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Sample records for techniques disponibles permettant

  1. Boilers. Comparison of the main available techniques for boilers to comply with new regulations; Les chaudieres, comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations

    Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

    1997-12-31

    The main techniques, presently available, that can lead to a consequent decrease in pollutant emissions, are presented pointing out their advantages and drawbacks: sulfur oxide emissions can be lowered by fuel processing and fume desulfurization (through desulfurizer in situ injection or a downstream treatment for solid and liquid fuels); NOx emissions are decreased through fume recycling, low-NOx burners, air staging (OFA), combustion chamber over-dimensioning, combustion air temperature reduction, re-burning (IFR), injection of de-nitrifying agents (at high temperature without catalysts, at low temperature with catalysts). Associations of these techniques are also discussed. Ash processing is studied for coal and fuel oil, depending on the NOx and SOx previously selected cleansing techniques

  2. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Places disponibles*/Places available **

    2003-01-01

    * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) Plannification de projet avec MS-Project/Project Scheduling with MS-Project : 2 sessions : 23.10 & 4.11.03 and 18 &25.11.03 (2 jours/2 days - langue à définir/language to be defined) AutoCAD 2002 – Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11...

  3. Ambiguïté entre technologies propres et meilleures techniques disponibles

    Laforest, Valérie; Berthéas, Rémi

    2005-01-01

    En parallèle à l’objectif global de production plus propre diffusé par le PNUE, deux approches concernant les procédés coexistent, celles des technologies propres, d’une part, et celle des Meilleures Techniques Disponibles (MTD) d’autre part. L’étude de ces deux approches, notamment au travers de leur utilisation au niveau réglementaire et au sein des approches volontaires, fait ressortir une certaine ambiguïté. En effet, bien qu’étant inscrites dans un objectif commun de prévention, elles pr...

  4. Validation du procédé Val-Boue comme meilleure technique disponible

    Perrin, Loïc; Cikankowitz, Anne; Bourgois, Jacques; Laforest, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Les industriels européens doivent aujourd'hui se conformer à la directive IPPC (n°2008/1/CE) (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) via leur réglementation nationale en justifiant l'utilisation des meilleures techniques disponibles. Le procédé « Val-Boue » mis au point dans le cadre d'un projet de recherche consiste en l'utilisation des boues d'hydroxydes métalliques comme piégeur de polluant. L'ensemble des expériences réalisées ont montré que les résultats d'adsorption sont très enco...

  5. Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l'enseignement de la thermodynamique technique

    Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2005-01-01

    Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé Diag Sim capable d'estimer les propriétés d'un corps pur et de tracer n'importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés.

  6. Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l’enseignement de la thermodynamique technique

    Jean-Noël Jaubert

    2005-01-01

    [Français] Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé DiagSim capable d’estimer les propriétés d’un corps pur et de tracer n’importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés. [English] The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This tech...

  7. Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l’enseignement de la thermodynamique technique

    Jean-Noël Jaubert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Le but de cet article est de présenter un logiciel appelé DiagSim capable d’estimer les propriétés d’un corps pur et de tracer n’importe quel diagramme de phases. Un tel outil trouvera tout naturellement sa place lors de la réalisation de séances de travaux dirigés de thermique, de thermodynamique technique ou de génie des procédés. [English] The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This technology tool is particularly useful when teaching engineering students the basic concepts of technical thermodynamics.

  8. Non disponible

    Bettinger, Régis

    2009-01-01

    Ce travail concerne la modélisation du processus de synthèse (construction) de supports de catalyseurs obtenus par réaction silice-alumine. La synthèse est caractérisée par 5 variables d'entrée et 2 variables de sortie (la surface spécifique et le volume mesoporeux du support de catalyseur). Chaque combinaison des valeurs de sortie ayant une application potentielle, on voudrait savoir en synthétiser le plus grand nombre, c'est-a-dire connaitre les variables d'entrée permettant de construire u...

  9. Non disponible

    Pernot, Mathieu

    2004-01-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising technique for the treatment of localized cancers. The ability to focus ultrasound precisely on a predetermined volume allows the possibility of selective tissue destruction at this position without damage to surrounding tissues. However, many difficulties remain in the treatment of deep-seated tumors. In this thesis, new therapeutic and monitoring techniques are proposed to address these problems, by using phased arrays of ultrasound tra...

  10. non disponible

    Larrat, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Dans mon travail de thèse, différentes techniques IRM, certaines nouvellement introduites dans la littérature, ont été implémentées et testées, essentiellement sur le rongeur à haut champ magnétique. Les applications abordées couvrent un large spectre de pathologies dont l'importance en termes de santé publique n'est plus à démontrer : cancer, fibrose hépatique, maladie d'Alzheimer, sclérose en plaque...Ces examens pourraient être utilisés à différents stades de la prise en charge clinique : ...

  11. Non disponible

    Monari, Gaétan

    1999-01-01

    Le soudage par points est la principale technique d'assemblage des tôles de carrosserie automobile. Cependant, la variabilité de ce procédé, et en particulier de l'état des électrodes de soudage, pose deux problèmes non résolus à ce jour: le contrôle non destructif de la qualité des soudures et la commande des paramètres de soudage. Utilisé fréquemment dans le domaine des réseaux de neurones, et réputé pour donner de bons résultats avec peu d'exemples, le leave-one-out conduit en réalité souv...

  12. Heating plants. Comparison between the main available techniques that allow heating plants to respect the new regulations; Les chaudieres. Comparaison des principales techniques disponibles permettant aux chaudieres de respecter les nouvelles reglementations

    Bouju, J.L. [Babcock Entreprise, 93 - La Courneuve (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the main methods available today to improve the thermal and environmental performances of heating plants and burners and points out the technical and economical advantages and drawbacks of these methods. The methods are described according to the type of pollutant: SO{sub x} (fuel treatment, smokes desulfurization, in-situ desulfurizers injection, lime treatment of solid and liquid fuels), NO{sub x} (smokes recycling, low-NO{sub x} burners, air staging, over-dimensioning of combustion chambers, reduction of combustion air temperature, re-burning, denitrifier injection, combination of several methods), dusts (filters and cyclones). (J.S.)

  13. Best available technique for vehicle refinishing - technical and economic aspects; Meilleures techniques disponibles dans la retouche automobile - aspects techniques et economiques

    Giordan, B.; Liebscher, H. [CEPE Technical Committee Vehicle Refinishing, Comite technique Carrosserie de CEPE (France)

    2000-10-01

    The regulation of emissions in the context of the Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone demands the effective definition of Best Available Technique (BAT) for a large number of industries and processes. To be effective, such definitions must take into account the quality, practicality and not least the cost of alternative control strategies. This paper reports a study undertaken by the vehicle refinishing paint suppliers on the sector that they supply. The study demonstrates that source reduction is the preferred control technique for this sector. It defines a framework for BAT based on source control, which easily achieves the VOC emissions reduction required by the protocol, and by the Solvent Emissions Directive (1999/13/EC). It also illustrates how voluntary action can be an effective contribution to the definition of BAT. Summary results are also presented, by permission of the DFIU at Karlsruhe, which confirm that the proposals result in only minor increases in overall process cost, compared with conventional technology. (authors)

  14. Places disponibles/Places available

    2004-01-01

    Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : / Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 13 - 17.9.2004 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.9.2004 (4 jours) Programmation S...

  15. Places disponibles/Places available

    2004-01-01

    Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Off...

  16. A Study on the Suitable Techniques for Improving the Flow Properties of the Egyptian Waxy Crude Oils Étude des techniques permettant d'améliorer l'écoulement des pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique

    El-Eman N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, three different techniques were used for improving the flow properties of three Egyptian waxy crude oils (M-96, GPY-3 and Khalda. These techniques are : dilution, heating and chemical treatment. The improvement efficiency for each technique was investigated by measuring the rheological properties and the pour point as well. Also, the effect of each improvement technique on the power requirement was studied through calculation of the reduction in the pipeline pressure loss. The studied techniques have shown promising results in improving the flow properties of the tested crudes. However, the most suitable technique for a specific crude should be decided in the light of the technical features studied in the present paper in addition to an economical study which should be performed on each case individually. Cet article rend compte des essais effectués pour améliorer les caractéristiques d'écoulement de trois pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique (M-96, GPY-3 et Khalda. Trois techniques différentes ont été mises en oeuvre : dilution, chauffage et traitement chimique. L'efficacité de chacune de ces techniques a été évaluée par la mesure des propriétés rhéologiques et du point d'écoulement. De plus, on a étudié l'effet de ces diverses techniques sur les besoins énergétiques en calculant la réduction de la perte de charge en pipeline. Les techniques envisagées ont apporté des résultats prometteurs quant à l'amélioration des caractéristiques d'écoulement des bruts étudiés. Toutefois, pour choisir la technique la plus appropriée à un pétrole brut spécifique, il faudrait combiner les données techniques apportées par cet article avec une étude d'ordre économique effectuée pour chaque cas individuel.

  17. COSTE SALARIAL Y RENTA DISPONIBLE DEL TRABAJADOR

    Antonio Pérez Carrasco

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Se expone la relación entre el coste laboral y la renta disponible del trabajador, así como el análisis de las consecuencias sobre el salario derivadas de la cotización a la Seguridad Social. The relationship between labour costs and disposable income of the workers is exposed as well as the analysis of the impact on wages resulting from contributions to Social Security.

  18. COSTE SALARIAL Y RENTA DISPONIBLE DEL TRABAJADOR

    2009-01-01

    Se expone la relación entre el coste laboral y la renta disponible del trabajador, así como el análisis de las consecuencias sobre el salario derivadas de la cotización a la Seguridad Social. The relationship between labour costs and disposable income of the workers is exposed as well as the analysis of the impact on wages resulting from contributions to Social Security.

  19. Meilleures techniques disponibles de lavage de sols contaminés par les HAP : Etude d'un procédé basé sur les cyclodextrines

    Viglianti, C.; Brauer, Christine; Laforest, Valérie; Bourgois, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    La pollution des sols par les Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques (HAP) a été reconnue comme un problème majeur depuis de nombreuses années. L'impact environnemental de ces molécules hydrophobes, persistantes, aux effets toxiques (mutagènes et cancérigènes) rend nécessaire la décontamination des sites concernés. L'efficacité des techniques de bioremédiation ou d'extraction à l'eau pure est limitée par la faible solubilité aqueuse et donc la faible biodisponibilité des HAP. Les méthodes ac...

  20. Léxico disponible de inmigrantes escolares no hispanohablantes

    Jiménez-Berrio, F. (Felipe)

    2013-01-01

    Esta obra recoge el estudio del léxico disponible de inmigrantes escolares no hispanohablantes. Tras una breve introducción, se detallan los principios metodológicos seguidos en la investigación. Asimismo, se llevan a cabo los análisis cuantitativos y cualitativos del léxico actualizado por los informantes. Por último, además de apuntar algunas reflexiones a propósito del estudio y los caminos que quedan abiertos para futuras investigaciones, se ofrece el diccionario del léxico disponible de ...

  1. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Sansores Raúl H.; Ramírez-Venegas Alejandra; Espinosa-Martínez Marlene; Sandoval Ricardo A

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (í...

  2. Places disponibles*/Places available ** - French version only

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 20 - 22.1.03 (3 days) Introduction to PVSS : 27.1.03 (Afternoon) free course but registration necessary Basic PVSS : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 days) MAGNE-03 - Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 28 - 30.1.03 (3 jours) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System : 28.1.03 (1 day) MAGNE-03 - Magnetism for Technical Electronics : 11 - 13.2.03 (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 et 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.2.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) * Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. ** The number of places available may va...

  3. Avicultura Industrial: Novos Conceitos de Materiais, Concepções e Técnicas Construtivas Disponíveis para Galpões Avícolas Brasileiros Industrial Aviculture: New Concepts of Materials, Conceptions and Constructive Techniques Available for Brazilian Poultry Houses

    IFF Tinôco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao grande crescimento das fronteiras mercadológicas e ao extraordinário progresso científico verificado na avicultura industrial, contrapõe-se a pouca atenção que se deu, até recentemente, às técnicas de alojamento e, efetivamente, ao ambiente de criação das aves. Somente há questão de sete anos, com a perspectiva do processo de globalização que hoje movimenta a economia mundial, essa indústria passou a buscar, nas instalações e no ambiente, as possibilidades de melhoria no desempenho avícola e a redução dos custos de produção como forma de manter a competitividade. A produção de aves em alta densidade passou a ser imperativa e, dessa forma, a exigência de conforto térmico ambiental, que já havia crescido muito com o aumento da precocidade das aves, tornou-se ainda maior, como conseqüência da elevação da densidade de alojamento. Assim, para se manter competitiva, a indústria avícola brasileira está tendo de evoluir, rapidamente, de uma situação de quase indiferença aos princípios do acondicionamento térmico ambiente, para uma situação em que cada empresa ou integração deve tomar decisões relativas à adoção de concepções arquitetônicas e manejos inovadores, associados a sistemas de acondicionamento térmico naturais e artificiais, compatíveis com a sua realidade. Essas decisões incluem a readequação dos galpões já existentes e a concepção de novas unidades. Seguramente, estamos vivendo o momento de mais intensas transformações dos alojamentos avícolas brasileiros até então presenciado. Do exposto, esse trabalho busca abordar o planejamento, a concepção arquitetônica e os diferentes materiais e técnicas construtivas disponíveis para a indústria avícola brasileira no que diz respeito aos galpões de alojamentos das aves, visando propiciar um melhor acondicionamento térmico ambiente, compatível com as diferentes regiões climáticas brasileiras.To the great growth of the market

  4. Présentation du logiciel DiagSim permettant de faciliter l'enseignement de la thermodynamique technique

    Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a new software DiagSim that can estimate pure body properties and plot any phase diagram. This technology tool is particularly useful when teaching engineering students the basic concepts of technical thermodynamics.

  5. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Sansores Raúl H

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente. El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8, sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar.

  6. Tratamientos para dejar de fumar, disponibles en México

    Raúl H Sansores

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para ayudar a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. Material y métodos. Estudio realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, México. Se hizo una revisión en Medline con el encabezado de meta-análisis y se consultó el Cochrane Library, de 1990 a 2001. Resultados. La farmacoterapia muestra una buena probabilidad promedio de éxito para dejar de fumar expresada como una relación entre el medicamento activo y el placebo (índice de 39, 78, 79, 117 y 119% para los chicles de nicotina, los parches de nicotina, el bupropión, el inhalador de nicotina y el spray nasal de nicotina, respectivamente. El éxito de la terapia conductual puede ser buena (RM=3.8, sin embargo, se requiere más investigación. Conclusiones. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de combinar la terapia cognitivo-conductual con el uso de fármacos, así como la combinación de éstos entre sí para incrementar las posibilidades de éxito para dejar de fumar.Objective. To describe smoking cessation therapies available in Mexico. Material and Methods. Literature review of meta-analysis, controlled clinical trials, and behavioral therapy studies. Results. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions showed a good chance of success on average, expressed as the ratio of the active drug vs. placebo cessation therapy outcomes (ratios of 39, 78, 79, 117, and 119%, for nicotine chewing gum, bupropion, nicotine patch, inhaler, and nicotine nasal spray, respectively. Behavioral therapy showed satisfactory results, (OR= 3.8 however, more research is needed to establish its effectiveness. Conclusions. Emphasis is made on the need to combine behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy, to increase the likelihood of successful smoking cessation.

  7. non disponible

    Bouchet, Stéphanie

    1993-01-01

    Avec pour objectifs la modélisation des mécanismes de croissance par transport en phase gazeuse et l'influence du vecteur gravité sur l'anisotropie et la cinétique de croissance, des expériences ont été préparées et réalisées sur terre, en microgravité et en hypergravité. Les matériaux choisis sont le ternaire Pb0,8Sn0,2Te par transport physique et le binaire GaAS sur des demi-billes orientées de GaAs par transport chimique.Une étude thermodynamique des différentes pressions partielles des él...

  8. non disponible

    Tay, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Afin d'éviter l'apparition de traces de type tache de café, une stratégié consiste à hydrophiliser les surfaces en déposant une couche de polymère hydrophile. La question qui s'est alors posée est : que se passe-t-il lorsque l'on mouille cette surface avec de l'eau ? La surface ainsi hydrophilisée empèche-t-elle la formation de traces ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous avons observé l'étalement de gouttes d'eau sur des films de polymère hydrophile. Nous avons alors constaté que la goutte s...

  9. Creando el ReCoRD : Jornada de Trabajo sobre el Repositorio Colaborativo de Recursos Disponibles

    Bongiovani, Paola-Carolina

    2008-01-01

    This is a presentation on repositories given at the workshop about the Repositorio Colaborativo de Recursos Disponibles (ReCoRD), a digital repository in development by CoFeFuP (Consejo Federal de la Función Pública), Secretaría de la Función Pública of Argentina. The document points out many of the important elements for the creation of ReCoRD.

  10. Le raisonnement et les avancées techniques permettent de réduire la fertilisation azotée : le cas de Farmstar-colza®

    Lagarde Fabien

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The practices of nitrogen fertilization are really changing, due to the new farming context including environmental, economical, and energetic constraints. In 2005, 90% of the producers said they used a method to adapt nitrogen supplies in their fields and more than 40% among them used the CETIOM method “réglette azote”. Since 2004, a new system, called Farmstar-colza® based on satellite observation has been developed by Infoterra France, a subsidiary of the EADS group. With this technology, it’s possible to draw a map of the fields with nitrogen supply advices and to practice modular apply on the crops. Moreover, this technology increases the precision of the crop nitrogen absorption assessment. Therefore, in the future it seems possible to improve the estimated need of nitrogen to grow oil seed rape in order to get a good energetic balance with an optimum oil rate as well as high yields.

  11. L'avortement volontaire au Burkina Faso : quand les réponses techniques permettent d'éviter de traiter un problème social

    Ouattara, Fatoumata; Tagmatarchi Storeng, K.

    2014-01-01

    Au Burkina Faso comme dans de nombreux autres pays africains, l'avortement provoqué se caractérise par une réprobation sociale et une restriction légale. Cependant, l'avortement non médicalisé est un problème de santé publique majeur qui constitue l'une des causes principales de la mortalité maternelle. Non seulement il est dramatique pour les femmes concernées et pour les travailleurs de la santé en contact avec elles, mais les acteurs de la sphère institutionnelle sont également confrontés ...

  12. Talco y carbonato básico de magnesio como aportantes de magnesio disponible al suelo

    Carmen Rosa Goméz Laverde; Gabriela Estrada Estrada

    2009-01-01

    Mediante dos ensayos de laboratorio se realizó un estudio sobre la solubilización de carbonato básico de magnesio y de talco para juzgar estas fuentes como aportantes de magnesio disponible. Los minerales finamente molidos se aplicaron en dosis equivalente a 3,6 meq/100 g a muestras de tres suelos de pH diferente. En el ensayo I las muestras de suelo más la fuente de magnesio se Incubaron en recipientes cerrados, a 18

  13. Talco y carbonato básico de magnesio como aportantes de magnesio disponible al suelo

    Carmen Rosa Goméz Laverde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediante dos ensayos de laboratorio se realizó un estudio sobre la solubilización de carbonato básico de magnesio y de talco para juzgar estas fuentes como aportantes de magnesio disponible. Los minerales finamente molidos se aplicaron en dosis equivalente a 3,6 meq/100 g a muestras de tres suelos de pH diferente. En el ensayo I las muestras de suelo más la fuente de magnesio se Incubaron en recipientes cerrados, a 18

  14. Recursos disponibles para la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de futbolistas

    Macarena Lorenzo Fern\\u00E1ndez; M. Reyes Bueno Moreno

    2012-01-01

    La retirada deportiva es a menudo una etapa de crisis que requiere exigencias y ciertos ajustes a nivel ocupacional, financiero, social y psicológico (Cury, Ferreira y Leite de Barros, 2008). En línea con las contribuciones recientes al tema de la retirada deportiva y la posterior empleabilidad, el presente trabajo pretende analizar de modo descriptivo los recursos disponibles para hacer frente a la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de los jugadores profesionales de un club de...

  15. El léxico disponible en estudiantes de 4º de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria en Santander

    García Casero, María José

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: La investigación consiste en elaborar un diccionario de léxico disponible en estudiantes de 4º ESO en Santander. Se trata de una investigación paralela al Proyecto Panhispánico de Léxico Disponible (PPHDL) impulsado por Humberto López Morales desde 1973. Se vio la necesidad de comenzar la investigación haciendo un recorrido por la historia de los estudios de disponibilidad léxica, tanto en Hispanoamérica como en España, y de enumerar las cuantiosas aplicaciones que estos estudios tie...

  16. Sistema de gestión de asignación de aguas disponibles

    Aida María Saúco Peña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los problemas del adecuado manejo de los recursos hidráulicos, que pueden surgir en una evaluación ambiental, tienen quever con decisiones sobre el uso del agua que afectan la cantidad o calidad del agua super!cial o subterránea. Precisamente elpresente trabajo está enmarcado en el objetivo de realizar un sistema software titulado: “Balance de Aguas”, que informatice los procesos de asignación de aguas disponibles en el país, basado en la idea de controlar las entregas de agua que se establecen a diferentes entidades usuarias, a la vez quese recepcionen las demandas de estos y teniendo en cuenta las condiciones de cada una de las fuentes de abasto (reguladas, no reguladas y subterráneas al inicio del año. El propósito fundamental es la consolidación del sistema, así como la documentación de los pasos en su desarrollo ingenieril, paralo cual se hace un estudio exhaustivo de los principales modelos, metodologías y herramientas para el desarrollo, así como de las tendencias actuales, permitiendo el análisis para seleccionar las más adecuadas que apoyen la solución del problema. En correspondencia con los objetivos propuestosla implantación del sistema facilita el manejo de los recursos hidráulicos.

  17. Recursos disponibles para la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de futbolistas

    Macarena Lorenzo Fern\\u00E1ndez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La retirada deportiva es a menudo una etapa de crisis que requiere exigencias y ciertos ajustes a nivel ocupacional, financiero, social y psicológico (Cury, Ferreira y Leite de Barros, 2008. En línea con las contribuciones recientes al tema de la retirada deportiva y la posterior empleabilidad, el presente trabajo pretende analizar de modo descriptivo los recursos disponibles para hacer frente a la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de los jugadores profesionales de un club de fútbol. Para ello se ha elaborado el Cuestionario para el Diagnóstico de la Empleabilidad en Deportistas de Élite. Los resultados indican que para hacer frente de forma adaptativa a la retirada deportiva los futbolistas del club necesitan instaurar una conciencia de futuro, planificar su retirada deportiva, ahorrar y formarse, y por otro lado, se debe fortalecer el capital humano acumulado, apoyo social percibido y habilidades, estrategias y capacidades adquiridas tras la práctica deportiva.

  18. RESEÑA DEL SOFTWARE DISPONIBLE EN COLOMBIA PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS EN CADENAS DE ABASTECIMIENTO

    VALENTINA GUTIÉRREZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de los diferentes tipos de inventario a lo largo de una cadena de abastecimiento es un problema complejo que, en la mayoría de los casos de la industria colombiana e internacional, se aborda mediante la implementación de herramientas de software. Sin embargo, la decisión de implementar dichas herramientas está en muchos casos limitada por la capacidad financiera para invertir en ellas y por el desconocimiento de la oferta de software disponible en Colombia. Este artículo presenta una reseña del software disponible en Colombia para la gestión de inventarios con el fin de brindar a las empresas que se enfrentan a la decisión de implementar un software, una herramienta de soporte que indique cuál es la oferta en Colombia y cuáles son las características de los sistemas disponibles. Para esto se presenta primero el estado del arte, en el cual se identifica el resultado de la revisión de la literatura y el uso de las herramientas de software en la industria colombiana. Seguidamente se presenta la caracterización de los productos de software disponibles en el país. Dicha caracterización permite identificar la configuración general de los productos, los módulos de gestión con los que cuenta, las opciones de integración con otras herramientas informáticas, y la información general de precios e instalación. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones del estudio y las futuras oportunidades de investigación.

  19. Efectos sobre la renta disponible y el bienestar de la deducción en el IRPF por rentas ganadas

    Nuria Badenes Plá; Julio López Laborda

    2002-01-01

    La reciente reforma del IRPF ha operado un cambio significativo en el régimen fiscal de las rentas del trabajo personal. Si con anterioridad estas rentas disfrutaban de una reducción en la base y de una deducción en la cuota del Impuesto, desde 1999 los beneficios fiscales se han subsumido en una nueva reducción en la base. En este trabajo se valoran los efectos de estos dos instrumentos —reducciones y deducciones— sobre la renta disponible y el bienestar de los individuos, siguiendo la metod...

  20. M-library: servicios de una biblioteca universitaria disponibles a través de dispositivos móviles

    Lafuente, Guillermo Javier; Filippi, José Luis; Sánchez, Enzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Bajo el concepto de M-library, se pretende extender los servicios de una biblioteca universitaria haciéndolos disponibles a través de dispositivos móviles para que los integrantes de una comunidad educativa puedan accederlos desde cualquier lugar y en cualquier momento. El desarrollo de un aplicativo de estas características estará ligado a una serie de otros aplicativos que la Facultad de Ingeniería de la UNLPam se encuentra desarrollando bajo el proyecto de I+D denominado Tecnología Móvil A...

  1. RESEÑA DEL SOFTWARE DISPONIBLE EN COLOMBIA PARA LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS EN CADENAS DE ABASTECIMIENTO

    VALENTINA GUTIÉRREZ; DIANA PATRICIA JARAMILLO

    2009-01-01

    La gestión de los diferentes tipos de inventario a lo largo de una cadena de abastecimiento es un problema complejo que, en la mayoría de los casos de la industria colombiana e internacional, se aborda mediante la implementación de herramientas de software. Sin embargo, la decisión de implementar dichas herramientas está en muchos casos limitada por la capacidad financiera para invertir en ellas y por el desconocimiento de la oferta de software disponible en Colombia. Este artículo presenta u...

  2. ¿Es necesario disponer de tratamientos con buprenorfina/naloxona para los presos dependientes de opiáceos?

    A. Marco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de programas de tratamiento con agonistas opiáceos (TAO, junto con un abordaje psicosocial, es la forma más efectiva de prevenir recaídas en los pacientes con dependencia a opiáceos. Estos programas disminuyen la morbimortalidad así como las conductas de riesgo de transmisión del VIH y de otras infecciones, mejoran la calidad de vida y la retención en tratamiento, y tienen un impacto positivo sobre los comportamientos asociales, por lo que son muy útiles en presos con antecedente de consumo de opiáceos. Los TAO basados en el uso de buprenorfina/naloxona (B/N, igual que los basados en metadona (MT, están actualmente disponibles en España. El tratamiento diversificado ofrece una alternativa de tratamiento para la dependencia de opioides más individualizada y adaptada a las características de los pacientes. En cuanto a eficacia ambos fármacos son muy similares, pero B/N es más segura, con menor perfil de interacciones con posibilidad de dispensación en farmacias una vez que el paciente sea puesto en libertad, lo que puede ayudar a la reintegración social. Económicamente, el tratamiento con B/N es más costoso que el de MT. Se aconseja disponer de las diferentes modalidades de TAO y que estas se prescriban según las características y necesidades de cada caso, sin que la reclusión menoscabe el derecho al tratamiento farmacológico, que debe ser similar al efectuado extrapenitenciariamente.

  3. El léxico disponible de los profesores de ELE en formación en la ciudad de São Paulo (Brasil)

    Pedroni Torres, Talita

    2015-01-01

    [ES] La presente tesis doctoral, El léxico disponible de los futuros profesores de E/LE en formación en la ciudad de São Paulo (Brasil), tiene como objetivo fundamental averiguar y estudiar el vocabulario disponible para los profesores de español como lengua extranjera. Además abre un nuevo camino, es decir, una nueva línea de investigación en Brasil, específicamente en la ciudad de São Paulo capital. Como la disponibilidad léxica es un estudio de ámbito general, la finalidad de este trabajo ...

  4. Distrito industrial, capital humano disponible y desempeño. El sector cerámico de Castellón

    F. Xavier Molina Morales; M. Teresa Martínez Fernández

    2004-01-01

    RESUMEN Este trabajo se ha planteado como objetivo medir el efecto de los recursos humanos disponibles en el desempeño de la empresa individual. Partiendo del distrito industrial como definición del contexto interorganizativo, proponemos un modelo que incluye los factores vinculados a la dotación de recursos humanos disponibles a la empresa: la información y el aprendizaje colectivos y la participación de las instituciones locales. Los resultados del trabajo sugieren que las empresas deben d...

  5. Maladies des plantes dues a Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) : strategie et techniques d'etude - resultats

    Camporota, P.

    1989-01-01

    Les techniques présentées permettent la détermination fine des souches de R. solani et l’appréciation de l’influence exercée par le sol sur le saprophytisme et le parasitisme du champignon. Les résultats obtenus et l’intérêt d’utiliser ces techniques pour la recherche de voies de lutte sont discutés.

  6. Disponibilidad Léxica y enseñanza de ELE: el léxico disponible como fuente curricular y como recurso en el aula

    Paredes García, Florentino

    2015-01-01

    La disponibilidad léxica nació vinculada a la enseñanza de segundas lenguas, pero no siempre los resultados de esta corriente de investigación se han incluido en los currículos o han sido tenidos en cuenta en la elaboración de materiales. Se defiende en este artículo la utilidad de las encuestas sobre el léxico disponible para la enseñanza de ELE, tanto las de los hablantes nativos como las de los no nativos. Las primeras hacen posible basar empíricamente el cont...

  7. La variable "nivel de español" en el léxico disponible de los estudiantes de español como lengua extranjera

    Sánchez-Saus Laserna, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Son ya muy numerosos los estudios de disponibilidad léxica realizados sobre la lengua materna de una comunidad. Sin embargo, su aplicación a la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras apenas se ha investigado. Este artículo, fruto de una investigación en la que se ha estudiado el léxico disponible de los estudiantes de español como lengua extranjera de la Universidad de Cádiz y los factores que le influyen, analiza el efecto del nivel de español sobre el número...

  8. CALCULANDO EL NIVEL DE RECURSOS DISPONIBLES A PARTIR DEL REGISTRO FUNERARIO MESOAMERICANO (Calculating the Available Resource Level from the Mesoamerican Mortuary Record)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2016-01-01

    El cálculo del nivel de recursos disponibles a partir del registro funerario no solo es posible sino que arroja resultados espectaculares que aclaran cuestiones tan fundamentales como la naturaleza del cambio demográfico. Constituye un nuevo logro relevante de la arqueología de los fenómenos sociales como disciplina verdaderamente científica. Su aplicación a la Mesoamérica prehispánica confirma la coincidencia entre los resultados obtenidos para este nuevo parámetro en las tierras bajas mayas...

  9. Caracterización morfológica y contenido de almidón resistente y disponible en bananos (Musa sapientum) exportables del Ecuador

    Edison Omar Martínez-Mora

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: La investigación tuvo como objetivo fundamental, la caracterización morfológica del almidón nativo de banano (Musa sapientum), contenido en almidón resistente (AR) y disponible (AD), de las variedades de banano de exportación: Cavendish (AC), Filipino (AF), Orito (AO) y Valery (AV).Material y Métodos: Se determinó tamaño y forma del gránulo de almidón a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido. La cuantificación del AR por medición de su fracción no hidrolizada, luego de un ...

  10. La valuación de empresas cotizadas en México, mediante la metodología del modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible. Relaciones con la valuación del mercado

    María Luisa Saavedra

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue aplicar el modelo de Flujo de efectivo disponible para determinar el valor de un grupo de empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores para comparar los valores obtenidos con el precio de mercado. La revisión de la literatura del modelo de Flujo de Efectivo Disponible permitió identifi car y describir las principales variables que contiene el mismo, con el fi n de proponer una metodología de aplicación a las empresas que cotizan en ...

  11. Actividad productiva y empleo de personas con trastorno mental severo: algunas propuestas de actuación basadas en la información disponible.

    Marcelino López Álvarez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hay un creciente interés, en el campo de la atención comunitaraia a personas con trastorno mental severo, por los temas relacionados con el empleo. Tanto en Estados Unidos como en Europa se están desarrollando a la vez nuevas iniciativas y un número creciente de investigaciones que van aportando nuevo conocimiento a este importante campo de intervención, al que, con más lentitud de la debida, vamos incorporándonos también en nuestro país. En esa situación el artículo parte de la revisión de la información disponible sobre el tema, como base para elaborar y someter a debate algunas líneas de actuación, que recogen también los aspectos más generales de nuestra experiencia en Andalucía. A ese respecto se exponen las características generales que, en nuestra opinión, debería tener un programa destinado a facilitar actividad productiva y empleo a personas con trastorno mental severo en el contexto de nuestro país.

  12. CALCULANDO EL NIVEL DE RECURSOS DISPONIBLES A PARTIR DEL REGISTRO FUNERARIO MESOAMERICANO (Calculating the Available Resource Level from the Mesoamerican Mortuary Record

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo del nivel de recursos disponibles a partir del registro funerario no solo es posible sino que arroja resultados espectaculares que aclaran cuestiones tan fundamentales como la naturaleza del cambio demográfico. Constituye un nuevo logro relevante de la arqueología de los fenómenos sociales como disciplina verdaderamente científica. Su aplicación a la Mesoamérica prehispánica confirma la coincidencia entre los resultados obtenidos para este nuevo parámetro en las tierras bajas mayas y los de la cuenca del río Balsas (México durante el Clásico Tardío. ENGLISH: The calculation of the availability of resources from the mortuary record is possible and yields dramatic results that clarify fundamental questions such as the nature of demographic change. It is a new and important achievement of the archaeology of social phenomena as a truly scientific discipline. Its application to prehispanic Mesoamerica confirms the similarity of the results obtained in the Mayan lowlands and those from the Balsas river basin in Mexico during the Late Classic.

  13. Recursos bibliográficos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias y residuos peligrosos y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005

    Javier Sanz-Valero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Internet se ha convertido en una fuente de información biomédica cada vez más utilizada. La documentación producida por las instituciones públicas y privadas, en relación con las sustancias peligrosas que se pueden recuperar en Internet, es fundamental para la prevención de este tipo de riesgos.Objetivo. Localizar y revisar los documentos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias peligrosas, residuos peligrosos, incluyendo inertes, y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005. Material y método. Estudio descriptivo transversal de los resultados de las búsquedas bibliográficas efectuadas en Internet, en las correspondientes bases de datos. Resultados. Se han reconocido 162 registros que cumplen con los requisitos señalados en la metodología preestablecida. Discusión. Con respecto a la documentación medioambiental pre- sente en Internet, parece conveniente incrementar su difusión y mejorar su clasificación y accesibilidad.

  14. Urgences pédiatriques: les moyens permettant d'identifier et de limiter les complications et les conséquences lors d'un traumatisme crânio-cérébral léger à modéré

    Vorlet, Gwendoline; Philipona, Emilie; Noël de Tilly, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cette revue de littérature vise à déterminer des outils validés permettant à l’infirmière d’identifier des TCC légers à modérés à risque de développer des complications et des conséquences. La finalité de cette revue est d’améliorer la qualité des soins infirmiers dès l’admission d’un enfant aux urgences pédiatriques jusqu’à la récupération complète de ses symptômes.

  15. Quelles pratiques infirmières permettent de répondre aux besoins des mères lors de la période de transition à la naissance afin de limiter le risque d'épuisement postnatal ?: travail de Bachelor

    Cane, Gaëlle; Guerre, Coralie; Gabriel, Larissa; Coulon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Contexte : Le risque d’épuisement ou de dépression durant la période postnatale est un sujet encore peu étudié; les femmes, souvent, ne parlent pas des difficultés rencontrées durant cette période par peur d’être jugées sous le poids des représentations sociétales. But : Conçu sous forme de revue de la littérature, ce travail de Bachelor consiste à identifier les besoins principaux des mères lors de la période de transition à la naissance, ainsi que les pratiques infirmières permettant de pré...

  16. Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseigement technique

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  17. Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseignement technique

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  18. Las relaciones sociales como recurso estratégico para el desarrollo de la sociedad. El capital social disponible en Andalucía y en Cataluña

    Camarero Rioja, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se contabiliza el capital social disponible en Andalucía y en Cataluña, y se detalla cuánto contribuye, cada una de las dos formas de capital —vinculante y aglutinante—, a la producción de dicho stock. El interés último es dar cuenta de los recursos disponibles como medida de la calidad de la sociedad. El instrumento analítico del que nos servimos es un índice sintético, el índice sintético de capital social (ISCS), y dos índices específicos. Estos índices contribuyen a descri...

  19. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE

    TORRES Alexia; Marisa GUERRA; ROSQUETE Yrelur

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temper...

  20. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE

    TORRES Alexia; Marisa GUERRA; ROSQUETE Yrelur

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de deterioro y su relación con la temper...

  1. Estudio sobre la pertinencia del uso de las normas disponibles del Raven en adultos mayores chilenos Estudo sobre a pertinência da utilização das normas disponíveis de Raven em idosos chilenos Study on the relevance of using available norms Raven in Chileans older adults

    Cristina Alarcón Paz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de la inteligencia en población adulto mayor ha aumentado su relevancia debido al incremento de la esperanza de vida. Este estudio centra su interés en la pertinencia de normas disponibles para el Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven para dicha población. Se utilizaron normas de Colchester (1942, en Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, las más completas existentes. Participaron 102 adultos mayores voluntarios (más de 60 años. El diseño fue no experimental transversal correlacional. Los resultados indican que las normas resultan poco exigentes para ese grupo y que existen diferencias significativas entre los adultos de la tercera y cuarta edad, privilegiando a los del primer grupo. El índice de discrepancia mostró alta sensibilidad, indicando que la distribución de puntajes esperados no se corresponde al de la población general. Se discuten los resultados en torno a la necesidad de actualización de las normas y la consideración de las nuevas características de este periodo vital.A avaliação da inteligência na população idosa tem aumentado sua importância devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida. Este estudo está centrado na relevância das normas disponíveis para o teste de Matrizes Progressivas de Raven para essa população. Foram utilizadas as normas de Colchester (1942, citado por Raven, Court y Raven, 2008, as mais completas disponíveis. Participaram 102 idosos voluntários (com idade superior a 60 anos. O desenho do estudo foi não experimental transversal correlacional. Os resultados indicam que as normas são pouco exigentes para esse grupo e que existem diferenças significativas entre os adultos da terceira e quarta idade, privilegiando o primeiro grupo. O índice de discrepância mostrou alta sensibilidade, indicando que a distribuição de pontuações esperadas não corresponde a da população em geral. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à necessidade de atualização das normas e da considera

  2. Exigência de fósforo disponível para tilápia-do-nilo (35 a 100 g Available phosphorus requirement of Nile tilapia (35 to 100 g

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a exigência de fósforo disponível para tilápias-do-nilo. Utilizaram-se 144 peixes com peso vivo inicial de 35,33 ± 0,66 g, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Foram fornecidas dietas com 29,0% PB, 2.980 kcal/kg de energia digestível (ED e quatro níveis de fósforo disponível (0,25; 0,35; 0,45 ou 0,55%, obtidos pela utilização de fosfato bicálcico como fonte de fósforo. As dietas foram fornecidas aos peixes três vezes por dia, até aparente saciedade, durante 46 dias. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de fósforo disponível na dieta sobre o índice hepatossomático, a taxa de sobrevivência e os teores de água e proteína bruta na carcaça. O aumento dos níveis de fósforo disponível na dieta promoveu aumento linear do ganho de peso médio, da excreção de fósforo e dos teores de cinza na carcaça e de cinzas, cálcio e fósforo nos ossos. Houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de fósforo disponível sobre o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e a taxa de eficiência protéica, que foram melhores nos níveis 0,37; 0,48 e 0,48% de fósforo disponível, respectivamente. A exigência de fósforo disponível para tilápia-do-nilo de 35 a 100 g é de 0,48% (0,53% na matéria seca.The objective of this work was to determine the available phosphorus requirement of Nile tilapia. A total of 144 fishes with initial weight 35.33 ± 0,66g LW were distributed to a completely randomized blocks design, with four treatments and three replicates. Diets with 29.0% CP and 2980 kcal/kg DE and four available phosphorus levels (0.25; 0.35; 0.45 e 0.55% were used. The dicalcium phosphate was used as phosphorus source. The diets were fed to the fishes three times a day to apparent satiation, during 46 days. No significant effect of dietary available phosphorus on hepatosomatic index, survival rate and carcass water and protein contents were observed. The

  3. Animation et culture scientifique et technique : l'observatoire astroamateur de Narbonne

    Cazenove, J.

    2013-01-01

    L'Observatoire Astronomique amateur de Narbonne dont nous présentons les principales réalisations est une structure périscolaire permettant aux élèves de faire des Sciences pratiques techniques et culturelles, en dehors de toute contrainte imposée par un programme officiel. The demands of the official curriculum and the requirements of the scientific method used in the teaching of Physics don't allow us too much latitude in the classroom. Therefore the means to have full discretion to act are...

  4. Modelagem e quantificação da incerteza espacial do potássio disponível no solo por simulações estocásticas

    Ismênia Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho da simulação sequencial gaussiana (SSG e da simulação sequencial indicatriz (SSI na modelagem da incerteza das predições do K disponível em área de cana-de-açúcar, e comparar as simulações com o método já consagrado de krigagem ordinária (KO. Uma malha amostral com 626 pontos foi instalada em área de 200 ha, no Município de Tabapuã, em São Paulo. As simulações reproduziram a variabilidade dos dados amostrais de K disponível, enquanto a KO superestimou os baixos teores de K e subestimou os altos. O mapa de desvio-padrão obtido a partir da KO mostrou menor variação ao longo da área de estudo, quando comparado aos mapas obtidos a partir das simulações. A SSI obteve acurácia 22% superior à obtida pela SSG, na modelagem da função de distribuição condicional do K. As simulações apresentam maior eficiência que a KO para modelar incerteza na distribuição espacial do K. A SSI apresenta melhor desempenho que a SSG na estimativa dos teores de K disponível, em área de cana-de-açúcar.

  5. Extratores de silício disponível em escórias e fertilizantes Extractors of available silicon in slags and fertilizers

    H. S. Pereira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos para quantificar o silício (Si disponível em fertilizantes e escórias não têm sido confiáveis até o momento. Neste estudo, determinou-se o Si extraído de diversas fontes, utilizando como extratores: Na2CO3 + NH4NO3, variando concentração, tempo de agitação e de reação; água; HCl 0,5 mol dm-3; Na2CO3 a 50 g dm-3; ácido cítrico a 50 g dm-3; ácido acético 0,5 mol dm-3; resina trocadora de cátions (Amberlite IRC-50, pK 6,1, além do método da coluna de lixiviação. Paralelamente, desenvolveu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, com arroz irrigado, com aplicação de 125 kg ha-1 de Si total, proveniente de 12 fontes. O tempo de agitação mostrou não ser fundamental na determinação do Si, embora o resultado de três horas tenha sido superior estatisticamente aos demais. As concentrações de 10 + 16 g dm-3 e 30 + 48 g dm-3 de Na2CO3 + NH4NO3 mostraram-se as mais promissoras na extração de Si; por isso a menor concentração (10 + 16 g dm-3 foi escolhida para avaliar as fontes quanto ao tempo de repouso. Durante o período de repouso, verificou-se que todas as fontes apresentaram aumento na liberação de Si ao longo do tempo, tendo o período de 5 a 9 dias apresentado melhor correlação entre o Si extraído pelo arroz e o Si recuperado na análise das várias fontes. A extração com Na2CO3 + NH4NO3 dos fertilizantes com Si pode representar, com um bom grau de confiabilidade, o potencial de liberação deste elemento no solo e aproveitamento pelas plantas. As fontes mais eficientes na liberação de Si para o arroz foram a Rhodia, seguida da Wollastonita, enquanto as fontes MB-4 e escórias de alto-forno foram as que menos liberaram Si. Os extratores ácidos demonstraram ser mais eficientes na extração de Si das escórias de alto-forno e pouco eficientes com a Wollastonita. A água foi o extrator com a menor taxa de recuperação de Si das fontes testadas. Os extratores que apresentaram melhores correla

  6. Absorção de água pelas plantas: água disponível versus extraível e a produtividade das culturas Water absorption by plants: available versus extractable soil water and crop production

    Reimar Carlesso

    1995-01-01

    Um aspecto importante, no entendimento da relação entre a absorção de água e a produção das culturas, é como ocorre o balanço no suprimento de água do solo para satisfazer a demanda evaporativa da atmosfera. O suprimento de água é determinado pela habilidade da cultura em utilizar a água armazenada no solo e, a demanda, por outro lado, é determinada pela combinação dos fatores meteorológicos interagindo com o "dossel" vegetativo da cultura. Apesar da abundante literatura disponível, diferente...

  7. Atividade antiviral de extratos de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente frente aos herpesvírus suíno e bovino Antiviral activity of commercially available medicinal plants on suid and bovine herpesviruses

    V.M. Kaziyama; M.J.B. Fernandes; I.C. Simoni

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar a atividade antiviral in vitro de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente sobre herpesvírus suíno (SuHV-1) e bovino (BoHV-1). As espécies adquiridas foram Mikania glomerata, Cymbopogon citratus, Equisetum arvense, Peumus boldus, Solanum paniculatum, Malva sylvestris, Piper umbellatun e Solidago microglossa. A citotoxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada na linhagem celular MDBK pelas alterações morfológicas das células e obtenção da concentra...

  8. EVALUACIÓN ESPACIAL DEL NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE DEL SUELO EN UN CULTIVO DE PAPA cv. SPUNTA EN CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA Spatial evaluation of available soil nitrogen in a potato crop cv. Spunta in Córdoba, Argentina

    Antonio de la Casa; Gustavo Ovando; Angel Rodríguez; Luciano Bressanini; Eduardo Buffa

    2003-01-01

    Un análisis espacial del N disponible en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Spunta es necesario a fin de hacer un diagnóstico de la práctica de fertilización localizada y aportar evidencias sobre un potencial problema de riesgo ambiental por lavado de nitratos. Con este propósito se diseñó un esquema de muestreo durante la temporada 2000 que consistió de una grilla rectangular de 3 x 10 estaciones, en dos fechas (21/03 y 14/04) y a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm). El contenido ...

  9. O uso de adoçantes na gravidez: uma análise dos produtos disponíveis no Brasil The use of sweeteners in pregnancy: an analysis of products available in Brazil

    Maria Regina Torloni; Mary Uschiyama Nakamura; Alexandre Megale; Victor Hugo Saucedo Sanchez; Claudia Mano; Annunziata Sônia Fusaro; Rosiane Mattar

    2007-01-01

    Os adoçantes são freqüentemente utilizados por mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Esta é uma revisão narrativa da literatura a respeito dos adoçantes atualmente comercializados no mercado brasileiro. Existem poucas informações sobre o uso da sacarina e ciclamato na gestação, e seus efeitos sobre o feto. Devido às limitadas informações disponíveis e ao seu potencial carcinogênico em animais, a sacarina e o ciclamato devem ser evitados durante a gestação (risco C). O aspartame tem sido extensivamen...

  10. Efectos del cambio climático sobre los recursos disponibles en sistemas carbonáticos del sur de España. Importancia de su conocimiento en la cuenca del río Zaza (Cuba)

    Jiménez Gavilán, Pablo; Jiménez Fernández, Pedro; Ceballo Melendres, Osmany

    2016-01-01

    Disponer de modelos que reflejen la realidad de funcionamiento de un sistema hídrico se torna fundamental para la gestión eficaz de los recursos hídricos de una cuenca, máxime teniendo en cuenta los diferentes escenarios de cambio climático pronosticados por el Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climático (IPCC) en el informe AR5, que estima un aumento de las temperaturas medias, así como un descenso del régimen pluviométrico entre un 10 y 30% para la región mediterránea. El presente ...

  11. ÉTUDE THERMODYNAMIQUE DU PROCESSUS DE DÉPÔT PAR LA TECHNIQUE DU "MUR CHAUD" - APPLICATION AUX SYSTÈMES Pb-Te, Pb-Se, Pb-Se-Te

    Muller, M.; Liautard, B.; Astier, R.; Brun, G; Tedenac, J.

    1989-01-01

    La technique du Mur Chaud (H.W.E.) est une méthode simple permettant la croissance de films minces de semiconducteurs. Nous l'avons appliquée au système Pb-Se-Te. Nous développons tout d'abord, une étude théorique des conditions de dépôt permettant d'optimiser les paramètres expérimentaux. A partir du résultat de ces calculs, des couches de PbSe, PbTe et PbSe1-xTex ont été déposées et une première caractérisation par Microscopie Electronique à Balayage, diffraction des rayons X et spectrométr...

  12. DispoGrafo: una nueva herramienta computacional para el análisis de relaciones semánticas en el lexico disponible DispoGrafo: A new computational tool for the analysis of semantic relations in lexical availability

    MAX S ECHEVERRIA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un programa computacional destinado a apoyar el análisis psicolingüístico de los términos elicitados mediante encuestas de léxico disponible. Utilizando un algoritmo basado fundamentalmente en las relaciones de secuencia de las palabras disponibles, nuestro programa, DispoGrafo, ingresa los términos elicitados y genera luego automáticamente grafos cuyos nodos representan palabras y cuyas aristas simbolizan las relaciones entre ellas. Los grafos se interpretan como redes semánticas cuya configuración expresa las relaciones semánticas subyacentes en el corpus. El software permite, además, eliminar las conexiones débiles (de menor peso para así dejar sólo las relaciones más robustas y visualizar de este modo las relaciones más relevantes.A computer program was developed to support psycholinguistic analyses of words elicited in lexical availability tests. By means of an algorithm based on word sequence relations, our program, DispoGrafo, inputs elicited words to automatically generate graphs in which nodes represent words and lines the links between them. Graphs are then interpreted as semantic networks displaying the latent semantic ties underlying the data. The software also allows users to remove weak connections so that only those representing stronger relations remain to ensure a better representation of semantics.

  13. Exigência em fósforo disponível para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo Dietary phosphorus requirement for fingerlings Nile Tilápia

    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo se destaca como um dos minerais mais importantes na nutrição animal. Apresenta-se pouco disponível em alimentos de origem vegetal por estar quimicamente ligado a outros minerais e nutrientes, em que se denomina fósforo fítico ou fitato. Desta forma, objetivou-se avaliar diferentes níveis de fósforo disponível em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, por meio do ganho em peso, do consumo de ração aparente, da conversão alimentar aparente, da eficiência alimentar, da sobrevivência e da composição química da carcaça. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00 e 1,25% de fósforo disponível e cinco repetições. As rações, utilizadas para avaliar os diferentes níveis de fósforo disponível, foram formuladas exclusivamente com alimentos de origem vegetal, sendo isoprotéicas (30,0% PD, isoenergéticas (3.300kcal de ED kg-1 e contendo a mesma relação cálcio:fósforo. Conclui-se que, para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, o nível mínimo de 0,75% de fósforo disponível nas rações proporciona melhor desempenho produtivo e composição química da carcaça.Phosphorus is considered one of the most important mineral in animal nutrition. In vegetables feedstuffs this mineral can be less available because his chemistry connection with other minerals and nutrients, named the phosphorus phytic or phytate. Thus this research was aimed evaluating different levels of available phosphorus in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings based on weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, survival and body composition. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatment (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 e 1.25% of available phosphorus and five replicates. The rations used to evaluate the different levels of available phosphorus were exclusively formulated, using vegetables feedstuffs, to

  14. Le Web et ses outils d’orientation. Comment mieux appréhender l’information disponible sur l’Internet par l’analyse des citations ?

    Rostaing, Hervé

    2001-01-01

    The Web and its tools of orientation: how better to understand the information available on the Internet by the analysis of references? In the incessant and chaotic frenzy of the Internet, suitable tools and techniques are urgently required for use by information professionals. The Internet has become a leading venue for communication among researchers, both scientists and other scholars. The role of mediation for these professionals has never been so important, owing to the actual deficienci...

  15. Níveis de fósforo disponível em dietas para suínos dos 15 aos 30kg Available phosphorus levels in diets for pigs from 15 to 30kg

    J.M. Viana; P.C. Brustolini; F.C.O. Silva; Saraiva, A; J.L. Donzele; R.F.M. Oliveira; A.S. Ferreira; F.A. Santos; E de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Avaliou-se a suplementação de dietas com fósforo disponível (Pd) para suínos selecionados para deposição de carne, utilizando-se 100 leitões com média de peso inicial de 15,03±0,33kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, cinco repetições e quatro animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos foram dieta basal sem suplementação de fosfato bicálcico e outras quatro dietas obtidas pela suplementação da dieta basal com fosfato bicálcico, resultando em cinco c...

  16. Atributos morfológicos y fisiológicos de genotipos de Brachiaria en un suelo con bajo fósforo disponible y alta saturación de aluminio

    Sergio Mejía Kerguelen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se evaluaron en invernadero en un suelo de Matazul, Meta, Colombia durante 6 semanas, 2 genotipos de Brachiaria (uno mejor adaptado a bajo P, B. decumbens y otro menos adaptado, B. ruziziensis y 8 progenies del cruzamiento entre ellos ( mejores adaptados: H-7, H-40, H-28, H-58; menos adaptados: H-190, H-94, H-82, H-179. Los genotipos mejor adaptados presentaron mayor biomasa aérea, explicada por mayor área foliar, mayor absorción de P en el tallo y mayor volumen de raíz. Las características morfológicas de las raíces, principalmente longitud, peso seco y contenido de P, permiteron mejor adaptación a bajo P disponible en el suelo. El periodo de evaluación fue suficiente para observar diferencias entre progenies.

  17. Níveis de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados dos 60 aos 95 kg Available phosphorus levels in diets for barrows at 60 to 95 kg

    Cláudio Luiz Corrêa Arouca; Dalton de Oliveira Fontes; Francisco Carlos de Oliveira Silva; Martinho de Almeida e Silva; Fernanda Radicchi Campos Lobato de Almeida; Gerusa da Silva Sales Corrêa; Eriane de Paula; Douglas Haese

    2010-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de níveis de fósforo disponível (Pd) sobre o desempenho e a composição de carcaça de suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne. Utilizaram-se 60 suínos com peso inicial de 59,84 ± 1,64 kg distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco dietas (0,097; 0,190; 0,280; 0,370 e 0,460% de Pd), seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. As dietas experimentais e a água foram fornecidas à vontade até o final do período e...

  18. Variabilidade da água disponível de uma terra roxa estruturada latossólica Available soil-water variability of a "terra roxa estruturada latossólica" (rhodic kanhapludalf)

    S.O. Moraes; P.L. Libardi

    1993-01-01

    A partir de 250 curvas de retenção da água no solo, elaboradas com amostras indeformadas coletadas de uma área de 6250 m² de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada Latossólica de Piracicaba,SP, foram calculados quatro conjuntos de valores de água disponível assumindo-se -1x10³, -6x10³, -1x10(4) e -3x10(4) Pa como possíveis valores de potencial mátrico correspondentes à capacidade de campo e -1,5x10³ Pa um possível valor correspondente ao ponto de murchamento permanente. Foram feitas medidas de posição (m...

  19. Água disponível em um Latossolo Vermelho argiloso e murcha fisiológica de culturas Available water in a clayey Oxisol and physiological wilting of crops

    Vilson A. Klein; José M. Reichert; Dalvan J. Reinert

    2006-01-01

    Para a determinação do volume de água retido no solo e disponível às plantas, é imprescindível quantificar o teor de água do solo (TAS) na capacidade de campo (CC) e no ponto de murcha permanente (PMP). O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os valores do TAS na CC e no PMP determinados por distintos métodos. Utilizaram-se amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho. A CC foi obtida no campo com o método do perfil instantâneo e, no laboratório, com funis de placa porosa. O PMP foi determinado, em labor...

  20. Proposta de um modelo do serviço de referência digital para a otimização de busca às informações disponíveis em catálogos digitais Propuesta de un modelo de Servicio Referencia Digital para la optimización de la búsqueda de la información disponible en los catálogos digitales

    Patrícia da Silva Moreno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O ambiente eletrônico para a disponibilização de informações vem incorporando com frequência os serviços oferecidos pelas bibliotecas, procurando proporcionar facilidades na localização de informações e de documentos nas redes eletrônicas. Entretanto, muitos usuários encontram dificuldades na interação com certas interfaces, o que torna a busca por in-formações desestimulante e muitas vezes estressante. Com a aplicação do agente de interface busca-se avaliar a atuação deste tipo de software como facilitador da interação do usuário com acervos disponíveis, via catálogos digitais. E ainda verificar através do experimento com o protótipo, baseado na metodologia de avaliação heurística quais ações deverão ser tomadas para a correção dos erros que afetam a usabilidade da interface, além de confirmar a hipótese de eficácia de um sistema dessa natureza. Como resultado demonstra-se a construção de um sistema que utiliza ação interdisciplinar entre a Ciência da Informação e a Ciência da Computação na otimização de busca às informações disponíveis em catálogos digitais e na Internet com a ação de um agente de interface como mediador.

  1. Estimación del gasto cardíaco: Utilidad en la práctica clínica. Monitorización disponible invasiva y no invasiva Estimating cardiac output: Utility in the clinical practice. Available invasive and non-invasive monitoring

    X. García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión pretende profundizar en el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco, sus variables y sus condicionantes, así como repasar exhaustivamente las diferentes técnicas disponibles para su monitorización y establecer las situaciones en que el conocimiento del gasto cardíaco nos aporta una información fundamental en el manejo del paciente crítico. La técnica de Fick, utilizada en los inicios para calcular el gasto cardíaco de los pacientes, ha sido sustituida hoy en día en la práctica clínica por los métodos de termodilución (transcardíaca o transpulmonar, litiodilución, biorreactancia, la tecnología basada en el efecto Doppler o la ecocardiografía. El análisis de la onda de pulso ha permitido la obtención de una medida continua y mínimamente invasiva del gasto cardíaco. Otros métodos, como la biorrectancia, el Doppler o la ecocardiografía nos permiten, en la actualidad, obtener medidas del gasto cardíaco de forma no invasiva, rápida y fiable.This aim of this review is to provide a detailed review of the physiologic conditions and variables of the cardiac output, as well as review the different techniques available for its measurement. We also want to establish the clinical situations in which the measurement of cardiac output can add valuable information for the management of critically ill patients. The Fick technique, used in the beginning to calculate cardiac output, has been replaced today by thermodilution techniques (transcardiac or transpulmonary, lithium dilution, bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography. Pulse wave analysis allows a continuous minimally invasive cardiac output measurement. Other methods, such bioreactance, Doppler technique or echocardiography currently provide a valid, fast and non-invasive measurement of cardiac output.

  2. Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield

    Solange França

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF, a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após a emergência (DAE em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M, aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi (A+E/M+C e ervilhaca/milho (E/M e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1 aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C. Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1. Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE, o maior IAF (4,41 e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%, enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE. O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1.This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI, shoot dry matter (SDM production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and

  3. Absorção de água pelas plantas: água disponível versus extraível e a produtividade das culturas Water absorption by plants: available versus extractable soil water and crop production

    Reimar Carlesso

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Um aspecto importante, no entendimento da relação entre a absorção de água e a produção das culturas, é como ocorre o balanço no suprimento de água do solo para satisfazer a demanda evaporativa da atmosfera. O suprimento de água é determinado pela habilidade da cultura em utilizar a água armazenada no solo e, a demanda, por outro lado, é determinada pela combinação dos fatores meteorológicos interagindo com o "dossel" vegetativo da cultura. Apesar da abundante literatura disponível, diferentes critérios tem sido utilizados na determinação do momento de ocorrência e da duração de um déficit hídrico. Muita ênfase tem sido dada para a quantificação do consumo de água pelas plantas nos diferentes subperíodos de desenvolvimento e reduzida importância tem sido conferida a quantificação da quantidade de água disponível (extraível e seus efeitos no crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. Na discussão sobre a extração de água pelas plantas deve-se considerar, primeiramente, o problema da precisão na definição dos limites de disponibilidade de água. Esta publicação apresenta uma análise crítica das limitações normalmente encontradas na utilização dos limites de disponibilidade de água. A relação entre a água disponível e a água extraível do solo é analisada a partir de resultados sobre a taxa de transpiração e a tração de água extraível, a profundidade efetiva de extração do sistema radicular e, a extração de água por unidade de profundidade.An important issue to understanding the effect of water shortage on crop yield is how crops balance the supply of water from the soil to match the demand for water from the atmosphere. Supply is determined by the crop ability to utilise the stored soil water and, demand, on the other hand, is determined by a combination of metereological factors interacting with the crop canopy. Different criteria have been used to determine the timing and

  4. Variabilidade da água disponível de uma terra roxa estruturada latossólica Available soil-water variability of a "terra roxa estruturada latossólica" (rhodic kanhapludalf

    S.O. Moraes

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 250 curvas de retenção da água no solo, elaboradas com amostras indeformadas coletadas de uma área de 6250 m² de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada Latossólica de Piracicaba,SP, foram calculados quatro conjuntos de valores de água disponível assumindo-se -1x10³, -6x10³, -1x10(4 e -3x10(4 Pa como possíveis valores de potencial mátrico correspondentes à capacidade de campo e -1,5x10³ Pa um possível valor correspondente ao ponto de murchamento permanente. Foram feitas medidas de posição (média, variabilidade (coeficiente de variação, assimetria e curtose e numero necessário de amostras para estimar a média a um dado nível de probabilidade a fim de quantificar a variabilidade e a sensibilidade dos resultados em cada conjunto e entre conjuntos de valores de água disponível. A análise dos resultados mostrou que a variabilidade da água disponível, obtida à partir de dois valores de umidade da Curva de Retenção é muito maior que a variabilidade de cada valor individualmente. Ou seja, embora as variáveis envolvidas possam ser as mesmas, o grau de variabilidade (expresso, por exemplo, pelo coeficiente de variação ou a sensibilidade das medidas (expressa pelo número necessário de amostras para estimar a média dentro de um determinado intervalo de confiança pode ser bem distinto, indicando que nem sempre resultados de uma amostragem realizada com determinado objetivo poderá servir a outros, embora possam tratar-se de variáveis dependentes.From 250 soil-water retention curves of an area of 6250 m² of a "Terra Roxa Estruturada Latossólica" (Rhodic Kanhapludalf located in Piracicaba,SP, four sets of available soil-water were calculated assuming field capacity values based on soil-water contents corresponding to -1x10³, -6x10³, -1x10(4 and -3x10(4 Pa of soil water matric potential; and permanent wilting point based on soil-water contents corresponding to -1,5x10(6 Pa. Aiming to quantify the variability and the

  5. Qualidade da informação da internet disponível para pacientes em páginas em português Quality of internet information available to patients on websites in Portuguese

    Adriana Del Giglio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pacientes e seus familiares frequentemente procuram na internet informações a respeito de suas doenças. Diabetes mellitus (DM, hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS e infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM são muito prevalentes no Brasil, e informações sobre estas patologias são bastante procuradas na internet. Por isso, buscamos avaliar a qualidade da informação relacionada com estas doenças disponível em português na internet. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas as primeiras 20 páginas em português de cada uma das doenças escolhidas, através do algoritmo de busca do Google®. Como ferramentas para avaliar a qualidade da informação foram utilizados o Discern Questionnarie (DQ e o Health on Net (HON. Para saber se as informações eram adequadas, foram utilizadas as diretrizes (guidelines brasileiras e internacionais para as diferentes comorbidades. RESULTADOS: Ao avaliar o conteúdo das informações disponíveis, 45%, 95%, 85% das páginas continham, respectivamente, a definição de DM, HAS e IAM. Com relação ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento, somente 25% das páginas das três comorbidades apresentavam especificamente esta informação. Somente 15%, 20% e 10% das páginas tinham a certificação pelo HON, respectivamente. Em função do DQ, as páginas obtiveram notas maiores que 50% em 70% das páginas de DM, 65% nas de HAS e 55% nas de IAM. CONCLUSÃO: A informação disponível em português na internet sobre as três patologias escolhidas (DM, HAS e IAM é frequentemente inadequada e insuficiente.OBJECTIVE: Patients and their relatives often look for information about their diseases on the internet. Diabetes mellitus (DM, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI are the most prevalent in Brazil, thus, information on these pathologies is extremely searched for on the internet. For this reason, this study attempted to evaluate the quality of information available in Portuguese on the web

  6. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  7. Controle da qualidade das preparações de heparina disponíveis no Brasil: implicações na cirurgia cardiovascular Heparin quality control in the Brazilian market: implications in the cardiovascular surgery

    Eduardo I. Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A mudança na marca da heparina rotineiramente utilizada nas cirurgias cardíacas no Brasil tem sido acompanhada por aumento do número de casos de discrasia sanguínea, aumento de reoperações e efeitos adversos em nossa Instituição e em outras. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas no Laboratório de Tecido Conjuntivo do HUCFF/UFRJ, quatro preparações disponíveis e comparadas à heparina retirada do mercado (Liquemine e ao padrão de controle internacional. As preparações de heparina foram submetidas à ressonância nuclear magnética para avaliação da integridade estrutural, bem como avaliação de sua eficácia anticoagulante. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa quanto à atividade anticoagulante entre as amostras. Também se observou a presença de contaminação com dermatam sulfato, amostras degradadas quimicamente e com significativa alteração do peso molecular. CONCLUSÃO: Das amostras estudadas, nenhuma atendeu aos requisitos de segurança para utilização em cirurgias cardíacas com circulação extracorpórea. Nenhuma delas apresentou a qualidade semelhante ao Liquemine, não mais disponível no mercado brasileiro.INTRODUCTION: The change in the heparin solution trade mark in Brazil that had been commonly used in cardiac surgery has shown increased number in the coagulopathy, re-exploration and other side effects in our Institution and others. METHODS: All four different heparin solutions available in the Brazilian market were studied in the Connective Tissue Lab, HUCFF, UFRJ and compared to the Liquemine (out of the market and the international control solution. All samples were evaluated by magnetic nuclear resonance as well as their anticoagulant effectiveness. RESULTS: There were significant differences among them regarding the anticoagulant activity. It was also observed contamination with other dermatan sulfate, samples chemically degraded and with significant change in the molecular weight. CONCLUSION

  8. Níveis de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados dos 60 aos 95 kg Available phosphorus levels in diets for barrows at 60 to 95 kg

    Cláudio Luiz Corrêa Arouca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de níveis de fósforo disponível (Pd sobre o desempenho e a composição de carcaça de suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne. Utilizaram-se 60 suínos com peso inicial de 59,84 ± 1,64 kg distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco dietas (0,097; 0,190; 0,280; 0,370 e 0,460% de Pd, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. As dietas experimentais e a água foram fornecidas à vontade até o final do período experimental, quando os animais pesaram 96,64 ± 3,68 kg. O ganho de peso aumentou e a conversão alimentar (CA melhorou de forma quadrática até os níveis estimados de 0,35 e de 0,33% de Pd das dietas, respectivamente. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre o consumo diário de ração. O consumo de fósforo disponível aumentou linearmente com o aumento dos níveis desse mineral na dieta. As dietas não influenciaram a atividade da enzima fosfatase alcalina. Entretanto, os valores de fósforo inorgânico no soro aos 21 dias e ao final do período experimental aumentaram de forma quadrática até o nível estimado de 0,35 e 0,38% na dieta, respectivamente. Os níveis de fósforo disponível afetaram de modo quadrático a profundidade de lombo, a taxa de deposição diária de carne magra e a quantidade de carne magra, que melhoraram, respectivamente, até o nível estimado de 0,35; 0,31 e 0,33% de Pd na dieta. Na fase dos 60 aos 95 kg, o nível de 0,33% de fósforo disponível na dieta, que corresponde a um consumo de 9,38 g de Pd/dia, proporciona melhor conversão conversão alimentar e maior quantidade de carne magra em suínos machos castrados híbridos comerciais selecionados geneticamente para deposição de carne na carcaça.The effects of available phosphorus levels on performance and carcass composition of barrows with high genetic potential for meat deposition were evaluated. Sixty swine with initial body weight of 59.84 ± 1.64 kg

  9. E-investigación: una introducción para principiantes (y escépticos a las fuentes de ciencia política disponibles en la web

    Mauro Calise

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo de revisión es el de contribuir al seguimiento y el debate de los cambios en el entorno de la investigación electrónica. Vamos a presentar una visión general (adaptado principalmente a los neófitos del ciberespacio de algunos de los mejores recursos electrónicos disponibles en línea para la ciencia política, la elaboración de nuestra experiencia como editores de IPSA-Portal, el sitio web de la Asociación Internacional de Ciencia Política dedicada a la selección y revisión los mejores e-hubs en nuestra disciplina. Sin embargo, al aventurarse en el ciberespacio de la ciencia política, vamos a tratar de ofrecer una comprensión más general de las principales tendencias que afectan la galaxia del internet. Por mucho que estemos tentados sólo para pegarnos a nuestro pequeño planeta, tenemos que ser conscientes de que es parte de, y surge de, un sistema mucho más grande.

  10. The relationship between available P and selected biological properties in the rhizosphere of ten crop species under glasshouse conditions Relación entre el P disponible y algunas propiedades biológicas en la rizosfera de diez especies vegetales cultivadas en invernadero Relação entre o P disponível e um conjunto de propriedades biológicas selecionadas na rizosfera de dez espécies vegetais cultivadas em estufa

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2012-07-01

    disponible se midió en el suelo con Solanum lycopersicum. Helianthus annuus, Zea mays y Phasaeolous vulgaris tuvieron un efecto relativamente mayor sobre la disminución de P disponible en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces. S. lycopersicum y P. vulgaris presentaron la concentración de P más elevada (> 980 mg kg-1 y H. annuus y Z. mays fueron las especies que mostraron una mayor asimilación de P (17,62 mg maceta-1 y 13,13 mg maceta-1, respectivamente. El contenido medio de P en la biomasa microbiana del suelo (MBP fue significativamente elevado en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces de T. aestivum, Z. mays, S. tuberosum y S. lycopersicum (> 16 mg kg-1. La media del número de esporas de glomales (SNG presentó valores elevados en la rizosfera del suelo y en el suelo adherido a las raíces de P. vulgaris, S. lycopersicum, T. aestivum y Z. mays (> 167 N/10 g suelo. Las correlaciones negativas entre el P disponible y soluble con propiedades biológicas del suelo, como el SNG y la actividad fosfatasa alcalina, así como la correlación positiva con el pH del suelo, pusieron de manifiesto la importancia de los microorganismos de la rizosfera y de los glomales sobre la nutrición fosfatada de especies vegetales en suelos calizos. Así, la acidificación de la rizosfera en suelos calizos podría no ser un factor tan importante en la asimilación y adquisición de P por las plantas como es la mejora de las propiedades biológicas.

    O objectivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, em diferentes zonas de amostragem, o efeito do cultivo de 10 espécies vegetais em determinadas propriedades biológicas selecionadas bem como na disponibilidade de fósforo (P. A menor disponibilidade de P observou-se nos solos cultivados

  11. Copper availability as related to soil copper fractions in oxisols under liming Calagem e os teores disponíveis e as frações de cobre em latossolos

    Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the chemical forms of copper in soils and the relationships of these forms with soil copper availability are important for predicting the copper behavior in the soil-plant system. The present work studies the influence of liming on the available contents of copper as well as on the forms of copper fractions in six types of Oxisols. Soil samples, with and without liming, received copper at rates of 0.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg dm-3 and remained incubated for 30 days. Then, available copper was extracted with Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, DTPA and EDTA solutions, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Additionally, soil samples were extracted in a sequential procedure to determine Cu in fractions of soil, as follows: exchangeable-Cu fraction, organic matter-Cu fraction, Mn oxide-Cu fraction, amorphous Fe oxide-Cu fraction, crystalline Fe oxide-Cu fraction, residual-Cu fraction, and the total Cu content in the soil. Soil samples to which Cu was added presented higher Cu retention in the organic matter fraction with a small percentage retained in the exchangeable-Cu fraction. Liming resulted in a decrease of Cu in the exchangeable and organic matter fractions and an increase in the Fe and Mn oxide fractions and in the residual fraction. Without liming, the organic matter fraction presented the highest contribution to Cu content found in the soil extracts obtained with all extractors, except EDTA. For treatments with liming, Cu contents in the organic matter fraction were better correlated to Cu contents in extracts obtained with DTPA and Mehlich-3.O conhecimento das formas químicas em que se encontra o cobre em solos, e suas relações com os teores disponíveis, são importantes para a previsão do seu comportamento no sistema solo-planta. Nesse sentido, este trabalho estuda a influência da calagem sobre os teores disponíveis e sobre o fracionamento de Cu em amostras de seis Latossolos. Essas amostras, submetidas ou não a

  12. Água disponível em um Latossolo Vermelho argiloso e murcha fisiológica de culturas Available water in a clayey Oxisol and physiological wilting of crops

    Vilson A. Klein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Para a determinação do volume de água retido no solo e disponível às plantas, é imprescindível quantificar o teor de água do solo (TAS na capacidade de campo (CC e no ponto de murcha permanente (PMP. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os valores do TAS na CC e no PMP determinados por distintos métodos. Utilizaram-se amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho. A CC foi obtida no campo com o método do perfil instantâneo e, no laboratório, com funis de placa porosa. O PMP foi determinado, em laboratório, como sendo o teor de água residual retida no potencial matricial de -1,5 MPa, em câmara de Richards e com medidor de potencial de ponto de orvalho WP4 PotentiaMeter. Para murcha das plantas, o TAS foi significativamente menor no método fisiológico que o determinado nas câmaras de Richards; entretanto, o teor de água do solo no PMP foi estatisticamente igual para a cultura do girassol e superior para o milho, quando comparado com aquele obtido pelo WP4. A água disponível diminuiu com o aumento na tensão para a estimativa da CC e com o método WP4, mas não diferiu do método fisiológico. Assim, o WP4 permitiu adequada estimativa do PMP e disponibilidade hídrica às plantas, em solo argiloso.To estimate available soil water to plants it is necessary to measure field capacity (FC and permanent wilting point (PWP. The objective of this study was to compare soil moisture at FC and PWP measured by different methods. The soil used was a tropical Oxisol (Haplorthox. The FC was measured under field conditions, using the internal drainage method and in laboratory using porous plate funnel. The PWP was quantified in laboratory as the soil moisture at -1.5 MPa matric potential measured by pressure plate apparatus (Richards chamber and by WP4 dewpoint Potentia Meter. The physiological PWP was measured using corn and sunflower plants, when they had three leaf pairs and showed irreversible wilting. The soil moisture for PWP based on the

  13. O uso de adoçantes na gravidez: uma análise dos produtos disponíveis no Brasil The use of sweeteners in pregnancy: an analysis of products available in Brazil

    Maria Regina Torloni

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os adoçantes são freqüentemente utilizados por mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Esta é uma revisão narrativa da literatura a respeito dos adoçantes atualmente comercializados no mercado brasileiro. Existem poucas informações sobre o uso da sacarina e ciclamato na gestação, e seus efeitos sobre o feto. Devido às limitadas informações disponíveis e ao seu potencial carcinogênico em animais, a sacarina e o ciclamato devem ser evitados durante a gestação (risco C. O aspartame tem sido extensivamente estudado em animais, sendo considerado seguro para uso na gestação (risco B, exceto para mulheres homozigóticas para fenilcetonúria (risco C. A sucralose e o acessulfame-K não são tóxicos, carcinogênico ou mutagênicos em animais, mas não existem estudos controlados em humanos. Porém, como esses dois adoçantes não são metabolizados, parece improvável que seu uso durante a gestação possa ser prejudicial (risco B. A estévia, substância derivada de uma planta nativa brasileira, não produz efeitos adversos sobre a gestação em animais, porém não existem estudos em humanos (risco B. Os agentes de corpo usados na formulação dos adoçantes (manitol, sorbitol, xilitol, eritrol, lactilol, isomalte, maltilol, lactose, frutose, maltodextrina, dextrina e açúcar invertido são substâncias consideradas seguras para o consumo humano. Concluindo, segundo as evidências atualmente disponíveis, o aspartame, a sucralose, o acessulfame e a estévia podem ser utilizados com segurança durante a gestação.Sweeteners are frequently used by women of reproductive age. This is a narrative review about the sweeteners currently sold in the Brazilian commerce. There is a few information on the use of saccharin and cyclamates in pregnancy and their effects on the fetus. Due to the limited information available and their carcinogenic potential in animal species, saccharin and cyclamates should be avoided during pregnancy (risk C. Aspartame

  14. EVALUACIÓN ESPACIAL DEL NITRÓGENO DISPONIBLE DEL SUELO EN UN CULTIVO DE PAPA cv. SPUNTA EN CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA Spatial evaluation of available soil nitrogen in a potato crop cv. Spunta in Córdoba, Argentina

    Antonio de la Casa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Un análisis espacial del N disponible en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta es necesario a fin de hacer un diagnóstico de la práctica de fertilización localizada y aportar evidencias sobre un potencial problema de riesgo ambiental por lavado de nitratos. Con este propósito se diseñó un esquema de muestreo durante la temporada 2000 que consistió de una grilla rectangular de 3 x 10 estaciones, en dos fechas (21/03 y 14/04 y a dos profundidades (0-20 y 20-40 cm. El contenido de humedad del suelo en ambas fechas resultó elevado y escasamente variable (CV 52% fue muy superior a la humedad del suelo en ambas fechas. Una comparación localizada del N disponible mostró que en el estrato superficial el contenido de N-NO3- de toda el área fue siempre superior a 7,5 mg kg-1, considerada la disponibilidad mínima para un óptimo crecimiento de los tubérculos. Entre 20 y 40 cm, en cambio, el contenido de N fue menor en ambas fechas, y la cantidad de N en la segunda se presentó por debajo de 7,5 mg kg-1 en 31% del lote. Esta distribución vertical del N-NO3-, con mayor contenido en superficie, no garantiza un consumo uniforme de N entre 0 y 40 cm. Al mismo tiempo, la mayor acumulación de N-NO3- entre 0 y 20 cm demostró que no ocurrió lixiviación en el perfil.A spatial analysis of the available N in a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Spunta is necessary in order to make a diagnosis of the local fertilization practice and to provide evidence on a potential environmental risk problem from nitrate wash. For this purpose a sampling scheme was designed during the 2000 season that consisted of a rectangular grid of 3 x 10 stations. Samples were taken on two dates (21/3 and 14/04 and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm. The soil water content on both dates resulted to be high and hardly variable (coefficient of variation (CV 52% was much higher than the soil water content on both dates. A localized comparison of the available N

  15. Atividade antiviral de extratos de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente frente aos herpesvírus suíno e bovino Antiviral activity of commercially available medicinal plants on suid and bovine herpesviruses

    V.M. Kaziyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar a atividade antiviral in vitro de plantas medicinais disponíveis comercialmente sobre herpesvírus suíno (SuHV-1 e bovino (BoHV-1. As espécies adquiridas foram Mikania glomerata, Cymbopogon citratus, Equisetum arvense, Peumus boldus, Solanum paniculatum, Malva sylvestris, Piper umbellatun e Solidago microglossa. A citotoxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada na linhagem celular MDBK pelas alterações morfológicas das células e obtenção da concentração máxima não citotóxica (CMNC de cada planta. A atividade antiviral foi realizada com os extratos em suas respectivas CMNC e avaliada com base na redução do título viral e expressos em porcentagem de inibição. Os extratos aquosos de Peumus boldus e Solanum paniculatum apresentaram atividade antiviral sobre o SuHV-1 com 98% de inibição viral enquanto o de Peumus boldus inibiu apenas o BoHV-1 em 99%.This paper aims to find commercially available medicinal plants showing antiviral activity in vitro on suid and bovine herpesviruses. The following species were tested: Mikania glomerata, Cymbopogon citratus, Equisetum arvense, Peumus boldus, Solanum paniculatum, Malva sylvestris, Piper umbellatun and Solidago microglossa. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by morphological changes in cells determining the maximum not cytotoxic concentration (MNCC. The antiviral activity was evaluated by viral title reduction. The extracts from Peumus boldus and Solanum paniculatum showed antiviral activity against SuHV-1 with 98% of inhibition. The extract of Peumus boldus also showed activity against BoHV-1 with 99% of inhibition.

  16. Cuarenta años de investigación sobre la plasticidad del músculo esquelético; conclusiones personales (artículo completo disponible en inglés

    Hans Hoppeler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este es un estudio personal altamente subjetivo sobre la investigación llevada a cabo durante los últimos 50 años que documenta los fenómenos y los mecanismos de la plasticidad del tejido muscular esquelético. Enfocaré el trabajo desde una perspectiva histórica y seguiré algunos de los hilos que han despertado mi curiosidad y han guiado mi investigación a lo largo de mi carrera investigadora. Este estudio no es ni exhaustivo ni equilibrado. Representa mis intereses personales y algunos descubrimientos cruciales que han marcado mis objetivos de investigación. He tenido la suerte de llevar a cabo este estudio con colaboradores muy creativos que han sido los que han realizado la mayor parte de esta investigación. También he tenido la suerte de contar con dos tutores excepcionales, ER Weibel y C.R. Taylor, que me han apoyado durante todo el proceso guiándome y dándome consejos e, inicialmente, facilitándome la ayuda económica necesaria. Han fomentado un enfoque global y me han enseñado a combinar la investigación funcional y estructural para lograr una visión integral del rendimiento del sistema. Cuando las herramientas moleculares apropiadas pasaron a estar disponibles a finales de los 90, estas ayudaron a descubrir los mecanismos subyacentes de la plasticidad estructural y funcional del músculo previamente descrita. La idea de que el tejido muscular esquelético activo es determinante para el bienestar físico y para la salud continuará impulsando la investigación mecanicista de la plasticidad muscular en el futuro.

  17. Dismantling techniques

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  18. Techniques de contrôles non destructifs

    Dalin, J M

    2004-01-01

    La construction du LHC et des expériences nécessite un contrôle permanent de la qualité de la matière première utilisée et des assemblages par soudage, brasage ou collage des divers composants. Pour la vérification des matériaux et des assemblages de fabrication, il est souvent hors de question de recourir à des méthodes qui altéreraient les parties à contrôler. Les techniques de Contrôles Non Destructifs (CND), dont celles les plus employées au CERN font intervenir la transmission d'ondes sonores (contrôle par ultrasons) ou de rayons pénétrants (radiographie X ou gamma), représentent un moyen de détection souvent quantitatif de défauts applicable au contrôle qualité de production. Ces deux techniques complémentaires nous permettent de déceler des discontinuités (dans la matière de base, fissuration ou dédoublement, manque de compacité... ; dans les assemblages, présence d'inclusions, manque de brasure ou de fusion dans les joints soudés, cavités...). Après un bref aperçu de...

  19. Translation Techniques

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  20. Avaliação de chupetas disponíveis no mercado nacional segundo os requisitos da ABNT e ANVISA = Evaluation of the pacifers available in the nacional market following the abnt and anvisa requisitions

    Lima, Cláudia Batista Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar chupetas disponíveis no mercado nacional segundo requisitos definidos pela legislação vigente. A amostra constou de 31 tipos de 6 marcas comerciais nacionais de chupetas, sendo para cada uma adquiridas 3 exemplares de lotes diferentes. Foi analisada descritivamente a adequação ou não dos aspectos: bico, escudo, botão, pino, argola e embalagem, atendendo aos critérios de construção de chupetas definidos pela NBR 10334/2003 da ABNT e a Resolução nº 221 da ANVISA. As chupetas foram divididas em grupos (G, conforme as características do bico: G1 – universal 6 meses; G5 – convencional > 6 meses; G6 – ortodôntica > 6 meses. Verificou-se a inadequação nos itens: A – comprimento do bico; B – embalagem segundo a NBR; C – embalagem segundo a ANVISA. O percentual de inadequação encontrado para os grupos foi: A: G2 – 20%, G6 – 11,1%; B: G2 – 40%, G3 – 33,3%, G5 – 40%, G6 – 33,3%; C: G2 – 20%, G3 – 33,3%, G4 – 33,3%, G5 – 20%, G6 – 22,2%. Para os demais itens avaliados: material e forma do bico; concavidade do escudo, quantidade e diâmetro dos furos, distância do furo ao bico e à borda externa, distância entre os furos, tamanho do escudo; projeção do botão; orifício de ventilação e projeção do pino e largura e comprimento da argola constataram- se adequação para as chupetas analisadas. Conclui-se que a maioria das chupetas se apresentou adequada para os requisitos de construção, sendo a inadequação freqüentemente registrada no item embalagem.

  1. Degradabilidad ruminal del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Rumen degradation characteristics of the herbage mass samples and the simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    RUBÉN PULIDO

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica degradativa de forrajes, en muestras de una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., manejadas a dos alturas de pradera, alta y baja. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo (FD y en forraje aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo (FS. La degradabilidad ruminal se estudió usando la técnica de las bolsas de dacrón y los datos fueron ajustados a una ecuación exponencial. La fracción soluble (g/kg MS, de la materia seca (MS (299 v/s 351, s.e.d.= 5,4, de la materia organica (MO (304 v/s 376, s.e.d.= 3,3 y del nitrógeno (250 v/s 301, s.e.d.= 6,4, fueron significativamente mayores (PAn experiment was carried out in order to describe the ruminal degradation characteristics of forages, in herbage mass samples (FD and in simulated grazing samples (FS, obtained at two sward heights (high and low from a permanent pasture (Lolium perenne L.. The degradation kinetics of the samples was studied using in situ dacron bags. Data collected were fitted according to an exponential equation. The soluble fraction (g/kg DM of the dry matter (DM (299 vs. 351, s.e.d.= 5.4, of the organic matter (OM (304 vs. 376, s.e.d.= 3.3 and of the nitrogen (250 vs. 301, s.e.d.= 6.4 were significantly higher (P<0.05 for simulated samples than for the herbage mass samples. The potential degradability (g/kg DM of DM, OM and nitrogen was significantly higher on FS compared with the FD (P<0.05. The effective degradability for the FS samples was greater than for FD samples, either for DM (474 vs. 508, s.e.d.= 13.0, OM (490 vs. 529, s.e.d.= 11.6, or nitrogen (351 vs. 419, s.e.d.= 10.0. A significant greater effect (P<0.05 of the low sward height on the effective degradability was found for the nitrogen only.

  2. Acquired Techniques

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  3. Determination of D-Dimers in condition of emergency: the D-Di Liatest. Threshold value in elimination of pulmonary emboli (PE); Determination en urgence des D-Dimeres: le liatest D-DI. Valeur seuil permettant d`eliminer une embolie pulmonaire (EP)

    Duet, M. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France); Soria, C. [Service de Hematologie (France); Elkarrat, D. [Service de Urgences (France); Benelhadj, S. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France); Bailliard, O.; Kedra, A.W. [Service de Explorations Founctionnelles, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Drouet, L. [Service de Hematologie (France); Mundler, O. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire (France)

    1997-12-31

    Several studies have shown that a low rate of D-Dimers (products of fibrin decay) measured by Elisa technique can eliminate the diagnosis of thrombo-embolic disease. However, the conventional Elisa technique is not adapted to emergency conditions. A new agglutination test of latex microparticles (D-Di Liatest) has been developed by Diagnostica Stago with a sensitivity of 100 ng/ml. Our goal was to determine the threshold of PE exclusion. Ninety six patients suspected of PE were included. The pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy (PPS), as a reference examination the positivity of which has been confirmed by clinical follow-up, has been carried out in association with the determination of plasmatic rates of D-Dimers by the techniques Elisa and Liatest based on different antibodies. A table is given containing the D-Di threshold rates obtained by these techniques. In conclusion, our results showed that the rate of D-Dimers which eliminate a PE is {<=} 500 ng/ml by Elisa and {<=} 400 ng/ml by Liatest with a VPN of 100%. However, the PPS remains necessary in 77% of cases. This work stresses the necessity of clinical validations for the new biological tests

  4. Exploitation du web sémantique pour la veille technologique

    Cao, Tuan Dung

    2006-01-01

    L'essor d'Internet et du Web a favorisé la mise en ligne de nombreuses informations disponibles, potentiellement utiles pour la veille technologique et scientifique d'une entreprise. Différentes techniques de recherche d¤information sur le Web ont été proposées afin de construire des outils permettant d'affiner la recherche pour obtenir des résultats pertinents. Cependant, dans le contexte du Web actuel, malgré de grandes avancées dans le champ de la recherche d'information, ces outils ont mo...

  5. Níveis de fósforo disponível em dietas para suínos dos 15 aos 30kg Available phosphorus levels in diets for pigs from 15 to 30kg

    J.M. Viana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a suplementação de dietas com fósforo disponível (Pd para suínos selecionados para deposição de carne, utilizando-se 100 leitões com média de peso inicial de 15,03±0,33kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, cinco repetições e quatro animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos foram dieta basal sem suplementação de fosfato bicálcico e outras quatro dietas obtidas pela suplementação da dieta basal com fosfato bicálcico, resultando em cinco concentrações de Pd, 0,106; 0,221; 0,310; 0,406; e 0,493%. As porcentagens de Pd influenciaram o consumo diário de ração, que aumentou de forma linear. O ganho de peso diário aumentou e a conversão alimentar melhorou de forma quadrática até a suplementação máxima de 0,450 e 0,390% de Pd, respectivamente. Não houve efeito da suplementação das dietas sobre a resistência óssea. As porcentagens de Pd influenciaram de forma quadrática os teores de cálcio e de fósforo nos ossos, que aumentaram até a adição máxima de 0,388 e 0,369% de Pd, respectivamente. Não houve efeito da porcentagem de Pd sobre o teor de cinza óssea. Suínos dos 15 aos 30kg exigem maior concentração de Pd para máximo ganho de peso (0,450% ou 5,33g/dia e melhor conversão alimentar (0,390% ou 4,52g/dia em relação às recomendações atuais.The supplementation of diets with available phosphorus (aP for pigs selected for meat deposition was evaluated, using 100 commercial hybrid piglets, 50 castrated males and 50 females, with average initial weight of 15.03±0.33kg allotted in a randomized block design with five treatments, five replicates, and four pigs, 2 males and 2 females per experimental unit. The treatments were a basal diet and other four diets obtained through basal diet supplementation with dicalcium phosphate to obtain five aP concentrations, 0.106, 0.221, 0.310, 0,406, and 0.493%. The percentages of aP influenced daily feed intake, which

  6. Análise das fontes de informação sobre os autoexames da mama disponíveis na Internet Analysis of information sources about breast self examination available on the Internet

    Marcia Regina Cubas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as informações sobre autoexame da mama disponíveis ao público da internet. Método: Estudo descritivo documental, cujo universo foi composto pelos sites "Google®" e "Yahoo®", utilizando-se o descritor "autoexame de mama". Buscaram-se os 50 primeiros resultados. As páginas Web foram analisadas pelos critérios da American Medical Association e da Health on the Net. Resultados: Foram selecionadas e analisadas 68 páginas. A maioria dos sites era de domínio comercial, seis governamentais e cinco portugueses. Mais da metade tinham restrições quanto ao critério de autoridade e autoria; 61% não apresentavam meio de contato e 52,94% consideravam o autoexame como parte de um conjunto de medidas; 26,47% possuíam o conteúdo baseado em evidências, preciso e completo; 33,82% possuíam referências dos conteúdos. Páginas-Web governamentais, de instituições de saúde ou profissionais possuíam restrições com relação ao conteúdo ou apresentação. Conclusões: As informações sobre autoexame de mama são heterogêneas. Poucas páginas demonstraram preocupação com critérios de qualidade, tanto da construção quanto do conteúdo. A maior parte das informações não está baseada em evidências e que podem trazer danos ao paciente. Há necessidade de melhorar a qualidade das páginas Web que abordam o tema.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the information about breast self examination available on the Internet. Methods: A descriptive documental study was performed via a search on the Google®and Yahoo® websites using the phrase "breast self examination" in Portuguese, and the first 50 results from each site were analyzed using the criteria of the American Medical Association and Health on the Net. Results: 68 sites were selected and analyzed. Most of the sites were in the commercial domain, six were governmental sites and five were Portuguese sites. More than half had restrictions regarding criteria of authority and authorship

  7. Reconstruction of crown length of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) - technique, establishment of sample methods and application in forest growth analysis

    Spathelf, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Évolution en hauteur des houppiers d'épicéa (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) et de sapin pectiné (Abies alba Mill.) - technique, mise en œuvre de méthodes d'échantillonnage, application à l'analyse de la croissance des forêts. On a utilisé une technique permettant de dater la mortalité des branches pour estimer la régression par le bas des houppiers de l'épicéa et du sapin pectiné, dans des placettes temporaires installées dans des forêts mélangées et inéquiennes de la Forêt Noire (Allemagne). Les r...

  8. Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome; Proteomique fonctionnelle dediee aux Metalloproteases Matricelles (MMPs): developpement d'une methode extremement sensible permettant la detection des formes actives des MMPs dans des proteomes complexes

    David, A

    2007-07-15

    The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows

  9. Simulação do impacto da mudança climática sobre a água disponível do solo em agroecossistemas de trigo, soja e milho em Santa Maria, RS Simulation of the impact of the climate change on the fraction of transpirable soil water in wheat, soybean, and maize agroecosystems at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O impacto de uma possível mudança climática sobre a água disponível em agroecossistemas é um assunto de interesse no planejamento do agronegócio. O objetivo deste estudo foi simular o impacto da mudança climática sobre o balanço de água no solo em agroecossistemas de trigo, soja e milho em Santa Maria, RS. Foram criados cenários meteorológicos dobrando-se a quantidade de CO2 com diferentes aumentos de temperatura do ar com e sem aumento de precipitação pluvial. A água disponível no solo foi representada pela fração de água transpirável no solo pelas plantas (FATS e calculada com modelos matemáticos disponíveis na literatura. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento de temperatura diminui a FATS e esta diminuição é mais preocupante nas culturas de verão (soja e milho do que na cultura do trigo.The impact of the projected climate change on soil water is an important and relevant issue for planning rural activities. The objective of this study was to simulate the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW in wheat, soybean and maize agroecosystems under climate change scenarios in Santa Maria, RS. Air temperature and rainfall were modified to generate climate change scenarios. FTSW was simulated with models available in the literature. The results showed that an increase in air temperature decreases FTSW and this decrease is more evident in soybean and maize than in wheat agroecosystems.

  10. Câncer do pâncreas em fase inicial: é possível identificá-lo através dos instrumentos científicos e propedêuticos atualmente disponíveis? Early pancreatic cancer: the methods currently available can identify this disease?

    José Celso Ardengh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Chamar a atenção da classe médica em geral sobre os pacientes com alto risco de desenvolver câncer pancreático e se existem ou não formas de vigilância e prevenção dessa doença, que podem ser aplicadas à prática clínica diária. LEVANTAMENTO DE DADOS: Utilizou-se o banco de dados do PubMed (US National Library of Medicine, analisaram-se as publicações dos últimos anos, em relação haram aos grupos de risco, testes biológicos moleculares e exames de imagem empregados na identificação de pequenos tumores de pâncreas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Mesmo após os significativos avanços no diagnóstico por imagem, tratamento e compreensão da biologia molecular do adenocarcinoma do pâncreas, a taxa de sobrevivência dessa doença permanece desprezível. Embora embrionárias, as estratégias de vigilância e prevenção para pessoas com risco elevado do câncer de pâncreas têm se desenvolvido. CONCLUSÃO: Este artigo de atualização enfoca, resumidamente, as estratégias para melhor identificação de pessoas com alto risco de desenvolver essa doença e qual é o estado da arte do aconselhamento genético e de rastreamento através dos exames de imagem disponíveis.OBJECTIVES: Call attention of the gastroenterologists and surgeons on the patients with high risk of developing pancreatic carcinoma, and whether or not forms of surveillance and prevention of this disease, which can be applied to daily clinical practice. DATA SURVEY: It was used the database of PubMed (US National Library of Medicine, looked up the publications of recent years for the groups at risk, molecular biological testing and methods of image used in the identification of small tumors of the pancreas. BACKGROUND: The survival rates of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas remain negligible, even after the significant advances in diagnosis by imaging, treatment and understanding of the molecular biology of this disease. Although embryonic strategies for

  11. Zinco total e disponível em amostras de perfis de solos do estado de São Paulo Total and available zinc in soil profiles from São Paulo state, Brazil

    Gustavo Souza Valladares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Em amostras dos horizontes A e B de vinte e oito perfis de unidades de solos representativas do Estado de São Paulo fez-se a determinação de zinco usando os extratores DTPA pH 7,3 (ZnDTPA; Mehlich-1 (ZnM1; HCl 0,1 mol L-1 (ZnHCl; EDTA (ZnEDTA; e, NH4OAc 1 mol L-1 (ZnAc. O teor total de zinco nas amostras de solo estava alto, entretanto, notou-se somente uma pequena fração na forma disponível. O zinco total foi mais influenciado pelo teor de óxido de ferro (r=0,75. Para os teores considerados biodisponíveis, o pH foi o componente mais importante com coeficientes de correlação que variaram de 0,52 (ZnDTPA a 0,66 (ZnAc. A análise dos componentes principais (PCA revelou que os dois primeiros componentes principais explicaram 66% da variação, mostrando a associação entre os seguintes atributos dos solos: silte, pH, cálcio, magnésio, valor T, sílica, óxido de ferro, ZnT, ZnDTPA, ZnM1, ZnHCl e ZnEDTA, em que havia valores superiores a 0,63 no F1. No F2 ficou demonstrada a associação entre os teores de argila, areia fina e óxido de alumínio. Foi observada ambiguidade nos F1 e F2 para a areia grossa. Concluiu-se que: a maioria das amostras de solo apresenta potencial para o aparecimento de deficiência de zinco em curto e médio prazos e aPCA foi eficiente no agrupamento de solos originários de mesmo material de origem, indicando que as formas de Zn analisadas são influenciadas positivamente pelos teores de silte, Ca, Mg, sílica e Fe2O3, pH e valor T.Total and available zinc were analized in samples of A and/or B horizons of twenty eight representative soil profiles of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Amounts of Zn extracted by DTPA pH 7.3 (Zn DTPA, Mehlich-1 (Zn M1, HCl 0.1 mol.L-1 (Zn HCl, EDTA (Zn-EDTA, and NH4OAc(Zn Ac were assessed. Amounts of total Zn (Zn T in all samples was high, but just a small fraction of it is available. Total Zn correlated well with iron oxide content (r = 0.75. In terms of bioavailable amounts the

  12. Níveis de fósforo disponível em dietas para codornas japonesas de 45 a 57 semanas de idade Available phosphorus levels for Japanese quail diets from 45 to 57 weeks of age

    Carlos Henrique Rocha Costa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de níveis de fósforo disponível (Pd na dieta sobre o desempenho, a qualidade dos ovos, o tecido ósseo e as porcentagens de fósforo (P, cálcio (Ca e magnésio (Mg nas excretas produzidas por codornas durante o terço final de postura. Foram utilizadas 300 codornas japonesas com 313 dias de idade, distribuídas em 30 unidades experimentais de dez aves. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, composto de cinco níveis de Pd (0,15; 0,25; 0,35; 0,45 e 0,55%, com seis repetições por tratamento. As dietas experimentais foram isoproteicas (20,0% PB, isocalóricas (2.900 kcal EM/kg, isocálcicas (3,0% Ca e isoaminoacídicas. O aumento dos níveis de Pd na dieta aumentou linearmente os teores de Ca e Mg na tíbia, entretanto reduziu linearmente a altura dos ovos analisados. Observou-se efeito quadrático sobre o peso específico, o peso e a porcentagem de casca, a porcentagem de cálcio na casca e de fósforo na tíbia, cujos pontos de máxima foram atingidos com a utilização de 0,43; 0,41; 0,42; 0,27 e 0,42% Pd, respectivamente. Efeitos quadráticos também foram observados para excreção de Ca, cinzas e P, cujos valores máximos foram obtidos com a utilização de 0,34; 0,30 e 0,43% Pd na dieta, respectivamente. Nos demais parâmetros avaliados, não houve efeito dos níveis de Pd. Dietas contendo 0,15% Pd atendem satisfatoriamente às exigências para desempenho e manutenção da integridade física do ovo, além de reduzir a excreção de fósforo sem provocar perda de ovos por problemas de casca nem ocorrência de fadiga de gaiola por enfraquecimento do sistema ósseo, embora seja observada redução na mineralização da casca e do tecido ósseo de codornas japonesas no terço final do ciclo de produção (45 a 57 semanas de idade.An experiment was conducted aiming to verify the effect of different levels of available phosphorus (AP in the diet on performance, egg

  13. Renda familiar disponible bruta, factor socioeconòmic associat amb la generació de residus sòlids urbans per habitant en els municipis de l'Àrea Metropolitana de Barcelona : anàlisis de la intensitat i forma de correlació i evolució dels nivells de generació 2000-2009

    Esteller Ocaña, David; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    En aquest treball s'utilitzen les Quantitats de Residus Generats per Habitant (KRGH) en els diferents municipis de l'entitat administrativa de l'Àrea Metropolitana de Barcelona (AMB) durant la primera dècada del segle XXI (2000 - 2011) com a indicador de sostenibilitat en matèria de Residus Sòlids Urbans (RSU). S'estudia la relació d'aquesta variable amb la Renda Familiar Disponible (RFD) i s'analitza l'evolució dels nivells de generació al llarg de la sèrie històrica per a grups de municipis...

  14. Evaluación de la calidad de revisiones sistemáticas publicadas y disponibles sobre la eficacia terapéutica de la moxibustión (directa e indirecta): revisión sistemática de revisiones sistemáticas

    Buitrago Páez, Yuli Catherin

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: Las revisiones sistemáticas (RS) sobre la eficacia de las intervenciones en salud son consultadas frecuentemente para apoyar la toma de decisiones en salud, al ser de la más alta evidencia, para la Medicina Basada en la Evidencia (MBE). La moxibustión es una intervención terapéutica de la Medicina Tradicional China (MTCh) cuya eficacia, como intervención única, ha sido poco estudiada por la MBE. Es importante evaluar la calidad de las RS publicadas y disponibles sobre esta inter...

  15. Proyecto de caracterización de la Mejor Técnica Disponible para el cumplimiento del RD 117/2003 sobre emisiones atmosféricas de COVs en una empresa de impresión flexográfica

    Fernández Fernández, Encarna

    2008-01-01

    El presente proyecto tiene por objetivo caracterizar la mejor técnica disponible (MTD) para que una empresa situada en la provincia de Barcelona y que se dedica a la impresión flexográfica con tintas en base disolvente orgánico, se adecue a lo establecido en el RD 117/2003 en lo concerniente a emisiones de compuestos orgánicos volátiles a la atmósfera. En una primera fase se realizaron visitas y se mantuvieron reuniones en la empresa objeto de estudio. Fruto de ello es la recop...

  16. Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054 Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project

    Elsa E. Barber; Silvia Pisano; Carolina Gregui; Gabriela De Pedro; Sofía D'Alessandro; Sandra Romagnoli; Verónica Parsiale

    2005-01-01

    Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007). Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs) disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de ...

  17. Enseignement Technique CERN 2004 - French version only

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez à l'adresse : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ ou remplissez une « demande de formation » disponible auprès du Secrétariat de votre Division ou de votre DTO (Délégué divisionnaire à la formation). Les places seront attribuées dans l'ordre de réception des inscriptions. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE Monique Duval tél. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications Aimeriez-vous améliorer vos connaissances des applications de Microsoft Office ou d'Outlook ? Un nouveau cours, combinant un cours avec professeur et ...

  18. Experimental Techniques

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  19. Llizarov technique

    This paper illustrates the radiographic manifestations of the Ilizarov distraction technique for the correction of short and deformed limbs. The radiographs of 130 patients who underwent Ilizarov distraction at 160 sites since December 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Reasons for correction included fracture nonunion and malunion idiopathic leg length discrepancy, achondroplasia, and neurofibromatosis with tibial pseudarthrosis. Ninety patients were adults, and 40 were children. In order to assess cortical bone development during the fixation phase, CT of the regenerate bone was performed in 17 patients. Conventional tomograms were obtained in 20 patients for the evaluation of delayed or hypoplastic union at the distraction site

  20. Experimental techniques

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  1. Analytical techniques

    The paper concerns the physical principles behind the analytical techniques employing high energy ion microbeams, with special attention to features that affect their use with microbeams. Particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXIE) is discussed with respect to X-ray production, thick-target PIXIE, a microbeam PIXIE system, sensitivity, and microbeam PIXIE applications. An explanation of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is given for NRA with charged particle detection, NRA with neutron detection and NRA with gamma detection. The essentials of Rutherford back scattering (RBS) are given, along with the elastic recoil detection analysis, which has very close connections with RBS but was introduced much more recently. Finally a comparison of the microbeam's capability with those of its main competitors is presented. (UK)

  2. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Perthuis E.

    2006-01-01

    L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationale...

  3. Exigência de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados selecionados para deposição de carne magra, dos 30 aos 60kg Available phosphorus requirement of barrows from 30 to 60kg selected for high lean deposition

    C.L.C. Arouca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento para determinar a exigência de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados (Agroceres-Pic utilizando-se 60 animais, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos -0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 e 0,5% de fósforo disponível, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os animais foram sangrados por punção do plexo venoso orbitário aos 21 dias e ao final do experimento, em jejum, para obtenção dos valores da atividade da fosfatase alcalina no soro (AFAS e fósforo no soro. Observou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de fósforo disponível sobre o ganho de peso diário, consumo diário de ração, fósforo no soro aos 21 dias, fósforo no soro ao final do experimento e conversão alimentar, que melhorou até o nível de 0,39% de fósforo disponível. Houve efeito linear sobre o consumo diário de fósforo, AFAS aos 21 dias e AFAS ao final do experimento. Concluiu-se que a exigência de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados selecionados para deposição de carne magra na carcaça, de 30 a 60kg, é de 0,39%, correspondendo ao consumo de 9,11g/dia.An experiment was carried to determine available phosphorus requirement of crossbred barrows (Agroceres-Pic, using 60 animals in a completely randomized block design with five dietary treatments - 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; and 0.5% of available phosphorus, six replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. On the 21st day of the experiment and at its end, blood samples were collected from orbital plexus of fasting animals to analyze and register alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphorus values. Quadratic effect of available phosphorus level on average daily gain, daily feed intake, serum phosphorus on the 21st day of the experiment, serum phosphorus at the end of the experiment, and feed conversion ratio were observed. Minimum feed conversion ratio was estimated for animals fed diets containing 0.39% available

  4. Parallel pic plasma simulation through particle decomposition techniques

    Briguglio, S.; Vlad, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Di Martino, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. for Software Tecnology and Parallel Systems]|[Naples, Univ. `Federico II` (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica

    1998-02-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are among the major candidates to yield a satisfactory description of the detail of kinetic effects, such as the resonant wave-particle interaction, relevant in determining the transport mechanism in magnetically confined plasmas. A significant improvement of the simulation performance of such codes con be expected from parallelization, e.g., by distributing the particle population among several parallel processors. Parallelization of a hybrid magnetohydrodynamic-gyrokinetic code has been accomplished within the High Performance Fortran (HPF) framework, and tested on the IBM SP2 parallel system, using a `particle decomposition` technique. The adopted technique requires a moderate effort in porting the code in parallel form and results in intrinsic load balancing and modest inter processor communication. The performance tests obtained confirm the hypothesis of high effectiveness of the strategy, if targeted towards moderately parallel architectures. Optimal use of resources is also discussed with reference to a specific physics problem. [Italiano] I codici Particle-in-cell (PIC) sono considerati tra i piu` promettenti candidati per ottenere una descrizione soddisfacente e dettagliata degli effetti cinetici, quali per esempio l`interazione risonante particella-onda, rilevanti nel determinare i meccanismi di trasporto che interessano il confinamento del plasma. Un significativo miglioramento delle prestazioni della simulazione puo` essere ottenuto distribuendo la popolazione di particelle tra diversi processori in parallelo. La parallelizzazione di un codice ibrido MHD-girocinetico e` stata effettuata, in ambiente HPF, utilizzando la tecnica di `decomposizione per particelle`, ed e` stata provata sul sistema parallelo IBM SP2. La tecnica adottata richiede uno sforzo moderato per la trasformazione del codice in versione parallela, permette un intrinseco bilanciamento tra i processori del carico di lavoro e necessita di una modesta

  5. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  6. Une Chaine de Mesure Permettant de Caracteriser la Performance en Voile

    Iachkine, Paul; Roncin, Kostia; Kobus, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental set-up and the analysis tools developed for the performance evaluation in sailing. The measurement system is composed of sensors for the position and attitude of the sail boat, sensors for the wind measurement and some tools for the coach.

  7. Dalla Fiat al web. Che cosa una ontologia sociale basata sui documenti permette di spiegare

    Casetta, Elena; Torrengo, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Nel 2009, prendendo le mosse da articoli e libri pubblicati negli anni precedenti, Maurizio Ferraris proponeva la “documentalità”, una ontologia sociale che, a differenza della received view basata sull’intenzionalità collettiva, individuava il fondamento degli oggetti sociali negli atti iscritti. Prendendo come spunto due oggetti sociali tipicamente torinesi – il capoluogo piemontese è il luogo di nascita del filosofo – e cioè la casa automobilistica Fiat e l’Università di Torino, in questo ...

  8. Influence of available resources on medical practitioners' decision-making process and practice: study of a reference hospital emergency department Influencia de los recursos disponibles en la práctica clínica: estudio en una unidad de urgencias de un hospital de referencia

    Juan Viñas Salas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate variations in the observation period in the emergency department (ED in response to bed availability. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study without a control group was conducted in the ED observation ward over 2 1-month periods. During this time the only variable that changed was the number of beds available, which decreased from 20 (pre-test period to 16 (post-test period. Results: The ED attended 7,725 patients: 3,706 patients in pre-test period, 335 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 1,105.4 minutes per patient, and 4,019 patients in post-test period, 570 of whom were admitted to the observation ward, with an average length of stay of 686.1 minutes per patient (p Objetivo: Evaluar la variación del indicador "periodo de tiempo de observación" dedicado a cada paciente, en respuesta a una reducción del número de camas disponibles. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio «quasiexperimental preprueba postprueba» sin grupo control en una unidad de urgencias durante 2 períodos de un mes. En este tiempo el único cambio fue el número de camas disponibles, que disminuyeron de 20 (período A a 16 (período B. Resultados: El servicio de urgencias atendió a 7.725 pacientes: 3.706 pacientes en el período A, 335 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 1.105,4 minutos por paciente; y 4.019 pacientes en el período B, 570 de los cuales fueron admitidos en la unidad de observación con una estancia media de 686,1 minutos por paciente (p < 0,001. No hubo variaciones en la mortalidad, readmisiones o quejas. Conclusiones: Una disminución en el número de camas disponibles para observación comporta una reducción en el tiempo de estancia de los pacientes.

  9. Limites na utilização de um modelo de balanço hídrico decendial em função da capacidade de água disponível no solo = Limitations in the use of a ten-day water balance model, based on available water capacity in the soil

    Jorge Luiz Moretti de Souza; Siguifrid Gomes

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho consistiu na avaliação dos limites de utilização de um modelo de simulação do balanço hídrico climatológico decendial irrigacionista, em quatro regiões distintas no Estado do Paraná. Nas análises, 68 cenários de simulação do balanço hídrico foram testados para permitir o relacionamento entre a evapotranspiração da cultura(ETc), chuva provável a 75%, diferentes capacidades de água disponível no solo (CAD) e deficiência hídrica anual (DEF). As análises realizadas mostraram q...

  10. Redistribuição entre frações e teores disponíveis de zinco em solos incubados com lodo de esgoto Zinc redistribution among soil fractions and concentration of available Zn in sewage sludge-treated soils

    Josângela do Carmo Trezena de Araújo; Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento

    2005-01-01

    A utilização agrícola de lodo de esgoto é uma da melhores opções para a disposição final deste resíduo. Contudo, em virtude da presença de metais pesados no lodo, torna-se importante a determinação da disponibilidade e das formas nas quais estes metais se encontram em solos tratados com esse resíduo. Este trabalho objetivou estudar a redistribuição entre frações e os teores disponíveis de Zn em solos incubados com lodo de esgoto. Foram utilizadas amostras de dois solos com diferentes caracter...

  11. Condições de secagem de uma pasta de anchoita modificada enzimaticamente na oxidação lipídica, lisina disponível e atividade antioxidante do produto Drying conditions of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy in the lipid oxidation, available lisina and antioxidant activity of the product

    Kelly de Moraes; Luiz Antônio de Almeida Pinto

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar as condições da secagem convectiva de uma pasta de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita) modificada enzimaticamente, através da metodologia de superfícies de resposta, sendo as respostas consideradas: a oxidação lipídica (TBA), a redução da lisina disponível e a perda da atividade antioxidante específica. A pasta de anchoita modificada foi obtida por hidrólise enzimática da fração muscular (filés) do pescado por Neutrase®. Foram avaliadas na operação de secagem, a ...

  12. Fósforo disponível determinado por lâmina de resina enterrada Soil phosphorus availability determined by anionic-exchange resin membrane in the soil

    Jairo André Schlindwein

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso de lâminas de resina de troca aniônica enterradas no solo permite simular, em parte, o comportamento das raízes das plantas em relação à absorção de P. Essa técnica, utilizada diretamente no solo nas mesmas condições que se cultivam as plantas, sem a necessidade de amostragem do solo, poderia ser uma metodologia promissora de determinação da disponibilidade de P para as culturas. Para testar a validade da técnica, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação, com cinco solos e dois teores de P em que as lâminas de resina foram enterradas no solo na instalação do mesmo (dia zero e retiradas aos 2, 5, 10, 20 e 40 dias depois, para avaliar a extração de P em diferentes solos mantidos com umidade próxima da capacidade de campo, cultivados com milho (método resina-cc, e em solos mantidos saturados com água, sem cultivo e cultivados com arroz (método resina-sat. Também retiraram-se amostras de solo para determinar o P extraído pelos métodos da resina em lâminas padrão, Mehlich-1 e Mehlich-3, para correlacionar com o P extraído pelas culturas. O método Mehlich-1 extraiu, em média, 1,3 e 1,9 vez menos P do que os métodos da resina padrão e Mehlich-3, respectivamente, e o método da resina-cc extraiu em média 2,2 vezes menos P do que o método da resina-sat. Os coeficientes de determinação entre o P extraído pelos métodos e o P absorvido pelo milho e arroz aumentaram, em média, na sequência resina-cc The in situ ion exchange resin membrane allows a partial simulation of the behavior of plant roots regarding phosphorus absorption from soil solution. Soil sampling is rendered unnecessary since the technique is used directly in the soil where the plants are grown and may be a promising methodology in the determination of phosphorus availability for crops. To evaluate the technique, a greenhouse experiment was carried out with resin membranes buried in the soil when plants were sown (day zero and removed

  13. Présentation Technique - French version only

    2003-01-01

    Tuesday 9 September PRESENTATION TECHNIQUE From 09:00 - 12:00 - bldg. 40, S2-B01 Techniques de mesure: Acquisition, analyse et présentation avec LabVIEW 7 Express National Instruments Switzerland Avec LabVIEW 7 Express, National Instruments inaugure une nouvelle ère pour la programmation graphique dans le monde de la mesure et de l'automatisation. Pour la première fois dans l'histoire de la programmation par flux de données, les antagonismes inconciliables entre la programmation et la configuration se laissent réduire au même dénominateur et sont disponibles dans un environnement de développement intégré. En outre, cette nouvelle version peut-être supportée par une plus large palette de plates-formes et de matériels cibles : de Windows, Linux ou Mac OS X jusqu'aux PDA (assistants personnels) ou aux FPGA embarqués. Avec LabVIEW 7 Express, vous disposez d'un outil logiciel, qui vous permet de construire encore plus vite, plus facilement et à moindres frais vos...

  14. Simulation of Engine Internal Flows Using Digital Physics Simulation des écoulements dans les moteurs avec la technique Digital Physics

    Halliday J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulations of engine intake port and cylinder flows performed using PowerFLOW software. The numerical technique behind PowerFLOW, called Digital Physics, is based on statistical kinetic theory and it is numerically stable, so divergence does not occur during calculations. Digital Physics uses large numbers of computational cells with a simple turbulence model, giving grid-independence and high levels of accuracy. In addition, the technique is explicit in time, and so a transient simulation is always obtained. The paper outlines the numerical technique and presents details of an engine port and cylinder simulation. Cet article présente la simulation des écoulements dans les conduits d'admission et dans les cylindres avec le code PowerFLOW. La technique numérique sur laquelle repose PowerFLOW, appelée Digital Physics , est basée sur une théorie statistique de la cinétique. Elle est numériquement stable. La technique Digital Physicsutilise un nombre élevé de mailles de calcul avec un modèle de turbulence simple procurant une indépendance du maillage et une précision élevée. De plus, la méthodologie est explicite en temps, permettant la simulation des transitoires. Des simulations d'écoulements dans les conduits d'admission et dans les cylindres sont présentées.

  15. Fósforo da biomassa microbiana e atividade de fosfatases ácidas durante a diminuição do fósforo disponível no solo Soil microbial biomass phosphorus and activity of acid phosphatases during decline of soil available phosphorus

    Luciano Colpo Gatiboni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o conteúdo de fósforo armazenado na biomassa microbiana e a atividade de fosfatases ácidas, durante a diminuição dos teores de fósforo disponível no solo, causado por cultivos sucessivos com plantas. Foram utilizadas amostras de Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, com adição prévia de fosfatos solúveis (0, 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg ha-1 de P2O5, aplicados em seis anos consecutivos. Efetuaram-se 15 cultivos sucessivos com diferentes plantas, em casa de vegetação, sem a reposição do fósforo absorvido pelas plantas. Após cada três cultivos sucessivos, foram determinados: o teor de fósforo disponível por resina trocadora de ânions, o fósforo microbiano e a atividade de fosfatases ácidas. Com a diminuição da disponibilidade de fósforo do solo, a quantidade de fósforo armazenada na biomassa microbiana do solo diminuiu, e a atividade de fosfatases ácidas aumentou. Em solos com baixo teor de fósforo e de resíduos de plantas, o P microbiano tem pouca importância para a nutrição das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the content of phosphorus stored in the soil microbial biomass and the activity of acid fosfatases, during the decline of soil available phosphorus, caused by successive crops in pot experiment. Samples of Oxisol were utilized with previous addition of soluble phosphates (0, 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg ha-1 of P2O5, applied in six consecutive years. The soil samples were submitted to 15 successive crops in greenhouse, without replacement of absorbed phosphorus by plants. After each three successive crops, soil was sampled, and the following variables were determined: the available phosphorus by anion exchange resin, phosphorus stored in the soil microbial biomass and the activity of acid phosphatases. As a consequence of the reduction of the soil available phosphorus, the amount of microbial phosphorus decreased, and the activity of phosphatases increased

  16. A Study of Solid Particles Feeding Tehnic by Fluidization Une technique d'alimentation en particules solides par fluidisation

    Dolignier J.-C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of heterogeneous reactions in a drop tube furnace, at a laboratory scale, needs a continuous feeding and dispersing technic to yield mass flow rates as low as 1 g/h. In the present work, a solution based on fluidization, is proposed. A mixture of lime and sand is fluidized at a superficial velocity higher than the free fall velocity of the lime particles which are therefore carried over by the fluidizing gas stream out of the bed. The effects of various parameters such as the particles diameter, the lime content in the solid mixture, the height of the fluidized bed and the gas fluidizing velocity, on the flow have been investigated. The operating conditions leading to the obtention of a constant solid rate have been optimized. A simple method of evaluating the mass of the evacuated and dispersed lime particles have been developed, and satisfactory results were obtained. L'étude des réactions hétérogènes dans un four à chute à l'échelle du laboratoire nécessite l'utilisation d'une technique d'alimentation et de dispersion afin de débiter des masses de solides autour de 1 g/h. Dans ce présent travail, une technique basée sur la fluidisation est proposée. Un mélange de chaux et de sable est fluidisé à une vitesse superficielle plus élevée que la vitesse terminale de chute des particules de chaux, qui par conséquent sont transportées hors du lit. L'influence des divers paramètres tels que le diamètre des particules, le pourcentage de chaux dans le mélange, la hauteur du lit et la vitesse de fluidisation du gaz sur l'écoulement ont été étudiés. Les conditions opératoires permettant d'obtenir des débits de solides constants ont été optimisées. Une méthode relativement simple permettant d'évaluer la quantité de solide évacuée a été développée et des résultats satisfaisants ont été obtenus.

  17. Les écoulements par RMN à gradient pulsé Pulsed Gradient Nmr Techniques for Studying Flows

    Lebon L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nous présentons ici les techniques de RMN à gradient pulsé qui permettent d'étudier les écoulements multiphasiques en canalisation ou en milieu poreux. Les principaux avantages sont de pouvoir travailler sur des milieux non transparents et d'accéder à des échelles de longueurs faibles. On montre qu'il est possible d'obtenir des informations locales sur l'écoulement, telles que le profil de vitesse et ses fluctuations dans les écoulements diphasiques, ou les cartes de distribution des probabilités de déplacement dans des échantillons poreux hétérogènes. Pulsed gradient NMR techniques are presented here. They allow the study of multiphase flow in pipes as well as porous media. The main advantages are the possibilities of studying non transparent media at small length scales. We show that it is possible to obtain local information on the fluid flow, such as velocity profiles in two phase systems, or maps of distribution of displacement probabilities in heterogeneous porous media.

  18. Des plants de merisiers issus des vergers à graines disponibles !

    Dufour, Jean; Santi, Frédérique; Migeot, Jonathan; Rondouin, Michel; Le Bouler, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Les composants des vergers à graines Cabrerets et Avessac sont de bonne qualité génétique. Cependant, il faut les planter à 300-400 plants/ha en forêt, et 100 plants/ha en agroforesterie, pour faire face aux aléas des recombinaisons génétiques et aux problèmes environnementaux. Un suivi en taille de formation et élagage régulier permettra d’en tirer un bénéfice financier intéressant. La valeur locale des produits issus de ces vergers sera évaluée grâce à la « sélection participative »....

  19. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  20. Relação cálcio:fósforo disponível e níveis de fitase para poedeiras semipesadas no primeiro e segundo ciclos de postura Calcium:available phosphorus ratio and phytase levels for semi heavy laying hens in the first and second posture cycle

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para investigar a relação cálcio (Ca:fósforo disponível (Pd e o nível de fitase (UF no primeiro e segundo ciclos de postura. No primeiro ciclo de postura, 128 aves foram distribuídas em arranjo fatorial 3 × 2 + 1, composto de três relações Ca:Pd (14:1 = 4,2% Ca e 0,30% Pd; 12:1 = 3,5% Ca e 0,30% Pd; e 9:1 = 3,5% Ca e 0,38% Pd, dois níveis de fitase (0 e 600 UF e uma relação Ca:Pd controle (11:1 - 4,2% Ca e 0,38% Pd. No segundo ciclo de postura, 240 aves foram distribuídas em arranjo fatorial 2 × 2 × 2, composto de dois níveis de cálcio (3,5 e 4,2%, dois de fósforo disponível (0,30 e 0,38% e dois de fitase (0 e 600 UF. No primeiro ciclo, entre as aves alimentadas com as rações sem fitase, o maior peso dos ovos (PO foi obtido com a relação 9:1 (3,5% Ca e 0,38% Pd e o menor, com a relação 12:1 (3,5% Ca e 0,30% Pd. A melhor massa de ovos (MO e conversão alimentar por massa de ovos (CAMO foram observadas nas aves alimentadas com a ração com relação Ca:Pd 14:1 e a pior, com a ração formulada com relação 12:1. Nas aves alimentadas com a ração com fitase, a melhor conversão alimentar por massa de ovos foi obtida com a relação 12:1 (3,5% Ca e 0,30% Pd e a pior, com a relação 9:1 (3,5% Ca e 0,38% Pd. No segundo ciclo, o consumo de ração (CR reduziu com o aumento dos níveis de cálcio (3,5 para 4,2%, fósforo disponível (0,30 para 0,38% e fitase (0 para 600. As conversões alimentares por massa de ovos e por dúzia de ovos melhoraram, respectivamente, com o aumento dos níveis de fósforo disponível e de fitase, enquanto a gravidade específica melhorou com o aumento do nível de cálcio da ração. Para poedeiras no primeiro ciclo de postura, recomendam-se as relações 14:1 (4,2% Ca:0,30% Pd sem fitase e 12:1 (3,5% Ca:0,30% Pd com 600 UF e, para aves no segundo ciclo de postura, recomenda-se relação correspondente a 4,2% Ca e 0,38% Pd. A suplementação de ra

  1. Adsorption of glyphosate in chilean soils and its relationship with unoccupied phosphate binding sites Adsorção de glifosato em solos chilenos e sua relação com sítios de adsorção disponíveis para adsorção de fosfato

    Marcelo Kogan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate glyphosate adsorption by soils and its relationship with unoccupied binding sites for phosphate adsorption. Soil samples of three Chilean soils series - Valdivia (Andisol, Clarillo (Inceptisol and Chicureo (Vertisol - were incubated with different herbicide concentrations. Glyphosate remaining in solution was determined by adjusting a HPLC method with a UV detector. Experimental maximum adsorption capacity were 15,000, 14,300 and 4,700 mg g¹ for Valdivia, Clarillo, and Chicureo soils, respectively. Linear, Freundlich, and Langmuir models were used to describe glyphosate adsorption. Isotherms describing glyphosate adsorption differed among soils. Maximum adjusted adsorption capacity with the Langmuir model was 231,884, 17,874 and 5,670 mg g-1 for Valdivia, Clarillo, and Chicureo soils, respectively. Glyphosate adsorption on the Valdivia soil showed a linear behavior at the range of concentrations used and none of the adjusted models became asymptotic. The high glyphosate adsorption capacity of the Valdivia soil was probably a result of its high exchangeable Al, extractable Fe, and alophan and imogolite clay type. Adsorption was very much related to phosphate dynamics in the Valdivia soil, which showed the larger unoccupied phosphate binding sites. However relationship between unoccupied phosphate binding sites and glyphosate adsorption in the other two soils (Clarillo and Chicureo was not clear.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a adsorção de glifosato em solos e sua relação com os sítios disponíveis para adsorção de fosfato. Amostras de três solos chilenos - Valdivia (Andisol, Clarillo (Inceptisol e Chicureo (Vertisol - foram incubadas com diferentes concentrações do herbicida. O glifosato remanescente na solução foi determinado pelo método de HPLC com detector de UV modificado. A capacidade de adsorção máxima experimental foi de 15.000, 14.300 e 4.700 mg g-1 para os solos de

  2. Redistribuição entre frações e teores disponíveis de zinco em solos incubados com lodo de esgoto Zinc redistribution among soil fractions and concentration of available Zn in sewage sludge-treated soils

    Josângela do Carmo Trezena de Araújo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A utilização agrícola de lodo de esgoto é uma da melhores opções para a disposição final deste resíduo. Contudo, em virtude da presença de metais pesados no lodo, torna-se importante a determinação da disponibilidade e das formas nas quais estes metais se encontram em solos tratados com esse resíduo. Este trabalho objetivou estudar a redistribuição entre frações e os teores disponíveis de Zn em solos incubados com lodo de esgoto. Foram utilizadas amostras de dois solos com diferentes características químicas e físicas às quais foram adicionadas cinco doses de lodo de esgoto (equivalentes a 0; 40,5; 81; 162 e 243 Mg ha-1. Nos períodos de incubação de 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias, foram coletadas amostras para determinação do Zn disponível, extraído por DTPA, e da sua distribuição entre frações do solo. Os resultados mostraram que a adição de doses crescentes de lodo de esgoto aumentaram os teores de Zn nos solos extraídos por DTPA; entretanto, de maneira geral, estes teores não aumentaram com o decorrer do tempo de incubação. Houve diminuição da mobilidade de Zn nos solos incubados com lodo, com transferência do elemento ligado à fração matéria orgânica, em sua maior parte, para a fração residual. Para as condições estudadas, a máxima dose de Zn a ser fornecida por aplicação de lodo de esgoto pela legislação americana não promoveu teores fitotóxicos de Zn no solo.One of the best options for final disposal of sewage sludge is its use for agricultural purposes. Excessive heavy metal concentrations in sludge, however, pose a risk to the environment. It is therefore important to determine not only the availability, but also the distribution of such metals in different soil fractions as a result of sludge application. Our study aimed at evaluating both the redistribution of Zn among soil fractions and the Zn-DTPA available concentration in sludge-incubated soils. Samples of two contrasting

  3. Água disponível em um Neossolo Quartzarênico após adição de um condicionador mineral do solo Available water in a Quartzsandy Neosol after addition of a mineral soil conditioner

    Cicero S. Costa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o estudo, avaliar a adição do estéril resultante da extração da gipsita, como condicionante do solo, sobre a disponibilidade de água em um Neossolo Quartzarênico coletado no Município de Petrolina, PE. A capacidade de campo (CC foi obtida pela saturação e subseqüente drenagem de um perfil simulado de solo em uma coluna de cilindros de PVC com 100 cm de altura, nas proporções de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 g kg-1 do estéril, incorporadas nos 40 cm superiores. O ponto de murcha permanente (PMP foi determinado pelo método fisiológico; adicionalmente, a CC e o PMP o foram pela metodologia usual utilizando-se o extrator de Richards com uma pressão de 10 e 1500 kPa, respectivamente. A incorporação de doses crescentes do estéril aumentou a água disponível do solo, de 4,8 para 8,67%, quando determinado pelo método tradicional, nas doses 0 e 80 g kg-1, respectivamente, e de 14,76 para 15,08%, nas mesmas doses, quando a água disponível foi determinada a partir da CC e o PMP obtidas pelo método da coluna de drenagem e método fisiológico, respectivamente. Inserindo-se a umidade gravimétrica da capacidade de campo obtida pelo método da coluna de solo na curva de retenção de umidade, vê-se que este parâmetro foi melhor representado por um potencial matricial próximo -6 kPa.This work aimed at evaluating the addition of the sterile material resulting from gypsite mining as a soil conditioner on the water availability of a Quartzsandy Neosol collected in the municipality of Petrolina, PE. Field capacity (FC was obtained by the saturation and subsequent drainage of a simulated soil profile in a column made up of PVC cylinders 100 cm high where doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g kg-1 of the sterile material were incorporated to the upper 40 cm. The permanent wilting point (PWP was determined by the physiological method. In addition, the FC and the PWP were determined by the usual methodology using Richard's pressure plate

  4. Bibliographical resources available in the Internet about dangerous substances and residues and their influence in the environment in the period 1975-2005 Recursos bibliográficos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias y residuos peligrosos y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005

    Elena Ronda-Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Internet has become the most used source of biomedical information. The documentation, produced by the public and private institutions, in relation with the dangerous substances that can recover in the Internet is fundamental for the prevention of this type of risks. Objective. To locate and to check the available documents in the Internet about dangerous substances, dangerous residues, including inert, and his influence in the environment in the period 1975 - 2005. Material and Method. Descriptive and cross sectional study of the results of the bibliographical searches made in the Internet, in the corresponding databases. Results. It has been recognized 162 records that expire with the requirements indicated in the pre-established methodology. Discussion. With respect to the environmental documentation present in the Internet it seems to be suitable to increase his diffusion and to improve his classification and accessibility.Introducción. Internet se ha convertido en una fuente de información biomédica cada vez más utilizada. La documentación producida por las instituciones públicas y privadas, en relación con las sustancias peligrosas que se pueden recuperar en Internet, es fundamental para la prevención de este tipo de riesgos. Objetivo. Localizar y revisar los documentos disponibles en Internet sobre sustancias peligrosas, residuos peligrosos, incluyendo inertes, y su influencia en el medio ambiente en el periodo 1975 a 2005. Material y método. Estudio descriptivo transversal de los resultados de las búsquedas bibliográficas efectuadas en Internet, en las correspondientes bases de datos. Resultados. Se han reconocido 162 registros que cumplen con los requisitos señalados en la metodología preestablecida. Discusión. Con respecto a la documentación medioambiental pre- sente en Internet, parece conveniente incrementar su difusión y mejorar su clasificación y accesibilidad.

  5. Los catálogos en línea de acceso público del Mercosur disponibles en entorno web: características del Proyecto UBACYT F054 Online public access catalogs of Mercosur in a web environment: characteristics of UBACYT F054 Project

    Elsa E. Barber

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los lineamientos teórico-metodológicos del proyecto de investigación UBACYT F054 (Programación Científica y Técnica de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 2004-2007. Se analiza la problemática de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs disponibles en entorno web de las bibliotecas nacionales, universitarias, especializadas y públicas del Mercosur. Se estudian los aspectos vinculados con el control operativo, la formulación de la búsqueda, los puntos de acceso, el control de salida y la asistencia al usuario. El proyecto se propone, desde un abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo, efectuar un diagnóstico de situación válido para los catálogos de la región. Plantea, además, un estudio comparativo con el fin de vislumbrar las tendencias existentes dentro de esta temática en bibliotecas semejantes de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay.The theoretical-methodological aspects of the research project UBACYT F054 (Universidad de Buenos Aires Technical and Scientific Program, 2004- 2007 are outlined. Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs in web environment in national, academic, public and special libraries in countries belonging to Mercosur are analized. Aspects related to the operational control, search formulation, access points, output control and user assistance are studied. The project aims, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to make a situation diagnosis valid for the catalogs of the region. It also offers a comparative study in order to see the existing tendencies on the subject in similar libraries in Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  6. Training techniques for industry

    The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used training techniques in relation to cost-effective, prevention-oriented Quality Assurance are examined. Important questions are whether training techniques teach cost effectiveness and whether the techniques are, themselves, cost effective. To answer these questions, criteria for evaluating teaching techniques for cost effectiveness were developd, and then commonly used techniques are evaluated in terms of specific training program objectives. Motivation of personnel is also considered important to the success of a training program, and methods are outlined by which recognition of the academic quality of industrial training can be used as a motivational technique

  7. Surface science techniques

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  8. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  9. Nuclear techniques in industry

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Seals and Sealing Techniques

    1972-01-01

    Developments by the aerospace industry in seals and sealing techniques are announced for possible use in other areas. The announcements presented are grouped as: sealing techniques for cryogenic fluids, high pressure applications, and modification for improved performance.

  11. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  12. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  13. Validación de la metodología para la determinación cuantitativa de plomo en tintes cosméticos disponibles en el mercado nacional por espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se validó la metodología analítica para determinar cuantitativamente plomo en tintes cosméticos disponibles en el mercado nacional, por el método de espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama. Las muestras se digirieron por digestión húmeda con HNO3 al 65 % m/men horno de microondas; el porcentaje de recuperación para la digestión de muestras de 0,25 g y 0,45 g en 5,00 mL fue de 100,5±0,5. El ámbito de linealidad óptimo fue del límite de detección a 5,0 mg/L con un coeficiente de correlación de 0,9998.Los límites de detección y los límites de cuantificación determinados gráficamente por el método de corredor de errores para regresión lineal fueron de 0,12 ±0,02 mg/L y 0,21±0,02 mg/L, respectivamente. Se evaluó la precisión determinando la repetitividad como desviación estándar de 5 réplicas de un tinte positivo para plomo, de acuerdo con la definición de la ISO,2√2*σ, y se obtuvo un valor de 2,3. La veracidad se determinó por medio de los porcentajes de recuperación evaluados, agregando alícuotas de patrones de plomo a muestras de tinte y comparándolo con muestras de igual masa a las que no se les realizó adición. Las muestras de tintes se obtuvieron en puestos de venta, tales como farmacias, suplidoras de belleza,supermercados, centros de ventas de productos naturales y el mercado central de San José. De los tintes analizados, de marca Youthair, de fabricación norteamericana, Doni, Mont D’Or, Matador y Siempre Joven, producidos localmente, contienen acetato de plomo como ingrediente activo

  14. Estudio de la cinética de la fermentación in vitro y del residuo no fermentado del forraje disponible en la pradera y del aparentemente consumido por vacas lecheras Study of in vitro fermentation kinetics of herbage mass samples and simulated grazing samples for dairy cows

    R. Pulido

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica fermentativa de forrajes, en muestras de una ID, manejada a dos alturas. Las muestras consistieron en forraje disponible a ras de suelo y en forraje aparentemente consumido (FA por vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo. La cinética de fermentación de los forrajes se estudió usando la técnica in vitro de producción periódica de gas, utilizando un mismo frasco de fermentación, de Theodorou y col (1994. Los datos de producción acumulada de gas fueron corregidos a 1 g de materia seca, y fueron descritos ajustándolos a la ecuación exponencial de Orskov y McDonald (1979. La producción de gas acumulada (ml/g fue mayor (PAn experiment to study the characteristics of in vitro fermentation of forage was carried out in herbage mass samples (FD and simulated grazing samples (FA, at two sward heights of a permanent pasture. The digestion kinetics of the forage was studied using in vitro gas production method. Data collected were fitted according to the equation of Orskov and McDonald. Gas production was greater (P<0.05 from herbage mass samples than simulated grazing samples at 12, 21, and 27 hours of incubation (161.7 v/s 150.6, s.e.d.= 4.23; 217.6 v/s 209.2, s.e.d.= 3.65; and 242.1 v/s 234.7, s.e.d.= 3.34, respectively. However, after 27 hours of incubation, no significant effect (P0.05 of type of sample, either on the amount of gas produced or on the kinetic of fermentation, were found. The dry matter disappearance after 96 hours of incubation was significantly lower (P<0.05 for herbage mass samples compared with simulated grazing samples (0.908 v/s 0.873, s.e.d.= 0.005, but with no effect of sward height (P0.05. These findings show the benefits of complementing in vitro gas production measurements with post digestion residue determinations to improve the knowledge on the nutritive value of feed fermented in the rumen

  15. Profundidade de amostragem do solo para avaliação do enxofre disponível em pomar de limão siciliano (Citrus limon Burm. Soil sampling depth for available sulphur evaluation in sicilian lemon (Citrus limon Burm. orchard

    L.I. Prochnow

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Em um Latossolo Vermelho Escuro, textura média, no qual foram estabelecidos diferentes teores de enxofre, através da aplicação de doses crescentes de gesso agrícola (0, 1, 2 e 4 t/ha, estudou-se a profundidade adequada para coleta de amostras de terra para avaliação do S-SO4-2 "disponível" para o limão siciliano (Citrus limon Burm. enxertado sobre porta enxerto Volkameriano. As quantidades de sulfato no solo, extraídas pelo NH4OAc 0,5 M em HOAc 0,25 M, foram determinadas aos 6, 12 e 24 meses após a aplicação do produto nas seguintes profundidades: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-80 e 80-120 cm. As quantidades de enxofre nas folhas do limão siciliano foram também determinadas na mesma época. Os dados obtidos e os estudos de correlação que se seguiram demonstraram evidências de que o limão siciliano teria, no período considerado, extraído enxofre, principalmente, da camada de O a 20 cm de profundidade, e assim sendo, fornece indícios de que esta deve ser a camada amostrada para fins da avaliação deste importante elemento nesta cultura.On a medium-textured Dark-Red Latosol (Typic Hapludox, in which increasing levels of sulfate were established by the application of different rates of phosphogypstim (0, 1, 2 e 4 t/ha, a study was carried out to obtain information about the depth of soil samples collected in order to evaluate the S-SO4-2 availability for the Sicilian lemon (Citrus limon Burm. grafted on "Volkameriano" rootstocks. Sulfate contents at different depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-80 and 80-120 cm were determined, by using the NH4OAc 0,5 M in HOAc 0,25 M extractor, 6,12 and 24 months after phosphogypsum application. Sulphur content in the leaves of the lemon plants were also determined at the same dates. Analytical data obtained and the correlation studies that followed, showed that the Sicilian lemon extracted sulphur mainly from the layer 0-20 cm and, therefore, this layer is considered representative for soil

  16. Condições de secagem de uma pasta de anchoita modificada enzimaticamente na oxidação lipídica, lisina disponível e atividade antioxidante do produto Drying conditions of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy in the lipid oxidation, available lisina and antioxidant activity of the product

    Kelly de Moraes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar as condições da secagem convectiva de uma pasta de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita modificada enzimaticamente, através da metodologia de superfícies de resposta, sendo as respostas consideradas: a oxidação lipídica (TBA, a redução da lisina disponível e a perda da atividade antioxidante específica. A pasta de anchoita modificada foi obtida por hidrólise enzimática da fração muscular (filés do pescado por Neutrase®. Foram avaliadas na operação de secagem, a temperatura do ar (60, 70 e 80°C e a espessura das amostras (1,5; 2,5 e 3,5mm. A análise estatística da secagem mostrou efeitos significativos da temperatura do ar e da espessura das amostras (PThe aim of the work was to analyze the conditions of the convective drying of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita through the response surfaces methodology, and the responses were the lipid oxidation (TBA, reduction of the available lisina and loss of the specific antioxidant activity. The modified paste of anchovy was obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis of the fish muscular fraction (fillets by Neutrase®. In drying operation the air temperature (60, 70 and 80°C and the samples thickness (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5mm were studied. The statistical analysis of the drying showed significant effects of the air temperature and samples thickness (P<0.05. The best drying condition was obtained in the air temperature of 60°C and samples thickness of 2.5mm. In this condition the TBA index was of 0.93mgMDA kg-1, available lisina reduction of 16% and loss of the specific antioxidant activity of 20.2%.

  17. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  18. Persian fencing techniques

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

  19. Uranium exploration techniques

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (genetic description of some uranium deposits; typical concentrations of uranium in the natural environment); sedimentary host rocks (sandstones; tabular deposits; roll-front deposits; black shales); metamorphic host rocks (exploration techniques); geologic techniques (alteration features in sandstones; favourable features in metamorphic rocks); geophysical techniques (radiometric surveys; surface vehicle methods; airborne methods; input surveys); geochemical techniques (hydrogeochemistry; petrogeochemistry; stream sediment geochemistry; pedogeochemistry; emanometry; biogeochemistry); geochemical model for roll-front deposits; geologic model for vein-like deposits. (U.K.)

  20. Deployment of learning techniques

    Bertolino, Antonia; Calabro, Antonello; Cassel, Sofia; Chen, Yu-Fang; Howar, Falk; Isberner, Malte; Jonsson, Bengt; Merten, Maik; Pelliccione, Patrizio; Steffen, Bernhard; Tivoli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The CONNECT Integrated Project aims at enabling continuous composition of networked systems, by developing techniques for synthesizing connectors. A prerequisite for synthesis is to learn about the interaction behavior of networked peers. The role of WP4 is to develop techniques for learning models of networked peers and middleware through exploratory interaction.

  1. Scientific techniques in Egyptology

    The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.)

  2. Scientific techniques in Egyptology

    Newton, G.W.A.

    1987-04-01

    The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.).

  3. Contamination Control Techniques

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  4. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  5. Contamination Control Techniques

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  6. La douleur aux urgences: quelles interventions permettent à l'infirmière d'optimiser la prise en charge ?

    Badan, Aurélie; Bouchard, Sara; Borloz, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    La douleur est le principal motif d'admission aux urgences. Les spécificités de ce domaine font que les soignants rencontrent certains obstacles qui limitent la qualité de la prise en charge. L'infirmière joue un rôle déterminant dans le soulagement de la douleur et possède de nombreuses responsabilités quant à la qualité de la prise en charge.

  7. Theorie macroscopique de propagation du son dans les milieux poreux 'à structure rigide permettant la dispersion spatiale: principe et validation

    Nemati, Navid

    2012-01-01

    Ce travail présente et valide une théorie nonlocale nouvelle et généralisée, de la propagation acoustique dans les milieux poreux à structure rigide, saturés par un fluide viscothermique. Cette théorie linéaire permet de dépasser les limites de la théorie classique basée sur la théorie de l'homogénéisation. Elle prend en compte non seulement les phénomènes de dispersion temporelle, mais aussi ceux de dispersion spatiale. Dans le cadre de la nouvelle approche, une nouvelle procédure d'homogéné...

  8. Qualification of Radiographic Technique

    This paper present some experience from qualification of a radiographic system, according to the Swedish code. The Swedish code, concerning qualification, follows the ENIQ procedure allowing a mix of technical justification and practical tests. The radiographic system, aimed for qualification, is a digital system using an enhanced type of x-ray camera (designed by SAQ Kontroll) and capable to detect IGSCC cracks, 5 mm deep in 60 mm trough wall. Like many others, the Swedish qualification praxis is based on experience from ultrasonic technique. There is also, for radiographic technique, demands with no relevance for digital technique i.e. for film density

  9. Spectrometric techniques 4

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume IV discusses three widely diversified areas of spectrometric techniques. The book focuses on three spectrometric methods. Chapter 1 discusses the phenomenology and applications of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), the most commonly used optical technique that exploit the Raman effect. The second chapter is concerned with diffraction gratings and mountings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region. Chapter 3 accounts the uses of mass spectrometry, detectors, types of spectrometers, and ion sources. Physicists and chemists will find the book a go

  10. Spectrometric techniques 2

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  11. Spectrometric techniques 3

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume III presents the applications of spectrometric techniques to atmospheric and space studies. This book reviews the spectral data processing and analysis techniques that are of broad applicability.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the instrumentation used for obtaining field data. This text then reviews the contribution that space-borne spectroscopy in the thermal IR has made to the understanding of the planets. Other chapters consider the instruments that have recorded the planetary emission spectra. This book discusses as well

  12. Advanced analytical techniques

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  13. Techniques of angiography

    Angiographic examinations, whether performed with catheter techniques or digital subtraction procedures, must be tailored to the clinical problem and status of the patient. For example, the evaluation of atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease requires that the arterial geography from the level of the celiac artery to the distal lower extremity vessels be visualized. However, the patient who presents with concomitant renal failure may need to receive an abridged study concentrating on only the specific clinical problem. The various chapters of this book suggest the optimum views and techniques for the multiple clinical problems associated with vascular disease. This chapter will deal with the general principles of angiographic evaluation and technique

  14. Approximation techniques for engineers

    Komzsik, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  15. Guía para el tratamiento de lactantes con alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca: Ficha comparativa de las fórmulas especiales disponibles en el mercado español Guideline for the treatment of infants with allergy to cow milk proteins: comparative data sheet of the specific formulae available on the Spanish market

    E. de Goicoechea Manzanares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La alergia a proteínas de leche de vaca (APLV es una enfermedad de elevada incidencia y prevalencia. Su tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de las proteínas de la leche de vaca de la dieta, mediante lactancia materna exclusiva y, en caso de uso de fórmulas adaptadas, con el uso de fórmulas especiales, como fórmulas derivadas de proteínas lácteas altamente hidrolizadas, de fórmulas derivadas de proteínas vegetales o de fórmulas elaboradas a partir de aminoácidos biosintéticos (fórmulas elementales. Estas fórmulas suponen un coste económico considerable y un importante campo comercial para las industrias alimentaria y farmacéutica. Dado el continuo avance científico y técnico, son muchas las modificaciones que se presentan en la elaboración de dichas fórmulas y en las normas para su correcto manejo y muy numerosas las publicaciones sobre diferentes aspectos relativas a las mismas.
    En el presente trabajo pretendemos revisar las últimas modificaciones debidas a los nuevos conocimientos y a la experiencia clínica acumulada sobre prevención y tratamiento de la APLV. Además, se revisa la importancia de los aspectos nutricionales en todos los lactantes y niños pequeños que reciben fórmulas alimentarias especiales y dietas de exclusión y se presentan las principales características compositivas de las fórmulas disponibles en el mercado español y las recomendaciones de los organismos reguladores.

    Allergy to cow milk proteins (ACMP is a disease having high incidence and prevalence. Its treatment consists in the elimination of cow milk proteins, using maternal breastfeeding exclusively and, in the case of adapted formulae, with the use of special formulae such as highly hydrolyzed lactic protein derived formulae, vegetables protein derived formulae or formulae elaborated from biosynthetic aminoacids (Elemental formulae. These formulae entail a considerable financial cost and provide an important commercial

  16. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  17. Relaxation techniques for stress

    ... fall. There are also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do ... These sensors measure your skin temperature, brain waves, ... time, you can learn to change them without using the monitor.

  18. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  19. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  20. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  1. The MST Radar Technique

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  2. Optimization techniques in statistics

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  3. TECHNIQUE OF JEJUNOSTOMY

    E. Tarcoveanu

    2005-01-01

    Feeding difficulties is an important problem of some patients (postoperative feeding in major interventions, acute pancreatitis etc.). Many of these patients are managed by jejunostomy. This paper presents the surgical technique for temporary or permanent jejunostomy by laparoscopic and open approach. Standard technique is Witzel jejunostomy but in some cases it is indicated other types of interventions: Stamm, Liffmann, Albert or Roux jejunostomy. It is also presented postoperative complic...

  4. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  5. Stargate: Energy Management Techniques

    Vijay Raghunathan; Mani Srivastava; Trevor Pering; Roy Want

    2004-01-01

    This poster presents techniques for energy efficient operation of the Stargate wireless platform. In addition to conventional power management techniques such as dynamic voltage and scaling and processor shutdown, the Stargate features several mechanisms for energy efficient operation of the communication subsystem, such as support for hierarchical radios, Bluetooth based remote wakeup, mote based wakeup, etc. Finally, design optimizations including the use of power gating, and provision for ...

  6. Orbital welding technique

    The TIG (Tungsten-inert gas) orbital welding technique is applied in all areas of pipe welding. The process is mainly used for austenitic and ferritic materials but also for materials like aluminium, nickel, and titanium alloys are commonly welded according to this technique. Thin-walled as well as thick-walled pipes are welded economically. The application of orbital welding is of particular interest in the area of maintenance of thick-walled pipes that is described in this article. (orig.)

  7. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  8. Techniques for colorectal anastomosis

    Ho, Yik-Hong; Ashour, Mohamed Ahmed Tawfik

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety asp...

  9. Microscale diagnostic techniques

    Breuer, Kenny

    2005-01-01

    Microscale Diagnostic Techniques highlights the most innovative and powerful developments in microscale diagnostics. It provides a resource for scientists and researchers interested in learning about the techniques themselves, including their capabilities and limitations. The fields of Micro- and Nanotechnology have emerged over the past decade as a major focus of modern scientific and engineering research and technology. Driven by advances in microfabrication, the investigation, manipulation and engineering of systems characterized by micrometer and, more recently, nanometer scales have becom

  10. Endocapsular carousel technique phacoemulsification

    Jardine, Griffin J.; Wong, Gilbert C.; Elsnab, John R.; Gale, Bruce K.; Ambati, Balamurali K.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an approach to cataract phacoemulsification that uses the carouseling technique within the capsular bag. This is made possible by a newly designed phacoemulsification tip with 3 unique modifications: a 20-degree right bend in the tip, a semicircular opening, and a third irrigation port. These 3 features facilitate the carouseling technique of phacoemulsification without expressing the lens into the anterior chamber. The method decreases corneal endothelial injury by maximizing the...

  11. MEMS metrology techniques

    Novak, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The MEMS industry currently produces over $13 billion in annual revenue, with devices in such diverse applications as blood pressure sensors, projection displays, optical switches, printers, hard drives, and gyroscopes. As production techniques improve, ever more functions may be served by MEMS, and the industry is growing at an annual rate of more than 15%. The large diversity of MEMS leads to many challenges in metrology, as each design has different critical factors which will affect its performance. Unlike traditional semiconductor devices, MEMS require characterization both in their static state and under actuation. Parameters of interest include shape, dimensions, surface roughness, sidewall angles, film thickness, residual stress, feature volumes, response times, thermal properties, resonance frequencies, stiction, environmental immunity and more. This talk will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of techniques for MEMS surface metrology. Bright- and dark-field microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact and non-contact surface profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laser Doppler vibrometry and digital holography are some of the primary techniques used to evaluate MEMS surfaces and motion. While no single technique can fully characterize all MEMS devices, or even one device under all conditions, the utility of each of the different types of instruments is increasing as they are pushed by MEMS and other industries to provide more characterization capability. With a broad understanding of the various metrology techniques available, the one or few critical instruments to measure a given class of devices will hopefully be more easily understood.

  12. Handbook of laboratory techniques

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

  13. Telescopes and Techniques

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  14. Radiological focusing techniques

    The textbook explains the most common and essential radiological focusing techniques and gives the relevant theory and technical fundamentals. The theory does not consume much space in this book, the theoretical part briefly addressing such aspects as film-screen combinations, doses administered by X-ray radiography, quality assurance, radiological protection, and potential patient reactions to contrast media applied. The textbook primarily is a practical guide giving general advice and guidance on focusing techniques, accompanied by an illustrative compilation of frequent mistakes. Arranged by body regions, the well over 80 examples of focusing techniques are presented by systematic texts and illustrations. There is an annex giving a glossary of terms, a bibliography, and a list of useful addresses. (orig./MG)

  15. Fritting techniques in chromatography.

    Cheong, Won Jo

    2014-03-01

    It is surprising that there has been no devoted review article for frits and relevant studies so far despite the long history of packed columns and the use of frits in them. This review was activated for such a reason. Both separate frits and in situ permanent frits have been covered since the appearance of primitive frits. The in situ fritting methods such as the formation of organic monoliths, sol-gel technology, sintering, fritless techniques such as tapered tip and capillary restrictors, and miscellaneous fritting techniques including magnetically trapped frits and single particle frits are introduced and discussed. In addition, frit-related studies and patents are also introduced. Finally, some conclusive comments on the choice of fritting technique in different situations and future perspectives are given. PMID:24510688

  16. Radiation techniques for acromegaly

    Minniti Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

  17. The technique of autoradiography at very low temperature; Technique d'autoradiographie a tres basse temperature

    Pellerin, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    ferme. Le developpement a lieu a temperature ordinaire et la sensibilite de l'emulsion n'est pas appreciabdement modifiee. Cette technique permet de maintenir le bloc tres au-dessous de la temperature de congelation, des la mort de l'animal jusqu'au developpement; toute diffusion chimique est supprimee et la repartition de la substance radioactive saisie sur l'autoradiographie a l'instant exact de la mort par congelation. Des fraisages successifs permettent d'etudier la repartition de la substance radioactive, a toutes les profondeurs. L'absence d'effets pseudo-radiographiques est totale. Enfin, le renforcement des couleurs naturelles des elements anatomiques par cette tres basse temperature est considerable, ce qui permet de realigner l'autoradiographie en couleurs de le coupe processus de coloration. (auteur)

  18. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Muhammad Ali Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  19. Novel food processing techniques

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  20. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    Devlin, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  1. Millimicrosecond pulse techniques

    Lewis, Ian A D

    1959-01-01

    Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

  2. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  3. Carbon isotope techniques

    This book is a hands-on introduction to using carbon isotope tracers in experimental biology and ecology. It is a bench-top reference with protocols for the study of plants, animals, and soils. The 11C, 12C, 13C, and 14C carbon isotopes are considered and standard techniques are described by established authors. The compilation includes the following features: specific, well-established, user-oriented techniques; carbon cycles in plants, animals, soils, air, and water; isotopes in ecological research; examples and sample calculations

  4. Modern recording techniques

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  5. Single well techniques

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  6. Simple Driving Techniques

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data......Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp...

  7. Surface science techniques

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  8. Neutron techniques in Safeguards

    An essential part of Safeguards is the ability to quantitatively and nondestructively assay those materials with special neutron-interactive properties involved in nuclear industrial or military technology. Neutron techniques have furnished most of the important ways of assaying such materials, which is no surprise since the neutronic properties are what characterizes them. The techniques employed rely on a wide selection of the many methods of neutron generation, detection, and data analysis that have been developed for neutron physics and nuclear science in general

  9. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail: scarlatescuioana@gmail.com; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  10. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  11. Neutron visual sensing technique

    The neutron visual sensing technique is a technology to extract physical quantities from the information on inner structures of complex materials or machineries which have been visualized and recorded by using neutron beams. Research and utilization of this technique is now under worldwide development since it can provide the information that is not possible by X-ray radiography. We show how to use stationary neutron sources (Research reactors) in chapter 2, and how to utilize pulsed neutron source (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex, J-PARC). Also the production of micro-element analyzer by an enterprise using the knowledge on radiological equipment is described as an example. (author)

  12. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Food scientists use standards and calibrations to relate the concentration of a compound of interest to the instrumental response. The techniques used include classical, single point, and inverse calibrations, as well as standard addition and internal standards. Several fundamental criteria -- sel...

  13. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  14. Summary of Observational Techniques

    Koubský, Pavel

    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012 - (Richards, M.), s. 557-561. (Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. IAU S282). ISBN 9781107019829. ISSN 1743-9213. [Symposium of the International Astronomical Union /282./. Tatranská Lomnica (SK), 18.07.2011-22.07. 2011] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : observational techniques * binary stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. The attribute measurement technique

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  16. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  17. Differential doppler heterodyning technique

    Lading, Lars

    1971-01-01

    Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating the...

  18. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  19. Computerized tomography: Techniques

    The book is an introduction to the physical and technical fundamentals of computerized tomography. The measuring and imaging mechanisms of the various CT techniques are described with a view to relevant medical perspectives and potential side effects. Particular regard is given to magnetic resonance tomography. (orig./MG)

  20. A video authentication technique

    Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system

  1. Log10 technique charts.

    Stopford, J E

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer a reliable and easily formulated alternative to random technique selection or control panel roulette when producing diagnostic radiographs. This system requires only minutes to complete and will reduce the radiation dose to patients, the radiographic film wasted, and the time lost repeating examinations. PMID:523624

  2. Composição centesimal, lisina disponível e digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas de fórmulas para nutrição oral ou enteral Proximate composition, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of proteins in formulae for oral or enteral nutrition

    Edma M. Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultimamente tem-se verificado aumento do uso de nutrição enteral (NE em domicílio, objetivando reduzir custos e melhorar a qualidade de vida. Contudo, é importante monitorar o valor nutricional das dietas. Nesse estudo foram avaliadas as formulações F1 e F2 (ARAÚJO; GALEAZZI, 1999 contendo carne bovina, ovo (F1, chicória, cenoura, fubá de milho, extrato hidrossolúvel de soja, óleo de soja, Nidex® e sal, para uso em NE ou oral domiciliar, objetivando obter dados mais confiáveis e seguros. Foram determinadas: composição centesimal, digestibilidade in vitro e lisina disponível. As composições centesimais (base seca foram as seguintes: F1: calorias 454,69, umidade 79,29±0,07, proteína 17,04±0,06, lipídios 14,85±0,11, carboidratos 63,22, fibra alimentar solúvel 0,67±0,66 e insolúvel 1,65±0,73, cinzas 2,57±0,01; F2: calorias 463,92, umidade 78,96±0,09, proteína 16,56±0,09, lipídios 15,12±0,20, fibra alimentar solúvel 1,09±0,11 e insolúvel 1,84±0,09, carboidratos 65,40 e cinzas 2,63±0,08. A distribuição calórica mostrou-se adequada. Os teores de lisina eram 80 mg/g de proteína para F1 e 139 para F2. A digestibilidade (% das proteínas foi 95 para F1 e 93 para F2. As formulações são factíveis de preparo em domicílio, possuem fontes de proteína de boa qualidade, baixo custo, podendo atender às necessidades nutricionais de indivíduos em terapia nutricional domiciliar e promover a recuperação nutricional.Recently the use of home enteral nutrition (EN has increased, aimed at reducing costs and improving the quality of life. Monitoring the nutritional value of these diets is therefore important. In this study the formulations F1 and F2 (ARAÚJO; GALEAZZI, 1999 containing beef, egg (F1, chicory, carrot, corn grits, ater-soluble soybean extract, soybean oil, Nidex ater-soluble soybean extract, soybean oil, Nidex® and salt, ere evaluated for use in home EN, aiming at obtaining more reliable, safer data. The

  3. Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases

    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos independentes, um na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias e outro na fase inicial (8 a 21 dias de idade, foram realizados com frangos de corte para avaliar níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações suplementadas com 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração. Cada experimento constou de um ensaio de desempenho e outro de metabolismo e foi conduzido em esquema fatorial (3 × 4 + 1, sendo três níveis de Pdisp (0,42; 0,37; 0,32% na fase pré-inicial e 0,39; 0,34; 0,29% na fase inicial, quatro níveis de cálcio (0,94; 0,84; 0,74; 0,64% na fase pré-inicial e 0,88; 0,78; 0,68; 0,58% na fase inicial mais uma ração controle. O controle correspondeu à única ração sem fitase e continha 0,47% de Pdisp e 0,94% de cálcio (fase pré-inicial ou 0,44% de Pdisp e 0,88% de cálcio (fase inicial. Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, determinaram-se a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn das rações e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CMMS. Na fase pré-inicial, os níveis de cálcio influenciaram o consumo de ração, a EMAn e o CMMS e, na fase inicial, afetaram o conteúdo de cinzas ósseas, a EMAn e o CMMS. Os níveis de Pdisp influenciaram o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a EMAn e o CMMS na fase pré-inicial e as cinzas ósseas e o CMMS na fase inicial. Adicionando 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração, é possível reduzir, respectivamente, os níveis de cálcio e Pdisp para 0,64% e 0,37% na fase pré-inicial e 0,58% e 0,29% na fase inicial, pois essa redução não tem efeito negativo sobre o desempenho e a mineralização óssea dos frangos de corte nessas fases.Two independent experiments, one in pre-starter phase (1 to 7 days and the other in the starter phase (8 to 21 days of age, were

  4. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  5. Techniques of Radio Astronomy

    Wilson, T L

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the techniques of radio astronomy. This study began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cosmos, but the period of rapid progress began fifteen years later. From then to the present, the wavelength range expanded from a few meters to the sub-millimeters, the angular resolution increased from degrees to finer than milli arc seconds and the receiver sensitivities have improved by large factors. Today, the technique of aperture synthesis produces images comparable to or exceeding those obtained with the best optical facilities. In addition to technical advances, the scientific discoveries made in the radio range have contributed much to opening new visions of our universe. There are numerous national radio facilities spread over the world. In the near future, a new era of truly global radio observatories will begin. This chapter contains a short history of the development of the field, details of calibration procedures, coherent/heterodyne and incoherent/bolom...

  6. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  7. Monte Carlo techniques

    The course of ''Monte Carlo Techniques'' will try to give a general overview of how to build up a method based on a given theory, allowing you to compare the outcome of an experiment with that theory. Concepts related with the construction of the method, such as, random variables, distributions of random variables, generation of random variables, random-based numerical methods, will be introduced in this course. Examples of some of the current theories in High Energy Physics describing the e+e- annihilation processes (QED, Electro-Weak, QCD) will also be briefly introduced. A second step in the employment of this method is related to the detector. The interactions that a particle could have along its way, through the detector as well as the response of the different materials which compound the detector will be quoted in this course. An example of detector at LEP era, in which these techniques are being applied, will close the course. (orig.)

  8. Orbital welding technique; Orbitalschweisstechnik

    Hoeschen, W. [Kraftanlagen Nukleartechnik GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The TIG (Tungsten-inert gas) orbital welding technique is applied in all areas of pipe welding. The process is mainly used for austenitic and ferritic materials but also for materials like aluminium, nickel, and titanium alloys are commonly welded according to this technique. Thin-walled as well as thick-walled pipes are welded economically. The application of orbital welding is of particular interest in the area of maintenance of thick-walled pipes that is described in this article. (orig.) [German] Die praktische Anwendung des Wolfram-Inertgas-(WIG-)Orbitalschweissverfahrens erfolgt in allen Sparten des Rohrleitungsbaues. Vorwiegend wird das Verfahren an austenitischen und ferritischen Werkstoffen eingesetzt. Aber auch andere Werkstoffe, wie Aluminium, Nickel- und Titanlegierungen, sind gaengige Praxis. Dabei werden sowohl duenn- als auch dickwandige Rohre wirtschaftlich verschweisst. In der Instandhaltung ist die Anwendung der Orbitaltechnik fuer dickwandige Rohre von besonderem Interesse und wird hier beschrieben. (orig.)

  9. Data collection techniques.

    Morgan, G A; Harmon, R J

    2001-08-01

    We have provided an overview of techniques used to assess variables in the applied behavioral sciences. Most of the methods are used by both quantitative/positivist and qualitative/constructivist researchers but to different extents. Qualitative researchers prefer more open-ended, less structured data collection techniques than do quantitative researchers. Direct observation of participants is common in experimental and qualitative research; it is less common in so-called survey research, which tends to use self-report questionnaires. It is important that investigators use instruments that are reliable and valid for the population and purpose for which they will be used. Standardized instruments have manuals that provide norms and indexes of reliability and validity. However, if the populations and purpose on which these data are based are different from yours, it may be necessary for you to develop your own instrument or provide new evidence of reliability and validity. PMID:11501698

  10. New measurements techniques

    Torras Rosell, Antoni

    Acoustic measurements are traditionally based on transducers, and in particular, the most advanced measurement techniques are nowadays based on transducer arrays. This poses a fundamental problem, namely the influence of the transducer itself on the actual properties of sound when the transducer is...... uncertainties to the measurement process. Optical techniques may help overcoming this problem because the sensing element is not a bulky instrument, but a beam of light that does not change the properties of sound. Optical methods are thus non-invasive and can thereby enhance the current state of the art in the...... measurement of sound. The present PhD study primarily examines the use of the acousto-optic effect, that is, the interaction between sound and light, as a means to characterize acoustic fields. The acousto-optic measuring principle does not provide a direct measure of the pressure, but the integral of the...

  11. CTV rendezvous techniques

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Anderson, Robert L.

    The cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) requires the capability to perform automated rendezvous with Space Station Freedom (SSF) using onboard sensors and algorithms. The current approach to CTV rendezvous applies techniques developed during the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) program which have been mechanized for automatic, onboard execution. The initial catch up sequence can be described as a passive rendezvous without explicit time of arrival control. The ultimate requirement for this rendezvous technique is to place the CTV on the SSF V-bar axis at some specified downrange distance. The launch vehicle will use yaw steering during orbit injection to achieve the proper phantom plane for nodal biasing. This presentation describes the primary components of the CTV rendezvous scheme.

  12. Laser isotope separation techniques

    Having examined the high cost and low efficiency of existing processes for separating uranium isotopes in comparison with the encouraging assessed figures for laser separation processes and having considered the high potential separation factors which make possibly very low 235U concentrations in the depleted tailings from laser separation processes, the design of such a system is considered. There are two essential features. Firstly, only one isotope must absorb laser radiation, and secondly that absorption must lead to a successful physical or chemical separation of that species which has been optically excited. Such a scheme is illustrated and discussed. The important aspect of loss mechanisms which can depopulate the selectively excited levels and the ways in which isotopes may exhibit differences in optical absorption frequencies are considered. Examples are given to illustrate techniques used in the separation stage. Finally a summary is presented of those elements in which some enrichment has been achieved by optical techniques. (U.K.)

  13. Oberst beam test technique

    Fasana, Alessandro; Garibaldi, Luigi; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Ruzzene, Massimo

    1998-06-01

    The definition of the mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials, i.e. the elastic modulus and the loss factor, is carried out, according to many national and international standards, with many different techniques, both of the resonant and non-resonant type. In this paper we focus our attention on the pros and cons of the resonant technique based on the classical Oberst beam method. When the damping material to be tested is not self-supporting, its properties are determined taking start from the measured modal frequencies and loss factors of a laminated beam, constituted by one or two metallic strips, ideally undamped, and one or two viscoelastic layers. The formulae specified on the standards hold valid under the assumptions of the theory developed by Kerwin, Ungar and Ross and we try in this paper to quantify witch deviation of the results should be expected when moving away from their ideal hypotheses.

  14. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Muhammad Ali Masood; M.N.A. Khan

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with dat...

  15. Management of science technique

    This book mentions change of environment and management of technique, business environment in information age technology and management such as classification of technology, innovation of technology and meaning of technology management, item innovation and technology about meaning of item development, innovation and item development, creation of item concept and item development, process of product innovation, product activity, product innovation product innovation and technology, development of product innovation, technology and marketing innovation, innovation of skill of marketing information system and globalization.

  16. Site characterization techniques

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    Geoelectrical methods have been used since the 1920's to search for metallic ore deposits. During the last decade, traditional mining geophysical techniques have been adapted for environmental site characterization. Geoelectrical geophysics is now a well developed engineering specialty, with different methods to focus both on a range of targets and on depths below the surface. Most methods have also been adapted to borehole measurements.

  17. Novel food processing techniques

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that a...

  18. Visual Data Mining Techniques

    Keim, Daniel A.; Ward, Matthew O.

    2002-01-01

    Never before in history has data been generated at such high volumes as it is today. Exploring and analyzing the vast volumes of data has become increasingly difficult. Information visualization and visual data mining can help to deal with the flood of information. The advantage of visual data exploration is that the user is directly involved in the data mining process. There are a large number of information visualization techniques that have been developed over the last two decades to suppo...

  19. Ozone flow visualization techniques

    Dickerson, R. R.; Stedman, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques using ozone for tracing gas flows are proposed whereby ozone is detected through its strong absorption of ultraviolet light, which is easily made visible with fluorescent materials, or through its reaction with nitric oxide to form excited nitrogen dioxide, which in relaxing emits detectable light. It is shown that response speeds in the kHz range are possible with an ultraviolet detection system for initial ozone concentrations of about 1%.

  20. Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    2007-01-01

    Today, the environment based on informatics influences continuously auditors’ work, because it creates new opportunities and new risks, additional rules in what concerns security, fairness and acceptable margin of error. The growth of the systems’ complexity, especially the informatics accounting Systems of ERP type (Enterprise Resource Planning), so as the large volume of transactions registered at present have lead to the replacement of the „manual”, classic audit techniques with modern tec...

  1. Emerging technology and techniques

    Gopi Naveen Chander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique of fabricating feldspathic porcelain pressable ingots was proposed. A 5 ml disposable syringe was used to condense the powder slurry. The condensed porcelain was sintered at 900΀C to produce porcelain ingots. The fabricated porcelain ingots were used in pressable ceramic machines. The technological advantages of pressable system improve the properties, and the fabricated ingot enhances the application of feldspathic porcelain.

  2. SUSY using boosted techniques

    Stark, Giordon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I present a discussion of techniques used in supersymmetry searches in papers published by the ATLAS Collaboration from late Run 1 to early Run 2. The goal is to highlight concepts the analyses have in common, why/how they work, and possible SUSY searches that could benefit from boosted studies. Theoretical background will be provided for reference to encourage participants to explore in depth on their own time.

  3. Empirical techniques in finance

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  4. Covariance mapping techniques

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  5. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  6. Autocontrol technique of combined centrifuges

    The design characteristic of the autocontrol technique of the combined centrifuge is introduced. Digital technique, vary structure control and interface technique, graphical display techniques, digital communication technique as well as electronic technique are applied in the course of research. Automation in the operation of large scale combined centrifuges and the course of combined test has been realized and it can coordinate with other systems of status monitoring, data collecting and centrifugal force-aerodynamic force matched load automatically

  7. Applied ALARA techniques

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  8. Optical techniques in optogenetics

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan

    2015-07-01

    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience, and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities.

  9. Pileup Mitigation Techniques

    Klein, Matthew Henry; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the ATLAS experiment in developing tools to mitigate the effects of pile-up. Forward pile-up jet tagging techniques, as well as constituent-level pile-up suppression algorithms are discussed in details. The impacts of these approaches on both jet energy and angular resolution, as well as jet substructure and boosted object tagging performance are discussed. Improvements to various physics channels of interest are discussed and the potential future of such algorithms — both online and offline, and both at the current LHC and a future high-luminosity LHC and beyond — is considered in detail

  10. DNA Microarray Technique

    Thakare SP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

  11. RFI emitter location techniques

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  12. Evolution of Opf techniques

    The paper analyses some possible applications of Opf techniques to the new market scenario of electric systems. New control tools (the adoption of Facts devices, or the use of correct economical signals related to nodal prices) are introduced. As the technical and economic requirements of the market could give rise to mutual conflict, the use of Multi objective Optimisation (MO) is envisaged. MO allows the management of different objectives and makes it easier to take a decision, as it gives indications on the consequences of the choice with respect to all the objective functions considered

  13. High voltage test techniques

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  14. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  15. Techniques de hacking

    Erickson, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

  16. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    E. Lubrano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  17. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

  18. Immunoassay separation technique

    A method for effecting the immunoassay of a multiplicity of samples, each possibly containing an antigen or an antibody to be assayed, is discussed. Each sample is incubated with a solution containing a detectable antigen or antibody to form a multiplicity of mixtures, each mixture containing as components antigen-antibody, non-complexed antigen and non-complexed antibody. At least one of the components of the said mixture is separated by adsorption. There after, quantity of detectable antigen or antibody is detected in one of the non-adsorbed portions of the mixture. An improvement, compared to other techniques, is the continuous and sequential separation of at least one component, which is intended to be separated from each said multiplicity of mixtures

  19. The Sterile Insect Technique

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  20. Advanced enrichment techniques

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  1. Hymenoptera marking technique

    A. M. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In true social hymenopterans, such as many species of bees, wasps and all species of ants, the main characteristics are the overlapping of generations, the care with the offspring and the division of labor among the members of the colony. The first biological feature means that in a same moment there are groups of individuals, with variable ages, that execute different activities in the colony. In order to study the division of labor among the members of the colony, or to estimate the life span of these insects, or even to analyze any kind of behavior in non-social insects, it is necessary to know the exact age of each individual. For this reason, the insects must be identified soon after emergence. The identification of insects with numbers is an important technological improvement in behavioral studies, mainly in honeybee colonies. The aim of this scientific note is to describe an easy and cheaper technique for marking hymenopterans.

  2. Phase angle measurement techniques

    Madge, R.; Fischer, D.

    1996-01-01

    Real-time measure of the power transfer across a transmission line was discussed. Phase angle measurement techniques, algorithms and applications relevant to power utilities were assessed. Phase-based applications compute the voltage angle difference between two stations, thereby allowing for power transfer calculations and power system control applications. A list of phase angle measurement applications was provided. It includes frequency measurement, state estimation, adaptive relaying, power system control, system restoration, real power flow monitoring and stability assessment, reactive power requirements monitoring, HVDC modulation, subsynchronous resonance, sequence of event recording, and loss reduction and fault location. The optimum timing requirement was determined for each application. Among the timing systems available today, the Global Positioning System (GPS), supported by powerful computers and other custom hardware, is the only tool that can provide the accuracy and coverage needed by today`s power system applications. Commercially available equipment for phase angle measurements was also reviewed. 30 refs., 32 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Percutaneous Sacroiliac Screw Technique.

    Tidwell, John; Cho, Rosa; Reid, J Spence; Boateng, Henry; Copeland, Carol; Sirlin, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Remembering that preoperative planning, surgical indications, and fracture reduction are paramount for this procedure, presented here is our technique for performing percutaneous sacroiliac screws, both transiliac-transsacral and sacral style. A combination of video, still pictures, and fluoroscopy images will guide the viewer through the process we routinely use highlighting specific details. Patient positioning and intraoperative fluoroscopy imaging are critical to a successful procedure. Although inlet and outlet films remain important, we find the procedure best started on the lateral sacral view to reduce the need for start site, trajectory, and imaging position changes during the case. A cannulated pig sticker (drill guide) used with long drill tip guide wires provide improved manual control to both finding a good start site and directing the trajectory. For patient safety, sacral anatomy and safe zones are discussed as well. Using these technical points will help make this a successful procedure. PMID:27441927

  4. Nuclear techniques in medicine

    Nuclear physics has played a large role in medical treatment and diagnosis, from the technologies used in nuclear physics experiments to nuclear reactions. Particle detector technology from experimental nuclear and particle physics is the basis of the various tomographic imaging modalities such as: the radioactive tracers used in nuclear medicine result from neutron induced reactions using nuclear reactor facilities; cyclotron production of short-lived isotopes which allows metabolism of brain and cardiac tissue to be measured; in-vivo neutron activation analysis which allows the measurement of trace elements in the body. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate some of those techniques such as, particle-beam treatments, neutron activation analyses, magnetic resonance imaging, and the physics involved. 5 figs., 1 tab., ills

  5. Technique for microswitch manufacture

    Kitamura, T.; Kiyoyama, S.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step technique for microswitch manufacture is described: (1) A clad board is inlaid with a precious metal and the board is pressed. (2) One end of the fixed contact containing a precious metal inlay section is curved, and this edge of the precious metal inlay section becomes a fixed contact. (3) Inserts are formed in the unit body and terminal strips are placed through the top and bottom of the base and held. (4) The unit body is held by the base and the sequential contact strips are cut off. (5) Movable stripes are attached to the support of the terminal strips on the movable side and movable contacts are placed opposite the fixed contacts.

  6. Geological data integration techniques

    The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

  7. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy; Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction; Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other; Deriving contours for planning teletherapy; Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit; Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs; Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  8. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy. Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction. Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other. Deriving contours for planning teletherapy. Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit. Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs. Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  9. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  10. MFIX documentation numerical technique

    Syamlal, M.

    1998-01-01

    MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges) is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model for describing chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, which typically occur in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. The calculations give time-dependent information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. The theoretical basis of the calculations is described in the MFIX Theory Guide. Installation of the code, setting up of a run, and post-processing of results are described in MFIX User`s manual. Work was started in April 1996 to increase the execution speed and accuracy of the code, which has resulted in MFIX 2.0. To improve the speed of the code the old algorithm was replaced by a more implicit algorithm. In different test cases conducted the new version runs 3 to 30 times faster than the old version. To increase the accuracy of the computations, second order accurate discretization schemes were included in MFIX 2.0. Bubbling fluidized bed simulations conducted with a second order scheme show that the predicted bubble shape is rounded, unlike the (unphysical) pointed shape predicted by the first order upwind scheme. This report describes the numerical technique used in MFIX 2.0.

  11. Improved Search Techniques

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  12. INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE MONITORING TECHNIQUE

    Ida Bagus Adi Kayana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Head injury is the most significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality. An estimated 1.4 million head injuries occur each year, with and more than 1.1 million come to the Emergency Unit. On each patient head injury, an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP related to poor outcomes and aggressive therapy to increased ICP can improve the outcomes. ICP monitoring is the most widely used because of the prevention and control of ICP as well as maintain the pressure increase perfusion of cerebral (Cerebral Perfusion Pressure/CPP is the basic purpose of handling head injury. There are two methods of monitoring ICP that is an invasive methods (directly and non-invasive techniques (indirectly. The method commonly used, namely intraventricular and intraparenkimal (microtransducer sensor because it is more accurate but keep attention to the existence of the risk of bleeding and infection resulting from installation. Monitoring of ICT can determine the actions that avoid further brain injury, which can be lethal and irreversibel.

  13. Specialized financing techniques

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  14. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  15. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  16. Technique of pneumatic pest control

    Schäfer, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Pest control in organic production of berries, potatoes and vegetables usually employs spreading technique of registered phytopharmaceutical agents. This technique may be supported or even replaced by pneumatic pest control. Up to now there is no evaluation of pneumatic pest control available from agricultural engineering point of view. This paper concerns the following questions: Which techniques of pneumatic pest control are available and how may these techniques be improved in ...

  17. Optical techniques for actinide research

    In recent years, substantial gains have been made in the development of spectroscopic techniques for electronic properties studies. These techniques have seen relatively small, but growing, application in the field of actinide research. Photoemission spectroscopies, reflectivity and absorption studies, and x-ray techniques will be discussed and illustrative examples of studies on actinide materials will be presented

  18. [Thoracic drainage technique for emergencies].

    Orsini, B; Bonnet, P M; Avaro, J P

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a simple, reproducible technique for pleural drainage. This technique that requires scant resources should be used only in life-threatening situations calling for pleural drainage. It is not intended to replace conventional techniques. PMID:20337108

  19. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  20. Dose Reduction Techniques

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  1. [Laparoscopic rectal resection technique].

    Anthuber, M; Kriening, B; Schrempf, M; Geißler, B; Märkl, B; Rüth, S

    2016-07-01

    The quality of radical oncological operations for patients with rectal cancer determines the rate of local recurrence and long-term survival. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced tumors, a standardized surgical procedure for rectal tumors less than 12 cm from the anus with total mesorectal excision (TME) and preservation of the autonomous nerve system for sexual and bladder function have significantly improved the oncological results and quality of life of patients. The TME procedure for rectal resection has been performed laparoscopically in Germany for almost 20 years; however, no reliable data are available on the frequency of laparoscopic procedures in rectal cancer patients in Germany. The rate of minimally invasive procedures is estimated to be less than 20 %. A prerequisite for using the laparoscopic approach is implicit adherence to the described standards of open surgery. Available data from prospective randomized trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate that in the early postoperative phase the generally well-known positive effects of the minimally invasive approach to the benefit of patients can be realized without any long-term negative impact on the oncological results; however, the results of many of these studies are difficult to interpret because it could not be confirmed whether the hospitals and surgeons involved had successfully completed the learning curve. In this article we would like to present our technique, which we have developed over the past 17 years in more than 1000 patients. Based on our experiences the laparoscopic approach can be highly recommended as a suitable alternative to the open procedure. PMID:27277556

  2. Advanced qualification techniques

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments

  3. Advanced qualification techniques

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structure-to-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-kev x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SCC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments

  4. Aseptic technique in microgravity.

    McCuaig, K

    1992-11-01

    Within the next decade, the United States will launch a space station into low Earth orbit as a preliminary step toward a manned mission to Mars. Provision of asepsis in the unique microgravity environment, essential in operative and invasive procedures, is addressed. An assessment of conventional terrestrial aseptic methods and possible modifications for a microgravity environment was done during the microgravity portion of parabolic flight on NASA KC-135 aircraft. During 110 parabolas on three flight days, a "surgical team" (surgeon, scrub nurse and circulating nurse) using a life size mannequin fastened to a prototype surgical "work station" (operating table), evaluated open and closed gloving (ten parabolas), skin preparation (six parabolas), surgical scrub methods (24 parabolas), gowning (22 parabolas) and draping (48 parabolas). Evaluated were povidone iodine solution, 1 percent povidone iodine detergent, Chloroxylenol with detergent, wet prep soap sponge, a water insoluble iodophor polymer (DuraPrep, 3M), disposable towels, disposable and reusable gowns, large and small disposable drapes with and without adhesive edges, disposable latex surgeon's gloves with and without packaging modifications and restraint mechanisms (tether, swiss seat, waist and foot restraint devices, fairfield and wire clamps and clips). Ease of use, provision of restraint for supplies and personnel and waste disposal were assessed. The literature was reviewed and its relevance to the space environment discussed, including risk factors, environmental contamination, immune status and microbiology. The microgravity environment, limited water supply and restricted operating area mandated that modifications of fabrication and packaging of supplies and technique be made to create and preserve asepsis. Material must meet stringent flammability and off-gassing standards. Either a chlorhexidine or povidone iodine detergent prepackaged brush and sponge would provide an adequate scrub plus

  5. New techniques in quality assurance

    GPU Nuclear Corp. has a multifaceted quality assurance (QA) program. This program includes a comprehensive QA organization to help ensure its implementation. The QA organization employs various techniques in assuring quality at GPU Nuclear. These techniques not only include the typical QA/quality-control verification activities, i.e., QA engineering, quality control, and audits, but also include some new innovative techniques. Several new techniques have been developed for verifying activities. These techniques include monitoring and functional audits of safety systems. Several new techniques for assessing performance and adequacy and effectiveness of plant and QA programs, such as plant assessments and QA systems engineering evaluations, have also been developed. This paper provides an overview of these and other new techniques being employed by GPU Nuclear's QA organization

  6. ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS

    Akwasi Asamoah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

  7. Practical hacking techniques and countermeasures

    Spivey, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Examining computer security from the hacker''s perspective, Practical Hacking Techniques and Countermeasures employs virtual computers to illustrate how an attack is executed, including the script, compilation, and results. It provides detailed screen shots in each lab for the reader to follow along in a step-by-step process in order to duplicate and understand how the attack works. It enables experimenting with hacking techniques without fear of corrupting computers or violating any laws.Written in a lab manual style, the book begins with the installation of the VMware® Workstation product and guides the users through detailed hacking labs enabling them to experience what a hacker actually does during an attack. It covers social engineering techniques, footprinting techniques, and scanning tools. Later chapters examine spoofing techniques, sniffing techniques, password cracking, and attack tools. Identifying wireless attacks, the book also explores Trojans, Man-in-the-Middle (MTM) attacks, and Denial of S...

  8. Semiconductor-laser modulation techniques

    Three simple modulation techniques for semiconductor lasers have been described. The first technique employs a single constant current source and is suitable for low frequency modulation up to 500 Khz. The second and third techniques employ two constant current sources each with current summing of subtraction and are suitable for higher frequency modulation up to several MHz. Schematic diagrams of designed, developed and tested circuits, implementing each of the above mentioned schemes, have also been presented. (author)

  9. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Search Techniques for Code Generation

    Gvero, Tihomir

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation explores techniques that synthesize and generate program fragments and test inputs. The main goal of these techniques is to improve and support automation in program synthesis and test input generation. This is important because performing those processes manually is often tedious, time consuming and error prone. The main challenge that these techniques face is exploring the search space in efficient and scalable ways. In the first part of the dissertation, we present tools ...

  11. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  12. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  13. Murine Heterotopic Heart Transplant Technique

    Plenter, Robert J.; Grazia, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    It is now over forty years since this technique was first reported by Corry, Wynn and Russell. Although it took some years for other labs to become proficient in and utilize this technique, it is now widely used by many laboratories around the world. A significant refinement to the original technique was developed and reported in 2001 by Niimi. Described here are the techniques that have evolved over more than a decade in the hands of three surgeons (Plenter, Grazia, Pietra) in our center. Th...

  14. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    Kampes, Bert M

    2006-01-01

    Only book on Permanent Scatterer technique of radar interferometryExplains the Permanent Scatterer technique in detail, possible pitfalls, and details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS techniqueThe use of Permanent Scatterer allows very precise measurements of the displacement of hundreds of points per square kilometerDescribes the only technique currently able to perform displacement measurements in the past, utilizing the ERS satellite data archive using data acquired from 1992-prese

  15. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  16. Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization

    Tim Lajcik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

  17. Optical techniques in regenerative medicine

    Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, tissue engineers largely rely on destructive and time-consuming techniques that do not allow in situ and spatial monitoring of tissue growth. Furthermore, once the therapy is implanted in the patient, clinicians are often unable to monitor what is happening in the body. To tackle these barriers, optical techniques have been developed to image and characterize many tissue properties, fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, and characterize the properties of the scaffolds. Optical Techniques in Regenerative Medicine illustrates how to use optical imaging techniques and

  18. Techniques to Bring Up Mucus

    ... Contact Us More COPD: Lifestyle Management Avoiding Infections Breathing Retraining Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Exercises Giving Up Smoking ... mucus is allowed to collect in the airways, breathing may become difficult and infection may occur. Techniques to remove mucus are often done after using ...

  19. A disposition of interpolation techniques

    Knotters, M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A large collection of interpolation techniques is available for application in environmental research. To help environmental scientists in choosing an appropriate technique a disposition is made, based on 1) applicability in space, time and space-time, 2) quantification of accuracy of interpolated v

  20. Software Testing Techniques and Strategies

    Isha,; Sunita Sangwan

    2014-01-01

    Software testing provides a means to reduce errors, cut maintenance and overall software costs. Numerous software development and testing methodologies, tools, and techniques have emerged over the last few decades promising to enhance software quality. This paper describes Software testing, need for software testing, Software testing goals and principles. Further it describe about different Software testing techniques and different software testing strategies.

  1. Exponential Finite-Difference Technique

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses use of explicit exponential finite-difference technique to solve various diffusion-type partial differential equations. Study extends technique to transient-heat-transfer problems in one dimensional cylindrical coordinates and two and three dimensional Cartesian coordinates and to some nonlinear problems in one or two Cartesian coordinates.

  2. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  3. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used lum...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...

  4. Murine heterotopic heart transplant technique.

    Plenter, Robert J; Grazia, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    It is now over forty years since this technique was first reported by Corry, Wynn and Russell. Although it took some years for other labs to become proficient in and utilize this technique, it is now widely used by many laboratories around the world. A significant refinement to the original technique was developed and reported in 2001 by Niimi. Described here are the techniques that have evolved over more than a decade in the hands of three surgeons (Plenter, Grazia, Pietra) in our center. These techniques are now being passed on to a younger generation of surgeons and researchers. Based largely on the Niimi experience, the procedures used have evolved in the fine details - details which we will endeavor to relate here in such a way that others may be able to use this very useful model. Like Niimi, we have found that a video aid to learning is a priceless resource for the beginner. PMID:25046118

  5. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  6. Theorists and Techniques: Connecting Education Theories to Lamaze Teaching Techniques.

    Podgurski, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Should childbirth educators connect education theory to technique? Is there more to learning about theorists than memorizing facts for an assessment? Are childbirth educators uniquely poised to glean wisdom from theorists and enhance their classes with interactive techniques inspiring participant knowledge and empowerment? Yes, yes, and yes. This article will explore how an awareness of education theory can enhance retention of material through interactive learning techniques. Lamaze International childbirth classes already prepare participants for the childbearing year by using positive group dynamics; theory will empower childbirth educators to address education through well-studied avenues. Childbirth educators can provide evidence-based learning techniques in their classes and create true behavioral change. PMID:26848246

  7. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  8. Statistical Techniques for Project Control

    Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    A project can be simple or complex. In each case, proven project management processes must be followed. In all cases of project management implementation, control must be exercised in order to assure that project objectives are achieved. Statistical Techniques for Project Control seamlessly integrates qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques for project control. It fills the void that exists in the application of statistical techniques to project control. The book begins by defining the fundamentals of project management then explores how to temper quantitative analysis with qualitati

  9. Underwater YAG laser welding technique

    When planning preventive maintenance of reactor components using welding, it is necessary to consider special environments such as narrow space or difficult accessibility while minimizing exposure to radiation in the reactor pressure vessel. Toshiba has developed an underwater neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd: YAG) laser welding technique. The features of this welding technique are low-heat-input welding and compact welding machine dimensions for welding in narrow spaces. This paper provides a summary of the new welding technique as a reliable welding technology. (author)

  10. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  11. Physical simulations using centrifuge techniques

    Centrifuge techniques offer a technique for doing physical simulations of the long-term mechanical response of deep ocean sediment to the emplacement of waste canisters and to the temperature gradients generated by them. Preliminary investigations of the scaling laws for pertinent phenomena indicate that the time scaling will be consistent among them and equal to the scaling factor squared. This result implies that this technique will permit accelerated-life-testing of proposed configurations; i.e, long-term studies may be done in relatively short times. Presently, existing centrifuges are being modified to permit scale model testing. This testing will start next year

  12. PIGE technique implementation at ININ

    Policroniades, R., E-mail: rafael.policroniades@inin.gob.mx; Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Méndez-Garrido, B.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Carr. México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, México CP 52750 (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    In this work, we present a general overview about the implementation at ININ of a Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis technique, based on the bombardment of samples by protons and deuterons at different energies within our tandem accelerator facility. As it is well known, this technique is based on the detection of γ-rays emitted by nuclei in a target following a charged particle irradiation. The main feature of this technique, apart from being non-destructive and low time consuming, is that it allows a multi-elemental analysis of a sample, permitting an isotopic identification of many nuclides. Advances and some preliminary results are presented.

  13. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  14. Food Physics and Radiation Techniques

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  15. The history of cesarean technique.

    Lurie, Samuel; Glezerman, Marek

    2003-12-01

    Cesarean section has been practiced since ancient times. Unfortunately, no ancient medical documents describing the techniques for cesarean section are extant. In the early medieval period, cesarean section was usually performed by midwives. One of the first explicit instructions in medical literature on cesarean technique dates from about 1480 ce from southern Germany. We discuss the evolution of cesarean surgical technique and point up the contribution of many giants in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, such as Blundell, Frank, Harris, Joel-Cohen, Kehrer, Kerr, Lebas, Levret, Maylard, Pfannenstiel, Porro, Portes, and Sanger. PMID:14710118

  16. Presentation-Oriented Visualization Techniques.

    Kosara, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Data visualization research focuses on data exploration and analysis, yet the vast majority of visualizations people see were created for a different purpose: presentation. Whether we are talking about charts showing data to help make a presenter's point, data visuals created to accompany a news story, or the ubiquitous infographics, many more people consume charts than make them. Traditional visualization techniques treat presentation as an afterthought, but are there techniques uniquely suited to data presentation but not necessarily ideal for exploration and analysis? This article focuses on presentation-oriented techniques, considering their usefulness for presentation first and any other purposes as secondary. PMID:26780762

  17. Visual and surface examination techniques

    Visual and surface examination techniques together make a very important component of any in-service inspection (ISI) programme. Though not many guidelines are available for the research reactors, the look at the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, which relates to ISI of power reactors, shows that these technique cover about 90% of all the components to be subjected to inspection. Though Eddy Current Test is also considered a surface examination technique, this article will cover only Visual Inspection, Magnetic Particle Test (MPT) and Liquid Penetrant Test (LPT)

  18. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  19. Food physics and radiation techniques

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  20. SECURING WMN USING HONEYPOT TECHNIQUE

    Priyanka Gupta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available WMN has been a field of active research in the recent years. Lot of research has focused various routing mechanism but very little effort has been made towards attack detection or intrusion detection. Inthis paper, we propose an attack detection approach for wireless mesh network using Honeypot technique. A Honeypot is a security resource whose value lies in being probed, attacked or compromised. A honeypot is designed to interact with attackers to collect attack techniques and behaviors. A collection of such Honeypots laid to effectively trap the attacker is called a Honeynet. In our paper, we propose ahoneynet, that is able to trap the attackers by analyzing their attacking techniques and thereby sending the logs to a centralized repository to analyze those logs so as to better understand the technique used for attacking.

  1. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    areas such as highly miniaturized analog and digital electronics, instrument space qualification, test and validation procedures, sensor fusion techniques and optimized software implementations to reach a successful conclusion. The content of the project thus represents cutting edge aerospace technology...

  2. Simple techniques can increase motivation

    Smith, E.A.

    1982-12-01

    Productivity depends upon strong motivation. This article describes how the symptoms of weak motivation can be detected among engineers and other employees and what to do about it. Fortunately, most people want to be productive and respond to simple motivation building techniques. These techniques include establishing twoway communication between supervisor and subordinate, delegating authority on the basis of responsibility, effective organization of time, and the use of positive reinforcement (or rewards) and, when conditions merit it, negative reinforcement (or sanctions).

  3. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision)

    Rogalski A.; Chrzanowski K.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems,...

  4. A disposition of interpolation techniques

    Knotters, M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A large collection of interpolation techniques is available for application in environmental research. To help environmental scientists in choosing an appropriate technique a disposition is made, based on 1) applicability in space, time and space-time, 2) quantification of accuracy of interpolated values, 3) incorporation of ancillary information, and 4) incorporation of process knowledge. The described methods include inverse distance weighting, nearest neighbour methods, geostatistical inte...

  5. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  6. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Yu Chen; Chia-Pin Liang; Yang Liu; Fischer, Andrew H.; Parwani, Anil V.; Liron Pantanowitz

    2012-01-01

    Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies") at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography) are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These...

  7. Discovering the Botnet Detection Techniques

    Rahim, Aneel; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T.

    Botnet is a network of compromised computers. It just fellow the master slave concept. Bots are comprised computers and do the tasks what ever their master orders them. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is used for the communication between the master and bots. Information is also encrypted to avoid the effect of third party. In this paper we discuss the Botnets detection techniques and comparative analysis of these techniques on the basis of DNS query, History data and group activity.

  8. Experimental technique of neutron reflection

    It is presented that the classifications, structures and components of neutron reflectometer (NR), as well s functions and parameters of each components, detailed characters of NR facility 'PRN-2M'. Based on the practical experiments, the basic experimental techniques, the measurement and the related experimental settings are described, including the choice of experimental conditions, adjustments of polarized neutron beam line, basic experimental technique and approach of measurement. The above can be an instruction for NR experiments and a reference for NR construction. (authors)

  9. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies" at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  10. Analytical applications of nuclear techniques

    The contributions from some of the world's leading nuclear analysts included in this book describe a variety of nuclear techniques and applications, such as those in the fields of environment and health, industrial processes, non-destructive testing, forensic and archaeological investigations and cosmochemistry, and in method validation. The descriptive articles demonstrate the advantages of nuclear techniques in, for example, analysing trace elements in submilligram samples in a single strand of hair or in kilogram samples of municipal waste. Halogenated organic compounds as well as major and trace inorganic constituents are analysed in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. Several different techniques are applied to investigate the authenticity of art objects and the origin of extraterrestrial material. Many applications of nuclear analytical techniques in industrial process control or in the production of high-tech materials are described, highlighting the socioeconomic benefit of these techniques in our daily lives. The book is intended to stimulate students, teachers and non-nuclear scientists to take the 'nuclear' option into consideration when deciding on a new field of study or an alternative analytical technique

  11. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Punia Supriya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Outlier Detection: Applications And Techniques

    Karanjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Outliers once upon a time regarded as noisy data in statistics, has turned out to be an important problem which is being researched in diverse fields of research and application domains. Many outlier detection techniques have been developed specific to certain application domains, while some techniques are more generic. Some application domains are being researched in strict confidentiality such as research on crime and terrorist activities. The techniques and results of such techniques are not readily forthcoming. A number of surveys, research and review articles and books cover outlier detection techniques in machine learning and statistical domains individually in great details. In this paper we make an attempt to bring together various outlier detection techniques, in a structured and generic description. With this exercise, we hope to attain a better understanding of the different directions of research on outlier analysis for ourselves as well as for beginners in this research field who could then pick up the links to different areas of applications in details.

  13. Techniques for thyroid imaging; Les techniques d`imagerie thyroidienne

    Hermans, J.

    1995-12-31

    Advances in imaging techniques has improved our understanding of diseases. The different imaging techniques for visualizing the thyroid parenchyma, including cyto-puncture, sonography, CT-scan, scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging, have provided various types of information. Do these techniques really provide the clinician with the answers to his questions. The information provided by the different imaging techniques is presented together with the insufficiencies of each method. Faced with the rising cost of health services, we developed analysis instruments which should help the clinician in a more rational use of diagnostic examinations. The question which most often arises is that of an isolated nodule within a multi-nodular goiter : is it malignant or benign. the analysis of the available techniques shows that cost-effective strategy uses conventional Tc99m or I123 scintigraphy and thallium 201 scintigraphy. With this strategy, the risk of missing a thyroid cancer is approximately 1.75%. With cyto-puncture, this risk is multiplied by a factor of 2.5 reaching 4.5%. (Author). 31 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Modified technique in treating recurrent priapism: a technique report

    Wei Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent ischemic priapism is a problem in clinical treatment. Most of the cases require more invasive surgery to shunt the blood stasis. We introduce a modified technique in treating recurrent ischemic priapism. The technique described is applied to acute ischaemic priapic episodes in patients with a history of stuttering priapism. It was carried out by a Winter's shunt combined with a continuous cavernosal irrigation system. Priapism was effectively resolved on the patients without recurrence. The four patients who received this treatment recovered most sexual function after 6 months follow-up.

  15. Annotation des Bulletins de Santé du Végétal

    Roussey, C.; Bernard, S.

    2015-01-01

    / Dans cet article nous décrivons les différents schémas d’annotation envisagés pour annoter des bulletins agricoles disponibles sur le web. Notre but est de publier aussi sur le web de données les annotations manuelles permettant le catalogage des bulletins mais aussi les index utilisables par un système de recherche d’information sémantique.

  16. Annotation des Bulletins de Santé du Végétal

    Roussey, C.; Bernard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Dans cet article nous décrivons les différents schémas d'annotation envisagés pour annoter des bulletins agricoles disponibles sur le web. Notre but est de publier aussi sur le web de données les annotations manuelles permettant le catalogage des bulletins mais aussi les index utilisables par un système de recherche d'information sémantique.

  17. Potentiel de production de biogaz à partir de résidus agricoles ou de cultures dédiées en France

    Essam Almansour, Jean-François Bonnet et Manuel Heredia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Et si on destinait une part importante des résidus agricoles à la production de biogaz ? Encore faut-il évaluer les ressources mobilisables, les taux de résidus disponibles, les moyens de collecte permettant la production ainsi que les rendements envisageables en fonction des cultures utilisées. L'étude présentée ici laisse entrevoir un potentiel important largement sous-estimé.

  18. Potentiel de production de biogaz à partir de résidus agricoles ou de cultures dédiées en France

    Essam Almansour, Jean-François Bonnet et Manuel Heredia

    2011-01-01

    Et si on destinait une part importante des résidus agricoles à la production de biogaz ? Encore faut-il évaluer les ressources mobilisables, les taux de résidus disponibles, les moyens de collecte permettant la production ainsi que les rendements envisageables en fonction des cultures utilisées. L'étude présentée ici laisse entrevoir un potentiel important largement sous-estimé.

  19. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Stephen M. Wesson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  20. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

  1. Dating techniques in fault investigations

    Determining the time of most recent fault movement is an important part of assessing a possible site for a nuclear power plant. The purpose of this paper is not to present research information but to provide a practical guide to some of the dating techniques available to the engineering geologist working on nuclear power plant siting. Emphasis is placed on the practical aspects, such as usable minerals, conditions necessary for them to yield correct dates, degree of accuracy, sample collection, sample size, and sample packaging. In this paper, the usual geologic field techniques are taken for granted (such as those used in stratigraphy, paleontology, and structural analysis) for assessing fault history. Laboratory techniques used in conjunction with or supplemental to field methods are discussed. The specific radiometric methods discussed are 14C(carbon-14), fission track, K-Ar (potassium-argon), thermoluminescense, Rb-Sr (rubidium-strontium), and U-Th (uranium-thorium). Racemization of amino acids, paleomagnetism, and fluid-inclusion techniques are the nonradiometric methods that are discussed. Our experiences with some of these techniques are described as well

  2. Review of uranium bioassay techniques

    A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, α-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: α-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided

  3. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  4. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  5. New techniques in neutron scattering

    New neutron sources being planned, such as the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) or the European Spallation Source (ESS), will provide an order of magnitude flux increase over what is available today, but neutron scattering will still remain a signal-limited technique. At the same time, the development of new materials, such as polymer and ceramic composites or a variety of complex fluids, will increasingly require neutron-based research. This paper will discuss some of the new techniques which will allow us to make better use of the available neutrons, either through improved instrumentation or through sample manipulation. Discussion will center primarily on unpolarized neutron techniques since polarized neutrons will be the subject of the next paper. (author)

  6. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision

    Rogalski A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.

  7. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART)

    Projections of charged particle beam current density (profiles) are frequently used as a measure of beam position and size. In conventional practice only two projections, usually horizontal and vertical, are measured. This puts a severe limit on the detail of information that can be achieved. A third projection provides a significant improvement. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) uses three or more projections to reconstruct 3-dimensional density profiles. At the 200 MeV H-linac, we have used this technique to measure beam density, and it has proved very helpful, especially in helping determine if there is any coupling present in x-y phase space. We will present examples of measurements of current densities using this technique

  8. Aseptic technique for cell culture.

    Coté, R J

    2001-05-01

    This unit describes some of the ways that a laboratory can deal with the constant threat of microbial contamination in cell cultures. A protocol on aseptic technique is described first. This catch-all term universally appears in any set of instructions pertaining to procedures in which noncontaminating conditions must be maintained. In reality, aseptic technique encompasses all aspects of environmental control, personal hygiene, equipment and media sterilization, and associated quality control procedures needed to ensure that a procedure is, indeed, performed with aseptic, noncontaminating technique. Although cell culture can theoretically be carried out on an open bench in a low-traffic area, most cell culture work is carried out using a horizontal laminar-flow clean bench or a vertical laminar-flow biosafety cabinet. Both are described here. PMID:18228291

  9. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  10. Cuban agriculture and nuclear techniques

    The application of nuclear techniques to agriculture emerged in Cuba at the end of the 60s. At the beginning only few researchers used these techniques for stimulating or mutational purposes. At the end of the 80 s systematic research began for its possible application to existing agricultural problems among which we can highlight radiomutable genesis and the determination of diagnostic damage of seeds by x-rays, plant nutrition and soil fertility, efficient water use, animal nutrition, reproduction and health as well as pest control

  11. Reactor vital equipment determination techniques

    The Reactor Vital Equipment Determination Techniques program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is discussed. The purpose of the program is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with technical support in identifying vital areas at nuclear power plants using a fault-tree technique. A reexamination of some system modeling assumptions is being performed for the Vital Area Analysis Program. A short description of the vital area analysis and supporting research on modeling assumptions is presented. Perceptions of program modifications based on the research are outlined, and the status of high-priority research topics is discussed

  12. Data Mining Concepts and Techniques

    Han, Jiawei; Pei, Jian

    2011-01-01

    The increasing volume of data in modern business and science calls for more complex and sophisticated tools. Although advances in data mining technology have made extensive data collection much easier, it's still always evolving and there is a constant need for new techniques and tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge. Since the previous edition's publication, great advances have been made in the field of data mining. Not only does the third of edition of Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques continue the tradition of equipping you with an understandin

  13. Physics aids new medical techniques

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays, fundamental physics has been a source of ideas for radiography and medical imaging. A new imaging method firmly rooted in particle physics was chosen by Time magazine as one of its "Inventions of the Year 2000". The award-winning invention in the medical science category was a scanner that combined the advantages of computer tomography with positron emission tomography. The use of these techniques, which depend on detecting and analysing electromagnetic radiation (X-rays or gamma rays respectively), show that detection techniques from particle physics have made, and continue to make, essential contributions to medical science. (0 refs).

  14. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  15. Add-A-Source technique

    Counting neutrons emitted by spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes is a means for determining Plutonium content in samples. Correlations techniques have been developed for separating such neutrons from a background of nonfission neutrons due to (α, n) reactions. Further procedures are then used to correct the effect of neutron-induced fission. In order to perform such a correction the sample's chemical composition (including the presence of moisture) must be a well known parameter. The present paper reports a theoretical formulation of a new approach (add-a-source technique), which could allow to correct the measurement indipendently by the knowledge of the sample's chemical composition

  16. Test Case Reduction Techniques - Survey

    Marwah Alian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regression testing is considered to be the most expensive phase in software testing. Therefore, regression testing reduction eliminates the redundant test cases in the regression testing suite and saves cost of this phase. In order to validate the correctness of the new version software project that resulted from maintenance phase, Regression testing reruns the regression testing suite to ensure that the new version. Several techniques are used to deal with the problem of regression testing reduction. This research is going to classify these techniques regression testing reduction problem.

  17. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics

    It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)

  18. Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques

    The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

  19. High-speed pulse techniques

    Coekin, J A

    1975-01-01

    High-Speed Pulse Techniques covers the many aspects of technique in digital electronics and encompass some of the more fundamental factors that apply to all digital systems. The book describes the nature of pulse signals and their deliberate or inadvertent processing in networks, transmission lines and transformers, and then examines the characteristics and transient performance of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Some of the problems associated with the assembly of these into viable systems operating at ultra high speed are also looked at. The book examines the transients and w

  20. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

    2011-10-01

    This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a

  1. A measurement technique for hydroxyacetone

    Klotz, P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C{double{underscore}bond}CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NOx. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water, the authors developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one they reported earlier, namely, derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, they adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island, New York. The authors report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  2. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS

    . Ramageri; Bharati M.

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

  3. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Lujan, Elmer J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); May, Iain [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-04-14

    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies™ ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as is summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  4. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave;

    1997-01-01

    interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  5. Digital synchronization and communication techniques

    Lindsey, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.

  6. Identifying Major Techniques of Persuasion.

    Makosky, Vivian Parker

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this class exercise is to increase undergraduate psychology students' awareness of common persuasion techniques used in advertising, including the appeal to or creation of needs, social and prestige suggestion, and the use of emotionally loaded words and images. Television commercials and magazine advertisements are used as…

  7. Advances of the IBIC technique

    The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique has been used for a wide variety of analytical applications in the study of semiconductor materials. This paper briefly reviews these uses and identifies those areas which require further development in order to facilitate the more widespread use of the IBIC method. Progress towards implementing these improvements is discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig

  8. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

  9. Holographic techniques in stereo radiography

    Some methods for stereo-radiography based on holographic technique are described. A new method has been proposed in which the wavefront reconstruction process is involved. It appears that this method could be used for the useful clinical radio-diagnostic purposes. (author)

  10. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    ... devised a way to successfully treat symptoms resembling multiple sclerosis in a mouse model. With further development, the technique might be ... better, at inducing T-cell tolerance in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. The particles both prevented symptoms and slowed their ...

  11. Advances phase-lock techniques

    Crawford, James A

    2008-01-01

    From cellphones to micrprocessors, to GPS navigation, phase-lock techniques are utilized in most all modern electronic devices. This high-level book takes a systems-level perspective, rather than circuit-level, which differentiates it from other books in the field.

  12. Techniques of English Textbooks Adaptation

    张婧雯; 杨竞欧

    2014-01-01

    This essay attempts to aim English teachers to evaluate and adapt the current English textbooks.According to different levels and majors of the students,English teachers can enhance the teaching materials and their teaching skills.This paper would provide several useful techniques for teachers to make evaluations and adaptations of using teaching materials.

  13. BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques

    This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

  14. Techniques for anaerobic susceptibility testing.

    Thornsberry, C

    1977-03-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents for anaerobic bacteria can be determined by agar dilution and broth dilution (including microdilution) techniques. If MICs are not determined routinely, the disk broth or category methods are recommended for routine use. The Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method and its interpretative standards should not be used for anaerobes. PMID:850089

  15. Nuclear techniques and human behavior

    The development of nuclear energy discovery and utilization is introduce briefly. It is dissertated the necessity of developing nuclear power and the essentiality of strengthening environment monitoring. It is brought forward that nuclear techniques can bring civilization and progress, but it can bring disaster if not correct uses

  16. Functional Techniques in Classical Mechanics

    Gozzi, E

    2001-01-01

    In 1931 Koopman and von Neumann extended previous work of Liouville and provided an operatorial version of Classical Mechanics (CM). In this talk we will review a path-integral formulation of this operatorial version of CM. In particular we will study the geometrical nature of the many auxiliary variables present and of the unexpected universal symmetries generated by the functional technique.

  17. New techniques in digital holography

    Picart, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art presentation of important advances in the field of digital holography, detailing advances related to fundamentals of digital holography, in-line holography applied to fluid mechanics, digital color holography, digital holographic microscopy, infrared holography, special techniques in full field vibrometry and inverse problems in digital holography

  18. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors.

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-06-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  19. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  20. Rhinoplasty – indications and techniques

    Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty is considered to be one of the most challenging procedures in otolaryngology head and neck surgery. Meticulous planning and excellent surgical skills are pre-requisites for reproducible good outcomes. More than 100 years after the first rhinoplasty, many controversies regarding indication and techniques remain unresolved. The aim of this article is to review current concepts and arguments.

  1. Survey of Biochemical Separation Techniques

    Nilsson, Melanie R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is illustrated that exposes students to wide range of separation techniques in one laboratory program and provides a nice complement to a project-oriented program. Students have learned the basic principles of syringe filtration, centricon, dialysis, gel filtration and solid-phase extraction methodologies and have got…

  2. Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques

    An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

  3. Spline techniques for magnetic fields

    This report is an overview of B-spline techniques, oriented toward magnetic field computation. These techniques form a powerful mathematical approximating method for many physics and engineering calculations. In section 1, the concept of a polynomial spline is introduced. Section 2 shows how a particular spline with well chosen properties, the B-spline, can be used to build any spline. In section 3, the description of how to solve a simple spline approximation problem is completed, and some practical examples of using splines are shown. All these sections deal exclusively in scalar functions of one variable for simplicity. Section 4 is partly digression. Techniques that are not B-spline techniques, but are closely related, are covered. These methods are not needed for what follows, until the last section on errors. Sections 5, 6, and 7 form a second group which work toward the final goal of using B-splines to approximate a magnetic field. Section 5 demonstrates how to approximate a scalar function of many variables. The necessary mathematics is completed in section 6, where the problems of approximating a vector function in general, and a magnetic field in particular, are examined. Finally some algorithms and data organization are shown in section 7. Section 8 deals with error analysis

  4. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  5. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  6. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper

  7. Programa y recursos disponibles para una visita guiada. Atapuerca y la evolución humana

    Huedo González, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata sobre la búsqueda de programas y recursos que existen en la actualidad para realizar una visita escolar guiada al entorno de la Sierra de Atapuerca. El entorno natural de la Sierra de Atapuerca es un complejo arqueológico de extraordinaria importancia para el estudio de la evolución humana, situado en la provincia de Burgos. Este trabajo da la ocasión de conocer la historia y los lugares que se pueden visitar en el entorno de la Sierra de Atapuerca, de hacer un r...

  8. Gestion communale du patrimoine arboré non forestier : aperçu des moyens disponibles

    Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban tree management in walloon municipalities: overview of available means. A survey has been sent in 2006 to the 262 municipalities from Wallonia concerning their green areas management and particularly focused on local arboricultural heritage. The questionnaire was structured by 3 themes: (1 the managed heritage, (2 economical and technical means available for municipalities, (3 available management tools. Fifty-three answers have been gathered which represent 20.2%. This enquiry gives a first overview of the situation. It shows that 70% of answering municipalities have no specific green service. Tree management is a priority for only 11% of the municipal services that are involved in urban greening. Half of the municipalities are delegating at least a part of green area management to private societies. That concerns tree pruning, safety diagnosis, tree care and revitalisation. Only 15% of municipalities have a complete inventory of their trees. Ninety percent declare they have no planning tool and 95% have no legal text describing good management practices. An important information and formation work is then necessary to reinforce local tree managers to avoid that well known mistakes continue to be done (death of veteran trees after herbicide misuse, tree topping, root destruction during public works, etc..

  9. Gestion communale du patrimoine arboré non forestier : aperçu des moyens disponibles

    Paul R.; Toussaint A.; Campanella B.; Empain C.

    2008-01-01

    Urban tree management in walloon municipalities: overview of available means. A survey has been sent in 2006 to the 262 municipalities from Wallonia concerning their green areas management and particularly focused on local arboricultural heritage. The questionnaire was structured by 3 themes: (1) the managed heritage, (2) economical and technical means available for municipalities, (3) available management tools. Fifty-three answers have been gathered which represent 20.2%. This enquiry gives...

  10. Jaime Sabines no ha muerto. Materiales de consulta disponibles en la Biblioteca Central. Lectura obligada

    Muela-Meza, Zapopan Martín

    1999-01-01

    Short article (Jaime Sabines hasn't died. Reference works at the Central Library. A must read work) describing the electronic reference works related to Jaime Sabines poet available at the Reference Section, Central Library, Ciudad Juarez Autonomous University, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  11. Formation sécurité : places disponibles dans les sessions de juin

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    Il reste des places dans les formations sécurité suivantes. Pour les mises à jour et les inscriptions, veuillez vous reportez au catalogue des formations sécurité. Safety in Cryogenics level 1, 14 juin, en anglais, 3 heures, 9h00 – 12h00 (5 places) Radiological Protection, 18 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Radiological Protection, 22 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 08h30 – 12h30 (15 places) Sécurité Radiologique, 22 juin, en français, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Conduite de chariots élévateurs, 24-25 juin, en français, 2 jours, 8h00 – 17h30 (3 places) 

  12. Estudo do desgaste abrasivo das resinas compostas disponíveis no mercado brasileiro

    Eduardo Carlos Bianchi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a proposal to assess the abrasive wear of composite resins available in the national market, which are materials largely used in dental clinics for functional and aesthetic tooth restorations. This was achieved by utilizing an experimental set-up on which a dynamic disc covered with proper porcelain (representing hardness close to the human teeth wears a static disc covered with the resin tested under a constant and pre-determined load. Thus, by means of this set-up and keeping a behavioral status needed to the calculus for all tests, the aggressiveness (referred as to letter k for all tests was analyzed. Due to the fact that resin characteristic revels how weary the material has become to the abrasion process with other harder material, the strength to wear for such resins was observed. Therefore, a real classification for these materials with their strength to the abrasion wear was made, which is a very important factor in the influence on their lifetime in dental restorations. The classification in descending order for those resins is presented as following: HELIOMOLAR RO, DURAFILL, FILTEK A110, HELIO FILL, POINT 4, FLOW IT; NATURAL FLOW, SUPRAFILL, FILTEK P60, FILTEK Z250, TETRIC FLOW, REVOLUTION, PRODIGY, TETRIC CERAM, HERCULITE, FILLMAGIC, TPH, CHARISMA, Z100.

  13. Estudo do desgaste abrasivo das resinas compostas disponíveis no mercado brasileiro

    Bianchi Eduardo Carlos; Aguiar Paulo Roberto de; Poggi Márcio Rodrigo; Salgado Manoel Henrique; Freitas César Antunes de; Bianchi Ana Rita Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    This work presents a proposal to assess the abrasive wear of composite resins available in the national market, which are materials largely used in dental clinics for functional and aesthetic tooth restorations. This was achieved by utilizing an experimental set-up on which a dynamic disc covered with proper porcelain (representing hardness close to the human teeth) wears a static disc covered with the resin tested under a constant and pre-determined load. Thus, by means of this set-up and ke...

  14. Etablissement de tests permettant de mesurer l'impact sur les performances de la sécurisation d'IPv6 par IPsec

    Bernard, Nicolas

    2002-01-01

    Magistère d'Informatique et Modélisation. Rapport de stage. Ce document explique comment s'effectue la sécurisation des réseaux IPv6 à l'aide du protocole IPsec. Il présente, dans le contexte du système FreeBSD, comment est réalisée l'implémentation d'IPsec, sa configuration statique et dynamique. Il décrit ensuite les différents outils de mesure de performance utilisés et leur portage sur IPv6. Il présente enfin les résultats des tests réalisés au sein du laboratoire.

  15. Traitement de 46 malades porteurs de stades IV ORL par radiochimiothérapie concomitante selon un protocole permettant une radiosensibilisation de toutes les séances

    Baillet, F.; Dessard-Diana, B.; Diana, C.; Simon, J. M.; Mazeron, J. J.; Pierga, J. Y.; Dendale, R.

    1998-04-01

    An external beam therapy with two fractions a day giving 48Gy with 16fractions and 45days, initialy palliative, has been shown to be well adapted for a simultaneous radiosensitizing chemotherapy employment. Associated to a cisplatin, fluorouracyl, etoposide and hydrea based chemotherapy, it has been applyed to 46patients with inoperable stages IV ORL tumors including 91% T4, 9% T3, 48% N2N3, 72% performans status equal or less than2. With a 30months observation median delay a clinical complete response at 4months is observed in 93%, with further locoregional relapses in 38%. One year survival is 58%, 2years 40%, 3years 35%. These results are equal or better than those obtained with hyperfractionnated, accelerated, hyper-fractionnated and accelerated, and classical radiotherapy. Une radiothérapie bifractionnée donnant 48 Gy en 16 séances et 45 jours, initialement palliative, s'est révélée bien adaptée pour l'emploi simultané d'une chimiothérapie radiosensibilisante. Associée à une chimiothérapie à base de cisplatine, fluoro-uracile, etoposide et hydrea, elle a été appliquée à 46 malades porteurs de cancers ORL de stade IV inopérables comprenant 91 % de T4, 9 % de T3, 48 % de N2N3, 72 % de performans status égaux ou inférieurs à 2. Avec un délai médian d'observation de 30 mois on observe 93 % de réponses cliniques complètes à 4 mois avec 38 % de récidives locorégionales ultérieures. La survie est de 58 % à 1 an, 40 % à 2 ans et de 35 % à 3 ans. Ces résultats sont égaux ou supérieurs à ceux qui ont été obtenus avec des radiothérapies hyperfractionnées, accélérées, hyperfractionnées et accélérées, et classiques.

  16. Technical parameters to decrease the radiation dose from conventional and digital radiographs; Elements technologiques permettant de reduire la dose en radiologie conventionnelle et numerique

    Foulquier, J.N. [Service de radiotherapie, Hopital Tenon, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-11-15

    Reducing radiation dose while maintaining adequate image quality on conventional and digital radiographs requires optimal use of the unit. Additional filtration avoids unnecessary tissue exposure and improves photon transmission. Automatic exposure control may reduce exposure and dose. The volume of tissue imaged must be limited by the use of diaphragms and shutters or compression. Sensitive detectors with increased photon detection also contribute to reduce dose. Radiographic films combined to rare-earth screens also afford a good photon-conversion efficiency. Large area flat panel amorphous silicon x-ray sensors may also reduce dose up to 50% compared to films. Finally, calculation of the Kerma-area product independent of the source distance constitutes an important indicator of radiation dose. (author)

  17. Association d’une culture de rente et espèces compagnes permettant la fourniture de services écosystémiques

    David, C.; Cadoux, S.; Lorin, Mathieu; Celette, Florian; Amosse, Camille; Basset, A

    2014-01-01

    Dans un contexte de réduction de la dépendance de notre agriculture aux intrants, les associations temporaires de plantes compagnes pourraient présenter de nombreux intérêts : la réduction de certains bioagresseurs tels que les insectes ou les adventices, l’enrichissement du système de cultures en azote atmosphérique, l’augmentation de la qualité et la productivité de la culture de rente en place ou de la suivante. L’objectif de cet article est de présenter les services écosystémiques rendus,...

  18. ALGORTITHME PERMETTANT L'ÉVALUATION DU DYSFONCTIONNEMENT DES VENTRICULES GAUCHE ET DROIT INDÉPENDAMMENT L'UN DE L'AUTRE.

    Venet, Richard,; Dupont, T.; Pavie, Alain; Leger, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Connaissant les résultats d'un cathétérisme cardiaque, peut-on calculer les performances des ventricules gauche et droit ? Pour cela nous avons appliqué les principes de l'hydraulique des pompes au cœur artificiel Jarvik-7-100 monté sur un banc expérimental. L'étude hydraulique, sur banc expérimental, des ventricules pneumatiques mis en mouvement par de l'air comprimé du cœur artificiel totalement implantable Jarvik nous a montré que ce sont des pompes alternatives à clapets dont les courbes ...

  19. Développement d'outils microbiologiques et chimiques permettant d'identifier l'origine des pollutions fécales dans les eaux de baignades

    Pourcher, A.M.; Jardé, E.; Caprais, M.P.; Wéry, N.; Jadas Hécart, A.; Communal, P.Y.; Jaffrezic, R.; Marti, R; Mieszkin, S.; Derrien, M; Solecki, O.; Jeanneau, L.; Gourmelon, M.

    2010-01-01

    / La pollution organique issue des effluents d'élevage et des stations d'épuration urbaines conduit à un problème essentiel de santé publique lié à la contamination des eaux de surface où s'exercent des activités sensibles telles que la baignade. S'il est possible de déterminer les pollutions localisées liées à un dysfonctionnement des systèmes de traitement, il est beaucoup plus difficile d'identifier les pollutions organiques diffuses qui participent pourtant majoritairement à la dégradatio...

  20. Nanosecond decay-time techniques

    The repetitive time-selection technique of fluorescence decay-time measurement as devised by Becquerel in 1859 is limited by the mechanics of the apparatus to a decay-time range of ≥10-4 s. In the original device the fluorescent spot was permitted to move repeatedly past an area of constant illumination and the spot was thereafter observed repeatedly at predetermined time intervals after passage through the illuminated area. In an electronic equivalent of this technique (cf. Dreeskamp and Burton, Phys. Rev. Letters, 2, (1959) 45, the luminescent region remains in constant position but the beam from a 30-kV X-ray tube is interrupted after ∼ 0.8 ns and the luminescence produced (during a time of ∼ 0.4 ns) is thereafter observed repetitively, at predetermined time intervals after the beginning of the cut-off of illumination by the X-ray tube, via an image converter and photomultiplier system. By the use of this technique we have observed decay phenomena which are complete in several nanoseconds and the decay times of which can be established, for example, as 2.2 ± 0.1 ns. The special virtues of this technique are that the decay curve established is, in principle, not affected by the decay constants of the various parts of the electronic system and is extendable over a broad range of intensity (a factor of 100). Further, the actual curve can be established with a high degree of accuracy so that one is not constrained by preconceived notions to assuming a first-power decay law and the selection of a decay constant based on such a notion. Indeed, although we have now found that in many cases (e.g., p-terphenyl scintillator in benzene or cyclohexane solvent) an initial part of the decay curve is apparently first order, we are yet to observe a case in which the decay is singularly first order over the entire observation range made accessible by this technique. Recent improvements in the accuracy of the technique have made possible a clearer understanding of the

  1. Adaptation des techniques de forage à la recherche et à l'équipement des stockages souterrains de gaz naturel Adapting Drilling Techniques to the Search for and Equipment of Underground Natural-Gas Storage Facilities

    Grandin J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour répondre à la modulation annuelle de la consommation de gaz, le Gaz de France a décidé, il y a une trentaine d'années, de stocker du gaz, soit dans des nappes aquifères, soit dans des cavités salines. La recherche de structures géologiques aptes à recevoir ce gaz, la réalisation et l'équipement de puits d'exploration ou d'exploitation, l'entretien de ces puits et le contrôle des stockages ont été confiés au Département réservoirs souterrains de la Direction des études et techniques nouvelles. Les phases d'exploration et de développement d'un stockage souterrain nécessitent le forage de puits du type pétrolier. Ces sondages permettent, d'une part la récupération d'un maximum de renseignements concernant les différentes couches géologiques traversées et l'évaluation de leur aptitude à stocker le gaz, et d'autre part, d'assurer une exploitation optimale et fiable du stockage dans les meilleures conditions de sécurité. La pratique acquise dans l'exécution de ces forages par le Gaz de France lui a permis d'adapter aux stockages souterrains de nombreuses techniques des forages pétroliers. Parallèlement des procédés originaux ont pu être mis au point pour répondre à certaines exigences particulières du forage des puits de réservoirs souterrains, notamment à celles concernant le bon calibrage du trou foré ou la qualité des cimentations des cuvelages. L'article présente l'ensemble de ces adaptationset pratiques originales; bien que ne prétendant rien d'autre qu'apporter une contribution au chapitre problèmes particuliers des forages pour stockages souterrains de la technique pétrolière, certaines de celles-ci devraient pouvoir, en retour, trouver des applications intéressantes dans les forages pétroliers de moyenne profondeur. About 30 years ago and with a view to keep pace with the annual variation of gas consumption, Gaz de France decided to store gas in either aquifer layers or salt cavities. The

  2. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  3. Physical simulations using centrifuge techniques

    Centrifuge techniques offer a method for doing physical simulations of the long-term mechanical response of deep ocean sediment to the emplacement of waste canisters and to the temperature gradients generated by them. Theoretical investigations of the scaling laws for pertinent phenomena indicate that the time scaling will be consistent among them and equal to the scaling factor squared. This result implies that this technique will permit accelerated-life-testing or proposed configurations; i.e., long-term studies may be done in relatively short times. Medium-scale simulation experiments that are designed to investigate the mechanical response of the sediment are currently in progress. Large-scale simulations can be started in the near future with the completion of the modifications to the Sandia-25 centrifuge

  4. Laryngoscope decontamination techniques: A survey

    Chawla, Rajiv; Gupta, Akhilesh; Gupta, Anshu; Kumar, Mritunjay

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: India is a vast country with variable, nonuniform healthcare practices. A laryngoscope is an important tool during general anesthesia and resuscitation. The study aimed to determine the current practices of laryngoscope decontamination in India. Material and Methods: An online survey was conducted amongst 100 anesthesiologists to determine the common methods of laryngoscope decontamination adopted in their settings. The survey was done over 6 months after validating the questionnaire. Results: A total of 73 responses were received out of 100. The result of the survey revealed that there is no uniform technique of laryngoscope decontamination. There is marked variability in techniques followed not only among different institutions, but also within the same institution. Conclusion: There are no fixed protocols adopted for laryngoscope decontamination. Thus, there is a need to develop definitive guidelines on this subject, which can be implemented in India. PMID:27006551

  5. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  6. Simulation techniques for cosmological simulations

    Dolag, K; Schindler, S; Diaferio, A; Bykov, A M

    2008-01-01

    Modern cosmological observations allow us to study in great detail the evolution and history of the large scale structure hierarchy. The fundamental problem of accurate constraints on the cosmological parameters, within a given cosmological model, requires precise modelling of the observed structure. In this paper we briefly review the current most effective techniques of large scale structure simulations, emphasising both their advantages and shortcomings. Starting with basics of the direct N-body simulations appropriate to modelling cold dark matter evolution, we then discuss the direct-sum technique GRAPE, particle-mesh (PM) and hybrid methods, combining the PM and the tree algorithms. Simulations of baryonic matter in the Universe often use hydrodynamic codes based on both particle methods that discretise mass, and grid-based methods. We briefly describe Eulerian grid methods, and also some variants of Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods.

  7. Techniques for Quantifying Phytoplankton Biodiversity

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The biodiversity of phytoplankton is a core measurement of the state and activity of marine ecosystems. In the context of historical approaches, we review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, high-throughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whose breadth is not fully constrained. Other molecular tools—such as fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization—have provided additional insight into the dynamics of this diversity in the context of environmental variability. Techniques for characterizing the functional diversity of community structure through targeted or untargeted approaches based on RNA or protein have also greatly advanced. A wide range of techniques is now available for characterizing phytoplankton communities, and these tools will continue to advance through ongoing improvements in both technology and data interpretation.

  8. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  9. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception. PMID:27247675

  10. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    Martina Vicianova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe. The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System, functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  11. CT colonography: techniques, indications, findings.

    Mang, Thomas; Graser, Anno; Schima, Wolfgang; Maier, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions. PMID:17224254

  12. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions

  13. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    Mang, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: thomas.mang@meduniwien.ac.at; Graser, Anno [Department of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Campus, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Schima, Wolfgang [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Maier, Andrea [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions.

  14. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  15. Hand lay-up techniques

    Wittman, C.; Shook, G. D.

    The materials, processes, and techniques, as well as comparisons of various hand and spray-up FRP finished product manufacturing procedures are presented. The steps followed in producing a finished product are noted to nominally comprise coating a form with a gel, build-up of the structure with reinforcing fibers and catalyzed polyester resin, curing, and impaction to remove trapped air. The part emerges with a finished surface prepainted by the gel. Design choices for the percentages and orientation of the reinforcement, the types of fillers, and the types of resins are dictated by the types and intensity of stresses to be encountered by the part in actual use. Examples are provided of the manufacture of a machine cover, a pressure tank formerly made of metal. Techniques for assuring integrity of the laminate in changes of thickness, joints, openings, and severe contours are described.

  16. Graph partitioning advance clustering technique

    Madhulatha, T Soni

    2012-01-01

    Clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, Clustering is the process of grouping the data into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters. Dissimilarities are assessed based on the attribute values describing the objects. Often, distance measures are used. Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique, where interesting patterns and structures can be found directly from very large data sets with little or none of the background knowledge. This paper also considers the partitioning of m-dimensional lattice graphs using Fiedler's approach, which requires the determination of the eigenvector belonging to the second smallest Eigenvalue of the Laplacian with K-means partitioning algorithm.

  17. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  18. Decomposition Techniques for Subgraph Matching

    Zampelli, Stephane; Deville, Yves; Backofen, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    In the constraint programming framework, state-of-the-art static and dynamic decomposition techniques are hard to apply to problems with complete initial constraint graphs. For such problems, we propose a hybrid approach of these techniques in the presence of global constraints. In particular, we solve the subgraph isomorphism problem. Further we design specific heuristics for this hard problem, exploiting its special structure to achieve decomposition. The underlying idea is to precompute a static heuristic on a subset of its constraint network, to follow this static ordering until a first problem decomposition is available, and to switch afterwards to a fully propagated, dynamically decomposing search. Experimental results show that, for sparse graphs, our decomposition method solves more instances than dedicated, state-of-the-art matching algorithms or standard constraint programming approaches.

  19. Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

  20. Non destructive assay (NDA) techniques

    In the IAEA Safeguards System the basic verification method used is nuclear material accountancy, with containment and surveillance as important complementary measures. If nuclear material accountancy is to be effective, IAEA inspectors have to make independent measurements to verify declared material quantities. Most of the equipment available to the inspectors is designed to measure gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by various nuclear materials. Equipment is also available to measure the gross weight of an item containing nuclear material. These types of measurement techniques are generally grouped under the title of nondestructive assay (NDA). The paper describes the NDA techniques and instruments used to verify the total amount of nuclear material held at a nuclear facility. (author)

  1. Data mining concepts and techniques

    Han, Jiawei

    2005-01-01

    Our ability to generate and collect data has been increasing rapidly. Not only are all of our business, scientific, and government transactions now computerized, but the widespread use of digital cameras, publication tools, and bar codes also generate data. On the collection side, scanned text and image platforms, satellite remote sensing systems, and the World Wide Web have flooded us with a tremendous amount of data. This explosive growth has generated an even more urgent need for new techniques and automated tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge.Like the first edition, voted the most popular data mining book by KD Nuggets readers, this book explores concepts and techniques for the discovery of patterns hidden in large data sets, focusing on issues relating to their feasibility, usefulness, effectiveness, and scalability. However, since the publication of the first edition, great progress has been made in the development of new data mining methods, systems, and app...

  2. Nuclear techniques in food production

    This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination

  3. Electromigration techniques theory and practice

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

  4. VLBI Techniques in Pulsar Astronomy

    Brisken, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) provides the resolution needed to make precision measurements of a pulsar's parallax and proper motion. In making these measurements, the astronomer is faced with difficult calibration problems and a paucity of strong point-like calibrators that ultimately limit the accuracy of parallax measurements of even the brightest pulsars. A new technique to calibrate away the effects of the ionosphere, the dominant source of phase error at frequencies below 5 G...

  5. Mirage technique in anisotropic solids

    Quelin, X.; Perrin, B; Perrin, Bernard; Louis, G.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of heat diffusion in an anisotropic medium are presented. The solution of the 3D thermal conduction equation in an orthorhombic medium is calculated by the mean of a Fourier transforms method. Experiments were performed on an orthorhombic polydiacetylene single crystal sample. The temperature field at the sample surface was determined using the photothermal probe beam deflection technique. Then the 3 coefficients of the thermal conductivity tensor have be...

  6. A MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR HYDROXYACETONE.

    KLOTZ,P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C=CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NO{sub x}. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water (it's Henry's law constant being {approx}2 x 10{sup 4} M atm{sup -1} at 20 C, Zhou and Lee, unpublished data), we developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one we reported earlier (Lee and Zhou, 1993), namely, based on derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, we adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island (LI), New York. We report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  7. Recent Developments in Tolerancing Techniques

    Kamlesh Purohit

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical tolerances are specified in conjunction with part geometry, material type andother technical specifications during the design of mechanical components and assemblies., These tolerances ensure the expected design function, and provide guidelines for the manufactureof designed parts. However, assigning proper tolerances for a design is a non-trivial task. Thispaper reviews the recent developments in the field of tolerancing techniques, particularly withreference to the use of computers, cost tolerance relationship and tolerance design for qualityimprovement of the product.

  8. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    Muhammad Sharif; Sajjad Mohsin; Muhammad Younas Javed

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures), Hidden Markov Model (HMM), geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and proce...

  9. Advanced atomic force microscopy techniques

    Thilo Glatzel; Hendrik Hölscher; Thomas Schimmel; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Schwarz, Udo D.; Ricardo Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Although its conceptual approach is as simple as the technique used in record players already introduced in the 19th century, the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1986 by Binnig, Quate, and Gerber was a milestone for nanotechnology. The scanning tunneling microscope (STM), introduced some years earlier, had already achieved atomic resolution, but is limited to conductive surfaces. Since its operational principle is based on the detection of the forces acting between tip and s...

  10. Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques

    P.RAVI TEJA#1 , R.R.V.S.S.ABHISHEK *2 , P.RAM MANINTH

    2013-01-01

    Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sci...

  11. Techniques for multiple database integration

    Whitaker, Barron D

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited There are several graphic client/server application development tools which can be used to easily develop powerful relational database applications. However, they do not provide a direct means of performing queries which require relational joins across multiple database boundaries. This thesis studies ways to access multiple databases. Specifically, it examines how a 'cross-database join' can be performed. A case study of techniques us...

  12. Thyroid ultrasonography: Pitfalls and techniques

    Choi, Seon hyeong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Thyroid ultrasonography (US) plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of thyroid-related diseases. The aim of this article was to illustrate various pitfalls that can occur in utilizing thyroid US and techniques to prevent them. In this article, we present cases demonstrating the common pitfalls associated with US equipment, performance, normal thyroid structures, misinterpretations, and surrounding structures. Knowledge of these areas is essential to avoid misdiagnosis or improper disease management.

  13. [Encryption technique for linkable anonymizing].

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2004-06-01

    Linkage of different records such as health insurance claims or medical records for the purpose of cohort studies or cancer registration usually requires matching with personal names and other personally identifiable data. The present study was conducted to examine the possibility of performing such privacy-sensitive procedures in a "linkable anonymizing" manner using encryption. While bidirectional communication entails encryption and deciphering, necessitating both senders and receivers sharing a common secret "key", record linkage entails only encryption and not deciphering because researchers do not need to know the identity of the linked person. This unidirectional nature relieves researchers from the historical problem of "key sharing" and enables data holders such as municipal governments and insurers to encrypt personal names in a relatively easy manner. The author demonstrates an encryption technique using readily available spread-sheet software, Microsoft Excel in a step-by-step fashion. Encoding Chinese characters into the numeric JIS codes and replacing the codes with a randomly assigned case-sensitive alphabet, all names of Japanese nationals will be encrypted into gibberish strings of alphabet, which can not be deciphered without the secret key. Data holders are able to release personal data without sacrificing privacy, even when accidental leakage occurs and researchers are still able to link records of the same name because encrypted texts, although gibberish, are unique to each name. Such a technical assurance of privacy protection is expected to satisfy the Privacy Protection Act or the Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Research and enhance public health research. Traditional encryption techniques, however, cannot be applied to cancer or stroke registration, because the registrar receives reports from numerous unspecified senders. The new public key encryption technique will enable disease registry in a linkable anonymizing manner. However

  14. Techniques in Facial Expression Recognition

    Avinash Prakash Pandhare; Umesh Balkrishna Chavan

    2016-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is gaining widespread importance as the applications related to Human – Computer interactions are increasing. This paper mentions various techniques and approaches that have been used in the field of facial expression recognition. Facial expression recognition takes place in various stages and these stages have been implemented by various approaches. Viola and Jones for face detection, Gabor filters for feature extraction, SVM classifiers for classifi...

  15. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J.; Norris, David G.; Poser, Benedikt A.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in‐plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal‐to‐noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some ...

  16. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Punia Supriya; Bala Rajni; Rana A. C.

    2012-01-01

    In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation o...

  17. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  18. An Effective Fingerprint Verification Technique

    Gogoi, Minakshi; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method for fingerprint verification based on a data mining technique called minutiae clustering and a graph-theoretic approach to analyze the process of fingerprint comparison to give a feature space representation of minutiae and to produce a lower bound on the number of detectably distinct fingerprints. The method also proving the invariance of each individual fingerprint by using both the topological behavior of the minutiae graph and also using a distance ...

  19. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M

    2011-01-01

    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  20. Greener Approach To Leather Techniques

    Sah, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to find out greener and more ecological methods of leather tanning. In this thesis, old traditional methods and new developing methods are compared. New alternatives to chrome tanning agent and their benefits are reported. Additionally, efficient way of chrome tanning in presence of masking agents or other catalysts is reported with cleaning techniques using membrane processes such as micro-filtration, ultra-filtration (UF), nano-filtration (NF) and reverse ...

  1. Radar techniques using array antennas

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  2. Adjustment techniques for experimental data

    To carry through numerically the different adjustment of experimental data planned by National Institute of Nuclear Research investigators. It is presented the different adjustment techniques of experimental data which are fundamentally for: linear least squares, non linear with restrictions. Methodology: Lineal least squares - Orthogonal decomposition via Householder reflections. No lineal - Method of general lowering and quasi Newton; Levenberg-Marquardt modified - More version. No lineal with restrictions - Quadratic sequential programming method (In process). (Author)

  3. Study Of Multimedia Watermarking Techniques

    Chhaya S. Gosavi; C. S. Warnekar

    2010-01-01

    With the recent burgeoning of networked multimedia systems, techniques are needed to prevent illegal copying / forgery in distributed digital audio/ visual/text document. It may be also desirable to determine where and by how much the multimedia file has been changed from the original due to attacks. This is attributed to increasing instances of hacking during digital communication Digital watermarking has been proposed as a solution to the above problem to protect multimedia document. There ...

  4. TECHNIQUE OF THINKING STYLE EVALUATING

    Alla Belousova; Vlada Pishchik

    2015-01-01

    The results of psychometric analysis of the new technique of thinking styles diagnostics are presented. The fundamental principles of thinking style concept by A. Belousova, according to which the thinking style is determined by the dominance of a person’s function in the structure of thinking activity during the problem solving, are covered. In accordance with A. Belousova’s ideas that the collaborative thinking activity as a self-organizing system is carried out by means of functions assume...

  5. Techniques of facial nerve block.

    Schimek, F; Fahle, M

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure w...

  6. Microirradiation techniques in radiobiological research

    Guido A Drexler; Miguel J Ruiz-Gómez

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to review the uses of laser microirradiation and ion microbeam techniques within the scope of radiobiological research. Laser microirradiation techniques can be used for many different purposes. In a specific condition, through the use of pulsed lasers, cell lysis can be produced for subsequent separation of different analytes. Microsurgery allows for the identification and isolation of tissue sections, single cells and subcellular components, using different types of lasers. The generation of different types of DNA damage, via this type of microirradiation, allows for the investigation of DNA dynamics. Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. There are only a limited number of facilities worldwide where radiobiological experiments can be performed. In the beginning, research was mostly focused on the bystander effect. Nowadays, with more sophisticated molecular and cellular biological techniques, ion microirradiation is used to unravel molecular processes in the field of radiobiology. These include DNA repair protein kinetics or chromatin modifications at the site of DNA damage. With the increasing relevance of charged particles in tumour therapy and new concepts on how to generate them, ion microbeam facilities are able to address unresolved questions concerning particle tumour therapy.

  7. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques.

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J; Norris, David G; Poser, Benedikt A

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in-plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some implementations SMS techniques can reduce radiofrequency (RF) power deposition. In this review the current state of the art of SMS imaging is presented. In the Introduction, a historical overview is given of the history of SMS excitation in MRI. The following section on RF pulses gives both the theoretical background and practical application. The section on encoding and reconstruction shows how the collapsed multislice images can be disentangled by means of the transmitter pulse phase, gradient pulses, and most importantly using multichannel receiver coils. The relationship between classic parallel imaging techniques and SMS reconstruction methods is explored. The subsequent section describes the practical implementation, including the acquisition of reference data, and slice cross-talk. Published applications of SMS imaging are then reviewed, and the article concludes with an outlook and perspective of SMS imaging. PMID:26308571

  8. Imaging techniques in thyroid diagnostics

    Imaging techniques were discussed in a comprehensive manner and in consideration of the rapid recent progress. 30 papers were presented on the subjects of, roughly, radiology, nuclear medicine, and sonography. Apart from conventional radiodiagnostics, which may even yield epidemiological information, the first section also discussed pneumatological functional analysis as a mean of diagnosing tracheal insufficiencies. Thyroid CT is the method of choice in the mediastinal manifestations of thyroid diseases and in examinations of the organs next to the thyroid. Orbital CT yields completely new findings on the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and therapy of endocrineous orbitopathy. - While the diagnostic value of nuclear spin tomography remains uncertain, thyroid scintiscanning has reached maturity by now. In contrast to scanners, which give a general image, the γ camera can detect regional functional phenomena. Fluorescence scintiscanning, apart from quantification of intrathyroid iodine, enables scintigraphic imaging of the thyroid without incorporation of radioactivity. - The recent progress in thyroid sonography has been dramatic. Apart from the simple and reproducible technique of volumetry, nonstandard echo structures indicate diffuse or focal fine tissue lesions, and sonography has therefore become an accepted technique prior to fine needle biopsy or scintiscanning. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear techniques in animal agriculture

    Nuclear technology plays an integral part in research to improve the health and productivity of animals. The use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in animal agriculture is briefly reviewed. The radioimmunoassay techniques give the opportunity of measuring and following precisely hormonal patterns in animals over the reproductive cycle. Simply by analysing a sample of blood, milk, or other body fluid, minute hormone concentrations can be assayed and the reproductive status of the animal assessed. The radioimmunoassay procedure uses antigens which are isotopically labelled, usually with 125I, and antibodies specifically developed for each hormone. The onset of sexual maturity, of oestrus, or the influence of environmental, nutritional or other factors on the reproductive state of an animal can be studied. An example of the use of the radioimmunoassay technique is illustrated in the coordinated research program of the IAEA which focuses on improving domestic buffalo production. Nuclear techniques, particularly the use of stable and radioactive tracers are providing important insights into the functioning of the digestive system of ruminants, its qualitative dynamics and metabolism. For assessing the products of the rumen, particularly volatile fatty acids which become an energy source, and microbial proteins which become a protein source for the animal, materials labelled with 14C, 3H, 35S, 15N and 32P are used. As an illustrative example, the results of one study of nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein and rumen bypass protein synthesis in cattle are shown

  10. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  11. PERSONALISED DENTURES WITH BRANCHING TECHNIQUE

    Puneet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: While the basic process of making dentures has chang ed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help labor atories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value t o patients. Unlike the conventional “linear” methods which foll ow specific steps in a cookbook fashion, the Branching Technique is a dynamic conce pt which can be adjusted to meet the clinical needs of each patient. This customized tec hnique allows for a “trial” denture to be worn by each patient that is used to pinpoint and solve th e patient’s denture problems before the final denture is made. This individualized approach helps t o eliminate disappointments or surprises. From the preliminary impressions and the “training” d enture (it’s actually a provisional denture to the functional impressions and porcelain teeth to hold the patient’s vertical dimension, the Branching Technique produces the most esthetically pleasing and functionally stable dentures possible.

  12. EDITORIAL: Imaging systems and techniques Imaging systems and techniques

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George; Nikita, Konstantina; Pastorino, Matteo; Karras, Dimitrios

    2009-10-01

    The papers in this special issue focus on providing the state-of-the-art approaches and solutions to some of the most challenging imaging areas, such as the design, development, evaluation and applications of imaging systems, measuring techniques, image processing algorithms and instrumentation, with an ultimate aim of enhancing the measurement accuracy and image quality. This special issue explores the principles, engineering developments and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, and encourages broad discussion of imaging methodologies, shaping the future and identifying emerging trends. The multi-faceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment and technological evolution. There is an urgent need to address new problems, which tend to be either static but complex, or dynamic, e.g. rapidly evolving with time, with many unknowns, and to propose innovative solutions. For instance, the battles against cancer and terror, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, management of natural resources and environmental monitoring are some of the areas that need to be addressed. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios and demanding design parameters, e.g. speed, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), specificity, contrast, spatial resolution, scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environments, necessitate the development of a multi-functional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, and operation on diverse detection and imaging principles. Efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level present another important research area. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, and using high-resolution, high-selectivity nano-imaging methods, quantum dots, nanoparticles, biomarkers, nanostructures, nanosensors, micro-array imaging chips

  13. Radiochromic technique for radiation measurements

    he radio-chromic technique in radiation dosimetry for protection of patients and occupational workers are known to health physicist and dosimetrist since long. But with the recent advances in polymer science, measurement techniques and understanding of physical phenomenon responsible for color change on radiation sensitive objects, the technique is progressing very well for personal accidental dose measurements, online dose mapping of patients during radiotherapy treatment without any further processing, and radiation industries. These dosimeters, with very high spatial resolution and relatively low spectral sensitivity variation, are insensitive to visible light, thus offering ease of handling. Radiochromic dosimeters color directly and do not require chemical processing wherein a color change (colorless to blue, red, green, etc.) indicates exposure to radiation. Image formation occurs as a dye-forming or a polymerization process, in which energy is transferred from an energetic photon or particle to the receptive part of the leuco-dye or colorless photomonomer molecule, initiating color formation through chemical changes. In recent years, various radiochromic dosimeters have also been used for nonclinical applications such as blood irradiation, radiation processing, and reference standard. The Paper highlights the national and international status of the techniques including responsible physical - chemical phenomenon, standard commercial products with its futuristic applications for mapping of radiation doses and radiation dose estimation in nuclear/radiological emergency. The Paper highlights the R and D efforts carried out at DLJ to establish radiochromic techniques based on radiochromic dyes and substituted diacytelene first time in India. The radiochromic films based on pH sensitive dyes, leuco dyes and substituted diacytelene using a suitable polymer as a host matrix has been developed at DLJ and characterized using standard techniques. The radiochromic

  14. Blob-enhanced reconstruction technique

    Castrillo, Giusy; Cafiero, Gioacchino; Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso

    2016-09-01

    A method to enhance the quality of the tomographic reconstruction and, consequently, the 3D velocity measurement accuracy, is presented. The technique is based on integrating information on the objects to be reconstructed within the algebraic reconstruction process. A first guess intensity distribution is produced with a standard algebraic method, then the distribution is rebuilt as a sum of Gaussian blobs, based on location, intensity and size of agglomerates of light intensity surrounding local maxima. The blobs substitution regularizes the particle shape allowing a reduction of the particles discretization errors and of their elongation in the depth direction. The performances of the blob-enhanced reconstruction technique (BERT) are assessed with a 3D synthetic experiment. The results have been compared with those obtained by applying the standard camera simultaneous multiplicative reconstruction technique (CSMART) to the same volume. Several blob-enhanced reconstruction processes, both substituting the blobs at the end of the CSMART algorithm and during the iterations (i.e. using the blob-enhanced reconstruction as predictor for the following iterations), have been tested. The results confirm the enhancement in the velocity measurements accuracy, demonstrating a reduction of the bias error due to the ghost particles. The improvement is more remarkable at the largest tested seeding densities. Additionally, using the blobs distributions as a predictor enables further improvement of the convergence of the reconstruction algorithm, with the improvement being more considerable when substituting the blobs more than once during the process. The BERT process is also applied to multi resolution (MR) CSMART reconstructions, permitting simultaneously to achieve remarkable improvements in the flow field measurements and to benefit from the reduction in computational time due to the MR approach. Finally, BERT is also tested on experimental data, obtaining an increase of the

  15. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  16. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  17. Modified Technique For Chemisorption Measurements

    Schryer, David R.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Schryer, Jacqueline

    1989-01-01

    In measurements of chemisorption of CO on Pt/SnO2 catalyst observed that if small numbers of relatively large volumes of adsorbate gas are passed through sample, very little removal of CO detected. In these cases little or no CO has been chemisorbed on Pt/SnO2. Technique of using large number of small volumes of adsorbate gas to measure chemisorption applicable to many gas/material combinations other than CO on Pt/SnO2. Volume used chosen so that at least 10 percent of adsorbate gas removed during each exposure.

  18. VLBI Techniques in Pulsar Astronomy

    Brisken, W F

    2002-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) provides the resolution needed to make precision measurements of a pulsar's parallax and proper motion. In making these measurements, the astronomer is faced with difficult calibration problems and a paucity of strong point-like calibrators that ultimately limit the accuracy of parallax measurements of even the brightest pulsars. A new technique to calibrate away the effects of the ionosphere, the dominant source of phase error at frequencies below 5 GHz, has led to the new measurements of nine pulsar parallaxes to 100 microarcsecond or better precision.

  19. Measurements techniques for transportation noise

    The noise from transport systems (roads, railways and aircraft) are increasing more and more both in space and in time and, therefore, they are still the major factor responsible for environmental noise pollution. The population exposed to transport noise is also increasing, and the corresponding health effects on people (i.e. annoyance and sleep disturbance) become more severe. Due to this current situation international and national legislation has been issued and implemented to reduce the harmful effects of such noise. This paper describes the techniques prescribed by recent Italian legislation to measure road, railway and aircraft noise. (author)

  20. ENDERS NAILING A NOVEL TECHNIQUE

    Mani Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 30 paediatric cases of tibial and femoral fractures between ages of 2 to 12 years have been treated by enders nailing during the period between M ay 2012 and A pril 2014 at our institute of Resident Dept . of Orthopaedics Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada. The cases were stratified and meticulously studied and the results were analyzed both anato mically and functionally. The results were methodically compared with previous studies. The technique of enders nailing is having an easy learning curve and promising results are being attained with respect to conservative mode of treatment avoiding fractu re disease.

  1. Measurements techniques for transportation noise

    Brambilla, G

    2001-07-01

    The noise from transport systems (roads, railways and aircraft) are increasing more and more both in space and in time and, therefore, they are still the major factor responsible for environmental noise pollution. The population exposed to transport noise is also increasing, and the corresponding health effects on people (i.e. annoyance and sleep disturbance) become more severe. Due to this current situation international and national legislation has been issued and implemented to reduce the harmful effects of such noise. This paper describes the techniques prescribed by recent Italian legislation to measure road, railway and aircraft noise. (author)

  2. Measurement Techniques for Clock Jitter

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Schlesinger, Adam

    2012-01-01

    NASA is in the process of modernizing its communications infrastructure to accompany the development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to replace the shuttle. With this effort comes the opportunity to infuse more advanced coded modulation techniques, including low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that offer greater coding gains than the current capability. However, in order to take full advantage of these codes, the ground segment receiver synchronization loops must be able to operate at a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than supported by equipment currently in use.

  3. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  4. Development of applied optical techniques

    This report resents the status of researches on the applications of lasers at KAERI. A compact portable laser fluorometer detecting uranium desolved in aqueous solution was built. The laser-induced fluorescence of uranium was detected with a photomultiplier tube. A delayed gate circuit and an integrating circuit were used to process the electrical signal. A small nitrogen laser was used to excite uranium. The detecting limit is about 0.1 ppb. The effect of various acidic solutions was investigated. Standard addition technique was incorporated to improve the measuring accuracy. This instrument can be used for safety inspection of workers in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (Author)

  5. Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications

    Kirovski, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

  6. Various Anti IP Spoofing Techniques

    Patel, Sonal; Jha, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Anti IP Spoofing techniques prevent your system or your Network from the IP Spoofing. IP Spoofing is attack that takes place in Network. It is used to gain unauthorized access to computer by spoofing the IP Address from the IP (Internet Protocol) Packet Header. The main Purpose of IP Spoofing attack is to hide the true identity of the attacker. IP Spoofing is used by the popular attacks like Dos (Denial o Service), DDos (Distributed Denial of Service), and Man in Middle. This Paper Describe v...

  7. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  8. Abstractions on test design techniques

    Wendland, Marc-Florian

    2014-01-01

    Automated test design is an approach to test design in which automata are utilized for generating test artifacts such as test cases and test data from a formal test basis, most often called test model. A test generator operates on such a test model to meet a certain test coverage goal. In the plethora of the approaches, tools and standards for model-based test design, the test design techniques to be applied and test coverage goals to be met are not part of the test model, which may easily le...

  9. Conventional colonoscopy: Technique, indications, limits

    Colonoscopy has long been the gold standard for the diagnosis of colonic diseases. Recently, with the advent of CT colonografy, new alternatives seem to appear on the horizon, which seem to finally overcome some of colonoscopy's drawbacks like procedure related pain and discomfort during the examination. Polyp miss rate and the fact that not always the caecum can be reached are also the basis of debate. This article gives an overview about current technique, indications and limitations of diagnostic colonoscopy as well as a potential prospect for the future, discussing novel imaging technologies ranging from magnification endoscopy to virtual histopathology

  10. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  11. Analytical techniques in radiation technologies

    Full text: Radiation processing which applies gamma, X rays , or fast electrons for inducing the changes in the material's chemical, physical of biological properties has been introduced in many fields. Quite a few applications are related to the health and environmental protection. Sterilization of health-care products and food irradiation belongs to the first group. The second covers flue gas and wastewater treatment .Radiation sterilization or food irradiation plants are in regular operation in many countries all over the world. Their role in medical hygiene, food borne diseases control, tissue banking can not be overestimated.Quality control is a very important issue concerning these processes; dosimetry, microbiology, content of pollutants and radiolytic products are all based on physico-chemical and biological analyses . Since the changes are very small and concentration of investigated substances very low, advanced or special development methods have to be applied. They concern photometry, ESR, luminescence and others. Regarding environmental protection, first introduced limits for emission of pollutants concerned gram quantities. Nowadays emission limits for sulphur and nitrogen oxides, small diameter particulate (smaller than 2.5 or 10 microns) are given in milligrams, while concentrations of heavy metals (including mercury) or poly aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e. dioxins) are in nanograms even. Therefore, monitoring techniques are of the biggest importance for implementation of radiation technologies for environment conservation. Two industrial plants for flue gas purification at coal fired power stations are in operation. The monitoring system for ppm's quantities of nitrogen and sulphur oxide, ammonium, ozone are substantial components of the system. The by-product being used as a fertilizer is controlled for composition and heavy metal content. The technology can be used for VOC and PAH (dioxins) control as well, HCPL/MS techniques should be used in this

  12. An Effective Fingerprint Verification Technique

    Gogoi, Minakshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method for fingerprint verification based on a data mining technique called minutiae clustering and a graph-theoretic approach to analyze the process of fingerprint comparison to give a feature space representation of minutiae and to produce a lower bound on the number of detectably distinct fingerprints. The method also proving the invariance of each individual fingerprint by using both the topological behavior of the minutiae graph and also using a distance measure called Hausdorff distance.The method provides a graph based index generation mechanism of fingerprint biometric data. The self-organizing map neural network is also used for classifying the fingerprints.

  13. Negotiation Techniques (That Really Work!)

    Schiffman, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Sales is all about negotiation. Price. Delivery. Terms. And every day, salespeople leave money on the table. They just don't have the skills to get what they want. Now Stephan Schiffman, drawing on years of experience, shows you how to nail the sale, hit quotas, and boost the bottom line. Schiffman-style negotiation is all about getting the best deal. And he outlines specific techniques to get there. Things can be tough out there. But with Schiffman's negotiation skills in your pocket, you can do battle and win.

  14. Personalization techniques and recommender systems

    Uchyigit, Gulden

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the Internet has resulted in huge amounts of online information, a situation that is overwhelming to the end users. To overcome this problem, personalization technologies have been extensively employed. The book is the first of its kind, representing research efforts in the diversity of personalization and recommendation techniques. These include user modeling, content, collaborative, hybrid and knowledge-based recommender systems. It presents theoretic research in the context of various applications from mobile information access, marketing and sales and web services,

  15. Grafting techniques for Peyronie's disease.

    Hatzichristodoulou, Georgios

    2016-06-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a benign fibrotic condition of the penile tunica albuginea. PD can be associated with penile pain, curvature, shortening, and erectile dysfunction (ED). The predominant and most bothersome symptom in affected patients is penile curvature, which can lead to inability to have sexual intercourse. In such cases, surgical correction of the curvature may be required. Plication techniques to correct curvature can cause penile shortening and therefore are generally reserved for curvatures 60°, short penis, or hourglass deformity. Patients scheduled for grafting surgery are required to have satisfactory erectile rigidity preoperatively. There are various grafting materials that can be used for closure of the tunica albuginea defect following plaque incision/excision. Both autologous and non-autologous grafts have been used for PD reconstructive surgery, and each graft has its advantages and disadvantages. Novel grafting materials are presented and discussed in this review. A major advantage of the available "off-the-shelf" grafts is that there is no harvesting from a donor site and, thus, morbidity is reduced, and operative times are minimized. Further investigations in regard to tissue-engineered grafts to improve surgical handling and postoperative outcomes are ongoing. Surgeon experience, careful patient selection, patient preference and type of penile deformity affect the choice of graft. This review summarizes the literature within the past 5 years regarding grafting techniques in PD. Surgical outcomes and limitations of grafting techniques are reported. A major objective of this review is dedicated to preoperative considerations and indications for grafting procedures, with the aim to improve surgical outcomes and increase patient satisfaction. Proper postoperative management of patients after incision/excision and grafting is important to avoid early and long-term complications and unwanted outcomes. This review provides an overview of

  16. Tools and techniques in audit

    Heringová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to explain tools and techniques used in the field of audit and compare their use in the context of internal and external audit. The theoretical part states firstly different features of both types of audit, issues of professional ethics and legal framework. Next, tools and methods of external audit are stated, as well as its goals and nature. In the subsequent chapter, the same aspects are explained for internal audit and finally, we discuss the cooperation between a...

  17. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  18. EPR techniques for space biodosimetry

    Haskell, E.; Hayes, R.; Kenner, G.; Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.

    1996-12-31

    Retrospective dosimetry of tooth enamel has become an increasingly complex and difficult discipline to undertake while still attaining accuracy. The paper provides a review of the major obstacles, advances and pertinent phenomenon associated with low level retrospective dosimetry of human tooth enamel. Also covered is the many sources of error in EPR dosimetry, their potential solutions, as well as the different analysis and scanning techniques in use with their prospective pros and cons. Prospective directions for new approaches, methods, and instruments are also reviewed.

  19. Plastinación, una técnica moderna al servicio de la anatomía Plastination: a modern anatomical technique

    Oscar Isaza Castro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La preservación y el mantenimiento de los cadáveres y especímenes anatómicos han llevado a la búsqueda de técnicas diferentes y a la utilización de sustancias distintas al formaldehído con el fin de minimizar los riesgos de exposición a vapores químicos y a agentes biológicos y de disponer de preparados anatómicos con mayor durabilidad, conservando las características anatómicas y facilitando la docencia y la investigación en la disciplina. Una de estas técnicas es la plastinación. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos con ella en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia. The preservation and maintenance of anatomical specimens and corpses have created the need for new techniques and for the use of substances different from formaldehyde, in order to lessen the risks of exposure to this substance and to biological agents, and to increase the availability and durability of anatomical pieces preserving their characteristics in order to facilitate teaching and research. In the eighth decade of the XX century the German anatomist von Hagens patented the plastination technique that consists of replacing the water of tissues by silicones, polymers or resins. The plastination process includes four steps: fixation, dehydration, impregnating and curing. There are some difficulties in Colombia regarding the availability of acetone, polymers and silicones as well as a lack of adequate infrastructure for the plastination process; because of this we have modified the technique using other substances at different pressure and temperature conditions; we report the modifications with which we have obtained very good results.

  20. Advanced Nanomeasuring Techniques for Surface Characterization

    Salah H. R. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Advanced precise and accurate nanomeasurement techniques play an important role to improve the function and quality of surface characterization. There are two basic approaches, the hard measuring techniques and the soft computing measuring techniques. The advanced soft measuring techniques include coordinate measuring machines, roundness testing facilities, surface roughness, interferometric methods, confocal optical microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and computed tomography at the level ...

  1. Simple numerical techniques for mesoscale polymer models

    E.A. Koopman

    2014-01-01

    There exist various numerical techniques for modeling polymer behavior on small time and length scales. This work introduces some new techniques in this field, and shows novel new combinations of existing techniques. Among the new techniques are multiple new thermostats, a way of modeling polymers i

  2. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  3. [New techniques in parathyroid surgery].

    Calò, P G; Tatti, A; Madas, F; Piga, G; Farris, S; Pisano, G; Nicolosi, A

    2010-01-01

    The diseases of parathyroid glands have assumed a growing importance for innovations in diagnosis and surgery which have enabled a more precise identification and therapy. Use of Sesta-MIBI scintigraphy allows a correct localization of the adenoma; the introduction of intraoperative monitoring of intact parathyroid hormone made possible unilateral neck exploration with a mini-incision above the adenoma. The emergence of videotechnology has led the innovation of endoscopic parathyroidectomy, realized for the first time in 1996 and subsequently performed without the use of CO2. Currently, the SPECT scintigraphy allows a three-dimensional vision of the adenoma and is the more precise localization study, allowing to use mini-invasive access. Prerequisite for the use of minimally invasive techniques is the determination of intraoperative PTH, possible with various techniques. Our experience is based on 135 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy in the last 8 years with 5 cases of persistent hyperparathyroidism submitted to reoperation, an average hospital stay of 2 days and only 6 complications (1 bleeding and 5 temporary hypoparathyroidisms). The use of new technologies in parathyroid surgery can achieve optimal results, a better cosmetic result and quicker postoperative recovery, with a low incidence of recurrence and complications. PMID:20646383

  4. Spectrometry techniques for radioactivity measurements

    The energy of the radiation emission following the nuclear decay is unique and the characteristic of the radio nuclide which undergoes decay. Thus measurement of the energy of the radiation offers a method of identifying the radio nuclides. The prime requirement of the energy measurement is a suitable detector which shows response proportional to the energy of the radiation rather than the presence of the radiation. The response from such detectors are suitably processed and distributed with respect to the signal strength which is proportional to incident energy. This distribution is normally referred as energy spectrum and is recorded in the multichannel analyser. The measurement of energy and intensity of radiation from the spectrum is called radiation spectrometry. Thus the radiation spectrometry allows the identification and quantification of radioactive isotopes in variety of matrices. The radiation spectrometry has now become a popular radioanalytical technique in wide area of nuclear fuel cycle programs. The popular spectrometry techniques commonly used for the radioactivity measurement and analysis are Alpha spectrometry, Gamma ray spectrometry and Beta spectrometry

  5. Some developments in safeguards techniques

    The fundamental principles of safeguards and the research and development of safeguards techniques are described. Safeguard accountancy based upon the partition of the fuel cycle into suitable material balance areas will be further improved. Implementation of international safeguards in the European fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities is described. The effectiveness of a material accounting system depends on the quality of the quantitative data. The allocation of the tasks in the framework of an integrated safeguards is concerned with R and D work only and has no bearing on the allocation of the implementation costs. Bulk measurements, sampling and destructive or non-destructive analysis of samples are described for the determination of batch data. Testing of the safeguards techniques as a keystone in relation to plant instrumentation programmes are still being developed throughout the world. In addition to accountancy and control, it also includes an effective physical security program. The system of international safeguards that prevailed in the sixties has been re-modelled to comply with the new requirements of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and with the growth of nuclear energy

  6. Remote and unattended monitoring techniques

    In the last years, there has been a tremendous growth in the number of unattended assay and monitoring systems in the field. These systems have enabled reduced presence of inspectors while increasing the verification coverage. As part of the Strengthened safeguards System and in particular as part of the measures to improve the cost-effectiveness of safeguards, the possibility of remote transfer of authenticated and encrypted video surveillance, seals and radiation sensor data via telephone or special satellite links have been demonstrated and the necessary arrangements and infrastructure have been prepared. The evaluation of field trials of the remote monitoring systems have shown that the systems are effective in monitoring events of safeguards relevance in near real times. The systems are competitive from a cost standpoint when compared to current methods. The reduction of inspection efforts can be realized by application of remote monitoring technique with scheduled inspections and more effectively with the short notice or unannounced random inspections. It is expected that, upon completion of the necessary arrangements with the Member States authorities, the safeguards department will implement the technique widely before the year 2000

  7. Carving Technique – Methodical Perspectives

    Adela BADAU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The alpine skiing has undergone major changes and adjustments due to both technological innovations of materials and update of theoretical and methodological concepts on all levels of specific training. The purpose: the introduction of technological innovation in the field of materials specif ic to carving ski causes a review of methodology, aiming at bringing the execution technique to superior indices in order to obtain positive results. The event took place in Poiana Brasov between December 2014 and March 2015, on an 800m long slope and comp rised a single experimental group made of four males and four females, cadet category, that carried out two lessons per day. The tests targeted the technique level for slalom skiing and giant slalom skiing, having in view four criteria: leg work, basin mov ement, torso position and arms work. As a result of the research and of the statistic - mathematical analysis of the individual values, the giant slalom race registered an average improvement of 3.5 points between the tests, while the slalom race registered 4 points. In conclusion, the use of a specific methodology applied scientifically, which aims to select the most efficient means of action specific to children’s ski, determines technical improvement at an advanced level.

  8. Time resolved techniques: An overview

    Synchrotron sources provide exceptional opportunities for carrying out time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. The high intensity, high angular resolution, and continuously tunable energy spectrum of synchrotron x-ray beams lend themselves directly to carrying out sophisticated time-resolved x-ray scattering measurements on a wide range of materials and phenomena. When these attributes are coupled with the pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources, entirely new time-resolved scattering possibilities are opened. Synchrotron beams typically consist of sub-nanosecond pulses of x-rays separated in time by a few tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds so that these beams appear as continuous x-ray sources for investigations of phenomena on time scales ranging from hours down to microseconds. Studies requiring time-resolution ranging from microseconds to fractions of a nanosecond can be carried out in a triggering mode by stimulating the phenomena under investigation in coincidence with the x-ray pulses. Time resolution on the picosecond scale can, in principle, be achieved through the use of streak camera techniques in which the time structure of the individual x-ray pulses are viewed as quasi-continuous sources with ∼100--200 picoseconds duration. Techniques for carrying out time-resolved scattering measurements on time scales varying from picoseconds to kiloseconds at present and proposed synchrotron sources are discussed and examples of time-resolved studies are cited. 17 refs., 8 figs

  9. The Tokai NPP decommissioning technique

    Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and started decommissioning from December 2001 as a pioneer of NPP decommissioning. This article presented current state of Tokai NPP decommissioning technique. As the second stage of decommissioning works, removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) were started from 2006 by jacking down method with decommissioning data accumulated. Each heat exchanger was divided into top head, seven 'tears' of shell and bottom head. Each 'tear' was out and separated into a cylinder, and then divided into two by remote-operated cutting equipment with manipulators for gas cutting and motor disk cutting under monitoring works by fixed and mobile cameras. Divided 'tear' was further cut into center baffle plate, heat transfer tubes and fine pieces of shell. Cutting works would produce radioactive fine particles, which were filtered by temporary ventilation equipment with exhaust fan and filters. Appropriate works using existing technique combined and their rationalization were important at this stage. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  11. A Comparative of business process modelling techniques

    Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Waworuntu, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this era, there is a lot of business process modeling techniques. This article is the research about differences of business process modeling techniques. For each technique will explain about the definition and the structure. This paper presents a comparative analysis of some popular business process modelling techniques. The comparative framework is based on 2 criteria: notation and how it works when implemented in Somerleyton Animal Park. Each technique will end with the advantages and disadvantages. The final conclusion will give recommend of business process modeling techniques that easy to use and serve the basis for evaluating further modelling techniques.

  12. Midinfrared Temperature Measurement Technique Developed

    Santosuosso, George R.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared thermography is the measuring of the temperature of an object by examining the spectral quantities of light emission. The microgravity combustion experiment Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low-Speeds (SIBAL) calls for full-field temperature measurements of a thin sheet of cellulosic fuel as a flame front moves across the fuel, and infrared thermography is the only technique that can accomplish this task. The thermography is accomplished by imaging the fuel with a midinfrared camera that is sensitive in the 3.0- to 5.0-microns wavelength region in conjunction with a 3.7 - to 4.1-microns bandpass filter to eliminate unwanted infrared radiation from components other than the fuel.

  13. Optimization Techniques To Record Deduplication

    Rangarajan Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate record detection is important for data preprocessing and cleaning. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC is one of the most recently introduced algorithms based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. Our approach to duplicate detection is the use of ABC algorithm for generating the optimal similarity measure to decide whether the data is duplicate or not. In the training phase, ABC algorithm is used to generate the optimal similarity measure. Once the optimal similarity measure obtained, the deduplication of remaining datasets is done with the help of optimal similarity measure generated from the ABC algorithm. We have used Restaurant and Cora datasets to analyze the proposed algorithm and the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared against the genetic programming technique with the help of evaluation metrics.

  14. Submicron STIM tomography reconstruction techniques

    One-dimensional projections of ion energy loss have been converted to areal density using tabulated stopping powers in a scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) reconstruction of a test object, displaying a spatial resolution of 0.37 μm. Location and registration of the centre of areal mass density in each projection provides a means of overcoming (a) the misalignment of the specimen rotation axis with the centre of the scan path and (b) deviations of the specimen from its precession around the axis of rotation. Multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), filtered backprojection and maximum-entropy algorithms for the reconstruction of the object are considered. Maximum entropy is shown to produce an image with the least number of artifacts. However, when time considerations are taken into account, it is found that filtered backprojection is the preferred algorithm for a tomographic reconstruction. (orig.)

  15. Technique of nuclear reactors controls

    This report deal about 'Techniques of control of the nuclear reactors' in the goal to achieve the control of natural uranium reactors and especially the one of Saclay. This work is mainly about the measurement into nuclear parameters and go further in the measurement of thermodynamic variables,etc... putting in relief the new features required on behalf of the detectors because of their use in the thermal neutrons flux. In the domain of nuclear measurement, we indicate the realizations and the results obtained with thermal neutron detectors and for the measurement of ionizations currents. We also treat the technical problem of the start-up of a reactor and of the reactivity measurement. We give the necessary details for the comprehension of all essential diagrams and plans put on, in particular, for the reactor of Saclay. (author)

  16. New techniques in systems neuroscience

    2015-01-01

    This volume is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the recent explosion of experimental tools in neuroscience that now make it possible to manipulate, record, and understand neuronal activity within the intact brain, and which are helping us to learn how the many neurons that comprise a network act together to control behavior. Leaders in the field discuss the latest developments in optogenetics, functional imaging, circuit mapping, and the application of these tools to complex biological problems. New Techniques in Systems Neuroscience Explores cutting-edge methodological developments and their biological motivations Covers state-of-the-art advances in optogenetics, imaging, circuit mapping, and the molecular characterization of individual neurons Describes key examples of how these methods have been applied in different model organisms Is appropriate for experts and those just entering the field alike.

  17. Fabrication Technique of Holographic Sight

    LIN Ling; LIU Shou; ZHANG Xiang-su

    2005-01-01

    There are several types of sights used for small arms. All of them have advantages and disadvantages. A new type of sight-holographic sight-is introduced in the paper, with the emphasis on the fabrication technique of the hologram which is the most important part in the sight. A Gaussian dot and a reticle pattern are recorded in the hologram. When illuminated by a laser diode, the virtual images of the dot and the reticle pattern for aiming are observed through the hologram. Compared with other sights, the holographic sight provides quicker, more accurate and covert aiming at moving targets, particularly in close quarter combat situations. It significantly improves the capability of small arms used in close quarter fighting in all weathers.

  18. New Techniques in Neutron Scattering

    Birk, Jonas Okkels

    Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher...... potential performance than any existing facility, however in order to use this pulse structure optimally many existing neutron scattering instruments will need to be redesigned. This defense will concentrate on the design and optimization of the inverse time-of-flight cold neutron spectrometer CAMEA. The...... unprecedented large fraction of neutrons scattered in the horizontal plane. Together with the ESS source this will produce an instrument that promises several orders of magnitude higher performance than the best currently existing neutron spectrometers. The design of CAMEA involved kinematic calculations...

  19. Nuclear techniques in crime detection

    Nuclear techniques mainly in the form of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), play an important role in crime investigation and detection. The process consists of bombardment of exhibit specimens by intense beams of neutrons in a nuclear research reactor. The neutrons interact with the nuclei of the atoms in the sample and form radioactive materials. The radiations emitted by each such radionuclide have characteristic spectra. The compound spectrum produced by the mixture of the radionuclides can be analysed either non-destructively or by employing radiochemical separation procedure using highly sophisticated Gamma-Ray Spectrometer to detect both elemental constituents of the sample and their respective concentrations. This is for bulk analysis of samples which is unique in itself

  20. UML-ising formal techniques

    Bjørner, Dines; George, Chris W.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth;

    2004-01-01

    This invited paper presents a number of correlated specifications of example railway system problems. They use a variety of partially or fully integrated formal specification. The paper thus represents a mere repository of what we consider interesting case studies. The existence of the Unified...... these different UML views are unified, integrated, correlated or merely co-located is for others to dispute. We also seek to support multiple views, but are also in no doubt that there must be sound, well defined relations between such views. We thus report on ways and means of integrating formal...... techniques such as RAISE (RSL) [58,59], Petri Nets [56,62,37,61,411, Message and Live Sequence Charts [42,43,44,64,13], Statecharts [23,24,26,27], RAISE with Timing (TRSL) [18,45,461, and TRSL with Duration Calculus (79,30]. In this way one achieves a firm foundation for combined uses of these formal...