d'apprentissage statistique proposées par V.Vapnik en 1995. Elles permettent d'aborder des problèmes très divers comme le classement, la régression, la fusion, etc... Depuis leur introduction dans le domaine de la Reconnaissance de Formes (RdF), plusieurs travaux ont pu montrer l'efficacité de ces techniques principalement en traitement d'image. L'idée essentielle des SVM consiste à projeter les données de l'espace d'entrée (appar...

  5. Control de admisin para redes mviles AD HOC con base en estimacin de ancho de banda disponible / Control of admission for AD HOC mobile network based on estimates available bandwidth

    Marco A, Alzate; Leydi J, Tmara.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los algoritmos de control de admisin en redes alambradas pueden monitorear el trfico sobre cada uno de los enlaces punto-a-punto con el fin de determinar el ancho de banda disponible para los flujos a lo largo de diferentes rutas y basar su decisin en la diferencia entre el ancho de banda disponi [...] ble y el ancho de banda requerido. Infortunadamente, esto no es posible en una red mvil ad hoc (MANET) por varias razones, entre las que se destacan dos: (1) en la MANET, una transmisin entre dos nodos adyacentes consume el ancho de banda de muchos nodos vecinos, lo cual dificulta la estimacin del ancho de banda disponible. (2) Un nodo que se admite tiene un efecto sobre la red que va mucho ms all de reducir el ancho de banda disponible en una cantidad previsible; al contrario, puede afectar la distribucin espacial de los flujos existentes as como las probabilidades de colisin. En estas condiciones, no es fcil para un algoritmo de control de admisin determinar la magnitud de los flujos que deben ser admitidos para aprovechar los recursos de comunicacin sin saturar la red. Este es un artculo de reflexin en el que discutimos algunos de los principales aspectos asociados con la interaccin entre estos dos problemas fundamentales y proponemos un nuevo enfoque de investigacin al respecto. Abstract in english The admission control algorithms in wired networks can monitor traffic on each of the links point-to-point in order to determine the available bandwidth for the flows along different routes and base their decision the difference between the available bandwidth and the bandwidth required. Unfortunate [...] ly, this is not possible in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) for several reasons, among which two stands out: (1) In the MANET, a transfer between two adjacent nodes consumes the bandwidth of many neighbors, which difficult to estimate the available bandwidth. (2) A node that supports has an effect on the network that goes far beyond reducing the bandwidth available in a predictable amount, on the contrary, it can affect the spatial distribution of existing flows and the likelihood of collision. In these conditions, it is easy for an admission control algorithm to determine the magnitude of the flows should be admitted to exploit the resources of communication without saturating the network. This is a refection article where we discuss some major issues associated with the interaction between these two fundamental problems and propose a new approach to investigation.

  6. E-investigación: una introducción para principiantes (y escépticos) a las fuentes de ciencia política disponibles en la web

    Mauro Calise; Rosanna De Rosa

    2009-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo de revisión es el de contribuir al seguimiento y el debate de los cambios en el entorno de la investigación electrónica. Vamos a presentar una visión general (adaptado principalmente a los neófitos del ciberespacio) de algunos de los mejores recursos electrónicos disponibles en línea para la ciencia política, la elaboración de nuestra experiencia como editores de IPSA-Portal, el sitio web de la Asociación Internacional de Ciencia Política dedicada a la selección ...

  7. Eficácia das vacinas comercialmente disponíveis contra a infecção pelo papilomavírus em mulheres: revisão sistemática e metanálise

    Silvia Cristina Fonseca de Araujo; Rosângela Caetano; Jose Ueleres Braga; Frances Valéria Costa e Silva

    2013-01-01

    Infecção persistente por HPV é condição necessária para ocorrência de câncer do colo de útero. Visando a reduzir sua incidência, foram desenvolvidas vacinas profiláticas contra HPV, existindo duas formulações comercialmente disponíveis: bivalente (subtipos 16 e 18) e quadrivalente (6, 11, 16 e 18). Realizou-se uma metanálise da eficácia dessas vacinas em mulheres, com foco na avaliação estratificada por desfechos clínicos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) publicados entre 2000 e 2009 foram...

  8. Zinco total e disponível em amostras de perfis de solos do estado de São Paulo Total and available zinc in soil profiles from São Paulo state, Brazil

    Gustavo Souza Valladares; Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos; Cleide Aparecida Abreu; Otávio Antônio de Camargo; Jorge Paz Ferrero

    2009-01-01

    Em amostras dos horizontes A e B de vinte e oito perfis de unidades de solos representativas do Estado de São Paulo fez-se a determinação de zinco usando os extratores DTPA pH 7,3 (ZnDTPA); Mehlich-1 (ZnM1); HCl 0,1 mol L-1 (ZnHCl); EDTA (ZnEDTA); e, NH4OAc 1 mol L-1 (ZnAc). O teor total de zinco nas amostras de solo estava alto, entretanto, notou-se somente uma pequena fração na forma disponível. O zinco total foi mais influenciado pelo teor de óxido de ferro (r=0,75). Para os teores conside...

  9. Atributos morfológicos y fisiológicos de genotipos de Brachiaria en un suelo con bajo fósforo disponible y alta saturación de aluminio

    Sergio Mejía Kerguelen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se evaluaron en invernadero en un suelo de Matazul, Meta, Colombia durante 6 semanas, 2 genotipos de Brachiaria (uno mejor adaptado a bajo P, B. decumbens y otro menos adaptado, B. ruziziensis y 8 progenies del cruzamiento entre ellos ( mejores adaptados: H-7, H-40, H-28, H-58; menos adaptados: H-190, H-94, H-82, H-179. Los genotipos mejor adaptados presentaron mayor biomasa aérea, explicada por mayor área foliar, mayor absorción de P en el tallo y mayor volumen de raíz. Las características morfológicas de las raíces, principalmente longitud, peso seco y contenido de P, permiteron mejor adaptación a bajo P disponible en el suelo. El periodo de evaluación fue suficiente para observar diferencias entre progenies.

  10. Comportamento do sorgo granífero em função de diferentes frações da água disponível no solo Grain sorghum responses under several fractions of plant available water

    Marcia Xavier Peiter; Reimar Carlesso

    1996-01-01

    O comportamento morfológico e fisiológico das plantas de sorgo em relação à diferentes níveis de déficit hídrico tem sido caracterizado extensivamente. Entretanto, as respostas são dependentes do grau de severidade e duração do déficit. O objetivo desse experimento foi analisar o comportamento da cultura do sorgo quando submetida a diferentes frações da água disponível no solo. O experimento foi desenvolvido no ano agrícola de 1993/94, em lisímetros de drenagem, protegidos das precipitações p...

  11. Níveis de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados dos 60 aos 95 kg Available phosphorus levels in diets for barrows at 60 to 95 kg

    Cláudio Luiz Corrêa Arouca; Dalton de Oliveira Fontes; Francisco Carlos de Oliveira Silva; Martinho de Almeida e Silva; Fernanda Radicchi Campos Lobato de Almeida; Gerusa da Silva Sales Corrêa; Eriane de Paula; Douglas Haese

    2010-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de níveis de fósforo disponível (Pd) sobre o desempenho e a composição de carcaça de suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne. Utilizaram-se 60 suínos com peso inicial de 59,84 ± 1,64 kg distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco dietas (0,097; 0,190; 0,280; 0,370 e 0,460% de Pd), seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. As dietas experimentais e a água foram fornecidas à vontade até o final do período e...

  12. ÉTUDE THERMODYNAMIQUE DU PROCESSUS DE DÉPÔT PAR LA TECHNIQUE DU "MUR CHAUD" - APPLICATION AUX SYSTÈMES Pb-Te, Pb-Se, Pb-Se-Te

    Muller, M.; Liautard, B.; Astier, R.; Brun, G; Tedenac, J.

    1989-01-01

    La technique du Mur Chaud (H.W.E.) est une méthode simple permettant la croissance de films minces de semiconducteurs. Nous l'avons appliquée au système Pb-Se-Te. Nous développons tout d'abord, une étude théorique des conditions de dépôt permettant d'optimiser les paramètres expérimentaux. A partir du résultat de ces calculs, des couches de PbSe, PbTe et PbSe1-xTex ont été déposées et une première caractérisation par Microscopie Electronique à Balayage, diffraction des rayons X et spectrométr...

  13. Regional techniques for extreme rainfall and runoff prediction

    Mimikou, M. A.; Niadas, I.A.; Hadjissavva, P.S.; Kouvopoulos, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    Ce papier présente une technique régionale pour les précipitations extrêmes et la prévision des écoulements. La méthode utilise cinq abaques où sont associées les caractéristiques des crues et des averses ; ces abaques permettent de déduire la pointe de la crue de projet et son volume, une fois que la période de retour, la durée de l'averse et sa hauteur ont été déterminées. Les problèmes de non linéarité des bassins n'affectent pas la méthode qui se montre précise, rapide et simple. Ces qual...

  14. Proposta de um modelo do serviço de referência digital para a otimização de busca às informações disponíveis em catálogos digitais Propuesta de un modelo de Servicio Referencia Digital para la optimización de la búsqueda de la información disponible en los catálogos digitales

    Patrícia da Silva Moreno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O ambiente eletrônico para a disponibilização de informações vem incorporando com frequência os serviços oferecidos pelas bibliotecas, procurando proporcionar facilidades na localização de informações e de documentos nas redes eletrônicas. Entretanto, muitos usuários encontram dificuldades na interação com certas interfaces, o que torna a busca por in-formações desestimulante e muitas vezes estressante. Com a aplicação do agente de interface busca-se avaliar a atuação deste tipo de software como facilitador da interação do usuário com acervos disponíveis, via catálogos digitais. E ainda verificar através do experimento com o protótipo, baseado na metodologia de avaliação heurística quais ações deverão ser tomadas para a correção dos erros que afetam a usabilidade da interface, além de confirmar a hipótese de eficácia de um sistema dessa natureza. Como resultado demonstra-se a construção de um sistema que utiliza ação interdisciplinar entre a Ciência da Informação e a Ciência da Computação na otimização de busca às informações disponíveis em catálogos digitais e na Internet com a ação de um agente de interface como mediador.

  15. Estimación del gasto cardíaco: Utilidad en la práctica clínica. Monitorización disponible invasiva y no invasiva Estimating cardiac output: Utility in the clinical practice. Available invasive and non-invasive monitoring

    X. García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión pretende profundizar en el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco, sus variables y sus condicionantes, así como repasar exhaustivamente las diferentes técnicas disponibles para su monitorización y establecer las situaciones en que el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco nos aporta una información fundamental en el manejo del paciente crítico. La técnica de Fick, utilizada en los inicios para calcular el gasto cardíaco de los pacientes, ha sido sustituida hoy en día en la práctica clínica por los métodos de termodilución (transcardíaca o transpulmonar, litiodilución, biorreactancia, la tecnología basada en el efecto Doppler o la ecocardiografía. El análisis de la onda de pulso ha permitido la obtención de una medida continua y mínimamente invasiva del gasto cardíaco. Otros métodos, como la biorrectancia, el Doppler o la ecocardiografía nos permiten, en la actualidad, obtener medidas del gasto cardíaco de forma no invasiva, rápida y fiable.This aim of this review is to provide a detailed review of the physiologic conditions and variables of the cardiac output, as well as review the different techniques available for its measurement. We also want to establish the clinical situations in which the measurement of cardiac output can add valuable information for the management of critically ill patients. The Fick technique, used in the beginning to calculate cardiac output, has been replaced today by thermodilution techniques (transcardiac or transpulmonary, lithium dilution, bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography. Pulse wave analysis allows a continuous minimally invasive cardiac output measurement. Other methods, such bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography currently provide a valid, fast and non-invasive measurement of cardiac output.

  16. Extração de substratos para obtenção da concentração de micronutrientes disponíveis para a rúcula Extracting procedures to assess micronutrients availability for arugula plants

    Mônica Ferreira de Abreu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Vários desequilíbrios fisiológicos freqüentemente ocorrem em plantas cultivadas em substratos sem solo, causados pela falta ou excesso de micronutrientes, até o momento, não existe um método de rotina adequado para avaliar a disponibilidade deles para as plantas. Portanto, neste trabalho avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos que utilizam extratos em água (1:1,5 e o extrato de saturação, e o extrato com solução de DTPA/CaCl2 para avaliar a concentração disponível de micronutrientes disponíveis para a Eruca sativa L. (rúcula cultivada em substratos. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3X4, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de tipos de substratos (casca de pinus, fibra de coco e turfa e quatro concentrações de micronutrientes. Os substratos foram saturados e incubados com as soluções nutritivas até estabilizar a condutividade elétrica. Após, o substrato de cada parcela foi dividido, sendo uma parte para determinar os níveis do B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn pelos métodos 1:1,5, extrato de saturação e DTPA/CaCl2; a outra parte foi utilizada para cultivo da rúcula por 45 dias. De maneira geral, os métodos testados foram ineficientes em avaliar a disponibilidade de Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn para a rúcula. Por outro lado, houve correlação positiva entre as concentrações de B nos extratos obtidos pelos diversos métodos e a concentração de B na parte aérea da rúcula, com r>0,98**, independentemente do substrato utilizado. Todos os métodos podem ser utilizados na determinação do teor disponível de B às plantas, destacando-se o extrato de saturação com os melhores resultados.Physiological unbalances caused by micronutrient excess or deficiency are frequent in plants grown in soilless substrates and there exist no adequate routine method of analysis to assess micronutrient availability in the substrates. Therefore, the efficacy of water extracts (1:1.5 and saturation extract and DTPA/CaCl2 extract was evaluated to assess micronutrient availability to Eruca sativa L. (arugula grown in soilless substrates. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a completely randomized design, arranged in a 3x4 factorial, with five replications. The treatments consisted of three substrate types (pinus bark, coir and peat and four micronutrient concentrations. Substrates were saturated and incubated with nutrient solutions until electrical conductivity became constant. After that, each treated substrate sample was subdivided: one part for chemical analysis and the other to grow arugula plants during 45 days. On the overall, the tested methods were all inefficient to assess Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn availability to arugula. On the other hand, there was a positive correlation between leaf B concentration and B concentration in the different extracts (r>0.98**, independently of the substrate used. The best results were obtained with the saturation extract, but all methods can be used in routine analysis to assess B availability to plants of arugula.

  17. Qualidade da informação da internet disponível para pacientes em páginas em português Quality of internet information available to patients on websites in Portuguese

    Adriana Del Giglio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pacientes e seus familiares frequentemente procuram na internet informações a respeito de suas doenças. Diabetes mellitus (DM, hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS e infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM são muito prevalentes no Brasil, e informações sobre estas patologias são bastante procuradas na internet. Por isso, buscamos avaliar a qualidade da informação relacionada com estas doenças disponível em português na internet. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas as primeiras 20 páginas em português de cada uma das doenças escolhidas, através do algoritmo de busca do Google®. Como ferramentas para avaliar a qualidade da informação foram utilizados o Discern Questionnarie (DQ e o Health on Net (HON. Para saber se as informações eram adequadas, foram utilizadas as diretrizes (guidelines brasileiras e internacionais para as diferentes comorbidades. RESULTADOS: Ao avaliar o conteúdo das informações disponíveis, 45%, 95%, 85% das páginas continham, respectivamente, a definição de DM, HAS e IAM. Com relação ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento, somente 25% das páginas das três comorbidades apresentavam especificamente esta informação. Somente 15%, 20% e 10% das páginas tinham a certificação pelo HON, respectivamente. Em função do DQ, as páginas obtiveram notas maiores que 50% em 70% das páginas de DM, 65% nas de HAS e 55% nas de IAM. CONCLUSÃO: A informação disponível em português na internet sobre as três patologias escolhidas (DM, HAS e IAM é frequentemente inadequada e insuficiente.OBJECTIVE: Patients and their relatives often look for information about their diseases on the internet. Diabetes mellitus (DM, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI are the most prevalent in Brazil, thus, information on these pathologies is extremely searched for on the internet. For this reason, this study attempted to evaluate the quality of information available in Portuguese on the web regarding these disorders. METHODS: The first 20 websites in Portuguese for each disease through the Google® search algorithm were selected. The Discern Questionnaire (DQ and Health on the Net (HON were used as tools in order to evaluate the quality of information. To assess adequacy, international and Brazilian guidelines for different co-morbidities were used. RESULTS: When evaluating the information content available, 45%, 95%, and 85% of pages had the definition of DM, SAH, and AMI, respectively. Only 25% of the websites regarding the three co-morbidities had specific information on diagnosis and treatment. Only 15%, 20%, and 10% of the websites had HON certification, respectively. Using the DQ approach, scores higher than 50% were obtained in 70% of the DM websites, in 65% of SAH websites, and in 55% of the AMI websites. CONCLUSION: The available information in Portuguese on the internet regarding the three pathologies selected (DM, SAH, and AMI is quite often inadequate and insufficient.

  18. Variabilidade da água disponível de uma terra roxa estruturada latossólica Available soil-water variability of a "terra roxa estruturada latossólica" (rhodic kanhapludalf

    S.O. Moraes

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 250 curvas de retenção da água no solo, elaboradas com amostras indeformadas coletadas de uma área de 6250 m² de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada Latossólica de Piracicaba,SP, foram calculados quatro conjuntos de valores de água disponível assumindo-se -1x10³, -6x10³, -1x10(4 e -3x10(4 Pa como possíveis valores de potencial mátrico correspondentes à capacidade de campo e -1,5x10³ Pa um possível valor correspondente ao ponto de murchamento permanente. Foram feitas medidas de posição (média, variabilidade (coeficiente de variação, assimetria e curtose e numero necessário de amostras para estimar a média a um dado nível de probabilidade a fim de quantificar a variabilidade e a sensibilidade dos resultados em cada conjunto e entre conjuntos de valores de água disponível. A análise dos resultados mostrou que a variabilidade da água disponível, obtida à partir de dois valores de umidade da Curva de Retenção é muito maior que a variabilidade de cada valor individualmente. Ou seja, embora as variáveis envolvidas possam ser as mesmas, o grau de variabilidade (expresso, por exemplo, pelo coeficiente de variação ou a sensibilidade das medidas (expressa pelo número necessário de amostras para estimar a média dentro de um determinado intervalo de confiança pode ser bem distinto, indicando que nem sempre resultados de uma amostragem realizada com determinado objetivo poderá servir a outros, embora possam tratar-se de variáveis dependentes.From 250 soil-water retention curves of an area of 6250 m² of a "Terra Roxa Estruturada Latossólica" (Rhodic Kanhapludalf located in Piracicaba,SP, four sets of available soil-water were calculated assuming field capacity values based on soil-water contents corresponding to -1x10³, -6x10³, -1x10(4 and -3x10(4 Pa of soil water matric potential; and permanent wilting point based on soil-water contents corresponding to -1,5x10(6 Pa. Aiming to quantify the variability and the sensibility of the results for each set and among sets of soil available water values, the following calculations were made: position measurement (mean, variability (coefficient of variation, assimetry and kurtosis and the necessary number of samples to estimate the mean at a specific probability level. The analysis of the results has shown that the variability of available soil-water values is much greater than the variability of field capacity and of permanent wilting point values used in the calculation. That is, even though the envolved variables can be the same, the degree of variability (expressed by the necessary number of samples needed to estimate the mean within a choosen interval confidence can be very distinct, indicating that the results of a sampling, carried out for one specific objective can not always be used for another objective, even being dependent variables.

  19. Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield

    Solange França

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF, a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após a emergência (DAE em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M, aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi (A+E/M+C e ervilhaca/milho (E/M e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1 aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C. Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1. Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE, o maior IAF (4,41 e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%, enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE. O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1.This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI, shoot dry matter (SDM production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and oat + vetch/maize + cowpea - Vigna unguiculata and two rates of nitrogen (0 and 180 kg ha-1 applied to maize. In the 2000/2001 cropping year, four nitrogen rates were applied (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1. The estimated available N to the maize calculated from the contribution from the soil, cover crops and N fertilizer varied from 27 to 192 kg ha-1. All evaluated variables presented high dependence on available N, and reached its maximum level near to the highest level of available N (192 kg ha-1. With this level of availability, at the stage of pollination, the largest values of LAI (4.41 and the highest leaf N concentration were observed, however, the highest N accumulation in the above ground biomass was observed at the milk grain stage and the shoot dry matter accumulation at the dent stage. The maximum grain yield obtained was 8,920 kg ha-1, corresponding to 112 kg ha-1 of exported N by the grain.

  20. Absorção de água pelas plantas: água disponível versus extraível e a produtividade das culturas Water absorption by plants: available versus extractable soil water and crop production

    Reimar Carlesso

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Um aspecto importante, no entendimento da relação entre a absorção de água e a produção das culturas, é como ocorre o balanço no suprimento de água do solo para satisfazer a demanda evaporativa da atmosfera. O suprimento de água é determinado pela habilidade da cultura em utilizar a água armazenada no solo e, a demanda, por outro lado, é determinada pela combinação dos fatores meteorológicos interagindo com o "dossel" vegetativo da cultura. Apesar da abundante literatura disponível, diferentes critérios tem sido utilizados na determinação do momento de ocorrência e da duração de um déficit hídrico. Muita ênfase tem sido dada para a quantificação do consumo de água pelas plantas nos diferentes subperíodos de desenvolvimento e reduzida importância tem sido conferida a quantificação da quantidade de água disponível (extraível e seus efeitos no crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. Na discussão sobre a extração de água pelas plantas deve-se considerar, primeiramente, o problema da precisão na definição dos limites de disponibilidade de água. Esta publicação apresenta uma análise crítica das limitações normalmente encontradas na utilização dos limites de disponibilidade de água. A relação entre a água disponível e a água extraível do solo é analisada a partir de resultados sobre a taxa de transpiração e a tração de água extraível, a profundidade efetiva de extração do sistema radicular e, a extração de água por unidade de profundidade.An important issue to understanding the effect of water shortage on crop yield is how crops balance the supply of water from the soil to match the demand for water from the atmosphere. Supply is determined by the crop ability to utilise the stored soil water and, demand, on the other hand, is determined by a combination of metereological factors interacting with the crop canopy. Different criteria have been used to determine the timing and duration of water deficits despite the abundant literature available. Much attention has been given to the quantification of crop water consumption in different stages of development. However, considerations about the total amount of plant water available (extractable in the soil profile to affect plant growth and development have recieved little attention. A discussion of water extraction must first consider the problem of accurately defining the limits to soil water availability. This review presents a critical analysis of the limitations usually encountered in using the limits concept of soil water availability. The relationship between water available and extractable is analysed based on results of transpiration rates and fraction of available water, depth of water extraction and, extraction per unit soil depth.

  1. Determinantes de salud y polticas pblicas: identificacin de indicadores de problemas de salud y factores asociados, basada en datos disponibles / Health and public policy determinants: selection of indicators for health problems

    Alberto, Pradilla; lvaro, Rueda; Ligia, de Salazar; Jenny Andrea, Vlez; Elsa Patricia, Muoz.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: La planeacin en salud requiere de informacin, que est disponible, pero que no siempre se utiliza. Aunque los sistemas de informacin en salud aparecieron hace ms de tres dcadas, las decisiones del sector se dirigen al manejo de enfermedad y no a modificar los factores que la gener [...] a. El propsito del estudio fue evaluar la utilidad de datos disponibles en los diferentes sectores, para identificar grupos de poblacin con caractersticas similares, asociadas con problemas de salud e identificar marcadores sencillos que orienten la toma de decisiones para solucionarlos. Mtodos: Estudio ecolgico. Se identificaron, recolectaron y procesaron datos de instituciones pblicas y privadas y de estudios recientes. La asociacin y correlacin entre las diferentes variables permiti identificar aquellas con capacidad para discriminar grupos de poblacin con problemas similares. Resultados: El estrato de vivienda mostr asociacin significante con la mayora de variables y se utiliz para dividir los barrios de la ciudad en cuatro conglomerados. Los barrios pertenecientes a estratos ms bajos mostraron deficiencias en vivienda y educacin, mayor proporcin de poblacin menor de 18 aos, promedio de edad de muerte menor, menor estatura y mayor mortalidad perinatal y por accidentes y violencia. En los barrios de nivel medio y alto, se encontraron mejores condiciones de vivienda y tumores y enfermedades crnicas no transmisibles como las principales causas de muerte. La conexin a servicios pblicos fue similar en los hogares de todos los estratos, excepto el telfono. El promedio ponderado por estrato y por barrio explica ms de 80% de la varianza para la mayora de las variables analizadas. Se propone que este indicador, disponible en forma permanente, se emplee como instrumento para planes locales de desarrollo, con validaciones peridicas a fin de evaluar su capacidad en el tiempo. Abstract in english Introduction: Health planning requires information from all sectors, usually available, but not used frequently. Information systems in Health appeared more than 3 decades ago but decisions are usually taken on considerations directed to the solution of a manifestation without modification of causal [...] factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of available data to identify population groups with similar characteristics associated to health problems and to identify simple markers to serve as a basis for decisions directed to solve them. Methods: Ecological study. Data were identified, collected and collated from public institutions and from recent studies for analysis. Association and correlation among the different variables identified those with the capacity to discriminate population groups. Household socio economic stratum had a significant association with most variables and was used to divide Barrios in four conglomerates. Results: Lower conglomerates presented deficiencies in household and education, larger proportion of young population, lower mean death age, higher mortality caused by accidents and violence, and lower stature. Middle and higher income conglomerates had better household conditions and the principal cause of death was tumors and chronic diseases. Public services were similar for all except telephone. Weighed household stratum by neighborhood barrio explained more that 80% of variance for most variables. It is proposed that this marker, available and easy to obtain, the instrument to define local development plans with periodic validations to evaluate its capacity.

  2. Prsentation Technique - French version only

    2003-01-01

    Tuesday 9 September PRESENTATION TECHNIQUE From 09:00 - 12:00 - bldg. 40, S2-B01 Techniques de mesure: Acquisition, analyse et prsentation avec LabVIEW 7 Express National Instruments Switzerland Avec LabVIEW 7 Express, National Instruments inaugure une nouvelle re pour la programmation graphique dans le monde de la mesure et de l'automatisation. Pour la premire fois dans l'histoire de la programmation par flux de donnes, les antagonismes inconciliables entre la programmation et la configuration se laissent rduire au mme dnominateur et sont disponibles dans un environnement de dveloppement intgr. En outre, cette nouvelle version peut-tre supporte par une plus large palette de plates-formes et de matriels cibles : de Windows, Linux ou Mac OS X jusqu'aux PDA (assistants personnels) ou aux FPGA embarqus. Avec LabVIEW 7 Express, vous disposez d'un outil logiciel, qui vous permet de construire encore plus vite, plus facilement et moindres frais vos...

  3. Controle da qualidade das preparações de heparina disponíveis no Brasil: implicações na cirurgia cardiovascular Heparin quality control in the Brazilian market: implications in the cardiovascular surgery

    Eduardo I. Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A mudança na marca da heparina rotineiramente utilizada nas cirurgias cardíacas no Brasil tem sido acompanhada por aumento do número de casos de discrasia sanguínea, aumento de reoperações e efeitos adversos em nossa Instituição e em outras. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas no Laboratório de Tecido Conjuntivo do HUCFF/UFRJ, quatro preparações disponíveis e comparadas à heparina retirada do mercado (Liquemine e ao padrão de controle internacional. As preparações de heparina foram submetidas à ressonância nuclear magnética para avaliação da integridade estrutural, bem como avaliação de sua eficácia anticoagulante. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa quanto à atividade anticoagulante entre as amostras. Também se observou a presença de contaminação com dermatam sulfato, amostras degradadas quimicamente e com significativa alteração do peso molecular. CONCLUSÃO: Das amostras estudadas, nenhuma atendeu aos requisitos de segurança para utilização em cirurgias cardíacas com circulação extracorpórea. Nenhuma delas apresentou a qualidade semelhante ao Liquemine, não mais disponível no mercado brasileiro.INTRODUCTION: The change in the heparin solution trade mark in Brazil that had been commonly used in cardiac surgery has shown increased number in the coagulopathy, re-exploration and other side effects in our Institution and others. METHODS: All four different heparin solutions available in the Brazilian market were studied in the Connective Tissue Lab, HUCFF, UFRJ and compared to the Liquemine (out of the market and the international control solution. All samples were evaluated by magnetic nuclear resonance as well as their anticoagulant effectiveness. RESULTS: There were significant differences among them regarding the anticoagulant activity. It was also observed contamination with other dermatan sulfate, samples chemically degraded and with significant change in the molecular weight. CONCLUSION: Among the studied samples, none of them can offer security in cardiac surgeries on pump. None of them has demonstrated similar quality to Liquemine, which is not available in the Brazilian market.

  4. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  5. E-investigación: una introducción para principiantes (y escépticos a las fuentes de ciencia política disponibles en la web

    Mauro Calise

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo de revisión es el de contribuir al seguimiento y el debate de los cambios en el entorno de la investigación electrónica. Vamos a presentar una visión general (adaptado principalmente a los neófitos del ciberespacio de algunos de los mejores recursos electrónicos disponibles en línea para la ciencia política, la elaboración de nuestra experiencia como editores de IPSA-Portal, el sitio web de la Asociación Internacional de Ciencia Política dedicada a la selección y revisión los mejores e-hubs en nuestra disciplina. Sin embargo, al aventurarse en el ciberespacio de la ciencia política, vamos a tratar de ofrecer una comprensión más general de las principales tendencias que afectan la galaxia del internet. Por mucho que estemos tentados sólo para pegarnos a nuestro pequeño planeta, tenemos que ser conscientes de que es parte de, y surge de, un sistema mucho más grande.

  6. Los catlogos en lnea de acceso pblico del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: caractersticas del Proyecto UBACYT F054 / Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project

    Elsa E., Barber; Silvia, Pisano; Carolina, Gregui; Gabriela, De Pedro; Sofa, D' Alessandro; Sandra, Romagnoli; Vernica, Parsiale.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los lineamientos terico-metodolgicos del proyecto de investigacin UBACYT F054 (Programacin Cientfica y Tcnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007). Se analiza la problemtica de los catlogos en lnea de acceso pblico (OPACs) disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas [...] nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y pblicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulacin de la bsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnstico de situacin vlido para los catlogos de la regin. Plantea, adems, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temtica en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay. Abstract in english The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007) are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs) in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to M [...] ercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  7. Níveis de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados dos 60 aos 95 kg Available phosphorus levels in diets for barrows at 60 to 95 kg

    Cláudio Luiz Corrêa Arouca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de níveis de fósforo disponível (Pd sobre o desempenho e a composição de carcaça de suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne. Utilizaram-se 60 suínos com peso inicial de 59,84 ± 1,64 kg distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco dietas (0,097; 0,190; 0,280; 0,370 e 0,460% de Pd, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. As dietas experimentais e a água foram fornecidas à vontade até o final do período experimental, quando os animais pesaram 96,64 ± 3,68 kg. O ganho de peso aumentou e a conversão alimentar (CA melhorou de forma quadrática até os níveis estimados de 0,35 e de 0,33% de Pd das dietas, respectivamente. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre o consumo diário de ração. O consumo de fósforo disponível aumentou linearmente com o aumento dos níveis desse mineral na dieta. As dietas não influenciaram a atividade da enzima fosfatase alcalina. Entretanto, os valores de fósforo inorgânico no soro aos 21 dias e ao final do período experimental aumentaram de forma quadrática até o nível estimado de 0,35 e 0,38% na dieta, respectivamente. Os níveis de fósforo disponível afetaram de modo quadrático a profundidade de lombo, a taxa de deposição diária de carne magra e a quantidade de carne magra, que melhoraram, respectivamente, até o nível estimado de 0,35; 0,31 e 0,33% de Pd na dieta. Na fase dos 60 aos 95 kg, o nível de 0,33% de fósforo disponível na dieta, que corresponde a um consumo de 9,38 g de Pd/dia, proporciona melhor conversão conversão alimentar e maior quantidade de carne magra em suínos machos castrados híbridos comerciais selecionados geneticamente para deposição de carne na carcaça.The effects of available phosphorus levels on performance and carcass composition of barrows with high genetic potential for meat deposition were evaluated. Sixty swine with initial body weight of 59.84 ± 1.64 kg were assigned to a randomized block experimental design, with five diets (0.097; 0.190; 0.280; 0.370 and 0.460% aP, six replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Experimental diets and water were supplied ad libitum until the end of the experimental period, when animals reached 96.64 ± 3.68 kg. Weight gain and feed conversion improved in a quadratic way until the estimate levels 0.35 and 0.33% aP in the diets, respectively. There was no effect of the diets on daily feed intake. Consumption of available phosphorus linearly increased as levels of this mineral increased in the diet. The diets did not change activity of alkaline phosphatase enzym. However, values of serum inorganic phosphorus at 21 days of age and in the end of the experimental period increased in a quadratic way until the estimate level 0.35 and 0.38% in the diet, respectively. Levels of available phosphorus affected in a quadratic way loin depth, daily fat-free lean deposition rate, and the amount of fat-free lean which improved until the estimated level of 0.35; 0.31 and 0.33% of aP in the diet, respectively. In the phase from 60 to 95 kg, the level of 0.33% of aP in the diet, which corresponds to a 9.38 aP/day intake provided better feed conversion and a greater amount of fat-free lean meat in hybrid commercial barrows genetically selected for meat deposition on the carcass.

  8. The relationship between available P and selected biological properties in the rhizosphere of ten crop species under glasshouse conditions Relación entre el P disponible y algunas propiedades biológicas en la rizosfera de diez especies vegetales cultivadas en invernadero Relação entre o P disponível e um conjunto de propriedades biológicas selecionadas na rizosfera de dez espécies vegetais cultivadas em estufa

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cultivation of 10 agronomic plant species on selected biological activities and bioavailability of phosphorus (P in different sampling zones. The lowest available P was measured in the planted soil with Solanum lycopersicum. Helianthus annuus, Zea mays and Phasaeolous vulgaris had a relatively larger effect on the decrease of available P in the rhizosphere soil and in the soil adhering to the root mats. S. lycopersicum and P. vulgaris had the highest P concentration (> 980 mg kg-1 and H. annuus and Z. mays had the highest P uptake (17.62 mg pot-1 and 13.13 mg pot-1, respectively. The mean soil microbial biomass P (MBP was significantly high in the rhizophere soil and in the soil adhering to root mats of T. aestivum, Z. mays, S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum (> 16 mg kg-1. The mean spore numbers of glumales (SNG were significantly high in the rhizophere soil and in the soil adhering to root mats of P. vulgaris, S. lycopersicum, T. aestivum and Z. mays (> 167 N/10 g soil. The negative correlations of available P and soluble P with soil biological properties like SNG and alkaline phosphatase activity and the positive correlation with soil pH shows the importance of rhizomicroorganisms and glumales on P nutrition by plants in calcareous soil. Thus rhizosphere acidification of calcareous soil may not be as important as the improvement of biological properties in P uptake and acquisition by plants.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del cultivo de 10 especies de plantas vegetales sobre determinadas actividades biológicas y sobre la biodisponibilidad de fósforo (P en diferentes zonas de muestreo. El valor más bajo de P disponible se midió en el suelo con Solanum lycopersicum. Helianthus annuus, Zea mays y Phasaeolous vulgaris tuvieron un efecto relativamente mayor sobre la disminución de P disponible en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces. S. lycopersicum y P. vulgaris presentaron la concentración de P más elevada (> 980 mg kg-1 y H. annuus y Z. mays fueron las especies que mostraron una mayor asimilación de P (17,62 mg maceta-1 y 13,13 mg maceta-1, respectivamente. El contenido medio de P en la biomasa microbiana del suelo (MBP fue significativamente elevado en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces de T. aestivum, Z. mays, S. tuberosum y S. lycopersicum (> 16 mg kg-1. La media del número de esporas de glomales (SNG presentó valores elevados en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces de P. vulgaris, S. lycopersicum, T. aestivum y Z. mays (> 167 N/10 g suelo. Las correlaciones negativas entre el P disponible y soluble con propiedades biológicas del suelo, como el SNG y la actividad fosfatasa alcalina, así como la correlación positiva con el pH del suelo, pusieron de manifiesto la importancia de los microorganismos de la rizosfera y de los glomales sobre la nutrición fosfatada de especies vegetales en suelos calizos. Así, la acidificación de la rizosfera en suelos calizos podría no ser un factor tan importante en la asimilación y adquisición de P por las plantas como es la mejora de las propiedades biológicas.

    O objectivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, em diferentes zonas de amostragem, o efeito do cultivo de 10 espécies vegetais em determinadas propriedades biológicas selecionadas bem como na disponibilidade de fósforo (P. A menor disponibilidade de P observou-se nos solos cultivados com Solanum lycopersicum. A Helianthus annuus, Zea mays e o Phasaeolous vulgaris foram as espécies que tiveram um efeito mais acentuado no decréscimo do P disponível na rizosfera do solo e nas zonas do solo aderentes às raízes. S. lycopersicum e o P. vulgaris foram as espécies que apresentaram a maior concentração em P (> 980 mg kg-1 e a H. annuus e a Z. mays as que absorveram maior quantidade de P (17,62 mg vaso-1 e13,13 mg vaso-1 respectivamente. A média da biomassa microbiana de P (MBP apresentou valores significativamente elevados na rizosfera do solo e no solo aderente às raízes de T. aestivum, Z. mays, S. tuberosum e S. lycopersicum (> 16 mg kg-1. A média do número de glumelas dos esporos (SNG foi significativamente elevada na rizosfera do solo e nas zonas do solo aderentes às raízes nas espécies P. vulgaris, S. lycopersicum, T. aestivum e Z. mays (> 167 N/10 g solo. As correlações negativas entre o P disponível e o P solúvel com as propriedades biológicas do solo nomeadamente o SNG e a actividade da fosfatase alcalina e a correlação positiva com os valores de pH do slo demonstram a importância dos rizomicrorganismos e das glumelas na nutrição fosfatada das plantas instaladas em solos calcários. Assim para a aborção de P pelas plantas a acidificação pela rizosfera de solos calcários pode não ser tão importante como a melhoria de determinadas propriedades biológicas.

  9. Biodistribution et effet biologique des nanoparticules utilisant des techniques d’imagerie multimodale : (Imagerie de résonance magnétique)

    Faraj, Achraf Al,

    2009-01-01

    En raison de leurs propriétés uniques, des nanoparticules industriellement fabriquées comme les nanotubes de carbone (NTC) ont révolutionné le domaine de la nanotechnologie. Il apparait nécessaire de développer des techniques d’investigation in vivo basées sur les propriétés intrinsèques de ces particules et permettant un suivi longitudinal pour évaluer leur risque après inhalation accidentelle par voie respiratoire. Un protocole d’IRM pulmonaire non-invasive utilisant l’hélium-3 hyper polari...

  10. Copper availability as related to soil copper fractions in oxisols under liming Calagem e os teores disponíveis e as frações de cobre em latossolos

    Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the chemical forms of copper in soils and the relationships of these forms with soil copper availability are important for predicting the copper behavior in the soil-plant system. The present work studies the influence of liming on the available contents of copper as well as on the forms of copper fractions in six types of Oxisols. Soil samples, with and without liming, received copper at rates of 0.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg dm-3 and remained incubated for 30 days. Then, available copper was extracted with Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, DTPA and EDTA solutions, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Additionally, soil samples were extracted in a sequential procedure to determine Cu in fractions of soil, as follows: exchangeable-Cu fraction, organic matter-Cu fraction, Mn oxide-Cu fraction, amorphous Fe oxide-Cu fraction, crystalline Fe oxide-Cu fraction, residual-Cu fraction, and the total Cu content in the soil. Soil samples to which Cu was added presented higher Cu retention in the organic matter fraction with a small percentage retained in the exchangeable-Cu fraction. Liming resulted in a decrease of Cu in the exchangeable and organic matter fractions and an increase in the Fe and Mn oxide fractions and in the residual fraction. Without liming, the organic matter fraction presented the highest contribution to Cu content found in the soil extracts obtained with all extractors, except EDTA. For treatments with liming, Cu contents in the organic matter fraction were better correlated to Cu contents in extracts obtained with DTPA and Mehlich-3.O conhecimento das formas químicas em que se encontra o cobre em solos, e suas relações com os teores disponíveis, são importantes para a previsão do seu comportamento no sistema solo-planta. Nesse sentido, este trabalho estuda a influência da calagem sobre os teores disponíveis e sobre o fracionamento de Cu em amostras de seis Latossolos. Essas amostras, submetidas ou não a calagem, receberam o elemento nas doses de 0,0, 20,0 e 40,0 mg dm-3 e foram incubadas por 30 dias. Terminada a incubação, procedeu-se a extração de Cu utilizando-se os extratores Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, DTPA e EDTA. As amostras foram submetidas a um fracionamento que separou o Cu nas frações trocável, matéria orgânica, óxido de manganês, óxido de ferro amorfo, óxido de ferro cristalino e residual, além dos teores totais. Com sua aplicação ao solo o Cu foi retido, principalmente, na fração matéria orgânica, com pequena porcentagem retida na fração trocável. A calagem provocou redução nas frações trocável e matéria orgânica e aumento nas frações óxido de ferro, óxido de manganês e residual. Para os solos sem calagem, a fração matéria orgânica foi a que mais contribuiu para os teores determinados pelos extratores, com exceção do EDTA. Nos solos com calagem, o Cu ligado à matéria orgânica foi melhor correlacionado com os teores obtidos pelo DTPA e Mehlich-3.

  11. O uso de adoçantes na gravidez: uma análise dos produtos disponíveis no Brasil The use of sweeteners in pregnancy: an analysis of products available in Brazil

    Maria Regina Torloni

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os adoçantes são freqüentemente utilizados por mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Esta é uma revisão narrativa da literatura a respeito dos adoçantes atualmente comercializados no mercado brasileiro. Existem poucas informações sobre o uso da sacarina e ciclamato na gestação, e seus efeitos sobre o feto. Devido às limitadas informações disponíveis e ao seu potencial carcinogênico em animais, a sacarina e o ciclamato devem ser evitados durante a gestação (risco C. O aspartame tem sido extensivamente estudado em animais, sendo considerado seguro para uso na gestação (risco B, exceto para mulheres homozigóticas para fenilcetonúria (risco C. A sucralose e o acessulfame-K não são tóxicos, carcinogênico ou mutagênicos em animais, mas não existem estudos controlados em humanos. Porém, como esses dois adoçantes não são metabolizados, parece improvável que seu uso durante a gestação possa ser prejudicial (risco B. A estévia, substância derivada de uma planta nativa brasileira, não produz efeitos adversos sobre a gestação em animais, porém não existem estudos em humanos (risco B. Os agentes de corpo usados na formulação dos adoçantes (manitol, sorbitol, xilitol, eritrol, lactilol, isomalte, maltilol, lactose, frutose, maltodextrina, dextrina e açúcar invertido são substâncias consideradas seguras para o consumo humano. Concluindo, segundo as evidências atualmente disponíveis, o aspartame, a sucralose, o acessulfame e a estévia podem ser utilizados com segurança durante a gestação.Sweeteners are frequently used by women of reproductive age. This is a narrative review about the sweeteners currently sold in the Brazilian commerce. There is a few information on the use of saccharin and cyclamates in pregnancy and their effects on the fetus. Due to the limited information available and their carcinogenic potential in animal species, saccharin and cyclamates should be avoided during pregnancy (risk C. Aspartame has been extensively studied in animals and it is considered safe for use during pregnancy (risk B, except by women homozygous for phenylketonuria (risk C. Sucralose and acessulfame-K are not toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic in animals, but there are no controlled studies in humans. However, since these two sweeteners are not metabolized, it is unlikely that their use during pregnancy could be harmful (risk B. Stevia, a substance extracted from a native Brazilian plant, is innocuous in animal pregnancies, but there are no controlled studies in humans (risk B. Body agents found in the composition of artificial sweeteners (mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, erithrol, lactilol, isomalt, maltilol, lactose, fructose, maltodextrin, dextrin, and inverted sugar are substances generally regarded as safe for human consumption. In conclusion, according to the currently available evidence, aspartame, sucralose, acessulfame-K and stevia can be safely used during pregnancy.

  12. EVALUACIÓN ESPACIAL DEL NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE DEL SUELO EN UN CULTIVO DE PAPA cv. SPUNTA EN CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA Spatial evaluation of available soil nitrogen in a potato crop cv. Spunta in Córdoba, Argentina

    Antonio de la Casa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Un análisis espacial del N disponible en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta es necesario a fin de hacer un diagnóstico de la práctica de fertilización localizada y aportar evidencias sobre un potencial problema de riesgo ambiental por lavado de nitratos. Con este propósito se diseñó un esquema de muestreo durante la temporada 2000 que consistió de una grilla rectangular de 3 x 10 estaciones, en dos fechas (21/03 y 14/04 y a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm. El contenido de humedad del suelo en ambas fechas resultó elevado y escasamente variable (CV 52% fue muy superior a la humedad del suelo en ambas fechas. Una comparación localizada del N disponible mostró que en el estrato superficial el contenido de N-NO3- de toda el área fue siempre superior a 7,5 mg kg-1, considerada la disponibilidad mínima para un óptimo crecimiento de los tubérculos. Entre 20 y 40 cm, en cambio, el contenido de N fue menor en ambas fechas, y la cantidad de N en la segunda se presentó por debajo de 7,5 mg kg-1 en 31% del lote. Esta distribución vertical del N-NO3-, con mayor contenido en superficie, no garantiza un consumo uniforme de N entre 0 y 40 cm. Al mismo tiempo, la mayor acumulación de N-NO3- entre 0 y 20 cm demostró que no ocurrió lixiviación en el perfil.A spatial analysis of the available N in a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta is necessary in order to make a diagnosis of the local fertilization practice and to provide evidence on a potential environmental risk problem from nitrate wash. For this purpose a sampling scheme was designed during the 2000 season that consisted of a rectangular grid of 3 x 10 stations. Samples were taken on two dates (21/3 and 14/04 and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm. The soil water content on both dates resulted to be high and hardly variable (coefficient of variation (CV 52% was much higher than the soil water content on both dates. A localized comparison of the available N showed that in the superficial stratum the content of N-NO3- of all the area was always superior to 7.5 mg kg-1, considered the minimal availability for an optimum growth of the tubers. Between 20 and 40 cm, on the other hand, the content of N was smaller on both dates, and the quantity of N of the latter was below 7.5 mg kg-1 in 31% of the area. This vertical distribution of the N-NO3-, with greater content on the surface, does not guarantee a uniform consumption of N between 0 and 40 cm. At the same time, the greater accumulation of N-NO3- between 0 and 20 cm demonstrated that leaching did not occur in the profile.

  13. Classificação climatológica da energia potencial disponível para a convecção na cidade de Belém-PA

    Josiane Sarmento dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A classificação climatológica da Energia Potencial Disponível para a Convecção (CAPE foi estudada para verificar a possibilidade de ocorrer convecção e tipo de organização em Belém-PA, Brasil, associando-a com eventos extremos de precipitação (EEPRP. Para a análise da CAPE, utilizou-se dados de radiossondagens do DTCEA e de precipitação da estação do INMET, no período de 1987 a 2011. Observou-se que a atmosfera local apresenta condições favoráveis ao desenvolvimento de convecção profunda, pois a CAPE com valores maiores que 1000 J/kg foi a mais frequente, representando 61% de todas radiossondagens. O valor de 1000 J/kg, segundo alguns autores, é o limite para convecção profunda. As classificações CAPE 2 e 3 apresentaram tendências significativas de aumento ao longo dos anos, enquanto a CAPE 1 diminuição. Essa situação provavelmente é resultado do aumento da temperatura do ar ocorrido na cidade, impactando o valor da CAPE. Os resultados também mostraram que as correlações entre a CAPE e EEPRP, a CAPE e os Índices Oceânico do Pacífico e Gradiente Inter-Hemisférico do Atlântico foram baixas. Então, a CAPE não é condição suficiente para formação de nuvens e precipitação, pois forçantes dinâmicas de meso e grande escala contribuem decisivamente para modular o clima da cidade.

  14. Eficácia das vacinas comercialmente disponíveis contra a infecção pelo papilomavírus em mulheres: revisão sistemática e metanálise

    Silvia Cristina Fonseca de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infecção persistente por HPV é condição necessária para ocorrência de câncer do colo de útero. Visando a reduzir sua incidência, foram desenvolvidas vacinas profiláticas contra HPV, existindo duas formulações comercialmente disponíveis: bivalente (subtipos 16 e 18 e quadrivalente (6, 11, 16 e 18. Realizou-se uma metanálise da eficácia dessas vacinas em mulheres, com foco na avaliação estratificada por desfechos clínicos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR publicados entre 2000 e 2009 foram identificados com base em busca no MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane e LILACS, e avaliados por dois revisores independentes. Seis ECR foram incluídos na metanálise. As vacinas reduziram o risco de ocorrência de lesões precursoras da neoplasia, com eficácia de 97% (IC95%: 90-99 para NIC 2 e 96% (IC95%: 89-99 para NIC 3, nas análises por protocolo. As eficácias nas análises por intenção de tratar foram menores: 63% (IC95%: 52-71 e 42% (IC95%: 26-55, respectivamente. Para avaliação de sua eficácia sobre a incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo de útero são necessários estudos com maior tempo de seguimentos.

  15. Servicios clnicos disponibles para nias, nios y jvenes con trastornos mentales en Mxico / The clinical services available to children and young people with mental illnesses in Mxico / Servios clnicos disponveis para crianas e jovens com perturbaes mentais no Mxico

    Gabriela, Zamora-Carmona.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Na rea da sade, bem-estar fsico e mental deveria ser uma prioridade. Porm no Mxico na ateno de sade mental existem restries importantes, como o estigma social que prevalece nas doenas mentais, discriminao e violao dos direitos humanos das pessoas afetadas por estas perturbaes, o nm [...] ero limitado de servios clnicos que podem ser acessados , a falta de servios especializados de sade, e a tendncia dos governos em ignorar esta realidade. Este artigo procura fazer uma breve reviso dos servios clnicos disponveis para crianas e jovens mexicanos que tenham alguma perturbao mental. Abstract in spanish En el mbito de la salud, el bienestar fsico y mental debera ser una prioridad. No obstante, en Mxico existen limitantes importantes en la atencin a la salud mental, como el estigma social que prevalece hacia las enfermedades mentales, la discriminacin y violacin a los derechos humanos de las [...] personas afectadas por estos trastornos, el limitado nmero de servicios clnicos a los que se puede acceder, la falta de servicios de salud especializados, y la tendencia de los gobiernos a omitir esta realidad. En el presente artculo de tipo descriptivo pretendo hacer una breve revisin de los servicios clnicos disponibles para nias, nios y jvenes mexicanos que padecen trastornos mentales. Abstract in english In the field of health, physical and mental well-being should be a priority. Nevertheless, in Mexico, the attention given to mental health has important limitations, such as the social stigma that prevails toward mental illnesses; the discrimination and violation of human rights of people affected b [...] y these disorders; the limited number of clinical services which can be accessed; the lack of specialized health services and the tendency of Governments to ignore this reality. This article aims to undertake a brief review of the clinical services available to Mexican children and young people that are affected by a mental disorder.

  16. Atividade antiviral de extratos de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente frente aos herpesvírus suíno e bovino Antiviral activity of commercially available medicinal plants on suid and bovine herpesviruses

    V.M. Kaziyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar a atividade antiviral in vitro de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente sobre herpesvírus suíno (SuHV-1 e bovino (BoHV-1. As espécies adquiridas foram Mikania glomerata, Cymbopogon citratus, Equisetum arvense, Peumus boldus, Solanum paniculatum, Malva sylvestris, Piper umbellatun e Solidago microglossa. A citotoxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada na linhagem celular MDBK pelas alterações morfológicas das células e obtenção da concentração máxima não citotóxica (CMNC de cada planta. A atividade antiviral foi realizada com os extratos em suas respectivas CMNC e avaliada com base na redução do título viral e expressos em porcentagem de inibição. Os extratos aquosos de Peumus boldus e Solanum paniculatum apresentaram atividade antiviral sobre o SuHV-1 com 98% de inibição viral enquanto o de Peumus boldus inibiu apenas o BoHV-1 em 99%.This paper aims to find commercially available medicinal plants showing antiviral activity in vitro on suid and bovine herpesviruses. The following species were tested: Mikania glomerata, Cymbopogon citratus, Equisetum arvense, Peumus boldus, Solanum paniculatum, Malva sylvestris, Piper umbellatun and Solidago microglossa. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by morphological changes in cells determining the maximum not cytotoxic concentration (MNCC. The antiviral activity was evaluated by viral title reduction. The extracts from Peumus boldus and Solanum paniculatum showed antiviral activity against SuHV-1 with 98% of inhibition. The extract of Peumus boldus also showed activity against BoHV-1 with 99% of inhibition.

  17. Evaluación del fósforo disponible mediante tres métodos en distintos suelos y manejos productivos Evaluation of phosphorus available by three methods in different soils and productive managements

    Carolina Fernández López

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo (P es un nutriente de baja solubilidad y movilidad en los suelos, que se encuentra generalmente en situaciones de deficiencia para el crecimiento vegetal, y sólo puede ser repuesto mediante la fertilización. Debido a la variabilidad en la evaluación de la disponibilidad de P en el suelo, se realizó este trabajo con el objetivo de: a comparar entre sí dos de los métodos más comunes de evaluación de disponibilidad de P del suelo (Bray I y Olsen, y el método de la tirita de papel de filtro embebida en óxido de hierro (Strip; b estimar cual de los métodos se relaciona mejor con algunas variables vegetales ante distintas condiciones de manejo y tipos de suelos. Se estudiaron suelos de los órdenes Entisol, Alfisol y Vertisol de la provincia de Corrientes en condición natural o cultivado con Citrus, arroz o pasturas, respectivamente. Se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas y químicas, verificando la similitud textural entre los suelos Testigos y Cultivados. Se realizó un ensayo en invernadero de cada uno de los seis suelos con once niveles de P (entre 0-200 mg P por kg de suelo y luego se los incubó durante 25 días a 28 °C. Al finalizar la incubación se determinó el P disponible mediante los procedimientos recomendados para los métodos de Bray I, Olsen y Strip. Se sembró "rye grass" (Lolium perenne que se cosechó a los 45 días de la siembra para cuantificar la materia seca aérea y análisis de P en tejido. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que todos los métodos de evaluación de la disponibilidad de P del suelo describieron de manera adecuada y significativa las relaciones entre MS (R² entre 0,35 a 0,95, y valores extremos para el Vertisol y el Entisol, %P (con R² entre 0,92 y 0,95 y P absorbido (R² entre 0,93 y 0,96 y con muy pocas diferencias entre los suelos con el P extractado por los tres métodos. Sin embargo, la bondad de los ajustes fue diferente entre suelos, extractantes y manejos productivos, y sugieren la existencia de una interacción tripartita que arroja diferentes resultados en el valor final del P disponible. Se concluye que, no necesariamente el método más sencillo en la evaluación de P disponible para el vegetal es el que mejor refleja la relación con la materia seca o con la concentración del P en el tejido.Phosphorus is a nutrient with low soil solubility and mobility and may present limited availability for plant growth. One way to increase phosphorus availability in soil is by fertilization. Due to the variability in the evaluation of phosphorus availability in soil, the study was carried out with the following objectives: a to compare two of the most common soil available P methods (Bray I and Olsen, and the iron oxide impregnated filter paper method (Strip; b to evaluate which of the methods is better related to some plant variables under different managements and soil conditions. The soils selected from Corrientes Province were: 1 Entisol: natural soil as a control and cultivated with Citrus, 2 Alfisol: control and cultivated with rice, 3 Vertisol: control and cultivated with pastures. Physical and chemical soil properties indicated that soils from the same order differed in the textural composition, despite having similar chemical properties, suggesting that the differences among soils can be ascribed to cultivation. In addition, a greenhouse pot trial was conducted.Six soils were fertilized with eleven levels of P (0-200 mg P kg-1 and then incubated during 25 days at 28 °C. After incubation, soil samples were analyzed for P by the Olsen, Bray I and Strip methods. Rye grass was grown in pots during 45 days and the shoot dry matter was harvested and its P content analyzed. The results obtained in this work suggest that the three studied methods of P availability in soils described adequately and significantly the relationship between extracted P and dry matter yield (R² between 0.35 for the Vertisol and 0.95, for the Entisol, % P (R² between 0.92 and 0.95 and absorbed P (R² between 0.93 and 0.96. Nevertheless, the adjustments were different between soils, extractants and crop managements, suggesting the existence of a three-way interaction that determines different results in the final value of P availability in soil. Finally, we can conclude that the simplest method may not be the one that is most positively related to dry matter production or the concentration of the P in plant tissue.

  18. Dismantling techniques

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  19. Determination of D-Dimers in condition of emergency: the D-Di Liatest. Threshold value in elimination of pulmonary emboli (PE); Determination en urgence des D-Dimeres: le liatest D-DI. Valeur seuil permettant d`eliminer une embolie pulmonaire (EP)

    Duet, M. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France); Soria, C. [Service de Hematologie (France); Elkarrat, D. [Service de Urgences (France); Benelhadj, S. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France); Bailliard, O.; Kedra, A.W. [Service de Explorations Founctionnelles, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Drouet, L. [Service de Hematologie (France); Mundler, O. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France)

    1997-12-31

    Several studies have shown that a low rate of D-Dimers (products of fibrin decay) measured by Elisa technique can eliminate the diagnosis of thrombo-embolic disease. However, the conventional Elisa technique is not adapted to emergency conditions. A new agglutination test of latex microparticles (D-Di Liatest) has been developed by Diagnostica Stago with a sensitivity of 100 ng/ml. Our goal was to determine the threshold of PE exclusion. Ninety six patients suspected of PE were included. The pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy (PPS), as a reference examination the positivity of which has been confirmed by clinical follow-up, has been carried out in association with the determination of plasmatic rates of D-Dimers by the techniques Elisa and Liatest based on different antibodies. A table is given containing the D-Di threshold rates obtained by these techniques. In conclusion, our results showed that the rate of D-Dimers which eliminate a PE is {<=} 500 ng/ml by Elisa and {<=} 400 ng/ml by Liatest with a VPN of 100%. However, the PPS remains necessary in 77% of cases. This work stresses the necessity of clinical validations for the new biological tests

  20. Degradabilidad ruminal del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Rumen degradation characteristics of the herbage mass samples and the simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    RUBÉN PULIDO

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica degradativa de forrajes, en muestras de una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., manejadas a dos alturas de pradera, alta y baja. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo (FD y en forraje aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo (FS. La degradabilidad ruminal se estudió usando la técnica de las bolsas de dacrón y los datos fueron ajustados a una ecuación exponencial. La fracción soluble (g/kg MS, de la materia seca (MS (299 v/s 351, s.e.d.= 5,4, de la materia organica (MO (304 v/s 376, s.e.d.= 3,3 y del nitrógeno (250 v/s 301, s.e.d.= 6,4, fueron significativamente mayores (PAn experiment was carried out in order to describe the ruminal degradation characteristics of forages, in herbage mass samples (FD and in simulated grazing samples (FS, obtained at two sward heights (high and low from a permanent pasture (Lolium perenne L.. The degradation kinetics of the samples was studied using in situ dacron bags. Data collected were fitted according to an exponential equation. The soluble fraction (g/kg DM of the dry matter (DM (299 vs. 351, s.e.d.= 5.4, of the organic matter (OM (304 vs. 376, s.e.d.= 3.3 and of the nitrogen (250 vs. 301, s.e.d.= 6.4 were significantly higher (P<0.05 for simulated samples than for the herbage mass samples. The potential degradability (g/kg DM of DM, OM and nitrogen was significantly higher on FS compared with the FD (P<0.05. The effective degradability for the FS samples was greater than for FD samples, either for DM (474 vs. 508, s.e.d.= 13.0, OM (490 vs. 529, s.e.d.= 11.6, or nitrogen (351 vs. 419, s.e.d.= 10.0. A significant greater effect (P<0.05 of the low sward height on the effective degradability was found for the nitrogen only.

  1. Evaluacin del uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles para el perfil de medicina transfusional / Evaluation of the use of databases available for students and faculty of the transfusion medicine profile

    Ana Iris, Valdespino Alberti; Tania, Garca Peralta; Raquel, Levn Herrera; Mariela, Forrellat Barrios.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las habilidades en el uso y manejo de las bases de datos disponibles en la Red del Sistema Nacional de Salud y establecer estrategias a partir de los resultados alcanzados, se aplic una encuesta de competencias informacionales a 7 profesores y 11 estudiantes de la carrera [...] Licenciatura en Tecnologa de la Salud, en el perfil Medicina Transfusional, en la Facultad de Ciencias Mdicas "Enrique Cabrera". La encuesta identific el estado del conocimiento sobre bsquedas bibliogrficas, la utilizacin de las fuentes de informacin y el acceso a las tecnologas de la informacin. Se tuvieron en cuenta los aspectos ticos, y se protegi en todo momento la identidad de los entrevistados. Los resultados de la experiencia demuestran que la mayora de los profesores conocen y usan las bases de datos PUBMED e HINARI, de ellos 16,7 % requiere del apoyo de un especialista; los alumnos tienen un total desconocimiento de las bases de datos cuya consulta facilita Infomed. Los docentes y los alumnos desconocen la existencia de la base de datos DYNAMED, mientras que el buscador ms conocido y visitado por estos es Google. Se concluye que existe una deficiente competencia informacional. A partir de los resultados alcanzados se recomienda desarrollar habilidades mediante talleres y otras actividades curriculares de alfabetizacin informacional. Abstract in english The paper aims to explore the students' and faculty's abilities in the use of data bases available in the Health System Network. An informational competence survey to 7 teachers and 11 students of the Health Technologies program (Transfusional Medicine branch) was applied in "Enrique Cabrera" Facult [...] y of Medicine. The survey identified the knowledge about bibliography search and usage of information sources. Ethics procedures, such as anonymity, were followed. The results show that most of the professors know and use the data bases PUBMED e HINARI. 16.7 % of them require the help of a specialist. On the other hand, students showed total ignorance of the data bases available in Infomed. Teachers and students do not use nor know DYNAMED database; meanwhile the more visited search engine is Google. We can conclude that there is a deficient informational competence so we recommend developing information related abilities through workshops and other curricula activities.

  2. MEDICAMENTOS VITALES NO DISPONIBLES: ANALISIS DE REGLAMENTACIÓN NACIONAL E INTERNACIONAL, PROPUESTA DE ACTUALIZACIÓN DEL LISTADO NACIONAL VITAL MEDICINES NOT AVAILABLE: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATION ANALYSIS, UPDATE PROPOSAL OF NATIONAL LIST

    Gloria A SANDOVAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión comparativa de las políticas y normas existentes a nivel nacional e internacional en relación con la disponibilidad y acceso a medicamentos huérfanos y/o vitales. Adicionalmente se elabora una propuesta de actualización del listado de medicamentos vitales no disponibles a partir de la comparación con las listas de medicamentos huérfanos de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la lista de solicitudes de importación realizadas al Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (INVIMA hasta mayo de 2006, una consulta a prestadores de servicios de salud, aseguradores e importadores y comercializadores de medicamentos vitales, el listado propuesto por la Sala Especializada de Medicamentos de la Comisión Revisora del instituto, así como una revisión de la lista de medicamentos protegidos por el decreto 2085 de 2002 y de las importaciones de medicamentos realizadas por el Ministerio de la Protección Social en el marco de los programas de salud pública. De un total de 107 medicamentos propuestos, 26 coinciden con las listas de medicamentos huérfanos de los países de referencia y 12 se encuentran en condiciones de exclusividad en virtud del Decreto 2085 de 2002.A comparative revision was carried out on the national and international policies and regulations about access of orphan and/or vital drugs. An analysis of: orphan drugs' list from USA, European Union and all applications for importation of not available drugs submitted by the Drug Regulatory Authority (INVIMA until 2006; an informal consultation with health care providers, insurance companies and distributors of vital medicines, were included, in order to improve the actual vital drugs list within the frame of public health programs. The analysis included all drugs that have been protected by Decree 2085 from 2002, as well as the imported drugs by the Ministry of Social Welfare under the public health program. 26 of 107 proposed drugs match the lists of orphan drugs from the countries analyzed and 12 are protected with exclusivity by decree 2085 from 2002.

  3. Translation Techniques

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  4. Análise das fontes de informação sobre os autoexames da mama disponíveis na Internet Analysis of information sources about breast self examination available on the Internet

    Marcia Regina Cubas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as informações sobre autoexame da mama disponíveis ao público da internet. Método: Estudo descritivo documental, cujo universo foi composto pelos sites "Google®" e "Yahoo®", utilizando-se o descritor "autoexame de mama". Buscaram-se os 50 primeiros resultados. As páginas Web foram analisadas pelos critérios da American Medical Association e da Health on the Net. Resultados: Foram selecionadas e analisadas 68 páginas. A maioria dos sites era de domínio comercial, seis governamentais e cinco portugueses. Mais da metade tinham restrições quanto ao critério de autoridade e autoria; 61% não apresentavam meio de contato e 52,94% consideravam o autoexame como parte de um conjunto de medidas; 26,47% possuíam o conteúdo baseado em evidências, preciso e completo; 33,82% possuíam referências dos conteúdos. Páginas-Web governamentais, de instituições de saúde ou profissionais possuíam restrições com relação ao conteúdo ou apresentação. Conclusões: As informações sobre autoexame de mama são heterogêneas. Poucas páginas demonstraram preocupação com critérios de qualidade, tanto da construção quanto do conteúdo. A maior parte das informações não está baseada em evidências e que podem trazer danos ao paciente. Há necessidade de melhorar a qualidade das páginas Web que abordam o tema.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the information about breast self examination available on the Internet. Methods: A descriptive documental study was performed via a search on the Google®and Yahoo® websites using the phrase "breast self examination" in Portuguese, and the first 50 results from each site were analyzed using the criteria of the American Medical Association and Health on the Net. Results: 68 sites were selected and analyzed. Most of the sites were in the commercial domain, six were governmental sites and five were Portuguese sites. More than half had restrictions regarding criteria of authority and authorship; 61% did not have contact details and 52.94% considered breast self exam as part of a set of measures; 26.47% had correct and complete evidence-based content; 33.82% had context references. Government WebPages of health or professional institutions had restrictions regarding content or presentation. Conclusions: The information about breast self exam is heterogeneous. Only a small number of websites were concerned about quality criteria, both in terms of construction and content. The bulk of the information available is not evidence-based and there is potentially dangerous information for the patient. It is necessary to improve the quality of websites dealing with breast self exam.

  5. Techniques de contrôles non destructifs

    Dalin, J M

    2004-01-01

    La construction du LHC et des expériences nécessite un contrôle permanent de la qualité de la matière première utilisée et des assemblages par soudage, brasage ou collage des divers composants. Pour la vérification des matériaux et des assemblages de fabrication, il est souvent hors de question de recourir à des méthodes qui altéreraient les parties à contrôler. Les techniques de Contrôles Non Destructifs (CND), dont celles les plus employées au CERN font intervenir la transmission d'ondes sonores (contrôle par ultrasons) ou de rayons pénétrants (radiographie X ou gamma), représentent un moyen de détection souvent quantitatif de défauts applicable au contrôle qualité de production. Ces deux techniques complémentaires nous permettent de déceler des discontinuités (dans la matière de base, fissuration ou dédoublement, manque de compacité... ; dans les assemblages, présence d'inclusions, manque de brasure ou de fusion dans les joints soudés, cavités...). Après un bref aperçu de...

  6. POSTMODERN TECHNIQUE

    Bilgiç, Meriç

    2015-01-01

    Technology is a relation between human being and nature in general. The dialectical logic of technique is self-creative and alienating meanwhile. Nevertheless, postmodern technique of creativity has stuck in a vicious circle today by producing merely alienation. Creative thinking is a block itself against creativity. Our institutions with the discourses of philosophy, science and art are in the chamber of the vicious circle. This paper tries to give a clear and distinct definition of postmode...

  7. Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome; Proteomique fonctionnelle dediee aux Metalloproteases Matricelles (MMPs): developpement d'une methode extremement sensible permettant la detection des formes actives des MMPs dans des proteomes complexes

    David, A

    2007-07-15

    The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows us to identify active forms of gelatinases (M.M.P.-2 and -9) in an indirect manner by comparing the results of tumour samples treated with the photoaffinity probe and the results of tumour samples analysed in zymography. These studies indicate that the protein expression levels of active forms of M.M.P. are extremely low (fmoles) and do not permit any characterisation of those forms of M.M.P. by mass spectrometry, constituting a genuine challenge which can be approached by the development of new photoaffinity probes incorporating a biotin-group. The example of this class of proteins expressed in very low abundance under active form implicates to grant efforts to develop new strategies allowing the capture of the targeted proteins. (author)

  8. Miscellaneous Techniques

    Jha, Shyam N.

    Nondestructive way of determining the food quality is the need of the hour. Till now major methods such as colour measurements and their modeling; machine vision systems; X-ray, CT and MRI; NIR spectroscopy; electronic nose and tongue; and ultrasonic technology have been discussed in detail. These techniques, in general, are considered to be sophisticated and costly, and therefore probably are not being adopted as fast as it should be. I am however of the reverse opinion. While going through these techniques, it has been seen that majority of quality parameters have been measured and correlated with the signals obtained using different equipment.

  9. Zinco total e disponível em amostras de perfis de solos do estado de São Paulo Total and available zinc in soil profiles from São Paulo state, Brazil

    Gustavo Souza Valladares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Em amostras dos horizontes A e B de vinte e oito perfis de unidades de solos representativas do Estado de São Paulo fez-se a determinação de zinco usando os extratores DTPA pH 7,3 (ZnDTPA; Mehlich-1 (ZnM1; HCl 0,1 mol L-1 (ZnHCl; EDTA (ZnEDTA; e, NH4OAc 1 mol L-1 (ZnAc. O teor total de zinco nas amostras de solo estava alto, entretanto, notou-se somente uma pequena fração na forma disponível. O zinco total foi mais influenciado pelo teor de óxido de ferro (r=0,75. Para os teores considerados biodisponíveis, o pH foi o componente mais importante com coeficientes de correlação que variaram de 0,52 (ZnDTPA a 0,66 (ZnAc. A análise dos componentes principais (PCA revelou que os dois primeiros componentes principais explicaram 66% da variação, mostrando a associação entre os seguintes atributos dos solos: silte, pH, cálcio, magnésio, valor T, sílica, óxido de ferro, ZnT, ZnDTPA, ZnM1, ZnHCl e ZnEDTA, em que havia valores superiores a 0,63 no F1. No F2 ficou demonstrada a associação entre os teores de argila, areia fina e óxido de alumínio. Foi observada ambiguidade nos F1 e F2 para a areia grossa. Concluiu-se que: a maioria das amostras de solo apresenta potencial para o aparecimento de deficiência de zinco em curto e médio prazos e aPCA foi eficiente no agrupamento de solos originários de mesmo material de origem, indicando que as formas de Zn analisadas são influenciadas positivamente pelos teores de silte, Ca, Mg, sílica e Fe2O3, pH e valor T.Total and available zinc were analized in samples of A and/or B horizons of twenty eight representative soil profiles of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Amounts of Zn extracted by DTPA pH 7.3 (Zn DTPA, Mehlich-1 (Zn M1, HCl 0.1 mol.L-1 (Zn HCl, EDTA (Zn-EDTA, and NH4OAc(Zn Ac were assessed. Amounts of total Zn (Zn T in all samples was high, but just a small fraction of it is available. Total Zn correlated well with iron oxide content (r = 0.75. In terms of bioavailable amounts the pH was the most important component, showing correlation coefficients varying from 0.52 for Zn DTPA to 0.66 for Zn Ac. The two first axes of Principal Component Analysis (PCA explained 66% of the variation, and showed association among the following soil attributes: silt, pH, calcium, magnesium, CEC-value, silica, iron oxides, T-ZN, DTPA-Zn, M1-Zn, HCL-Zn and EDTA-Zn, that presented correlation values higher values than 0.63 with the main axis (FL. The second axis (F2 showed an association among clay content, fine sand, and aluminum oxide. An ambiguity was clear in F1 and F2 to coarse sand. It is concluded that: most samples have potential to show up zinc deficiency in the short and medium term; PCA was efficient in grouping soils from the same parent material, indicating that the Zn analyzed in this study is positively influenced by the silt, Ca, Mg, silica, and iron oxide contents, pH, and CEC-value.

  10. Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    Pulido, R.; Wood, C. D.; J.D. Leaver

    1998-01-01

    Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA) por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usando la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994). Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de mat...

  11. Experimental Techniques

    Wyer, Jean

    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon....

  12. Presentation Technique

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  13. Experimental Techniques

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  14. Enseignement Technique CERN 2004 - French version only

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE Monique Duval tél. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Aimeriez-vous améliorer vos connaissances des applications de Microsoft Office ou d'Outlook ? Un nouveau cours, combinant un cours avec professeur et ...

  15. Experimental techniques

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  16. Dalla Fiat al web. Che cosa una ontologia sociale basata sui documenti permette di spiegare

    Casetta, Elena; Torrengo, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Nel 2009, prendendo le mosse da articoli e libri pubblicati negli anni precedenti, Maurizio Ferraris proponeva la “documentalità”, una ontologia sociale che, a differenza della received view basata sull’intenzionalità collettiva, individuava il fondamento degli oggetti sociali negli atti iscritti. Prendendo come spunto due oggetti sociali tipicamente torinesi – il capoluogo piemontese è il luogo di nascita del filosofo – e cioè la casa automobilistica Fiat e l’Università di Torino, in questo ...

  17. Appareil permettant la caractrisation thermique de substrats et matriaux forte conductibilit pour micro-lectronique

    Paris, Pierre; Haussonne, Jean-Marie; Lostec, Jean

    1993-04-01

    The thermal characterization of aluminum nitride AIN substrates is an important task for microelectronics. The usual method, so called laser-flash", can hardly been used for substrates, as it needs samples with a thickness higher than 3 mm. This method has been recently modified, but involves a heavy equipment to be used. We have developed in C.N.E.T. Lannion a method on the principle of the measurement of the thermal flux through a sample placed in a known thermal gradient. This method was first developed to characterize low thermal conductivity samples. We then adapted it to the new problem related to the characterization of high thermal conductivity substrates as AIN ones, the thermal conductivity of which being as high as 200 W/m.K. The apparatus we developed, that is now commercially available, allows to measure directly in some minutes the thermal conductivity of samples with an accuracy of 10% in a range values of 10 to 400W/m.K. La caractrisation thermique des substrats en nitrure d'aluminium AIN est un problme actuel en micro-lectronique. La mthode classique dite du flash-laser, est mal adapte ce type de matriau, car ncessitant des chantillons d'paisseur suprieure 3 mm. Cette mthode a t nouvellement adapte mais au prix d'un investissement relativement lourd. Nous avons dvelopp au C.N.E.T. Lannion une mthode de caractrisation base sur le principe de la mesure du flux thermique traversant un chantillon soumis un gradient thermique connu. Originellement conue pour la caractrisation de substrats de faible conductivit, cette mthode a t adapte au problme pos par l'apparition de substrats tel le nitrure d'aluminium AIN de conductivit thermique pouvant tre suprieure 200 W/m.K. L'appareil mis au point, maintenant commercialis, permet la dtermination directe de la conductibilit thermique en quelques minutes avec une prcision de l'ordre de 10 % pour une gamme de valeur de 10 400W/m.K.

  18. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Perthuis E.

    2006-01-01

    L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationale...

  19. Analysis of masonry structures : review of and recent trends in homogenization techniques

    Lourenço, Paulo B.; Milani, G.; Tralli, A.; Zucchini, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    L’aspect mécanique des structures en maçonnerie s’est peu développé par rapport à d’autres domaines techniques. L’analyse non linéaire est présentement un domaine populaire de la recherche en maçonnerie et les techniques d’homogénéisation y jouent un rôle important, malgré les difficultés mathématiques et conceptuelles associées à cette approche. Le présent article traite des différentes techniques d’homogénéisation disponibles dans la littérature, vise à définir un premier catalogue et discu...

  20. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or enriching it with oxygen. Several examples are given of the influence of these operational parameters on possible fuel savings.

  1. Parallel pic plasma simulation through particle decomposition techniques

    Briguglio, S.; Vlad, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Di Martino, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. for Software Tecnology and Parallel Systems]|[Naples, Univ. `Federico II` (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica

    1998-02-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are among the major candidates to yield a satisfactory description of the detail of kinetic effects, such as the resonant wave-particle interaction, relevant in determining the transport mechanism in magnetically confined plasmas. A significant improvement of the simulation performance of such codes con be expected from parallelization, e.g., by distributing the particle population among several parallel processors. Parallelization of a hybrid magnetohydrodynamic-gyrokinetic code has been accomplished within the High Performance Fortran (HPF) framework, and tested on the IBM SP2 parallel system, using a `particle decomposition` technique. The adopted technique requires a moderate effort in porting the code in parallel form and results in intrinsic load balancing and modest inter processor communication. The performance tests obtained confirm the hypothesis of high effectiveness of the strategy, if targeted towards moderately parallel architectures. Optimal use of resources is also discussed with reference to a specific physics problem. [Italiano] I codici Particle-in-cell (PIC) sono considerati tra i piu` promettenti candidati per ottenere una descrizione soddisfacente e dettagliata degli effetti cinetici, quali per esempio l`interazione risonante particella-onda, rilevanti nel determinare i meccanismi di trasporto che interessano il confinamento del plasma. Un significativo miglioramento delle prestazioni della simulazione puo` essere ottenuto distribuendo la popolazione di particelle tra diversi processori in parallelo. La parallelizzazione di un codice ibrido MHD-girocinetico e` stata effettuata, in ambiente HPF, utilizzando la tecnica di `decomposizione per particelle`, ed e` stata provata sul sistema parallelo IBM SP2. La tecnica adottata richiede uno sforzo moderato per la trasformazione del codice in versione parallela, permette un intrinseco bilanciamento tra i processori del carico di lavoro e necessita di una modesta comunicazione tra processori. I risultati ottenuti confermano l`ipotesi di alta efficenza di tale strategia, se applicata ad architetture moderatamente parallele. Si discute inoltre l`uso ottimale delle risorse con riferimento ad uno specifico esempio fisico.

  2. Fontes de informação em educação a distância disponíveis em meio eletrônico nas universidades federais brasileiras Information sources in distance education, available in the electronic environment in brazilian federal universities

    Graziela Martins de Medeiros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available [Portuguese]Este estudo objetivou conhecer organizações como fontes de informação sobre Educação a Distância (EaD disponíveis nas Universidades Públicas Federais Brasileiras. Para avaliar uma fonte, é fundamental identificar a instituição responsável por sua compilação. A credibilidade da organização é que determinará o grau de confiabilidade das informações. Os resultados preliminares apontam que as fontes de informação em EaD necessitam melhorar a qualidade dos dados apresentados, visando as necessidades informacionais dos usuários. Dessa forma, proporcionarão um ambiente bem estruturado, com diversos recursos de comunicação disponíveis que possibilitam a interação e viabilizam a construção do conhecimento e o desenvolvimento de competências neste espaço alternativo de educação.[English]This study was planned to recognize institutions as sources of information about Distance Education, available in Brazilian Federal Public Universities. In order to evaluate a source, it is fundamental to identify the institution responsible for its compilation. The credibility of the institution will determine the degree of reliability on the information. Preliminary results show that the sources of information in Distance Education need quality improvement of offered data, for purposes of meeting users information needs, by providing a well- structured environment, with varied available communication resources to enable interaction and make the construction of knowledge and development of competences possible in this alternative education environment.

  3. Fósforo disponível determinado por lâmina de resina enterrada Soil phosphorus availability determined by anionic-exchange resin membrane in the soil

    Jairo André Schlindwein

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso de lâminas de resina de troca aniônica enterradas no solo permite simular, em parte, o comportamento das raízes das plantas em relação à absorção de P. Essa técnica, utilizada diretamente no solo nas mesmas condições que se cultivam as plantas, sem a necessidade de amostragem do solo, poderia ser uma metodologia promissora de determinação da disponibilidade de P para as culturas. Para testar a validade da técnica, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação, com cinco solos e dois teores de P em que as lâminas de resina foram enterradas no solo na instalação do mesmo (dia zero e retiradas aos 2, 5, 10, 20 e 40 dias depois, para avaliar a extração de P em diferentes solos mantidos com umidade próxima da capacidade de campo, cultivados com milho (método resina-cc, e em solos mantidos saturados com água, sem cultivo e cultivados com arroz (método resina-sat. Também retiraram-se amostras de solo para determinar o P extraído pelos métodos da resina em lâminas padrão, Mehlich-1 e Mehlich-3, para correlacionar com o P extraído pelas culturas. O método Mehlich-1 extraiu, em média, 1,3 e 1,9 vez menos P do que os métodos da resina padrão e Mehlich-3, respectivamente, e o método da resina-cc extraiu em média 2,2 vezes menos P do que o método da resina-sat. Os coeficientes de determinação entre o P extraído pelos métodos e o P absorvido pelo milho e arroz aumentaram, em média, na sequência resina-cc The in situ ion exchange resin membrane allows a partial simulation of the behavior of plant roots regarding phosphorus absorption from soil solution. Soil sampling is rendered unnecessary since the technique is used directly in the soil where the plants are grown and may be a promising methodology in the determination of phosphorus availability for crops. To evaluate the technique, a greenhouse experiment was carried out with resin membranes buried in the soil when plants were sown (day zero and removed after 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 days, to evaluate the amount of phosphorus extracted in different soils maintained at a moisture content near the water-holding capacity, under corn (method resin-cc and water-saturated, without cultivation and under rice (method resin-sat. Soil samples were collected to determine available P by the methods resin membrane (standard, Mehlich-1 and Mehlich-3 and the extracted amount was correlated with P absorbed by crops. On average, Mehlich-1 extracted 1.3 and 1.9 times less phosphorus than the resin standard and Mehlich-3 methods, respectively; resin-cc method extracted, on average, 2.2 times less phosphorus than the resin-sat. The correlation coefficients among phosphorus extracted by the different methods and phosphorus absorbed by corn and rice increased in the sequence resin-cc < resin standard < Mehlich-1 < Mehlich-3 < resin-sat. The correlation coefficient between phosphorus extracted with buried resin and phosphorus absorbed by corn and rice plants was highest after a period of 10 days. Results indicate that the resin-sat method is suitable to determine soil phosphorus availability to plants.

  4. Lutte contre les cercosporioses du bananier aux Antilles françaises - Évaluation et amélioration des techniques disponibles d’épandage aérien et terrestre Fighting Banana Sigatoka diseases in the French West Indies - Evaluation and improvement of available aerial and ground treatment

    CARRÉ, Maÿlis ; COTTEUX, Éric ; ROMBAUT, Marc ; GRIMBUHLER, Sonia ; DIDELOT, Dominique

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimiser les traitements aériens et trouver des solutions alternatives terrestres sont les objectifs du projet de recherche Optiban, afin d’aider les acteurs de la filière antillaise de production de bananes à lutter efficacement contre les maladies du bananier tout en respectant les réglementations et en préservant l’environnement. Focus sur les différents travaux engagés et les premiers résultats des études.Banana growers in the French West Indies have to face a major stake today: to fight effectively against the Sigatoka diseases (the yellow one for years and the black one since the end of 2010, while respecting regulations on aerial application and protected areas. The Optiban project was launched in 2008 to improve aerial application and find ground alternative solutions, which have to be efficient and to meet the expectations of the industry.

  5. Avicultura Industrial: Novos Conceitos de Materiais, Concepções e Técnicas Construtivas Disponíveis para Galpões Avícolas Brasileiros Industrial Aviculture: New Concepts of Materials, Conceptions and Constructive Techniques Available for Brazilian Poultry Houses

    IFF Tinôco

    2001-01-01

    Ao grande crescimento das fronteiras mercadológicas e ao extraordinário progresso científico verificado na avicultura industrial, contrapõe-se a pouca atenção que se deu, até recentemente, às técnicas de alojamento e, efetivamente, ao ambiente de criação das aves. Somente há questão de sete anos, com a perspectiva do processo de globalização que hoje movimenta a economia mundial, essa indústria passou a buscar, nas instalações e no ambiente, as possibilidades de melhoria no desempenho avícola...

  6. Disponibilidade de invertebrados aquáticos para peixes bentófagos de dois riachos da bacia do rio Iguaçu, Estado do Paraná, Brasil Aquatic invertebrates disponibility for bentophagous fishes in two streams at the Iguaçu River basin, state of Paraná, Brazil

    Anderson Ferreira

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Assumindo que os organismos que os peixes consomem refletem sua disponibilidade no ambiente, os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar, através da dieta, quais os principais organismos que compõem a bentofauna disponível para peixes bentófagos, e analisar as variações espaço-temporais e ontogenéticas na dieta deste grupo de peixes. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente de março/2000 a fevereiro/2001 através de pesca elétrica em dois riachos da bacia do rio Iguaçu e os estômagos (n=329 analisados pelo método volumétrico. A análise da dieta revelou uma grande diversidade de invertebrados bênticos, principalmente insetos de várias ordens, sendo as mais consumidas Ephemeroptera, representada por três famílias, Diptera por onze e Trichoptera por nove famílias, sendo esses, os organismos mais disponíveis para a alimentação, além de diversos organismos menos representativos. Os resultados de correlação de Spearman foram altamente significativos, revelando forte similaridade espacial, temporal e ontogenética. Essa grande disponibilidade de recursos aquáticos, provavelmente seja a maior responsável pela elevada abundância de indivíduos do gênero Trichomycterus (Siluriformes, Trichomyspteridae nos ambientes analisados.Analyzing aquatic organisms present in fish stomachs is a good way to determine their availability in the environment. This paper aims to determine aquatic organism availability (especially benthos for bentophagous fishes and to analyze spatial, temporal and ontogenetic changes in their diets. Samples were monthly taken from March 2000 to February 2001, through electrofishing, in two streams of the Iguaçu River. The stomachs were analyzed (329 units and the results expressed through volumetric method. The diet was composed of benthic invertebrates, especially insects from several orders, being Ephemeroptera (3 families, diptera (11 families and Trichoptera (9 families the most consumed ones. Therefore, these groups were the most available for fish feeding. The Spearman rank correlation results were highly significant, showing high spatial, temporal and ontogenetic similarity. The high aquatic resources availability may explain the genus Trichomycterus (Siluriformes, Trichomyspteridae abundance in the streams.

  7. Fósforo da biomassa microbiana e atividade de fosfatases ácidas durante a diminuição do fósforo disponível no solo Soil microbial biomass phosphorus and activity of acid phosphatases during decline of soil available phosphorus

    Luciano Colpo Gatiboni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o conteúdo de fósforo armazenado na biomassa microbiana e a atividade de fosfatases ácidas, durante a diminuição dos teores de fósforo disponível no solo, causado por cultivos sucessivos com plantas. Foram utilizadas amostras de Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, com adição prévia de fosfatos solúveis (0, 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg ha-1 de P2O5, aplicados em seis anos consecutivos. Efetuaram-se 15 cultivos sucessivos com diferentes plantas, em casa de vegetação, sem a reposição do fósforo absorvido pelas plantas. Após cada três cultivos sucessivos, foram determinados: o teor de fósforo disponível por resina trocadora de ânions, o fósforo microbiano e a atividade de fosfatases ácidas. Com a diminuição da disponibilidade de fósforo do solo, a quantidade de fósforo armazenada na biomassa microbiana do solo diminuiu, e a atividade de fosfatases ácidas aumentou. Em solos com baixo teor de fósforo e de resíduos de plantas, o P microbiano tem pouca importância para a nutrição das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the content of phosphorus stored in the soil microbial biomass and the activity of acid fosfatases, during the decline of soil available phosphorus, caused by successive crops in pot experiment. Samples of Oxisol were utilized with previous addition of soluble phosphates (0, 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg ha-1 of P2O5, applied in six consecutive years. The soil samples were submitted to 15 successive crops in greenhouse, without replacement of absorbed phosphorus by plants. After each three successive crops, soil was sampled, and the following variables were determined: the available phosphorus by anion exchange resin, phosphorus stored in the soil microbial biomass and the activity of acid phosphatases. As a consequence of the reduction of the soil available phosphorus, the amount of microbial phosphorus decreased, and the activity of phosphatases increased. In soils with low phophorus content and no plant residues, the microbial P has little importance for plant nutrition.

  8. Formation scurit : places disponibles dans les sessions de juin

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    Il reste des places dans les formations scurit suivantes. Pour les mises jour et les inscriptions, veuillez vous reportez au catalogue des formations scurit. Safety in Cryogenics level 1, 14 juin, en anglais, 3 heures, 9h00 12h00 (5 places) Radiological Protection, 18 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 13h30 17h30 (15 places) Radiological Protection, 22 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 08h30 12h30 (15 places) Scurit Radiologique, 22 juin, en franais, 4 heures, 13h30 17h30 (15 places) Conduite de chariots lvateurs, 24-25 juin, en franais, 2 jours, 8h00 17h30 (3 places)

  9. Des plants de merisiers issus des vergers à graines disponibles !

    Dufour, Jean; Santi, Frédérique; Migeot, Jonathan; Rondouin, Michel; Le Bouler, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Les composants des vergers à graines Cabrerets et Avessac sont de bonne qualité génétique. Cependant, il faut les planter à 300-400 plants/ha en forêt, et 100 plants/ha en agroforesterie, pour faire face aux aléas des recombinaisons génétiques et aux problèmes environnementaux. Un suivi en taille de formation et élagage régulier permettra d’en tirer un bénéfice financier intéressant. La valeur locale des produits issus de ces vergers sera évaluée grâce à la « sélection participative »....

  10. Pediculus capitis: Terapias disponibles Pediculus capitis: Available therapies

    ROBERTO P ROSSO A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediculosis es la infestacin del hombre por Pediculus humanus, variedad capitis. Es una de las enfermedades ms frecuentes de la infancia, en 1996 afectaba a ms de 15% de la poblacin general y a ms de 30% de la poblacin infantil. Los frmacos actualmente utilizados son de gran eficacia, pero hasta 20% de la poblacin se ha reinfestado a los 2 meses, por lo que para evitar recidivas se debe efectuar tratamiento a todos los contactos del paciente. Hay diversos compuestos activos, entre ellos: lindano, derivados piretroides, crotamitn, tiabendazol, malatin, carbaryl y cotrimoxazol. De cada uno, se discute el mecanismo de accin, caractersticas farmacolgicas, efectividad y efectos adversosHead lice infestation is very common. It is one of most frequent diseases in the childhood. In 1996, 15% of the people in the world and 30% of infant were infected. The drugs used at the moment are very effective but the people get reinfested after two months, so to avoid it, it is important to treat all contacts. There are different active compounds like lindane, pyrethins, crotamiton, thiabendazole, malathion, carbaryl and sulpha/trimethoprim. For each of these, we discuss their action, pharmacology characteristics, effectiveness and adverse effects.

  11. KDD Techniques: A survey

    Raj Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge discovery in database (KDD emerged as an efficient solution to assist user in extracting information and knowledge from rapidly growing data. KDD is composed of with the development of methods and techniques for converting data to information to knowledge. There are many different approaches that are classified as KDD techniques. Statistical techniques, probabilistic techniques, classification techniques etc. are the different techniques used for KDD. This paper gives the overview of all these techniques.

  12. Levels of available phosphorus and calcium for broilers from 8 to 35 days of age fed rations containing phytase Níveis de fósforo disponível e de cálcio para frangos de corte de 8 a 35 dias de idade alimentados com rações contendo fitase

    Adimar Cardoso Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments using Cobb broiler chicks from 8 to 35 days of age were carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing levels of calcium and available phosphorus in diets supplemented with 500 ftu phytase/kg on the performance of the birds, the content of ashes in the tibia, the metabolizable energy of the diet, and the metabolizability of the dry matter and crude protein. It was used 1,404 broiler chicks in the experiment 1 to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, food conversion and percentage of the ashes in the tibia. In the experiment 2, simultaneously carried out with experiment 1, a total of 390 birds were transferred to a metabolism room to determine the metabolizable energy and metabolizability of the dry matter and crude protein. It was used in the two experiments, a complete random design in a 3 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme with three levels of available phosphorus (0.375; 0.325; and 0.275% and four levels of calcium (0.85; 0.75; 0.65 and 0.55% in the diets, supplemented with phytase. It was also used a control diet without phytase, based on corn and soybean bran, formulated with 0.425% of available phosphorus and 0.85% of calcium. In the experiment 1, the reduction of levels of calcium and phosphorus did not cause a significant difference on the performance and percentage of bone ashes. The levels of calcium and available phosphorus used in the experiment 2 can be reduced down to 0.65 and 0.325%, respectively, because the effects are similar to those obtained with the currently suggested levels.Dois experimentos com pintos de corte da linhagem Cobb no período de 8 a 35 dias de idade foram realizados para avaliar o efeito da redução dos níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações suplementadas com 500 ftu de fitase/kg sobre o desempenho das aves, o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a energia metabolizável (EMAn da dieta e a metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 1.404 pintos de corte para avaliação do consumo de ração, do ganho de peso, da conversão alimentar e da porcentagem de cinzas na tíbia. No experimento 2, conduzido simultaneamente ao primeiro, um total de 390 aves foram transferidas para uma sala de metabolismo para determinação da EMAn e da metabolizabilidade da MS e PB. Nos dois experimentos, utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 × 4 + 1, com três níveis de fósforo disponível (0,375; 0,325 e 0,275% e quatro níveis de cálcio (0,85; 0,75; 0,65 e 0,55% nas dietas, suplementadas com fitase. Também foi usada uma dieta controle sem fitase, à base de milho e farelo de soja, formulada com 0,425% de fósforo disponível e 0,85% de cálcio. No experimento 1, a redução dos níveis de cálcio e fósforo não ocasionou diferença significativa no desempenho e na porcentagem de cinzas ósseas. Os níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível utilizados no experimento 2 podem ser reduzidos em até 0,65 e 0,325%, respectivamente, pois os efeitos são semelhantes aos obtidos com os níveis atualmente recomendados.

  13. Relação cálcio:fósforo disponível e níveis de fitase para poedeiras semipesadas no primeiro e segundo ciclos de postura Calcium:available phosphorus ratio and phytase levels for semi heavy laying hens in the first and second posture cycle

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para investigar a relação cálcio (Ca:fósforo disponível (Pd e o nível de fitase (UF no primeiro e segundo ciclos de postura. No primeiro ciclo de postura, 128 aves foram distribuídas em arranjo fatorial 3 × 2 + 1, composto de três relações Ca:Pd (14:1 = 4,2% Ca e 0,30% Pd; 12:1 = 3,5% Ca e 0,30% Pd; e 9:1 = 3,5% Ca e 0,38% Pd, dois níveis de fitase (0 e 600 UF e uma relação Ca:Pd controle (11:1 - 4,2% Ca e 0,38% Pd. No segundo ciclo de postura, 240 aves foram distribuídas em arranjo fatorial 2 × 2 × 2, composto de dois níveis de cálcio (3,5 e 4,2%, dois de fósforo disponível (0,30 e 0,38% e dois de fitase (0 e 600 UF. No primeiro ciclo, entre as aves alimentadas com as rações sem fitase, o maior peso dos ovos (PO foi obtido com a relação 9:1 (3,5% Ca e 0,38% Pd e o menor, com a relação 12:1 (3,5% Ca e 0,30% Pd. A melhor massa de ovos (MO e conversão alimentar por massa de ovos (CAMO foram observadas nas aves alimentadas com a ração com relação Ca:Pd 14:1 e a pior, com a ração formulada com relação 12:1. Nas aves alimentadas com a ração com fitase, a melhor conversão alimentar por massa de ovos foi obtida com a relação 12:1 (3,5% Ca e 0,30% Pd e a pior, com a relação 9:1 (3,5% Ca e 0,38% Pd. No segundo ciclo, o consumo de ração (CR reduziu com o aumento dos níveis de cálcio (3,5 para 4,2%, fósforo disponível (0,30 para 0,38% e fitase (0 para 600. As conversões alimentares por massa de ovos e por dúzia de ovos melhoraram, respectivamente, com o aumento dos níveis de fósforo disponível e de fitase, enquanto a gravidade específica melhorou com o aumento do nível de cálcio da ração. Para poedeiras no primeiro ciclo de postura, recomendam-se as relações 14:1 (4,2% Ca:0,30% Pd sem fitase e 12:1 (3,5% Ca:0,30% Pd com 600 UF e, para aves no segundo ciclo de postura, recomenda-se relação correspondente a 4,2% Ca e 0,38% Pd. A suplementação de rações deficientes em fósforo disponível com 600 UF melhora o peso dos ovos no segundo ciclo de postura.Two experiments were carried out to investigate the calcium (Ca:available phosphorus (aP ratio and the level of phytase in the first and second posture cycle. In the first posture cycle, 128 birds were distributed to a 3 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, composed of three Ca:aP ratio [14:1 (4.2% Ca and 0.30% aP, 12:1 (3.5% Ca and 0.30% aP, and 9:1 (3.5% Ca and 0.38% aP], two levels of phytase (0 and 600 Phytase Units - PU and a Ca:aP control [11:1 (4.2% Ca and 0.38% aP]. In the second posture cycle, 240 birds were distributed to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed of two Ca (3.5 and 4.2%, two aP (0.30 and 0.38% levels and two phytase levels (0 and 600 PU. In the first posture cycle, among birds fed diets without phytase, the greater eggs weight was obtained with 9:1 Ca:aP ratio and the smaller, with 12:1 Ca:aP ratio. The best eggs mass and feed conversion by eggs mass (FCEM were observed in birds fed a diet with 14:1 Ca:Pd ratio and worse, with the ration with 12:1 Ca:aP ratio. In birds fed diet with phytase, the best FCEM was obtained with 12:1 Ca:aP ratio and worse, with 9:1 Ca:aP ratio. In the second posture cycle, the diet consumption decreased with increasing levels of calcium (3.5 to 4.2%, available phosphorus (0.30 to 0.38% and phytase (0 to 600 PU. Feed conversion by eggs mass or per dozen eggs improved, respectively, with increasing levels of available phosphorus and phytase, while specific gravity improved with the increase of dietary calcium level. For laying hens in the first posture cycle, it is recommended 14:1 (4.2% Ca:0.30% Pd ratio without phytase and 12:1 (3.5% Ca:0.30% Pd ratio with 600 PU and, for birds in the second posture cycle, it is recommended 14:1 (4.2% Ca and 0.38% Pd ratio. The supplementation of diets deficient in available phosphorus with 600 PU improves egg weight in the second posture cycle.

  14. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  15. Visualization techniques for wireless sensor networks

    Karagiannis, Marios

    2012-01-01

    Les réseaux de capteurs sans fil, comme tous les réseaux sans fil, dépendent de facteurs environnementaux qui affectent leur fonctionnement. A cet effet, les chercheurs ont besoin d'outils qui leur permettent de mesurer ces facteurs, et d'évaluer leur impact sur la performance des algorithmes et des protocoles de communication en phase de recherche et développement. Les réseaux de capteurs sans fil on ceci d'unique que chaque capteur pris individuellement n'a qu'une utilité marginale, alors q...

  16. Matériaux : les nouveaux champs de recherche et développement pour la valorisation des fibres végétales techniques (lin fibres et chanvre)

    Bono Pierre; Le Duc Anne; Lozachmeur Marie; Day Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Les matériaux à base de fibres végétales techniques (lin et chanvre) sont une réalité depuis plusieurs années. Une étude récente de FranceAgriMer (Thonier et Bono, 2015) montre que leur développement est une réalité tout particulièrement dans le domaine du bâtiment (isolation, panneaux de particules, bétons), du transport (plasturgie, composite) et plus récemment des sports et loisirs et du luxe. Ces développements permettent de valoriser les propriétés différenciantes du lin fibre et du chan...

  17. Télédétection SAR interférométrique de zones urbaines en bande L à partir de l'utilisation des techniques d'analyse spectrale polarimétriques et multi-bases

    Sauer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dans cette thése, des techniques d'analyse spectrale sont généralisées afin de traiter des données polarimétriques SAR interférométriques multi-bases. Ces algorithmes polarimétriques de traitement multi-capteurs sont décrits d'une manièere mathématique rigoureuse et appliqués aux zones urbaines. Ils permettent d'estimer la hauteur des diffuseurs, le mécanisme de rétrodiffusion et la réflectivité polarimétrique. A partir des observations mono-base POLInSAR, un modèle numérique d'élévation d'un...

  18. Adsorption of glyphosate in chilean soils and its relationship with unoccupied phosphate binding sites Adsorção de glifosato em solos chilenos e sua relação com sítios de adsorção disponíveis para adsorção de fosfato

    Marcelo Kogan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate glyphosate adsorption by soils and its relationship with unoccupied binding sites for phosphate adsorption. Soil samples of three Chilean soils series - Valdivia (Andisol, Clarillo (Inceptisol and Chicureo (Vertisol - were incubated with different herbicide concentrations. Glyphosate remaining in solution was determined by adjusting a HPLC method with a UV detector. Experimental maximum adsorption capacity were 15,000, 14,300 and 4,700 mg g¹ for Valdivia, Clarillo, and Chicureo soils, respectively. Linear, Freundlich, and Langmuir models were used to describe glyphosate adsorption. Isotherms describing glyphosate adsorption differed among soils. Maximum adjusted adsorption capacity with the Langmuir model was 231,884, 17,874 and 5,670 mg g-1 for Valdivia, Clarillo, and Chicureo soils, respectively. Glyphosate adsorption on the Valdivia soil showed a linear behavior at the range of concentrations used and none of the adjusted models became asymptotic. The high glyphosate adsorption capacity of the Valdivia soil was probably a result of its high exchangeable Al, extractable Fe, and alophan and imogolite clay type. Adsorption was very much related to phosphate dynamics in the Valdivia soil, which showed the larger unoccupied phosphate binding sites. However relationship between unoccupied phosphate binding sites and glyphosate adsorption in the other two soils (Clarillo and Chicureo was not clear.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a adsorção de glifosato em solos e sua relação com os sítios disponíveis para adsorção de fosfato. Amostras de três solos chilenos - Valdivia (Andisol, Clarillo (Inceptisol e Chicureo (Vertisol - foram incubadas com diferentes concentrações do herbicida. O glifosato remanescente na solução foi determinado pelo método de HPLC com detector de UV modificado. A capacidade de adsorção máxima experimental foi de 15.000, 14.300 e 4.700 mg g-1 para os solos de Valdivia, Clarillo e Chicureo, respectivamente. Os modelos Linear, Freundlich e Langmuir foram utilizados para descrever a adsorção de glifosato. As isotermas de adsorção variaram de acordo com o tipo de solo. A capacidade de adsorção máxima ajustada com o modelo Langmuir foi 231.884, 17.874 e 5.670 mg g-1 para os solos Valdivia, Clarillo e Chicureo, respectivamente. A adsorção do glifosato no solo Valdivia mostrou um comportamento linear na faixa de concentração usada e nenhum dos modelos ajustados chegou a ser assintótico. A alta capacidade de adsorção de glifosato no solo Valdivia pode ser explicada por seu alto teor de Al trocável, alta disponibilidade de Fe e presença de argilas de tipo alofana e imogolita. A adsorção esteve muito relacionada à dinâmica do fosfato no solo Valdivia, que mostrou grande número de sítios disponíveis para a adsorção de fosfato. Entretanto, a relação entre os sítios de adsorção de fosfato livre e a adsorção de glifosato nos solos Clarillo e Chicureo não ficou clara.

  19. Diagnostic tests in HIV management: a review of clinical and laboratory strategies to monitor HIV-infected individuals in developing countries / Tests diagnostiques et prise en charge des infections VIH: revue des mthodes cliniques et analytiques permettant le suivi des personnes contamines dans les pays en dveloppement / Pruebas diagnsticas en el manejo de la infeccin por VIH: estudio de las estrategias clnicas y de laboratorio empleadas para controlar a las personas infectadas por el VIH en los pases en desarrollo

    April D, Kimmel; Elena, Losina; Kenneth A, Freedberg; Sue J, Goldie.

    2006-07-10

    Full Text Available Realizamos una revisin sistemtica de la eficacia de las pruebas diagnsticas como medio de seguimiento clnico y de laboratorio de las personas infectadas por el VIH en los pases en desarrollo. La informacin sobre pruebas diagnsticas reunida a partir de bases de datos computadorizadas, de las p [...] ublicaciones y de Internet se clasific como clnica (informacin sobre los pacientes distinta de los datos de laboratorio), inmunolgica (informacin sobre pruebas inmunolgicas) o virolgica (informacin sobre pruebas virolgicas). De los 51 estudios seleccionados para la revisin, 28 evaluaron pruebas inmunolgicas, 12 pruebas virolgicas, y 7 pruebas clnicas e inmunolgicas. Los mtodos de evaluacin de la eficacia fueron principalmente la sensibilidad y la especificidad en el caso de las pruebas clnicas, y los coeficientes de correlacin en el caso de las pruebas inmunolgicas y virolgicas. Entre las primeras, la mayora de las medidas de eficacia de las pruebas revelaron una sensibilidad superior al 70% y una especificidad superior al 65%. En la categora de pruebas inmunolgicas, los coeficientes de correlacin oscilaron entre 0,54 y 0,99 para diferentes tcnicas de recuento de CD4, mientras que la correlacin (r) entre los recuentos de CD4 y de linfocitos totales se situ entre 0,23 y 0,74. En cuanto a las pruebas virolgicas, los coeficientes de correlacin para diferentes tcnicas de cuantificacin del ARN del VIH fueron de entre 0,54 y 0,90. A la hora de realizar nuevas investigaciones en el futuro, ser necesario consensuar el diseo de los estudios, y reunir y notificar datos de utilidad para las instancias decisorias. Recomendamos clasificar la informacin en categoras clnicamente pertinentes, utilizar una definicin coherente de enfermedad en todos los estudios, y proporcionar medidas tanto de asociacin como de exactitud. Abstract in english We conducted a systematic review on the performance of diagnostic tests for clinical and laboratory monitoring of HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Diagnostic test information collected from computerized databases, bibliographies and the Internet were categorized as clinical (non-laborato [...] ry patient information), immunologic (information from immunologic laboratory tests), or virologic (information from virologic laboratory tests). Of the 51 studies selected for the review 28 assessed immunologic tests, 12 virologic tests and seven clinical and immunologic tests. Methods of performance evaluation were primarily sensitivity and specificity for the clinical category and correlation coefficients for immunologic and virologic categories. In the clinical category, the majority of test performance measures was reported as >70% sensitive and >65% specific. In the immunologic category, correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.99 for different CD4 count enumeration techniques, while correlation for CD4 and total lymphocyte counts was between r = 0.23 and r = 0.74. In the virologic category, correlation coefficients for different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) quantification techniques ranged from r = 0.54 to r = 0.90. Future research requires consensus on designing studies, and collecting and reporting data useful for decision-makers. We recommend classifying information into clinically relevant categories, using a consistent definition of disease across studies and providing measures of both association and accuracy.

  20. Bibliographical resources available in the Internet about dangerous substances and residues and their influence in the environment in the period 1975-2005 Recursos bibliográficos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias y residuos peligrosos y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005

    Elena Ronda-Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Internet has become the most used source of biomedical information. The documentation, produced by the public and private institutions, in relation with the dangerous substances that can recover in the Internet is fundamental for the prevention of this type of risks. Objective. To locate and to check the available documents in the Internet about dangerous substances, dangerous residues, including inert, and his influence in the environment in the period 1975 - 2005. Material and Method. Descriptive and cross sectional study of the results of the bibliographical searches made in the Internet, in the corresponding databases. Results. It has been recognized 162 records that expire with the requirements indicated in the pre-established methodology. Discussion. With respect to the environmental documentation present in the Internet it seems to be suitable to increase his diffusion and to improve his classification and accessibility.Introducción. Internet se ha convertido en una fuente de información biomédica cada vez más utilizada. La documentación producida por las instituciones públicas y privadas, en relación con las sustancias peligrosas que se pueden recuperar en Internet, es fundamental para la prevención de este tipo de riesgos. Objetivo. Localizar y revisar los documentos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias peligrosas, residuos peligrosos, incluyendo inertes, y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005. Material y método. Estudio descriptivo transversal de los resultados de las búsquedas bibliográficas efectuadas en Internet, en las correspondientes bases de datos. Resultados. Se han reconocido 162 registros que cumplen con los requisitos señalados en la metodología preestablecida. Discusión. Con respecto a la documentación medioambiental pre- sente en Internet, parece conveniente incrementar su difusión y mejorar su clasificación y accesibilidad.

  1. Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054 Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project

    Elsa E. Barber

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007. Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnóstico de situación válido para los catálogos de la región. Plantea, además, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temática en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay.The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007 are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to Mercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  2. Níveis de fósforo disponível e cálcio em rações suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases de crescimento e final Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets supplemented with phytase for broilers in the growing and finishing phases

    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações com fitase para frangos de corte da linhagem Cobb nas fases de crescimento (22 a 35 dias e final (36 a 42 dias. Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 3 × 4 + 1, composto de três níveis de Pdisp (0,36; 0,31; 0,26% na fase de crescimento e 0,33; 0,28; 0,23% na final, quatro níveis de cálcio (0,82; 0,72; 0,62; 0,52% para a fase de crescimento e 0,76; 0,66; 0,56; 0,46% para a final e um nível de suplementação da fitase (500 ftu/kg. As rações controle não foram suplementadas com fitase e continham, respectivamente, os seguintes níveis de Pdisp e cálcio: 0,41 e 0,82% (fase de crescimento e 0,38 e 0,76% (final. Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 35 e 42 dias de idade, avaliaram-se o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, foram determinados os valores energéticos das rações (EMAn e os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (CMMS. Na fase de crescimento, a redução do cálcio e Pdisp para 0,52 e 0,26%, respectivamente, não comprometeu o desempenho, a mineralização óssea, a EMAn e o CMMS. Na fase final, a redução do cálcio e fósforo disponível para 0,56 e 0,28%, respectivamente, não comprometeu o desempenho, a EMAn e o CMMS e melhorou a mineralização óssea. Os níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações para frangos de corte podem ser reduzidos para 0,52 e 0,26% na fase de crescimento e 0,56 e 0,28% na fase final desde que essa redução seja combinada com a suplementação de fitase no nível de 500 ftu/kg de ração.Calcium and available phosphorus (aP levels in diets with phytase for Cobb broilers in the growing (22 to 35 days and finishing phases (36 to 42 days of age were evaluated. A 3 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme, with three aP levels (0.36, 0.31, 0.26% in the growing phase and 0.33, 0.28, 0.23% in the finishing phase, four calcium levels (0.82, 0.72, 0.62, 0.52% in the growing phase and 0.76, 0.66, 0.56, 0.46% in the finishing phase, and one level of supplementation of phytase (500 ftu/kg was used. Control diets were not supplemented with phytase and they contained, respectively, the following levels of aP and calcium: 0.41 and 0.82% (growing phase and 0.38 and 0.76 (finishing phase. In the performance assays, at 35 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays, the energy values of diets (AMEn and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. In the growing phase, the reduction of the calcium and aP to 0.52 and 0.26%, respectively, did not compromise performance, bone ash, AMEn or MCDM. In the finishing phase, the reduction of the calcium and aP to 0.56 and 0.28%, respectively, did not compromise performance, AMEn or MCDM; in addition to improving bone ash. The levels of calcium and aP of diet can be reduced to 0.52 and 0.26% in the growing phase, and to 0.56 and 0.28% in the finishing phase, provided that this reduction is combined with supplementation of fitase at 500 ftu/kg of the diet.

  3. Training techniques for industry

    The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used training techniques in relation to cost-effective, prevention-oriented Quality Assurance are examined. Important questions are whether training techniques teach cost effectiveness and whether the techniques are, themselves, cost effective. To answer these questions, criteria for evaluating teaching techniques for cost effectiveness were developd, and then commonly used techniques are evaluated in terms of specific training program objectives. Motivation of personnel is also considered important to the success of a training program, and methods are outlined by which recognition of the academic quality of industrial training can be used as a motivational technique

  4. Angio-CT techniques

    In over 1000 body CT studies different techniques of fast contrast medium injection were used: single bolus injection, continuous fast drip infusion and multiple sequential bolus injections. Advantages and indications of different techniques are evaluated. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear techniques in industry

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Persian fencing techniques

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Irans history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reprodu...

  7. Isotopic safeguards techniques

    Information is presented to explain and illustrate the idea and uses of isotopic safeguards techniques. A generalized, simple approach is maintained to facilitate understanding of the techniques. Once understood, the application, demonstration, and implementation of isotopic safeguards techniques becomes much easier

  8. Techniques in Teaching Deviance

    Cheatwood, Derral; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses two techniques for use on the college level in teaching about the sociology of deviance. The first technique helps students understand the relativity of their personal beliefs. The second technique deals with strategies for investigating membership in deviant social groups. (Author/DB)

  9. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  10. Technique and Arts Education.

    Hope, Samuel

    1990-01-01

    Contends that the technological mentality will lead to greater emphasis on technique, defined as using technological methods in nonmechanical or nonmachine context. Argues that greater focus on technique implies many dangers including placing form over content and a loss of spirituality. Analyzes technique from several perspectives and the

  11. Single nanoparticle measurement techniques

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Mailly, D.; Benoit, A.

    1999-01-01

    Various single particle measuring techniques are briefly reviewed and the basic concepts of a new micro-SQUID technique are discussed. It allows measurements of the magnetization reversal of single nanometer-sized particles at low temperature. The influence of the measuring technique on the system of interest is discussed.

  12. Low current beam techniques

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Specific radiography technique

    Beside radiography testing using x-ray machine and gamma source, there are several technique that developed specifically to complete the testing that cannot be done with the two earlier. This technique was specific based on several factor, for the example, the advantages of neutron and electron using to show the image was unique compare to x-ray and gamma. Besides that, these special radiography techniques maybe differ in how to detect the radiation get through the object. These technique can used to inspect thin or specimen that contained radioactive material. There are several technique will discussed in this chapter such as neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and also autoradiography.

  14. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These Quality Attribute Techniques target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  15. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  16. Estudio de la cintica de la fermentacin in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    R. Pulido

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalu la dinmica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cintica de fermentacin de los forrajes se estudi usando la tcnica in vitro de produccin peridica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentacin, de Theodorou y col (1994. Los datos de produccin acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustndolos a la ecuacin exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979. La produccin de gas acumulada (ml/g fue mayor (PAn experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD and simulated grazing samples (FA, at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data collected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P<0.05 from herbage mass samples than simulated grazing samples at 12, 21, and 27 hours of incubation (161.7 v/s 150.6, s.e.d.= 4.23; 217.6 v/s 209.2, s.e.d.= 3.65; and 242.1 v/s 234.7, s.e.d.= 3.34, respectively. However, after 27 hours of incubation, no significant effect (P0.05 of type of sample, either on the amount of gas produced or on the kinetic of fermentation, were found. The dry matter disappearance after 96 hours of incubation was significantly lower (P<0.05 for herbage mass samples compared with simulated grazing samples (0.908 v/s 0.873, s.e.d.= 0.005, but with no effect of sward height (P0.05. These findings show the benefits of complementing in vitro gas production measurements with post digestion residue determinations to improve the knowledge on the nutritive value of feed fermented in the rumen

  17. Condições de secagem de uma pasta de anchoita modificada enzimaticamente na oxidação lipídica, lisina disponível e atividade antioxidante do produto Drying conditions of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy in the lipid oxidation, available lisina and antioxidant activity of the product

    Kelly de Moraes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar as condições da secagem convectiva de uma pasta de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita modificada enzimaticamente, através da metodologia de superfícies de resposta, sendo as respostas consideradas: a oxidação lipídica (TBA, a redução da lisina disponível e a perda da atividade antioxidante específica. A pasta de anchoita modificada foi obtida por hidrólise enzimática da fração muscular (filés do pescado por Neutrase®. Foram avaliadas na operação de secagem, a temperatura do ar (60, 70 e 80°C e a espessura das amostras (1,5; 2,5 e 3,5mm. A análise estatística da secagem mostrou efeitos significativos da temperatura do ar e da espessura das amostras (PThe aim of the work was to analyze the conditions of the convective drying of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita through the response surfaces methodology, and the responses were the lipid oxidation (TBA, reduction of the available lisina and loss of the specific antioxidant activity. The modified paste of anchovy was obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis of the fish muscular fraction (fillets by Neutrase®. In drying operation the air temperature (60, 70 and 80°C and the samples thickness (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5mm were studied. The statistical analysis of the drying showed significant effects of the air temperature and samples thickness (P<0.05. The best drying condition was obtained in the air temperature of 60°C and samples thickness of 2.5mm. In this condition the TBA index was of 0.93mgMDA kg-1, available lisina reduction of 16% and loss of the specific antioxidant activity of 20.2%.

  18. Os custos da violência para o sistema público de saúde no Brasil: informações disponíveis e possibilidades de estimação The cost of violence for the public health system in Brazil: available data and possibilities for estimation

    Rute Imanishi Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O orçamento público em saúde era da ordem de 53 bilhões de Reais em 2003. Dentro desse orçamento, qual é a parcela referente ao tratamento de vítimas da violência? Devido às limitações dos dados disponíveis não é possível calcular diretamente essa parcela. Neste artigo propomos uma metodologia para estimar o custo da violência para o sistema público de saúde que utiliza informações do Sistema Único de Saúde, dos orçamentos estaduais e municipais e estimativas sobre a demanda por atendimento ambulatorial da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios. Segundo nossos resultados, em 2004 o tratamento de vítimas de causas externas, de agressões e de acidentes de transporte teria custado ao setor público R$ 2,2 bilhões, R$ 119 milhões e R$ 453 milhões, respectivamente. Esses valores são cerca de quatro vezes maiores que aqueles verificados em trabalhos que computaram apenas os custos com internações.The Brazilian public budget for health was R$ 53 billion (approximately U$ 20 billion in 2003. What share of this total was to treat victims of violence? It is impossible to estimate that proportion directly, due to limitations in the available data. This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the cost of violence for the public health system, using data from the Unified National Health System, the government budget, and the demand for public medical services (National Household Sample Survey. According to our estimates, in 2004 the costs of treatment for victims of external causes, aggressions, and traffic accidents were R$ 2.2 billion, R$ 119 million, and R$ 453 million, respectively. These findings were approximately four times higher than those observed in other studies.

  19. Asian Rhinoplasty Techniques

    Bergeron, Lonard; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Asian rhinoplasty is a broad term that refers to a set of rhinoplasty techniques commonly used in Asian populations. Although these techniques are well developed and documented in Asian languages, there are relatively few English-language articles on the subject, and even fewer on current debates and controversies among plastic surgeons. Knowledge of these different techniques is essential to perform an adequate rhinoplasty in Asians. For Western patients, reduction rhinoplasty with dorsal hu...

  20. Theorie macroscopique de propagation du son dans les milieux poreux 'à structure rigide permettant la dispersion spatiale: principe et validation

    Nemati, Navid

    2012-01-01

    Ce travail présente et valide une théorie nonlocale nouvelle et généralisée, de la propagation acoustique dans les milieux poreux à structure rigide, saturés par un fluide viscothermique. Cette théorie linéaire permet de dépasser les limites de la théorie classique basée sur la théorie de l'homogénéisation. Elle prend en compte non seulement les phénomènes de dispersion temporelle, mais aussi ceux de dispersion spatiale. Dans le cadre de la nouvelle approche, une nouvelle procédure d'homogéné...

  1. Les politiques actuelles permettent-elles d’atteindre un développement durable en agriculture ? *

    Kroll Jean-Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable development is a concept in course of construction which needs materialize throught precise indicators to become operating. In agriculture, this indicators are laking and it is difficult to evaluate the impact of agricultural policies on sustainable development. In the economic area, where indicators exist, the evaluation shows the rough impact of the deletion of direct subsidies on the increase in unemployment, in unexploited areas, and on cutting-down in production. This observa...

  2. RTDrift, modle permettant dvaluer en temps rel les risques environnementaux lis la drive des produits phytosanitaires

    Lebeau, Frdric; Massinon, Mathieu; Verstraete, Arnaud; Destain, Marie-France

    2011-01-01

    Un modle, RTDrift, a t dvelopp pour estimer la contamination cause par la drive pour les pulvrisateurs rampe en cours de traitement. Un pulvrisateur a t quip de capteurs pour mesurer les paramtres de la drive dont la pression de pulvrisation, les mouvements de rampe, la vitesse et direction du vent, la temprature et lhumidit ainsi que la go-localisation. Pour chaque position successive des buses, un modle de diffusionadvection gaussien avec sdimentation ...

  3. Uranium exploration techniques

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (genetic description of some uranium deposits; typical concentrations of uranium in the natural environment); sedimentary host rocks (sandstones; tabular deposits; roll-front deposits; black shales); metamorphic host rocks (exploration techniques); geologic techniques (alteration features in sandstones; favourable features in metamorphic rocks); geophysical techniques (radiometric surveys; surface vehicle methods; airborne methods; input surveys); geochemical techniques (hydrogeochemistry; petrogeochemistry; stream sediment geochemistry; pedogeochemistry; emanometry; biogeochemistry); geochemical model for roll-front deposits; geologic model for vein-like deposits. (U.K.)

  4. Persian fencing techniques

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

  5. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  6. Ecocardiografa de contraste: historia, caractersticas de las microburbujas y tcnicas instrumentales Contrast echocardiography: history, micro bubble characteristics and instrumental techniques

    Carlos Cubides

    Full Text Available Este artculo describe la historia de la ecocardiografa de contraste, las caractersticas fsicas de las microburbujas de los agentes de contraste, las principales herramientas instrumentales (ndice mecnico, foco y enfoque, nmero de imgenes por segundo y las tcnicas ecocardiogrficas (segunda armnica, armnica de fusin, segunda armnica de pulso invertido, imagen intermitente, angio y densitometra acstica actualmente disponibles para uso clnico.This article describes the history of contrast echocardiography, the physical characteristics of the contrast agents micro bubbles, the main instrumental tools (mechanical index, focus and focusing, frame rate, and the echocardiography techniques (second harmonic imaging, fusion harmonic, power pulse inversion imaging, triggered imaging, intermittent harmonic power Doppler, color power angio and acoustic densitometry, actually available for clinical use.

  7. Contamination Control Techniques

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  8. Different Chip Interconnecting Techniques

    Hans Danielsson

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that in order to interconnect more than 25 I.C. chips (SSI and MSI) or to use LSI chips together with other kind of chips, the chips must be tested before mounting. Then only TAB- or CC-techniques can be used. The advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are discussed.

  9. Contamination Control Techniques

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  10. X-ray techniques

    This chapter covers the basic techniques utilized in podiatric radiology. It covers the most frequently used projections, along with a discussion of x-ray film, its composition, intensifying screens, their uses, and definitions needed to understand the characteristics, and how to make a decision about these characteristics, when developing an office technique

  11. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingnieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  12. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  13. Scientific techniques in Egyptology

    The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.)

  14. Scientific techniques in Egyptology

    Newton, G.W.A.

    1987-04-01

    The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.).

  15. Guía para el tratamiento de lactantes con alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca: Ficha comparativa de las fórmulas especiales disponibles en el mercado español Guideline for the treatment of infants with allergy to cow milk proteins: comparative data sheet of the specific formulae available on the Spanish market

    E. de Goicoechea Manzanares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca (APLV es una enfermedad de elevada incidencia y prevalencia. Su tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de las proteínas de la leche de vaca de la dieta, mediante lactancia materna exclusiva y, en caso de uso de fórmulas adaptadas, con el uso de fórmulas especiales, como fórmulas derivadas de proteínas lácteas altamente hidrolizadas, de fórmulas derivadas de proteínas vegetales o de fórmulas elaboradas a partir de aminoácidos biosintéticos (fórmulas elementales. Estas fórmulas suponen un coste económico considerable y un importante campo comercial para las industrias alimentaria y farmacéutica. Dado el continuo avance científico y técnico, son muchas las modificaciones que se presentan en la elaboración de dichas fórmulas y en las normas para su correcto manejo y muy numerosas las publicaciones sobre diferentes aspectos relativas a las mismas.
    En el presente trabajo pretendemos revisar las últimas modificaciones debidas a los nuevos conocimientos y a la experiencia clínica acumulada sobre prevención y tratamiento de la APLV. Además, se revisa la importancia de los aspectos nutricionales en todos los lactantes y niños pequeños que reciben fórmulas alimentarias especiales y dietas de exclusión y se presentan las principales características compositivas de las fórmulas disponibles en el mercado español y las recomendaciones de los organismos reguladores.

    Allergy to cow milk proteins (ACMP is a disease having high incidence and prevalence. Its treatment consists in the elimination of cow milk proteins, using maternal breastfeeding exclusively and, in the case of adapted formulae, with the use of special formulae such as highly hydrolyzed lactic protein derived formulae, vegetables protein derived formulae or formulae elaborated from biosynthetic aminoacids (Elemental formulae. These formulae entail a considerable financial cost and provide an important commercial field for the food and drug industry. Given the continuous scientific and technical advance, there are many modifications that occur in the elaboration of these formulae and on the guidelines for their correct handling and there are many publications on the different aspects of them. In the present work, we have aimed to review the recent modifications due to the newer knowledge and clinical experience accumulated on prevention and treatment of ACMP. In addition, the importance of the nutritional aspects in all infants and small children who receive special feeding formulae and diets of exclusion and that have the principle

  16. Complete denture impressioning technique.

    Kois, J C; Fan, P P

    1997-07-01

    This article describes a technique that simplifies the making of an edentulous arch impression before the fabrication of a complete denture. Making an impression of an edentulous arch requires a unique combination of managing movable soft tissue commensurate with integrating different materials and a technique for accurate reproduction. The technique described requires a two-phase approach using a syringeable addition silicone during the border molding process and a condensation silicone wash material to capture the soft tissue while the functional border molding is repeated. These more recently developed products allow us to achieve similar results and are easier, faster, and more predictable than those products used previously. PMID:9533331

  17. Spectrometric techniques 2

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  18. Advanced analytical techniques

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  19. Approximation techniques for engineers

    Komzsik, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  20. Extended piano techniques

    Vaes, Luc Paul Frank

    2009-01-01

    So-called "extended techniques" have suffered a consistent lack of understanding from a theoretical, historical and practical point of view. Although most of them e.g. playing directly on the strings, cluster- and glissando-techniques exist in a substantial part of the repertoire for the piano and have done so for more than a couple of centuries now, the use of the techniques on stage still sparks off negative reactions by audiences, composers, performers and tuners as well as owners of p...

  1. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  2. Spectrometric techniques 4

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume IV discusses three widely diversified areas of spectrometric techniques. The book focuses on three spectrometric methods. Chapter 1 discusses the phenomenology and applications of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), the most commonly used optical technique that exploit the Raman effect. The second chapter is concerned with diffraction gratings and mountings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region. Chapter 3 accounts the uses of mass spectrometry, detectors, types of spectrometers, and ion sources. Physicists and chemists will find the book a go

  3. Spectrometric techniques 3

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume III presents the applications of spectrometric techniques to atmospheric and space studies. This book reviews the spectral data processing and analysis techniques that are of broad applicability.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the instrumentation used for obtaining field data. This text then reviews the contribution that space-borne spectroscopy in the thermal IR has made to the understanding of the planets. Other chapters consider the instruments that have recorded the planetary emission spectra. This book discusses as well

  4. Biaxial compression test technique

    Hansard, E. T.

    1975-01-01

    Fixture and technique have been developed for predicting behavior of stiffened skin panels under biaxial compressive loading. Tester can load test panel independently in longitudinal and transverse directions. Data can also be obtained in combined mode.

  5. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  6. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  7. Microscale diagnostic techniques

    Breuer, Kenny

    2005-01-01

    Microscale Diagnostic Techniques highlights the most innovative and powerful developments in microscale diagnostics. It provides a resource for scientists and researchers interested in learning about the techniques themselves, including their capabilities and limitations. The fields of Micro- and Nanotechnology have emerged over the past decade as a major focus of modern scientific and engineering research and technology. Driven by advances in microfabrication, the investigation, manipulation and engineering of systems characterized by micrometer and, more recently, nanometer scales have becom

  8. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  9. Digital Watermarking Techniques

    Prabhjot Kaur Chahal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available More the development of the multimedia, more the digitalization, the more is the access to internet. This fast rate of enhancement gives a sense of protection and authentication.  Digital watermarking technology provides a strong solution to insecurity created by digitalization. In this paper, our focus is on the basic concepts of watermarking, their characterisation, their techniques. Extending more, we will elaborate one of the latest technique of watermarking named as “Discrete Cosine Transform” (DCT.

  10. Multiple Antenna Technique (MIMO)

    Ibn Azad, Muhammad Razin

    2012-01-01

    In the wireless communication field, multiple antennas are gaining increased interests because of their dramatic increase in capacity and speed of data transmissions. The purpose of this thesis is to give a brief look into multiple antenna techniques with the main focus on MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output). Basic principles of the entire popular multiple antenna techniques are briefly discussed here. For better understanding of multiple antennas, basic parameters and antenna mechanis...

  11. Classical Encryption Techniques

    Ramandeep Sharma; Richa Sharma; Harmanjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the classical encryption and modern techniques which are widely used to solve the problem in open networked systems, where information is being received and misused by adversaries by means of facilitating attacks at various levels in the communication. In this paper the proposition of building the basics of classical encryption and modern techniques and the comparison has been done between each of them.

  12. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  13. Optimization techniques in statistics

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  14. Modern lithography techniques

    This paper reports the development trends of modern lithography techniques. As a mainstream technique for VLSI fabricator, the optical lithography is advancing towards its resolution limitation; meantime, it faces the technical challenge from VLSI fabricating industry more and more. Today, the resolution of optical lithography is not enough to satisfy the fast development requirements of semiconductor industry even if the complex RET (Revolution enhancement techniques) are used in the optical lithography. Hence the NGL (Next generation lithography) techniques, such as XRL (X-ray lithography), SCALPEL (Scanning anger limited project electronic beam lithography), EBDW (Electronic beam direction writing), EUVL (Extreme ultraviolet lithography), and IPL (Ion beam project lithography) will be introduced into VLSI fabricator application for 100-70 nm line-width. Based on the NGL technique development trends and in view of the multiplicity of market inquiry, authors think every NGL technique will have its survival space. However, when the characteristic width of lithography advanced into nano-meter scale (? 100 nm), only the lithography imaging at atomic level will be the last winner. (authors)

  15. Speciation techniques in radioecology

    Speciation refers to the use of different fractionation techniques by which information on radionuclide species can be obtained. Techniques fractionating species according to size and charge properties allows information on size classes and reactivity classes to be obtained. Fractionation of radionuclides should take place in situ, at site or shortly after sampling. There are some few in situ size fractionation techniques for radionuclides in waters. In sea water large capacity (tangential flow systems) is needed, while hollow fibre systems can often be applied for rivers and lakes. By interphasing chromatographic systems (ion exchange columns) with hollow fibres, in situ sampling, size and charge fractionation can be performed simultaneously. For small volume soil waters in situ suction techniques may suffer from methodological effects. Structural information on radioactive particles or colloids can be attained by using different electron microscopy techniques. Separation of radionuclide species in solid samples is still an analytical challenge. Grain size analysis and determination of radionuclides associated with the sand, silt, clay and colloidal fractions should be combined with sensitive surface analytical techniques. Reactivity studies using extraction reagents can be useful for distinguishing between reversible and irreversible (or slow reversible) kinetics processes. Repeated extractions with inert electrolytes (or by lowering pH gradually) should reflect if reversible processes (e.g. physical, electrochemical sorption) take place. In contrast, information on irreversible processes (e.g chemisorption) is obtained if strong red/ox agents are needed for dissolution of species (binding rupture). The paper will focus on available size or charge fractionation techniques which should be useful within radioecology

  16. Handbook of laboratory techniques

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

  17. Telescopes and Techniques

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  18. Communication Analysis modelling techniques

    España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we refer to business activities as communicative events. Message Structures is a technique based on structured text that allows specifying the messages associated to communicative events. Event Specification Templates are a means to organise the requirements concerning a communicative event. This report can be useful to analysts and business process modellers in general, since, according to our industrial experience, it is possible to apply many Communication Analysis concepts, guidelines and criteria to other business process modelling notation...

  19. Current techniques in mammography

    This paper represents a literature survey of current techniques in mammography. The major objection to the otherwise acceptable methods in widespread use are the radiation doses given the patient, particularly the asymptomatic patient. Even using current techniques which involve x-raying the breast, all women over 50 should have yearly exams for the earliest possible cancer detection and hence improved diagnosis. It is for asymptomatic women under 50 that the risk versus benefit issue becomes controversial. Strong efforts are being made to reduce or eliminate this dose. Current methods in widespread clinical use and experimental methods are briefly covered, and the recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (released July 1980) are stressed. The current experimental techniques which include NMR, ultrasound, thermography, computer tomography, heavy particle radiography and ionography are capsulized

  20. Biodosimetry using dicentric technique

    Biological dosimetry, based on the analysis of solid stained dicentric chromosomes, has been used since the mid 1960, to estimate the absorbed dose immediately following a radiation accident. The dicentric is the main aberration used for biodosimetry. It is an exchange between the centromeric pieces of two broken chromosomes, which in its complete form is accompanied by a fragment composed of the acentric pieces of these chromosomes. Dicentric technique in chromosome aberration analysis is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetry technique, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeter have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by equivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual working lifetime. This paper aims at presenting a method based on the analysis of chromosomal aberration using dicentric technique for biological dosimetry. (Author)

  1. Radiation techniques for acromegaly

    Minniti Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

  2. Novel food processing techniques

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components (bioactive food components or as an emulsifying technique. Pulsed electrical field can be effective in microorganisms destruction, as well as a pretreatment to drying. Some of these techniques has already found its application in food industry of several high industry developed countries.

  3. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Muhammad Ali Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  4. Surface science techniques

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  5. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    Devlin, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  6. Biomedical techniques. Vol. 1

    This is the first of total of four volumes to appear as part of a manual providing coverage of issues related to diagnostic imaging procedures. Eight different authors have made contributions on the following topics: Bioelectrical signals; measuring techniques and measuring instruments in internal medicine; high-tech laboratory procedures for medical analyses; X-ray techniques; magnetic resonance imaging; the use of ultrasound to obtain medical images; nuclear medicine and thermography along with thermographic devices on based radiometrical methods of detection. (MG) With 260 figs

  7. Single well techniques

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  8. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention, was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out. (orig.)

  9. Neutron visual sensing technique

    The neutron visual sensing technique is a technology to extract physical quantities from the information on inner structures of complex materials or machineries which have been visualized and recorded by using neutron beams. Research and utilization of this technique is now under worldwide development since it can provide the information that is not possible by X-ray radiography. We show how to use stationary neutron sources (Research reactors) in chapter 2, and how to utilize pulsed neutron source (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex, J-PARC). Also the production of micro-element analyzer by an enterprise using the knowledge on radiological equipment is described as an example. (author)

  10. Millimicrosecond pulse techniques

    Lewis, Ian A D

    1959-01-01

    Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

  11. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer) into production processes represents an important limitation of this approach. Surface sampling techniques provide a measure of workplace chemical contamination. Wipe sampling has been used extensively, but is susceptible to high variability. Surface sampling requires definition of dermal transfer coefficients for specific work activities. A preliminary dermal exposure sampling strategy which addresses such issues as sampling method, representativeness and sample duration is proposed. Despite the limitations of current assessment techniques, it appears feasible to consider developing dermal occupational exposure limits (DOELs) for selected workplaces and chemical agents. Initial development of DOELs would be most practical where dermal exposure is from surface contact primarily, and where the work closely follows a routine. Improvement in the techniques of dermal exposure assessment is an important goal for occupational hygiene research, and is likely to lead to better health for worker populations. PMID:8304685

  12. Carbon isotope techniques

    This book is a hands-on introduction to using carbon isotope tracers in experimental biology and ecology. It is a bench-top reference with protocols for the study of plants, animals, and soils. The 11C, 12C, 13C, and 14C carbon isotopes are considered and standard techniques are described by established authors. The compilation includes the following features: specific, well-established, user-oriented techniques; carbon cycles in plants, animals, soils, air, and water; isotopes in ecological research; examples and sample calculations

  13. Simple Driving Techniques

    Rosendahl, Mads

    Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp......-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  14. Modern recording techniques

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  15. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    Arrondo, Jos Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  16. Microwave medical imaging using level set techniques

    Irishina Kovaleva, Natalia Yurievna

    2009-01-01

    El cncer de mama es una de las enfermedades que causan una mayor mortalidad entre las mujeres. Se estima que, slo en Europa, una mujer es diagnosticada de esta enfermedad cada 2 minutos y medio, y que una muere cada 7 minutos y medio. Para su cura es fundamental la deteccin temprana de los pequeos tumores. Si stos son detectados a tiempo, los tratamientos que existen hoy en da son mucho ms efectivos. En consecuencia, es de fundamental disponer de tecnologas especializadas que puedan lle...

  17. Techniques d'adaptation en traduction automatique

    Shah, Kashif

    2012-01-01

    L'approche statistique pour la traduction automatique semble être aujourd'hui l'approche la plusprometteuse. Cette approche permet de développer rapidement un système de traduction pour unenouvelle paire de langue lorsque les données d'apprentissage disponibles sont suffisammentconséquentes.Les systèmes de traduction automatique statistique (Statistical Machine Translation (SMT)) utilisentdes textes parallèles, aussi appelés les bitextes, comme support d'apprentissage pour créer lesmodèles de...

  18. Web Prefetching Techniques in Real Environments

    DE LA OSSA PÉREZ, BERNARDO ANTONIO

    2012-01-01

    Esta tesis estudia la aplicación a la World Wide Web (WWW) de las técnicas de prebúsqueda desde un punto de vista realista y práctico. La prebúsqueda se aplica a la web para reducir la latencia percibida por los usuarios ya que, básicamente, consiste en predecir y preprocesar los siguientes accesos de los usuarios. Hasta ahora, la literatura disponible acerca de la prebúsqueda web se ha concentrado en cuestiones teóricas y no ha considerado algunos de los problemas que aparecen al impl...

  19. Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases

    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos independentes, um na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias e outro na fase inicial (8 a 21 dias de idade, foram realizados com frangos de corte para avaliar níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações suplementadas com 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração. Cada experimento constou de um ensaio de desempenho e outro de metabolismo e foi conduzido em esquema fatorial (3 × 4 + 1, sendo três níveis de Pdisp (0,42; 0,37; 0,32% na fase pré-inicial e 0,39; 0,34; 0,29% na fase inicial, quatro níveis de cálcio (0,94; 0,84; 0,74; 0,64% na fase pré-inicial e 0,88; 0,78; 0,68; 0,58% na fase inicial mais uma ração controle. O controle correspondeu à única ração sem fitase e continha 0,47% de Pdisp e 0,94% de cálcio (fase pré-inicial ou 0,44% de Pdisp e 0,88% de cálcio (fase inicial. Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, determinaram-se a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn das rações e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CMMS. Na fase pré-inicial, os níveis de cálcio influenciaram o consumo de ração, a EMAn e o CMMS e, na fase inicial, afetaram o conteúdo de cinzas ósseas, a EMAn e o CMMS. Os níveis de Pdisp influenciaram o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a EMAn e o CMMS na fase pré-inicial e as cinzas ósseas e o CMMS na fase inicial. Adicionando 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração, é possível reduzir, respectivamente, os níveis de cálcio e Pdisp para 0,64% e 0,37% na fase pré-inicial e 0,58% e 0,29% na fase inicial, pois essa redução não tem efeito negativo sobre o desempenho e a mineralização óssea dos frangos de corte nessas fases.Two independent experiments, one in pre-starter phase (1 to 7 days and the other in the starter phase (8 to 21 days of age, were carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4 + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase, four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase. In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

  20. Composição centesimal, lisina disponível e digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de fórmulas para nutrição oral ou enteral Proximate composition, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of proteins in formulae for oral or enteral nutrition

    Edma M. Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultimamente tem-se verificado aumento do uso de nutrição enteral (NE em domicílio, objetivando reduzir custos e melhorar a qualidade de vida. Contudo, é importante monitorar o valor nutricional das dietas. Nesse estudo foram avaliadas as formulações F1 e F2 (ARAÚJO; GALEAZZI, 1999 contendo carne bovina, ovo (F1, chicória, cenoura, fubá de milho, extrato hidrossolúvel de soja, óleo de soja, Nidex® e sal, para uso em NE ou oral domiciliar, objetivando obter dados mais confiáveis e seguros. Foram determinadas: composição centesimal, digestibilidade in vitro e lisina disponível. As composições centesimais (base seca foram as seguintes: F1: calorias 454,69, umidade 79,29±0,07, proteína 17,04±0,06, lipídios 14,85±0,11, carboidratos 63,22, fibra alimentar solúvel 0,67±0,66 e insolúvel 1,65±0,73, cinzas 2,57±0,01; F2: calorias 463,92, umidade 78,96±0,09, proteína 16,56±0,09, lipídios 15,12±0,20, fibra alimentar solúvel 1,09±0,11 e insolúvel 1,84±0,09, carboidratos 65,40 e cinzas 2,63±0,08. A distribuição calórica mostrou-se adequada. Os teores de lisina eram 80 mg/g de proteína para F1 e 139 para F2. A digestibilidade (% das proteínas foi 95 para F1 e 93 para F2. As formulações são factíveis de preparo em domicílio, possuem fontes de proteína de boa qualidade, baixo custo, podendo atender às necessidades nutricionais de indivíduos em terapia nutricional domiciliar e promover a recuperação nutricional.Recently the use of home enteral nutrition (EN has increased, aimed at reducing costs and improving the quality of life. Monitoring the nutritional value of these diets is therefore important. In this study the formulations F1 and F2 (ARAÚJO; GALEAZZI, 1999 containing beef, egg (F1, chicory, carrot, corn grits, ater-soluble soybean extract, soybean oil, Nidex ater-soluble soybean extract, soybean oil, Nidex® and salt, ere evaluated for use in home EN, aiming at obtaining more reliable, safer data. The follo ing ere determined: proximate composition, in vitro digestibility and available lysine. The proximate compositions (d b of the formulations ere: F1: 454.69Kcal, moisture 79.29±0.07, protein 17.04±0.06, lipids 14.85±0.11, carbohydrates 63.22, soluble 0.67±0.66 and insoluble 1.65±0.73 fiber and ash 2.57±0.01; F2: 463.92Kcal, moisture 78.96±0.09, protein 16.56±0.09, lipids 15.12±0.20, soluble 1.09±0.11 and insoluble 1.84±0.09 fiber, carbohydrates 65.40 and ash 2.63±0.08. The caloric distribution as sho n to be adequate. The lysine contents in mg/g of protein ere 80 for F1 and 139 for F2 and % protein digestibility as 95% for F1 and 93% for F2. The formulations ere adequate for domestic preparation and contained good quality, lo cost protein sources, capable of attending the nutritional requirements of individuals using home EN, promoting nutritional recovery.

  1. Differential doppler heterodyning technique

    Lading, Lars

    1971-01-01

    Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating the...

  2. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  3. The attribute measurement technique

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  4. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  5. Computerized tomography: Techniques

    The book is an introduction to the physical and technical fundamentals of computerized tomography. The measuring and imaging mechanisms of the various CT techniques are described with a view to relevant medical perspectives and potential side effects. Particular regard is given to magnetic resonance tomography. (orig./MG)

  6. The ion plating technique

    The ion plating technique and the characteristics of the coatings are described, and the mechanisms involved are discussed. It is essentially vapour deposition on to a substrate which is the cathode of a glow discharge and the substrate has been cleaned and is maintained clean by sputtering. The source of evaporant is resistance heated. (author)

  7. FOCUSED CRAWLING TECHNIQUES

    Pankaj Mishra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for more and more specific reply to a web search query has prompted researchers to work on focused web crawling techniques for web spiders. Variety of lexical and link based approaches of focused web crawling are introduced in the paper highlighting important aspects of each.

  8. Multisensor Data Integration Techniques

    Evans, D. L.; Blake, P. L.; Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Logan, T. L.; Mcguffie, B. A.; Paylor, E. D.; Singer, R. B.; Schenck, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The availability of data from sensors operating in several different wavelength regions had led to the development of new techniques and strategies for both data management and image analysis. Work is ongoing to develop computer techniques for analysis of integrated data sets. These techniques include coregistration of multisensor images, rectification of radar images in areas of topographic relief to ensure pixel to pixel registration with planimetric data sets, calibration of data so that signatures can be applied to remote areas, normalization of data acquired with disparate sensors and determination of extended spectral signatures of surface units. In addition, software is being developed to analyze coregistrated digital terrain and image data so that automated stratigraphic and structural analyses can be performed. These software procedures include: strike and dip determination, terrain profile generation, stratigraphic column generation, stratigraphic thickness measurements, structural cross-section generation, and creation of 3-D block diagrams. These techniques were applied to coregistered LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and multipolarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data of the Wind River Basin in Wyoming.

  9. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  10. A video authentication technique

    Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system

  11. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among the scientists of the country to use this technique. The NA and BTD provides service to outside users for research and development purpose and many scientists have availed of this service. (author)

  12. Oberst beam test technique

    Fasana, Alessandro; Garibaldi, Luigi; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Ruzzene, Massimo

    1998-06-01

    The definition of the mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials, i.e. the elastic modulus and the loss factor, is carried out, according to many national and international standards, with many different techniques, both of the resonant and non-resonant type. In this paper we focus our attention on the pros and cons of the resonant technique based on the classical Oberst beam method. When the damping material to be tested is not self-supporting, its properties are determined taking start from the measured modal frequencies and loss factors of a laminated beam, constituted by one or two metallic strips, ideally undamped, and one or two viscoelastic layers. The formulae specified on the standards hold valid under the assumptions of the theory developed by Kerwin, Ungar and Ross and we try in this paper to quantify witch deviation of the results should be expected when moving away from their ideal hypotheses.

  13. Techniques of Radio Astronomy

    Wilson, T L

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the techniques of radio astronomy. This study began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cosmos, but the period of rapid progress began fifteen years later. From then to the present, the wavelength range expanded from a few meters to the sub-millimeters, the angular resolution increased from degrees to finer than milli arc seconds and the receiver sensitivities have improved by large factors. Today, the technique of aperture synthesis produces images comparable to or exceeding those obtained with the best optical facilities. In addition to technical advances, the scientific discoveries made in the radio range have contributed much to opening new visions of our universe. There are numerous national radio facilities spread over the world. In the near future, a new era of truly global radio observatories will begin. This chapter contains a short history of the development of the field, details of calibration procedures, coherent/heterodyne and incoherent/bolom...

  14. Laser beam shaping techniques

    DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

    2000-03-16

    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  15. Network acceleration techniques

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  16. Monte Carlo techniques

    The course of ''Monte Carlo Techniques'' will try to give a general overview of how to build up a method based on a given theory, allowing you to compare the outcome of an experiment with that theory. Concepts related with the construction of the method, such as, random variables, distributions of random variables, generation of random variables, random-based numerical methods, will be introduced in this course. Examples of some of the current theories in High Energy Physics describing the e+e- annihilation processes (QED, Electro-Weak, QCD) will also be briefly introduced. A second step in the employment of this method is related to the detector. The interactions that a particle could have along its way, through the detector as well as the response of the different materials which compound the detector will be quoted in this course. An example of detector at LEP era, in which these techniques are being applied, will close the course. (orig.)

  17. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  18. Laser isotope separation techniques

    Having examined the high cost and low efficiency of existing processes for separating uranium isotopes in comparison with the encouraging assessed figures for laser separation processes and having considered the high potential separation factors which make possibly very low 235U concentrations in the depleted tailings from laser separation processes, the design of such a system is considered. There are two essential features. Firstly, only one isotope must absorb laser radiation, and secondly that absorption must lead to a successful physical or chemical separation of that species which has been optically excited. Such a scheme is illustrated and discussed. The important aspect of loss mechanisms which can depopulate the selectively excited levels and the ways in which isotopes may exhibit differences in optical absorption frequencies are considered. Examples are given to illustrate techniques used in the separation stage. Finally a summary is presented of those elements in which some enrichment has been achieved by optical techniques. (U.K.)

  19. Management of science technique

    This book mentions change of environment and management of technique, business environment in information age technology and management such as classification of technology, innovation of technology and meaning of technology management, item innovation and technology about meaning of item development, innovation and item development, creation of item concept and item development, process of product innovation, product activity, product innovation product innovation and technology, development of product innovation, technology and marketing innovation, innovation of skill of marketing information system and globalization.

  20. Kinetic Activation Relaxation Technique

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC...

  1. Stakeholder involvement techniques

    Stakeholder involvement, dialogue and deliberation can improve the quality and the sustainability of policy decisions. This publication offers a short guide to stakeholder involvement techniques and their selection. It includes an annotated bibliography pointing to easily accessible handbooks and other resources. While it approaches the topic from the point of view of radioactive waste management, it is intended for any person or organisation considering stakeholder involvement in decision making. (author)

  2. Colorimetric protein assay techniques.

    Sapan, C V; Lundblad, R L; Price, N C

    1999-04-01

    There has been an increase in the number of colorimetric assay techniques for the determination of protein concentration over the past 20 years. This has resulted in a perceived increase in sensitivity and accuracy with the advent of new techniques. The present review considers these advances with emphasis on the potential use of such technologies in the assay of biopharmaceuticals. The techniques reviewed include Coomassie Blue G-250 dye binding (the Bradford assay), the Lowry assay, the bicinchoninic acid assay and the biuret assay. It is shown that each assay has advantages and disadvantages relative to sensitivity, ease of performance, acceptance in the literature, accuracy and reproducibility/coefficient of variation/laboratory-to-laboratory variation. A comparison of the use of several assays with the same sample population is presented. It is suggested that the most critical issue in the use of a chromogenic protein assay for the characterization of a biopharmaceutical is the selection of a standard for the calibration of the assay; it is crucial that the standard be representative of the sample. If it is not possible to match the standard with the sample from the perspective of protein composition, then it is preferable to use an assay that is not sensitive to the composition of the protein such as a micro-Kjeldahl technique, quantitative amino acid analysis or the biuret assay. In a complex mixture it might be inappropriate to focus on a general method of protein determination and much more informative to use specific methods relating to the protein(s) of particular interest, using either specific assays or antibody-based methods. The key point is that whatever method is adopted as the 'gold standard' for a given protein, this method needs to be used routinely for calibration. PMID:10075906

  3. LDAP Injection Techniques

    Jose Maria ALONSO; Guzman, Antonio; Beltran, Marta; Rodolfo BORDON

    2009-01-01

    The increase in the number of databases accessed only by some applications has made code injection attacks an important threat to almost any current system. If one of these applications accepts inputs from a client and executes these inputs without first validating them, the attackers are free to execute their own queries and therefore, to extract, modify or delete the content of the database associated to the application. In this paper a deep analysis of the LDAP injection techniques is pres...

  4. Emerging technology and techniques

    Gopi Naveen Chander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique of fabricating feldspathic porcelain pressable ingots was proposed. A 5 ml disposable syringe was used to condense the powder slurry. The condensed porcelain was sintered at 900΀C to produce porcelain ingots. The fabricated porcelain ingots were used in pressable ceramic machines. The technological advantages of pressable system improve the properties, and the fabricated ingot enhances the application of feldspathic porcelain.

  5. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Muhammad Ali Masood; M.N.A. Khan

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with dat...

  6. Weld braze technique

    Kanne, Jr., William R. (Aiken, SC); Kelker, Jr., John W. (North Augusta, SC); Alexander, Robert J. (Aiken, SC)

    1982-01-01

    High-strength metal joints are formed by a combined weld-braze technique. A hollow cylindrical metal member is forced into an undersized counterbore in another metal member with a suitable braze metal disposed along the bottom of the counterbore. Force and current applied to the members in an evacuated chamber results in the concurrent formation of the weld along the sides of the counterbore and a braze along the bottom of the counterbore in one continuous operation.

  7. Parallel MATLAB Techniques

    Krishnamurthy, Ashok,; Samsi, Siddharth; Gadepally, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we show why parallel MATLAB is useful, provide a comparison of the different parallel MATLAB choices, and describe a number of applications in Signal and Image Processing: Audio Signal Processing, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Processing and Superconducting Quantum Interference Filters (SQIFs). Each of these applications have been parallelized using different methods (Task parallel and Data parallel techniques). The applications presented may be considered representative of ...

  8. Empirical techniques in finance

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  9. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  10. [Progress in imaging techniques].

    Mishima, Kazuaki; Otsuka, Tsukasa

    2013-05-01

    Today it is common to perform real-time diagnosis and treatment via live broadcast as a method of education and to spread new technology for diagnosis and therapy in medical fields. Live medical broadcasts have developed along with broadcast technology. In the early days, live video feeds were sent from operating rooms to classrooms and lecture halls in universities and hospitals. However, the development of imaging techniques and communication networks enabled live broadcasts that bi-directionally link operating rooms and meeting halls during scientific meetings and live demonstration courses. Live broadcasts therefore became an important method for education and the dissemination of new medical technologies. The development of imaging techniques has contributed to more realistic live broadcasts through such innovative techniques as three-dimensional viewing and higher-definition 4K technology. In the future, live broadcasts will be transmitted on personal computers using regular Internet connections. In addition to the enhancement of image delivery technology, it will also be necessary to examine the entire image delivery environment carefully, including issues of security and privacy of personal information. PMID:23789334

  11. Autocontrol technique of combined centrifuges

    The design characteristic of the autocontrol technique of the combined centrifuge is introduced. Digital technique, vary structure control and interface technique, graphical display techniques, digital communication technique as well as electronic technique are applied in the course of research. Automation in the operation of large scale combined centrifuges and the course of combined test has been realized and it can coordinate with other systems of status monitoring, data collecting and centrifugal force-aerodynamic force matched load automatically

  12. Applied ALARA techniques

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  13. Neutron technique holds potential

    A non-intrusive inspection technique that probes samples with neutrons can analyze the content of coal and cement and detect explosives and drugs. It also shows promise for locating plastic and wooden land mines. Developed by The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Western Kentucky University (WKU) researchers, the pulsed fast-thermal neutron analysis system bombards a sample with pulses of fast and slow, or thermal neutrons. Fast neutrons collide with some atoms, triggering the release of gamma rays. Between pulses, thermal neutrons are captured by other atoms, causing emission of gamma rays. Detectors measure energies of the combined gamma rays, which are unique for each element

  14. [Imaging techniques and pain].

    Maihfner, C; Bingel, U

    2015-10-01

    Over the last 15years, functional brain imaging techniques have provided critical insights into cortical, subcortical and even spinal mechanisms involved in pain perception and pain modulation in humans. The pivotal contribution of brain imaging studies conducted in Germany have thereby been internationally acknowledged. One of the key challenges for the next decade is to shift the focus from studies in healthy volunteers to different clinical populations suffering from chronic pain to characterize CNS mechanisms, as well as neurobiological predictors and resilience factors of pain chronification. Ultimately, the knowledge gained by this work may help identify individual or syndrome-specific CNS changes as biomarkers to make therapeutic decisions. PMID:26351124

  15. Evolution of Opf techniques

    The paper analyses some possible applications of Opf techniques to the new market scenario of electric systems. New control tools (the adoption of Facts devices, or the use of correct economical signals related to nodal prices) are introduced. As the technical and economic requirements of the market could give rise to mutual conflict, the use of Multi objective Optimisation (MO) is envisaged. MO allows the management of different objectives and makes it easier to take a decision, as it gives indications on the consequences of the choice with respect to all the objective functions considered

  16. High voltage test techniques

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  17. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payn-Rodrguez, Luis A; Garca-Cullar, Alejandro J; Ramn-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Pea, Natalia; Medina-Carren, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed. PMID:24330043

  18. DNA Microarray Technique

    Thakare SP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

  19. Audio signal management techniques

    Anderson, A. P.; Lane, J. K.; Pudliner, B. K.

    1983-02-01

    The objective of the Audio Signal Management technical program was to design and develop an Exploratory Development Model Audio Signal Management System (ASMS). This system is to be used to test and evaluate present and future voice data entry algorithms, processing techniques, and hardware modules. The ASMS consists of internal functions implemented on the RADC PDP 11/70 computer, external functions implemented in stand-alone hardware devices, an Audio Distribution Network (ADN) for shaping and routing audio signals, and an ADP Data entry communication interface/keyboard translator with HP 2645A terminal for function control and transcription.

  20. Interviewing techniques: an overview.

    Estrada, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Taking the correct precautions, being well prepared, doing the research, and reassessing the real needs when vacancies arise will assure success in hiring the best candidate for the job(s). Job descriptions, interviewing technique, communication style,and candidate evaluations are discussed as foundations for hiring successfully. Hiring managers should trust their own instincts if they have had previous success with hiring high performance employees. Often times it will come down to making a decision using best judgment based on the facts that have been gathered through the interview process. PMID:22276391

  1. Developing techniques for decontamination

    Techniques for decontamination of NPP equipment are described. the Lomn-process (oxide film removal from the LWR circuit using Lomi-reagent, based on vanadium ions, picolinate and formate) and Pod-process decontamination by oxidation using reagent based on permanganates in nitric acid, and citric- and oxalic acid solutions) are considered. Examples of BWR and PWR reactor decontamination are given. Attention is paid to the problems of decontamination of tools, equipment, clothing, respirators, cables etc, using freon-113. Commercial prospective advantages of decontamination are shown

  2. Virtual facebow technique.

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Garmendia, Asier; Minguez, Rikardo; Brizuela, Aritza; Pradies, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    This article describes a virtual technique for transferring the location of a digitized cast from the patient to a virtual articulator (virtual facebow transfer). Using a virtual procedure, the maxillary digital cast is transferred to a virtual articulator by means of reverse engineering devices. The following devices necessary to carry out this protocol are available in many contemporary practices: an intraoral scanner, a digital camera, and specific software. Results prove the viability of integrating different tools and software and of completely integrating this procedure into a dental digital workflow. PMID:26372628

  3. Monopulse principles and techniques

    Sherman, Samuel M

    2011-01-01

    Monopulse is a type of radar that sends additional information in the signal in order to avoid problems caused by rapid changes in signal strength. Monopulse is resistant to jamming which is one of the main reasons it is used in most radar systems today. This updated and expanded edition of an Artech House classic offers you a current and comprehensive treatment of monopulse radar principles, techniques, and applications. The Second Edition features two brand new chapters, covering monopulse countermeasures and counter-countermeasures and monopulse for airborne radar and homing seekers.This es

  4. A fuzzy disaggregation technique

    Alessandro Polli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a problem of time series disaggregation in presence of broad information lack. In this framework it is not possible to follow standard methodologies, like those stemming from the Chow and Lin algorithm and based on probabilistic assumptions. In general terms, when information sets are limited, instead of referring to probabilistic measures it could be more appropriate to adopt an uncertainty measure satisfying only some general properties, like the fuzzy one. After a synthetic survey about fuzzy aggregation operators, we introduce a fuzzy disaggregation technique, based on Choquet capacity theory and characterized by De Finetti coherence.

  5. Principles of Electromigration Techniques

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Electromigration techniques provide the separation of analyzed sample components owing to external voltage generating electrokinetic phenomena—electrophoresis and electroosmosis. Taking into account the relatively large number of parameters dealt with during electrophoretic analyses, it is essential to know their influence on the achieved separation of analytes. In this chapter the theoretical and practical aspects of a resolution optimization, as well as the effect of different separation parameters on the migration behavior are described. These, among others, include migration time, efficiency, selectivity, and resolution. The influence of electrods polarization, applied voltage, temperature, capillary, background electrolyte, and various additives on the separation is also discussed.

  6. Evolution of radiotherapeutic techniques

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common kind of tumor involving the uterine corpus, occurring in a frequency of 90 percent or better and found predominantly in post-menopausal women. Because of vaginal bleeding, diagnosis is made early and control rates are good. Regional lymph node metastases are found to occur in about 20 percent of all operable patients and more frequently in those with advanced lesions near the cervix. Surgery alone fails not only because of metastases but also because of persistence in the vaginal vault and in the periurethral region. From a theoretical and practical viewpoint, preoperative irradiation is a valuable and important role in the treatment of carcinoma of the endometrium. Treatment calls for a technique that will effectively irradiate the uterine tissue, the vaginal vault, and and the immediate extrauterine tissues in which postsurgical persistence is known to appear. From the standpoint of survival, both preoperative external therapy and preoperative radium therapy are effective with equivalent survival figures. The incidence in our experience of vaginal recurrence in those patients who were irradiated preoperatively with external beam therapy techniques would indicate the need for supplemental radium within the vaginal vault

  7. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    E. Lubrano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  8. Decision Analysis Technique

    Hammad Dabo Baba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant step in building structure maintenance decision is the physical inspection of the facility to be maintained. The physical inspection involved cursory assessment of the structure and ratings of the identified defects based on expert evaluation. The objective of this paper is to describe present a novel approach to prioritizing the criticality of physical defects in a residential building system using multi criteria decision analysis approach. A residential building constructed in 1985 was considered in this study. Four criteria which includes; Physical Condition of the building system (PC, Effect on Asset (EA, effect on Occupants (EO and Maintenance Cost (MC are considered in the inspection. The building was divided in to nine systems regarded as alternatives. Expert's choice software was used in comparing the importance of the criteria against the main objective, whereas structured Proforma was used in quantifying the defects observed on all building systems against each criteria. The defects severity score of each building system was identified and later multiplied by the weight of the criteria and final hierarchy was derived. The final ranking indicates that, electrical system was considered the most critical system with a risk value of 0.134 while ceiling system scored the lowest risk value of 0.066. The technique is often used in prioritizing mechanical equipment for maintenance planning. However, result of this study indicates that the technique could be used in prioritizing building systems for maintenance planning

  9. Techniques de hacking

    Erickson, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

  10. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

  11. Single-borehole techniques

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.)

  12. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  13. Contamination Control Techniques

    Controlling the spread of radioactive contamination during work on nuclear systems is one of the tougher jobs we face as radiation, safety specialists. Discussion will include airborne, waterborne, fixed and loose surface contamination engineered controls of the past and present. With increased emphasis on getting jobs done faster, safer and better, we need to look at innovative ways to control the spread of radioactive contamination. This class will show the student the latest techniques in confining the spread of radioactive contamination to the environment and improved methods to reduce the number of skin and clothing contamination that can occur. Discussions and demonstrations will provide choices concerning work practices and products that confine the spread of contamination. The class will have a number of tools and pieces of equipment used at Hanford and other nuclear facilities, that will passed around for the student to have ''hands on'' training

  14. New accelerating techniques

    A selection of new accelerating techniques is presented. The criterion for having selected a certain scheme was the promise to achieve high accelerating gradients. All schemes belong to one of three essentially different classes: - Near field accelerators, where the particles travel on straight trajectories in free space. The accelerating field, parallel to the trajectory, is guided by a nearby structure with dimensions of the order of the R.F. wave-length (grating accelerator) or the bunch length (wakefield accelerator). - Far-field accelerators. The particles travel in free space on curved trajectories and the acceleration takes place in transverse direction by an el.-magn. beam in free space or weakly guided (inverse free-electron-laser accelerator). - Media accelerators. The particles travel on straight trajectories in a medium (gas, plasma) and are accelerated either by el. magn. or el.-static fields parallel to their trajectory (beam wave accelerators, beam front accelerators, plasma beat-wave accelerator). 31 refs.

  15. Advanced enrichment techniques

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  16. Hymenoptera marking technique

    A. M. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment there are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

  17. Tracer technique in casting

    Results of silumine modification studies are described. The following modificators have been used: sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, cryolite labelled with sodium-24 as well as potassium chloride labelled with potassium-42 and phosphoric copper labelled with phosphorus-32. The following factors have been identified as results of the investigations: the effects of modificator chemical composition, temperature and feeding technique on the residual sodium and phosphorus content in silumines; sodium and potassium amounts transfered into the alloys from the salt constituents of fluxes; the effects of the melt maturing time on sodium and phosphorus losses at various temperatures with degassing by hexachloroethane and chlorine and the same during remelting. Some results are also presented concerning the effects of chemical composition and a number of metallurgical factors on grey iron tightness

  18. Techniques for fire detection

    Bukowski, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is given of the basis for an analysis of combustable materials and potential ignition sources in a spacecraft. First, the burning process is discussed in terms of the production of the fire signatures normally associated with detection devices. These include convected and radiated thermal energy, particulates, and gases. Second, the transport processes associated with the movement of these from the fire to the detector, along with the important phenomena which cause the level of these signatures to be reduced, are described. Third, the operating characteristics of the individual types of detectors which influence their response to signals, are presented. Finally, vulnerability analysis using predictive fire modeling techniques is discussed as a means to establish the necessary response of the detection system to provide the level of protection required in the application.

  19. Nuclear techniques in medicine

    Nuclear physics has played a large role in medical treatment and diagnosis, from the technologies used in nuclear physics experiments to nuclear reactions. Particle detector technology from experimental nuclear and particle physics is the basis of the various tomographic imaging modalities such as: the radioactive tracers used in nuclear medicine result from neutron induced reactions using nuclear reactor facilities; cyclotron production of short-lived isotopes which allows metabolism of brain and cardiac tissue to be measured; in-vivo neutron activation analysis which allows the measurement of trace elements in the body. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate some of those techniques such as, particle-beam treatments, neutron activation analyses, magnetic resonance imaging, and the physics involved. 5 figs., 1 tab., ills

  20. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy. Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction. Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other. Deriving contours for planning teletherapy. Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit. Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs. Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  1. Geological data integration techniques

    The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

  2. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy; Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction; Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other; Deriving contours for planning teletherapy; Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit; Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs; Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  3. Sheet GT1-3. Reflections based on available data in Augeres about the efficiency of water processing - Evolution perspectives and recommendations; Fiche GT1-3. Reflexions sur l'efficacite du traitement des eaux sur la base des donnees disponibles a Augeres - Perspectives d'evolution et recommandations

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    As the resurgence of waters from rehabilitated uranium mining sites is a potential cause of contamination for the environment, this document first recalls the legal framework for mining water processing and technical choices, and recent technical evolutions. It reports an investigation performed level with the Augeres water processing plant. This investigation aimed at determining under which form radionuclides are released in the environment. It also assessed the efficiency of the last modifications brought to water processing in this plant in terms of radiological quality improvement. Finally, the authors propose a synthesis of mining water processing techniques

  4. Changes in urological surgical techniques

    Oktay Üçer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laparoscopic and afterwards robotic techniques have constituted most of urologic surgery procedures. Open surgery may give place to robotic surgery due to possible widespread use of robots in the future. Studies, that compare these two techniques are usually designed about radical prostatectomy, since it is the most common operation performed by using these techniques. In literature,robotic surgery seems more advantageous than other techniques but the most important disadvantage of this technique is cost-effective problems. In present review,history of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery, and comparison of advantages, disadvantages and cost of these techniques have been discussed with literature.

  5. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such an analysis of the internal environment allows the organization to identify its resources and capabilities as best as possible, in relation to the threats and opportunities brought about by the crisis situations. Authors’ Contribution The research allows the identification of the organizational behaviour of resource and capabilities capitalization that must be adopted during the economic crisis. The study may be useful to both the academic and the business environment.

  6. Improved Search Techniques

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  7. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  8. Specialized financing techniques

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  9. Uncertainty analysis techniques

    The origin of the uncertainty affecting Performance Assessments, as well as their propagation to dose and risk results is discussed. The analysis is focused essentially on the uncertainties introduced by the input parameters, the values of which may range over some orders of magnitude and may be given as probability distribution function. The paper briefly reviews the existing sampling techniques used for Monte Carlo simulations and the methods for characterizing the output curves, determining their convergence and confidence limits. Annual doses, expectation values of the doses and risks are computed for a particular case of a possible repository in clay, in order to illustrate the significance of such output characteristics as the mean, the logarithmic mean and the median as well as their ratios. The report concludes that provisionally, due to its better robustness, such estimation as the 90th percentile may be substituted to the arithmetic mean for comparison of the estimated doses with acceptance criteria. In any case, the results obtained through Uncertainty Analyses must be interpreted with caution as long as input data distribution functions are not derived from experiments reasonably reproducing the situation in a well characterized repository and site

  10. LIBRARY MANAGEMENT : A TECHNIQUE

    Kulkarni Rahul Hanmant

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Today we are living in digital age, or now we are living in techno age. In Six month there is new invention in all the technical things. When we expert in one technology there is new and added techniques for that there is challenge for everyone who faces technology. When we compare with library there is also new challenges for library services. In some extent we see that Library Automation and E-Security are the new advanced things. For Librarian he should manage all the things. In Academic libraries most of the Librarian facing problem of management. When we evaluate work there are various parameters and test to solve problem. Management is the art of getting things done by a group of people with the effective utilization of available resources. An introduction cannot be treated as a managing body running any organization. A minimum of two persons are essential to form a management. These persons perform the function in order to achieve the objectives of an organization. Def: Peter Drucker, :-“Management is an organ, organs can be described and defined only through their functions.”

  11. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  12. Towards optimizing rowing technique.

    Sanderson, B; Martindale, W

    1986-08-01

    An equation is developed (and solved) to describe the speed of a rowing boat as a function of the movement of the sculler's center of mass relative to the boat and the force applied. A method is presented to determine the degree to which fluctuations in boat speed through the rowing cycle affect the amount of power necessary to propel the boat at some mean speed. By changing technique, it is possible to modify these fluctuations in order to achieve the higher mean speed for a given amount of propulsive power. An approximate calculation of the ratio of the power put into the boat's motion to the power lost as water movement in the oar "puddle" suggests that increasing the blade area of the oar will result in improved efficiency. A similarity analysis is undertaken to see if large rowers have an advantage over small rowers in races. Dependence of drag coefficients on scale suggest they do; however, this advantage is very small and would be largely compensated for if boats were made optimally light (in which case the ratio of boat mass to body mass decreases as body mass decreases). Regulations of international rowing fix a minimum boat mass regardless of the rowers mass, thereby discriminating against smaller rowers. Equations are developed to show how stroke rate should scale with body mass for geometrically similar rowers. The ratio of power expended in internal motions to power expended propelling the boat is investigated. PMID:3747808

  13. Shaft hoisting techniques

    This is a description of shaft hoisting techniques, based on known and proven mineshaft technology used for a deep level underground repository for radioactive waste. A depth between 500 to 100 metres would be required accessed by a minimum of two vertical shafts for safety considerations and to facilitate ventilation. We have assumed that the vertical shaft concept has been selected on merit from other engineering concepts and the 1000 metres depth is to suit the geological and hydrological conditions at the selected site. The requirement is for the geological environment chosen to host the repository, to back up the engineering safeguards in preventing the migration of radionuclides back to the biosphere. The packages to be transported underground would be in the weight range 20 to 110 tonnes. The largest volume would be 6000 x 240 x 2750. The waste packages have to remain monitorable and retrievable during the period prior to the closure of each repository vault. The Civil Engineering design of the shaft wall has to be considered with reference to the determination of the shaft diameter. This takes into account the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the chosen site. This means that the designers of mechanical and structural equipment do not have a completely free hand in determining the diameter of the shaft. In basic terms the plan area of the package determines the shaft diameter and the weight of the package determines the type and power of the winding system. (author)

  14. A Topological Technique for Regionalization.

    Brantingham, Patricia L.; Brantingham, Paul J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a mathematical technique for building perceptual models of urban areas. Uses techniques to model perceptual neighborhoods within a city and to explore how residential burglary rates vary between the interiors and borders of the neighborhood. (Author/MA)

  15. [Thoracic drainage technique for emergencies].

    Orsini, B; Bonnet, P M; Avaro, J P

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a simple, reproducible technique for pleural drainage. This technique that requires scant resources should be used only in life-threatening situations calling for pleural drainage. It is not intended to replace conventional techniques. PMID:20337108

  16. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  17. Advanced qualification techniques

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments

  18. Advanced qualification techniques

    Winokur, P. S.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Meisenheimer, T. L.; Fleetwood, D. M.

    1994-06-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML 'builds in' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structure-to-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish 'process capability' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co-60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SCC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

  19. Survey of Nearest Neighbor Techniques

    Bhatia, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    The nearest neighbor (NN) technique is very simple, highly efficient and effective in the field of pattern recognition, text categorization, object recognition etc. Its simplicity is its main advantage, but the disadvantages can't be ignored even. The memory requirement and computation complexity also matter. Many techniques are developed to overcome these limitations. NN techniques are broadly classified into structure less and structure based techniques. In this paper, we present the survey of such techniques. Weighted kNN, Model based kNN, Condensed NN, Reduced NN, Generalized NN are structure less techniques whereas k-d tree, ball tree, Principal Axis Tree, Nearest Feature Line, Tunable NN, Orthogonal Search Tree are structure based algorithms developed on the basis of kNN. The structure less method overcome memory limitation and structure based techniques reduce the computational complexity.

  20. New techniques in quality assurance

    GPU Nuclear Corp. has a multifaceted quality assurance (QA) program. This program includes a comprehensive QA organization to help ensure its implementation. The QA organization employs various techniques in assuring quality at GPU Nuclear. These techniques not only include the typical QA/quality-control verification activities, i.e., QA engineering, quality control, and audits, but also include some new innovative techniques. Several new techniques have been developed for verifying activities. These techniques include monitoring and functional audits of safety systems. Several new techniques for assessing performance and adequacy and effectiveness of plant and QA programs, such as plant assessments and QA systems engineering evaluations, have also been developed. This paper provides an overview of these and other new techniques being employed by GPU Nuclear's QA organization

  1. OPTIMISATION'S TECHNIQUES OF HULL SHAPES USING CFD RANSE SIMULATIONS WITH LOW NUMBER OF CELLS

    Agrusta, Andrea Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Negli ultimi anni le tecniche di idrodinamica numerica CFD hanno permesso di effettuare simulazioni al computer riguardanti l interazione tra solidi e fluidi. Lutilizzo dei software CFD permette una simulazione assolutamente realistica dei fenomeni idrodinamici, permettendo al progettista/programmatore di analizzare in tempi relativamente brevi molteplici soluzioni, onde sceglierne la migliore e di conseguenza molteplici macro o micro modifiche sulla carena prescelta, per valutarne limpatt...

  2. Matériaux : les nouveaux champs de recherche et développement pour la valorisation des fibres végétales techniques (lin fibres et chanvre

    Bono Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Les matériaux à base de fibres végétales techniques (lin et chanvre sont une réalité depuis plusieurs années. Une étude récente de FranceAgriMer (Thonier et Bono, 2015 montre que leur développement est une réalité tout particulièrement dans le domaine du bâtiment (isolation, panneaux de particules, bétons, du transport (plasturgie, composite et plus récemment des sports et loisirs et du luxe. Ces développements permettent de valoriser les propriétés différenciantes du lin fibre et du chanvre en matière de performance mécanique, de légèreté, d’amortissement des vibrations, d’isolation thermique ou phonique, d’absorption/désorption ou de bilan écologique. La poursuite de leur déploiement repose sur la capacité de nos filières à lever les principaux verrous technologiques encore à l’œuvre, à savoir : (1 amélioration des performances mécaniques par le fractionnement, (2 apport de nouvelles fonctions que le végétal n’a pas naturellement, (3 amélioration de la mise en œuvre des fractions en semi-produits et en matériaux, (4 maîtrise de la reproductibilité des performances. Elle repose également sur la capacité de l’ensemble des acteurs de ces filières à structurer des filières d’approvisionnement reconnues, permettant d’amener sur le marché une gamme complète de solutions (fibres, poudres, granulats, compounds, non-tissés, rovings, tissés, adaptées aux cahiers des charges clients, à un prix acceptable par tous les maillons de la chaîne de valeur. Une nouvelle économie est en train de naître.

  3. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    Provost David L. Potter of George Mason University chaired a joint task force and presented a report entitled ``Powerful Partnerships : A Shared Responsibility for Learnin'' in June 1998. The main goal is to make a difference in the quality of student learning. Further, it is important to assess this difference and document it. Clifford O. Young, Sr., & Laura Howzell Young of California State University, San Bernardino argue that a new paradigm for assessment, a learning paradigm, must be constructed to measure the success of new kinds of educational practices. Using two survey instruments, the Instruction Model Learning Model Questionnaire (IMLMQ) and the Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness (SETE), they compared students' responses to the course when taught with traditional methods and with interactive methods. The results suggest that neither instrument effectively measures the kinds of learning promoted under the new paradigm. Linn, Baker, & Dunbar recommend that these newer assessment practices should be more authentic, that is, to involve students in the actual or simulated performance of a task or the documentation of the desired competency in a portfolio. Cerbin says that one of the most unfortunate consequences of a summative emphasis is that it inhibits open and productive discussions about teaching; in essence, it marginalizes the types of activity that could lead to better teaching (Cerbin, 1992). William Cerbin, who is the Director of the Center for Effective Teaching and learning, University Assessment Coordinator, and Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse is a recognized expert in the areas of cognition, language, and development. Edgerton, Hutchings, & Quinlan indicate that Teaching Portfolios may contain evidence of students' learning, but such information is optional, and when included, it may be only one of many pieces of material. Seldin, also supports this and stresses that the interplay between the instructor and the learner should be carefully observed and monitored. Forrest says that Student Portfolios, which document learning in more detail, seldom reveal how teaching contributes to students' progress. Cerbin further indicates that a course portfolio is essentially, a like a manuscript of scholarly work in progress. In this example, it is a work that explains what, how, and why students learn or do not learn in a course. In this paper, the author reports on a dozen techniques that could perhaps be used to document assessment of student learning. References : Cerbin, W. (1993). Fostering a culture of teaching as scholarship. The Teaching Professor, 7(3), 1-2. Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P., & Quinlan, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: Capturing the scholarship in teaching. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Forrest, A. (1990). Time will tell: Portfolio-assisted assessment of general education. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Linn, R., Baker, E., & Dunbar, S. (1991). Complex, Performance-based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Educational Researcher, 20 (8), 15-21. Narayanan, M. (2003). Assessment in Higher Education: Partnerships in Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio. Bolton, MA: Anker. Young, C. O., Sr., & Young, L. H. (1999). Assessing Learning in Interactive Courses. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10 (1), 63-76.

  4. ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS

    Akwasi Asamoah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

  5. Practical hacking techniques and countermeasures

    Spivey, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Examining computer security from the hacker''s perspective, Practical Hacking Techniques and Countermeasures employs virtual computers to illustrate how an attack is executed, including the script, compilation, and results. It provides detailed screen shots in each lab for the reader to follow along in a step-by-step process in order to duplicate and understand how the attack works. It enables experimenting with hacking techniques without fear of corrupting computers or violating any laws.Written in a lab manual style, the book begins with the installation of the VMware® Workstation product and guides the users through detailed hacking labs enabling them to experience what a hacker actually does during an attack. It covers social engineering techniques, footprinting techniques, and scanning tools. Later chapters examine spoofing techniques, sniffing techniques, password cracking, and attack tools. Identifying wireless attacks, the book also explores Trojans, Man-in-the-Middle (MTM) attacks, and Denial of S...

  6. Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization

    Tim Lajcik

    2012-01-01

    Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, ...

  7. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  8. Analysis of inspection technique performance

    Dieste, Oscar; Fernández, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Inspection techniques are strategies for analysing software artefacts. These techniques provide guidelines for examining the software documentation and identifying defects. These guidelines consist of a series of heuristics to help reviewers to read and understand the artefact that they are analysing. A number of researchers have now developed experimental studies to compare the performance of the different techniques in an attempt to find out what is the best strategy to adopt in which cases...

  9. Remote techniques for hazardous environments

    Remote techniques are essential to many industries where hazardous environments are an inherent part of everyday operations. The latest developments in remote technologies and the practical applications of these techniques worldwide are presented in this book. Applications covered include repair and refurbishment, inspection, decommissioning, operation and maintenance, and waste management. Although concentrating on techniques developed for nuclear industry applications, much of this research and development has great relevance for non-nuclear applications, such as in the offshore, medical and petrochemical industries. (UK)

  10. A summary of virtualization techniques

    Rodrguez Haro, Fernando; Freitag, Flix; Navarro Moldes, Leandro; Hernndez Snchez, Efran; Faras Mendoza, Nicandro; Guerrero Ibez, Juan Antonio; Gonzlez Potes, Apolinar

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, virtualization is a technology that is applied for sharing the capabilities of physical computers by splitting the resources among OSs. The concept of Virtual Machines (VMs) started back in 1964 with a IBM project called CP/CMS system. Currently, there are several virtualization techniques that can be used for supporting the execution of entire operating systems. We classify the virtualization techniques from the OS view. First, we discuss two techniques that executes modified gu...

  11. Semiconductor-laser modulation techniques

    Three simple modulation techniques for semiconductor lasers have been described. The first technique employs a single constant current source and is suitable for low frequency modulation up to 500 Khz. The second and third techniques employ two constant current sources each with current summing of subtraction and are suitable for higher frequency modulation up to several MHz. Schematic diagrams of designed, developed and tested circuits, implementing each of the above mentioned schemes, have also been presented. (author)

  12. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Hyperspectral MIVIS technique to detect the effects of a waste disposal on environment; Analisi di un sito adibito a discarica di R.S.U. mediante tecnica iperspettrale Mivis

    Longo, M. [comp. (Italy); Serentha' , C.; Torretta, M. [Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente della Lombardia, Sede di Monza, Monza (Italy); Marino, C. M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto sull' Inquinamento Atmosferico, Pomezia, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio dell' Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Del Pero, G. [comp. (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    This work studied the application of hyperspectral MIVIS technique to detect the effects of a waste disposal on environment. By means of this instrument it can be known where to study actions to knock down the effects of this problem on environment. In this case it can be applied the study to the water disposal of Cavenago Brianza, whose metan's escapes have been detected in Ornago, a town same kilometers North of the disposal. [Italian] Scopo di questo lavoro e' l'applicazione della metodica iperspettrale MIVIS all'individuazione delle vie di fuga del biogas prodotto da una discarica di R.S.U. La localizzazione delle aree critiche in cui intervenire permette di mitigare gli effetti della presenza di tale problematica sul territorio. L'applicazione descritta di seguito si riferisce alla discarica di Cavenago Brianza (MI) le cui fughe di biogas sono state rilevate nell'abitato di Ornago, comune posto alcuni chilometri a Nord della discarica.

  14. Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization

    Tim Lajcik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

  15. Comparison of Composite Restoration Techniques

    Andrs Katona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly presents the classification, and possible ways of application of composites. Our objective was to compare three different restoration technique in class II cavity preparations, with the aim to determine which technique is the most advantageous in practical point of view. Artificial teeth fabricated from self-curing acrylic resin were used as models. Comparison of marginal sealing was performed macroscopically via direct visual inspection and via tactile control. Two parameters were examined on esthetic evaluation, which were the anatomical shape and the optical appearance. The time required to prepare the restorations were also measured. After the evaluation of the results, the bulk-fill technique was demonstrated to require the shortest time to be performed. This was followed by the oblique (Z technique, whereas the horizontal incremental technique appeared to be the most time-consuming method. Based on the esthetic evaluation, a remarkable difference can be observed between the bulk-fill technique and the other two incremental techniques, while the mean scores for the oblique and the horizontal techniques were comparable. Based on the results of the visual inspection and instrumental examination, there were no differences in terms of marginal sealing between the three applied methods. Based on these, the use of the appropriate incremental technique can reduce the development of secondary caries and increasing the longevity of composite restorations.

  16. Optical techniques in regenerative medicine

    Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, tissue engineers largely rely on destructive and time-consuming techniques that do not allow in situ and spatial monitoring of tissue growth. Furthermore, once the therapy is implanted in the patient, clinicians are often unable to monitor what is happening in the body. To tackle these barriers, optical techniques have been developed to image and characterize many tissue properties, fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, and characterize the properties of the scaffolds. Optical Techniques in Regenerative Medicine illustrates how to use optical imaging techniques and

  17. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  18. Algorithms Design Techniques and Analysis

    Alsuwaiyel, M H

    1999-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential part of every scientific discipline. It has two components: (1) problem identification and formulation, and (2) solution of the formulated problem. One can solve a problem on its own using ad hoc techniques or follow those techniques that have produced efficient solutions to similar problems. This requires the understanding of various algorithm design techniques, how and when to use them to formulate solutions and the context appropriate for each of them. This book advocates the study of algorithm design techniques by presenting most of the useful algorithm desi

  19. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  20. Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006

    - French version only

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium, Bât 593 Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collaboration avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  1. Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 - French version only

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collabora- tion avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  2. Multi Attribute Decision Making Techniques

    Manoj Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many times situation are arise where there aremany factors or parameters on which a decision is based.The problem becomes more complex with these multiparameters. In this paper we propose multi attribute decisionmaking techniques. The techniques will provide a solution tofind out the best alternative among the given attributes.Three methods for decision making are proposed in thispaper.

  3. Multi Attribute Decision Making Techniques

    Manoj Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Many times situation are arise where there aremany factors or parameters on which a decision is based.The problem becomes more complex with these multiparameters. In this paper we propose multi attribute decisionmaking techniques. The techniques will provide a solution tofind out the best alternative among the given attributes.Three methods for decision making are proposed in thispaper.

  4. Software Testing Techniques and Strategies

    Isha,; Sunita Sangwan2

    2014-01-01

    Software testing provides a means to reduce errors, cut maintenance and overall software costs. Numerous software development and testing methodologies, tools, and techniques have emerged over the last few decades promising to enhance software quality. This paper describes Software testing, need for software testing, Software testing goals and principles. Further it describe about different Software testing techniques and different software testing strategies.

  5. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  6. Exponential Finite-Difference Technique

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses use of explicit exponential finite-difference technique to solve various diffusion-type partial differential equations. Study extends technique to transient-heat-transfer problems in one dimensional cylindrical coordinates and two and three dimensional Cartesian coordinates and to some nonlinear problems in one or two Cartesian coordinates.

  7. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  8. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques

    Muhammad Asraf Mansor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell’s electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA. In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell’s electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

  9. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques.

    Mansor, Muhammad Asraf; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell's electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell's electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed. PMID:26053399

  10. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used lum...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...

  11. Theorists and Techniques: Connecting Education Theories to Lamaze Teaching Techniques.

    Podgurski, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Should childbirth educators connect education theory to technique? Is there more to learning about theorists than memorizing facts for an assessment? Are childbirth educators uniquely poised to glean wisdom from theorists and enhance their classes with interactive techniques inspiring participant knowledge and empowerment? Yes, yes, and yes. This article will explore how an awareness of education theory can enhance retention of material through interactive learning techniques. Lamaze International childbirth classes already prepare participants for the childbearing year by using positive group dynamics; theory will empower childbirth educators to address education through well-studied avenues. Childbirth educators can provide evidence-based learning techniques in their classes and create true behavioral change. PMID:26848246

  12. Visual and surface examination techniques

    Visual and surface examination techniques together make a very important component of any in-service inspection (ISI) programme. Though not many guidelines are available for the research reactors, the look at the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, which relates to ISI of power reactors, shows that these technique cover about 90% of all the components to be subjected to inspection. Though Eddy Current Test is also considered a surface examination technique, this article will cover only Visual Inspection, Magnetic Particle Test (MPT) and Liquid Penetrant Test (LPT)

  13. Statistical Techniques for Project Control

    Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    A project can be simple or complex. In each case, proven project management processes must be followed. In all cases of project management implementation, control must be exercised in order to assure that project objectives are achieved. Statistical Techniques for Project Control seamlessly integrates qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques for project control. It fills the void that exists in the application of statistical techniques to project control. The book begins by defining the fundamentals of project management then explores how to temper quantitative analysis with qualitati

  14. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  15. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  16. Food Physics and Radiation Techniques

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  17. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    2001-01-01

    The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.

  18. Food physics and radiation techniques

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  19. PIGE technique implementation at ININ

    Policroniades, R.; Martnez-Quiroz, E.; Mndez-Garrido, B.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseor, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present a general overview about the implementation at ININ of a Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis technique, based on the bombardment of samples by protons and deuterons at different energies within our tandem accelerator facility. As it is well known, this technique is based on the detection of ?-rays emitted by nuclei in a target following a charged particle irradiation. The main feature of this technique, apart from being non-destructive and low time consuming, is that it allows a multi-elemental analysis of a sample, permitting an isotopic identification of many nuclides. Advances and some preliminary results are presented.

  20. Techniques for low consumption circuits

    Piguet, C.; Vonkaenel, V.; Masgonty, J.-M.; Perotto, J.-F.; Klootsema, R.

    Several techniques used for designing integrated circuits are summarized. These techniques are currently applied and of major importance in the electric clock and watch industry. It is shown that these techniques must be applied at all the steps of integrated circuit production: from the architecture layouts to the putting together stage. The results show that energy consumption is related to the number of components in a circuit: few elements is equal to low consumption. Moreover, a low number of components reduce the risk of imperfections.

  1. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  2. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  3. Acquisition system and signal processing for large-scale high-resolution microelectrode arrays neurointerfaces

    Imfeld, Kilian; Farine, Pierre-André

    2009-01-01

    Les interfaces neuronales basées sur une matrice de micro-électrodes (MEA) permettent la stimulation et la mesure de réseaux neuronaux in vivo et in vitro. La méthodologie in vitro est couramment employée pour étudier et modéliser des mécanismes d'apprentissage et de mémorisation de complexité moyenne dans des réseaux neuronaux de grande taille. Les plates-formes MEA actuellement disponibles commercialement pour l'électrophysiologie in vitro permettent l'enregistrement d'environ 100 électrod...

  4. Radiographic imaging techniques of artefacts

    Radiographic imaging technique is an NDT method, which can be used to inspect artefacts without damaging its future value. By using this method the internal structure of the artefact and their manufacturing process can be determined and confirmed. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) with the cooperation of Department of Museum and Antiquities (JMA) have conducted several initial investigations on archaeological artefacts using radiographic technique. The study shows that radiographic technique is able to provide useful information on the internal structure of those artefacts and as well as it manufacturing processes. In this paper, the general status of radiographic technique that have been developed in MINT and used to study the archaeological artefacts for the purpose of conservation and restoration is presented. (Author)

  5. SECURING WMN USING HONEYPOT TECHNIQUE

    Priyanka Gupta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available WMN has been a field of active research in the recent years. Lot of research has focused various routing mechanism but very little effort has been made towards attack detection or intrusion detection. Inthis paper, we propose an attack detection approach for wireless mesh network using Honeypot technique. A Honeypot is a security resource whose value lies in being probed, attacked or compromised. A honeypot is designed to interact with attackers to collect attack techniques and behaviors. A collection of such Honeypots laid to effectively trap the attacker is called a Honeynet. In our paper, we propose ahoneynet, that is able to trap the attackers by analyzing their attacking techniques and thereby sending the logs to a centralized repository to analyze those logs so as to better understand the technique used for attacking.

  6. Experimental techniques and measurement accuracies

    Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.; DiIorio, G.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H.

    1985-02-01

    A brief description of the experimental tools available for fusion neutronics experiments is given. Attention is paid to error estimates mainly for the measurement of tritium breeding ratio in simulated blankets using various techniques.

  7. Experimental techniques and measurement accuracies

    Bennett, E.F.; DiLorio, G.; Maekawa, H.; Nakamura, T.; Yule, T.J.

    1985-07-01

    A brief description of the experimental tools available for fusion neutronics experiments is given. Attention is paid to error estimates mainly for the measurement of tritium breeding ratio in simulated blankets using various techniques.

  8. Techniques of Structured Communication Training.

    Wells, Richard A.; Figurel, Jeanne A.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques of structured communication training, integrating Guerney's conjugal therapy model and Carkhuff's systematic facilitative training, are described in detail. This method offers a concise and effective technology for enhancing communication skills in couples who are experiencing marital conflicts. (Author)

  9. [Impressions techniques--Part 2].

    Levartovsky, S; Masri, M; Alter, E; Pilo, R

    2012-10-01

    A dental impression is a positive replica of the teeth, the surrounding gingiva and the border between them; the purpose of which is to create an accurate master model. Two major techniques for impressions exist today: The conventional and the digital impressions. The current article describes both techniques. In the conventional impressions, it is important to choose a proper tray, stock or custom, and to mix the material properly. The commonly used impression techniques for making a conventional impression are described with a review on the effect of the technique on its accuracy. The effect of the wash bulk on the accuracy of the stone dies and/or the restoration is discussed, as well. The digital impressions with their advantages and disadvantages are described in comparison to the conventional impressions. Although, digital impressions eliminate some of the negative characteristics of conventional impressions, proper soft-tissue management and isolation of tooth preparation margins is still mandatory. PMID:23367724

  10. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    technical areas such as highly miniaturized analog and digital electronics, instrument space qualification, test and validation procedures, sensor fusion techniques and optimized software implementations to reach a successful conclusion. The content of the project thus represents cutting edge aerospace...

  11. Radiotracer techniques in hydrological studies

    The use of radioactive tracers particularly short-lived radioisotopes frequently offers advantages over conventional methods of analyses. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. Essentially, radiotracer techniques offer a safe, cost effective and powerful tool in the assessment, management and protection of water resources. The Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria of late has been offering consultancy services to some industries in the area of radiotracer technique. The first nuclear reactor in Nigeria, the MNSR, is expected to be commissioned in the Centre very soon. Many short-lived radioisotopes such as Cu-64, Ga-72, Br-82, Hg-197 etc which are very important in hydrological studies can be produced by the MNSR facility. This article reports on the basic principles of the technique and its roles in hydrology

  12. Knowledge Management: Tools and Techniques

    Syed Raiyan Ghani

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge management is not one single discipline. Rather it is an integration of numerous endeavors and fields of study. This paper provides a framework for characterising the various tools and techniques available to knowledge management practitioners. It provides an overview of a number of key terms and concepts, describes the framework, provides examples of how to use it, and explores a variety of potential application areas. The stress of knowledge management tools and techniques has bee...

  13. Comparison of Composite Restoration Techniques

    Katona, Andrs; Barrak, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    This article briefly presents the classification, and possible ways of application of composites. Our objective was to compare three different restoration technique in class II cavity preparations, with the aim to determine which technique is the most advantageous in practical point of view. Artificial teeth fabricated from self-curing acrylic resin were used as models. Comparison of marginal sealing was performed macroscopically via direct visual inspection and via tactile control. Two param...

  14. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  15. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    Phade, Sachin V.; Manuel Garcia-Toca; Kibbe, Melina R

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific ar...

  16. Biophysical chemistry principles and techniques

    Upadhyay, Avinash

    2009-01-01

    The book discusses the major physic-chemical forces important to biological systems and the applications of such forces in modern analytical techniques. The book promises to be extremely useful to undergraduate and post-graduate students of Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Science and Medical Sciences Besides other disciplines of life sciences in general. The book, while promising to be a hand book for all conventional analytical techniques used in life sciences such as Spectrophotometer, Mass spectrometry, Centrifugation, Chromatography, electrophoresis, Isotopic tr

  17. Experimental technique of neutron reflection

    It is presented that the classifications, structures and components of neutron reflectometer (NR), as well s functions and parameters of each components, detailed characters of NR facility 'PRN-2M'. Based on the practical experiments, the basic experimental techniques, the measurement and the related experimental settings are described, including the choice of experimental conditions, adjustments of polarized neutron beam line, basic experimental technique and approach of measurement. The above can be an instruction for NR experiments and a reference for NR construction. (authors)

  18. Discovering the Botnet Detection Techniques

    Rahim, Aneel; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T.

    Botnet is a network of compromised computers. It just fellow the master slave concept. Bots are comprised computers and do the tasks what ever their master orders them. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is used for the communication between the master and bots. Information is also encrypted to avoid the effect of third party. In this paper we discuss the Botnets detection techniques and comparative analysis of these techniques on the basis of DNS query, History data and group activity.

  19. Simple techniques can increase motivation

    Smith, E.A.

    1982-12-01

    Productivity depends upon strong motivation. This article describes how the symptoms of weak motivation can be detected among engineers and other employees and what to do about it. Fortunately, most people want to be productive and respond to simple motivation building techniques. These techniques include establishing twoway communication between supervisor and subordinate, delegating authority on the basis of responsibility, effective organization of time, and the use of positive reinforcement (or rewards) and, when conditions merit it, negative reinforcement (or sanctions).

  20. Uranium exploration techniques in Bolivia

    The exploration techniques used by the Bolivian Nuclear Energy Commission/Comision Boliviana de Energia Nuclear (COBOEN) in certain areas of Bolivia that are considered promising from the standpoint of uranium deposits are presented in summary form. The methods and results obtained are described, including the techniques used by the Italian company AGIP-URANIUM during four years of exploration under contract with COBOEN. Statistical data are also given explaining the present level of uranium exploration in Bolivia. (author)

  1. Développer localement une pratique collaborative centrée sur les enseignements SHS pour des étudiants en sciences et techniques

    Bernard Alain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Le premier objet de cet article est de présenter et décrire l'expérience locale d'une communauté ouverte d'enseignants partageant une problématique commune: la mise en place et le développement d'enseignements de sciences humaines et sociales pour des étudiants de sciences et techniques. Cette description attachée au fonctionnement concret de telles « micro » communautés constitue, en soi, une originalité de notre approche. En effet, alors qu'elles sont très probablement nombreuses dans les universités françaises, elles sont finalement très peu présentées et analysées dans leur dynamique collégiale et évolutive. D'autre part il s'agit de montrer que la théorie des communautés de pratique constitue un cadre très pertinent pour analyser a posteriori cette expérience locale et mieux en comprendre les enjeux et conditions. Ce cadre théorique nous permet finalement de tirer des conclusions sur l'avenir possible de cette initiative locale par une analyse des conditions qui lui permettent encore d'évoluer dont l'une d'elle est d'adosser la collaboration en vu de construire de nouveaux enseignements en SHS à des projets de recherche.

  2. Outlier Detection: Applications And Techniques

    Karanjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Outliers once upon a time regarded as noisy data in statistics, has turned out to be an important problem which is being researched in diverse fields of research and application domains. Many outlier detection techniques have been developed specific to certain application domains, while some techniques are more generic. Some application domains are being researched in strict confidentiality such as research on crime and terrorist activities. The techniques and results of such techniques are not readily forthcoming. A number of surveys, research and review articles and books cover outlier detection techniques in machine learning and statistical domains individually in great details. In this paper we make an attempt to bring together various outlier detection techniques, in a structured and generic description. With this exercise, we hope to attain a better understanding of the different directions of research on outlier analysis for ourselves as well as for beginners in this research field who could then pick up the links to different areas of applications in details.

  3. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Punia Supriya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Analytical applications of nuclear techniques

    The contributions from some of the world's leading nuclear analysts included in this book describe a variety of nuclear techniques and applications, such as those in the fields of environment and health, industrial processes, non-destructive testing, forensic and archaeological investigations and cosmochemistry, and in method validation. The descriptive articles demonstrate the advantages of nuclear techniques in, for example, analysing trace elements in submilligram samples in a single strand of hair or in kilogram samples of municipal waste. Halogenated organic compounds as well as major and trace inorganic constituents are analysed in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. Several different techniques are applied to investigate the authenticity of art objects and the origin of extraterrestrial material. Many applications of nuclear analytical techniques in industrial process control or in the production of high-tech materials are described, highlighting the socioeconomic benefit of these techniques in our daily lives. The book is intended to stimulate students, teachers and non-nuclear scientists to take the 'nuclear' option into consideration when deciding on a new field of study or an alternative analytical technique

  5. Microscopy techniques in flavivirus research.

    Chong, Mun Keat; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Tan, Terence Tze Tong; Tan, Suat Hoon; Ng, Mah Lee

    2014-04-01

    The Flavivirus genus is composed of many medically important viruses that cause high morbidity and mortality, which include Dengue and West Nile viruses. Various molecular and biochemical techniques have been developed in the endeavour to study flaviviruses. However, microscopy techniques still have irreplaceable roles in the identification of novel virus pathogens and characterization of morphological changes in virus-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy contributes greatly in understanding the fundamental viral protein localizations and virus-host protein interactions during infection. Electron microscopy remains the gold standard for visualizing ultra-structural features of virus particles and infected cells. New imaging techniques and combinatory applications are continuously being developed to push the limit of resolution and extract more quantitative data. Currently, correlative live cell imaging and high resolution three-dimensional imaging have already been achieved through the tandem use of optical and electron microscopy in analyzing biological specimens. Microscopy techniques are also used to measure protein binding affinities and determine the mobility pattern of proteins in cells. This chapter will consolidate on the applications of various well-established microscopy techniques in flavivirus research, and discuss how recently developed microscopy techniques can potentially help advance our understanding in these membrane viruses. PMID:24530363

  6. Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques

    P.RAVI TEJA#1 , R.R.V.S.S.ABHISHEK *2 , P.RAM MANINTH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sciences. This paper mainly discusses about the human face recognition with the help of different tactics and techniques like Eigen faces for Recognition and Feature Based Recognition: Elastic Bunch Graph Matching. The scanning technique such as 4-D laser scanning is still under discussion since for recognition technique it is necessary, The real world is CCTV technology and similarity between the human and computer recognition.This technology is outstanding in the capturing image of faces such as criminal investigation, terrorists identification, medical purposes like plastic surgery .It provides almost security and reliability compared to the other techniques. In future this technology will be the most convenient and secure technique. This will over through all the current security traits and become a efficient security measure

  7. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies" at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  8. Techniques for thyroid imaging; Les techniques d`imagerie thyroidienne

    Hermans, J.

    1995-12-31

    Advances in imaging techniques has improved our understanding of diseases. The different imaging techniques for visualizing the thyroid parenchyma, including cyto-puncture, sonography, CT-scan, scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging, have provided various types of information. Do these techniques really provide the clinician with the answers to his questions. The information provided by the different imaging techniques is presented together with the insufficiencies of each method. Faced with the rising cost of health services, we developed analysis instruments which should help the clinician in a more rational use of diagnostic examinations. The question which most often arises is that of an isolated nodule within a multi-nodular goiter : is it malignant or benign. the analysis of the available techniques shows that cost-effective strategy uses conventional Tc99m or I123 scintigraphy and thallium 201 scintigraphy. With this strategy, the risk of missing a thyroid cancer is approximately 1.75%. With cyto-puncture, this risk is multiplied by a factor of 2.5 reaching 4.5%. (Author). 31 refs., 7 tabs.

  9. Modified technique in treating recurrent priapism: a technique report

    Wei Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent ischemic priapism is a problem in clinical treatment. Most of the cases require more invasive surgery to shunt the blood stasis. We introduce a modified technique in treating recurrent ischemic priapism. The technique described is applied to acute ischaemic priapic episodes in patients with a history of stuttering priapism. It was carried out by a Winter's shunt combined with a continuous cavernosal irrigation system. Priapism was effectively resolved on the patients without recurrence. The four patients who received this treatment recovered most sexual function after 6 months follow-up.

  10. Ride quality research techniques: Section on general techniques

    1977-01-01

    Information is gathered about the methods currently used for the study of ride quality in a variety of transportation modes by a variety of research organizations, including universities, Federal agencies, contracting firms, and private industries. Detailed descriptions of these techniques and their strengths and weaknesses, and identifying the organizations using such methods are presented. The specific efforts of the Group's participants, as well as a variety of feasible approaches not currently in use, are presented as methodological alternatives under the three basic factors which must be considered in ride quality studies: research techniques, research environments, and choice of subjects.

  11. Review of uranium bioassay techniques

    A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, α-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: α-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided

  12. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  13. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Stephen M. Wesson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  14. Mutation techniques in plant breeding

    Interest in the use of mutation techniques for generating and selecting desired genetic variation in crop and model plant species has significantly increased over the past decade. This was mainly due to: (1) successful application of in vivo mutation techniques in the breeding of new, improved crop varieties; (2) new opportunities for induced mutation using in vitro techniques for improving vegetatively propagated crops; (3) emerging possibilities for applying in vitro selection of mutagenized cells and tissues; (4) increasing application of doubled haploids (DHs) for the rapid selection and shortening of the breeding cycle of improved varieties from desired mutants, and for the development of F1 performing DH lines from heterotic hybrids; (5) advancement of rapid, often non-destructive, mass screening methods; (6) enhanced demand for morphological, developmental and biochemical mutants of various species for studies on the molecular genetics of plant differentiation and development or on plant physiology; (7) wider availability of gene transformation technology that allows the transfer of desired mutated genes from model or other plant species to the desired crop plant (shuttle mutagenesis); and (8) application of mutation techniques for generating DNA polymorphism and for mapping particular genes. An overview of the results of applying mutation techniques for crop improvement is given. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Review of uranium bioassay techniques

    Bogard, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, {alpha}-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: {alpha}-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided.

  16. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  17. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

  18. Bioensayo microbiano para estimar los nutrimentos disponibles en los abonos organicos: calibracion en el campo

    Eduardo Salas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se demostr6 recientemente que el aumento nude la biomasa microbiana en una mezcla de sue- calo: abono organico (9:1, suplementada con gluco- sa como fuente de carbono, fue proporcional al crecimiento de una planta indicadora (sorgo cre- cida en el mismo sustrato. En la presente investi- gaci6n se determina si este bioensayo es de utili- dad como gufa en la fertilizaci6n de los cultivos con abonos organicos, mediante la siembra en el campo de chile dulce (Capsicum annuum L. y to- mate (Lycopersicum esculentum L. como plantas indicadoras. Los tratamientos consistieron de sue- 10 solo 0 en mezcla con 10% de abonos organicos amende contenido de nutrimentos contrastante a saber: pollinaza (CM, compost (C, bocashi (B, vermi- macompost (V y broza de cafe (Br. En el bioensa- vermicomyo microbiano se utiliz6 un disefio de bloques randocompletos al azar con 6 repeticiones, la biomasa microbiana (BM se midi6 2 dfas despues de in- cubar con glucosa. En los ensayos de campo las plantas indicadoras se sembraron en un disefio de bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. En chile dulce se midi6 el peso seco (600 C de la comparte aerea de la planta (PSC y el peso fresco de frutos verdes (PFF a los 97 dfas despues de la Microsiembra. El peso seco de la parte aerea de las amendplantas de tomate (PST fue medido a los 32 dfas. Los abonos organicos CM, C y B indujeron la mayor BM y tambien el mayor PSC, PFF Y PST, indicaci6n de que fueron los de mayor y mas in- mediato suministro de nutrimentos, contrario al y Br que mostraron los valores mas bajos para es- tas variables (P<0.05. Estos 2 abonos, respecto vatratamiento de CM presentaron 3 y 5 veces menos BM y 2 Y 4 veces menos biomasa aerea, respecti- vamente (P<0.05. Las correlaciones altas obteni- codas entre la BM y el PSC (r=0.87 y entre la BM y el PST (r= 0.93, permiten concluir que bioensayo microbiano es un metoda promisorio para pronosticar el suministro de nutrimentos orlos abonos organicos a los cultivos bajo condicio- determines de campo y en consecuencia puede ser una excelente gufa en su dosificaci6n.

  19. Estudo do desgaste abrasivo das resinas compostas disponíveis no mercado brasileiro

    Bianchi Eduardo Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a proposal to assess the abrasive wear of composite resins available in the national market, which are materials largely used in dental clinics for functional and aesthetic tooth restorations. This was achieved by utilizing an experimental set-up on which a dynamic disc covered with proper porcelain (representing hardness close to the human teeth wears a static disc covered with the resin tested under a constant and pre-determined load. Thus, by means of this set-up and keeping a behavioral status needed to the calculus for all tests, the aggressiveness (referred as to letter k for all tests was analyzed. Due to the fact that resin characteristic revels how weary the material has become to the abrasion process with other harder material, the strength to wear for such resins was observed. Therefore, a real classification for these materials with their strength to the abrasion wear was made, which is a very important factor in the influence on their lifetime in dental restorations. The classification in descending order for those resins is presented as following: HELIOMOLAR RO, DURAFILL, FILTEK A110, HELIO FILL, POINT 4, FLOW IT; NATURAL FLOW, SUPRAFILL, FILTEK P60, FILTEK Z250, TETRIC FLOW, REVOLUTION, PRODIGY, TETRIC CERAM, HERCULITE, FILLMAGIC, TPH, CHARISMA, Z100.

  20. Ya se dispone de antirretrovricos contra el VIH y el sida: Es necesaria ahora la prevencin?

    Peter Aggleton

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available New antiretroviral agents have radically changed the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. In many patients, this treatment has produced substantial improvement, as well as marked reductions in circulating viral particles. Furthermore, there has been a decrease in mortality from AIDS complications resulting from the use of very active retroviral therapy (VART. A source of concern, however, is the current perception that the disease, though not yet curable, can be successfully treated with this new therapy, since this notion could be changing the public's attitude toward the continued need for preventive measures.

  1. Perfil nutricional y microbiolgico de los embutidos de soya disponibles en Costa Rica

    Rafael, Monge; Mara Laura, Arias; Thelma, Alfaro; Manuel, Jimnez.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudi la calidad nutricional y microbiolgica de 80 muestras de embutidos de soya (50% mortadela y 50% salchicha). El promedio de protena en la mortadela fue de 17,5g/100 g y en la salchicha 20g/100g. El contenido de grasa total fue de 5.5g/100g para ambos productos; no obstante, se hallaron d [...] iferencias altamente significativas (0.0000) en el contenido de los diferentes cidos grasos entre ambos productos y en las muestras de un mismo producto dependiendo de la industria que los elaborara. Las mayores diferencias se evidenciaron en los niveles de cido palmtico (C16:0), cido oleico (C18:1) y cido linoleico (C18:2). En ninguna muestra se evidenci la presencia de colesterol. El ndice de aterogenicidad promedio para mortadela fue 0.55 y para salchicha 0.59. El consumo de 25 gramos de protena de soya derivada de estos embutidos puede generar aportar entre el 20-90% de la cantidad de cidos grasos saturados recomendada por da. As mismo, puede brindar entre el 12-70% de la cantidad de cidos graso s poliinsaturados recomendada por da. Estas variaciones responden a las importantes diferencias en la especiacin de cidos grasos evidenciadas segn la marca del producto. El 20% de los embutidos estudiados mostraron niveles de coliformes totales> 10(4)/g, lo cual fue ms frecuente en la salchicha. El 60% de las muestras de este embutido y el 10% de las muestras de mortadela mostraron niveles de psicrtrofos > 10(6)/g. En ninguna de las muestras se evidenci Escherichia coli y en el 5% Clostridium perfringens en niveles mayores a 10/g. Los resultados sealan la urgente necesidad de implementar un sistema de control de calidad de los embutidos de soya, antes que las autoridades de salud consideren respaldar las campaas nutricionales que promuevan el consumo de los mismos. Abstract in english Nutritional and microbiological profile of soy bean sausages available in Costa Rica. The nutritional and microbiological quality of 80 soybean sausage samples (50% frankfurter and 5% sausage mortadela) was studied. On average, the protein content was 17 ,5g/100g in sausage mortadela and 20g/100g in [...] frankfurter.the mean total fat content was 5,5g/100g for both products. However when products of different manufacture industries were compared, a highly significant difference (p= 0,0000) in the fatty acids speciation between both groups and between samples of the same product were found. Bigger differences were found in the content of palmitic acid(C16:0), oleic acid (C18:l) and linoleic acid (C18:2). Cholesterol was not detected in samples analyzed. On average the atherogenicity index was 0,55 for sausage mortadela and 0,59 for frankfurter. A consumption of 25 grams of soybean protein from these sausages can bring an intake of saturated fatty acids between 20-90% of the daily recommendation. Likewise, they can supply between 12-70% of the recommended daily polyunsaturated fattly acids. These variations are owing to the big difference in fatty acids speciation in each sausage brand. Around 20% of soybean sausages studied showed total coliform levels above l0(4)/g, being more frequent in sausage mortadela. Also 60% of this product and 10% of frankfurters showed psychrotroph levels of 10(6)/g. Clostridium perfringens, in levels above 10/g was evidenciated in 5% of samples, Escherichia coli was not isolated from them. The findings of this study suggest the urgent need for implementing a quality control system for soybean sausages, before national health authorities consider to support nutritional campaings that promote their consumption.

  2. Technical parameters to decrease the radiation dose from conventional and digital radiographs; Elements technologiques permettant de reduire la dose en radiologie conventionnelle et numerique

    Foulquier, J.N. [Service de radiotherapie, Hopital Tenon, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-11-15

    Reducing radiation dose while maintaining adequate image quality on conventional and digital radiographs requires optimal use of the unit. Additional filtration avoids unnecessary tissue exposure and improves photon transmission. Automatic exposure control may reduce exposure and dose. The volume of tissue imaged must be limited by the use of diaphragms and shutters or compression. Sensitive detectors with increased photon detection also contribute to reduce dose. Radiographic films combined to rare-earth screens also afford a good photon-conversion efficiency. Large area flat panel amorphous silicon x-ray sensors may also reduce dose up to 50% compared to films. Finally, calculation of the Kerma-area product independent of the source distance constitutes an important indicator of radiation dose. (author)

  3. Modle des voies rflexes et crbelleuses, permettant le calcul de fonctions inverses et la commande d'un segment mcanique mobile

    Darlot, Christian; Ebadzadeh, Mohamadmehdi; Tondu, Bertrand

    2004-01-01

    La commande et le contrle des mouvements des membres par les voies crbelleuses et rflexes sont modlises au moyen d'un circuit dont la structure est dduite de contraintes fonctionnelles. 1/ La premire contrainte est que les mouvements rapides des membres doivent tre prcis, quoiqu'ils ne puissent pas tre commands en boucle ferme au moyen de signaux sensoriels. Les voies qui prparent les ordres moteurs doivent donc contenir des fonctions inverses approximes des fonctions biomcani...

  4. Twin - Arch technique. Revival of the "edgewise -Technique"?

    Jacob Karp

    2012-01-01

    The SNB – Bracket brings a new dimension into the orthodontic world which is most apparent in extraction cases. Its Teflon – like material has a very low friction coefficient thus, reducing the treatment time considerably. Through the use of low dimensioned arch wires, the Twin – Arch Technique becomes a Light – wire system and simultaneously provides good anchorage and torque control.

  5. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  6. New techniques in neutron scattering

    New neutron sources being planned, such as the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) or the European Spallation Source (ESS), will provide an order of magnitude flux increase over what is available today, but neutron scattering will still remain a signal-limited technique. At the same time, the development of new materials, such as polymer and ceramic composites or a variety of complex fluids, will increasingly require neutron-based research. This paper will discuss some of the new techniques which will allow us to make better use of the available neutrons, either through improved instrumentation or through sample manipulation. Discussion will center primarily on unpolarized neutron techniques since polarized neutrons will be the subject of the next paper. (author)

  7. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications are presented in this standard. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. This document should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology: it generally connotes quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this document. The basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends along with relevant examples are presented.

  8. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART)

    Projections of charged particle beam current density (profiles) are frequently used as a measure of beam position and size. In conventional practice only two projections, usually horizontal and vertical, are measured. This puts a severe limit on the detail of information that can be achieved. A third projection provides a significant improvement. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) uses three or more projections to reconstruct 3-dimensional density profiles. At the 200 MeV H-linac, we have used this technique to measure beam density, and it has proved very helpful, especially in helping determine if there is any coupling present in x-y phase space. We will present examples of measurements of current densities using this technique

  9. Advanced techniques in GEO 600

    For almost 20 years, advanced techniques have been developed and tested at the GEO 600 laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector. Many of these innovations have improved the sensitivity of GEO 600 and could be shown to be consistent with stable and reliable operation of gravitational wave detectors. We review the performance of these techniques and show how they have influenced the upgrades of other detectors worldwide. In the second half of the paper, we consider how GEO 600 continues to pioneer new techniques for future gravitational wave detectors. We describe some of the new methods in detail and present new results on how they improve the sensitivity and/or the stability of GEO 600 and possibly of future detectors. (paper)

  10. Advanced X ray fluorescence techniques

    One of the goals of analytical techniques is to obtain in a nondestructive way the chemical composition and physical characteristics of individual particles, for example airborne particles or particles from soil dust or from a specific emission source. Detailed information on the composition and physical characteristics of individual particles is of importance in environmental pollution studies and forensic investigations, and it can be helpful in solving many other analytical problems. In a similar way, analyses of minute samples are carried out to quantify the degree of heterogeneity of the material with respect to element concentration, determination of porosity and identification of regions with the highest accumulation of the essential elements. Another goal that is difficult to achieve is to carry out a bulk chemical composition analysis not under laboratory conditions but in situ. For various reasons, there is very often a need to identify and quickly evaluate the chemical composition of a material in the field or to monitor an area in search of the places with the greatest abundance of an element. The aim is to carry out the analytical process outside the laboratory with minimal or no sample preparation. The X ray fluorescence (XRF) technique in the energy dispersive mode (EDXRF) has been used to deal with these analytical problems. XRF spectrometry is a well established instrumental analytical technique used for chemical composition analysis. XRF is a non-destructive multielement technique capable of determining elements with atomic number Z ? 11 (sodium) in different matrices. The samples to be analysed require minimal or no preparation, and the technique is regarded as non-destructive. Typical relative detection limits vary from about 0.1 to 10 mg/kg, and in special configurations they can reach values as low as 1 mg/kg. The technique is based on measurements of the characteristic X ray radiation emitted by atoms following their de-excitation to the ground electronic state. The excitation of the atoms is achieved by means of a photoelectric effect in which primary photons from an external source, for example photons emitted by an X ray tube or by a radioisotope source, illuminate the specimen and interact with inner atomic shell electrons. An advanced EDXRF laboratory spectrometer utilizing a focused X ray beam has been used for the identification of individual particles. Microbeam XRF is a unique technique that can provide information on the distribution of elements within a heterogeneous specimen. This method is also suitable for the determination of elements in minute samples such as individual particles. It has capabilities similar to those of electron probe micro X ray analysis (EPMXA), with an inferior spatial resolution of about 10 mm (versus 0.1 mm for EPMXA) but much better detection limits for heavy metals. The microbeam XRF technique has been used to obtain spatially resolved images of element distribution in samples. Using the same spectrometer, the computerized tomographic (CT) imaging measurements are carried out with a spatial resolution of better than 20 mm. The CT imaging is performed with two detectors simultaneously in absorption and emission mode, providing information about the density and element distribution within the object. The XRF technique has also been selected to perform in situ chemical composition analysis. XRF spectrometry is usually used for the field applications owing to its several advantages over other chemical or spectrophotometric methods. The XRF technique is a non-destructive method, it requires a minimum of sample preparation, it has the capability to analyse solid and liquid samples, it is a multielement technique and there are portable battery operated XRF spectrometers available. For the successful application of XRF for in situ measurements, dedicated instruments are constructed and robust quantitative analytical methods have been developed. The microbeam XRF technique was used to investigate the presence of depleted uranium (DU) rich particles in air and soil p

  11. Measurement technique of radwaste content

    Non-destructive assay is effective for management and disposal of transuranium (TRU)-contaminated wastes. Several measurement techniques have been developed such as: (a) Passive γ-ray technique; TRU nuclides emit specific γ-ray. TRU content could be analyzed by γ-ray energy spectroscopy. (b) Passive neutron technique; Alpha-particle emitted from TRU reacts with light elements and generates neutron. Some TRU also generate spontaneous fission neutrons. TRU content could be evaluated by the neutron counting. (c) Active neutron technique; Some TRU are fissionable and generate fission neutrons when exposed to an external neutron source. The TRU content could be evaluated by the fission neutron counting. An active neutron technique which is expected to be highly responsive has been tested in Mitsubishi to measure the TRU content in 200-liter waste drum. The apparatus consists of graphite assay chamber, pulsed-neutron generator, He-3 neutron counters and data acquisition system. The drum is irradiated by periodical neutron burst. The fast neutrons generated from the TRU are counted during the bursts. The counts would be proportional to the TRU content. The results for various waste drums show marked dependency of neutron response on the composition of the waste matrices. The detectable limit is about 2 mg of the fissile TRU for low density matrix and about 20 mg for high density matrix. The limit could be improved by increasing the counters and attainable to about 10 mg of the fissile TRU for high density matrix. However, the active neutron technique is applicable only to fissile TRU and is affected also by the waste matrices. Total TRU content could be evaluated by a combination of informations on TRU isotopic composition and waste matrix properties. (author)

  12. Erasure Techniques in MRD codes

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Sujatha, R; Durai, R S Raja

    2012-01-01

    This book is organized into six chapters. The first chapter introduces the basic algebraic structures essential to make this book a self contained one. Algebraic linear codes and their basic properties are discussed in chapter two. In chapter three the authors study the basic properties of erasure decoding in maximum rank distance codes. Some decoding techniques about MRD codes are described and discussed in chapter four of this book. Rank distance codes with complementary duals and MRD codes with complementary duals are introduced and their applications are discussed. Chapter five introduces the notion of integer rank distance codes. The final chapter introduces some concatenation techniques.

  13. Techniques of fusion burn control

    A brief review and systematization of the D-T fusion burn control techniques in the fusion tokamak-reactor plasma are given in the paper. Passive stabilization techniques and the methods of active control over the overheating instability are discussed. The active control methods related to a cold, time-profiled fueling of the reactor by injection of solid fuel pellets into the plasma column core are considered in detail. A possibility of the overheating instability self-stabilization due to a displacement of the magnetic surfaces out of the torus at rather high plasma pressures is analyzed. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  14. Knowledge Management: Tools and Techniques

    Syed Raiyan Ghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is not one single discipline. Rather it is an integration of numerous endeavours and fields of study. This paper provides a framework for characterising the various tools and techniques available to knowledge management practitioners. It provides an overview of a number of key terms and concepts, describes the framework, provides examples of how to use it, and explores a variety of potential application areas. The stress of knowledge management tools and techniques has been manoeuvred to share knowledge through communication and collaboration tools which specify the shift from process to practice.http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/djlit.29.276

  15. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics

    It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)

  16. Advanced reproductive techniques in goats.

    Bretzlaff, K N; Romano, J E

    2001-07-01

    The use of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and reproductive tract evaluation in the goat has become more common in the past decade. Pregnancy-specific hormone assays are commercially available for pregnancy determination in goats. Hormonal methods of synchronization of estrus for artificial insemination have been refined, but a number of factors still make pregnancy results variable. Caprine embryo transfer is widely used commercially. More advanced reproductive techniques such as in-vitro production of embryos and cloning have been accomplished in goats; success rates with these techniques will likely rapidly improve. PMID:11515409

  17. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    A. Cacciamano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  18. Add-A-Source technique

    Counting neutrons emitted by spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes is a means for determining Plutonium content in samples. Correlations techniques have been developed for separating such neutrons from a background of nonfission neutrons due to (α, n) reactions. Further procedures are then used to correct the effect of neutron-induced fission. In order to perform such a correction the sample's chemical composition (including the presence of moisture) must be a well known parameter. The present paper reports a theoretical formulation of a new approach (add-a-source technique), which could allow to correct the measurement indipendently by the knowledge of the sample's chemical composition

  19. High-speed pulse techniques

    Coekin, J A

    1975-01-01

    High-Speed Pulse Techniques covers the many aspects of technique in digital electronics and encompass some of the more fundamental factors that apply to all digital systems. The book describes the nature of pulse signals and their deliberate or inadvertent processing in networks, transmission lines and transformers, and then examines the characteristics and transient performance of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Some of the problems associated with the assembly of these into viable systems operating at ultra high speed are also looked at. The book examines the transients and w

  20. Data Mining Concepts and Techniques

    Han, Jiawei; Pei, Jian

    2011-01-01

    The increasing volume of data in modern business and science calls for more complex and sophisticated tools. Although advances in data mining technology have made extensive data collection much easier, it's still always evolving and there is a constant need for new techniques and tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge. Since the previous edition's publication, great advances have been made in the field of data mining. Not only does the third of edition of Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques continue the tradition of equipping you with an understandin

  1. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    An overview of techniques for recombinant incorporation of selenium and subsequent purification and crystallization of the resulting labelled protein. Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included

  2. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  3. Application of multiobjective evolutionary techniques for robust portfolio optimization

    Sandra Garcia Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Uno de los problemas básicos a los que se enfrenta un inversor es el de elegir la forma más adecuada de repartir el capital entre las distintas alternativas disponibles. Cada una de estas posibles combinaciones, denominadas carteras de inversión, se caracteriza por tener una serie de rasgos que las hacen más o menos deseables en función de las preferencias del interesado. Es por esto por lo que el problema de determinar la proporción de capital a asignar a cada tipo de activo financiero, la o...

  4. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

    2011-10-01

    This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a wide spectrum of technological areas, such as medical imaging, pharmaceutical industry, analytical instrumentation, aerospace, remote sensing, lidars and ladars, surveillance, national defense, corrosion imaging and monitoring, sub-terrestrial and marine imaging. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios, and demanding design parameters such as speed, signal-to-noise ratio, high specificity, high contrast and spatial resolution, high-scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environment, necessitate the development of a multifunctional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, operating on diverse detection and imaging principles. Finally, pattern recognition and image processing algorithms can significantly contribute to enhanced detection and imaging, including object classification, clustering, feature selection, texture analysis, segmentation, image compression and color representation under complex imaging scenarios, with applications in medical imaging, remote sensing, aerospace, radars, defense and homeland security. We feel confident that the exciting new contributions of this special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques will appeal to the technical community. We would like to thank all authors as well as all anonymous reviewers and the MST Editorial Board, Publisher and staff for their tremendous efforts and invaluable support to enhance the quality of this significant endeavor.

  5. Ingnierie systme applique la gestion des donnes techniques en entreprise tendue : Application aux boucles de conception / simulation

    Nguyen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Cette thse analyse l'volution des technologies numriques et des mthodes applicables aux systmes de gestion des donnes dans le contexte de l'entreprise tendue. De nos jours, dans le contexte de dveloppement de produit en aronautique, les projets voluent vers des partenariats grande chelle. Une grande quantit de donnes cres pour ce dveloppement de produit doit alors tre traite et contrle d'une manire logique entre les diffrents partenaires. En effet, le besoin de permett...

  6. Measurements Techniques for Gyrotron characterization

    Experiments planned for the characterization of the 35GHz girotron, which is being built at the Plasma Laboratory of INPE, are described. The methods of the measurements are presented and the required instrumentation and devices are specified. Special attention is given to the measurement techniques of the resonator electric field profile. (author)

  7. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  8. New Techniques for Particle Acclerators

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1990-06-01

    A review is presented of the new techniques which have been proposed for use in particle accelerators. Attention is focused upon those areas where significant progress has been made in the last two years--in particular, upon two-beam accelerators, wakefield accelerators, and plasma focusers.

  9. A measurement technique for hydroxyacetone

    Klotz, P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C{double{underscore}bond}CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NOx. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water, the authors developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one they reported earlier, namely, derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, they adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island, New York. The authors report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  10. Nuclear Techniques in Surface Analysis

    The scope of this lecture is to give a general idea of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques used in surface characterization that has grown in an explosive way during the last decades: Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Coulomb Excitation Backscattering Spectrometry (CEBS) and channelling

  11. Biomedical engineering and rehabilitation techniques

    The authors outline the programmes set up by the ORIS for the development of biomaterials and rehabilitation products using the radiochemical techniques. They then discuss the development of instruments designed to make the handling and use of radioactive isotopes easier for users

  12. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS

    . Ramageri; Bharati M.

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

  13. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so

  14. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

  15. Rhinoplasty – indications and techniques

    Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty is considered to be one of the most challenging procedures in otolaryngology head and neck surgery. Meticulous planning and excellent surgical skills are pre-requisites for reproducible good outcomes. More than 100 years after the first rhinoplasty, many controversies regarding indication and techniques remain unresolved. The aim of this article is to review current concepts and arguments.

  16. Spline techniques for magnetic fields

    This report is an overview of B-spline techniques, oriented toward magnetic field computation. These techniques form a powerful mathematical approximating method for many physics and engineering calculations. In section 1, the concept of a polynomial spline is introduced. Section 2 shows how a particular spline with well chosen properties, the B-spline, can be used to build any spline. In section 3, the description of how to solve a simple spline approximation problem is completed, and some practical examples of using splines are shown. All these sections deal exclusively in scalar functions of one variable for simplicity. Section 4 is partly digression. Techniques that are not B-spline techniques, but are closely related, are covered. These methods are not needed for what follows, until the last section on errors. Sections 5, 6, and 7 form a second group which work toward the final goal of using B-splines to approximate a magnetic field. Section 5 demonstrates how to approximate a scalar function of many variables. The necessary mathematics is completed in section 6, where the problems of approximating a vector function in general, and a magnetic field in particular, are examined. Finally some algorithms and data organization are shown in section 7. Section 8 deals with error analysis

  17. Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques

    An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

  18. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Lujan, Elmer J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); May, Iain [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-04-14

    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies TM ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as will be summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  19. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper

  20. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-02-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  1. Advances of the IBIC technique

    Breese, M.B.H.; Laird, J.S.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique has been used for a wide variety of analytical applications in the study of semiconductor materials. This paper briefly reviews these uses and identifies those areas which require further development in order to facilitate the more widespread use of the IBIC method. Progress towards implementing these improvements is discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    Danielsen, Sren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nrskov; Kloch, Allan; Stubkjr, Kristian

    interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  3. Advances phase-lock techniques

    Crawford, James A

    2008-01-01

    From cellphones to micrprocessors, to GPS navigation, phase-lock techniques are utilized in most all modern electronic devices. This high-level book takes a systems-level perspective, rather than circuit-level, which differentiates it from other books in the field.

  4. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  5. New techniques in digital holography

    Picart, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art presentation of important advances in the field of digital holography, detailing advances related to fundamentals of digital holography, in-line holography applied to fluid mechanics, digital color holography, digital holographic microscopy, infrared holography, special techniques in full field vibrometry and inverse problems in digital holography

  6. Techniques in carotid artery stenting

    Endovascular carotid artery interventions are unforgiving of mistakes and poor technique. The approach should be team based where all members of the team are experienced and know their jobs perfectly. This, combined with a deep knowledge of the equipment and the anatomy will reduce complications to a minimum. Patient selection and the experience of knowing how to 'get out of jail' are also vital

  7. BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques

    This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

  8. Techniques for anaerobic susceptibility testing.

    Thornsberry, C

    1977-03-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents for anaerobic bacteria can be determined by agar dilution and broth dilution (including microdilution) techniques. If MICs are not determined routinely, the disk broth or category methods are recommended for routine use. The Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method and its interpretative standards should not be used for anaerobes. PMID:850089

  9. Nuclear techniques and human behavior

    The development of nuclear energy discovery and utilization is introduce briefly. It is dissertated the necessity of developing nuclear power and the essentiality of strengthening environment monitoring. It is brought forward that nuclear techniques can bring civilization and progress, but it can bring disaster if not correct uses

  10. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the analyst. This video material carefully documents several options in the process of quantitatively weighing and transferring a solid, quantitatively transferring a liquid aliquot with a pipet, and the process of quantitative volumetric titration. There are many local variants in each of these procedures. For example, some prefer to transfer solid with a weighing spoon, some with a finger held bottle, and some with a paper-strap held bottle. Students should follow the local preference, but should be aware of other acceptable options. Whatever the technique option chosen, the procedure must be done reproducibly, if analysis quality is to be optimized. Acknowledgments Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis was created with support from Project SERAPHIM and the NSF Directorate for Education and Human Resources, grant MDR-9154099.

  11. Modelisation du Signal Radar EN Milieu Stratifie et Evaluation de Techniques de Mesure de L'humidite du Sol

    Boisvert, Johanne

    La presente etude se penche sur des problemes relies a l'echantillonnage de l'humidite de sol et a l'estimation du signal radar sur sols nus. Le travail se divise en deux volets. Le volet 1 evalue trois techniques de mesure de l'humidite du sol (gravimetrie, reflectometrie temporelle et sonde dielectrique) et deux protocoles d'echantillonnage. Dans le volet 2, un modele de simulation du signal en milieu stratifie est developpe, et les estimes de signal obtenus sont compares aux estimes bases uniquement sur une valeur moyenne d'humidite du sol prise sur une profondeur fixe d'echantillonnage. Les differences entre les deux estimes dependent de la frequence et du choix judicieux de la profondeur d'echantillonnage; elles sont plus importantes aux faibles angles et en polarisation HV, puis VV. Le modele de simulation a aussi ete utilise pour etudier la profondeur de penetration du signal et en deduire la profondeur optimale d'echantillonnage en tenant compte des caracteristiques du signal. Une variation de 25 ^circ de l'angle d'incidence a peu d'effet sur la profondeur de penetration en bande Ku; l'ecart reste inferieur ou egal a 0,5 cm en bande C mais peut atteindre 1,3 cm en bande L. L'impact de la polarisation est nul en bande Ku mais croi t avec l'angle d'incidence en bande C et L. A 50^circ, il est, en moyenne de 1 cm en bande C et de 2 cm en bande L. En polarisation VV, la profondeur croi t avec une augmentation de l'angle alors que l'effet est inverse en polarisation HH. Deux methodes pour estimer la profondeur d'echantillonnage en conditions operationnelles sont presentees. Lorsqu'on inverse un modele pour estimer l'humidite du sol a partir du signal, ces methodes permettent aussi d'estimer l'epaisseur de sol representee par l'humidite ainsi estimee.

  12. The Use of Expressive Techniques in Counseling

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Whiting, Peggy; Hendricks, Bret; Parr, Gerald; Jones, Eugene Gordon, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript explores and identifies the use of expressive techniques in counseling. Although verbal techniques are important, sometimes the best of verbal techniques are not sufficient. Creative, expressive techniques can add a new, important dimension to counseling. Such expressive techniques as cinema, art, and music are described to help…

  13. Analyse Statistique des Anisotropies du Fond Diffus Cosmologique

    Douspis, Marian

    2000-12-01

    Les dtections de fluctuations de temprature du fond diffus cosmologique (CMB pour''Cosmic Microwave Background'' ) s'accumulent depuis prs de 10 ans.La connaissance du spectre angulaire des fluctuations nous permet d'avoir accs la physique de l'universlorsqu'il avait environ100 000 ans et donc de dterminerles paramtres cosmologiques.Ce manuscrit prsentediffrentes mthodes statistiques qui permettent de passer de l'information disponible sur les observations du CMB aux paramtres cosmologiques. Aprs unedescription du CMB au sein du modle du Big-Bang et de l'inflation, je montre que la mthode de vraisemblance permet d'estimer les puissances en bande ou les paramtres cosmologiques partir d'une carte ou d'un ensemble de pixels (tude des expriences COBE, MAX et Saskatoon).Ensuite, je dcris les mthodes qui permettent d'utiliser les puissances en bandedes observations du CMB publies dans la littrature pour dterminer les paramtres cosmologiques. Ces mthodes sont plus rapides que l'analyse de vraisemblance mais supposent diffrentes hypothses sur lesquelles j'insiste. A partir des analyses de vraisemblance que j'ai effectues, j'ai pu dvelopp d'une part, unemthode approximative quipermet de mieuxreproduire la forme de la fonction de vraisemblance, et d'autre part une nouvelle technique pour estimer la qualit d'ajustement des modles prfrs. Ces techniques ont t appliques sur les donnes actuelles,incluant les plus rcentes BOOMERANG et MAXIMA, pour dterminer les paramtres cosmologiques. Les conclusions sont prsentes dans ce mmoire.Enfin, une dernire partie est ddie l'exprience ARCHEOPS, exprience ballon base sur la technologie de Planck.

  14. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  15. Decomposition Techniques for Subgraph Matching

    Zampelli, Stephane; Deville, Yves; Backofen, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    In the constraint programming framework, state-of-the-art static and dynamic decomposition techniques are hard to apply to problems with complete initial constraint graphs. For such problems, we propose a hybrid approach of these techniques in the presence of global constraints. In particular, we solve the subgraph isomorphism problem. Further we design specific heuristics for this hard problem, exploiting its special structure to achieve decomposition. The underlying idea is to precompute a static heuristic on a subset of its constraint network, to follow this static ordering until a first problem decomposition is available, and to switch afterwards to a fully propagated, dynamically decomposing search. Experimental results show that, for sparse graphs, our decomposition method solves more instances than dedicated, state-of-the-art matching algorithms or standard constraint programming approaches.

  16. Hand lay-up techniques

    Wittman, C.; Shook, G. D.

    The materials, processes, and techniques, as well as comparisons of various hand and spray-up FRP finished product manufacturing procedures are presented. The steps followed in producing a finished product are noted to nominally comprise coating a form with a gel, build-up of the structure with reinforcing fibers and catalyzed polyester resin, curing, and impaction to remove trapped air. The part emerges with a finished surface prepainted by the gel. Design choices for the percentages and orientation of the reinforcement, the types of fillers, and the types of resins are dictated by the types and intensity of stresses to be encountered by the part in actual use. Examples are provided of the manufacture of a machine cover, a pressure tank formerly made of metal. Techniques for assuring integrity of the laminate in changes of thickness, joints, openings, and severe contours are described.

  17. Nuclear techniques in food production

    This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination

  18. Bases of technique of sprinting

    Valeriy Druz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the biomechanical consistent patterns of a movement of a body providing the highest speed of sprinting. Material and Methods: the analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the considered problem, the anthropometrical characteristics of the surveyed contingent of sportsmen, the analysis of high-speed shootings of the leading runners of the world. Results: the biomechanical bases of technique of sprinting make dispersal and movement of the general center of body weight of the sportsman on a parabolic curve in a start phase taking into account the initial height of its stay in a pose of a low start. Its further movement happens on a cycloidal trajectory which is formed due to a pendulum movement of the extremities creating the lifting power which provides flight duration more in a running step, than duration of a basic phase. Conclusions: the received biomechanical regularities of technique of sprinting allow increasing the efficiency of training of sportsmen in sprinting.

  19. Graph partitioning advance clustering technique

    Madhulatha, T Soni

    2012-01-01

    Clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, Clustering is the process of grouping the data into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters. Dissimilarities are assessed based on the attribute values describing the objects. Often, distance measures are used. Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique, where interesting patterns and structures can be found directly from very large data sets with little or none of the background knowledge. This paper also considers the partitioning of m-dimensional lattice graphs using Fiedler's approach, which requires the determination of the eigenvector belonging to the second smallest Eigenvalue of the Laplacian with K-means partitioning algorithm.

  20. Data mining concepts and techniques

    Han, Jiawei

    2005-01-01

    Our ability to generate and collect data has been increasing rapidly. Not only are all of our business, scientific, and government transactions now computerized, but the widespread use of digital cameras, publication tools, and bar codes also generate data. On the collection side, scanned text and image platforms, satellite remote sensing systems, and the World Wide Web have flooded us with a tremendous amount of data. This explosive growth has generated an even more urgent need for new techniques and automated tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge.Like the first edition, voted the most popular data mining book by KD Nuggets readers, this book explores concepts and techniques for the discovery of patterns hidden in large data sets, focusing on issues relating to their feasibility, usefulness, effectiveness, and scalability. However, since the publication of the first edition, great progress has been made in the development of new data mining methods, systems, and app...

  1. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  2. Simulation techniques for cosmological simulations

    Dolag, K; Schindler, S; Diaferio, A; Bykov, A M

    2008-01-01

    Modern cosmological observations allow us to study in great detail the evolution and history of the large scale structure hierarchy. The fundamental problem of accurate constraints on the cosmological parameters, within a given cosmological model, requires precise modelling of the observed structure. In this paper we briefly review the current most effective techniques of large scale structure simulations, emphasising both their advantages and shortcomings. Starting with basics of the direct N-body simulations appropriate to modelling cold dark matter evolution, we then discuss the direct-sum technique GRAPE, particle-mesh (PM) and hybrid methods, combining the PM and the tree algorithms. Simulations of baryonic matter in the Universe often use hydrodynamic codes based on both particle methods that discretise mass, and grid-based methods. We briefly describe Eulerian grid methods, and also some variants of Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods.

  3. Video Compression Techniques: A Review

    Ajay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents, the review of various compression algorithms used for the video compression. The video compression has become a basic requirement in the modern digital scenario. The video compression is started with the Motion JPEG and Motion JPEG2000. In which the each frame is consider as a picture for the JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression respectively. But these techniques do not use the video compression at all. Video signal has high temporal redundancies due to the high correlation between successive frames. Actually, this redundancy has not been exploited enough by these video compression techniques. So the MPEG is exploited as a solution to this problem. But the MPEG is slow due to 3D transformations of the video blocks. So the Accordion based video compression is found to be a better idea.

  4. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  5. Non destructive assay (NDA) techniques

    In the IAEA Safeguards System the basic verification method used is nuclear material accountancy, with containment and surveillance as important complementary measures. If nuclear material accountancy is to be effective, IAEA inspectors have to make independent measurements to verify declared material quantities. Most of the equipment available to the inspectors is designed to measure gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by various nuclear materials. Equipment is also available to measure the gross weight of an item containing nuclear material. These types of measurement techniques are generally grouped under the title of nondestructive assay (NDA). The paper describes the NDA techniques and instruments used to verify the total amount of nuclear material held at a nuclear facility. (author)

  6. Injection techniques and contrast media

    There are different reasons for application of contrast media in radiology, and hence various techniques of injection, depending upon the body areas to be examined. Imaging of vascular targets will require an injection method different from that of parenchymal organs, e.g., or imaging of kidneys, liver, and ureters or bile ducts, which are examined via the excretion of the contrast medium. Vessels are investigated by means of the angiography, with injection methods being chosen with regard to the type of vessel of interest. Conventional angiography in the last few years has been supplemented or replaced by the technique of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), allowing digital image processing. In addition, the fast computed tomography is a method now available that offers the possibility of obtaining functional data on parenchyma concentration after contrast media injection within a very short exposure time of only a few seconds. (orig.)

  7. Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students.Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics.The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

  8. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    Mang, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: thomas.mang@meduniwien.ac.at; Graser, Anno [Department of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Campus, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Schima, Wolfgang [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Maier, Andrea [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions.

  9. [Useful radiological techniques in orthodontics].

    Felizardo, Rufino; Thomas, Alexis; Foucart, Jean-Michel

    2012-03-01

    Specialists in dento-facial orthopedics have a large range of dental radiological techniques at their disposal to help them in their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Peri-apical, occlusal, panoramic, and cephalometric X-Rays are two-dimensional techniques that orthodontists can complement, if necessary, with Multi slices CT scan or Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Orthodontists must apply and respect quality criteria for each type of film in order to derive the best information from every image and to avoid producing artifacts or false images that will reduce their diagnostic value and, accordingly, the service that they render to patients. Practitioners must be willing to spend the few moments it takes to position patients correctly in the radiological apparatus instead of taking multiple views to compensate for failing to scrupulously follow protocols of radiology. PMID:22455647

  10. Abel inversion using transform techniques

    A method is presented for calculating the reconstruction of a circularly symmetric two-dimensional function from its projection, a relation known as the Abel inversion. This technique differs from techniques used previously by using integral transforms for its implementation. The frequency-domain analysis allows for experimentally obtained data, which is often noisy and off-center, to be dealt with in a systematic, rational manner. The formulation of the Abel inversion in terms of transforms, the filtering of the noise, and the estimate of the off-center shift are discussed. Sample calculations of simulated noisy data and the application of the method to an image of a laser sustained plasma are presented

  11. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    Martina Vicianova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., Gods judgment in Europe. The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System, functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  12. Image production techniques in biomedicine

    Until the 1950s, the only practicable way of obtaining useful images of the internal structure of the intact human body was by means of traditional x-radiography. The choice of methods has since been enormously expanded by the development of new techniques. Presently the two imaging techniques which are attracting most interest in the medical field are digital radiography and nuclear magnetic resonance. This excitement should not be allowed to eclipse the importance of developments in ultrasound and radionuclides. Moreover, conventional radiography will remain the primary imaging method for the foreseeable future. Computed tomography is meanwhile enjoying something of a resurgence. Diaphanography, thermography and microwave imaging show promise in specialised applications. Electrical impedance mapping is a newcomer which may prove to be significant. The increase in digital picture information has resulted in the new and important technology of picture archiving and communication

  13. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  14. Laryngoscope decontamination techniques: A survey

    Chawla, Rajiv; Gupta, Akhilesh; Gupta, Anshu; Kumar, Mritunjay

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: India is a vast country with variable, nonuniform healthcare practices. A laryngoscope is an important tool during general anesthesia and resuscitation. The study aimed to determine the current practices of laryngoscope decontamination in India. Material and Methods: An online survey was conducted amongst 100 anesthesiologists to determine the common methods of laryngoscope decontamination adopted in their settings. The survey was done over 6 months after validating the questionnaire. Results: A total of 73 responses were received out of 100. The result of the survey revealed that there is no uniform technique of laryngoscope decontamination. There is marked variability in techniques followed not only among different institutions, but also within the same institution. Conclusion: There are no fixed protocols adopted for laryngoscope decontamination. Thus, there is a need to develop definitive guidelines on this subject, which can be implemented in India. PMID:27006551

  15. Releasable suture technique for trabeculectomy

    Jacob Pushpa

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of the releasable suture technique on immediate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP. Nine eyes of nine patients with glaucoma had trabeculectomy with a releasable suture. In the six eyes that did not receive antimitotics, the suture was released by the fifth postoperative day; in the others suture release was delayed up to the fourteenth day. Of the nine patients, one had an acceptable postoperative IOP and did not need suture release; in another the suture broke and could not be released. In the remaining seven patients, the difference between the pre-release and post-release IOP was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The complications of this technique include failed suture release, subconjunctival hematoma and a distinctive "windshield wiper" keratopathy.

  16. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future

  17. Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques

    P.RAVI TEJA#1 , R.R.V.S.S.ABHISHEK *2 , P.RAM MANINTH

    2013-01-01

    Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sci...

  18. Mirage technique in anisotropic solids

    Quelin, X.; Perrin, B; Perrin, Bernard; Louis, G.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of heat diffusion in an anisotropic medium are presented. The solution of the 3D thermal conduction equation in an orthorhombic medium is calculated by the mean of a Fourier transforms method. Experiments were performed on an orthorhombic polydiacetylene single crystal sample. The temperature field at the sample surface was determined using the photothermal probe beam deflection technique. Then the 3 coefficients of the thermal conductivity tensor have be...

  19. Performance Comparison of Clustering Techniques

    Sambourou Massinanke; Lu Zhimao

    2014-01-01

    Data mining consists to extracting or “mining” information from large quantity of data. Clustering is one of the most significant research areas in the domain of data mining. Clustering signifies making groups of objects founded on their features where the objects of the same groups are similar and those belonging in different groups are not similar. This study reviews two Clustering Algorithms of the representative clustering techniques: K-modes and K-medoids algorithms. The two algorithms a...

  20. Artificial Intelligence Techniques and Methodology

    Carbonell, Jaime G.; Sleeman, Derek

    1982-01-01

    Two closely related aspects of artificial intelligence that have received comparatively little attention in the recent literature are research methodology, and the analysis of computational techniques that span multiple application areas. We believe both issues to be increasingly significant as Artificial Intelligence matures into a science and spins off major application efforts. It is imperative to analyze the repertoire of AI methods with respect to past experience, utility in new domains,...

  1. Combined technique for gingko preservation

    Local gingko species planted in Taixing, Jiangsu province was used as material. Irradiation period, irradiation dose, package, pre-treatment, preservative condition and other factors were tested to study the optimum techniques for gingko preservation. The results showed that optimum irradiation dose of 60Co-γ ray for newly harvested gingko fruit is 0.2 kGy and for gingko fruit with mature embryo is 3.0 kGy

  2. An Effective Fingerprint Verification Technique

    Gogoi, Minakshi; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method for fingerprint verification based on a data mining technique called minutiae clustering and a graph-theoretic approach to analyze the process of fingerprint comparison to give a feature space representation of minutiae and to produce a lower bound on the number of detectably distinct fingerprints. The method also proving the invariance of each individual fingerprint by using both the topological behavior of the minutiae graph and also using a distance ...

  3. Techniques for monitoring intrinsic bioremediation

    The abundance ratio of 13C to 12C was proposed as a measure of the effectiveness of remediation of hydrocarbon contamination, based on the mass differences between the two isotopes and the known preference of biological processes for the lighter isotope. In addition to monitoring changes in total hydrocarbon it should also be possible to track individual components using this technique. Tracking individual hydrocarbons could confirm degradation of individual components of C5+ mixtures in the field. 13 refs., 2 figs. i

  4. A MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR HYDROXYACETONE.

    KLOTZ,P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C=CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NO{sub x}. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water (it's Henry's law constant being {approx}2 x 10{sup 4} M atm{sup -1} at 20 C, Zhou and Lee, unpublished data), we developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one we reported earlier (Lee and Zhou, 1993), namely, based on derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, we adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island (LI), New York. We report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  5. Survey on FPGA Routing Techniques

    Ms. Nagalakshmi Venugopal; R. Manimegalai

    2012-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a programmable integrated circuit, has gained great popularity in the circuit design. Routing is an important part of FPGA design step which determines therouting in horizontal and vertical channels of FPGA. In this paper, a number of routing techniques are reviewed. FPGA routing can be achieved in various approaches like based on geometric routing, andbased on Boolean Satisfiability. The algorithms based on geometric routing are proved to be efficient al...

  6. Stereoscopic radiography techniques and apparatus

    The invention concerns novel techniques and apparatus for taking three-dimensional diagnostic x-ray pictures. One or more pictures are taken through a grid, which is moved relative to the film cassette, concomitantly with motion of the platform on which the patient is placed. The resulting laminographic image, when viewed through a lenticular screen, gives a three-dimensional x-ray picture. (N.D.H.)

  7. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  8. Video Compression Techniques: A Review

    Ajay; Mahesh Prasad Parsai

    2014-01-01

    This article presents, the review of various compression algorithms used for the video compression. The video compression has become a basic requirement in the modern digital scenario. The video compression is started with the Motion JPEG and Motion JPEG2000. In which the each frame is consider as a picture for the JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression respectively. But these techniques do not use the video compression at all. Video signal has high temporal redundancies due to the high correlation b...

  9. Electromigration techniques theory and practice

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

  10. TECHNIQUE OF THINKING STYLE EVALUATING

    Alla Belousova; Vlada Pishchik

    2015-01-01

    The results of psychometric analysis of the new technique of thinking styles diagnostics are presented. The fundamental principles of thinking style concept by A. Belousova, according to which the thinking style is determined by the dominance of a person’s function in the structure of thinking activity during the problem solving, are covered. In accordance with A. Belousova’s ideas that the collaborative thinking activity as a self-organizing system is carried out by means of functions assume...

  11. Radar techniques using array antennas

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  12. Removal techniques for failed implants.

    Bowkett, A; Laverty, D; Patel, A; Addy, L

    2016-02-12

    The use of dental implants is an accepted and predictable way of replacing missing or lost teeth. However, implants can and will fail and there are a variety of reasons why this occurs, which the practitioner should understand. In some instances failed implants may require removal and, therefore, practitioners should be aware of techniques that can be used to remove failed implants to potentially enable future rehabilitation of an edentulous region. PMID:26868795

  13. Greener Approach To Leather Techniques

    Sah, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to find out greener and more ecological methods of leather tanning. In this thesis, old traditional methods and new developing methods are compared. New alternatives to chrome tanning agent and their benefits are reported. Additionally, efficient way of chrome tanning in presence of masking agents or other catalysts is reported with cleaning techniques using membrane processes such as micro-filtration, ultra-filtration (UF), nano-filtration (NF) and reverse ...

  14. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU; M. Hakan Trkapar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or bala...

  15. Analytical techniques in radiation technology

    Radiation processing of materials involves hundreds of gamma irradiators and electron accelerators all over the world. The applications mostly cover sterilization, food irradiation and polymer processing. All these processes require application of control and analytical techniques. The microbiological, chemical and physical tests are performed to assure quality of the process and product. New applications concern environmental protection (wastewater, sludge and flue gas treatment), in this case continuous monitoring analytical methods (instrumental and manual) play important role for the process efficiency control. (author)

  16. [Encryption technique for linkable anonymizing].

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2004-06-01

    Linkage of different records such as health insurance claims or medical records for the purpose of cohort studies or cancer registration usually requires matching with personal names and other personally identifiable data. The present study was conducted to examine the possibility of performing such privacy-sensitive procedures in a "linkable anonymizing" manner using encryption. While bidirectional communication entails encryption and deciphering, necessitating both senders and receivers sharing a common secret "key", record linkage entails only encryption and not deciphering because researchers do not need to know the identity of the linked person. This unidirectional nature relieves researchers from the historical problem of "key sharing" and enables data holders such as municipal governments and insurers to encrypt personal names in a relatively easy manner. The author demonstrates an encryption technique using readily available spread-sheet software, Microsoft Excel in a step-by-step fashion. Encoding Chinese characters into the numeric JIS codes and replacing the codes with a randomly assigned case-sensitive alphabet, all names of Japanese nationals will be encrypted into gibberish strings of alphabet, which can not be deciphered without the secret key. Data holders are able to release personal data without sacrificing privacy, even when accidental leakage occurs and researchers are still able to link records of the same name because encrypted texts, although gibberish, are unique to each name. Such a technical assurance of privacy protection is expected to satisfy the Privacy Protection Act or the Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Research and enhance public health research. Traditional encryption techniques, however, cannot be applied to cancer or stroke registration, because the registrar receives reports from numerous unspecified senders. The new public key encryption technique will enable disease registry in a linkable anonymizing manner. However various technical problems such as complexity, difficulties in registrar inquiries and risk of code-breaking make the encryption technique unsuitable for disease registry in the foreseeable future. PMID:15296025

  17. Rediscovery of an Extraction Technique

    Behrman, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    The technique consists of putting a few milliliters of the aqueous sample in a mortar and adding enough anhydrous sodium sulfate to react with all of the water. The thick paste is then ground up several times with a pestle and the appropriate solvent. The liquid water phase has been remove by formation of the hydrated salt; this results in rapid and quantitative extraction. The Soxhlet apparatus may be used instead if heat and time are of no concern.

  18. Advanced atomic force microscopy techniques

    Thilo Glatzel; Hendrik Hölscher; Thomas Schimmel; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Schwarz, Udo D.; Ricardo Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Although its conceptual approach is as simple as the technique used in record players already introduced in the 19th century, the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1986 by Binnig, Quate, and Gerber was a milestone for nanotechnology. The scanning tunneling microscope (STM), introduced some years earlier, had already achieved atomic resolution, but is limited to conductive surfaces. Since its operational principle is based on the detection of the forces acting between tip and s...

  19. Data mining and visualization techniques

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Whitney, Paul (Richland, WA); Thomas, Jim (Richland, WA)

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  20. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M

    2011-01-01

    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  1. Techniques for Precancerous Lesion Diagnosis

    Liliane Janete Grando; Maria Inês Meurer; Filipe Modolo; Sarah Freygang Mendes; Grasieli de Oliveira Ramos; Elena Riet Correa Rivero

    2011-01-01

    The development of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a multistep process that requires the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations usually preceded by detectable mucosal changes, most often leukoplakias and erythroplakias. The clinical appearance of oral precancerous lesions and their degree of epithelium dysplasia suggests the malignization potential. Several techniques have been developed to improve the clinical and cytological diagnosis of oral precancerous lesions. The prese...

  2. Radiation technology - a modern technique

    The following work deals with the field described by the Americans as 'Radiation Processing'. As todays chemical engineers, engineers or chemists when solving problems still think of the conventional methods (such as temperature or pressure change, use of catalysts etc.), the present work describes the possibilities of applying high-energy radiation to solve certain problems. The present results today show namely that radiotechnological processes can certainly compete with the conventional process techniques. (orig./HK)

  3. Ventricular mechanics: techniques and applications.

    Lorca, Maria Clara N; Haraldsson, Henrik; Ordovas, Karen G

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance assessment of regional myocardial function is a novel potentially important tool for early identification of cardiac pathology. Many cardiac magnetic resonance techniques have been developed for detection and quantification of regional strain abnormalities including steady-state free-precession CINE, tagging, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes, strain encoding imaging, and feature tracking. Potential clinical applications of magnetic resonance strain imaging include early detection of systolic dysfunction in heart failure patients with both ischemic and nonischemic etiologies. PMID:25476669

  4. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Djilani Abdelouaheb; Legseir Belgacem; Soulimani Rachid; Dicko Amadou; Younos Chaffique

    2006-01-01

    A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This articl...

  5. Techniques for preparing isotopic targets

    The techniques of making isotopic targets for nuclear physics experiments are introduced. Vacuum evaporation, electroplating, centrifugal precipitation, rolling and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering used to prepare various isotopic targets at IAE are described. Reduction-distillation with active metals and electrolytic reduction for converting isotope oxides to metals are mentioned. The stripping processes of producing self-supporting isotopic targets are summarized. The store methods of metallic targets are given

  6. Imaging techniques in thyroid diagnostics

    Imaging techniques were discussed in a comprehensive manner and in consideration of the rapid recent progress. 30 papers were presented on the subjects of, roughly, radiology, nuclear medicine, and sonography. Apart from conventional radiodiagnostics, which may even yield epidemiological information, the first section also discussed pneumatological functional analysis as a mean of diagnosing tracheal insufficiencies. Thyroid CT is the method of choice in the mediastinal manifestations of thyroid diseases and in examinations of the organs next to the thyroid. Orbital CT yields completely new findings on the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and therapy of endocrineous orbitopathy. - While the diagnostic value of nuclear spin tomography remains uncertain, thyroid scintiscanning has reached maturity by now. In contrast to scanners, which give a general image, the ? camera can detect regional functional phenomena. Fluorescence scintiscanning, apart from quantification of intrathyroid iodine, enables scintigraphic imaging of the thyroid without incorporation of radioactivity. - The recent progress in thyroid sonography has been dramatic. Apart from the simple and reproducible technique of volumetry, nonstandard echo structures indicate diffuse or focal fine tissue lesions, and sonography has therefore become an accepted technique prior to fine needle biopsy or scintiscanning. (orig.)

  7. Lead Extraction: "Drag Through" Technique

    Anoop K. Gupta

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of extraction techniques of chronic pacemaker and defibrillator leads is to present an approach that is successful in extracting all leads and minimizes or eliminates complications. To extract a chronically implanted intravascular device, the device must be separated from the encapsulating inflammatory tissue. Three ablation techniques are currently used: mechanical, laser and electrosurgical. Indirect traction is traction applied by an instrument such as a snare passed into the heart, usually through a femoral vein. The lead is entrapped in the snare, and pulling or pushing applies traction. 1,2 The safety of this technique is enhanced by the ability to avoid those problems associated with the binding sites in the superior veins and right atrium. Indirect traction is more successful than direct traction. Countertraction is a method of safely extracting an electrode entrapped in fibrous tissue at the electrode-myocardial interface. It is defined as the countering of the traction on the lead by a sheath. A sheath of slightly larger diameter is passed over the lead to a point about 1 cm from the heart wall. Traction is applied on the lead, pulling the myocardial wall to the edge of the sheath, which counters the traction. Because only the scar tissue is present between the sheath and the heart wall, cardiac tissue is not in jeopardy.

  8. Microirradiation techniques in radiobiological research

    Guido A Drexler; Miguel J Ruiz-Gómez

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to review the uses of laser microirradiation and ion microbeam techniques within the scope of radiobiological research. Laser microirradiation techniques can be used for many different purposes. In a specific condition, through the use of pulsed lasers, cell lysis can be produced for subsequent separation of different analytes. Microsurgery allows for the identification and isolation of tissue sections, single cells and subcellular components, using different types of lasers. The generation of different types of DNA damage, via this type of microirradiation, allows for the investigation of DNA dynamics. Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. There are only a limited number of facilities worldwide where radiobiological experiments can be performed. In the beginning, research was mostly focused on the bystander effect. Nowadays, with more sophisticated molecular and cellular biological techniques, ion microirradiation is used to unravel molecular processes in the field of radiobiology. These include DNA repair protein kinetics or chromatin modifications at the site of DNA damage. With the increasing relevance of charged particles in tumour therapy and new concepts on how to generate them, ion microbeam facilities are able to address unresolved questions concerning particle tumour therapy.

  9. Nuclear techniques in animal agriculture

    Nuclear technology plays an integral part in research to improve the health and productivity of animals. The use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in animal agriculture is briefly reviewed. The radioimmunoassay techniques give the opportunity of measuring and following precisely hormonal patterns in animals over the reproductive cycle. Simply by analysing a sample of blood, milk, or other body fluid, minute hormone concentrations can be assayed and the reproductive status of the animal assessed. The radioimmunoassay procedure uses antigens which are isotopically labelled, usually with 125I, and antibodies specifically developed for each hormone. The onset of sexual maturity, of oestrus, or the influence of environmental, nutritional or other factors on the reproductive state of an animal can be studied. An example of the use of the radioimmunoassay technique is illustrated in the coordinated research program of the IAEA which focuses on improving domestic buffalo production. Nuclear techniques, particularly the use of stable and radioactive tracers are providing important insights into the functioning of the digestive system of ruminants, its qualitative dynamics and metabolism. For assessing the products of the rumen, particularly volatile fatty acids which become an energy source, and microbial proteins which become a protein source for the animal, materials labelled with 14C, 3H, 35S, 15N and 32P are used. As an illustrative example, the results of one study of nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein and rumen bypass protein synthesis in cattle are shown

  10. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  11. Computational intelligence techniques in bioinformatics.

    Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Ghali, Neveen I

    2013-12-01

    Computational intelligence (CI) is a well-established paradigm with current systems having many of the characteristics of biological computers and capable of performing a variety of tasks that are difficult to do using conventional techniques. It is a methodology involving adaptive mechanisms and/or an ability to learn that facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments, such that the system is perceived to possess one or more attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery, association and abstraction. The objective of this article is to present to the CI and bioinformatics research communities some of the state-of-the-art in CI applications to bioinformatics and motivate research in new trend-setting directions. In this article, we present an overview of the CI techniques in bioinformatics. We will show how CI techniques including neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief network, fuzzy logic, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems and support vector machines, could be successfully employed to tackle various problems such as gene expression clustering and classification, protein sequence classification, gene selection, DNA fragment assembly, multiple sequence alignment, and protein function prediction and its structure. We discuss some representative methods to provide inspiring examples to illustrate how CI can be utilized to address these problems and how bioinformatics data can be characterized by CI. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are also presented and an extensive bibliography is included. PMID:23891719

  12. PERSONALISED DENTURES WITH BRANCHING TECHNIQUE

    Puneet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: While the basic process of making dentures has chang ed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help labor atories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value t o patients. Unlike the conventional “linear” methods which foll ow specific steps in a cookbook fashion, the Branching Technique is a dynamic conce pt which can be adjusted to meet the clinical needs of each patient. This customized tec hnique allows for a “trial” denture to be worn by each patient that is used to pinpoint and solve th e patient’s denture problems before the final denture is made. This individualized approach helps t o eliminate disappointments or surprises. From the preliminary impressions and the “training” d enture (it’s actually a provisional denture to the functional impressions and porcelain teeth to hold the patient’s vertical dimension, the Branching Technique produces the most esthetically pleasing and functionally stable dentures possible.

  13. Control technique for planetary rover

    Nakatani, Ichiro; Kubota, Takashi; Adachi, Tadashi; Saitou, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Sinya

    1994-01-01

    Beginning next century, several schemes for sending a planetary rover to the moon or Mars are being planned. As part of the development program, autonomous navigation technology is being studied to allow the rover the ability to move autonomously over a long range of unknown planetary surface. In the previous study, we ran the autonomous navigation experiment on an outdoor test terrain by using a rover test-bed that was controlled by a conventional sense-plan-act method. In some cases during the experiment, a problem occurred with the rover moving into untraversable areas. To improve this situation, a new control technique has been developed that gives the rover the ability of reacting to the outputs of the proximity sensors, a reaction behavior if you will. We have developed a new rover test-bed system on which an autonomous navigation experiment was performed using the newly developed control technique. In this outdoor experiment, the new control technique effectively produced the control command for the rover to avoid obstacles and be guided to the goal point safely.

  14. Advances in proteomics analytical techniques

    Reyhaneh Farrokhi Yekta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are fundamental components of cells which mediate many essential biological processes. Proteomics is a rapidly growing field for the study of proteome, the protein complement expressed by the genome of an organism or cell type. The large-scale analysis of proteins leads to a more comprehensive view of molecular and cellular pathways that improves the overall understanding of the complex processes supporting the living systems. The analysis of proteome is significantly challenging due to high dynamic range and difficulties in assessment of low abundance proteins and the absence of efficient purification and identification techniques. A variety of methods have been utilized for protein studies including gel-based techniques, protein microarrays, mass spectrometry-based approaches such as MALDI and SELDI, high and ultra-performance liquid chromatography and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. NMR spectroscopy and X-Ray crystallography methods are also used for structural study of proteins. This review aims to give a brief overview of some of the above techniques and their most recent advances. We also introduce Proteominer, a recent protein enrichment technology for the exploration of the entire proteome content.

  15. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques.

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J; Norris, David G; Poser, Benedikt A

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in-plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some implementations SMS techniques can reduce radiofrequency (RF) power deposition. In this review the current state of the art of SMS imaging is presented. In the Introduction, a historical overview is given of the history of SMS excitation in MRI. The following section on RF pulses gives both the theoretical background and practical application. The section on encoding and reconstruction shows how the collapsed multislice images can be disentangled by means of the transmitter pulse phase, gradient pulses, and most importantly using multichannel receiver coils. The relationship between classic parallel imaging techniques and SMS reconstruction methods is explored. The subsequent section describes the practical implementation, including the acquisition of reference data, and slice cross-talk. Published applications of SMS imaging are then reviewed, and the article concludes with an outlook and perspective of SMS imaging. Magn Reson Med 75:63-81, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26308571

  16. Gestion Dynamique des Services Techniques pour Modèle à Composants

    Hérault, Colombe; Lecomte, Sylvain

    2004-01-01

    Les nouvelles applications étant destinées à des environnements de plus en plus hétérogènes, il est indispensable de proposer des solutions de développement qui répondent au mieux aux besoins d'adaptation des nouveaux services. La programmation par composants répond en partie à cela, en permettant d'interchanger les briques logiciels afin de fournir la version d'un composant la plus adaptée à son contexte d'exécution. Néanmoins, la plupart des implantation industrielles des modèles à composan...

  17. Industrialisation d'une technologie innovante : lien entre les variables techniques, tactiques et stratgiques

    Petetin, Franois

    2012-01-01

    Linnovation, bien que cl pour le dveloppement des entreprises peut tre extrmement complique. Lincertitude associe la valeur quelle peut gnrer est souvent trs dissuasive. Pour des petites entreprises, grer un projet dinnovation de rupture technologique reprsente un challenge important. Dans ce travail de thse, nous nous concentrons sur cette problmatique. Dans le cadre dune recherche-action mene dans la PME LHotellier, nous avons mis au point une mthode permettant de fac...

  18. Short counseling techniques for busy family doctors.

    Poon, V. H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce two short counseling skills for busy family doctors: the BATHE technique and the DIG technique. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The BATHE technique indicates five areas for questioning patients who require counseling: background, affect, trouble, handling, and empathy. No research on use of the technique has been published. The DIG technique is the author's modification of the BATHE technique. MAIN FINDINGS: While the efficacy of counseling in general was validated, more research...

  19. A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

    John Justin M; Manimurugan S

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their sec...

  20. A Survey on Various Encryption Techniques

    John Justin M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the different kinds of encryption techniques that are existing, and framing all the techniques together as a literature survey. Aim an extensive experimental study of implementations of various available encryption techniques. Also focuses on image encryption techniques, information encryption techniques, double encryption and Chaos-based encryption techniques. This study extends to the performance parameters used in encryption processes and analyzing on their security issues.