Full Text Available It is internationally recognized that teachers play a significant role in developing suitable values in their pupils. Students also learn strategies for identifying problems, making decisions, and finding solutions both in and out of school. Among them creative thinking skills play a prominent role in their learning process. Techniques developed specifically to teach creative thinking and examine how they may be applied to the classroom, are precise things to be considered. Awareness with techniques designed to improve creative thinking gives individuals a set of tools to use in their exploratory behaviour. Though there are various methods, the major innovative thinking skills that play the crucial role in learning process are visualization and creative dramatics, Torrance and Safter's incubation model, use of metaphors and analogies, divergent thinking strategies and commercial and competitive programmes. Brainstorming, the acronym scamper which is a useful tool for many creative endeavours and can assist children as well as adults in using the idea-spurring questions that can help them generate diverse ideas, and future solving problem, are the most popular innovative techniques that the teachers employ in moulding the young buds into colourful blossoms who are sole responsible to create the society more modest where we can live pleasantly. Hence, this present paper highlights the most appropriate techniques that the educators employ to motivate the knowledge seekers most effective and inspirational for the upcoming generation.
Full Text Available Since creative thinking is an essential requirement in today’s societies, educational institutions have to make some reforms in order to prepare next generation according to the needs of the societies such as giving more emphasis on creative thinking. The main aims of this paper are to reveal the parents’ opinions about the creative thinking skills, to teach parents the meaning of creative thinking, and to teach parents to create home environments that enhance creative thinking skills. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was employed. Pretest- posttest experimental design was used and qualitative data were collected by an open-ended questionnaire. A 10-hour parent education seminar was used as an intervention for the experimental group. The participants of the research were 80 parents (40 parents in the experimental group, 40 parents in the control group) from a primary school in Ankara, Turkey. Content analysis was applied to analyze the qualitative data. The pretest results have indicated that there were no differences between parents groups according to the knowledge level about the creative thinking. According to posttest results, the knowledge levels of parents in the experimental group who were given 10-hour parent education seminar were increased. However, the knowledge levels of the parents who have not given any education in the control group, were remained the same. Besides, experimental group parents have more information about creating home environments that enhance creativity rather than control group parents. According to the findings, parents' perspectives in the experimental group on the creative thinking skills have changed after the parent education seminar. However, the perspectives of the parent in the control group have not changed.
Pervin Oya Taneri
When planning and teaching, attention is generally given to cognition while the effect of mood and emotion on cognition is ignored. But students are not emotionless thinkers and the effect can make a difference to their thought. This is particularly evident when attempting to foster creative thinking. This article draws on research to describe…
Newton, Douglas P.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study to examine effect of collaborative studies on prospective teachers? creative thinking skills while designing computer based materials. One group pre-test and post-test design of the pre-experimental model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. This experimental study have been applied to 34 prospective teachers who studied at Artvin Coruh University Facult of Education Primary Education Department in 2009-2010 spring term within the context of “Computer-II” course. “Creative Thinking Skill Scale” was applied at two different stages as pre-test and post-test and opinions of students were gathered about the method in research via interview forms. As a result, it was found that there was a significant difference between the prospective teachers? creative thinking skills and scores taken from scale were increased in favor of post-test. Collaborative group works have a great importance in occurrence of this increase was revealed from student views.
Salih B?R??Ç?; Hasan KARAL
Full Text Available During the shifting of teaching and learning methods using computer technologies, much emphasis was paid on the knowledge content more than the thinking skills. Thus, this study investigated the effects of a computer application, namely, designing electronic slides on the development of creative thinking skills of a sample of undergraduate students. A total number of 50 subjects, 25 in an experimental group and 25 in a control group were selected and a design of pre and post-test with an experimental and a control group was employed in this study. Torrance Test for creative thinking (TTCT) form (A) was applied on both groups. The experimental group was taught to design electronic instructional slides using Microsoft PowerPoint. After six weeks, both groups were given the TTCT form (A) again. Using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups favoring the experimental group over the control in the total creative thinking scores. Designing electronic slides can enhance the creative thinking skills for students, and the expansion of using computer applications in promoting thinking and learning skills is recommended.
Al-Ali Khaled Mokaram; Ahmad Mohammad Al-Shabatat; Soon Fook Fong; Ahmad Abdallah Andaleeb
Full Text Available In response to the recent school creativity reforms in Asian places, this paper studied three different approaches of integrating creative thinking training into regular science lessons. They include developing creative thinking through science process, science content and science scenario. Three teacher case studies were conducted to examine the potentials and obstacles of implementing these approaches in classroom of Hong Kong. This study found that all the approaches were useful in developing student creative thinking, yet teachers experienced different tensions and dilemmas in different approaches. This paper suggests that the science content approach may be more readily accepted by teachers and students in an educational system which is dominated by knowledge content and examinations. However, with the limited skills and experience in creativity, teachers and students may feel that the science process and science scenario approach are easier to start with, as they are less constrained by the rigid content in the syllabus. Among various hindering factors, the most crucial one was found to be the original heavy knowledge-content, which in fact is a common characteristic of secondary science curriculum in many Asian places. In our future research and educational reforms, the dilemma between creative thinking and content learning needs to be seriously considered and solved at both individual and system levels.
Vivian M. Y. CHENG
This paper investigates the role of the scientific signs in the holy Quran in improving the creative thinking skills for the deaf children using multimedia. The paper investigates if the performance made by the experimental group's individuals is statistically significant compared with the performance made by the control group's individuals on Torrance Test for creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality and the total degree) in two cases:
Abusaleh, Sumaya; Abdelfattah, Eman; Alabadi, Zain; Sharieh, Ahmad
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of the visual materials’ usage in Social Sciences on students’ academic achievement, creative thinking skills and their attitudes towards the course. The study was based on the Social Sciences unit titled ‘’Geography and Our World’’ and conducted with a total number of 38 students, (18 of them were in the experimental group and 20 of them were in the control group). The participants were 6th grade students of Koç Primary School in Bolu. For data collection, Social Sciences Achievement Test, Torrance Creative Thinking Test and Attitude Scale were used as instruments. In the statistical analysis of data, Mean, Standard Deviation levels and Mann Whitney-U Test were used. The results of the study revealed that the program designed for the experimental group, increased the participants’ academic achievement and creative thinking skills and had a positive impact on their attitudes towards the course.© 2013 IOJES. All rights reserved
Full Text Available The study was derived from an action research on the use of synectics in creative thinking methods in science and technology teaching. There were three main application steps in the action research, which was designed to help students in gaining creative thinking skills. In the research, which had lasted for one teaching semester, the teacher firstly fulfilled two different applications to make the students get used to the synectics technique. First of these applications was to redefine the concept of creativity. This was followed by the activity of designing a dynamometer. In the third stage, these students were asked to develop a creative project in three or four-person groups in one semester. The researcher continued synectics activities with the project group one by one in the same period. In the redefinition of the concept of creativity, which was the first stage of the action research, synectics methods were used. The research was made along the moment and action unit, which is the second unit of 7th grade science and technology class, in 2009-2010 teaching year. The population of the research was composed of 43 seventh graders in a public school in Istanbul. In the research, in which the students define the concept of creativity, “making the strange familiar” method (Hummell, 2004), which is one of the two basic implementations and is composed of six stages, was used. The students reached their own definitions of creativity at the end of this process, which started with building direct analogies and ended with creating original end-products. It was seen that the students began to see creativity in a different way and to perceive it as a process at the end of the synectics applications, rather than just an activity aiming at creation of an original product.
Aysun Öztuna Kaplan; Serhat Ercan
Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that there is moderate to strong correlation between creative thinking and empathy with self-awareness as three important skills in human life and the aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between these three aspects of life skills. The participants in the study contained of 96(54 males and 42 females) 10 grade of high school students from Mysore in India. Life skill questionnaire - India (LSQI), carried out on the group sample and date analyzed through Pearson correlation and multiple regression using SPSS soft ware.The results revealed that self-awareness significantly has positive correlation with creative thinking (r=31, p<.01) and empathy(r=36, p<.01). Analysis of regression also shows that multiple relationships between three variables is significant (MR=0.36 and RS = .12, p<.01) and 12 percent of variation of self-awareness can be predicts by empathy and creative thinking.
Ayatollah Karimi; Venkatesh Kumar, G
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to identify the types of nursing course structure that promotes students' creative thinking and creativity. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Five electronic databases: The British Nursing Index, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus and Ovid Medline. REVIEW METHODS: The databases were systematically searched to identify studies that discussed the concept of creative thinking in nursing education or reported a strategy that improved students' creative thinking. Qualitative studies or studies that included qualitative data were included. After reading the full content of the included studies, key themes and concepts were extracted and synthesized. RESULTS: Eight studies were identified. Four main themes relating to the course structure in teaching creativity were developed: diversity learning, freedom to learn, learning with confidence and learning through group work. CONCLUSIONS: To promote creative thinking in nursing students, educators themselves need to be creative in designing courses that allow students to learn actively and convert thoughts into actions. Educators should balance course freedom and guidance to allow students to develop constructive and useful ideas. Confidence and group work may play significant roles in helping students to express themselves and think creatively.
It is reasonable to assume that people are creative, but the degree of creativity is different. The Idea of the level of student's creative thinking has been expressed by experts, such as Gotoh (2004), and Krulik and Rudnick (1999). The perspective of the mathematics creative thinking refers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which…
Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko
Efecto de una intervención motriz en el desarrollo motor, rendimiento académico y creatividad en preescolares Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de un Programa Preescolar de Educación Física Integral (PPEFI) en el desarrollo motor grueso, el rendimiento académico y la creatividad en un grupo de 39 niños y niñas de preescolar, con un promedio de edad de 6 años. Los niños(as) fueron asignados aleatoriamente a uno de tres grupos: Grupo Control, el cual recibió el programa regular de preescolar (el cual incluye una sesión de 30 minutos de educación física). Grupo Experimental 1, el cual recibe el programa regular más una sesión de 30 minutos por semana de la intervención motriz. Grupo Experimental 2, el cual recibe el programa regular más una sesión de 60 minutos de la intervención motriz; durante 8 semanas. Todos los participantes fueron evaluados con el "Torrance Test of Creative Thinking" (TTCT) y con el "Test of Gross Motor Development" antes y después del estudio. El rendimiento académico lo brindó la escuela. Por medio de análisis de varianza de 3 vías con medidas repetidas en el último factor (Grupo x Sexo x Medición), se determinó una interacción triple significativa (Grupo x Sexo x Medición) en la variable de manipulación (p=0.01); y una interacción doble significativa (Grupo x Medición) para las variables de locomoción (p=0.01) y el coeficiente de desarrollo motor (p=0.01). Luego de los análisis post-hoc realizados se concluye que PPEFI tuvo un efecto positivo en niños y niñas en el desarrollo motor grueso, pero no presentó efecto significativo en el rendimiento académico, ni en ningún componente de la creatividad en niños y niñas de preescolar. Palabras Clave: patrones fundamentales de movimiento, actividad física, funcionamiento cognitivo, pensamiento creativo. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years) benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39) were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls) who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week); intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls) who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls), who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post) analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.
Judith Jimenez; Gerardo Araya
Full Text Available Today it is necessary to develop an education model that is special to creative individuals and their creativeness. It is also required to discover children and young people who have creative qualities at an early stage and improve creative thinking in their minds. For this aim, it is very important to determine the high-level thinking skills, especially creative thinking levels of children at primary education period. Therefore, there are considerable duties available for the teachers.In this study, the creative thinking levels of two distinct student groups from different primary schools who study at sixth class of primary education are explored and a comparison is made between their levels. The goal of this research is to find out how the fluency, flexibility and originality dimensions of these students differ. In the way of this purpose, there are fourty-three sixth class of primary education students, who study at two different primary schools in ?zmir, formed the research sampling. Twenty-six of these students are female while seventeen students are male. The Torrance Creative Thinking Test Linguistic –A Form is used as a data collecting tool in the study. The application and form evaluation periods have done by the researchers. At the end of the research, there are meaningful differences obtained between the two schools about the fluency, flexibility and originality levels of students attended to the research. When it is considered in terms of total creative levels, it is seen that the fluency points of those two schools attended to this study are the highest while the flexibility points are the lowest. This situation betrays that the students participated in this study can not use their skill of producing many ideas in terms of handling cases from all points of views.
Esen ERSOY; Ne?’e BA?ER
Full Text Available This research was done on 41 subjects consisted of 6th year students at Mehmet Çelik Primary School in Bolu, Yeniça?a. According to ANCOVA results, pre-test values of the students from different instruction systems compared to the corrected post-test values andcreative thinking average values showed a significant difference in favor of education in which creative course activities were used. In research, two-factored ANNOVA was used for complex measurements for the research question about whether the learners’ cognitiveachievement scores, related to learning environment, change or not, according to groups. According to the findings, cognitive achievement scores showed a significant difference in favor of experimental group.
Serçin KARATA?; Seher ÖZCAN
This book provides practical advice and lessons based on outstanding children's literature, fostering a better understanding of creativity and helping educators and parents recognize and nurture creative thinking in young children in grades K-4. The book describes components of the creative process--fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration,…
Meador, Karen S.
Full Text Available Abstract in english To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitativ (more) e pilot investigation by means of experimental research utilizing an ex post facto design to determine the status quo regarding the creative thinking abilities of a hetrogeneous group of 207 pre-service teachers studying at a South African university, using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA) and a Partial Least Squares (PLS) exploration into the relationship between contextual factors and the students' creative thinking abilities. Strong correlations were found among a variety of contextual factors such as the type of school model and culture and creative thinking abilities and also between specific contextual factors such as the choice of role model and socio economic and acculturation factors and certain creative thinking abilities. This research explores a largely unknown field, namely, the creative thinking abilities of a group of South African pre-service teachers of different cultural groups and creates an awareness of the need for the development of creative thinking abilities among these prospective teachers.
Meintjes, Hannetjie; Grosser, Mary
Full Text Available To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation by means of experimental research utilizing an ex post facto design to determine the status quo regarding the creative thinking abilities of a hetrogeneous group of 207 pre-service teachers studying at a South African university, using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA) and a Partial Least Squares (PLS) exploration into the relationship between contextual factors and the students' creative thinking abilities. Strong correlations were found among a variety of contextual factors such as the type of school model and culture and creative thinking abilities and also between specific contextual factors such as the choice of role model and socio economic and acculturation factors and certain creative thinking abilities. This research explores a largely unknown field, namely, the creative thinking abilities of a group of South African pre-service teachers of different cultural groups and creates an awareness of the need for the development of creative thinking abilities among these prospective teachers.
Hannetjie Meintjes; Mary Grosser
Full Text Available This paper probes into the source of “originality” in developing the creative thinking of the science students majoring in industrial design. The authors believe that the critical factors for the source of “originality” lie in not only the internal cause, but also the external cause. Whether the science students take a great consideration of art and humanity courses, in other words, whether they are aware of the relationship between artistical thought and industrial design or not, it is very important. In addition, creative capacity cannot be taught, and it only results from inspiration and guidance of teachers from multidisciplinary.
Hua Cen; Chuandong Ma
In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking…
Mihov, Konstantin M.; Denzler, Markus; Forster, Jens
This study investigates the relationship between creative thinking ability and creative personality of preschoolers. Prior research showed that the correlation coefficient between creative thinking ability and creative personality of teenagers was very low (Hah, 1999), so this research was undertaken to validate the test and to examine how…
The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of early computer experience, using quasi-experimental design, on creative thinking among Jordanian kindergarten children. It intended to answer two main research questions. First, does adding a computer to a kindergarten environment enhance children's creative thinking? Second, does…
The study examined the effects of gender and item content of domain-general and domain-specific creative-thinking tests on four subscale scores of creative-thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration). Chinese tenth-grade students (234 males and 244 females) participated in the study. Domain-general creative thinking was measured…
Hong, Eunsook; Peng, Yun; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Wu, Junbin
Full Text Available It is believed that identifying any strong relationships between learning styles and creative thinking within the context of the math classroom will help improve instruction by providing course delivery strategies tailored to different learning preferences and promotion of creative thinking. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to identify which (if any) of the cognitive learning dimensions would be related to creative thinking in math students. The major findings of this study indicate that creative thinking, assessed by RAT, and learning preferences, evaluated by ILS, are not highly correlated. Over all, students in this study show a balanced learning preference across four dimensions. In summary, this study directs a possible path for future researchers to investigate this phenomenon.
Kuan Chen Tsai; Matthew Shirley
This work assessed the effect of trait anxiety (measured on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and the Scamper technique on figural creative thinking, measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. An analysis of covariance with 52 gifted students in a summer camp gave no significant main effect of treatment for trait anxiety, or their interaction. Scamper may not effectively improve figural creativity and anxiety may not influence figural creativity the same way it influences verbal creativity, at least as measured.
Mijares-Colmenares BE; Masten WG; Underwood JR
Full Text Available As interest in creativity is rising, kindergarten teachers are looking for ways to strengthen the creative potential of young children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music and movement activities to creative thinking in preschool children. A three month educational programme was designed and implemented, using an experimental research method. The effect on fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of thought of 5 year old children, as well as how the programme affected creative behaviours, was studied. The results, upon completion of the educational programme, showed that the growth rate of these variables in the experimental group was statistically significant compared to the corresponding rates in the control group. In addition, the emergence of creative behaviours, such as an increased freedom of expression, a tendency to explore and experiment, and a questioning of what is commonly accepted, were considered to be a consequence of the implementation of the specific educational programme. The experimental research produced valuable information about the design and philosophy of educational programmes, and about the teaching methods of music and movement activities in kindergarten.
Elena Chronopoulou; Vassiliki Riga
In this study, peer assessment was applied in assessing elementary science teaching skills. Preservice teachers taught a science topic as a team to their peers in an elementary science methods course. The peers participating in the science lesson assessed teacher-groups' elementary science teaching skills on an assessment form provided by the…
Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap
Full Text Available Decreasing of interest in mathematics and science subjects among students in Malaysia has been discussed lately. Applications of mathematics and science in real world settings might be able to facilitate increased interests in the subjects, especially in doing research. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to manifest that learning mathematics through project-based activity would cultivate interest in students towards research and foster research-like skill. Experience of teaching mathematics in School of Mathematical Sciences, UKM with integration of biological and physics problems are discussed. The level of interest is measured through students’ interest in doing their research projects in the final semester of the undergraduate study. The percentage of students interested in doing applied problems showed an increased in number. Thus it is concluded that the project-based activity led the students to identify their interest and hence head their interest into research.
Rambely A. S.; Ahmad R. R.; Majid N.; M-Suradi N. R.; Din U. K. S.; A-Rahman I.; Mohamed F.; Rahim F.; Abu-Hanifah S.
In a technology and media dominated era of education the role of teacher and there by the skills required to be mastered by each teacher need redefinition. The paper attempts to identify the list of essential teaching skills for the present age by retaining the significant ones and including those inevitable for present context. The skills…
Nath, Baiju K.
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on improvements to professional teaching practice within an undergraduate university business programme to more effectively teach an employability skill and enhance the student experience of teamwork. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase approach to teaching teamwork was…
Riebe, Linda; Roepen, Dean; Santarelli, Bruno; Marchioro, Gary
This work assessed the effect of trait anxiety (measured on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and the Scamper technique on figural creative thinking, measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. An analysis of covariance with 52 gifted students in a summer camp gave no significant main effect of treatment for trait anxiety, or their interaction. Scamper may not effectively improve figural creativity and anxiety may not influence figural creativity the same way it influences verbal creativity, at least as measured. PMID:8332693
Mijares-Colmenares, B E; Masten, W G; Underwood, J R
The role of critical and creative thinking has been debated within the field of instructional design. Through an instructional design and development project we have identified how critical and creative thinking are essential to the instructional design process. This paper highlights a recent project focused on a virtual Native American village…
Baum, Liesl M.; Newbill, Phyllis Leary
Of 98 8-18 year olds, 47 were taught livestock evaluation skills (conformance and performance) using live horses and 51 using video simulation. There were no significant differences related to teaching technique. Older students (12-18) learned conformance judging skills more quickly than younger ones. Audiovisual aids were considered effective for…
Wulff-Risner, Linda; Stewart, Bob
Applied sport psychology can be directed toward teaching psychological skills that enhance athletic performance. This process can take place at all levels of coaching and physical education. Methods for teaching goal setting, imagery, relaxation, and self-talk are described. (PP)
Danish, Steven J.; Hale, Bruce D.
BACKGROUND: Despite limited preparation and knowledge base, surgical interns have important teaching responsibilities. Nevertheless, few faculty development programs are aimed at interns. METHODS: Succinct teaching skill content was electronically distributed over time (spaced education) to interns in academic year 2010/2011. The interns in the previous year served as historic controls. Electronic surveys were distributed for program evaluation. RESULTS: Fifteen of 24 (62.5%) interns and 35 of 49 (71.4%) students responded to the surveys in academic year 2009/2010 and 16 of 27 (59.3%) interns and 38 of 52 (73%) students responded in academic year 2010/2011. Surveys showed improved attitudes toward teaching by interns as well as a higher estimation of interns' teaching skills as rated by students for those interns who received the spaced education program. CONCLUSIONS: Using spaced education to improve interns' teaching skills is a potentially powerful intervention that improves interns' enthusiasm for teaching and teaching effectiveness. The changes are mirrored in students' ratings of interns' teaching skills and interns' attitudes toward teaching.
Pernar LI; Corso K; Lipsitz SR; Breen E
Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of speech situations created at the English lessons. The purpose is to study one of the most efficient methods to involve pupils into the active speech activity through their imagination and creative thinking and show the essential condition which is pupils’ interest in the topic of speech situations.
Alferova Olga Ivanovna
|The Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP), its design, concept and evaluation scheme as well as experiences and results of application are described. The test was designed to mirror a more holistic concept of creativity than the mere quantitatively oriented, traditional divergent thinking tests. The specific design using figural…
Urban, Klaus K.
This paper explains the results of multi-year applications of the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production in a Turkish context with Turkish participants. The purpose of the study is to present the results of several empirical studies conducted by different Turkish samples, using the instrument...
Aysenur Yontar Togrol
Should I stop the conflict or narrate it? Do I redirect or reassure? Two infant/toddler teachers explain how they use trust as a teaching tool, "teaching" less and involving the toddlers in their classroom in the decisions that affect them. They took to heart the philosophy of Magda Gerber, who urged parents to "observe more, do less." The author…
Leon-Weil, Anica; Hewitt, Carol
The essential nursing skills team at the University of the West of Scotland's Hamilton Campus introduced a contemporary holistic integrated teaching approach in September 2010 to engage students with essential nursing skills (phase 1). This article explores how this approach was further developed by introducing media in the form of a video (phase 2). It also reports student and peer evaluation of the use of multimedia and preferred formats, with recommendations for further development.
Everett F; Wright W
Full Text Available Engineering students are required to have, by the time of graduation, a set of professional skills related to teamwork, oral and written communications, impact of engineering solutions, life-long learning, and knowledge of contemporary issues. Teaching and assessment of these skills, as part of ABET accreditation, remains problematic. A systematic methodology to integrate these skills and their assessment in the curriculum is described. The method was recently applied in several engineering programs and proved to be efficient in generating data and evidences for evaluation and continuous improvement of these outcomes.
Ali M. Al-Bahi; Mahmoud A. Taha; Nedim Turkmen
Full Text Available This paper explains the results of multi-year applications of the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production in a Turkish context with Turkish participants. The purpose of the study is to present the results of several empirical studies conducted by different Turkish samples, using the instrument which was developed by Jellen and Urban for measuring the creative thinking potentials of individuals. The number of the subjects of all the studies described here totaled to 1529. These participants were of various ages and at various levels of ability, and they included primary school students, university students, and adults, as well as 369 gifted students, and 64 subjects with neurological problems. The author introduces the evaluation procedures, discusses the culturally fair characteristics of the test, and makes a case for the utility of the instrument in Turkey with a comparison of existing data in the literature related to the instrument.
Aysenur Yontar Togrol
Full Text Available It is reputed that “Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration”, but it can also be noted that “sometimes, 1% inspiration is more important than 99% perspiration.” As this 1% is so important, can it be understood, and even learned? If so, how can cognition be used to enlighten a scientist's inspiration (creative thinking)? Both questions are considered on the basis of cognitive theory in the paper. We illustrate our ideas with examples from computer science.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate novice physics teachers' teaching skills they developed through teaching programs. This work has been carried out by employing ease study approach. The findings were collected from the semi-structured observations and interviews made by three novice physics teachers whose teaching experiences are 2 or 3 years. Initially, the professional activities of these physics teachers working at different types of secondary schools in Amasya, are observed using an observation chart. Afterwards, interviews are carried out to obtain ideas, expectations and comments of these novice physics teachers. The obtained data indicated that the novice teachers are not offered ample opportunity in schools to demonstrate their skills, to utilize laboratory and education technology and to create simple tool-equipments for the sake of reaching the objectives of the curriculum.
Full Text Available In Andhra Pradesh, India, chemical experimenting in under graduate college labs by students is neglected because most of the intermediate (10+1 and 10+2) students concentrate on writing competitive exams like EAMCET (Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test), IIT JEE (Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Test), AIEEE (All India Engineering Entrance Examination), AFMS (Armed Forces Medical Services), AIMS (All India Institute of Medical Science). The students spend most of their time in preparing for competitive exams, practicing bits, and writing many model exams. Even Parents, staff, and management are also motivated and allow the students towards preparation for competitive exams because of the increase in number of engineering seats and demand of medical seats. Ultimately, the quality and quantity of students who join the B.Sc. (Bachelor of Science) has been decreasing day by day. Even after joining the B.Sc., the students are motivated towards immediate white collared job oriented courses like M.C.A (Master of Computer Applications) and M.B.A (Master Business Administration) and spending their time for preparing for competitive exams for those courses. Only a few students are interested to join Post graduation in chemistry and try to learn experimental skills in chemistry laboratory. However, the motivated students towards undergraduate chemistry will be demotivated towards it due to lack of fundamentals in chemistry (in 10+2 level), which are essential for better job market. Ultimately, the students are in confusion and neglect learning the skills in doing experiments in chemistry lab. The present paper focuses on the thorough quest of one such teacher who strives for his own professional development. He has developed his own method of guiding the students for their improvement of skills in doing experiments in lab. The teacher explored solutions to his problems or problems of students by sorting out the critical incidents from his own laboratory experiences, documented through regular journal writing. The teacher cum researcher guided the students to overcome the difficulties in Ø Determination of melting point Ø Determination of Boiling Point Ø Test for Extra elements Ø Ignition Test for Aliphatic/Aromatic/Carbohydrate/Amide andØ Test for Functional groups Quest, Professional development, Organic Practical class, Laboratory Experiences, Experimental Skills.
B. Samrajya LAKSHMI; B. Venkateswara RAO
Background:? Many key medical procedures are performed every day in clinical practice to yield important diagnostic information and to help determine the disease response to intensive treatments. Training clinicians to perform procedures competently and confidently thus carries considerable weight, helping to assure patient safety, the obtainment of adequate samples and minimising patient discomfort. This article considers how Robert Gagne's instructional design model may be effectively used to design lesson plans and teach procedural skills in small group settings. Context:? Gagne's model is based upon the information-processing model of mental events that occur when adults are presented with various stimuli. It highlights nine specific instructional events, which correlate with crucial conditions of learning, and are arranged to maximally enhance the learning process, improve session flow and, ultimately, ensure lesson objectives are comprehensively addressed. Innovation:? This article uses the nine points described by Gagne to outline a comprehensive lesson guide for teaching psychomotor skills, using a bone-marrow aspirate procedure as an example. Each of Gagne's instructional events is considered with specific activities for each, and with the variety of activities delineated to meet diverse learning styles. Implications:? Gagne's instructional events can produce an effective and comprehensive lesson plan for teaching procedural skills, preparing learners with various preferred learning styles to perform psychomotor skills competently in clinical practice. This lesson plan can be of use for both teachers and students across clinical specialties, encouragingly outlining how Gagne's systematic and widely referenced theory can be creatively and practically used. PMID:24015735
Background:? Many key medical procedures are performed every day in clinical practice to yield important diagnostic information and to help determine the disease response to intensive treatments. Training clinicians to perform procedures competently and confidently thus carries considerable weight, helping to assure patient safety, the obtainment of adequate samples and minimising patient discomfort. This article considers how Robert Gagne's instructional design model may be effectively used to design lesson plans and teach procedural skills in small group settings. Context:? Gagne's model is based upon the information-processing model of mental events that occur when adults are presented with various stimuli. It highlights nine specific instructional events, which correlate with crucial conditions of learning, and are arranged to maximally enhance the learning process, improve session flow and, ultimately, ensure lesson objectives are comprehensively addressed. Innovation:? This article uses the nine points described by Gagne to outline a comprehensive lesson guide for teaching psychomotor skills, using a bone-marrow aspirate procedure as an example. Each of Gagne's instructional events is considered with specific activities for each, and with the variety of activities delineated to meet diverse learning styles. Implications:? Gagne's instructional events can produce an effective and comprehensive lesson plan for teaching procedural skills, preparing learners with various preferred learning styles to perform psychomotor skills competently in clinical practice. This lesson plan can be of use for both teachers and students across clinical specialties, encouragingly outlining how Gagne's systematic and widely referenced theory can be creatively and practically used.
Technological and Technical Skills of the Teaching Faculty Members in Balqa Applied University / Jordan - In the Light of Comprehensive Quality Standards from the Viewpoint of a Number of Colleges Students
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the reality of the practices of the faculty members of teaching skills in light of comprehensive quality standards from the viewpoint of Balqa applied University College students. To achieve the objective of the study the researcher designed a questionnaire included four axes on quality standards in teaching. The study found out that the teachers of these colleges have skills associated with qualities of teaching methods, strategies, teaching methods, techniques, interaction, communication and the evaluation. But they’re poor if some special skills like the inability to diversify in the initialization methods to lecture in various ways, to motivate students to learn, does not possesses the ability to provide feedback to students answers, does not support scientific and creative thinking. Never use modern teaching methods and techniques in the best way, and does not emphasize the student use of computers outside the classroom in organizing their daily duties and perform scientific tasks and scientific research. The study recommended the teachers of Applied University of Balqa colleges to increase the attention to skills associated with teaching methods and strategies, teaching methods and techniques, interaction and communication, and evaluation. Particular as regards to diversification in the initialization methods for lecture using the different available methods to stimulating students learning, such as using stories, realistic problems, current events, PowerPoint, scientific demonstration, and to develop their abilities in providing feedback to students answers and support their skills in scientific, creative and critic thinking and to use modern teaching methods and techniques, and the use of student computers outside the classroom in organizing their daily duties and perform scientific tasks and scientific research.
Burhan M Awad Al-Omari; Mohammed Abu Rumman; Amal Yaseen AL Majali; Ata E. M. AL Shra’ah
INTRODUCTION: Recent research suggests that effective interprofessional communication and collaboration can positively influence patient satisfaction and outcomes. Health professional communication skills do not necessarily improve over time but can improve with formal communication skills training (CST). This article describes the development, evaluation, and lessons learned for a novel theater-based role-play CST program designed to improve community cancer care for patients and families by enhancing health care professionals' communication skills. INTERVENTION: Four 2-hour interprofessional communication skills workshops for Nova Scotia health professionals were developed. Topics were (1) Essential Communication Skills, (2) Delivering Difficult News and Providing Support, (3) When Patients and Families Are Angry, and (4) Managing Conflict in the Workplace. Strategies for enhancing communication skills based on the science (evidence-based practice and teaching) and the art (interactive theater) of communication skills were included. Facilitators included professional actors, communication skills facilitators, and trained health professionals. EVALUATION: We used a mixed-methods evaluation design assessing 4 levels of educational outcomes at 3 points: pre- and post-workshop and follow-up. RESULTS: Five hundred eighteen professionals representing over 20 health professions attended 17 workshops. Data showed the workshops were well received, despite some discomfort with role-playing. Pre/post paired t-tests of self-reported communication skills showed significant improvement after all workshops (p ? 0.05); 92% indicated intended changes to their communication practice immediately following the workshops. Of 68 respondents to the follow-up, 59 (87%) reported positive changes in the responses of their patients. DISCUSSION: Both positive and negative lessons learned are described.
Sargeant J; MacLeod T; Murray A
AIM: Since the 1950s, the problem of how to evaluate creativity has been addressed in studies on the definition of measurement criteria and on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. Many revealed cognitive and relational disorders in preterm infants, particularly in preterm very low birth weight infants (birth weight <1500 g) and in infants with serious complications. This study describes the development of creative thinking in a group of children born preterm. METHODS: The study sample was 43 children (21 males, 22 females; age range 6-11 years), regularly attending school, born with low birth weight (1050-2450 g) at 29-32 weeks gestational age, and compared with a control group with birth weight >2500 g. The test battery included: Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TCTT); WISC-R intelligence test; Goodenough Human Figure Drawing Test. RESULTS: Statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney U test) showed a statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the 2 groups; scores for figure originality, figure fluidity and figure elaboration were consistently higher in the control group. Within the low birth weight group, there was a significant correlation (Spearman r) between verbal IQ and verbal fluidity and verbal flexibility subscale scores and between IQ performance and figure elaboration. Scores on the figure drawing tests showed higher creative ability in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In children born preterm with low birth weight, emotive dynamics and flow of affection may influence the channels of communication between child and family. The low figure originality subscale scores support the hypothesis that psychodynamic and relational factors (worry about the preterm condition, overprotective behaviour by parents and others) could lead to diminished autonomy, flexibility and manipulatory interest in the child.
Parisi L; Di Filippo T; Firrigno L; La Grutta S; Testa D; Roccella M
A clear need to teach preservice teachers to generalize newly acquired teaching skills across time and settings has been well established in the literature. Few empirical studies exist that inform teacher educators on ways to promote generalization of teaching skills with beginning teachers, however. Programming for generalization continues to be…
Scheeler, Mary Catherine
This article demonstrates that careful planning and management can help to ensure effective learning for pre-registration students during theory and practical skills teaching. It highlights two lesson plans with intended learning outcomes, one for a didactic teaching session and the other for a psychomotor clinical skills session. The article identifies a variety of teaching and learning strategies that could be adopted.
Dix G; Hughes S
Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????(??????????????????)??????1) ????????????????????????????????2) ????????????????????????????3) ????????????????????????????????This research is to explore the influence of the aesthetic appreciation of the abstract degree of the picture to creative thinking. College students were asked to complete a creative task (graphics imagination, insight, art creation) after watching abstract or realistic picture. The results showed that: 1) Aesthetic appreciation of the abstract degree of the picture can improve the divergent thinking test’s agility and innovation; 2) Aesthetic appreciation of the abstract degree of the pictures did not improve the insight of the problem solving ability; 3) Aesthetic appreciation of the abstract degree of the picture can effectively improve the creative imagination test’s creation level.
???; ??; ??; ???
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based practice is a major focus in nursing, yet the literature continues to document a research-practice gap. Reasons for this gap stem partly from a lack of skills to critique and synthesize the literature, a lack of search skills and difficulty in understanding research articles, and limited knowledge of research by nursing professionals. METHOD: An innovative and quality driven subject to improve critical appraisal and critical thinking skills was developed for the School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health at the University of Wollongong, based on formative research with postgraduate students and supervisors. Through face-to-face and online teaching modules students worked through a structured process of analysing the key aspects of published papers using structured analysis tools for each study design. RESULTS: Pre and post surveys of students found improvements in perceived knowledge of all key skills of critical appraisal. External independent evaluation determined that it was a high quality subject showing many hallmarks of good assessment practice and good practice in use of information and communication technology (ICT) in support of the learning outcomes.
Jones SC; Crookes PA; Johnson KM
As a complex mental process, creativity requires the coordination of multiple brain regions. Previous pathological research on figural creativity has indicated that there is a mechanism by which the left side of the brain inhibits the activities of the right side of the brain during figural creative thinking, but this mechanism has not been directly demonstrated. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the existence of this inhibitory mechanism in young adults (15 women, 11 men, mean age: 22 years) that were not artists. By making comparisons between brain activity during creative and uncreative tasks, we found increased activity in the left middle and inferior frontal lobe and strong decreases in activity in the right middle frontal lobe and the left inferior parietal lobe. As such, these data suggest that the left frontal lobe may inhibit the right hemisphere during figural creative thinking in normal people. Moreover, removal of this inhibition by practicing artistry or through specific damage to the left frontal lobe may facilitate the emergence of artistic creativity. Hum Brain Mapp 34:2724-2732, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Huang P; Qiu L; Shen L; Zhang Y; Song Z; Qi Z; Gong Q; Xie P
Full Text Available Background: This investigation focuses on traumatic events of World War II and postwar reconstruction in US society in the 1940s, taking into account the development of psychiatric nursing as a specialty within the context of nursing education and practice trends. Scotomas of historic world figures, including Hildegard Peplau, renowned educator and psychiatric nurse, are examined. These blind spots profoundly affected their reactions and behaviors, for the betterment of society or the destruction of it. Method: Psychohistory looks at the “why” of historical events and is concerned with the motivation in human behavior and with the underlying meaning lurking beneath the surface of logic. In this psychohistorical exploration, figurative snapshots highlight a historical marker that commemorates a fire that blazed out of control in 1948 at Highland Hospital, a mental institution in Asheville, North Carolina, where Peplau held directorship. This fire served as a springboard for the evolution of the nurse-patient relationship within the nursing profession, as influenced by Peplau. Relevant questions explored are: What nurses were implicated in the fire? What did the characters at the scene believe and perceive? What were the motivations of key players? Who qualified as nurses? What ramifications did the fire have for nursing education and practice in the development of analytical thought and theoretical concepts? Significance: Some view the historic fire as a black mark against nursing. Nurses, however, with the assistance of Peplau’s teachings, can see it as a benchmark that began the process of eradication of resistances that prevent growth and the illumination of educational curricula that promote advancement of critical and creative thinking. Today, nurses can take advantage of their knowledge base learned from the past and can create expansive innovation in nursing education and practice that is supportive of global health and safety in the 21st century.
Christine M. Silverstein
The research aims to determine the effectiveness of using blended learning Approach in developing student teachers teaching skills, and defining teaching skills that confront students of teachers college at King Saud University need it. The research uses the Quasi- Experimental approach, with four experimental groups (Mathematics (21)--Science…
Isman, Aytekin; Abanmy, Fahad AbdulAziz; Hussein, Hisham Barakat; Al Saadany, Mohammed Abdelrahman
|This study explored the applicability of the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP) in the Hong Kong Chinese cultural context. The psychometric properties of scores on the TCT-DP were examined in a sample of 2,368 Hong Kong Chinese students aged 12 to 16. The study compared the TCT-DP's internal consistency, interrater, and…
Full Text Available Mind mapping is a presentation form of radiant thinking, utilizing lines, colors, characters, numbers, symbols, image, pictures or keywords, etc. to associate, integrate and visualize the learned concept and evoke brain potential. Through mind maps, one’s attention, coordination ability, logic, reasoning, thinking, analyzing, creativity, imagination, memory, ability of planning and integration, speed reading, character, number, visuality, hearing, kinesthetic sense, sensation, etc. are significantly enhanced. “Picture” is not limited by nationality and language and is the best tool for young children to explore new things and learning. Because pictorial representation is one of the most primal human traits and drawing ability is better than writing ability in young children, learning and expressing through mind mapping prevents difficulties of writing, grammar and long description in children. Thus, this study reviews related researches to figure out whether mind mapping can be applied by young children to develop their creative thinking.
Wen-Cheng Wang; Chung-Chieh Lee; Ying-Chien Chu
The present work sets out to study the internal structure of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) and to establish standardised scores that will enable the test to be used in both a diagnostic and educational context. 649 students (319 girls and 330 boys), aged 5 to 12 years from various schools in Murcia and Alicante (SE Spain), took part in the study. The findings suggest that the psychometric characteristics of TTCT are satisfactory, and its internal structure can be attributed to three factors that are responsible for a high percentage of the variance (73.8%). The standardised score tables, which are provided for first time in this context, will be useful in the evaluation of creativity and the identification of students with high intellectual abilities.
Ferrando M; Ferrándiz C; Bermejo MR; Sánchez C; Parra J; Prieto MD
Full Text Available This paper explores a pedagocial approach to teaching oral English---Conversation Analysis. First, features of spoken language is described in comparison to written language. Second, Conversation Analysis theory is elaborated in terms of adjacency pairs, turn-taking, repairs, sequences, openings and closings, and feedback. Third, under the theoretical framework of Conversation Analysis, a syllabus for improving learners’ oral English skills is designed in consideration to learner profile, needs analysis and communicative events and materials employed in teaching. And a teaching model is explored with reference to Riggenbach(1999). Finally, two types of assessment are discussed to provide insights for teachers on the effect of teaching and learning. All the issues discussed above will provide teachers and scholars with a clear instruction on how to apply conversation analysis to teaching oral English skills and the discussion will lead to the feasibility of applying a converstion analysis approach to teaching learners’ oral English skills.
Full Text Available Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from ‘transmission’ models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005).
BACKGROUND: Critical appraisal is the process of assessing and interpreting evidence by systematically considering its validity, results and relevance to an individual's work. Within the last decade critical appraisal has been added as a topic to many medical school and UK Royal College curricula, and several continuing professional development ventures have been funded to provide further training. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of teaching critical appraisal skills to health professionals on the process of care, patient outcomes and knowledge of health professionals. SEARCH METHODS. We updated the search (see Appendix 1 for search strategies by database) and used those search strategies to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1997 to June 2011) and MEDLINE (from 1997 to June 2011). We also searched EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO (up to January 2010). We searched LISA (up to January 2010), ERIC (up to January 2010), SIGLE (up to January 2010) and Web of Knowledge (up to January 2010). We also searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register up to January 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series analyses that examined the effectiveness of educational interventions teaching critical appraisal to health professionals. The outcomes included process of care, patient mortality, morbidity, quality of life and satisfaction. We included studies reporting on health professional knowledge/awareness only when based upon objective, standardised, validated instruments. We did not consider studies involving students. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted authors of included studies to obtain missing data. MAIN RESULTS: In total, we reviewed a total of 11,057 titles and abstracts, of which 148 appeared potentially relevant to the review. We included three studies involving 272 people in this review. None of the included studies evaluated process of care or patient outcomes. Statistically significant improvements in participants' knowledge were reported in domains of critical appraisal (variable approaches across studies) in two of the three studies. We determined risk of bias to be 'unclear' and as such considered this to be 'plausible bias that raises some doubt about the results'. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Low-intensity critical appraisal teaching interventions in healthcare populations may result in modest gains. Improvements to research examining the effectiveness of interventions in healthcare populations are required; specifically rigorous randomised trials employing interventions using appropriate adult learning theories.
Horsley T; Hyde C; Santesso N; Parkes J; Milne R; Stewart R
A survey of 500 higher education institutions to identify available instructional materials in basic teaching skills relevant to university instructors resulted in a listing of producers and their products. The major focus of the study was on practical ma...
N. Hudepohl W. D. Hendricson
Full Text Available This article discusses some concepts of competence, to identify their common elements that can be transferred to educational practices on competition. The intention is to establish levels of consistency among the components of the concept with educational practices and competitions. On this basis, we discuss some strategies for teaching skills to identify and propose strategies and tools that focus on authentic assessment to evaluate teaching skills.
Isabel Guzmán Ibarra; Rigoberto Marín Uribe
BACKGROUND: Doctors' interpersonal and communication skills correlate with improved health care outcomes. International medical organisations require competency in communication skills. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) developed a toolbox for assessing this competency and 5 others, yet none initially for teaching these skills. PURPOSE AND METHODS: The original focus in the development of the ACGME competencies was evaluation. This paper represents a significant step toward defining methods for teaching communication skills competencies. A total of 16 medical education leaders from medical schools worldwide, participating in the 2003 Harvard Macy Institute Program for Physician Educators, worked together to: (1) further define the ACGME competency in interpersonal and communication skills; (2) delineate teaching strategies for each level of medical education; and (3) create a teaching toolbox to integrate communication skills competencies into medical curricula. Four subgroups defined subcompetencies, identified teaching strategies for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate medical training and brought their work to the larger group. The expanded communication competencies and teaching strategies were determined by a consensus of the larger group, presented to 80 Harvard Macy Scholars and Faculty for further discussion, then finalised by consensus. CONCLUSION: The teaching toolbox expands the ACGME core communication competencies, adds 20 subcompetencies and connects these competencies to teaching strategies at each level of medical training. It represents the collaboration and consensus of a diverse international group of medical education leaders in a variety of medical specialities and institutions, all involved in teaching communication skills. The toolbox is applicable globally across different settings and specialities, and is sensitive to different definitions of health care.
Rider EA; Keefer CH
Appropriate reactions to potentially hazardous situations may help prevent children from incurring injury or abduction. However, children with autism and other developmental disorders may not develop safety skills without explicit intervention. This study used a simple behavioral skills training package for teaching children with autism to respond…
Summers, Jay; Tarbox, Jonathan; Findel-Pyles, Rachel S.; Wilke, Arthur E.; Bergstrom, Ryan; Williams, W. Larry
A study undertaken by the Faculty of Education at the University of Regina, Saskatchewan, sought to determine beginning teachers' perceptions of their own abilities in 15 teaching skills and strategies and the degree of importance of various components of the teacher education program in developing these skills. Forty-three questionnaires were…
Narang, Harbans L.
|Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…
Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.
Full Text Available Museum objects can be used to inspire a wide variety of teaching and learning. This paper discusses how museum objects can be used to teach communications skills to medical students as part of a project investigating the benefits of taking museum objects to patients at University College London Hospitals.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the teaching of cognitive skills within a technical skills course, we carried out a blinded, randomized prospective study. METHODS: Twenty-one junior residents (postgraduate years 1-3) from a single program at a surgical-skills training centre were randomized to 2 surgical skills courses teaching total knee arthroplasty. One course taught only technical skill and had more repetitions of the task (5 or 6). The other focused more on developing cognitive skills and had fewer task repetitions (3 or 4). All were tested with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) both before and after the course, as well as a pre- and postcourse error-detection exam and a postcourse exam with multiple-choice questions (MCQs) to test their cognitive skills. RESULTS: Both groups' technical skills as assessed by OSATS were equivalent, both pre- and postcourse. Taking their courses improved the technical skills of both groups (OSATS, p < 0.01) over their pre-course scores. Both groups demonstrated equivalent levels of knowledge on the MCQ exam, but the cognitive group scored better on the error-detection test (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive skills training enhances the ability to correctly execute a surgical skill. Furthermore, specific training and practice are required to develop procedural knowledge into appropriate cognitive skills. Surgeons need to be trained to judge the correctness of their actions.
Kohls-Gatzoulis JA; Regehr G; Hutchison C
The aim of this work is to study the unidimensional and multidimensional nature of creativity when assessed through divergent thinking tasks, as proposed in Torrance's battery (Torrance Creative Thinking Test, TTCT). This battery is made up of various tasks with verbal and figurative content, aimed at estimating the level of creativity according to the dimensions or cognitive functions of fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of the individuals' ideas. This work used a sample of 595 Portuguese students from 5th and 6th grade. The results of confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the unidimensional model (a general factor of creativity) and the model of factors as a function of the cognitive dimensions of creativity, based on task content, do not fit well. The model with the best fit has a hierarchical factor structure, in which the first level comprises the factors for each of the subtests applied and the second level includes verbal or figurative content. The difficulty to verify the structural validity of the TTCT is noted, and the need for further studies to achieve, in practice, better individual creativity scores.
Oliveira E; Almeida L; Ferrándiz C; Ferrando M; Sainz M; Prieto MD
The aim of this paper is to investigate what emphasis is put on speaking development in different teaching methods. This sequence of thought offers a survey of teaching methods in the 19th century, from The Grammar Teaching Method up to present day. In this period of time, considerable changes have ...
The article describes "Teaching, Learning, and Caring" (TLC), a program designed for partially mainstreamed behavior disordered adolescents (ages 14-18). Eight TLC skill areas are the focus of interpersonal skills training: communication mode, empathy, goal identification, cue sensitivity, alternative thinking, skills implementation, consequential…
Full Text Available Teaching methodology plays an important role in transmitting knowledge and skills to learners. The effectiveness of both knowledge and skills depends greatly on the methodology used. This paper describes a study to investigate the learners’ perspectives on the teaching methodology used by the teachers at the Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, to teach Arabic speaking skills. The data were collected using a focus group interview with 6 Arabic language learners at the centre. The findings show that the learners were dissatisfied with the teaching methodology as it emphasizes memorization. Instead they prefer a communicative approach where they can apply orally what they have learned, be corrected and improve.
Sueraya Che Haron
Full Text Available Scientific and technological advances of today, force the universities to train more qualified individuals. That needs to increase the quality of educational programs and practices, and requires constant updating in universities. So within the framework of the “Bologna Process” higher education programs have been started to be updated in our country. These studies, carried out to develop the skills and competencies of students' knowledge with student-centered educational approach. Besides a variety of knowledge and skills, ability to work independently and assume responsibility, learning, communication and social competence skills, such as domain specific competencies and professional competence is intended to gain to the students. This approach needs to teaching cognitive (logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (manual skills, methods, materials, tools to use) skills, that is to say language, mental, social and emotional skills in higher education. Teaching of skills is different from teaching of the information in methods and practice. Therefore the universities should be developed for the assessment of teaching and coaching skills. Otherwise, the rote teaching of information will inevitably grow and achieving the goals of higher education will be difficult.
BACKGROUND: Objective structured teaching evaluations (OSTEs) have been utilized to evaluate educational curricula and for resident and faculty development. PURPOSE: This study examines the impact of an OSTE on faculty teaching effectiveness and faculty satisfaction. METHODS: From 2004 to 2007, 46 faculty members participated in the OSTE. Faculty assessed their teaching abilities with a retrospective pre-post-test analysis. Faculty teaching evaluations for the 6 months before and after the OSTE were compared. Faculty participants completed satisfaction questionnaires regarding their OSTE experience and made teaching plans for the future. RESULTS: After the OSTE, faculty reported statistically significant improvements in all self-assessed teaching skills. There was, however, no improvement in their teaching evaluations. Faculty satisfaction with the OSTE experience was high. They indicated teaching plans incorporating lessons from the OSTE. CONCLUSIONS: Faculty felt the OSTE was a rewarding experience and reported improvement in their teaching abilities; however, faculty teaching evaluations did not improve.
Julian K; Appelle N; O'Sullivan P; Morrison EH; Wamsley M
OBJECTIVE: To determine if structured teaching of bedside cardiac examination skills improves medical residents' examination technique and their identification of key clinical findings. DESIGN: Firm-based single-blinded controlled trial. SETTING: Inpatient service at a university-affiliated public teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty Internal Medicine residents. METHODS: The study assessed 2 intervention groups that received 3-hour bedside teaching sessions during their 4-week rotation using either: (1) a traditional teaching method, "demonstration and practice" (DP) (n=26) or (2) an innovative method, "collaborative discovery" (CD) (n=24). The control group received their usual ward teaching sessions (n=25). The main outcome measures were scores on examination technique and correct identification of key clinical findings on an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). RESULTS: All 3 groups had similar scores for both their examination technique and identification of key findings in the preintervention OSCE. After teaching, both intervention groups significantly improved their technical examination skills compared with the control group. The increase was 10% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4% to 17%) for CD versus control and 12% (95% CI 6% to 19%) for DP versus control (both P<.005) equivalent to an additional 3 to 4 examination skills being correctly performed. Improvement in key findings was limited to a 5% (95% CI 2% to 9%) increase for the CD teaching method, CD versus control P=.046, equivalent to the identification of an additional 2 key clinical findings. CONCLUSIONS: Both programs of bedside teaching increase the technical examination skills of residents but improvements in the identification of key clinical findings were modest and only demonstrated with a new method of teaching.
Smith CA; Hart AS; Sadowski LS; Riddle J; Evans AT; Clarke PM; Ganschow PS; Mason E; Sequeira W; Wang Y
BACKGROUND: The future of medical education is under increasing strain from a paucity of clinical educators with formal teaching experience and time to fulfil their teaching roles. 'Teaching on the Run' (TOR), is a programme aimed at improving the quality of teaching by medical educators. We hypothesised that the completion of the TOR programme by senior medical students would increase student awareness of quality educational practice, thereby improving their competence and confidence in teaching and assessing their peers. METHODS: Seventeen senior medical students who participated in the TOR programme completed before and after questionnaires based on the key outcomes of the programme. All students were invited to participate in a focus group session to explore their attitudes and experiences of having completed the programme. Seven students chose to participate. RESULTS: The TOR increased students' perceived ability to apply educational principles, plan learning activities and to provide feedback. During the focus group session students expressed an appreciation that the medical school was genuinely interested in improving the quality of their teaching and learning. However, the programme did not improve students' confidence in assessing their peers. DISCUSSION: We found that the TOR programme may provide a foundation from which future medical educators may be trained. In particular, these students seem to have developed some understanding of the principles of adult learning, and may be better prepared to plan and deliver a teaching session. This augurs well for the future of medical education, which depends on the emergence of a new generation of trained medical educators.
Burgess A; Black K; Chapman R; Clark T; Roberts C; Mellis C
In addition to the traditional learning outcomes for technical disciplinary knowledge, the CDIO-syllabus also specifies personal and interpersonal learning outcomes. The argument for teaching interpersonal skills rest upon the team-based working environment that is typical for engineers, where knowledge and skills in teamwork, leadership, and communications are highly required. Thus, the practice of interpersonal skills need to be implemented in engineering teaching, not only in terms of learning objectives, but realised in practical teaching activities and as an integrated part of the examination. This study aims at presenting and reviewing a practical approach to teaching of interpersonal skills, referred to as the Social Risk Analysis, which has been applied and integrated into the curriculum of two engineering courses. The Social Risk Analysis encourages and imposes a critical review of the social interaction in a small group of students and thus facilitates communication and teamwork operation. Students find the Social Risk Analysis being easy to apprehend and meaningful in engineering teaching, and most significantly, they perceive that the Social Risk Analysis facilitates the work performance. The study found it possible to successfully implement the Social Risk Analysis into the course curriculum of the two engineering courses. The implementation required, however, refinement of the pedagogical approach by integrating the Social Risk Analysis into the learning objectives, teaching activities and assessment of the course, and further, redesign of the engineering work assignments in order to impel cooperation, communication and participation of the students in a team. The establishment of an engineering context provides an important basis for the teaching of interpersonal skill using the Social Risk Analysis.
A thorough family assessment provides a foundation for the nursing process when working with families. Therefore, nurses, along with other health care providers must develop expertise in conducting family assessments to provide the best possible care within the community. This article describes an innovative educational strategy using movies to teach family assessment skills and puts forth recommendations for future research to provide evidence to support this teaching modality. PMID:23586768
Wilson, Astrid H; Blake, Barbara J; Taylor, Gloria A; Hannings, Glenda
A thorough family assessment provides a foundation for the nursing process when working with families. Therefore, nurses, along with other health care providers must develop expertise in conducting family assessments to provide the best possible care within the community. This article describes an innovative educational strategy using movies to teach family assessment skills and puts forth recommendations for future research to provide evidence to support this teaching modality.
Wilson AH; Blake BJ; Taylor GA; Hannings G
This paper describes an evaluation of a curriculum-integrated information literacy programme in an undergraduate nursing course. The aim of the programme was to provide students with an awareness of the discipline's literature and the skills to locate and retrieve the literature. A multidimensional process for determining nursing students' development was utilised in the evaluation of the programme. Pre- and post-programme questionnaires were distributed to a cohort of students who undertook the programme. A cohort of more senior students who had not undertaken the information literacy programme was utilised as a comparison group. Questionnaire results were analysed using a range of inferential statistics. This paper will focus on two main findings related to objective measures of information literacy skills. These include pre-programme/post-programme change in student performance and differences in student performance between those who undertook the programme and those who did not. The programme demonstrated its effectiveness in developing information literacy skills, however the challenge remains for both academics and students to ensure that these skills are consolidated and extended for effective life-long learning.
Wallace MC; Shorten A; Crookes PA
|Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…
Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina
One way to teach the research paper is by first discussing sampling, the musical practice of using other artists' work. By studying the lyrics of Sean "P. Diddy" Combs, a widely known hip-hop sampler, students gain an understanding of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing sources.
Wakefield, Sarah R.
This article presents a case story of how an occupational therapist worked with Joe, a junior high student with Asperger's Syndrome, to develop better organizational skills. Self-regulated learning strategies were used to teach Joe how to keep track of his assignments as well as his grades. In addition, the case story provides a clear example of…
Cahill, Susan M.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate procedures to teach four moderately and severely mentally retarded students the standing long jump and the 50-yard dash, using task analysis and a training package of prompts and response consequences. Results showed acquisition and maintenance of the two athletic skills. (Author/CL)
Cuvo, Anthony J.; And Others
To be successful in today's workplace, engineering and computer science students must possess high levels of teamwork skills. Unfortunately, most engineering programs provide little or no specific instruction in this area. This paper outlines an assessment-driven approach toward teaching teamwork s...
Robert W. Lingard
In addition to the traditional learning outcomes for technical disciplinary knowledge, the CDIO-syllabus also specifies personal and interpersonal learning outcomes. The argument for teaching interpersonal skills rest upon the team-based working environment that is typical for engineers, where knowl...
An interactive videodisc program on the process of administering medications to clients will be demonstrated. Discussion will center on the strengths and limitations of interactive video for teaching psychomotor skills to healthcare professionals as well as design modifications that will facilitate ...
Renshaw, Sharon M.; Beadenkopf, F. Scott; Murray, Rodney
BACKGROUND: Graduating Internal Medicine residents must possess sufficient skills to perform a variety of medical procedures. Little is known about resident experiences of acquiring procedural skills proficiency, of practicing these techniques, or of being assessed on their proficiency. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate resident 1) experiences of the acquisition of procedural skills and 2) perceptions of procedural skills assessment methods available to them. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted in the weeks following an assessment of procedural skills incorporated into an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Using fundamental qualitative description, emergent themes were identified and analyzed. RESULTS: Residents perceived procedural skills assessment on the OSCE as a useful formative tool for direct observation and immediate feedback. This positive reaction was regularly expressed in conjunction with a frustration with available assessment systems. Participants reported that proficiency was acquired through resident directed learning with no formal mechanism to ensure acquisition or maintenance of skills. CONCLUSIONS: The acquisition and assessment of procedural skills in Internal Medicine programs should move toward a more structured system of teaching, deliberate practice and objective assessment. We propose that directed, self-guided learning might meet these needs.
Touchie C; Humphrey-Murto S; Varpio L
Full Text Available A review of the issues in teaching computer skills to adults, with particular emphasis on the needs of the older adult. Three main areas are considered: adult and lifelong learning, including personal issues and pressures facing the learner; the specific demands of teaching practical computer skills, including the classroom environment; and the particular problems faced by learners as they get older, such as physiological changes.The paper draws on evidence from work in all of these areas, as well as research into the views and needs of the learners themselves. Rather than reach specific conclusions for such a diverse group of learners, the paper identifies some key factors which the adult learning tutor should consider when teaching practical computer skills, particularly when older adults are involved, for example the class composition and the presentation of handouts.There is no indication that older people cannot learn these skills, but the tutor must be aware of the specific characteristics and needs of the group.
|The Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production, an open-ended drawing test, is an approach to assessing and identifying students' creativity in terms of 11 criteria: completion; additions; new elements; connections with a line; connections with a theme; boundary-breaking, fragment-dependent; boundary-breaking, fragment-independent;…
Jellen, Hans G.; Urban, Klaus K.
|Elementary school-aged children (N=569) from 11 countries were administered the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production. The 11 countries had distinctly different political, economic, and educational systems. The test was discovered to be culture-fair, culture-sensitive, gender-fair, and gender-sensitive. (Author/JDD)|
Jellen, Hans G.; Urban, Klaus K.
This study assessed the effectiveness of a learner-centered simulation intervention designed to improve the communication skills of preprofessional sophomore nursing students. An innovative teaching strategy in which communication skills are taught to nursing students by using trained actors who served as standardized family members in a clinical learning laboratory setting was evaluated using a two-group posttest design. In addition to current standard education, the intervention group received a formal training session presenting a framework for communication and a 60-minute practice session with the standardized family members. Four domains of communication-introduction, gathering of information, imparting information, and clarifying goals and expectations-were evaluated in the control and intervention groups in individual testing sessions with a standardized family member. The intervention group performed better than the control group in all four tested domains related to communication skills, and the difference was statistically significant in the domain of gathering information (p = 0.0257).
Zavertnik JE; Huff TA; Munro CL
This study assessed the effectiveness of a learner-centered simulation intervention designed to improve the communication skills of preprofessional sophomore nursing students. An innovative teaching strategy in which communication skills are taught to nursing students by using trained actors who served as standardized family members in a clinical learning laboratory setting was evaluated using a two-group posttest design. In addition to current standard education, the intervention group received a formal training session presenting a framework for communication and a 60-minute practice session with the standardized family members. Four domains of communication-introduction, gathering of information, imparting information, and clarifying goals and expectations-were evaluated in the control and intervention groups in individual testing sessions with a standardized family member. The intervention group performed better than the control group in all four tested domains related to communication skills, and the difference was statistically significant in the domain of gathering information (p = 0.0257). PMID:19810670
Zavertnik, Jean Ellen; Huff, Tanya A; Munro, Cindy L
Full Text Available The aim of this study is description and analysis of educational facilities design criteria based on creative thinking from the perspective of educational technology specialists. Study's method is descriptive-surveyand it is polling type. Method description - is a survey of surveys. Population consists of full-time faculty members in the field of educational technology at the University of Tehran that are 36 persons. Tools for data collection are questionnaire responses depending on the research questions that the research was conducted on the Likert scale. Questionnaire's reliability obtained based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient that was 74%. To analyze data in statistical methods frequency distribution, percentage, frequency, mean, and statistical tables were used. Results of one-sample z-test were used for statistical analysis. Based on the results, obtained z for standard colors equals to 8.98, because the subjects' average (27.38) and compare it with the hypothetical average of (15) it can be said that obtained average by hypothetical population mean has significant difference. For sound scale (phoneme) equals 3.52 based on testees' mean (27.77) and to compare it with society's hypothetical average (17.5) it can be said that that obtained average has significant difference with society's hypothetical average. For thermal condition scale (heat )it was equal to 2,.26 because regarding testee's average ( 14.77) and to compare with society's hypothetical average (10) it can be said that obtained average has significant difference with society's hypothetical mean. Therefore it can be concluded that there is a significant relationshipbetween design criteria of educational facilities and increase in students' creative thinking from the perspective of educational technology specialists at the 5% level.
Shahin Valia; Faramarzmalekian; Mehrnaz Foroughinia
INTRODUCTION: Residents have an important role as teachers and need to know about teaching, teaching methods and skills. In developed countries, "resident-as-teacher" programs have been implemented progressively; but there is little information about this theme in developing countries such as Iran. This study aimed to determine effects of "teaching method" workshop on surgical residents' teaching skills in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 18 residents in 1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) years of surgical residency in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences have attended in a 10-hour workshop. Two questionnaires (validity and reliability) was verified: Clinical teaching self-assessment and clinical teaching evaluation was completed before and after the intervention ("teaching method" workshop) by attending residents and rater interns, respectively. Paired-samples T-test was used to analyze collecting data. RESULTS: After intervention, Self-assessment mean scores were increased in two categories: feedback from 3.34 to 3.94 (P = 0.011) and promoting self- directed learning from 3.53 to 4.02 (P = 0.009); whereas, there was no significant differences in evaluation mean scores. CONCLUSION: Statistical results from self-assessment and evaluation scores show little improvement in residents' teaching skills after the intervention, but residents assessed the workshop as useful. Lack of motivation in interns and little reward for residents who attend in educational activities could be responsible for these results. So, to promote role of residents' as teachers, we offer revision in residency curriculum and residents' formal duties as well as designing educational programs in teaching theme based on our needs and resources.
Haghani F; Eghbali B; Memarzadeh M
David Goldberg opened by describing the research that had led up to the present WPA teaching package. Early research had demonstrated that many psychological illnesses were not detected in primary care settings (Goldberg & Huxley 1980; ibid 1992), and these findings have been replicated in 14 centres round the world, with broadly similar results (Ustun & Sartorius 1995). We have found that in the UK the problem is not defects in factual knowledge, but not having clinical skills to assist in the management of mental disorders in general medical settings. The clinical skills needed in primary care are seldom taught in medical schools, and cannot be learned by listening to a lecture: it is necessary to practice them after they have been demonstrated. To do this it is convenient to break complex clinical skills down into their components: these are called "micro-skills", and we will deal later with the way in which these are taught. The most powerful method for improving mental health skills in this setting is to provide doctors with feedback--either video or audio--of their interview with real patients. The emphasis of such teaching must be on the interview techniques used by the doctor, rather than the clinical problems displayed by the particular patient being interviewed (Gask et al 1991). The problem with this is that video-feedback teaching of the necessary type is not always available, so we have developed videotapes that we can send out to distant locations, and which focus the attention of both local tutor and postgraduates on what should be learned. Because it is essential that most of the teaching is done by the live teacher rather than the videotape, there are always several "discussion points" so that postgraduates can ask questions, or describe their own way of dealing with particular situations. The videotapes are supplied together with teaching notes for the tutor, power points slides which can be adapted to suit local conditions, "role plays" to allow postgraduates to practice each skill they wish to learn, and other support materials. There is also a paper written by ourselves in association with Norman Sartorius, who has encouraged us to prepare the teaching package under the auspices of the WPA. Linda Gask described the process of teaching specific 'microskills', by working through how the skills necessary for the management of people who present in primary and general medical settings have been described and taught in the UK (see box 1). A model of the strategies and skills to be [figure: see text] taught was first developed utilizing the experience professionals and teachers from both primary care and mental health. A videotape was produced in which the skills to be acquired were demonstrated by real primary care doctors in role-played interviews with the addition of subtitles to label particular skills. The videotape is then utilised in a group teaching session to model the specific component skills of the model or 'microskills' to the participants in order to demonstrate exactly how the strategies of the model are applied in a real consultation. Watching the videotape will not however change behaviour. To do this, it is necessary to role-play brief scenarios so that the professional is able to practice the actual words he or she would use. This role-play work may be carried out in pairs, with one doctor playing the professional and the other playing the patient, or in threes, with the addition of an observer who ensures that the participants keep to the task. At the end of the role-play all participants provide feedback. These methods are described in much more detail in Gask (1999). Finally, there is also the possibility of videotaping one of these role-played interviews and teaching on this tape with the group as a whole. The specific skills and methods required to do this are described in much more detail along with the research evidence for these methods in Gask (1998). Our approach to facilitating the group in the exercise of videofeedback teaching is summarised in b
Goldberg D; Gask L
The study was designed to develop and factorially validate an instrument for measuring teaching practice skills of chemistry student-teachers in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Two research questions guided the study. The design of the study was instrumentation. All the chemistry student-teachers in the Department of Science Education, University…
Ezeudu, F. O.; Chiaha, G. T. U.; Eze, J. U.
OBJECTIVES: The lack of published studies into effective skills teaching in clinical skills centres inspired this study of student views of the teaching behaviours of skills teachers. METHODS: We organised focus group discussions with students from Years 1-3 of a 6-year undergraduate medical curriculum. A total of 30 randomly selected students, divided into three groups, took part in two sessions. They discussed what teaching skills helped them to acquire physical examination skills. RESULTS: Students' opinions related to didactic skills, interpersonal and communication skills and preconditions. Students appreciated didactic skills that stimulate deep and active learning. Another significant set of findings referred to teachers' attitudes towards students. Students wanted teachers to be considerate and to take them seriously. This was reflected in student descriptions of positive behaviours, such as: 'responding to students' questions'; 'not exposing students' weaknesses in front of the group', and '[not] putting students in an embarrassing position in skill demonstrations'. They also appreciated enthusiasm in teachers. Important preconditions included: the integration of skills training with basic science teaching; linking of skills training to clinical practice; the presence of clear goals and well-structured sessions; good time management; consistency of teaching, and the appropriate personal appearance of teachers and students. CONCLUSIONS: The teaching skills and behaviours that most facilitate student acquisition of physical examination skills are interpersonal and communication skills, followed by a number of didactic interventions, embedded in several preconditions. Findings related to interpersonal and communication skills are comparable with findings pertaining to the teaching roles of tutors and clinical teachers; however, the didactic skills merit separate attention as teaching skills for use in skills laboratories. The results of this study should be complemented by a study performed in a larger population and a study exploring teachers' views.
Martens MJ; Duvivier RJ; van Dalen J; Verwijnen GM; Scherpbier AJ; van der Vleuten CP
Full Text Available [Background: Practicing physicians often wish to improve their procedural skills but have limited educational opportunities to do so. Description: To summarize the effects of two procedural workshops on participants? confidence, proficiency, and practice patterns. Evaluation: Following completion of a skin biopsy or arthrocentesis workshop, participants completed a post-course and an 8-month follow up evaluation. Recipients of this training rated it highly and reported that following training they performed more procedures, referred less, and noted an increase in their confidence that was still evident eight months after the workshop. Conclusion: Skin biopsy and arthrocentesis/joint injection skills can be taught to practicing physicians in a workshop setting at national professional meetings. Key Words: clinical competence; internal medicine; teaching; educational measurement
Patrick Alguire, MD
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Training models are required to impart surgical skills, like wound closure techniques, prior to practice in patients. In an ideal case, the tissue characteristics of the model are close to those of humans, easy to create and of low cost. Methods Here, we describe a model to train students in wound closure technique using conventional chicken legs obtained from the supermarket. Results The described model has good tissue characteristics, does not require any lavish preparation and is of minimal cost (0.62 Euro or 0.78 USD). Conclusions Chicken legs appear to be an appropriate tool for teaching wound closure techniques.
Khalil PN; Siebeck M; Mutschler W; Kanz K-G
Describes a laboratory protocol using clinical veterinary data that teaches the cognitive, analytical, communication, and interpersonal skills necessary for students in a biology core laboratory course. (WRM)
Woolverton, Christopher J.
ACCESSIBLE SUMMARY: Reflections upon what it might mean to think, and about what inherited presuppositions or images might influence what thinking is thought to consist of, are not readily considered in the mental health care literature. However, the work of the 20th century French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and, in particular, his account of 'the dogmatic image of thought' can be employed to illustrate how such considerations can be of relevance to the theoretical and practical concerns of mental health professionals. In doing so, Deleuze's work can be understood as seeking to sensitize mental health professionals to the dangers of unreflectively adopting a restrictive notion of what it means to think, as well as an exhortation to develop critical, creative thinking in the mental health professions that moves beyond the bounds of the traditional, dogmatic image of thought. ABSTRACT: Considerations about what it might mean to think, and about what inherited presuppositions determine what thinking is thought to consist of, are not readily reflected upon in the mental health care literature. However, this paper will propose that such considerations are of relevance to, and possess important implications for, the mental health professions, and it will do so within the context of the work of the 20th century philosopher Gilles Deleuze. In particular, the paper will provide an accessible exposition of what Deleuze refers to as the 'dogmatic image of thought', along with an examination of his suggestion that this traditional image, and its associated presuppositions, not only determine what is considered to be the ostensible 'nature' of thought, but also delineate what the activity of thinking ought to be concerned with. Moreover, it will be argued that Deleuze's exposition and critique of the image of thought can be understood as seeking to sensitize mental health professionals to the dangers of unreflectively perpetuating a restrictive notion of what it means to think, as well as being an exhortation to develop critical, creative thinking in the mental health professions that moves beyond the bounds of that traditional, dogmatic image of thought.
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandates that radiology residency programs teach communication skills to residents. The purpose of this paper is to present a mnemonic, RADPED, that can be used to enhance communication in the radiology setting. It reminds the resident of the salient points to address during an imaging encounter with pediatric patients and their families for the purpose of enhancing communication. Recent history and research in medical communication are reviewed. Various communication guides used by primary care physicians, such as SEGUE, and the Kalamazoo consensus statement are discussed. This methodology was adapted into a format that could be used to teach communication skills to radiology residents in the context of an imaging encounter. RADPED reminds the resident to establish rapportwith the patient, ask questionsas to why the patient and family are presenting for the study, discuss the exam, perform the procedure, use exam distractions, and discussthe results with the referring physician and family when appropriate. This guide is available with movie clips as part of an on-line pediatric radiology curriculum. This simple memory aid promotes the key points necessary to optimize the radiology resident's encounter with pediatric patients and their families. (orig.)
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandates that radiology residency programs teach communication skills to residents. The purpose of this paper is to present a mnemonic, RADPED, that can be used to enhance communication in the radiology setting. It reminds the resident of the salient points to address during an imaging encounter with pediatric patients and their families for the purpose of enhancing communication. Recent history and research in medical communication are reviewed. Various communication guides used by primary care physicians, such as SEGUE, and the Kalamazoo consensus statement are discussed. This methodology was adapted into a format that could be used to teach communication skills to radiology residents in the context of an imaging encounter. RADPED reminds the resident to establish rapportwith the patient, ask questionsas to why the patient and family are presenting for the study, discuss the exam, perform the procedure, use exam distractions, and discussthe results with the referring physician and family when appropriate. This guide is available with movie clips as part of an on-line pediatric radiology curriculum. This simple memory aid promotes the key points necessary to optimize the radiology resident's encounter with pediatric patients and their families. (orig.)
Goske, Marilyn J.; Reid, Janet R.; Yaldoo-Poltorak, Dunya [Children' s Hospital, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Divisions of Radiology, Pediatrics, and Education, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hewson, Mariana [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Division of Education, Cleveland, OH (United States)
Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…
Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan
This paper reviews and critiques an existing skills framework for online language teaching. This critique is followed by an alternative framework for online language teaching skills. This paper also uses a systems view to look at the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders in an online learning system. Four major recommendations are…
Compton, Lily K. L.
Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a randomised controlled trial, with concealed allocation and blinded participants and outcome assessment. Each of the three randomly allocated groups were exposed to a different practical skills teaching method (traditional, pre-recorded video tutorial or student self-video) for two specific practical skills during the semester. Clinical performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The students were also administered a questionnaire to gain the participants level of satisfaction with the teaching method, and their perceptions of the teaching methods educational value. There were no significant differences in clinical performance between the three practical skill teaching methods as measured in the OSCE, or for student ratings of satisfaction. A significant difference existed between the methods for the student ratings of perceived educational value, with the teaching approaches of pre-recorded video tutorial and student self-video being rated higher than 'traditional' live tutoring. Alternative teaching methods to traditional live tutoring can produce equivalent learning outcomes when applied to the practical skill development of undergraduate health professional students. The use of alternative practical skill teaching methods may allow for greater flexibility for both staff and infrastructure resource allocation.
Maloney S; Storr M; Paynter S; Morgan P; Ilic D
Full Text Available Globalization and liberalization in the business environment have changed the requirements of types and qualities of human capital needed by the corporate sector. In relation to this, business graduates not only need to have theoretical understanding, but they also need to have creative thinking, communication skills and decision making skills based on multidisciplinary knowledge. Simulation game in business education is suggested to fill the gap by exposing students to real business situations. This study evaluates the effectiveness of business simulation in teaching Strategic Management in Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). A total of 48 students participated in the business simulation game and answered a survey at the end of the Strategic Management course. The objective of this paper is to present the findings in terms of contextual and processual context of using business simulation as an approach in teaching strategic management. The important findings of this research are the ability of simulation in transferring theory to practice, applying multidisciplinary knowledge, managing team dynamics, making decisions in uncertainties and managing in realistic situation. This study highlights the potential of business simulations in developing competent business graduates that fulfill the requirements of the industry.
Nor Liza Abdullah; Mohd Hizam Hanafiah; Noor Azuan Hashim
BACKGROUND: There is a perception among surgeons that performing laparoscopic suturing is unduly difficult. The purpose of this study is to document a program which aides in learning laparoscopic suturing. METHODS: Fourteen volunteer medical students without prior experience were taught laparoscopic suturing. Videoscopic pelvitrainers were utilized for a 2-h training session. Extracorporeal and intracorporeal knot tying was demonstrated utilizing a three-throw square knot. After a 2-h practice session each student's time to complete an extracorporeal and intracorporeal suture was recorded. RESULTS: The average times required for completion were: extracorporeal suture and knot 1 min 54 s; intracorporeal suture and knot 3 min 12 s. CONCLUSIONS: Novice students were able to perform at extra and intracorporeal suturing with 2 h of practice, utilizing a systematic program of teaching basic video skills.
Champion JK; Hunter J; Trus T; Laycock W
|Understanding how motor skills are learned influences how one teaches effective motor skill attainment. Educators must ask, "Does repetitive practice of the same task make for better performance or does contextual variability (random practice) offer some benefit when learning motor skills?" Studies on the effects of Contextual Interference may…
Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Gentile, A. M.
[en] Full text: Problem solving skills are essential for all radiation protection personnel. Although some students have more natural problem solving skills than others, all students require practice to become comfortable using these skills. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), a unique one-semester course was developed as part of the core curriculum to teach students problem solving skills and elements of modelling and simulation. The underlying emphasis of the course was to allow students to develop their own problem solving strategies, both individually and in groups. Direction was provided on how to examine problems from different perspectives, and how to determine the proper root problem statement. A five-point problem solving strategy was presented as: 1) Problem definition; 2) Solution generation; 3) Decision; 4) Implementation; 5) Evaluation. Within the strategy, problem solving techniques were integrated from diverse areas such as: De Bono 's six thinking hats, Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, Covey's seven habits of highly effective people, Reason's swiss cheese theory of complex failure, and Howlett's common failure modes. As part of the evaluation step, students critically explore areas such as ethics and environmental responsibility. In addition to exploring problem solving methods, students learn the usefulness of simulation methods, and how to model and simulate complex phenomena of relevance to radiation protection. Computational aspects of problem solving are explored using the commercially available MATLAB computer code. A number of case studies are presented as both examples and problems to the students. Emphasis was placed on solutions to problems of interest to radiation protection, health physics and nuclear engineering. A group project, pertaining to an accident or event related to the nuclear industry is a course requirement. Students learn to utilize common time and project management tools such as flowcharting, Pareto analysis, Fishbone diagrams and Gantt charts. It has been found that the tools learned in this course are used through all subsequent courses. In addition, early student and employer feedback suggests that the problem solving, modeling and simulation skills of the undergraduate students make them extremely valuable in the workplace. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural competence, the ability to work in cross-cultural situations, has been acknowledged as a core skill for physiotherapists and other health professionals. Literature in this area has focused on the rationale for physiotherapists to provide culturally-competent care and the effectiveness of various educational strategies to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge about cultural competence by physiotherapists and physiotherapy students. However, there is a paucity of research on how students with different cultural needs, who are attending one university class, can be accommodated within a framework of learning core physiotherapy skills to achieve professional standards. Results This paper reports on steps which were taken to resolve the specific needs of a culturally-diverse body of first year physiotherapy students, and the impact this had on teaching in a new physiotherapy program located in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. Physiotherapy legislative, accreditation and registration requirements were considered in addition to anti-discrimination legislation and the four ethical principles of decision making. Conclusions Reflection on this issue and the steps taken to resolve it has resulted in the development of a generic framework which focuses on providing quality and equitable physiotherapy education opportunities to all students. This framework is generalizable to other health professions worldwide.
Bialocerkowski Andrea; Wells Cherie; Grimmer-Somers Karen
BACKGROUND: Medical students report knowledge, but inadequate skills, in health promotion and disease prevention (HPDP) technology. An established methodology using standardized patient instructors (SPIs) was adapted and tested for effectiveness in teaching HPDP. METHODS: Thirteen lay persons were trained and given profiles showing high cardiovascular risks. During their family medicine clerkship, 104 students engaged in one-to-one exercises with the SPIs. Half of these sessions were spent in the doctor-patient interview; in the other half, the SPI gave specific feedback using a validated scale. Encounters were videotaped. RESULTS: The students rated the SPI feedback as the program's most valuable aspect and the videotaping as the least valuable. The SPI feedback was rated valuable by 90%-96% of the students. The students also reported that the skills acquired were likely to be used, and they had learned "much" or "very much." As a group, students' self-assessments did not differ from the SPIs' assessments of the students. CONCLUSION: Lay SPIs are a powerful educational tool.
Sharp PC; Pearce KA; Konen JC; Knudson MP
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Teaching is considered an essential competency for residents to achieve during their training. Instruction in teaching skills may assist radiology residents in becoming more effective teachers and increase their overall satisfaction with teaching. The purposes of this study were to survey radiology residents' teaching experiences during residency and to assess perceived benefits following participation in a teaching skills development course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study participants were radiology residents with membership in the American Alliance of Academic Chief Residents in Radiology or the Siemens AUR Radiology Resident Academic Development Program who participated in a 1.5-hour workshop on teaching skills development at the 2010 Association of University Radiologists meeting. Participants completed a self-administered, precourse questionnaire that addressed their current teaching strategies, as well as the prevalence and structure of teaching skills training opportunities at their institutions. A second postcourse questionnaire enabled residents to evaluate the seminar and assessed new knowledge and skill acquisition. RESULTS: Seventy-eight residents completed the precourse and postcourse questionnaires. The vast majority of respondents indicated that they taught medical students (72 of 78 [92.3%]). Approximately 20% of residency programs (17 of 78) provided residents with formal didactic programs on teaching skills. Fewer than half (46.8%) of the resident respondents indicated that they received feedback on their teaching from attending physicians (36 of 77), and only 18% (13 of 78) routinely gave feedback to their own learners. All of the course participants agreed or strongly agreed that this workshop was helpful to them as teachers. CONCLUSIONS: Few residency programs had instituted resident teacher training curricula. A resident teacher training workshop was perceived as beneficial by the residents, and they reported improvement in their teaching skills.
This paper describes a four-tiered approach to supporting University of Maryland faculty in the development of instructional materials to be delivered via the World Wide Web. The approach leverages existing equipment and staff by the design of Web posting, editing, and management tools for use on the campus-wide information server, "inforM" (a…
Borkowski, Ellen Yu; Henry, David; Larsen, Lida L.; Mateik, Deborah
AIM: The aim of this study is to compare student teachers and clinical associate professors regarding the quality of procedural skills teaching in terms of participants' technical skills, knowledge and satisfaction with the teaching. METHODS: This is an experimental, randomized, controlled study comparing the teaching of student teachers and associate professors regarding participants' learning outcome and satisfaction with the teaching. Two skills are chosen for the experiment, i.v.-access and bladder catheterization. Learning outcome is assessed by a pre- and post testing of the participants' knowledge and skills. Participants evaluate satisfaction with teaching on nine statements immediately after the teaching. RESULTS: In total 59 first year medical students are included as participants in the experiment. The students taught by student teachers perform just as well as the students taught by associate professors and in one skill--catheterization--they perform even better, mean post- minus pre-test scores 65.5 (SD 12.9) vs. 35.0 (SD 23.3), One-way ANOVA, p < 0.0001, effect size 1.62. Student teachers receive significantly more positive evaluations than associate professors on several statements. CONCLUSION: Trained student teachers can be as good as associate professors in teaching clinical skills. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep
Tolsgaard, Martin G; Gustafsson, Amandus
Full Text Available Standard medical curricula in the United Kingdom (UK) typically provide basic surgical-skills teaching before medical students are introduced into the clinical environment. However, these sessions are often led by clinical teaching fellows and/or consultants. Depending on the roles undertaken (e.g., session organizers, peer tutors), a peer-assisted learning (PAL) approach may afford many benefits to teaching surgical skills. At the University of Keele's School of Medicine, informal PAL is used by the Surgical Society to teach basic surgical skills to pre-clinical students. As medical students who assumed different roles within this peer-assisted model, we present our experiences and discuss the possible implications of incorporating such sessions into UK medical curricula. Our anecdotal evidence suggests that a combination of PAL sessions – used as an adjunct to faculty-led sessions – may provide optimal learning opportunities in delivering a basic surgical skills session for pre-clinical students.
Mahdi Saleh; Yashashwi Sinha; Daniel Weinberg
Standard medical curricula in the United Kingdom (UK) typically provide basic surgical-skills teaching before medical students are introduced into the clinical environment. However, these sessions are often led by clinical teaching fellows and/or consultants. Depending on the roles undertaken (e.g., session organizers, peer tutors), a peer-assisted learning (PAL) approach may afford many benefits to teaching surgical skills. At the University of Keele's School of Medicine, informal PAL is used by the Surgical Society to teach basic surgical skills to pre-clinical students. As medical students who assumed different roles within this peer-assisted model, we present our experiences and discuss the possible implications of incorporating such sessions into UK medical curricula. Our anecdotal evidence suggests that a combination of PAL sessions – used as an adjunct to faculty-led sessions – may provide optimal learning opportunities in delivering a basic surgical skills session for pre-clinical students.
Saleh, Mahdi; Sinha, Yashashwi; Weinberg, Daniel
PURPOSE: The study examined participation in the Basic Skills Faculty Development Workshops (BSW) offered by the Physician Assistant Education Association (PAEA). The aim was to determine the effects of participation on perceived mastery of teaching skills and job satisfaction. METHODS: The 1,290 faculty and program director members of PAEA were invited to complete an electronic survey regarding their past participation in a BSW, levels of satisfaction with various aspects of their work, and their perception of their level of mastery of various teaching skills. Additionally, those who had participated in these workshops completed a section on colleague relationships that were developed or strengthened through workshop participation. RESULTS: Approximately half (n = 248) of the 493 respondents had participated in a BSW. Mean scores for satisfaction with salary, rank, position, and overall satisfaction did not differ significantly according to BSW participation. Perceived mastery of various teaching skills was significantly higher for nonattendees of BSW. However, controlling for "years in physician assistant education" nullified that association. Attendees reported a mean of 1.02 (SD = 1.47) new mentoring relationships and 2.45 (SD = 2.97) new peer relationships. Satisfaction with current position was significantly positively correlated with the number of colleague relationships. The number of new and strengthened mentor relationships correlated significantly with perceived mastery of advising students. CONCLUSIONS: Basic Skills Workshop attendees experience acceleration in their perceived mastery of teaching skills, closing the proficiency gap between them and their more-experienced colleagues who did not attend a Basic Skills Workshop. Also, participation is associated with an increased number of colleague relationships, which has a positive effect on satisfaction.
Quincy B; Archambault M; Sedrak M; Essary AC; Hull C
The purpose of this study was to examine the constructivist-based " case study teaching methodology" in High School Biology classes, specifically investigating the effect this methodology had on Academic Achievement, Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills. The effect of Teacher Beliefs toward constructivist learning environments was also explored and investigated, using a quantitative measure (the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, or CLES). A quasi-experimental design used eleven classes, five teachers, and two hundred fifty two high school biology students over two separate, consecutive quarters of a school year. Two researcher-made instruments measured Academic Achievement after each study quarter. T-Tests were used to compare the Experimental Group (Case Study Teaching Methodology) to the Control Group (Traditional Teaching) during each study quarter. Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) scores were used as a covariate for ANCOVA tests. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on Academic Achievement during the first study quarter, but not the second quarter. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on four of seven Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills during the second quarter of the study. This study is significant in that it addresses a knowledge gap regarding the effects of the constructivist-based case study teaching methodology on secondary science education. The theoretical implications of this study are meaningful: empirical evidence is added to the growing knowledge base regarding the benefits of constructivist theory. The practical implications are equally meaningful: case study teaching methodology is supported as an effective application of constructivist theory in the secondary science classroom.
Full Text Available Para resolver una adivinanza hay que asociar ideas, analizar metáforas, descubrir analogías. Por eso, impulsar esta forma de entretenimiento infantil es un modo de ejercitar el pensamiento creativo. Sin embargo, existe un problema: las adivinanzas tradicionales son formas literarias que corresponden a una época pre-digital. ¿Cómo lograr, entonces, que tengan mayor aceptación entre los nativos digitales? Una posible solución sería crear adivinanzas audiovisuales diseñadas especialmente para YouTube. En esta investigación se realizaron cinco prototipos de adivinanzas audiovisuales con características creativas diferentes y se validaron con estudiantes de tercero a sexto grado de educación primaria. Los resultados de la validación permitieron identificar las actitudes, reacciones, interpretaciones y modos de razonamiento de los niños y niñas cuando intentan resolver este tipo de adivinanzas. También se identificaron los recursos de lenguaje y formatos creativos que funcionan mejor en una adivinanza audiovisual. En las conclusiones se destaca la necesidad de formular correctamente los enunciados de las adivinanzas audiovisuales y sus respectivas «pistas» para que los niños y niñas tengan la satisfacción intelectual y emocional de resolverlas. Se precisa, además, que leer o escuchar una adivinanza tradicional representa una experiencia cognitiva y sensorial muy distinta que interactuar con esa misma adivinanza en un lenguaje multimedia. Finalmente, se discute y analiza el rol mediador del docente y la importancia del aprendizaje colaborativo en los proyectos educativos que emplean tecnologías digitales.Solving riddles involves association of ideas, analysis of metaphors, and discovery of analogies. Therefore, promoting this type of children’s entertainment is a way to develop creative thinking. However, there is a problem: traditional riddles are literary forms that correspond to a pre-digital era. How can we increase its acceptance among the digital natives? One way might be creating audiovisual riddles specially designed for YouTube. In this research we made five prototypes of audiovisual riddles with different creative characteristics and validated them among 8-12 years old students. The validation results helped us to identify the attitudes, reactions, interpretations and ways of thinking of children when they try to solve such riddles. We also identified the resources of language and creative formats that fit best in audio-visual riddles. The outcome of this research emphasizes the need to correctly formulate the audiovisual riddle statements and their «clues» for children; this way we assure an intellectual and emotional satisfaction when solving them. It also concludes that reading or listening to traditional riddles are cognitive and sensory experiences that are very different from interacting with the same riddle in a multimedia language. Finally, we discuss and analyze the mediating role of the teacher and the importance of collaborative learning in educational projects using digital technologies.
Jorge Montalvo Castro
Defensive routines and tolerance of skilled incompetence can harm student team performance. Strategies to overcome these problems include emphasizing the importance of process learning, teaching team development, providing practice in communication skills, coaching individual students, and providing graded feedback for process quality. (Contains…
Holmer, Leanna L.
Describes a feedback method for teaching interviewing skills that requires dual evaluation of a student's performance by both the student interviewer and the interviewee. Illustrates benefits of this method with an analysis of 139 paired assessments of students' information-gathering skills in a "career interview" assignment. (PD)
Seibold, David R.; Meyers, Renee A.
This program guide was written to help teach young people effective anger management skills. Geared toward adolescents of middle school age and intended for in-class use, the sessions are readily adaptable for use in small group or individual contexts. The main goal is to help youngsters gain the awareness and skills to manage their anger so that…
Kellner, Millicent H.
|This 5-month study examined the impact of a behaviorally based naturalistic teaching strategy, milieu teaching, on the communication skills of preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in an early childhood special education (ECSE) classroom. A multiple baseline across participants design was used. Communication targets were…
Christensen-Sandfort, Robyn J.; Whinnery, Stacie B.
This paper discuss the development of the new curriculum (bachelor, master) for clinical skills (history taking, physical examination, patient communication, professionalism) at the Medical School in Lausanne. Some specific aspects are reviewed: a structured and longitudinal curriculum, improving bedside clinical teaching, assessment of clinical competences, integrating teaching into the institutional values.
Bonvin R; Lamy O
This 5-month study examined the impact of a behaviorally based naturalistic teaching strategy, milieu teaching, on the communication skills of preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in an early childhood special education (ECSE) classroom. A multiple baseline across participants design was used. Communication targets were…
Christensen-Sandfort, Robyn J.; Whinnery, Stacie B.
Full Text Available This article examined the rate of self-initiated communication acquisition, in a second language, of a child with autism. The language treatment objective was to teach functional communication skills in English through the use of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). The findings of this study show that it is possible for a child with autism to acquire functional communication skills in his second language even though he did not possess such communication skills in his first language.
A training program consisted of analyzing life skills into component steps and providing increasing levels of assistance according to a predetermined schedule for five adults with autism in group homes. All five adults showed progress in targeted life skills, and four achieved independence on their targeted skills. (Author/CL)
Smith, Marcia Datlow; Belcher, Ronald
Teaching others effectively may rely on knowledge about the mind as well as self-control processes. The goal of this investigation was to explore the role of theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF) in children's developing teaching skills. Children 3.5-5.5 years of age (N = 82) were asked to teach a confederate learner how to play a board…
Davis-Unger, Angela C.; Carlson, Stephanie M.
Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures.
BACKGROUND: Lack of faculty training is often cited as the main obstacle to post-graduate teaching in communication skills. Aims: To explore clinical supervisors' needs and perceptions regarding their role as communication skills trainers. METHODS: Four focus group discussions were conducted with clinical supervisors from two in-patient and one out-patient medical services from the Geneva University Hospitals. Focus groups were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed in a thematic way using Maxqda software for qualitative data analysis. RESULTS: Clinical supervisors said that they frequently addressed communication issues with residents but tended to intervene as rescuers, clinicians or coaches rather than as formal instructors. They felt their own training did not prepare them to teach communication skills. Other barriers to teach communication skills include lack of time, competing demands, lack of interest and experience on the part of residents, and lack of institutional priority given to communication issues. Respondents expressed a desire for experiential and reflective training in a work-based setting and emphasised the need for a non-judgmental learning atmosphere. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that organisational priorities, culture and climate strongly influence the degree to which clinical supervisors may feel comfortable to teach communication skills to residents. Attention must be given to these contextual factors in the development of an effective communication skills teaching program for clinical supervisors.
Perron NJ; Sommer J; Hudelson P; Demaurex F; Luthy C; Louis-Simonet M; Nendaz M; De Grave W; Dolmans D; van der Vleuten CP
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the degree of faculty members' practice of the teaching skills in the light of the criteria of Total Quality Management (TQM) from the university students' perceptions at Al al-Bayt University. The study focuses on the impact of gender, college and degree of the faculty members' practice of the teaching skills in the light of TQM. The sample of the study consisted of (451) male and female students. A questionnaire of 72 items in four areas (planning, implementation, evaluation, communication) followed a five–point Likert scale was answered. Software package of Statistical Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the collected data. The results revealed that the faculty members' practice of teaching skills in light of the criteria of TQM is at a medium degree. However, the results showed no statistically significant differences in effect of the faculty members of the teaching skills in the light of the criteria of TQM in the fields of implementation, evaluation, and communication due to the variable of gender. Recommendations on applying TQM in teaching skills were included.
Awatif M. Abu-Al-Sha'r; Mohammad Aboud AL-Harahsheh
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) training grant requirement to provide training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) is now more than 20 years old. Implicit in the requirement is that this training will have an impact not only on what trainees know, but on what they know how to do. There is, however, a range of responses about what skills are seen to be necessary for the ethical practice of science. As part of a larger, earlier study examining RCR instructors' overall goals in teaching RCR, we asked 50 RCR instructors from 37 different institutions what their goals were for teaching skills in their RCR courses. The responses about what constituted necessary skills were wide ranging, from a focus on teaching the skill of ethical decision making to the perceived importance of ensuring that trainees understand the importance of the community in some research relationships. This diversity in responses about what skills should be taught in RCR courses is not especially surprising, given the variation in instructors, formats, instruction, goals, and outcome measures for RCR courses, but it does reinforce the necessity of giving more thought to what goals are to be achieved. This is true not only of skills to be learned, but of any other objectives one might have for research ethics teaching and learning. PMID:23651933
Plemmons, Dena K; Kalichman, Michael W
Attributed to a “receptive skill” in the communicative process, listening comprehension would be the most arduous task of all four language skills. It is likely that EFL (English as a foreign language) students encounter various predicaments, of e.g. grasping main ideas of the dialogues ...
Shao-Wen Su; Chung-Hsiang Liu
The physics curriculum at all educational levels can be enriched to include tools for strengthening students' information evaluation skills. The "Report of the Joint APS-AAPT Task Force on Graduate Education in Physics" calls for such training to be part of graduate programs, but training to acquire these lifetime skills can be incorporated in the…
Popescu, Adriana; Morgan, James
Background: Teaching of clinical skills traditionally takes place in hospital wards and outpatient settings. However high acuity and short hospital stays means there are fewer suitable inpatients available for teaching; and time pressures limit students' involvement in other settings. The Ambulatory Medicine Programme was established to develop undergraduate medical students' clinical skills by providing increased exposure to patients with a wide range of chronic medical conditions, in a dedicated learning environment. Method: A mixed qualitative/quantitative approach was used to evaluate the Programme. This research focuses on staff and student perspectives of teaching and learning in Ambulatory Medicine compared with inpatient and outpatient settings; identifies which teaching methods are considered most effective; and determines the transferability of learning. Patients' perspectives of being involved in student teaching are also reported. Results: Results show that the programme has made a positive impact on students' development of clinical skills, which are transferable to the clinical setting. Patients enjoy being involved and find it personally satisfying. Conclusions: The Ambulatory Medicine Programme is an effective way of developing medical students' clinical skills by providing focussed teaching with real patients in a dedicated learning environment.
Latta L; Tordoff D; Manning P; Dent J
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a parent training program for teaching toilet skills to children with autism and mental retardation. The study was conducted with three mothers and their children. A multiple probe design using probe sessions across subjects was used. The experimental procedure consisted of two…
Ozcan, Nihal; Cavkaytar, Atilla
Full Text Available Scholars in the field of education have unanimously subscribed to the pivotal role of critical thinking in individuals' life in general and their academic life in particular (Bloom, 1956; Ennis, 2003; Dewey, 1933). The thrust of the current study was to investigate the extent to which the books employed for Teaching English as Foreign Language include critical thinking skills. To attain this goal, 3 series of English books, namely, Top notch, Interchange, and English files series utilized by language institutes in Iran were targeted. Next, a seventy two-item critical thinking checklist based on Likert-scale and consisting of twelve skills; namely, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, deduction, induction, balanced-thinking, multiple perspective-taking, creative thinking, building community of thinkers, and knowledge was developed. The target skills on the checklist were mainly based on Bloom's taxonomy and the related literature on critical thinking. The checklist was validated by the researchers themselves and some experts in the field and the reliability coefficient was also estimated at 0.86. Then, two raters conducted a content analysis on the books and determined the magnitude of each skill. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis Non-parametric tests). Findings of the study revealed that the books mainly tapped knowledge, comprehension, application and building community of thinkers skills and failed to acceptably include other skills reported to be of utmost importance for students' academic success. The comparison of the mean rank of the skills in the three books also disclosed that as for lower order thinking skills there wasn’t a significant difference among the books; however, as for other skills Top notch was marginally higher. The paper also discusses the lack of critical thinking in the classroom and materials and proposes some ways to include more critical thinking skills in the materials. The results of the study have significant implications for material developers, educational policy makers and teachers.
Birjandi, Parviz; Alizadeh, Iman
Full Text Available Many ELT experts believe that the inclusion of critical thinking skills in English classes is necessary to improve students’ English competence. Students’ critical thinking skills will be optimally increased if meaning is prioritized in English lessons. Those two inter-related elements can be implemented when teachers do collaborative activities stimulating students’ thinking process and meaning negotiation. Yet, the realization might be counter-productive if they are applied without careful consideration of task purposes and of students’ roles. Based on the consideration, this paper is focused on presenting how critical thinking skills and meaning should be properly incorporated in an English lesson.
AIM: The aim of this article is to determine the most effective methods of teaching psychomotor skills. BACKGROUND: Research has pointed to a gap between nursing practice and nursing education. Due to a number of conditions, nursing students are learning basic skills in laboratories, rather than clinical settings. METHOD: A literature review was conducted to evaluate studies published since 1995 that compared alternative and traditional methods of teaching skills to novice nursing students. RESULTS: Of the 13 studies found, most assessed computer-related methods. A few examined alternatives, such as the use of standardized patients, high-fidelity manikins, and a mental-imaging technique. CONCLUSION: Based on this limited evidence, it appears that teaching methods providing access to online interactive materials were significantly more effective than others.Three studies found that a combination of traditional lecture and demonstration methods plus computer use was more effective than either method alone.
INTRODUCTION: The increased demand for clinician-educators in academic medicine necessitates additional training in educational skills to prepare potential candidates for these positions. Although many teaching skills training programs for residents exist, there is a lack of reports in the literature evaluating similar programs during fellowship training. AIM: To describe the implementation and evaluation of a unique program aimed at enhancing educational knowledge and teaching skills for subspecialty medicine fellows and chief residents. SETTING: Fellows as Clinician-Educators (FACE) program is a 1-year program open to fellows (and chief residents) in the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Iowa. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The course involves interactive monthly meetings held throughout the academic year and has provided training to 48 participants across 11 different subspecialty fellowships between 2004 and 2009. PROGRAM EVALUATION: FACE participants completed a 3-station Objective Structured Teaching Examination using standardized learners, which assessed participants' skills in giving feedback, outpatient precepting, and giving a mini-lecture. Based on reviews of station performance by 2 independent raters, fellows demonstrated statistically significant improvement on overall scores for 2 of the 3 cases. Participants self-assessed their knowledge and teaching skills prior to starting and after completing the program. Analyses of participants' retrospective preassessments and postassessments showed improved perceptions of competence after training. CONCLUSION: The FACE program is a well-received intervention that objectively demonstrates improvement in participants' teaching skills. It offers a model approach to meeting important training skills needs of subspecialty medicine fellows and chief residents in a resource-effective manner.
Rosenbaum ME; Rowat JA; Ferguson KJ; Spengler E; Somai P; Carroll JL; Vogelgesang SA
Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved providing a sample braille letter and teaching the selection of the corresponding printed letter from a comparison array. Concomitant with increases in the accuracy of this skill, we assessed and captured the formation of equivalence classes through tests of symmetry and transitivity among the printed letters, the corresponding braille letters, and their spoken names.
Toussaint KA; Tiger JH
Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved providing a sample braille letter and teaching the selection of the corresponding printed letter from a comparison array. Concomitant with increases in the accuracy of this skill, we assessed and captured the formation of equivalence classes through tests of symmetry and transitivity among the printed letters, the corresponding braille letters, and their spoken names. PMID:21119894
Toussaint, Karen A; Tiger, Jeffrey H
Full Text Available Abstract Surgical residents have insufficient opportunites to learn basic hemostatic skills from clinical experience alone. We designed an ex-vivo training system using porcine organs and a circulation pump to teach hemostatic skills. Residents were surveyed before and after the training and showed significant improvement in their self-confidence (1.83 ± 1.05 vs 3.33 ± 0.87, P
Izawa Yoshimitsu; Hishikawa Shuji; Muronoi Tomohiro; Yamashita Keisuke; Suzukawa Masayuki; Lefor Alan T
Full Text Available By analyzing the shortcomings of the traditional approach and the drawbacks of the modern approach, the author attempts to explore a better way for the teaching of intermediate-level writing skills to EFL students. Taking into account all of the factors which are involved in good writing, the author puts forward a balanced approach to such teaching and provides some principles and techniques for the classroom procedures in which the balanced approach is applied.
Full Text Available Despite the existence of many studies showing positive effects of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning process in general, the use of ICT in teaching writing skills in English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms is still not very encouraging. This study attempts to seek findings on the use of ICT in the teaching of ESL writing skills in Malaysian secondary schools. This paper just reports one part of the findings obtained from a big project which was conducted in Malaysian secondary schools in five areas of Malaysia. This study focuses solely on the data collected from four English teachers in a secondary school in Kuala Lumpur who were interviewed by the researcher. This study revealed that the use of ICT in the teaching of ESL writing was very low. Advantages of using ICT were reported to be attracting students’ attention, facilitating students’ learning process, helping to improve students’ vocabulary and promoting meaningful learning. Disadvantages found included the difficult class control, distraction and the students’ tendency to use short forms in their writing. It was also revealed that teachers are generally weak in managing problems and planning activities involving the use of ICT in the teaching of ESL writing. The results of this study are hoped to provide insights to the Ministry of Education in Malaysia to improve the low use of ICT in teaching ESL writing skills.
Melor Md Yunus; Norazah Nordin; Hadi Salehi; Mohamed Amin Embi; Zeinab Salehi
INTRODUCTION: Residents provide a significant amount of bedside teaching to medical students and more junior colleagues, but often do not receive feedback that is tailored to this aspect of their professional performance. OBJECTIVE: To assess residents' self-reported improvement in teaching skills after feedback based on direct observation of work rounds. METHOD: The authors initiated a program of direct observation of residents' teaching during work rounds during the academic year 2007-2008. Eleven interested faculty volunteers, including chief residents, observed teaching on work rounds by 18 second-year residents in internal medicine during 35 total encounters. Within 24 hours, the faculty observers provided individualized feedback to the resident teachers regarding the quantity and quality of their teaching based on the data collected with the Teaching on Work Rounds observation form. At the end of the year, a survey was conducted to assess the residents' receptivity to this program. RESULTS: Each observation averaged 92 minutes per observer, for 81.5 recorded hours of observations. Eighty percent of the residents felt that they were better teachers because of the feedback they received, and 87% subsequently reported having made conscious changes in their teaching during work rounds. DISCUSSION: A direct observation program of residents' teaching on work rounds improved residents' interest in teaching while motivating them to make conscious changes in their teaching based on the individualized feedback they received.
Chandler D; Snydman LK; Rencic J
BACKGROUND: The extent of communication skills training (CST) in American oncology fellowship programs is unknown. METHODS: A survey was sent to program directors of medical oncology, radiation oncology, gynecologic oncology, and surgical oncology training programs regarding (1) the presence and method(s) of CST in their programs, (2) their attitude about mandatory CST, and (3) their attitude about a mandatory assessment of communication skills competence as a prerequisite for specialty certification. RESULTS: Only a third of programs contained some form of CST. Surgical oncology programs were particularly lacking. Lack of faculty time was cited as the major barrier to implementing CST. A majority of program directors support mandatory CST but not a core competence requirement for certification. CONCLUSIONS: There is a current deficiency in CST in American oncology fellowship training. Given the importance of communication skills in the provision of high-quality cancer care, initiatives to address this deficiency are a priority.
Hoffman M; Ferri J; Sison C; Roter D; Schapira L; Baile W
AIM: To compare the effectiveness of an online information literacy tutorial with a face-to-face session for teaching information literacy skills to nurses. DESIGN: Randomised control trial. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-seven first year undergraduate pre-registration diploma nursing students. INTERVENTION: Online in-house information literacy tutorial COMPARISON: One hour face-to-face session, covering the same material as the intervention, delivered by the nursing subject librarian. METHODS: Search histories were scored using a validated checklist covering keyword selection, boolean operators, truncation and synonyms. Skills retention was measured at 1 month using the same checklist. Inferential statistics were used to compare search skills within and between groups pre and post-session. RESULTS: The searching skills of first year pre-registration nursing students improve following information literacy sessions (p<0.001), and remain unchanged 1 month later, regardless of teaching method. The two methods produce a comparable improvement (p=0.263). There is no improvement or degradation of skills 1 month post-session for either method (p=0.216). CONCLUSION: Nurses Information literacy skills improve after both face-to-face and online instruction. There is no skills degradation at 1 month post-intervention for either method.
Brettle A; Raynor M
This document presents 20 activities for grade 1 students and emphasizes using a calculator. It is related to topics from a primary mathematics curriculum. Mathematical topics addressed include counting, addition and subtraction, the commutative property, greater than and less than, and place value. Each activity includes a statement of skills to…
Spiker, Joan; Kurtz, Ray
This paper presents a discussion of three problem areas that were delineated during the course of a field test designed to assess the effects of the "Heartsmart Adventures," an interpersonal skills curriculum developed from the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) Theory as described by William C. Schutz. Students and teachers…
Ruff, Frances K.; Roberts, Jane M. E.
This paper explores a pedagocial approach to teaching oral English---Conversation Analysis. First, features of spoken language is described in comparison to written language. Second, Conversation Analysis theory is elaborated in terms of adjacency pairs, turn-taking, repairs, sequences, openings and...
|Here is a unique and practical reference for anyone who teaches Web searching. Greg Notess shares his own techniques and strategies along with expert tips and advice from a virtual "who's who" of Web search training: Joe Barker, Paul Barron, Phil Bradley, John Ferguson, Alice Fulbright, Ran Hock, Jeff Humphrey, Diane Kovacs, Gary Price, Danny…
Notess, Greg R.
Full Text Available Using 2 sets of questionnaire instrument on the current status of teaching and learning science process skills, we carried out a survey in some Anhui Province secondary schools. The findings of this survey reveals that science teachers’ pedagogical knowledge level on the teaching of science process skills in secondary schools is not quite high. Students’ science process skills are generally not quite high too. Some suggestions are put forward as based on the findings of this study.
Xian-wei FANG; Zhi-wei CHEN
Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a s...
Toussaint, Karen A; Tiger, Jeffrey H
We investigated the efficacy of pictorial self-management to teach daily living skills to 3 low-functioning children with autism. Stimulus and response generalization, stimulus control of self-management materials, and maintenance of behavior change were also assessed. Results showed that children w...
Pierce, K L; Schreibman, L
This study extends research on graduate student development by examining descriptive findings and validity of a self-report survey designed to capture graduate students' assessments of their teaching and research skills. Descriptive findings provide some information about areas of growth among graduate students' in the first years of their…
Gilmore, Joanna; Feldon, David
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of secondary school teacher education programme in terms of development of selected teaching skills and suggesting ways and means to improve the programme. The population of the study comprised of the pre-service teachers of all the government colleges of education for men and women in…
Ullah, S. Zia; Farooq, M. S.; Memon, R. A.
This paper introduces Philosophy-based Language Teaching (PBLT) as a new approach to developing productive language and thinking skills in students. The approach involves posing philosophical questions and engaging students in dialogues within a community of enquiry context. To substantiate the approach, the paper reports a study in which 34…
Shahini, Gholamhossein; Riazi, A. Mehdi
This article discusses the teaching of life skills to urban American youths who are highly fascinated with the hip-hop culture--songs, raps, miming, lyrics, dressing and musical rhythms, especially individuals with emotional disabilities in the public schools. This is an instructional curriculum strategy to encourage positive and active…
Obiozor, Williams Emeka
Effects of most to least prompting on teaching simple progression swimming skill for children with autism were investigated. A single subject multiple baseline model across subjects with probe conditions was used. Participants were three boys, 9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week with session three times a week period using the single…
Yilmaz, Ilker; Konukman, Ferman; Birkan, Binyamin; Yanardag, Mehmet
|Teaching nonscience majors topics in biotechnology through case studies is the focus of this research. Our "Biotechnology, Environment, and Related Issues" module, developed within the "Science for All" framework, is aimed at elevating the level of students' scientific and technological literacy and their higher order thinking skills. The…
Dori, Yehudit J.; Tal, Revital T.; Tsaushu, Masha
This study tested the feasibility of using a psychoeducational video recording to teach a behavioral skill from the Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993a, 1993b) skills training program to individuals meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. A video presenting a DBT emotion-regulation skill was developed and the extent to…
Waltz, Jennifer; Dimeff, Linda A.; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M.; Taylor, Laura; Miller, Christopher
Full Text Available Undergraduate research can make a positive impact on science education. Unfortunately, the one studentone mentor paradigm of undergraduate research generates a wide range of variability in the student’s experience and further limits its availability to a select few students. In contrast, a single faculty member can offer multiple undergraduate teaching positions that provide a consistent experience for the student. We attempted to combine the undergraduate research and teaching experiences in an internship practicum called Peer Instruction and Laboratory Occupational Training (PILOT). Students enrolled in PILOT served as teaching assistants for the upper division Quantitative Biological Methods (QBM) laboratory course. In addition, PILOT students worked on an independent lab project that provided them with hands-on training and supported the QBM course. The development of presentation and teaching skills was also emphasized in PILOT. These activities were designed to improve student communication skills, lab skills, and knowledge of molecular biology content. Here, we describe the PILOT curriculum and report the results of an anonymous assessment survey administered to 75 students who had completed PILOT in the previous five semesters. Our data indicate that PILOT provides an effective format to expand undergraduate opportunities for research and teaching experiences.
Robert A. Borgon; Nicole Verity; Ken Teter
Undergraduate research can make a positive impact on science education. Unfortunately, the one student-one mentor paradigm of undergraduate research generates a wide range of variability in the student's experience and further limits its availability to a select few students. In contrast, a single faculty member can offer multiple undergraduate teaching positions that provide a consistent experience for the student. We attempted to combine the undergraduate research and teaching experiences in an internship practicum called Peer Instruction and Laboratory Occupational Training (PILOT). Students enrolled in PILOT served as teaching assistants for the upper division Quantitative Biological Methods (QBM) laboratory course. In addition, PILOT students worked on an independent lab project that provided them with hands-on training and supported the QBM course. The development of presentation and teaching skills was also emphasized in PILOT. These activities were designed to improve student communication skills, lab skills, and knowledge of molecular biology content. Here, we describe the PILOT curriculum and report the results of an anonymous assessment survey administered to 75 students who had completed PILOT in the previous five semesters. Our data indicate that PILOT provides an effective format to expand undergraduate opportunities for research and teaching experiences.
Borgon RA; Verity N; Teter K
Undergraduate research can make a positive impact on science education. Unfortunately, the one student-one mentor paradigm of undergraduate research generates a wide range of variability in the student's experience and further limits its availability to a select few students. In contrast, a single faculty member can offer multiple undergraduate teaching positions that provide a consistent experience for the student. We attempted to combine the undergraduate research and teaching experiences in an internship practicum called Peer Instruction and Laboratory Occupational Training (PILOT). Students enrolled in PILOT served as teaching assistants for the upper division Quantitative Biological Methods (QBM) laboratory course. In addition, PILOT students worked on an independent lab project that provided them with hands-on training and supported the QBM course. The development of presentation and teaching skills was also emphasized in PILOT. These activities were designed to improve student communication skills, lab skills, and knowledge of molecular biology content. Here, we describe the PILOT curriculum and report the results of an anonymous assessment survey administered to 75 students who had completed PILOT in the previous five semesters. Our data indicate that PILOT provides an effective format to expand undergraduate opportunities for research and teaching experiences. PMID:23858352
Borgon, Robert A; Verity, Nicole; Teter, Ken
Undergraduate research can make a positive impact on science education. Unfortunately, the one student-one mentor paradigm of undergraduate research generates a wide range of variability in the student’s experience and further limits its availability to a select few students. In contrast, a single faculty member can offer multiple undergraduate teaching positions that provide a consistent experience for the student. We attempted to combine the undergraduate research and teaching experiences in an internship practicum called Peer Instruction and Laboratory Occupational Training (PILOT). Students enrolled in PILOT served as teaching assistants for the upper division Quantitative Biological Methods (QBM) laboratory course. In addition, PILOT students worked on an independent lab project that provided them with hands-on training and supported the QBM course. The development of presentation and teaching skills was also emphasized in PILOT. These activities were designed to improve student communication skills, lab skills, and knowledge of molecular biology content. Here, we describe the PILOT curriculum and report the results of an anonymous assessment survey administered to 75 students who had completed PILOT in the previous five semesters. Our data indicate that PILOT provides an effective format to expand undergraduate opportunities for research and teaching experiences.
Borgon, Robert A.; Verity, Nicole; Teter, Ken
Full Text Available In this research, the effectiveness of active learning approach in native language education has been emphasized. This research is an experimental one that is used by Turkish Teaching organized by active learning approach for determining learning levels of the students concerning their reading comprehension skills. Data have been obtained by utilizing “Turkish Reading Comprehension Skill Test”. The research was conducted at fifth class level in ªehit Tuncer and Geçitkale primary schools by getting permission from Ministry of Education and it lasted for fourteen weeks in the second term of 2005-2006 education semester. In Turkish teaching, there is a meaningful difference in favor of the active learning group between the experiment group’s (that active learning approach is applied to) and control group’s (that traditional method is applied to) average of the reading comprehension skill points. The results of the study indicated that the active learning approach is more effective than the traditional approach.
Full Text Available Background: Effective Communication is a fundamental skill for practice across health care settings and is a component ofundergraduate nursing programs around the world. Resource materials appropriate for the teaching of communication in an Asiancontext are lacking.Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a self-developed video using role play in facilitating teaching andlearning associated with therapeutic communication.Methods: Videos were produced which demonstrated the fundamental communication skills of listening, understanding,exploring and comforting/supporting, using role play. These were shown to Year 1 nursing students in tutorials over four weeks.Their usefulness was evaluated using a self-developed questionnaire. Among 74 questionnaires distributed at the end of thefourth tutorial, 72 were returned, with a 97% response rate.Results: Most students agreed that the video clips provided useful examples for role-playing the communication skills (89%),helped trigger them to perform role-playing (74%), were useful to improve understanding of different communication skills(93%) and helped them learn from other students’ role-playing performance (87%). Overall impression of using the videos in thetutorial teaching was very useful (27%) and useful (68%).Conclusions: Most students valued the videos developed purposely for teaching therapeutic communication and recommendedthat the videos be used in the future. Using video role plays facilitated the teaching and learning process and enhancedundergraduate nursing students’ understanding and application of communication skills. More video clips will be developed inthe future, with improved quality and with a broader range of health care communication scenarios demonstrated in order to beused more widely.
Hong-Gu He; Sandra Mackey; Anthony O’Brien; Elaine Ng; David G. Arthur
The rising cost of college has many students seeking financial assistance. One option for helping students pay for an education is the Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). Most educators are aware that ROTC students attend military classes and maintain physical fitness in addition to attending regular classes. However, nurse educators may not know that ROTC students receive intensive training in teamwork, leadership, and critical thinking, all extremely important skills required in professional nursing. The author describes the ROTC National Advanced Leadership Camp.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between students’ learning styles and problem solving skills among students in Building Construction Course at Vocational School. This study also investigated the differences between the students’ type of learning styles and their ability to solve the problem using their creative thinking. A survey was carried out on 68 vocational students in Building Construction Course from two Vocational Schools. Felder-Soloman’s Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and elements of creative thinking in problem solving for Vocational Education were the tools used in this study. Creative thinking in problem solving elements was categorized from the subject specification used in Building Construction curriculum. In brief, the ILS have five dimension; Processing, Perception, Input, Understanding and Perception. The results show that the Input style dominates the learning styles of Building Construction’s students in Vocational School and manipulating idea is the dominant creative thinking elements to solve the problem which students preferred. In conclusion, type of students’ learning styles will influence how they can cater their learning to improve their academic achievement and how they can use their creativity to solve the problem in actual situation in Building Construction work. However, learning styles are not main indicator to predict how students excellent are.
Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad; Yee Mei Heong; Muhammad Rashid Rajuddin; Tee Tze Keong
Our attempts to improve physics instruction have led us to analyze thought processes needed to apply scientific principles to problemsâand to recognize that reliable performance requires the basic cognitive functions of deciding, implementing, and assessing. Using a reciprocal-teaching strategy to teach such thought processes explicitly, we have developed computer programs called PALs (P ersonal Assistants for Learning) in which computers and students alternately coach each other. These computer-implemented tutorials make it practically feasible to provide students with individual guidance and feedback ordinarily unavailable in most courses. We constructed PALs specifically designed to teach the application of Newton's laws. In a comparative experimental study these computer tutorials were found to be nearly as effective as individual tutoring by expert teachersâand considerably more effective than the instruction provided in a well-taught physics class. Furthermore, almost all of the students using the PALs perceived them as very helpful to their learning. These results suggest that the proposed instructional approach could fruitfully be extended to improve instruction in various practically realistic contexts.
Reif, Frederick; Scott, Lisa
Full Text Available Communication with the patient is an art. A medical professional can earn a lot of degrees but communicating with the patient always remains a problem for some of them. Communication plays a key role to make him/her successful in Life .Communication Skill is an important part of the pharmacology teaching and learning session followed at Manipal College of Medical Sciences. Most of the textbooks that are commonly followed in Nepal merely tell about communication skills. In Communication Skills it is taught that how to speak/communicate with the patient right from the beginning when a student is admitted to the medical school. This activity makes the student confident. Some of the important concepts of Communication Skill are mentioned in this paper.
Dr. Indrajit Banerjee, MBBS, MD
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet has changed contemporary workplace skills, resulting in a need for proficiency with specific digital, online and web-based technologies within the fields of medicine, dentistry and public health. Although younger students, generally under 30 years of age, may appear inherently comfortable with the use of technology-intensive environments and digital or online search methods, competence in information literacy among these students may be lacking. Methods This project involved the design and assessment of a research-based assignment to help first-year, graduate-level health science students to develop and integrate information literacy skills with clinical relevance. Results One cohort of dental students (n = 78) was evaluated for this project and the results demonstrate that although all students were able to provide the correct response from the content-specific, or technology-independent, portion of the assignment, more than half (54%) were unable to demonstrate competence with a web-based, technology-dependent section of this assignment. No correlation was found between any demographic variable measured (gender, age, or race). Conclusion More evidence is emerging that demonstrates the need for developing curricula that integrates new knowledge and current evidence-based practices and technologies, traditionally isolated from graduate and health-care curricula, that can enhance biomedical and clinical training for students. This study provides evidence, critical for the evaluation of new practices, which can promote and facilitate the integration of information literacy into the curriculum.
Kingsley Karla V; Kingsley Karl
BACKGROUND: The Internet has changed contemporary workplace skills, resulting in a need for proficiency with specific digital, online and web-based technologies within the fields of medicine, dentistry and public health. Although younger students, generally under 30 years of age, may appear inherently comfortable with the use of technology-intensive environments and digital or online search methods, competence in information literacy among these students may be lacking. METHODS: This project involved the design and assessment of a research-based assignment to help first-year, graduate-level health science students to develop and integrate information literacy skills with clinical relevance. RESULTS: One cohort of dental students (n = 78) was evaluated for this project and the results demonstrate that although all students were able to provide the correct response from the content-specific, or technology-independent, portion of the assignment, more than half (54%) were unable to demonstrate competence with a web-based, technology-dependent section of this assignment. No correlation was found between any demographic variable measured (gender, age, or race). CONCLUSION: More evidence is emerging that demonstrates the need for developing curricula that integrates new knowledge and current evidence-based practices and technologies, traditionally isolated from graduate and health-care curricula, that can enhance biomedical and clinical training for students. This study provides evidence, critical for the evaluation of new practices, which can promote and facilitate the integration of information literacy into the curriculum.
Kingsley KV; Kingsley K
BACKGROUND: Students' perceptions of learner-centered methods for teaching medical interviewing skills have not been fully explored. AIM: To explore Japanese students' perceptions of learner-centered methods for teaching medical interviewing skills such as role play with student-created scenarios, peer-assisted video reviews, and student-led small group debriefing. METHODS: We conducted three focus groups with a total of 15 students who participated in the learner-centered seminars on medical interviewing skills at the Nagoya University School of Medicine. The transcripts were analyzed by two authors independently. Keywords and concepts were identified and a thematic framework was developed. RESULTS: Overall, students valued the experience of writing their own scenarios for role play, but some questioned their realism. Many students commented that peer-assisted video reviews provided them with more objective perspectives on their performance. However, some students expressed concerns about competitiveness during the video reviews. While students appreciated teachers' minimum involvement in the group debriefing, some criticized that teachers did not explain the objectives of the seminar clearly. Many students had difficulties in exchanging constructive feedback. CONCLUSION: We were able to gain new insights into positive and negative perceptions of students about learner-centered methods for teaching medical interviewing skills at one medical school in Japan.
Saiki T; Mukohara K; Otani T; Ban N
Employment opportunities for people with developmental disabilities (DD) have improved in the last several decades. There is increasing focus on helping people with DD sample more diverse employment options, including running their own businesses. The present study (1) evaluated the effects of a well-established behavioral teaching procedure on the acquisition of a sample of three broad classes of skills related to self-employment (worker, supervisor, and clerical work) in young adults with DD within an analog recycling business, and (2) investigated the extension of that treatment to the natural environment while working in isolation or in peer pairs. Results suggest that the teaching procedure was effective in teaching three broad classes of skills related to many self-employment possibilities, the skills generalized to the natural environment, and peer pairs supported each other to complete tasks with a high degree of accuracy required to run a recycling business. This study represents an initial demonstration that adults with DD can learn skills required to run their own business. PMID:23702598
Dotson, Wesley H; Richman, David M; Abby, Layla; Thompson, Samuel; Plotner, Anthony
BACKGROUND: As the specialty of Emergency Medicine (EM) develops around the world, it has become common for practitioners from countries with mature EM systems to assist those in regions with developing systems. One effective and frequently used model is "train the trainers," in which a group of consultant teachers instructs a cadre of clinicians in the host region to then become the future teachers of EM in that area. This model has the advantage of overcoming cultural barriers to instruction and can lead to providing a lasting training infrastructure in the region. A key to a successful program is the use of effective and culturally appropriate teaching and feedback skills. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this article is to bring together experts in adult education with experts in training in the international setting to present teaching and feedback skills and how they can be applied in different settings and cultures. DISCUSSION: Cutting edge instruction and evaluation techniques that can be employed in intercultural "train the trainers" programs will be presented. The characteristics of successful programs, using specifics from actual programs, will also be shared. CONCLUSION: Applying the described teaching and evaluation skills with modifications based on local culture will help empower newly trained teachers who will contribute in turn to the longevity of EM in the region and set a high teaching standard that will benefit generations of future colleagues.
Weiner SG; Totten VY; Jacquet GA; Douglass K; Birnbaumer DM; Promes SB; Martin IB
Physical cardiovascular examination, particularly cardiac auscultation, is one of the most difficult clinical skills for students during their medical training. Studies suggest that the use of technologies such as digital stethoscope increase the accuracy of clinical examination, however, its impact on the teaching of cardiac auscultation for undergraduate students of medicine is not known. The objective is to demonstrate the usefulness of the digital stethoscope compared to traditional methods as a tool in the teaching of auscultatory skills. nterventional, longitudinal, controlled, unicenter and randomized study. Thirty-eight medicine students were enrolled for a cardiovascular semiology course lasting eight weeks. The course program included lectures and bedside practice in Cardiology wards. In the practical lessons, the students were randomized into two groups: 1) (n = 21) digital stethoscope (Littmann® Model 3200, 3M); and 2) (n = 17) conventional stethoscopes. A pre-training evaluation was conducted through a test using the software Heart Sounds®, which was repeated after the course. The average scores were compared by paired T test and unpaired T test. It is observed that, at the end of the course, there was a significantly greater improvement in the group that used the digital stethoscope (51.9%) compared to the group using the conventional stethoscope (29.5%). Short-term interventions for cardiac semiology teaching are able to contribute significantly to improving proficiency in the identification of heart sounds. The use of digital stethoscope proved to be a positive factor in teaching these skills.
Mesquita CT; Reis JC; Simões LS; Moura EC; Rodrigues GA; Athayde CC; Machado HL; Lanzieri PG
The objective of this study was to develop a competency-based clinical skills teaching and assessment programme in China utilizing modern teaching techniques. Medical teachers from three schools agreed on items for inclusion in the complete physical examination of an asymptomatic adult, an outline for an adult and paediatric history, and important interviewing skills. Lesson plans, performance checklists, and written and videotape training materials were developed. Standardized patients were trained at one school to assist with the teaching at that school and with the assessment at all three schools. A national, a provincial, and a local medical school in China were used. Before beginning the new curriculum for students in their first year of clinical training, baseline data were collected on skills of students at various levels of training in the previous curriculum at all three schools. Although in the previous curriculum there was some improvement in clinical skills among advanced compared to more junior students, performance was lower than expected by staff. One year after implementation of the new curriculum, students were evaluated. These students significantly outperformed their counterparts as well as the more senior level students tested the previous year. This project has established a competency-based teaching and assessment programme in China that allows for rapid improvement in the clinical skills of students. Within a short time, a sophisticated group of medical educators has been formed, who now function as consultants to other educators in their own country. Many aspects of this programme are being adapted throughout China and are applicable to medical schools throughout the world.
Stillman PL; Wang Y; Ouyang Q; Zhang S; Yang Y; Sawyer WD
BACKGROUND: To ensure that physical and occupational therapy graduates develop evidence-based practice (EBP) competencies, their academic training must promote EBP skills, such as posing a clinical question and retrieving relevant literature, and the information literacy skills needed to practice these EBP skills. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the collaborative process and outcome of integrating EBP and information literacy early in a professional physical therapy and occupational therapy programme. METHODS: The liaison librarian and a faculty member designed an instructional activity that included a lecture, workshop and assignment that integrated EBP skills and information literacy skills in the first year of the programme. The assignment was designed to assess students' ability to conduct a search independently. RESULTS: The lecture and workshop were successful in their objectives, as 101 of the 104 students received at least 8 out of 10 points on the search assignment. CONCLUSIONS: The teaching activities developed for the students in this course appear to have achieved the goal of teaching students the EBP research cycle so that they might begin to emulate it. The collaboration between the faculty member and the librarian was integral to the success of this endeavour. Future work will include the evaluation of students' long-term retention of information literacy objectives.
Boruff JT; Thomas A
BACKGROUND: As funding sources diminish, it is critical for faculty members in primary care residency programs to better utilize available resources. The curriculum presented here, a practice management course for academicians, can provide fellows and new faculty with some of the budgeting and financial management skills necessary to perform in an academic environment. METHODS: The curriculum described is a 6-hour seminar series that relates essential budgeting and financial management concepts with academic practice. RESULTS: Pre- and postassessments displayed a statistically significant increase in the learner's fund of knowledge. One year after instruction, six of seven participants had used an aspect of the curriculum. All seven recommended its continuation. CONCLUSION: This curriculum should be considered for implementation in all fellowship programs that train future faculty.
Woods SE; Griggs GK
The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (Metropolia) started the CDIO concept in the autumn of 2008. The aim with this was to reform the B.Sc. courses to guide students to become better and more efficient engineers. The working conditions of a typical engineer involve many other fields than just those requiring technical skills. Interpersonal skills are becoming increasingly important, including communication, teamwork and leadership. The purpose of this paper is to describe the co-operation between DTU and Metropolia on the development of an International Communication Course for the engineering students and to emphasize the importance of including a course like this into the CDIO concept, to be worked on in the process of further development. The course described in this paper is a strictly non-engineering course in communication; it is special in that its chief purpose is to bring into focus the fact that students have to take an active part in the exercises as well as involve themselves in the interactive communication process. This is in stark contrast to a teacher giving lectures about communication, leaving the students passive listeners. The personal involvement aroused a negative reaction from several students at the beginning of the course however, during the one- week course the students gained a better understanding of the importance of learning how to communicate appropriately. Altogether, the four key questions dealing with the quality of the course show a very high satisfaction with the instruction. The grades one and two (1 best/very much, 5 worst/very little) of the responses to these four questions are ranging on average from 69.5% to 88% (on a yearly basis). The positive responses indicate that the students are very satisfied with the course recognising the need for education on international communication.
Christensen, JØrgen Erik; Karhu, Markku
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35) received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47) received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being an abstract concept. Students in the early years of their medical course may benefit from further opportunities to practise basic communication skills on a one-to-one basis with patients.
Joekes Katherine; Noble Lorraine M; Kubacki Angela M; Potts Henry WW; Lloyd Margaret
As an increasing number of higher education institutions offer degree programs taught in English, university management as well as teachers on the ground realize that while the English proficiency of faculty and students is important, there is more to it than just that; students and faculty not only have different first languages, they also come from different cultures, with tacit knowledge and expectations about what is expected in the multilingual and multicultural classroom in which English is the one language shared by all, and in which linguistic, cultural and educational issues all play complex and interlocking roles. This has created a pressing need to explore, develop and share strategies for addressing the needs of English-medium lecturers faced with the challenges and opportunities presented by the multicultural classroom. This poster will present the outcomes of a major project that has attempted to address these needs by designing, piloting and revising a set of resources available online for lecturers teaching through the medium of English in multicultural university settings.
Lauridsen, Karen M.; Cozart, Stacey Marie
This paper critiques a number of pre-academic and readiness tasks commonly found in tests and curricula used in early childhood education in North America and Europe and frequently adopted in developing countries. Some of the tasks discussed are: putting pegs in a pegboard, reproducing bead patterns, and completing picture puzzles. Evidence is presented to challenge a number of commonly held assumptions associated with these tasks: a) that the `generic skills' acquired when children learn these tasks are prerequisite to learning higher level skills, b) that the skills acquired will generalize to the performance of more functional activities, c) that handicapped children should be taught skills corresponding to their mental age level, and d) that handicapped children in developing countries should be tested and taught skills that are frequently found in the tests and curricula of normal functioning children in North America and Europe. Although much of the evidence cited has been available for some time, it has not generally influenced testing and teaching practices in developing countries. The tragic result is that very limited economic and manpower resources are often wasted on the use of ineffective methods. The final section of the paper describes recently developed methods of conducting ecological inventories for designing ecologically valid tests and curricula of functional skills in developing countries.
OBJECTIVE: Physicians need good communication skills to communicate effectively with patients. The objective of this review was to identify effective training strategies for teaching communication skills to qualified physicians. METHODS: PubMED, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and COCHRANE were searched in October 2008 and in March 2009. Two authors independently selected relevant reviews and assessed their methodological quality with AMSTAR. Summary tables were constructed for data-synthesis, and results were linked to outcome measures. As a result, conclusions about the effectiveness of communication skills training strategies for physicians could be drawn. RESULTS: Twelve systematic reviews on communication skills training programmes for physicians were identified. Some focused on specific training strategies, whereas others emphasized a more general approach with mixed strategies. Training programmes were effective if they lasted for at least one day, were learner-centred, and focused on practising skills. The best training strategies within the programmes included role-play, feedback, and small group discussions. CONCLUSION: Training programmes should include active, practice-oriented strategies. Oral presentations on communication skills, modelling, and written information should only be used as supportive strategies. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: To be able to compare the effectiveness of training programmes more easily in the future, general agreement on outcome measures has to be established.
Berkhof M; van Rijssen HJ; Schellart AJ; Anema JR; van der Beek AJ
INTRODUCTION: Recently, there has been a shift away from practising procedures on patients for the first time and towards bench model teaching of clinical skills to undergraduate medical students. However, guidelines for the most effective instructor : student ratio for technical skills training are unclear. This has important implications for staffing laboratory based teaching sessions. The purpose of this study was to assess the optimal ratio of teachers to learners during the teaching of a simulated wound closure. METHODS: A total of 108 undergraduate medical students participated in a 1-hour course on wound closure. They were randomised to 3 groups, each with a different instructor:student ratio (Group A: 6-12; Group B: 3-12; Group C: 1-12). Students were evaluated on a pre-test, an immediate post-test and a delayed retention test using an objective, computer-based technical skills assessment method. Collectively termed the "economy of movements", the total time taken to complete the task and the number of movements executed were the primary outcome measures. RESULTS: Improvements in the economy of movements were the same for Groups A and B and were better than in Group C (P < 0.005). DISCUSSION: The optimal instructor:student ratio was 1 instructor for 4 students. Higher ratios of instructors to students resulted in no improvements in learning, and lower ratios of instructors to students resulted in significantly less learning. These findings are in keeping with current motor learning theories.
Dubrowski A; MacRae H
AIM: To elaborate an innovating computer learning system allowing experienced doctors to share their knowledge with beginning physicians; to apply a computer expert system in teaching interns to detect pulmonary artery thromboembolism (PAT) with emphasis on PAT risk factors and symptoms, on fixation of diagnostic skills. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The latest achievements in the field of artificial intellect served the basis for design of OSTELA educational computer system which operates with decisive rules of a highly skilled cardiologist. In this system interns study PAT diagnosis without a direct contact of the teacher with a learner. The computer system and its operation are described. RESULTS: Skills of PAT diagnosis were taught to 48 interns. The number of correct answers to the control test increased by 30%, on the average. CONCLUSION: The proposed computer learning system OSTELA was successfully tried in clinics (pilot trials) and is recommended for postgraduate education of physicians.
Kuznetsova VP; Bruk EI; Larichev OI; Naryzhny? EV
This paper reports the cross-validation of the factor pattern of the Perceptions of Knowledge and Skills in Teaching (PKST) survey, which was used to assess the self-perceived pedagogical knowledge and skills of pre-service and beginning teachers. The sample comprised 323 pre-service teachers enrolled in a 1-yr. post-graduate teacher education program in Singapore. The survey had 37 items distributed across six scales: student learning, lesson planning, instructional support, accommodating diversity, classroom management, and care and concern. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to cross-validate the survey's factor pattern. The results showed that the model was an acceptable fit to the data. The PKST survey can thus be adapted by different teacher education programs to assess pre-service and beginning teachers' progress in developing their pedagogical knowledge and skills.
Choy D; Lim KM; Chong S; Wong AF
Full Text Available This research is a follow up to an article that I published in the April 2003 (Volume 23, Number 2) edition of Analytic Teaching: The Community of Inquiry Journal entitled "An Integrated Approach to teaching Sociology: Merging Theory and Practice When Studying Women Offenders." It addresses the need to provide experiential learning opportunities for undergraduate students that would result in the enhancement of their critical thinking skills and provide them with a stronger foundation to make informed decisions on complex issues. Specifically, this article focuses on providing my undergraduate students at Pace University with the opportunity to gain formal experience as teaching assistants for college-level Sociology courses that I teach to women at a maximum-security facility in New York. It differs from the first article's illustration of the experiences of students who worked as tutors and mentors and highlights instead the advanced critical thinking skills and analytic outcomes gained by both my undergraduate students and the inmates themselves at the correctional facility as a result if their ongoing interaction. The concepts of Mills, Dewey, and Kolb are applied to the learning experiences and changes in perceptions, particularly in my undergraduate students at Pace, as a result of their role as teaching assistants through weekly and a more than previously structured level of interaction. Specifically, I discuss the accounts of two undergraduate students, one of whom (Marcy) served as a teaching assistant for a Sociobiology course, and the other (Vanessa) for a Topics in Sociology course entitles Women and Work offered at the correctional institution. Finally, I provide a proven methodology for faculty who are interested in incorporating service learning internship opportunities into their liberal arts and/or social sciences courses at correctional institutions. This service learning experience in turn, serves to both provide positive role models for the inmates as well as invaluable insight for the students on the issues that exist within the prison environment.
Joesph R. Franco, Ph.D.
OBJECTIVE: To design a cardiopulmonary physical exam curriculum that does not involve the use of patients. Bedside teaching is becoming a lost art, and the use of alternative methods of instruction such as simulation has become increasingly important. Simulators have been shown to enhance physical examination skills of students and physicians in training.(1) DESCRIPTION: In 1995, a program was started to improve cardiopulmonary physical diagnosis and the teaching of auscultation at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB). The teaching manikin "Harvey" played a vital role in the development of the new curriculum. In 1997, UTMB adopted an organ-based approach to the basic science curriculum. The cardiopulmonary module in the basic science curriculum was a ten-week course taught in the second year of medical school. The physical diagnosis section of that course involved six instructional hours; four of the six hours were dedicated to cardiac auscultation and two hours to pulmonary auscultation. Only simulators and CD-ROMs were used for instruction. The 184 second-year medical students at UTMB were formed into small groups for instruction and practice. Although "Harvey" was an effective teaching tool, other simulators had to be developed for testing students' skills after instruction. It would be very difficult to administer a skills OSCE for 184 students without the development of several smaller transportable simulators. A commercially available blood pressure simulator from the Medical Plastics Laboratory, Inc., Gatesville, TX, was used to test the accuracy of students' blood pressure readings. Small auscultation transducers combined with a palpable pulse simulator, developed by one of the authors (WT) in collaboration with Andries Acoustics, Spicewood, TX, were used to efficiently test students' proficiency in cardiopulmonary auscultation. Digital simulated cardiopulmonary sounds were recorded onto a standard CD-ROM mini-disc and transmitted to the small transducers. Students used their own stethoscopes for auscultation. The targeted skills were efficiently tested in one hour of testing time per student. DISCUSSION: This cardiopulmonary instructional module was well received by the second-year medical students. In the skills OSCE, 80% of the students accurately measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure to within 5 mm Hg. Cardiopulmonary auscultation proficiency results showed average recognition of 60% for cardiac abnormalities and 88% for pulmonary sounds. Developing auscultation transducers with pulse simulation capability ensured that students could identify systole. Therefore, heart murmurs and sounds could be timed with the cardiac cycle. We found the results from the skills OSCE encouraging. Most students demonstrated reasonable competency in the skills taught, and the new transportable simulators performed well. The six-hour instructional module was meant to prepare students for their bedside teaching during the third year of medical school. The significant cost of the "Harvey" simulator may be a barrier to its widespread use for teaching. Therefore, continued development of smaller transportable simulators for teaching and testing purposes is important.
Karnath B; Thornton W; Frye AW
Promoting problem-solving skills is a challenge faced by all science instructors. Teaching students to integrate information without sacrificing content is critical. When taught with an active problem-centered teaching model, students' mean scores and score distributions on the American Chemical Society standardized exams were significantly improved without students' course content being sacrificed.
Jones-Wilson, T. M.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine if a cognitive task analysis (CTA) could capture steps and decision points that were not articulated during traditional teaching of a colonoscopy. METHODS: Three expert colorectal surgeons were videotaped performing a colonoscopy. After the videotapes were transcribed, the experts participated in a CTA. A 26-step procedural checklist and a 16-step cognitive demands table was created by using information obtained in the CTA. The videotape transcriptions were transposed onto the procedural checklist and cognitive demands table to identify steps and decision points that were omitted during traditional teaching. RESULTS: Surgeon A described 50% of "how-to" steps and 43% of decision points. Surgeon B described 30% of steps and 25% of decisions. Surgeon C described 26% of steps and 38% of cognitive decisions. CONCLUSIONS: By using CTA, we were able to identify relevant steps and decision points that were omitted during traditional teaching by all 3 experts.
Sullivan ME; Ortega A; Wasserberg N; Kaufman H; Nyquist J; Clark R
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The AO Foundation Operative Fracture Management course is the gold standard in training courses currently available for trainees at ST3 level. We have devised a low cost operative skills course comprising instructional lectures, demonstrations and practical dry bone workshops. To assess the quality of teaching, candidates' feedback was analysed in two cohorts for the running of the course over two consecutive years: 2008 and 2009. METHODS: Trainees were given short instructional lectures by consultant surgeons followed by workshops, with a trainer to candidate ratio of 1:4. A trauma inventory was provided by Stryker Trauma UK, ensuring a nominal fee for each candidate (£50). Feedback was anonymously collected according to a Likert scale and analysed using non-parametric methods appropriate for ranked data. MAIN FINDINGS: Twenty one of 22 (95%) candidates gave feedback in 2008 and 18 out of 18 candidates (100%) in 2009. The teaching provided was highly rated consistently for both years, apart from an informal session on theatre tips and tricks in 2008. This was not repeated in 2009 to allow more practical time. Only one session, an intramedullary nailing lecture, had a significant difference in scores between the 2 years (p = 0.044) because of improved scores in 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Due to changes in training, trainees have reduced exposure in theatre and this has implications for the early stages of acquiring practical operative skills. As an adjunct to the AO course, practical skills teaching by consultants in the format of a low cost skills workshop outside of a theatre environment can be achieved with support from a trauma implant supplier.
Davies J; Pilling R; Dimri R; Chakrabarty G
OBJECTIVE Residents are one of the prime sources of information and education for medical students. As an initial step in supporting residents as teachers, a baseline self-assessment of residents' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values related to teaching was conducted among psychiatry and family medicine residents to compare and improve their confidence and skills as teachers. METHOD Psychiatry residents (N=12) and family medicine residents (N=23) completed self-assessments of their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values related to teaching. Residents also were asked to list steps used in the One-Minute Preceptor process and estimate the time each spent in teaching. Descriptive summary statistics were used for four main areas related to teaching; t-test and chi-square analyses were conducted to ascertain whether there was a significant difference in resident groups. RESULTS In the current study, the perceived amount of time spent for teaching patients was significantly higher among family practice residents, whereas no group differences were found for time teaching medical students, peers, community members, non-physicians, or others. However, family medicine residents rated themselves higher than psychiatry residents in their understanding of their roles in teaching medical students and teaching patients. Also, family medicine residents' self-reported teaching skills were more advanced (82.4%) than psychiatry residents' (54.2%). They most likely applied at least two different teaching methods in inpatient and outpatient settings, as compared with psychiatry residents. No significant group differences were found in the other 15 items assessing teaching knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values. CONCLUSION Results indicate that residents' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values regarding teaching varies across institutions and training programs. The psychiatry residents in this study do not clearly understand their role as educators with patients and medical students; they have a less clear understanding of teaching techniques, and report spending less time educating patients than do family medicine residents. The differences might be due to different patient populations and treatment settings. The study suggests that psychiatry residents may have difficulty adapting the One-Minute Preceptor technique in psychiatric settings. Results serve as a benchmarking study in a performance-improvement program to enhance psychiatry residents' teaching skills.
Brand MW; Ekambaram V; Tucker P; Aggarwal R
BACKGROUND: Innovative curriculum designs are vital for effective learning in contemporary nursing education where traditional modes of delivery are not adequate to meet the learning needs of postgraduate students. This instance of postgraduate teaching in a distributed learning environment offered the opportunity to design a flexible learning model for teaching advanced clinical skills. AIM: To present a sustainable model for flexible learning that enables specialist nurses to gain postgraduate qualifications without on-campus class attendance by teaching and assessing clinical health care skills in an authentic workplace setting. METHODS: An action research methodology was used to gather evidence and report on the process of curriculum development of a core unit, Comprehensive Health Assessment (CHA), within 13 different postgraduate speciality courses. Qualitative data was collected from 27 teaching academics, 21 clinical specialist staff, and 7 hospital managers via interviews, focus groups and journal reflections. Evaluations from the initial iteration of CHA from 36 students were obtained. Data was analyzed to develop and evaluate the curriculum design of CHA. RESULTS: The key factors indicated by participants in the curriculum design process were coordination and structuring of teaching and assessment; integration of content development; working with technologies, balancing specialities and core knowledge; and managing induction and expectations. CONCLUSIONS: A set of recommendations emerged as a result of the action research process. These included: a constructive alignment approach to curriculum design; the production of a facilitator's guide that specifies expectations and unit information for academic and clinical education staff; an agreed template for content authors; and the inclusion of synchronous communication for real-time online tutoring. The highlight of the project was that it built curriculum design capabilities of clinicians and students which can sustain this alternative model of online learning.
Fitzgerald L; Wong P; Hannon J; Solberg Tokerud M; Lyons J
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to give a sample of an application that a mother delivered home-based instruction via simultaneous prompting for teaching independent toilet skill to her child with developmental disability. Simultaneous prompting (SP) is one of the systematic teaching methods, and studies showing the effectiveness of this method has increased in recent years in literature. Although many studies have showed an increase in development and learning of the children with disability if the parents participate in the education of them, parent participation has been found very few in effective teaching literature. This study is a sample of an application for using SP by parents. Training processes of the study offered to the mother and used measuring instruments are reported in detail. At the end of the study, SP used by mother was caused the child has used toilet independently and he maintained this skill. It has been thought that more studies are need to be conducted by the SP delivered by parents of the children with developmental disability.
Nesrin Sönmez; Ç???l Aykut
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Proyecto de investigación que analiza las representaciones educativo-laborales sobre las atribuciones de valor a la creatividad, motivación e innovación en jóvenes de la educación formal y no formal que se preparan para el mundo del trabajo. La desarticulación educativa entre oferta, demanda y necesidad, exige búsquedas que complementen la didáctica homogénea de un pensamiento convergente con otras vertientes que favorecen el pensamiento divergente. Se asume la c (more) reatividad como un concepto teórico, no observable, que difícilmente se da en forma espontánea y se reconoce solo como atributo exclusivo de artistas, siendo necesario generarla en todos los sujetos y disciplinas para una construcción de valores y desarrollo a escala humana. Avanza sobre nuevas aristas didácticas integradoras que cubren un extenso espectro de pertenencias culturales, con disimilitudes de conocimientos, de abstracción, de lenguajes e ideologías. Se opta por una integración metodológica para ampliar las posibilidades de los contextos de descubrimiento y validación priorizando el primero. La metodología comprensivista apunta más directamente a las metas propuestas con los aportes de la etnografía, interaccionismo simbólico y la etnometodología. Los primeros resultados parciales evidencian que las actitudes y motivaciones de los jóvenes, dentro y fuera de las aulas e instituciones, cambian radicalmente, apareciendo estrategias creativas e innovadoras para actividades que responden a intereses diferentes a los contenidos curriculares. En jóvenes alumnos de posgrado en educación, se relevan dificultades para enseñar y desconocimiento de didácticas orientadas al pensamiento divergente, pero interés por interiorizarse en la teoría e instrumentación de las mismas. Abstract in english This research project analyzes the education-labour representations on value attributions to creativity, motivation and innovation in youth with formal and non-formal education that are training for the job world. The educational detachment between offer, demand and need, requests a search that can complement the homogeneous didactics of a converging line of thought with other currents that favour divergent thinking. Creativity is considered a theoretical concept, non obs (more) ervable, that can hardly happen in a spontaneous way and is solely an attribute of artists, but also necessary to be generated in all individuals and disciplines for a construction of values and development at a human scale. It makes progress over new integrating didactic aspects that cover a wide spectrum of cultural belongings, with dissimilar knowledge, of abstraction, of languages and ideologies. A methodological integration is chosen to enlarge the possibilities of the discovery and validation contexts prioritizing the former. The comprehensive methodology aims more directly to intended goals with contributions from ethnography, symbolic interaction and ethnomethodology. The first partial results show that attitudes and motivation in youngsters, inside and outside classrooms and institutions, change radically, giving rise to creative and innovative strategies that respond to different interests to those in curricular contents. Among young postgraduate students in education, difficulties in teaching and both an ignorance but also an interest in didactics oriented to diverging thought are shown.
Pérez del Viso de Palou, Rosa
We evaluated an intensive program in a simulated format for rapidly teaching a job skill to nonvocal adults with autism. Following baseline probes with a new work task of assembling mailing boxes at a publishing company, 3 supported workers individually received repeated teaching sessions at a simulated work site. All workers met criterion with 1 day of simulation teaching, with subsequent criterion level performance upon returning to the job (1 worker required booster trials). Intensive teaching did not occasion problem behavior nor unhappiness indices. Improved work performance also occurred with two generalization tasks involving different materials. Implications for practitioners focus on improving worker performance without interfering with work completion that often accompanies on-the-job training. Potential applications of intensive programs for rapidly teaching other skills are discussed.
Lattimore LP; Parsons MB; Reid DH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous models, of variable quality, exist to impart the complex skills required to perform vascular anastomosis. These models differ with regard to the kinds of materials used, as well as their sizes, the time needed for their preparation, their availability, and the associated costs. The present study describes a bench model that uses formalin-fixed porcine aorta, and its evaluation by young surgical residents during a recent skills course. Findings The aortic segments used were a by-product of slaughtering. They were fixed and stored after harvesting for eventual use. Ten young surgical residents participated, and each performed one end-to-side vascular anastomosis. The evaluation was a questionnaire maintaining anonymity of the participant containing questions addressing particular aspects of the model and the experiences of the trainee, along with their ratings concerning the need for a training course to learn vascular anastomosis techniques. The scoring on the survey was done using a global 6-point rating scale (Likert Scale). In addition, we ranked the present model by reviewing the current literature for models that address vascular anastomosis skills. The trainees who participated were within their first two years of training (1.25 ± 0.46). A strong agreement in terms of the necessity of training for vascular anastomosis techniques was evident among the participating trainees (5.90 ± 0.32), who had only few prior manual experiences (total number 1.50 ± 0.53). The query revealed a strong agreement that porcine aorta is a suitable model that fits the needs for training vascular anastomosis skills (5.70 ± 0.48). Only a few bench models designed to teach surgical residents vascular anastomosis techniques were available in the literature. Conclusions The preparatory and financial resources needed to perform anastomosis skills training using porcine aorta are few. The presented bench model appears to be appropriate for learning vascular anastomosis skills, as rated by the surgical trainees themselves.
Khalil Philipe N; Kleespies Axel; Rentsch Markus; Thasler Wolfgang E; Jauch Karl-Walter; Bruns Christiane J
BACKGROUND: Residents play a significant role in teaching, but formal training, feedback, and evaluation are needed. AIMS: Our aims were to assess resident teaching skills in the resident-as-teacher program, quantify correlations of faculty evaluations with resident self-evaluations, compare resident-as-teacher evaluations with clinical evaluations, and evaluate the resident-as-teacher program. METHOD: The resident-as-teacher training program is a simulated, videotaped teaching encounter with a trained medical student and standardized teaching evaluation tool. Evaluations from the resident-as-teacher training program were compared to evaluations of resident teaching done by faculty, residents, and medical students from the clinical setting. RESULTS: Faculty evaluation of resident teaching skills in the resident-as-teacher program showed a mean total score of 4.5?±?0.5 with statistically significant correlations between faculty assessment and resident self-evaluations (r?=?0.47; p?0.001). However, resident self-evaluation of teaching skill was lower than faculty evaluation (mean difference: 0.4; 95% CI 0.3-0.6). When compared to the clinical setting, resident-as-teacher evaluations were significantly correlated with faculty and resident evaluations, but not medical student evaluations. Evaluations from both the resident-as-teacher program and the clinical setting improved with duration of residency. CONCLUSIONS: The resident-as-teacher program provides a method to train, give feedback, and evaluate resident teaching.
Ricciotti HA; Dodge LE; Head J; Atkins KM; Hacker MR
Because content saturation is a growing concern, as reflected in the nursing literature, the content taught in undergraduate nursing curricula should be critically examined. The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional research was to determine and analyze the physical assessment content currently taught in undergraduate nursing programs. A total of 198 individuals teaching in undergraduate nursing programs completed a Web-based survey. Of the 122 skills included on the survey, 81% were reportedly being taught in most of the nursing programs. Total scores for 18 systems-based assessment categories were significantly different among associate and baccalaureate nursing programs in all but three categories: assessment of integument, breast, and female genitals. Previous research has shown that nurses use less than 25% of these same skills regularly in clinical practice, regardless of their educational preparation. Findings from this research raise questions about the breadth to which physical examination content should be taught in undergraduate nursing education.
Giddens JF; Eddy L
Because content saturation is a growing concern, as reflected in the nursing literature, the content taught in undergraduate nursing curricula should be critically examined. The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional research was to determine and analyze the physical assessment content currently taught in undergraduate nursing programs. A total of 198 individuals teaching in undergraduate nursing programs completed a Web-based survey. Of the 122 skills included on the survey, 81% were reportedly being taught in most of the nursing programs. Total scores for 18 systems-based assessment categories were significantly different among associate and baccalaureate nursing programs in all but three categories: assessment of integument, breast, and female genitals. Previous research has shown that nurses use less than 25% of these same skills regularly in clinical practice, regardless of their educational preparation. Findings from this research raise questions about the breadth to which physical examination content should be taught in undergraduate nursing education. PMID:19227752
Giddens, Jean Foret; Eddy, Linda
PURPOSE: To investigate the effectiveness of adult-as-model and sibling-as-model video modelling procedures for an individual with autism who demonstrated limited imitation skills. METHODS: This study assessed the imitation ability of Matthew, a 15 year-old boy with autism, and then used video modelling, with his sibling and an adult as models, in order to teach him to match coins, respond to questions in a group discussion time and prepare a snack of noodles. RESULTS: Matthew seldom responded to imitative opportunities in the assessment. Also, minimal changes in his ability to perform the target behaviours resulted from either of the video modelling conditions. CONCLUSION: An individual's imitation skills are an important pre-requisite for successful video modelling intervention.
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate a previously validated low-cost sinus surgery task trainer as a means of acquiring basic endoscopic sinus surgery skills and as an objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) to determine procedural competency. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective blinded study. METHODS: Medical students (N = 52) with no sinus surgery experience learned to perform nasal endoscopy and five specific sinus surgery tasks using the validated task trainer. Training included regimented expert instruction, peer instruction/observation, and experienced-based learning. Pre- and post-training video recordings of nasal endoscopy and five sinus surgery skills were obtained. Two blinded expert otolaryngologists compared pre- and post-training performance using a checklist and global rating scale. RESULTS: Medical student post-training performance was significantly better than pre-training performance for each checklist item and global rating scale as calculated by paired t test (P < .001). Interrater reliability and internal consistency were confirmed by Kendall's coefficient of concordance and Cronbach's ? calculations, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The sinus surgery task trainer provides an effective means of teaching and evaluating nasal endoscopy and basic sinus surgery skills for novice surgeons. With repeated practice, there was significant improvement in performance. An OSATS using the sinus surgery task trainer suggests that we can effectively measure endoscopic sinus surgery ability with the potential to reliably determine competency outside the operating room.
Steehler MK; Chu EE; Na H; Pfisterer MJ; Hesham HN; Malekzadeh S
INTRODUCTION: The inefficacy of clinical skill education during the clerkship has been reported in several studies. The present study was conducted to evaluate the competency of medical students in performing several clinical skills through an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), aiming to evaluate the quality of the existing curriculum in the clerkship phase. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cross sectional study was conducted at the end of the clerkship period, before the students had entered the internship. The OSCE exam was conducted in the morning (2 different tracts) and in the evening (2 similar tracts) and 86 students participated in the exam. Each tract consisted of seven stations. The students' points in the stations assessing history taking and clinical skills were compared. RESULTS: The students gained the highest points in the history taking stations, whereas the procedure stations accounted for the lowest points; there was a significant difference between these stations (p < 0.001). The female students achieved higher scores in the OSCE exam compared to males (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The OSCE exam revealed the inefficacy of the current medical curriculum in teaching the required clinical skill to undergraduate medical students during the clerkship.
Mirzazadeh A; Bavarian B; Labaf A; Afshari A; Nikoo M; Meshkani ZS; Khashayar P
Citizen science programs are emerging as an efficient way to increase data collection and help monitor invasive species. Effective invasive species monitoring requires rigid data quality assurances if expensive control efforts are to be guided by volunteer data. To achieve data quality, effective online training is needed to improve field skills and reach large numbers of remote sentinel volunteers critical to early detection and rapid response. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of online static and multimedia tutorials to teach citizen science volunteers (n = 54) how to identify invasive plants; establish monitoring plots; measure percent cover; and use Global Positioning System (GPS) units. Participants trained using static and multimedia tutorials provided less (p <.001) correct species identifications (63% and 67%) than did professionals (83%) across all species, but they did not differ (p =.125) between each other. However, their ability to identify conspicuous species was comparable to that of professionals. The variability in percent plant cover estimates between static (??10%) and multimedia (??13%) participants did not differ (p =.86 and.08, respectively) from those of professionals (??9%). Trained volunteers struggled with plot setup and GPS skills. Overall, the online approach used did not influence conferred field skills and abilities. Traditional or multimedia online training augmented with more rigorous, repeated, and hands-on, in-person training in specialized skills required for more difficult tasks will likely improve volunteer abilities, data quality, and overall program effectiveness. ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Newman, G.; Crall, A.; Laituri, M.; Graham, J.; Stohlgren, T.; Moore, J. C.; Kodrich, K.; Holfelder, K. A.
OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated the educational benefits of using a first-generation HeartWorks simulator to teach senior anesthesiology residents basic echocardiography skills. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: A single academic medical center (teaching hospital). PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven senior (fourth-year) anesthesiology residents participated in this study. INTERVENTIONS: Groups of 3 senior anesthesiology residents participated in a single 3-hour tutorial in the simulation laboratory in the authors' institution during their cardiothoracic anesthesiology rotation. A cardiothoracic anesthesiology faculty member demonstrated the use of the transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) simulator and instructed the residents on obtaining standard TEE views of normal anatomy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Prior to the laboratory session, the residents took an online multiple-choice pretest with 25 questions related to safety, probe manipulation, clinical application, and pathology, which was accompanied by echo images of normal cardiac anatomy and video clips of pathology. Three to four weeks after the TEE tutorial, the residents completed an online post-test and evaluation of the teaching session. There was a statistically significant increase in knowledge of normal echocardiographic anatomy (p = 0.04), with an average improvement in normal echocardiographic anatomy scores of 15%. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual reality TEE simulation technology was endorsed strongly by residents, produced a statistically significant improvement in knowledge of normal echocardiographic anatomy, and could be effective for teaching basic echocardiography to anesthesiology residents.
Jelacic S; Bowdle A; Togashi K; VonHomeyer P
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to clarify the association between teaching and support skills and the subjective effectiveness of nutritional guidance of registered dietitians working at hospitals. METHODS: We carried out a questionnaire survey of registered dietitians at hospitals in a Japanese prefecture. The utilization of nutritional teaching skills in nutritional guidance was investigated using a self-produced 36-item questionnaire that was designed to be mainly used for diabetic patients in 4 settings: first guidance, first assessment, contemplation stage, and preparation stage. The support skills were evaluated by Kikuchi's Scale of Social Skills: 18 items. The subjective effectiveness of nutritional guidance was defined by the behavioral change of the patients after nutritional guidance as evaluated by a registered dietitian. RESULTS: There were 75 respondents (response rate 46.6 %). Among the teaching skills, basic skills in an interview were often used, but some related to coaching skills were not in common use in nutritional guidance. Based on the results of principal component analysis, we created a scale for scoring the utilization of nutritional teaching skills in each setting. Multiple linear regression analysis illustrated that high subjective effectiveness of nutritional guidance was associated with high score of teaching skills in the preparation stage setting and high score of support skills. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, in addition to frequent use of nutritional teaching skills, improvement of support skills is also necessary to enhance the effectiveness of nutritional guidance.
Tanaka A; Kawamura M; Yamada K; Morioka I
Full Text Available In line with the studies confirming the positive relationship between critical thinking ability and language proficiency, this study intended to investigate the impact of teaching critical thinking skills on reading comprehension ability, as well as the effect of applying debate on critical thinking of EFL learners. For this purpose 60 intermediate students were assigned to two experimental and control groups after being homogenized through a Nelson test. Afterwards, a reading comprehension and a critical thinking appraisal pretest were administered to the two groups. During the term the experimental group received 8 sessions of treatment using debate as a classroom activity. To compare the two groups they were given the same tests as a posttest.The analysis of collected data showed significant difference between the two groups on reading comprehension test, but the difference on critical thinking test was non-significant. However, the results indicate that teaching critical thinking skills in EFL context can improve language learning. The study has implication for course designers, teachers and students.
Mansoor Fahim; Maryam Sa’eepour
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal correlation between motivation and creative professional thinking. Four hundred and seventy-one Russians of different trades participated in the study. It was supposed that motivational structure and level of creative professional thinking were interrelated. The connection between motivational components and professional thinking was revealed. Tendencies of transition form situational level of thinking to oversituational one were determined. It was found out that motivational structure of workers with situational thinking was much more consistent than that of workers with oversituational thinking.
Mergal??s M. Kashapov; Anna V. Leybina
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine Turkish elementary school students’ level of success on science process skills and science attitudes and if there were statistically significant differences in their success degree and science attitudes depending to their grade level and teaching method. The total 241 students comprised of 122 males, 119 females. For this purpose, a pretest-post test control group and experimental group design was used. The data were collected through using Basic Science Process Skill Test and Integrated Science Process Skill Test and Science Attitude Scale. Study was conducted during the two semesters. Results of the study showed that use of inquiry based teaching methods significantly enhances students’ science process skills and attitudes.
R. Ergul; Y. Simsekli; S. Calis; Z. Ozdilek; S. Gocmencelebi; M. Sanli
Over the last decade there has been great deal of debate about pre-registration nursing students' lack of confidence and ability, in performing core clinical skills in the UK [P. Elliott, Locality based teaching, Senior Nurse 13 (2) (1993) 35-39; S. Jowett, I. Walton, S. Payne, Challenges and Change in Nurse Education - A Study of the Implementation of Project 2000 Slough: NFER, 1994; P. Hilton, Clinical Skills Laboratories: teaching practical skills, Nursing Standard 10 (37) (1996) 44-47; , Integrating theory and practice: Professional Letter from the Chief Nursing Officer for England London; , Making a difference. Strengthening the nursing, midwifery and health visiting contribution to health and health care, London.]. A variety of solutions have been suggested in attempting to address these perceived deficits. One such initiative within the University of Sheffield was the introduction of the Clinical Demonstrator role, whereby clinicians were seconded to the School of Nursing for a fixed period of time to provide additional support to neophyte students in the classroom, laboratory and clinical settings. An action research approach was adopted where ongoing evaluation influenced further developments [W. Carr, S. Kemmis, Becoming Critical: Education Knowledge and Action Research, Falmer Press, London, 1986]. Formal and informal evaluation was therefore undertaken throughout and this influenced the evolution of the role. The methods used included; questionnaires; reflective diaries; focus group interviews; and ongoing dialogue with lecturers, students, demonstrators, clinicians and trust representatives. Since the start of this 5 year project there have been 25 Demonstrators in post who have in total supported 10 pre-registration nursing student cohorts undertaking the Common Foundation Programme (N=1496). As the study progressed they also provided support to more senior Adult Branch students undertaking the final year of the course (N=76). The outcomes have been exceptionally positive, though a number of lessons have been learnt along the way. This paper outlines this innovative project and shares a number of broad conclusions that can be drawn from the study. PMID:19040835
Hilton, Penelope A; Pollard, Carol L
Full Text Available This paper critically evaluates the use of role-playing simulations in a negotiation course taught to graduate students. The course consisted primarily of a series of simulations involving the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes of negotiation, facilitation and mediation. Data were obtained from two sets of questionnaires completed by 41 students before and after the course. A review of previous research reveals that despite the widespread use of role-playing simulations in education, there has been very little empirical evaluation of their effectiveness, especially in conflict resolution and planning. Comparison of the data acquired from the two surveys generated findings regarding student understanding of ADR processes and key issues in conflict resolution; the educational value of simulations; the amenability of types of planning and planning goals to ADR; appropriate learning objectives; the importance of negotiation skills in planning; challenges in conducting effective simulations; the value of simulations in resolving real conflicts; the utility of negotiation theory; and obstacles to applying ADR to planning disputes. More generally, the paper concludes that role-playing simulations are very effective for teaching negotiation skills to students, and preparing them to manage actual conflicts skillfully and to participate effectively in real ADR processes. However, this technique is somewhat less valuable for teaching aspects of planning other than conflict resolution. Surprisingly, prior experience with simulations had no significant influence on the responses to the pre-course survey. Also surprising was the lack of a significant correlation between final exam scores and responses to relevant questions on the post-course survey.
John Andrew; John Meligrana
Full Text Available This paper conducts an empirical study to testify the necessity and feasibility of the skill-focused interpretation teaching for undergraduate English majors, aiming at probing into the issue of accurate positioning of interpretation course. The participants in the experiment are 72 fourth-year students with 36 in the experimental class and 36 in the control class. The pedagogical principles and procedures between the experimental class and control class are rather different. The former follows the language-focused approach while the latter implements the skill-focused one. Results indicate that the mean of experimental class (77.69) is higher than that of the control class (72.48) in the post-test, and there is significant difference between them (p = .000). On the whole, experimental class produces better overall interpreting performance than control class, especially in terms of completeness, accuracy, re-expression, and adaptability. There are significant differences between all of them (p < .05). Empirical evidence shows that the skill-focused approach has its advantages over the traditional language-focused approach.
BACKGROUND: Teaching practical skills is a core component of undergraduate and postgraduate surgical education. It is crucial to optimize our current learning and teaching models, particularly in a climate of decreased clinical exposure. This review explores the role of educational theory in promoting effective learning in practical skills teaching. METHODS: Peer-reviewed publications, books, and online resources from national bodies (eg, the UK General Medical Council) were reviewed. RESULTS: This review highlights several aspects of surgical education, modeling them on current educational theory. These include the following: (1) acquisition and retention of motor skills (Miller's triangle; Fitts' and Posner's theory), (2) development of expertise after repeated practice and regular reinforcement (Ericsson's theory), (3) importance of the availability of expert assistance (Vygotsky's theory), (4) learning within communities of practice (Lave and Wenger's theory), (5) importance of feedback in learning practical skills (Boud, Schon, and Endes' theories), and (6) affective component of learning. CONCLUSIONS: It is hoped that new approaches to practical skills teaching are designed in light of our understanding of educational theory.
Sadideen H; Kneebone R
Background: The National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment is responsible for the academic accreditation of universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Requirements for this include evaluation of teaching effectiveness, evidence-based conclusions, and external benchmarks. Aims: To develop a questionnaire for students’ evaluation of the teaching skills of individual instructors and provide a tool for benchmarking. Setting: College of Nursing, University of Dammam [UoD], May-June 2009. Materials and Methods: The original questionnaire was “Monash Questionnaire Series on Teaching (MonQueST) - Clinical Nursing. The UoD modification retained four areas and seven responses, but reduced items from 26 to 20. Outcome measures were factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Results: Seven Nursing courses were studied, viz.: Fundamentals, Medical, Surgical, Psychiatric and Mental Health, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, and Family and Community Health. Total number of students was 74; missing data ranged from 5 to 27%. The explained variance ranged from 66.9% to 78.7%. The observed Cornbach’s ? coefficients ranged from 0.78 to 0.93, indicating an exceptionally high reliability. The students in the study were found to be fair and frank in their evaluation.
Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M.; Abdel Rahim, Sheikh Idris; Hassan, Ammar; Ali, Amein Al; Mokabel, Fatma; Hegazy, Mohammed; Wosornu, Lade
Full Text Available Objectives: This paper reports first year Caribbean medical students' preferred and least preferred Communication Skills teaching styles. It also reports their views on assessment and what qualities they valued in a good Communication Skills teacher. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to first year students at the end of Semester One and the data compared with the results of a study using the same questionnaire format in the UK. Results: Caribbean medical students favoured interactive lectures with opportunities for discussion over the didactic formal lecture. The least preferred modes of teaching selected were private study, formal lecture, role play and student presentations. The qualities that students rated highly in their Communication Skills teachers were being a skilled teacher and being knowledgeable and approachable. The preferred assessment style was a 50-50 balance between coursework and exam. Conclusions: First year medical students in the Caribbean studying Communication Skills preferred interactive lectures with opportunities for discussion. Their explanations indicated that interactive lectures provided more stimulation allowing opportunities for learning and greater retention of information. Students also found small group discussions with constructive feedback helpful in developing their own communication skills. Other international faculty may find this approach of establishing students' preferences for teaching style useful in planning their curriculum delivery.
Stella Williams; Bidyadhar Sa; Paula Nunes; Keith Stevenson
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We examine the effect of a preclinical emergency procedures course on students' clinical procedural skills and medical knowledge. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of evaluation forms for a cohort of 86 students graduating from medical school at an academic center. A cross section of students (n=57) taking a clinical emergency medicine rotation over a 4-year period was also studied. Numeric scores (1 to 9 on a Likert scale) in procedural skills and medical knowledge categories were extracted from evaluations for internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and emergency medicine rotations. Scores of students who had taken an elective course, Essential Procedures in Emergency Medicine (EPEM), were compared with scores of students who did not take this course. US Medical Licensing Examination Step I scores for both groups were also compared. RESULTS: Students who took EPEM scored significantly higher in the procedural skills category during the emergency medicine rotation (P =.04) and during both months of the internal medicine rotation (P =.02; P =.02). Students scored on average higher in the surgery and obstetrics and gynecology rotations, but these differences were not statistically significant. Students who took EPEM scored significantly higher in the medical knowledge category for emergency medicine (P =.01; P =.002), both months of internal medicine (P =.03; P =.006), and 1 of 2 months of surgery (P =.01) rotations. Students in obstetrics and gynecology rotations scored higher, although not significantly. US Medical Licensing Examination Step I scores were not different between students taking or not taking EPEM. CONCLUSION: Students taking EPEM achieved higher procedural skill and medical knowledge scores in clinical rotations. Emergency medicine is a specialty well suited to study procedures teaching and performance.
van der Vlugt TM; Harter PM
CONTEXT: There is a severe shortage of health care workers in Ethiopia. This situation must be addressed by the efficient training of mass cohorts of students. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to demonstrate that bench model training is a feasible approach to teaching surgical skills in Ethiopia. METHODS: A pre-test, simulation-based training intervention and post-test design was used. Two objective structured assessments of technical skills (OSATS) and a bench-top simulation training session were administered at the Black Lion Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Participants included 19 surgical residents who volunteered as trainees. Five surgical faculty members and one senior resident from the Black Lion Hospital, as well as two faculty members from the University of Toronto, participated as trainers and evaluators. The intervention consisted of OSATS tests comprising four stations, covering knot tying, closure of skin laceration, elliptical excision and bowel anastomosis. Tests were separated by 2-hour practice sessions. Main outcome measures included previously validated instruments comprising global rating scales (GRS) and skill-specific checklists (SSC). RESULTS: The measures showed no improvement on knot tying (GRS: P = 0.14; SSC: P = 0.7), marginal improvement on closure of laceration (GRS: P = 0.48; SSC: P = 0.003), and improvements on excision (GRS: P = 0.012; SSC: P = 0.003) and bowel anastomosis (GRS: P < 0.001; SSC: P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The bench models and scoring schemes developed in Toronto, Canada were directly applicable in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This approach may prove a feasible, safe and cost-effective method for training a multitude of health care professionals in technical skills and may help to address the human resources deficit in Africa.
Dorman K; Satterthwaite L; Howard A; Woodrow S; Derbew M; Reznick R; Dubrowski A
BACKGROUND: While there is evidence to suggest that teaching practices in clinical education should include activities that more accurately reflect the real world, many educators base their teaching on transmission models that encourage the rote learning of knowledge and technical skills. Technology-mediated instruction may facilitate the development of professional attributes that go beyond "having" knowledge and skills, but there is limited evidence for how to integrate technology into these innovative teaching approaches. METHODS: This study used a modified Delphi method to help identify the professional attributes of capable practitioners, the approaches to teaching that may facilitate the development of these attributes, and finally, how technology could be integrated with those teaching strategies in order to develop capable practitioners. Open-ended questions were used to gather data from three different expert panels, and results were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Clinical educators should not view knowledge, skills and attitudes as a set of products of learning, but rather as a set of attributes that are developed during a learning process. Participants highlighted the importance of continuing personal and professional development that emphasised the role of values and emotional response to the clinical context. To develop these attributes, clinical educators should use teaching activities that are learner-centred, interactive, integrated, reflective and that promote engagement. When technology-mediated teaching activities are considered, they should promote the discussion of clinical encounters, facilitate the sharing of resources and experiences, encourage reflection on the learning process and be used to access content outside the classroom. In addition, educational outcomes must drive the integration of technology into teaching practice, rather than the features of the technology. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for a cultural change in clinical education, in which those involved with the professional training of healthcare professionals perceive teaching as more than the transmission of knowledge and technical skills. Process-oriented teaching practices that integrate technology as part of a carefully designed curriculum may have the potential to facilitate the development of capable healthcare graduates who are able to navigate the complexity of health systems and patient management in ways that go beyond the application of knowledge and skills.
Rowe M; Frantz J; Bozalek V
This paper explored how I, as a novice midwife educator in a Higher Education Institution, utilised my reflections on the preparation, delivery and evaluation of a lecture to develop my teaching skills. My personal teaching and learning philosophy was informed by humanism. Reflecting on my teaching and learning philosophy, and the teaching and learning theories that guided the session, enabled me to identify aspects of my teaching that required further development. Similarly, the process permitted me to recognise positive aspects that I could take forward and build upon in my professional development as an educator. The key learning for me as a novice educator is outlined, with an emphasis placed on preparation and strategic question formulation.
O'Malley D; Fleming S
|This paper describes and validates a model of teaching in early elementary grades that infuses the self-determination skills of problem solving and goal setting into existing curricula and programs. Use of the "Self-Determination Learning Model of Instruction with 5- and 6-year-olds found the model effective in identifying student interests,…
Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to teach 6 core competencies and to provide evidence of effective standardized training through objective measures. George Washington University's Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine implemented a pilot program to address the interpersonal and communication skill competency. In this program, we aimed to pilot the Relationship Express model, a series of exercises in experiential learning to teach anesthesiology residents to build effective relationships with patients in time-limited circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of this model for anesthesiology training. METHODS: A total of 7 first-year clinical anesthesiology residents participated in this pilot study, and 4 residents completed the entire program for analysis purposes. Relationship Express was presented in three 1.5-hour sessions: (1) introduction followed by 2-case, standardized patient pretest with feedback to residents from faculty observers; (2) interpersonal and communication skills didactic workshop with video behavior modeling; and (3) review discussion followed by 2-case, standardized patient posttest and evaluation. RESULTS: MODIFIED BROOKFIELD COMMENTS REVEALED THE FOLLOWING THEMES: (1) time constraints were realistic compared with clinical practice; (2) admitting errors with patients was difficult; (3) patients were more aware of body language than anticipated; (4) residents liked the group discussions and the video interview; (5) standardized patients were convincing; and (6) residents found the feedback from faculty and standardized patients helpful. CONCLUSIONS: Resident retrospective self-assessment and learning comments confirm the potential value of the Relationship Express model. This program will require further assessment and refinement with a larger number of residents.
Berger JS; Blatt B; McGrath B; Greenberg L; Berrigan MJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries the ability to conduct locally-relevant health research and high quality education are key tools in the fight against poverty. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel UK accredited, learner-designed research skills course delivered in a teaching hospital in Ghana. Methods Study participants were 15 mixed speciality health professionals from Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. Effectiveness measures included process, content and outcome indicators to evaluate changes in learners' confidence and competence in research, and assessment of the impact of the course on changing research-related thinking and behaviour. Results were verified using two independent methods. Results 14/15 learners gained research competence assessed against UK Quality Assurance Agency criteria. After the course there was a 36% increase in the groups' positive responses to statements concerning confidence in research-related attitudes, intentions and actions. The greatest improvement (45% increase) was in learners' actions, which focused on strengthening institutional research capacity. 79% of paired before/after responses indicated positive changes in individual learners' research-related attitudes (n = 53), 81% in intention (n = 52) and 85% in action (n = 52). The course had increased learners' confidence to start and manage research, and enhanced life-long skills such as reflective practice and self-confidence. Doing their own research within the work environment, reflecting on personal research experiences and utilising peer support and pooled knowledge were critical elements that promoted learning. Conclusion Learners in Ghana were able to design and undertake a novel course that developed individual and institutional research capacity and met international standards. Learning by doing and a supportive peer community at work were critical elements in promoting learning in this environment where tutors were scarce. Our study provides a model for delivering and evaluating innovative educational interventions in developing countries to assess whether they meet external quality criteria and achieve their objectives.
Bates Imelda; Ansong Daniel; Bedu-Addo George; Agbenyega Tsiri; Akoto Alex; Nsiah-Asare Anthony; Karikari Patrick
Self-rating bias is particularly likely in organizational behavior research as individuals tend to inflate their expertise, skills and character. This study aims to examine how two culturally diverse groups of teachers and their reporting officers respond to self-ratings of their own teaching skills and leadership skills respectively. It is…
Jonathan, Wee Pin Goh; Kim, Lee Ong; Salleh, Hairon
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of a combined approach including cooperative learning and guided discussion methods in science teaching on student teachers’ achievements and their professional skills development. Theoretical framework of this combined approach was settled and implemented by the researcher’ own experiences. Hence, action research method was chosen as a research methodology. Research sample consists of 133 (45+44+44) 3rd year elementary student teachers who take courses of Science Teaching I-II in the Department of Primary Education in the Faculty of Education at the Sakarya University in Turkey in the 2005-2006 (45) and 2006-2007 (44+44) education term. It was concluded that this approach provided practitioners with an increase in their academic achievement obtaining the chance for eliciting ideas and improving their professional skills in relation to the scientific process skills about effective science learning and teaching through their own teaching practice in faculty before actual teaching practice in school.
Ahmet Zeki SAKA
Full Text Available Reflectivity is the essence of quality teaching and learning. Reflective teachers understand the issues of education and are better able to help their students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of teachers regarding the role of reflective practice in improving teachers’ classroom teaching skills. For data collection a close ended questionnaire was designed and administered to 150 teachers in 30 Community Based Schools in district Chitral, KPK Pakistan. These teachers were provided a six months rigorous training in reflective practice. After that they were allowed to teach in their respective fields in the sampled schools. After lapse of one month, they were provided with questionnaires as a part of follow up activity. Their perceptions are recorded and presented here in a descriptive form. Results of the study showed that teachers who were trained in reflective practice have found a big difference in their teaching skills. The sampled teachers are now able to plan daily for their lessons. They are able to solve their classroom problems more confidently than before. They keep regular reflective diary in which they record theirexperiences on daily basis. They can solve the problems of students and guide them in a more competent way. They involve their students in classroom discussion and report the progress of the students to parents and the school management regularly. On the basis of this study it can be concluded that reflective practice helps teachersdevelop their teaching and learning skills. This is the foundation of professional development.
Iqbal Ahmad; Hamdan Bin Said; Alam Zeb; Shahfiq ur Rehman; Shabir Ahmad; Wajid Khan
BACKGROUND: Physicians and medical educators have repeatedly acknowledged the inadequacy of communication skills training in the medical school curriculum and opportunities to improve these skills in practice. This study of a controlled intervention evaluates the effect of teaching practicing physicians the skill of "agenda-setting" on patients' experiences with care. The agenda-setting intervention aimed to engage clinicians in the practice of initiating patient encounters by eliciting the full set of concerns from the patient's perspective and using that information to prioritize and negotiate which clinical issues should most appropriately be dealt with and which (if any) should be deferred to a subsequent visit. METHODS: Ten physicians from a large physician organization in California with baseline patient survey scores below the statewide 25th percentile participated in the agenda-setting intervention. Eleven physicians matched on baseline scores, geography, specialty, and practice size were selected as controls. Changes in survey summary scores from pre- and post-intervention surveys were compared between the two groups. Multilevel regression models that accounted for the clustering of patients within physicians and controlled for respondent characteristics were used to examine the effect of the intervention on survey scale scores. RESULTS: There was statistically significant improvement in intervention physicians' ability to "explain things in a way that was easy to understand" (p = 0.02) and marginally significant improvement in the overall quality of physician-patient interactions (p = 0.08) compared to control group physicians. Changes in patients' experiences with organizational access, care coordination, and office staff interactions did not differ by experimental group. CONCLUSION: A simple and modest behavioral training for practicing physicians has potential to positively affect physician-patient relationship interaction quality. It will be important to evaluate the effect of more extensive trainings, including those that work with physicians on a broader set of communication techniques.
Rodriguez HP; Anastario MP; Frankel RM; Odigie EG; Rogers WH; von Glahn T; Safran DG
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians and medical educators have repeatedly acknowledged the inadequacy of communication skills training in the medical school curriculum and opportunities to improve these skills in practice. This study of a controlled intervention evaluates the effect of teaching practicing physicians the skill of "agenda-setting" on patients' experiences with care. The agenda-setting intervention aimed to engage clinicians in the practice of initiating patient encounters by eliciting the full set of concerns from the patient's perspective and using that information to prioritize and negotiate which clinical issues should most appropriately be dealt with and which (if any) should be deferred to a subsequent visit. Methods Ten physicians from a large physician organization in California with baseline patient survey scores below the statewide 25th percentile participated in the agenda-setting intervention. Eleven physicians matched on baseline scores, geography, specialty, and practice size were selected as controls. Changes in survey summary scores from pre- and post-intervention surveys were compared between the two groups. Multilevel regression models that accounted for the clustering of patients within physicians and controlled for respondent characteristics were used to examine the effect of the intervention on survey scale scores. Results There was statistically significant improvement in intervention physicians' ability to "explain things in a way that was easy to understand" (p = 0.02) and marginally significant improvement in the overall quality of physician-patient interactions (p = 0.08) compared to control group physicians. Changes in patients' experiences with organizational access, care coordination, and office staff interactions did not differ by experimental group. Conclusion A simple and modest behavioral training for practicing physicians has potential to positively affect physician-patient relationship interaction quality. It will be important to evaluate the effect of more extensive trainings, including those that work with physicians on a broader set of communication techniques.
Rodriguez Hector P; Anastario Michael P; Frankel Richard M; Odigie Esosa G; Rogers William H; von Glahn Ted; Safran Dana G
Full Text Available With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program of Turkish and Mathematics lesson used from 2005 and in which the importance of this skill is emphasized. Also this study will contribute education of preservice students henceforwards.
Özlem BAYRAK CÖMERT; Mine AKTA?
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of standardized patients (SPs) with aphasia to teach interpersonal and communication skills to new graduate student-clinicians in Speech-Language Pathology, and to test those skills via serial Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). This study had three phases: (1) clinical teaching using SPs, (2) mid-term evaluation via a single case OSCE, and (3) end-of-term evaluation via a multi-case OSCE. These phases were integrated with classroom teaching and testing components over a 16-week academic semester. Eighteen students participated while concurrently enrolled in a course on diagnosis and management of aphasia taught by the first author. One half of the class received initial instruction via a combination of didactic lecture and standardized patient interaction, while the other half of the class was taught initially via didactic lecture only. On OSCE I, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in their interpersonal and communication skills, with the class as a whole demonstrating less than acceptable competency. After targeting these skills in all students via additional class lectures, there was a statistically and clinically significant improvement in their competency in this area on OSCE II. Student feedback was positive.
Zraick RI; Allen RM; Johnson SB
This report describes a process for quickly developing information that is useful for skills training. The process is called job training analysis (JTA). Its main use is to structure skills training at the jobsite. JTA supports structured skills training ...
W. J. Wiehagen D. W. Conrad J. M. Baugher
The educational system is grounded in the belief that you can teach people in one setting — the school — in order that they will be able to perform in other settings outside school. The vital process of applying knowledge and skills acquired in an educational situation to working life is known as ‘transfer’. The transfer process poses a continual challenge to all spheres of education and training, for while transfer is positively influenced by identical elements shared by the training and transfer situations, more often than not, the two are markedly dissimilar. This discussion is confined to the transfer process solely within the specialised vocational and education and training (VET) stream in Denmark. The existence of many identical elements in both training and transfer situations is known as ‘near transfer’, and is most readily achieved when training is conducted within company premises. Students find the relevance of their theoretical training to in-house application highly motivating. Cognitively, transfer is facilitated by the concrete similarities between training and its application. However, the purpose of school-based education is to develop the students’ mastery of ‘far transfer’; in other words, their ability to apply knowledge and skills to a broad range of situations. To adapt to frequent changes in the labour market, students need to develop general competences that will enable them to move to other jobs and other companies. Therefore the pedagogy of VET should provide a progression from near to far transfer. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss some of the pedagogical challenges for VET of near and far transfer.
Full Text Available Abstract: Transition from the role of passive student to medical practitioner begins with learning the first clinical skill. This transition can be stressful for those experiencing it and to some extent by those coordi-nating it. Logistically, it requires demonstration of the techniques to the entire class by a single practitio-ner or to smaller groups of students by multiple practitioners. The former reduces the opportunity for close observation of technique and is less conducive to questions, while the latter requires multiple practi-tioners, which can be prohibitive given their already dense schedules. To reduce the stress for all in-volved and to maximize learning opportunities, an innovative approach to teaching the first skill, vital signs measurement, was developed. Small group instruction and practice were facilitated by senior medi-cal student volunteers in a simulated outpatient clinic using actual equipment. Instruction was provided in a relaxed, but guided format. Students were provided with a lesson plan that detailed both, technique and brief physiology points, as well as check sheets to use during the lab and later as a refresher guide. The lesson plan, instructions for facilitators, and student check sheets were developed by a senior medical stu-dent and reviewed by the course faculty. Recruitment and briefing of student facilitators and conduct of the lab were also performed by the senior student. The purpose of this trend article is to describe the de-velopment of a new course format and to report our experience with implementation of the new format. It is intended to spark interest in applying similar approaches to other curricular issues
R. Gregg Dwyer, M.D., Ed.D.
Our aim was to evaluate haptic virtual reality (VR) simulation with repetitive training as a tool in teaching caries removal (CR) and periodontal pocket probing (PPP) skills. For the CR simulation, multilayered virtual models composed of tooth substance, caries, and pulp were developed. Seven students completed three training sessions each, which were scored based on the volume of the cut region, the number of instances of handpiece overload, and total cutting time. For the PPP task, we developed a virtual periodontal disease model and 26 students received training in measuring pocket depth. Pocket probing force was measured and proficiency was evaluated. In the CR task, scores for the second and third training sessions were significantly higher than for the first training session. We likewise obtained effective repetitive training results for the PPP task. Our simulator was effective at teaching hand skills for both tasks within short-term evaluation.
Yamaguchi S; Yoshida Y; Noborio H; Murakami S; Imazato S
A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted for articles published between 1993 and 2012 to determine the degree to which technology-based interventions can be considered an evidence-based practice to teach academic skills to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Criteria developed by Horner et al. (Except Child 71:165-178, 2005) and Gersten et al. (Except Child 71:149-164, 2005) were used to determine the quality of single-subject research studies and group experimental research studies respectively. A total of 25 studies met inclusion criteria. Of these studies, only three single-subject studies and no group studies met criteria for quality or acceptable studies. Taken together, the results suggest that practitioners should use caution when teaching academic skills to individuals with ASD using technology-based interventions. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Knight V; McKissick BR; Saunders A
A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted for articles published between 1993 and 2012 to determine the degree to which technology-based interventions can be considered an evidence-based practice to teach academic skills to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Criteria developed by Horner et al. (Except Child 71:165-178, 2005) and Gersten et al. (Except Child 71:149-164, 2005) were used to determine the quality of single-subject research studies and group experimental research studies respectively. A total of 25 studies met inclusion criteria. Of these studies, only three single-subject studies and no group studies met criteria for quality or acceptable studies. Taken together, the results suggest that practitioners should use caution when teaching academic skills to individuals with ASD using technology-based interventions. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23543292
Knight, Victoria; McKissick, Bethany R; Saunders, Alicia
Full Text Available This study has attempted to determine the effect of critical thinking on Iranian EFL learners’ speaking ability. There were two equal-sized groups of 20 learners: a control group and an experimental one. The subjects were advanced EFL learners at Shokouh Language Institute in Hamedan, Iran. There were 10 male and 10 female learners in each group. In both groups, similar topics were proposed for group discussion such as air pollution, global warming, friendship, drug addiction, happiness, etc. In the experimental group, in addition to having discussion on the given issues, the teacher devoted some time for teaching critical thinking techniques during the class time. In the very first session, the teacher explicitly elaborated on what critical thinking processes are. Then, during the following sessions the teacher taught critical thinking techniques for about 20 minutes and gave learners time to practice these skills. The findings of the current study revealed that those students who received instruction on critical thinking strategies did better on the oral interview post-test. In addition, it was observed that within the experimental group there was not any significant difference between the performances of male vs. female Iranian EFL learners’ speaking ability after giving the treatment.
Ali Malmir; Samad Shoorcheh
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was the development of a curriculum for the management of postpartum hemorrhage and an objective assessment of technical skills (OSATS) for uterine compression sutures. Method: Twenty-two residents participated in the study. Evaluations included the global rating scale, task-specific checklist, and pass/fail rating for the OSATS and task-specific checklist for the hemorrhage drill. The reliability and validity of the evaluation tools were calculated. Results: The inter-rater reliability was 0.98 for the hemorhage drill checklist, 0.77 for the global rating scale, and 0.93 for the uterine suture checklist. Construct validity evaluation revealed senior residents performed superiorly to junior residents on the global rating scale (P=0.006) and on the uterine suture checklist (P=0.04). There was an improvement in performance on the post-test in comparison to the pretest (P=0.001). Conclusion: We present an inexpensive, reliable, and valid curriculum to teach and evaluate the medical and surgical management of postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:23095195
Quinn, Kristen H; Mackey, Amy; Cohen, Jerry; Smith, Stephen J
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was the development of a curriculum for the management of postpartum hemorrhage and an objective assessment of technical skills (OSATS) for uterine compression sutures. Method: Twenty-two residents participated in the study. Evaluations included the global rating scale, task-specific checklist, and pass/fail rating for the OSATS and task-specific checklist for the hemorrhage drill. The reliability and validity of the evaluation tools were calculated. Results: The inter-rater reliability was 0.98 for the hemorhage drill checklist, 0.77 for the global rating scale, and 0.93 for the uterine suture checklist. Construct validity evaluation revealed senior residents performed superiorly to junior residents on the global rating scale (P=0.006) and on the uterine suture checklist (P=0.04). There was an improvement in performance on the post-test in comparison to the pretest (P=0.001). Conclusion: We present an inexpensive, reliable, and valid curriculum to teach and evaluate the medical and surgical management of postpartum hemorrhage.
Quinn KH; Mackey A; Cohen J; Smith SJ
Full Text Available Skill Enhancement for Health: An Evaluation of An Online Pilot Teaching Module on Epidemiology Rory McGREAL, PhD Athabasca University – Canada’s Open University Athabasca AB, CANADA Sue DAVIS, MSc. New Brunswick Community College–Saint John Saint John, CANADA Terry MURPHY, PhD Consortium for Information Technology in Education (CITE) Saint John, CANADA Chris SMITH, BA Consortium for Information Technology in Education (CITE) Saint John, CANADA ABSTRACT The evaluation of this pilot of an epidemiology course conducted online and delivered across Canada was based on four main criteria: design, content, process and outcomes. Data was collected through seven sources: participant online survey results, post-pilot workshop feedback, four focus groups, telephone interviews with participants, interviews with course developers, examination of online materials, and analysis of log files generated by the web server. The pilot course had the following outcomes: Findings on the delivery showed that the course took much more time than estimated; the online environment was challenging/frustrating for some; there were technical glitches; discussion boards were not regularly used; interaction with instructors was minimal; feedback from instructors was slow in coming; the short development time led to errors/mismatches between content and assessment; and the high student/teacher ratio of 1:48 made it difficult to provide timely feedback.
Rory McGREAL; Sue DAVIS; Terry MURPHY; Chris SMITH
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence that medical students consider population health issues less important than other domains in the health sciences and attitudes to this field may become more negative as training progresses. A need to improve research skills among medical students has also been suggested. Therefore we piloted an integrative teaching exercise that combined teaching of research skills and public health, with real-world research. Methods Third year medical students at the University of Otago (Dunedin, New Zealand) filled in a questionnaire on their housing conditions and health. The students were given the results of the survey to discuss in a subsequent class. Student response to this teaching exercise was assessed using a Course Evaluation Questionnaire. Results Of the 210 students in the class, 136 completed the Course Evaluation Questionnaire (65%). A majority of those who responded (77%) greatly supported or supported the use of the survey and seminar discussion for future third year classes. Most (70%) thought that the session had made them more aware and concerned about societal problems, and 72% felt that they now had an improved understanding of the environmental determinants of health. Students liked the relevance and interaction of the session, but thought it could be improved by the inclusion of small group discussion. The findings of the students' housing and health were considered by the tutors to be of sufficient value to submit to a scientific journal and are now contributing to community action to improve student housing in the city. Conclusion In this pilot study it was feasible to integrate medical student teaching with real-world research. A large majority of the students responded favourably to the teaching exercise and this was generally successful in raising the profile of public health and research. This approach to integrated teaching/research should be considered further in health sciences training and continue to be evaluated and refined.
Millar Elinor; Baker Michael G; Howden-Chapman Philippa; Wilson Nick; Dickson Nigel
Full Text Available Abstract: Language is an indispensable part of culture. To understand language means knowing about culture first. Culture teaching plays an essential role in English language teaching. The cultural orientation in language communication should be highly valued and the relevant cultural background should be led in where necessary. This paper discusses the training of cross-cultural awareness in college English teaching by taking Integrated Skills of English as an example. Besides teaching language, English teaching is to cultivate the students’ cross-cultural awareness and transform their linguistic competence into communicative competence in an effective way.Key words: Culture teaching; Cross-cultural awareness; Communicative competence; Integrated Skills of EnglishRésumé: La langue est un élément indispensable de la culture. Afin de comprendre une langue, il faut connaître la culture d'abord. L’enseignement de la culture joue un rôle essentiel dans l'enseignement de la langue anglaise. L'orientation culturelle dans la communication linguistique devrait être mise en valeur et le fond culturel approprié doit être introduit dans le cas échéant. Cet article discute la formation de sensibilisation interculturelle dans l'enseignement de l’anglais au collège en prenant des compétences intégrées en anglais comme un exemple. Outre l'enseignement de la langue, l’enseignement de l'anglais est de former la sensibilisation interculturelle des élèves et de transformer leurs compétences linguistiques en compétence communicative de manière efficace. Mots clés: Enseignement de la culture; Sensibilisation interculturelle; Compétence communicative; Compétences intégrées en anglais
BACKGROUND: Simulation training has potential in developing clinical skills in pre-clinical medical students, but there is little evidence on its effectiveness. METHODS: Twenty four first year graduate entry preclinical medical students participated in this crossover study. They were divided into two groups, one performed chest examination on each other and the other used SimMan. The groups then crossed over. A pretest, midtest and post-test was conducted in which the students answered the same questionnaire with ten questions on knowledge, and confidence levels rated using a 5 point Likert scale. They were assessed formatively using the OSCE marking scheme. At the end of the session, 23 students completed a feedback questionnaire. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and independent t-test. RESULTS: When the two groups were compared, there was no significant difference in the pretest and the post-test scores on knowledge questions whereas the midtest scores increased significantly (P< 0.001) with the group using SimMan initially scoring higher. A significant increase in the test scores was seen between the pre-test and the mid-test for this group (P=0.009). There was a similar albeit non significant trend between the midtest and the post-test for the group using peer examination initially.Mean confidence ratings increased from the pretest to midtest and then further in the post-test for both groups. Their confidence ratings increased significantly in differentiating between normal and abnormal signs [Group starting with SimMan, between pretest and midtest (P= 0.01) and group starting with peer examination, between midtest and post-test (P=0.02)]. When the students' ability to perform examination on each other for both groups was compared, there was a significant increase in the scores of the group starting with SimMan (P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrated a significant improvement in the students' knowledge and competence to perform chest examination after simulation with an increase in the student's perceived levels of confidence. Feedback from the students was extremely positive. SimMan acts as a useful adjunct to teach clinical skills to preclinical medical students by providing a simulated safe environment and thus aids in bridging the gap between the preclinical and clinical years in medical undergraduate education.
Swamy M; Bloomfield TC; Thomas RH; Singh H; Searle RF
|In the current study, behavior skills training (BST) is compared to a computer based training package for teaching discrete trial instruction to staff, teaching an adult with autism. The computer based training package consisted of instructions, video modeling and feedback. BST consisted of instructions, modeling, rehearsal and feedback.…
Nosik, Melissa R.; Williams, W. Larry; Garrido, Natalia; Lee, Sarah
The purpose of the study was to share findings with educators across disciplines of how to incorporate an eastern and western blended philosophy of teaching and learning to promote 21st century skills and global perspectives. Drawing from a previous self-study of their views of teaching and learning between Chinese and American cultures, the two…
Smith, Judith; Hu, Ran
In the current study, behavior skills training (BST) is compared to a computer based training package for teaching discrete trial instruction to staff, teaching an adult with autism. The computer based training package consisted of instructions, video modeling and feedback. BST consisted of instructions, modeling, rehearsal and feedback. Following…
Nosik, Melissa R.; Williams, W. Larry; Garrido, Natalia; Lee, Sarah
Reports evaluative data on five courses that have taken part in a curriculum reform effort called the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers (ACEPT). Discusses the effects of those teaching reforms on substantial improvements in student achievement. Includes principles of effective teaching, reformed teaching…
Lawson, Anton; Benford, Russell; Bloom, Irene; Carlson, Marilyn; Falconer, Kathleen; Hestenes, David; Judson, Eugene; Piburn, Michael; Sawada, Daiyo; Turley, Jeff; Wyckoff, Susan
BACKGROUND: Children with autism have difficulties in emotion recognition and a number of interventions have been designed to target these problems. However, few emotion training interventions have been trialled with young children with autism and co-morbid ID. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an emotion training programme for a group of young children with autism with a range of intellectual ability. METHODS: Participants were 55 children with autistic disorder, aged 4-7 years (FSIQ 42-107). Children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 28) or control group (n = 27). Participants in the intervention group watched a DVD designed to teach emotion recognition skills to children with autism (the Transporters), whereas the control group watched a DVD of Thomas the Tank Engine. Participants were assessed on their ability to complete basic emotion recognition tasks, mindreading and theory of mind (TOM) tasks before and after the 4-week intervention period, and at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: Analyses controlled for the effect of chronological age, verbal intelligence, gender and DVD viewing time on outcomes. Children in the intervention group showed improved performance in the recognition of anger compared with the control group, with few improvements maintained at 3-month follow-up. There was no generalisation of skills to TOM or social skills. CONCLUSIONS: The Transporters programme showed limited efficacy in teaching basic emotion recognition skills to young children with autism with a lower range of cognitive ability. Improvements were limited to the recognition of expressions of anger, with poor maintenance of these skills at follow-up. These findings provide limited support for the efficacy of the Transporters programme for young children with autism of a lower cognitive range.
Williams BT; Gray KM; Tonge BJ
Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have found life-skill training to be effective in increasing of life satisfaction. Aim. This study initially attempts to assess the effect of Life-skill training on life satisfaction among high school students in Iran. Methods and Material.The questionnaire used in the process of study developed by the researchers. The validity and reliability rated high at a previous investigation. The sample consisted of 26 high school students in ahvaz- Iran, randomly assigned to control (n = 13) and experimental (n = 13) groups. After pre-test stage the experimental group were trained some skills (like problem solving method, decision-making, critical and creative thinking, interpersonal communications, etc.) through undirected trainings such as role playing, brain storming, discussion, working in small groups.
Ahmad Farhady; Maryam Nooralizadeh
Since 2007, the central program of the Precambrian Research Center (PRC) at the University of Minnesota Duluth has been a six-week geology field camp focused on the Precambrian geology of the Canadian Shield. This field camp has two main purposes. First and foremost is to teach students specialized field skills and field mapping techniques that can be utilized to map and interpret Precambrian shield terranes characterized by sparse outcrop and abundant glacial cover. In addition to teaching basic outcrop mapping technique , students are introduced to geophysical surveying (gravity, magnetics), glacial drift prospecting, and drill core logging techniques in several of our geological mapping exercises. These mapping methodologies are particularly applicable to minerals exploration in shield terranes. The second and equally important goal of the PRC field camp is to teach students modern map-making and map production skills. During the fifth and sixth weeks of field camp, students conduct "capstone" mapping projects. These projects encompass one week of detailed bedrock mapping in remote regions of northern Minnesota that have not been mapped in detail (e.g. scales greater than 1:24,000) and a second week of map-making and map generation utilizing geographic information systems (currently ArcGIS10), graphics software packages (Adobe Illustrator CS4), and various imaging software for geophysical and topographic data. Over the past five years, PRC students and faculty have collaboratively published 21 geologic maps through the Precambrian Research Center Map Series. These maps are currently being utilized in a variety of ways by industry, academia, and government for mineral exploration programs, development of undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research projects, and for planning, archeological studies, and public education programs in Minnesota's state parks. Acquisition of specialized Precambrian geological mapping skills and geologic map-making proficiencies has enabled our students to be highly sought after for employment and/or subsequent graduate studies.
Miller, J. D.; Hudak, G. J.; Peterson, D.
Development of Curriculum and delivery materials has undergone changes over a period of time, in undergraduate engineering degree system in Indian universities. However, there exists a gap between industry expectations in IT field and skills and knowledge that the graduating engineers possess and this continues to grow. A similar situation has been seen in the developed countries like USA, UK and Australia. Several researchers and practitioners have discussed and tried to come up with innovative approaches to teaching software engineering and IT as a whole. In India, it is of vital importance that steps be taken to address this issue seriously. This paper discusses some of the measures that have been implemented so that this gap is reduced and software engineers with better skills are produced. Changes to curriculum, industry-academia collaboration through conferences, sabbaticals etc., industry internships and live projects for final year students are some of the measures that have been discussed in this pap...
Padmini, H A; Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan
Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the elementary, secondary and high school students’ perceptions on a good language teacher. The participants are 365 Turkish school students who are learning English as a foreign language. The present study has revealed that most of the student groups generally differ in terms of issues related to teaching skills when compared with the issues related to the affective skills. In the present study it has been also found that what students expect from a good English teacher is to have the ability to maintain discipline, motivate students, learn about the learner’ needs and establish good relations with them. The study also reveals striking results with respect to classroom discipline and teacher subject knowledge.
Ebru Melek Koç
Researchers are developing sophisticated games specifically targeted to teach health-related knowledge and skills and to change health-related behaviors. Although these interventions, generally called "serious games," show promise, there has been limited evaluation of their effectiveness. This article offers a broad "consumer guide" for evaluating such health education interventions. Improving the development and evaluation of health-related serious games and educating potential purchasers of such products to be knowledgeable, demanding consumers will help move the field of serious games from "looks promising" to determining where such interventions will be effective and where they will not.
Full Text Available O ensino de habilidades acadêmicas para pessoas com autismo tem recebido pouca atenção de estudos, provavelmente porque os comprometimentos clássicos do transtorno relacionados à comunicação, interação social e comportamentos são vistos como prioritários no desenvolvimento de pesquisas. Porém, o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para o ensino de habilidades acadêmicas que atinjam esse público é fundamental, principalmente na realidade brasileira em que, com o advento da filosofia de inclusão escolar, a educação de pessoas com necessidades educacionais especiais, incluindo autistas, passou a ser direcionada para a escola regular. Assim, crianças com autismo estão cada vez mais expostas aos conteúdos acadêmicos nas salas de aula regulares e estratégias de ensino adequadas às suas necessidades são fundamentais para a entrada, permanência e progresso destas pessoas na escola. Assim, este trabalho descreve o ensino de habilidades de adição e subtração para uma adolescente com autismo e utilizou procedimentos adaptados com base em descrições sobre o quadro de autismo, princípios de aprendizagem da análise experimental do comportamento, técnicas de ensino e observação direta do repertório da participante. Para as tarefas acadêmicas foram utilizados estímulos visuais - gráficos e uso das mãos - que indicavam relações visualmente óbvias para explicar à participante como as operações aritméticas deveriam ser realizadas. Gradualmente, aumentou-se a complexidade das operações ensinadas, à medida que ia aumentando o número de acertos dela nas tarefas. Esses procedimentos foram realizados no decorrer de nove sessões. Os erros e acertos foram computados e serviram para representação gráfica. Os resultados demonstram a aprendizagem gradativa das habilidades ensinadas à medida que a intervenção ocorreu.The teaching of academic skills to individuals with autism has received little attention from research literature, probably because the classical deficits in communication, reciprocal social interaction and behaviors are seen as priorities in scientific investigations. Nevertheless, the development of technologies for teaching academic skills to this population is necessary, mainly in the context of Brazilian school inclusion. People with autism are being included with greater frequency in regular classes and, consequently, need adequate strategies to learn academic contents for their entrance, permanence and progress in the schools. Many studies describe characteristics and difficulties that people with autism have, which can influence the way they learn. These variables need to be considered when planning appropriate teaching strategies for this population. Among these variables are the ways in which these individuals respond to environmental stimuli, the way they think and their typical behaviors. This study describes strategies for teaching addition and subtraction to an adolescent with autism. These teaching procedures were elaborated based on the general characteristics of autism, principles derived from Applied Behavior Analysis, and the repertoire of the participant. The results show gradual learning of the taught skills.
Camila Graciella Santos Gomes
Challenges the assumption that library skills are not a legitimate aspect of sociology courses. Argues that library skills are learned most effectively through an active process of participation and experience. Suggests and describes a library scavenger hunt as an effective learning exercise. (DB)
Glasberg, Davita Silfen; And Others
The purpose of the study was to examine effectiveness of the Cafe' Waiter Education Program by providing the least prompting to three adult subjects with intellectual disability in a real-life setting. A multiple probe research design across subjects was used. Cafe' waiter skills included five main tasks incorporating 125 skill steps. Task…
|In Kuwait and elsewhere, developments in electronic information resources have led to the demand for employees with ICT (information and communication technology) skills especially in information handling institutions. There is, therefore, a need to prepare the students for this workplace. As a result, the ICT skills of current LIS (library and…
Buarki, Hanadi; Hepworth, Mark; Murray, Ian
Since the early work of Anne Desjardin (1980) and others, Precision Teachers have developed Big 6+6 skills in their students' repertoires when needed. In this article, the authors present the Standard Celeration Chart (SCC) which documents how they analyzed the Big 6+6 skill of "squeeze" in terms of arranging sequences of instruction. The SCC…
Fabrizio, Michael A.; Schirmer, Kristin; King, Amy; Diakite, Ami; Stovel, Leah
Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be equipped with a set of strategies and tools to prepare their students for the challenges they will face in the 21st century. Nationwide, educators are integrating a set of skills deemed essential for student success in college and a career. Building upon these skills and the process areas…
Mosenson, Andrea B.; Fox, Wanda S.
This almost-experimental study utilized an education model to develop critical thought in a group of first year nursing students having as an objective to determine skills acquisition. Twelve weeks after its implementation the results showed the treatment statistical significance. Therefore, the instruction method utilized to promote critical thought skills produced the intended result in introductory nursing courses.
de Isaacs LG
It is important that engineering and computer science students learn teamwork skills as an integral part of their educational development. These skills are often not explicitly taught, but rather it is expected that students learn them on their own through participation in various team projects. Fu...
Robert W. Lingard
By helping children to form positive thinking and learning habits, and to develop a range of transferable skills, we give them the tools they need to become successful learners. This book is grounded in the best of current practice and theories surrounding thinking and learning skills. It provides a highly effective method for introducing a…
Simister, Catherine Jane
Full Text Available Liberal arts students are expected to graduate college with fully developed critical reading and writing skills. However, for a variety of reasons these skills are not always as well developed as they might be - both during and upon completion of college. This paper describes a reading assignment that was designed to increase students’ discipline-specific critical reading and writing skills. The assignment was piloted in a mid-level social psychology class. Pre-test/post-test comparisons indicate substantial improvement in students’ ability to identify thesis statements, recognize and interpret evidence, and other critical reading skills. Furthermore, students themselves rate the assignment as efficacious in helping them with both their reading and writing skills.
Debbie Van Camp; Wesley Van Camp
Full Text Available It is important that engineering and computer science students learn teamwork skills as an integral part of their educational development. These skills are often not explicitly taught, but rather it is expected that students learn them on their own through participation in various team projects. Furthermore, the actual skills that students are expected to learn are usually not well articulated, or even understood. The approach outlined here attempts to address these problems by first establishing a process for defining what is meant by teamwork, by using this definition to assess the extent to which students are learning teamwork skills, and by using the assessment results to formulate approaches to improve student learning with respect to these skills. Specific attempts at the definition, assessment, and instruction improvement process are discussed.
Robert W. Lingard
Graduate students in the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, represent an important link in current reforms emphasizing inquiry-based learning and teaching, as they represent the future of the STEM professoriate. Although graduate students commonly hold teaching assistantships, they rarely receive training on how to…
Gilmore, Joanna; Hurst, Melissa
Full Text Available In our world of growing complexity, linear thinking and the belief that the whole is only the sum of its parts are evidently obsolete. Systems thinking, which promotes a holistic view of reality, is a situation-adequate handling of complex systems, and is therefore one of the most important skills of future executives in the business world. A new teaching concept was introduced one year ago by the Faculty of Business Administration at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. This concept was designed to help the students to develop abilities in thinking in models, operating complex systems and handling dynamic, non-linear situations. By use of a computer-simulated game the business students should gain knowledge about systemic realities and improve their complex-problem-solving skills. In the semester when the newly designed lecture started, the highly motivated class became aware of the problems in dealing with complexity. Documenting any significant improvements in our students' performance in playing the game was not possible, but we observed a change in their behaviour and ways of thinking in situations of complex problem-solving. Some necessary changes and adjustments in the teaching concept were made and the next class will be investigated in autumn 2003.
Full Text Available This exploratory study investigated the development of speaking and writing skills of L1 Arabic EFL learners based on their level of perception and understanding of phonetic transcriptions through visualisation of letter-to-symbol representations using the International Phonetic Alphabet (henceforth IPA). The participants were 169 University-level Preparatory Year Program (PYP) male Saudi EFL students. The study was carried out as a pedagogical approach to improve university first year students’ pronunciation, correct speech and writing skills. The students selected attended 6, 50-minute Integrated Pronunciation Teaching (IPT) lessons which included IPA transcription codes using both audio and visual teaching methods in addition to one ICT aided lesson. Throughout those lessons, students were initially introduced to the IPA phonetic codes in gradual increase of difficulty and were encouraged to use the monolingual (English-English), Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE). Two written tests and one oral test were conducted using a number of carefully selected IPA transcription codes related questions and results were analysed and interpreted. Results obtained showed slight variations between higher and lower ability students in understanding the IPA transcription codes. As a whole, however, the results indicated that students reached a high level of understanding of letter-to-symbol representations – the IPA system - and oral test results proved that phonological awareness can help Saudi students at tertiary level education improve their writing and speaking skills. Above all, learning the phonetic transcription codes helped them develop a sense of autonomy and competence when using monolingual dictionaries. The study concluded with a brief discussion of the ramifications of the study and the potential for further research.
The study with four adults with moderate and severe mental handicaps found that both backward and concurrent chaining training strategies were equally effective in teaching use of a fast food restaurant and a supermarket. (Author/DB)
McDonnell, John; Laughlin, Brent
Description of using Classic Papers in a teaching symposium exploring the evidence supporting current concepts of capillary fluid exchange. Individual students are given papers to read, edit, and present to the class.
PhD J. Graham McGeown (Queen's University of Belfast, School of Medicine and Dentistry Cell and Metabolic Signaling Group)
Full Text Available As video-based instructional materials become available to distance learners to learn practical skills at a distance, it is important to assess the instructional effectiveness of these materials and to understand how students respond to them. This paper is the second part of a larger exploratory study that assessed the instructional effectiveness of video-based instructional materials for teaching distance learners practical skills in block-laying and concreting and how learners respond to these instructional materials. Specifically, this paper aims to assess learners’ acceptance and satisfaction with the materials. It also aims to determine whether levels of learner satisfaction and acceptance differ according to study centres. Data were collected from 71 respondents at three study centres using a self-completion questionnaire comprising 17 Likert-type items. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Scheffe’s post hoc test at a 0.05 level of significance. Learners appeared positive about their learning experiences with the use of video-based instructional materials to learn practical skills at a distance as they rated highly all the items assessing their acceptance and satisfaction. Results of item-by-item ANOVA regarding learner acceptance indicated that the respondents, categorized according to study centres, exhibited similar levels of acceptance for nine of the ten items. For learner satisfaction, there were no statistically significant differences for six of the seven items. Thus, learners of different study centres exhibited about the same level of acceptance and satisfaction.
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal and communication skills (IPCS) are essential for advanced practice nursing (APN) in our increasingly complex healthcare system. The Standardized Patient (SP) is a promising innovative pedagogy in medical and healthcare education; however, its effectiveness for teaching IPCS to graduate nursing students remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effectiveness of using SP with SP feedback and group discussion to teach IPCS in graduate nursing education. DESIGN: Randomized-controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: First-year APN students in Taiwan. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental (SP assessments with SP feedback and group discussion) or control (SP assessments only) group. There were two outcome indicators: IPCS and student learning satisfaction (SLS). The IPCS were assessed before and after the study in interviews with the SPs. SLS was measured when the study ended. RESULTS: All participants expressed high SLS (94.44%) and showed significant (p ? 0.025) improvements on IPCS total scores, interviewing, and counseling. However, there were no significant differences between groups. Qualitative feedback from encounters with SPs is described. CONCLUSIONS: Using SPs to teach IPCS to APN students produced a high SLS. The students learned and significantly improved their IPCS by interviewing SPs, but future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of SP feedback and group discussions.
Lin EC; Chen SL; Chao SY; Chen YC
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El sistema educativo no escapa a la renovación de las técnicas para incentivar el pensamiento innovador. El objetivo de esta reflexión monográfica es mostrar la relación entre el desarrollo de la creatividad y los usos de los softwares educativos. Las técnicas seleccionadas son, el mapa mental y el de conceptos, el mandala y las supernotas. Y los softwares empleados, son el Mind Manager, el Inspiración y el CMap Tool. El procedimiento hace referencia a los fundamen (more) tos teóricos argumentados por los autores y, a una descripción de las bondades de los tres softwares seleccionados. Como reflexión final se puede decir que los softwares seleccionados cumplen la función de herramienta mental-tecnológica, al desarrollar habilidades para procesar información de forma creativa. Abstract in english The educational system does not escape to renewing the techniques to motivate innovative thinking. The goal of this monographic reflection is to show the relation between creativity development and education software uses. The chosen techniques are, mental and concept map, the mandala and super note-taking. The software used is the Mind Manager, Inspiration, and the CMap Tool. The procedure refers to the theoretical fundaments argued by the authors and, to a description o (more) f the goodness of the software used. As a final reflection it can be said that the software work as a mental-technological tool, by developing skills to process information in a creative way.
Castillo Rojas, Anny
ABSTRACT Background: Heroin-abusing patients present a significant challenge. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) allow evaluation of residents' clinical skills. The objective of this study was to examine residents' OSCE performance assessing and managing heroin abuse. Methods: Evaluation and comparison of heroin-specific communication, assessment, and management skills in a 5-station postgraduate year 3 (PGY3) substance abuse OSCE. Faculty used a 4-point Likert scale to assess residents' skills; standardized patients provided written comments. Results: Two hundred sixty-five internal and family medicine residents in an urban university hospital participated over 5 years. In the heroin station, residents' skills were better (P < .001 for both comparisons) in communication (mean overall score: 316 ± 0.51) than in either assessment (mean overall score: 2.66 ± 0.60) or management (mean overall score: 2.50 ± 0.73). The mean score for assessing specific high-risk behaviors was lower than the mean overall assessment score (222 ± 1.01 vs. 2.74 ± .59; P < .0001), and the mean score for recommending appropriate harm reduction management strategies was lower than the mean overall management score (2.39 ± .89 vs. 2.54 ± .74; P < .005). Standardized patients' comments reflected similar weaknessess in residents' skills. Conclusions: Assessment and management of heroin abuse were more challenging for residents than general communication. Additional training is required for residents to assess and counsel patients about high-risk behaviors.
Parish SJ; Stein MR; Hahn SR; Goldberg U; Arnsten JH
Full Text Available Purpose: The study examines students’ assessment of a general requirement course entitled “Basics of Information Technology”.Methodology: A written survey was distributed to 80 students in 3 different classes. 61 surveys (76% of the total) were returned within the study period.Results: Respondents stated that knowledge and skills acquired are essential to pursue their studies in the university and beyond. Using search engines and searching databases were identified as the most important skills acquired. Discrepancy in course description, delivery methods and assessment tools were seen as the main obstacles. Practical implications: The study provides ideas, concepts and guidelines for introducing a new information skills course within Qatar University Core Curriculum.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Direct Instruction Mathematics formats to teach basic math skills. The participant in this study was a third grade girl who qualified forspecial education services in both math and reading. Several math skills were taught during the course of this study, including writing hundreds numbers, writing hundreds numbers in expandednotation, and completing two-digit addition problems with renaming. The research was carried out at a small, public, urban elementary school in the Northwest. The results indicated that the use of Direct Instruction substantially increased student performance on basic math skills.
Megan Heasty; T. F. McLaughlin; Randy Lee Williams; Bonnie Keenan
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudo sobre a Teoria da Forma concebida no início do século XX pelo artista plástico Paul Klee e publicado no livro O Pensamento Criativo (KLEE, 1920). A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é uma demonstração do pensamento artístico que adota pressupostos formais, previamente estabelecidos para resultar na prática da representação artística. Klee identificou as relações formais entre a música e as artes visuais, apresentando conexões entre a linha melódica e a l (more) inha no desenho; o ritmo e as seqüências de módulos e sub-módulos; os tempos dos compassos e as divisões da pintura; a métrica da música e a modulação da forma e da cor nas artes visuais. Klee também apresentou suas experiências com superposição de cores e texturas para representar visualmente a polifonia. A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é um exemplo de estudo que pressupõe modelos formais para a elaboração artística e projetual. Abstract in english Study on the Theory of Form conceived in the early twentieth century by artist Paul Klee and published in the book The Creative Thinking (KLEE, 1920). The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is a demonstration of an artistic thought that adopts the previously established formal prerequisites that result in the practice of artistic representation. Klee identified the formal relationship between music and the visual arts, providing connections between the melodic line and the line (more) in the drawing, rhythm and sequence of modules and sub-modules, the pulses of the measures and the divisions of the painting, metrics in music and the modulation of shape and color in the visual arts. Klee also presented his experiences with overlapping colors and textures to visually represent polyphony. The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is an example of a study that requires formal models for the artistic and design elaboration.
Castro, Rosana Costa Ramalho de
Full Text Available Estudo sobre a Teoria da Forma concebida no início do século XX pelo artista plástico Paul Klee e publicado no livro O Pensamento Criativo (KLEE, 1920). A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é uma demonstração do pensamento artístico que adota pressupostos formais, previamente estabelecidos para resultar na prática da representação artística. Klee identificou as relações formais entre a música e as artes visuais, apresentando conexões entre a linha melódica e a linha no desenho; o ritmo e as seqüências de módulos e sub-módulos; os tempos dos compassos e as divisões da pintura; a métrica da música e a modulação da forma e da cor nas artes visuais. Klee também apresentou suas experiências com superposição de cores e texturas para representar visualmente a polifonia. A Teoria da Forma de Paul Klee é um exemplo de estudo que pressupõe modelos formais para a elaboração artística e projetual.Study on the Theory of Form conceived in the early twentieth century by artist Paul Klee and published in the book The Creative Thinking (KLEE, 1920). The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is a demonstration of an artistic thought that adopts the previously established formal prerequisites that result in the practice of artistic representation. Klee identified the formal relationship between music and the visual arts, providing connections between the melodic line and the line in the drawing, rhythm and sequence of modules and sub-modules, the pulses of the measures and the divisions of the painting, metrics in music and the modulation of shape and color in the visual arts. Klee also presented his experiences with overlapping colors and textures to visually represent polyphony. The Theory of Form of Paul Klee is an example of a study that requires formal models for the artistic and design elaboration.
Rosana Costa Ramalho de Castro
Full Text Available Objective The objective of this systematic review was to assess which library instruction methods are most effective for improving the information skills of students at an introductory, undergraduate level, using cognitive outcomes (measuring changes in knowledge). The study sought to address the following questions: 1) What is the overall state of research on this topic? 2) Which teaching methods are more effective? Methods This project utilised systematic review methodology. Researchers searched fifteen databases and retrieved 4,356 potentially relevant citations. They reviewed the titles and abstracts for relevance, and of those, 257 complete articles were considered in-depth using a predetermined inclusion/exclusion form. There were 122 unique studies that met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to an extensive data extraction and critical appraisal process. Of these studies, 55 met author?defined quality criteria to provide information on the effectiveness of different teaching methods. From this review there was a final group of 16 studies with sufficient information to enable meta-analyses and calculations of standardized mean differences. Results The overwhelming majority of studies were conducted in the United States (88%). Experimental or quasi-experimental research methods were used in 79 studies (65%). Teaching methods used in the studies varied, with the majority focused on traditional methods of teaching, followed by computer assisted instruction (CAI), and self?directed independent learning (SDIL). Studies measured outcomes that correlated with Bloom’s lower levels of learning (‘Remember’, ‘Understand’, ‘Apply’). Sixteen studies compared traditional instruction (TI) with no instruction, and twelve of those found a positive outcome. Meta-analysis of the data from 4 of these studies agreed with the positive conclusions favouring TI. Fourteen studies compared CAI with traditional instruction (TI), and 9 of these showed a neutral result. Meta-analysis of 8 of these studies agreed with this neutral result. Another group of 6 studies compared SDIL with no instruction, and meta-analysis of 5 of these agreed that the result was positive in favour of SDIL. Conclusion Based on the results of the meta-analysis, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that CAI is as effective as TI. Evidence also suggests that both TI and SDIL are more effective than no instruction. Additional comparative research needs to be done across different teaching methods. Studies comparing active learning (AL), CAI, and SDIL would greatly enrich the research literature. Further studies utilizing appropriate methodologies and validated research tools would enrich our evidence base, and contribute to the growth of knowledge about effectiveness of particular teaching methods.
Denise Koufogiannakis; Natasha Wiebe
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo relata a experiência do ensino de Habilidades e Atitudes, na graduação em Medicina da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL) com a metodologia de ensino da Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas, ancorada no modelo biopsicossocial. O ensino de Habilidades e Atitudes implica a formulação diagnóstica mutiaxial, descrição contextual e padronizada da condição clínica. Utiliza como instrumento a avaliação sistemática de eixos e domínios altamente informa (more) tivos e relevantes para o tratamento. Eixo I: transtornos clínicos (mentais e condições médicas gerais); Eixo II: incapacidades nos cuidados pessoais, funcionamento ocupacional e com a família, e funcionamento social mais amplo; Eixo III: fatores contextuais (problemas interpessoais e outros psicossociais e ambientais); Eixo IV: qualidade de vida (refletindo primariamente as percepções do próprio paciente). A competência clínica foi avaliada por meio da discussão de casos clínicos, portfólios reflexivos e pelo Exame Clínico Estruturado por Objetivo (Osce), método que avalia as habilidades clínicas, as habilidades de atitudes e a comunicação dos estudantes de Medicina. Abstract in english This article describes an experience of teaching Attitudes and Skills in a medical course at the Londrina State University using the methodology of Problem-Based Learning grounded in a biopsychosocial model. The teaching of Attitudes and Skills requires from teachers a multi-axial diagnostic formulation in a contextual and standardized description of the clinical condition through a number of highly informative, therapeutically significant and systematically assessed axes (more) or domains. The assessment of a patient should lead to multi-axial diagnostic formulation in a systematically assessed axes or domains. Axis I: clinical disorders (mental and general medical conditions); Axis II: disabilities (in personal care, occupational functioning, functioning with family, and broader social functioning); Axis III: contextual factors (interpersonal and other psychosocial and environmental problems); Axis IV: quality of life (primarily reflecting patient's self-perceptions).The assessment of clinical competence was performed through the discussion of clinical cases, the use of reflexive portfolios, and Objective Structured Clinical Exams (Osce), a method to evaluate the medical students' clinical skills, attitudes and communications skills.
Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas; Muraguchi, Evelin Massae Ogatta; Ferreira Filho, Olavo Franco; Pontes, Rose Meire Albuquerque; Cardoso, Lucienne Tibery Queiroz; Grion, Cíntia Magalhães Carvalho; Dip, Renata Maciulis; Carvalho, Luiz Carlos Lúcio
In an effort to introduce communication skills to elementary students, a basic communication lesson was taught to 8 different groups of students (3rd, 5th, and 6th graders) with approximately 15 students in each group. The groups met for 25-minute sessions. One mixed-age group met for 60 minutes. Four objectives were formulated for each class,…
The current study employed an adapted alternating treatments design with reversal and multiple probe across participants components to compare the effects of traditional video priming and simultaneous video modeling on the acquisition of play skills in two children diagnosed with autism. Generalization was programmed across play sets, instructors,…
Sancho, Kimberly; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Sidener, David W.
Effects of a constant time delay procedure on aquatic play skills of children with autism was investigated. A single subject multiple probe model across behaviors with probe conditions was used. Participants were four boys, 7-9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week period using the single opportunity method as an intervention. Results…
Yilmaz, Ilker; Birkan, Bunyamin; Konukman, Ferman; Erkan, Mert
|Citizen science programs are emerging as an efficient way to increase data collection and help monitor invasive species. Effective invasive species monitoring requires rigid data quality assurances if expensive control efforts are to be guided by volunteer data. To achieve data quality, effective online training is needed to improve field skills…
Newman, Greg; Crall, Alycia; Laituri, Melinda; Graham, Jim; Stohlgren, Tom; Moore, John C.; Kodrich, Kris; Holfelder, Kirstin A.
|An empirically based international business research project as a component in the capstone course in undergraduate business program can serve as an effective and integrative learning and teaching tool. Initiated and supervised by the instructor, conducted and completed by the students, the research project enables students working…
Sanyal, Rajib N.
|Industrial technology programs around the country must be sensitive to the demands of manufacturing and industry as they continue to replace "vocational" curriculum with high-tech alternatives. This article examines whether or not teaching oxyacetylene welding in the industrial technology classroom is required to learn arc welding processes. The…
Sgro, Sergio D.; Field, Dennis W.; Freeman, Steven A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of WebQuests would impact the teaching performance of the physical education (PE) teacher candidates enrolled in Minia University. Twenty-eight, third-year teacher candidates were involved in the study (N = 28) and were randomly divided into two groups: a control and…
Mohamed, Haythem Abdel Mageed; El Rheem, Rasha Nageh Ali Abd
|The purpose of this research is to report the results of a pilot study that examined changes in self-awareness and self-concept. Seven self-determination lessons were implemented with 13 elementary, middle and high schoolers with disabilities in learning (i.e., learning disabilities and mild mental impairments). The lessons focused on teaching…
Campbell-Whatley, Gloria D.
This study aimed to find outthe effects of core and peripheral teaching on Iranian EFL learners’ writing skills in conventional and cyber environments. After administrating a Nelson (Fowler and Coe, 1976) test, a group of 160 homogeneous students at language institute were selected from a t...
Seyyed Mohammad Reza Yousefi Far; Abdolreza Pazhakh
Behavioral skills training (BST) was combined with in-situ training to teach young children to solicit help when they become lost from a caregiver at a store. Three children were taught to approach a cashier, tell the cashier their name, and inform the cashier that they are lost. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate…
Pan-Skadden, Jennifer; Wilder, David A.; Sparling, Jessica; Severtson, Erica; Donaldson, Jeanne; Postma, Nicki; Beavers, Gracie; Neidert, Pamela
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O ensino de habilidades acadêmicas para pessoas com autismo tem recebido pouca atenção de estudos, provavelmente porque os comprometimentos clássicos do transtorno relacionados à comunicação, interação social e comportamentos são vistos como prioritários no desenvolvimento de pesquisas. Porém, o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para o ensino de habilidades acadêmicas que atinjam esse público é fundamental, principalmente na realidade brasileira em que, com o (more) advento da filosofia de inclusão escolar, a educação de pessoas com necessidades educacionais especiais, incluindo autistas, passou a ser direcionada para a escola regular. Assim, crianças com autismo estão cada vez mais expostas aos conteúdos acadêmicos nas salas de aula regulares e estratégias de ensino adequadas às suas necessidades são fundamentais para a entrada, permanência e progresso destas pessoas na escola. Assim, este trabalho descreve o ensino de habilidades de adição e subtração para uma adolescente com autismo e utilizou procedimentos adaptados com base em descrições sobre o quadro de autismo, princípios de aprendizagem da análise experimental do comportamento, técnicas de ensino e observação direta do repertório da participante. Para as tarefas acadêmicas foram utilizados estímulos visuais - gráficos e uso das mãos - que indicavam relações visualmente óbvias para explicar à participante como as operações aritméticas deveriam ser realizadas. Gradualmente, aumentou-se a complexidade das operações ensinadas, à medida que ia aumentando o número de acertos dela nas tarefas. Esses procedimentos foram realizados no decorrer de nove sessões. Os erros e acertos foram computados e serviram para representação gráfica. Os resultados demonstram a aprendizagem gradativa das habilidades ensinadas à medida que a intervenção ocorreu. Abstract in english The teaching of academic skills to individuals with autism has received little attention from research literature, probably because the classical deficits in communication, reciprocal social interaction and behaviors are seen as priorities in scientific investigations. Nevertheless, the development of technologies for teaching academic skills to this population is necessary, mainly in the context of Brazilian school inclusion. People with autism are being included with gr (more) eater frequency in regular classes and, consequently, need adequate strategies to learn academic contents for their entrance, permanence and progress in the schools. Many studies describe characteristics and difficulties that people with autism have, which can influence the way they learn. These variables need to be considered when planning appropriate teaching strategies for this population. Among these variables are the ways in which these individuals respond to environmental stimuli, the way they think and their typical behaviors. This study describes strategies for teaching addition and subtraction to an adolescent with autism. These teaching procedures were elaborated based on the general characteristics of autism, principles derived from Applied Behavior Analysis, and the repertoire of the participant. The results show gradual learning of the taught skills.
Gomes, Camila Graciella Santos
Full Text Available Introduction: Physical modalities are performed by physiotherapists based on physiatrists’ orders, so the residents pay less attention to the need and importance of learning the practical modalities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of teaching the practical aspects of modalities to residents of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in order to improve their skills and attitudes toward ordering and doing physical modalities. Methods: In an interventional, before after study, all residents of physical medicine and rehabilitation, took the medical history of the patients willingly participatedand performed physical examinationand ordered physical modalities. They were also assessed by performing the modalities on the patient. Following the primary assessment, an experienced physiotherapist taught the residents how to do physical modalities. After the practical education, residents were assessed by ordering the modalities and performing them on simulated patients. Their satisfaction of the educational program was evaluated after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of using modalities before and after the education were 23.08± 5.50 and 52±10.18 respectively (p=0.0001). The mean scores of ordering the modalities before and after the education were 1 and 1.66 (p=0.038). The mean score of satisfaction was 91.66±8.74 out of 100. Conclusion: Since physical medicine and rehabilitation residents and specialists who order physical modalities for patients do not perform it on their own patients, teaching the practical physical modalities can improve their skills. The satisfaction rate of residents with the course was very high.
Bina Eftekhar Sadat; Arash Babaei-Ghazani; Mahasti Alizadeh; Morteza Ghojazadeh; Ghader Ghaffari
Full Text Available Teaching information literacy skills to the individuals of information society has a great importance. In this paper, necessity of equipping primary and secondary school teachers with information literacy skills is discussed. A study to teach information literacy skills to teachers and the findings of the study will also be introduced. Bilgi toplumunun bireylerine bilgi okuryazarl??? becerilerinin ö?retilmesi büyük önem ta??maktad?r. Bu yaz?da, ilkö?retim ve ortaö?retim ö?retmenlerinin bilgi okuryazarl??? becerileriyle donat?lmalar?n?n gereklili?i tart???lmaktad?r. Ö?retmenlere bilgi okuryazarl??? becerilerini kazand?rmaya yönelik bir çal??ma ile bu çal??madan elde edilen bulgular da aktar?lacakt?r.
Buket Akkoyunlu; S. Serap Kurbano?lu
In the current study, behavior skills training (BST) is compared to a computer based training package for teaching discrete trial instruction to staff, teaching an adult with autism. The computer based training package consisted of instructions, video modeling and feedback. BST consisted of instructions, modeling, rehearsal and feedback. Following training, participants were evaluated in terms of their accuracy on completing critical skills for running a discrete trial program. Six participants completed training; three received behavior skills training and three received the computer based training. Participants in the BST group performed better overall after training and during six week probes than those in the computer based training group. There were differences across both groups between research assistant and natural environment competency levels.
Nosik MR; Williams WL; Garrido N; Lee S
Full Text Available In this work, it is proposed a methodology through which it is determined a skill for the development of the teaching-learning process of physic in senior high. It acquires such a connotation that it constitutes the maximum expression of logic in the referred process and it integrates in a system the abilities of such a discipline contribute with the formation of the students of this level. The referred skill is: solving problem, this allows to be used as a model of learning sciences. The newness lies on the usage of it as an essential theoretical support of the Didactic Theory of Invariant Skill, which was designed for the formation of professionals. For senior high, are just taken those concepts and methodological aspects that are not in contradiction of this teaching level.
Ramón Rubén González Nápoles; Luís Arturo Ramírez Urizarri
PURPOSE: To compare the educational effectiveness of two virtual patient (VP)-based e-learning strategies, versus no training, in improving physicians' substance abuse management knowledge, attitudes, self-reported behaviors, and decision making. METHOD: The 2011-2012 study was a posttest-only, three-arm, randomized controlled trial in 90 resident and 30 faculty physicians from five adult medicine primary care training programs. The intervention was one of two 2-hour VP-based e-learning programs, designed by national experts to teach structured screening, brief interventions, referral, and treatment skills. One used traditional problem solving with feedback (unworked example), and the other incorporated an expert demonstration first, followed by problem solving with feedback (worked example). The main outcome measure was performance on the Physicians' Competence in Substance Abuse Test (P-CSAT, maximum score = 315), a self-administered, previously validated measure of physicians' competence in managing substance abuse. The survey was completed at the outset of the study and two months later. RESULTS: Overall P-CSAT scores were virtually identical (202-211, P > .05) between both intervention groups and the no-training control group at both times. Average faculty P-CSAT scores (221.9, 224.6) were significantly higher (P < .01) than resident scores (203.7, 202.5) at both times. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not provide evidence that a brief, worked example, VP-based e-learning program or a traditional, unworked, VP-based e-learning program was superior to no training in improving physicians' substance abuse management skills. The study did provide additional evidence that the P-CSAT distinguishes between physicians who should possess different levels of substance abuse management skills.
Harris JM Jr; Sun H
OBJECTIVE: To incorporate cultural competency in a Pharmacy Skills and Application course series and assess the level of cultural competency in students who did and did not complete the courses. DESIGN: The course series focused on cultural competency throughout the PharmD curriculum and included such activities as self-reflection, lecture, diversity service-learning, case studies, and discussion. ASSESSMENT: The Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals-Revised (IAPCC-R) was used to measure cultural competence in 2 cohorts: the last class preceding implementation of the new course series and the first class after its implementation. Overall scores between the 2 cohorts were not significantly different; however, 2 subscale scores were significantly higher among students who completed the course series: cultural skills (p = 0.021) and cultural encounters (p = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: The Pharmacy Skills and Application course series appears to improve some aspects of cultural competence in pharmacy students, but may not be sufficient to elicit change in all areas.
Haack S; Phillips C
Full Text Available This study aims to describe improvement in reading skills among a group of primary school pupils in Pekanbaru Riau, Indonesia, with the use of computers. These pupils came from different educational backgrounds, namely, pupils who completed kindergarten and pupils who did not complete kindergarten. The method used in this study is quasi-experimental design with confound which combines two groups of pupils who do not affect each other. This experiment involved a total of 42 pupils of whom 28 completed kindergarten, and 14 did not complete kindergarten. The pilot study was assessed using cronbach alpha, and value of 0.86 was gained for the summary score, indicating high levels of reliability. The results showed a much better improvement in reading skills among pupils who did not complete kindergarten, compared to the pupils who completed kindergarten, which is 35.44 as opposed to 16:42. As an implication of the findings, it is recommended that computers are used as a strategic effort by authorities in primary education to improve the reading skills among primary school pupils.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Teaching of motor skills is fundamental to physical therapy practice. In order to optimize the benefits of these teaching and training efforts, various forms of patient education material are developed and handed out to patients. One very important fact has been overlooked. While comparative effectiveness of various modes of instruction has been studied in adults, attention has not been paid to the fact that learning capabilities of children are different from that of adults. The intent of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of video and handout mode of instructions specifically on children. Methods A total of 115 normal elementary-age children aged 10 to 12 years of age were studied. The children were randomized into two groups: A) the video group, and B) the handout group. The video group viewed the video for physical therapy exercises while the handout group was provided with paper handouts especially designed according to the readability of their age group. Results Statistical analysis using the student's't' test showed that subjects of both the video and handout groups exhibited equal overall performance accuracy. There was no significant difference between the groups both in acquisition and retention accuracy tests. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that if the readability and instructional principles applicable to different target age groups are strictly adhered to, then both video as well as handout modes of instructions result in similar feedback and memory recall in ten to twelve year-old children. Principles of readability related to the patient age are of utmost importance when designing the patient education material. These findings suggest that the less expensive handouts can be an effective instructional aid for teaching exercises to children with various neuromuscular, rheumatic, and orthopedics conditions and the most costly videotape techniques are not necessarily better.
Gupta Garima; Sehgal Stuti
This article discusses recent developments in soft-tissue surgery teaching at the University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Science. An integrated teaching program was developed for Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) students with the aim of providing them with optimal learning opportunities to meet "Day One" small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies. Didactic lectures and tutorials were introduced earlier into the curriculum to prepare students for live-animal surgery practical. In addition to existing clinics, additional spay/neuter clinics were established in collaboration with animal welfare organizations to increase student exposure to live-animal surgery. A silicon-based, life-like canine ovariohysterectomy model was developed with the assistance of a model-making and special effects company. The model features elastic ovarian pedicles and suspensory ligaments, which can be stretched and broken like those of an actual dog. To monitor the volume and type of student surgical experience, an E-portfolio resource was established. This resource allows for the tracking of numbers of live, student-performed desexing surgeries and incorporates competency-based assessments and reflective tasks to be completed by students. Student feedback on the integrated surgical soft-tissue teaching program was assessed. Respondents were assessed in the fourth year of the degree and will have further opportunities to develop Day One small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies in the fifth year. Ninety-four percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they were motivated to participate in all aspects of the program, while 78% agreed or strongly agreed that they received an adequate opportunity to develop their skills and confidence in ovariohysterectomy or castration procedures through the fourth-year curriculum.
Gopinath D; McGreevy PD; Zuber RM; Klupiec C; Baguley J; Barrs VR
Full Text Available In this paper the experience gained at using low-cost interactive marker augmented reality (AR) technology during course Computer graphics is presented. The preliminary exploration of AR technology adoption for teaching support and learning enhancement is done and several benefits are identified, summarized and analyzed via a model. Two learning scenarios are designed based on human-computer interaction principles to present important concepts virtually in interactive and engaging way. The studentsâ€™ opinion is gathered and the results describe AR as promising and effective technology that allows better understanding of theory and facts and that supports creative thinking and development of more realistic 3D models and scenes.
Malinka Ivanova; Georgi Ivanov
Full Text Available Focus of the study is to verify the incidence of performance analysis data of bodily communication in volleyball. The sample was chosen to represent the scores obtained in three technical skills strongly influenced by bodily communication: the second ball goes to the opposite court instead of setting for attacking; the attack as fast as possible in the middle of the net and the off speed hit instead of power spike over the block. The purpose of this study is to measure the amount of the three technical skills points for each set, the total of them, the points awarded to the attack and the total points of each set, and so to read the relations between the different categories of scoring. The method used is the recruitment of the data with the use of video software Data Project by a team of operators made by the team’s official analyst, by the coach and by the single athlete, only for measurements concerning him. The assignment of the data is attributed by the team's official analyst after sharing with the coach and the athlete. The datum recruited must necessarily accepted by the coach, otherwise is not considered. The data recruited were compared with data on total points in the set and with the overall results of the attack, first individually and then together, in order to determine the relationship among points attributable to bodily communication and the final score. The dependency relationship, analyzed through a simple regression model, was statistically significant. The results show as this study can help the coach to train the team for improving the analyzed technical skills in different mode, creating a methodological system training to enhance the performance.
GAETANO RAIOLA; PIO ALFREDO DI TORE
Full Text Available This is a personal account of teaching English for medical purposes (EMP), explaining my interest in helping health professionals in Majorca improve their English. My main aim has been to enable them to communicate both orally at medical conferences and in written form for journals. The article explains how the teaching has been a twofold experience, with the professionals explaining their different specialities, while I have provided them with the necessary linguistic tools. Presentations have been integral to this, with humanities in medicine being a theme underlying the entire approach. The article concludes with a small section on the future of English in a medical context. ------------------------------------------------------- Enseñar inglés a los médicos: desarrollo de las habilidades de comunicación y acercamiento de las humanidades a la medicina. Este es un relato personal de mi experiencia en la enseñanza de inglés con fines médicos (IFM), en el que explico mi interés en ayudar a los profesionales sanitarios de Mallorca a mejorar su nivel de inglés. Mi objetivo principal ha sido capacitarlos para que pudieran comunicarse verbalmente en conferencias médicas y por escrito en las publicaciones correspondientes. Doy cuenta en él de la dualidad de la experiencia adquirida durante la enseñanza, en la que los profesionales explicaban sus distintas especializaciones mientras yo les proporcionaba las herramientas lingüísticas necesarias. Las presentaciones han sido un elemento crítico del proceso, y las humanidades médicas un tema subyacente al enfoque integral del proyecto. El artículo finaliza con una pequeña sección acerca del futuro del inglés en el contexto médico.
Creative achievements are the basis for progress in our world. Although creative achievement is influenced by many variables, the basis for creativity is held to lie in the generation of high-quality, original, and elegant solutions to complex, novel, ill-defined problems. In the present effort, we examine the cognitive capacities that make…
Mumford, Michael D.; Medeiros, Kelsey E.; Partlow, Paul J.
Full Text Available Improving teaching to foster creative thinking and problem-solving for students of all ages will require two essential changes in current educational practice. First, to allow more time for deeper engagement with material, it is critical to reduce the vast number of topics often required in many courses. Second, and perhaps more challenging, is the alignment of pedagogy with recent research on cognition and learning. With a growing focus on the use of research to inform teaching practices, educators need a pedagogical framework that helps them interpret and apply research findings. This article describes the Brain-Targeted Teaching Model, a scheme that relates six distinct aspects of instruction to research from the neuro- and cognitive sciences.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions about the use of play to promote social, emotional, and cognitive skills to support planning for a school program aimed at increasing inclusive play for young children. This research was inspired by Vivian Gussin Paley’s book, You Can’t Say You Can’t Play (1992). Participants included undergraduate students and graduate education students in the Teacher Education Program at a small liberal arts college, as well as practicing elementary school teachers. The results indicated that graduate students and practicing teachers had a more accurate understanding about the developmental benefits of incorporating play into the classroom and a greater willingness to embrace the “you can’t say you can’t play” rule to promote inclusive play and acceptance. Implications for designing a preventative program for inclusive play in young children are discussed.
Michelle Haney; Victor Bissonnette
Employment instruction for secondary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has received very little attention in the professional literature. However, adults with ASD usually have difficulty maintaining employment for a variety of reasons, including problems with performing work tasks. This study used a multiple baseline design across participants to examine the effects of performance feedback on the participants' ability to independently make photocopies. Feedback was delivered privately through a two-way radio and earbud speaker. The results support the conclusion that the intervention, covert audio coaching, was effective in increasing the participants' accuracy in making photocopies. Specifically, participants demonstrated mastery of the skill within 4-5 sessions, and their improvements maintained for several weeks following intervention.
Bennett KD; Ramasamy R; Honsberger T
A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.
Justice, Jason; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria
Past research shows that spreadsheet models are prone to such a high frequency of errors and data security implications that the risk management of spreadsheet development and spreadsheet use is of great importance to both industry and academia. The underlying rationale for this paper is that spreadsheet training courses should specifically address risk management in the development process both from a generic and a domain-specific viewpoint. This research specifically focuses on one of these namely those generic issues of risk management that should be present in a training course that attempts to meet good-practice within industry. A pilot questionnaire was constructed showing a possible minimum set of risk management issues and sent to academics and industry practitioners for feedback. The findings from this pilot survey will be used to refine the questionnaire for sending to a larger body of possible respondents. It is expected these findings will form the basis of a risk management teaching approach to b...
Basic skills in oral/CMF surgery should be taught effectively to dental students as surgical skills training is traditionally under-represented in the dental curriculum compared to its later need in daily clinical practice. Rigid curricular time frames and prospectively condensed professional education foster new effective teaching and examination formats. Transmitting and assessing clinical competence objectively (independent of subjective bias), reliably (repeatable, inter-rater consistency) and valid (representative, structured task selection) was intended and evaluated in oral/CMF surgery skills acquisition starting in summer 2009. A small-group practical skills training (PST) day initiated a one-week practical training course, covering previously formulated learning objectives. An objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) was held at the end of each semester. Theoretical background knowledge and clinical skills should have to be memorized within a representative number of practical tasks (test stations). A first semester (26 students) used classical practical training alone as controls, the following semesters (171 students) had PST, considered as a study group. All 197 students were assessed with OSCE's over a 3-year period. An instructor held PST based on presentations, videos and practical training, including mannequins, with pairs of students. This included history taking, communication and interpretation of laboratory/image diagnostics, structured clinical facial examination, fracture diagnosis, venipuncture, suturing, biopsy and wire loops on pig jaws for manual and clinical skills, which were later incorporated in OSCE stations. OSCE average results increased from 63.3 ± 9.7% before and to 75.5 ± 10% after the inclusion of PST (p < 0.05). Knowledge diffusion between sittings on the same test date and between consecutive semesters was insignificant. Students and faculty rated their learning/teaching experience "very good" to "good". PST was effective in optimizing clinical skills as evaluated by OSCE.
Landes CA; Hoefer S; Schuebel F; Ballon A; Teiler A; Tran A; Weber R; Walcher F; Sader R
Innovative approaches are needed to teach medical students effective and compassionate communication with seriously ill patients. We describe two such educational experiences in the Yale Medical School curriculum for third-year medical students: 1) Communicating Difficult News Workshop and 2) Ward-Based End-of-Life Care Assignment. These two programs address educational needs to teach important clinical communication and assessment skills to medical students that previously were not consistently or explicitly addressed in the curriculum. The two learning programs share a number of educational approaches driven by the learning objectives, the students' development, and clinical realities. Common educational features include: experiential learning, the Biopsychosocial Model, patient-centered communication, integration into clinical clerkships, structured skill-based learning, self-reflection, and self-care. These shared features - as well as some differences - are explored in this paper in order to illustrate key issues in designing and implementing medical student education in these areas.
Ellman MS; Fortin AH 6th
Full Text Available The use of Art for educational reasons has been recently developing in Greece both in formal education and in Adult Education. Relevant theoretical texts and studies, (Dewey, 1934. Gardner, 1990. Perkins, 1994) pin point that training through the Arts can contribute to an integrated learning, since through systematic observation of works of art, the trainees´ critical thinking, creativity and fantasy can be generated. The first part of the current paper, examines the reasons that necessitate the use of art in the training practice.The models of approaching and understanding art for educational reasons, as presented and analyzed by Feldman, Brondy, Anderson and Perkins, are presented in the second part.The method “Transformative Learning through an aesthetical experiences”, has been grounded and developed by A. Kokkos, and is presented in the third part. The different stages of this method are also analyzed.In the final part, an example of Kokkos´ method is being analyzed (stage by stage), regarding the training for an organization’s staff development of their communication skills. Conclusions regarding the use of art in the training praxis, may be found at the final part of this paper.
Niki Phillips; Iosif Fragoulis
Full Text Available Abstract Background Skills labs provide a sheltered learning environment. As close supervision and individual feedback were proven to be important in ensuring effective skills training, we implemented a cross-year peer tutor system in our skills lab of internal medicine that allowed intense training sessions with small learning groups (3–4 students) taught by one student tutor. Methods The expectations, experiences and criticisms of peer tutors regarding the tutor system for undergraduate skills lab training were investigated in the context of a focus group. In addition, tutees' acceptance of this learning model and of their student tutors was evaluated by means of a pre/post web-based survey. Results 14 voluntary senior students were intensely prepared by consultants for their peer tutor activity. 127 students participated in the project, 66.9% of which responded to the web-based survey (23 topics with help of 6-point Likert scale + free comments). Acceptance was very high (5.69 ± 0.07, mean ± SEM), and self-confidence ratings increased significantly after the intervention for each of the trained skills (average 1.96 ± 0.08, all p Conclusion This study demonstrates that peer teaching in undergraduate technical clinical skills training is feasible and widely accepted among tutees, provided that the tutors receive sufficient training and supervision.
Weyrich Peter; Schrauth Markus; Kraus Bernd; Habermehl Daniel; Netzhammer Nicolai; Zipfel Stephan; Jünger Jana; Riessen Reimer; Nikendei Christoph
The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in construction supports business as well as project processes by providing integrated systems for communication, administration, quantity takeoff, time scheduling, cost estimating, progress control among other things. The rapid technological development of ICT systems and the increased application of ICT in industry significantly influence the management and organisation of construction projects, and consequently, ICT has implications for the education of engineers and the preparation of students for their future professional careers. In engineering education there is an obvious aim to provide students with sufficient disciplinary knowledge in science and engineering principles. The implementation of ICT in engineering education requires, however, that valuable time and teaching efforts are spent on adequate software training needed to operate the ICT systems properly. This study takes on the challenge of using ICT in engineering education without diminishing the body of technical disciplinary knowledge and the understanding of the engineering context in which it is taught, practiced, and learned. The objective of the study is to describe and review an extensive role play simulation where students interact with real professional engineers. The role play simulation aims at providing a realistic learning context for the students in order to facilitate the learning objectives of the disciplinary knowledge of the course, which in this case is represented by adopting Building Information Modelling, BIM, for construction management purposes. Course evaluations, a questionnaire and discussions with students confirm a genuinely positive attitude towards the role-play simulation and interaction with industry professionals. The students engage in the role-play and express an increased understanding of the requirements and implicit rules of real-life engineering. The interaction between students and the professional engineers acts as a prime mover for the students to perform their best, which in turn strengthens the learning of the disciplinary subjects.
Andersson, Niclas; Andersson, Pernille Hammar
Full Text Available Actualmente las universidades están inmersas en lo que se conoce como el proceso de «convergencia europea» y que llevará al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES). El objetivo es dotar a Europa de un sistema universitario homogéneo, compatible y flexible que permita a los estudiantes y titulados universitarios europeos una mayor movilidad, así como ofrecer al sistema universitario europeo unos niveles de transparencia y calidad, mediante sistemas de evaluación, que le hagan atractivo y competitivo en el ámbito internacional dentro del actual proceso de globalización. En este artículo, interesa centrar la reflexión en dos de las modalidades de la educación a distancia que asumirán importancia en ese cambio universitario: el e-learning y el b-learning, que consisten básicamente en la virtualización de los procesos de aprendizaje a través del uso de equipos informáticos. Para ello se ha realizado una investigación cualitativa con metodología de estudio de casos. De entre los resultados se destaca el uso de las TIC por parte del profesorado para conseguir un mejor aprendizaje en los estudiantes, de igual forma un porcentaje importante de los profesores 78% utiliza alguna plataforma virtual como apoyo a la docencia. Como conclusión se resalta que las políticas de formación deberían fortalecer las competencias del profesorado universitario en el uso de dispositivos telemáticos, recursos e instrumentos relacionados con el aprendizaje semipresencial y virtual.Universities are currently immersed in what is known as the process of European convergence to create the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The aim is to establish a standardized, compatible and flexible European university system that enables graduates and undergraduates to move easily from one institution to another within Europe. As a result of evaluation mechanisms, the system will be transparent and of high quality, which will make it attractive and competitive internationally in a globalized world. In this paper, we focus on two distance learning modes that will become more important as a result of this change in universities: e-learning and b-learning. These basically involve the virtualization of learning processes through the use of computer equipment. We carried out a qualitative study using the case study method. The results indicate that teaching staff use information and communication technology (ICT) to improve student learning. Similarly, a high percentage (78%) of lecturers use some form of digital platform as a support for teaching. In conclusion, training policies should strengthen university teachers’ skills in the use of ICT equipment, tools and resources related to blended and virtual learning.
Francisco Imbernón Muñoz; Patricia Silva García; Carolina Guzmán Valenzuela
This paper discusses the importance of language skills for developing country educational development and the usefulness and appropriateness of radio in advancing these skills. As a tool in the general educational process, radio possesses several advantag...
Competencias docentes de profesores de pregrado: diseño y validación de un instrumento de evaluación/ Teaching Skills in Undergraduate Level Teachers: Design and Validation of an Evaluation Instrument
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se describe el diseño, construcción y validación de un instrumento para evaluar las competencias docentes de los profesores de pregrado de la Universidad Católica de Colombia. El instrumento evalúa siete competencias básicas para el ejercicio de la función docente: planificación curricular, utilización adecuada de diseño metodológico y organización de actividades de enseñanza, competencia científica tecnológica, interacción adecuada con estudiantes, compet (more) encia para evaluar, competencia para realizar tutorías, autorreflexión sobre la práctica docente. Se construyeron así los indicadores de competencias del docente de la Universidad Católica de Colombia, prueba que fue validada por medio del juicio de 60 expertos. Con los resultados se diseñó el instrumento de evaluación de las competencias, que una vez ajustado fue aplicado a 20 docentes de la Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad Católica de Colombia. Abstract in english We describe the design, construction and validation processes of a instrument aimed to the evaluation of teaching skills of the Catholic University of Colombia's undergraduate level teachers. The instrument evaluates seven skills that are basic to the exercise of teaching: curriculum planning, appropriate usage of methodological designs and organization of teaching activities, scientific technological competence, appropriate interaction with students, evaluative compe (more) tence, tutorial skills, and self-reflection on teaching practices. The indicators of teacher's competence were thus constructed, and the test was validated by the opinion of 60 expert judges. The results of this process were used to design the final instrument, which once adjusted, was applied to 20 teachers of the Catholic University of Colombia.
CAMARGO-ESCOBAR, ITALA MARINA; PARDO-ADAMES, CARLOS
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the needs, skills and availability of information technology in management of teaching departments of University of Sargodha. The objective of the study were; to investigate the availability of information technology in teaching departments of University of Sargodha, to investigate the level of current use of IT in teaching departments of the University, to assess the needs, skills and training required by teaching departments. The rational of the study were; our study will analyze the needs and facilities of information technology in management of teaching departments, Our study also analyze the core –competencies which the management of teaching departments has, the study will also analyze the problems about information technology in management of teaching departments, it also focuses on the areas that required training in management of teaching departments of University of Sargodha. TheResearch Questions of the study were formulated How many computers were available for management of teaching department? How many departments have internet connectivity? Was there any facility of digital library in teaching departments? How many faculties were trained for use of information technology? How many persons have a diploma or degree in computer? What was the level of expertise in software utilization? Which type of software used in research, administration and management? The research design employed in the present study was the social survey out of accessible population the head of 26 departments were selected purposively. So the head of the department were selected as a sample ofthe study to investigate the needs and facilities in management of teaching departments. The study is delimited to the management of teaching departments of the University of Sargodha. Data collected through questionnaire and was analyzed item wise. Four type items were analyzed by calculating averages and percentages and interpreted in tables. Than it was concluded that faculty of arts, social sciences and law has less availability of material resources therefore has greater requirements. Trained staff of arts Departments without diploma was found to be less than staff with diploma. IT facilities like (Internet, website, video conferencing, digital library, skilled persons etc.) in arts Departments was found to be sufficient than requirements Faculty of science and Technology. It was concluded that availability of material resources was found to be less than requirements. Faculty of Management and Administrative science. Availability of material resources in Management and Administrative science was found to be sufficient but requirements was also there. Faculty of Management and Administrative science. Availability of material resources in Management and Administrative science was found to be sufficient but requirements was also there. Trained staff with IT diploma in this faculty was greater than without IT diploma. Availability of IT facilities was greater than requirements in this faculty.
Saima Yasmeen; Sumaera Mehmood; Kiran Joseph; Samina Zeb
BACKGROUND: Aiming to evaluate the acquisition of skills on Medical Ethics among medical students from Marilia Medical School, some of them from the small group learning-teaching method, others from traditional teaching method. METHODS: A prospective analytical study was done based on the application of questionnaires about general themes on Ethics, at two different times. RESULTS: There weren't significant differences on the skills' acquisition between the two methods. Students from late graduation years showed a significantly better performance than those from early years. The themes that presented worse results were medical secret, legal responsible consent, patient autonomy, medical prescription, medical handbook and corporative feeling in the presence of medical mistake. CONCLUSION: The most important difference between the groups was not the pedagogical pattern but the exposition time to the theme. PBL gives the chance to distribute the theme in different situations accelerating the acquisition of knowledge in Medical Ethics. It was realized that a revitalization on Medical Ethics teaching is necessary at our institution, aiming a better integration with the socio-economical situation in our country.
Figueira EJ; Cazzo E; Tuma P; Silva Filho CR; Conterno Lde O
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to evaluate an ongoing teaching and objective surgical skills testing program for obstetric/gynecologic residents in a laboratory setting, and assess the impact on residents of having 4 years of a surgical laboratory curriculum. STUDY DESIGN: From 1997 through 2002, we conducted surgical skills training sessions for all obstetric/gynecologic residents, using both inanimate and animal (porcine) models. Once a year we tested each resident on 12 structured surgical bench tasks. At the end of each year, we conducted formal objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) with all residents attempting multiple surgical procedures. We compared residents who had 4 years of laboratory training with those who started residency earlier and had only 1 or 2 years of the new curriculum. We also compared residents' own performance from year to year and cohort performance by resident year. RESULTS: PGY3 and PGY4s who had 4 years of surgical laboratory training did significantly better on bench laboratory skills than PGY3 and PGY4s with fewer years of training sessions (total scores of 48.8 vs 30.3, P < .001). However, no significant improvement in surgical procedures as measured by global OSATS was found. When comparing residents' own performance between the beginning and the end of 1 year, global OSATS scores improved significantly on laparoscopic salpingotomy (P < .001) and open oophorectomy (P < .001). For the cohort of PGY4s completing 4 years of laboratory training, average global OSATS scores showed statistically significant improvement (PGY1, PGY2 < PGY3 < PGY4, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Residents who completed the 4-year curriculum showed significantly better technical skills on bench tasks but not on OSATS compared with those with less training. Resident surgical skills evaluated by OSATS significantly improve over time both individually and as a cohort by resident year.
Lentz GM; Mandel LS; Goff BA
During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network).
Damanakis A; Blaum WE; Stosch C; Lauener H; Richter S; Schnabel KP
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To propose an organic bench model made with fruits/vegetables as an alternative to complement the arsenal of simulators used in the teaching and learning of basic surgical skills during medical graduation and education. METHODS: They were described the training strategies, through the use of fruits (or vegetables) to the learning of different techniques of incision, sutures, biopsies and basic principles of reconstruction. The preparation of bench model, the processes of skill acquisition, feedback and evaluation were also delineated. RESULTS: A proposal for teaching based on an organic model with training delivered in multiple sessions, with increasing levels of difficulty, and with feedback and evaluation during all the process was structured. CONCLUSION: The organic model, being simple, versatile, portable, reproducible, readily available, and having low cost, is another option to complement the existing simulators for teaching and learning of basic surgical skills.OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo de bancada orgânico, confeccionado com legumes/frutas, como alternativa para complementar o arsenal de simuladores aplicados no ensino-aprendizagem das competências cirúrgicas básicas durante a graduação e o ensino médico. MÉTODOS: Foram descritas as estratégias de treinamento, através da utilização de frutas (ou legumes), para a aprendizagem de diferentes técnicas de incisão, suturas, biópsias e princípios básicos de reconstrução. A preparação do modelo de bancada, os processos de aquisição de habilidades e feedback e os métodos deavaliação também foram delineados. RESULTADOS: Estruturou-se uma proposta de ensino baseada em um modelo orgânico com o treinamento distribuído em várias sessões, com níveis crescentes de dificuldade e com feedback e avaliação de todo o processo. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo orgânico, por ser simples, versátil, portátil, reprodutível, disponível, de fácil aquisição e baixo custo é mais uma opção para complementar o arsenal de simuladores de ensino e aprendizagem existentes.
Rafael Denadai; Luís Ricardo Martinhão Souto
The large number of published articles in physics journals under the title "Comments on ..." and "Reply to ..." is indicative that the conceptual understanding of physical phenomena is very elusive and hard to grasp even to experts, but it has not stopped the development of Physics. In fact, from the history of the development of Physics one quickly becomes aware that, regardless of the state of conceptual understanding, without quantitative reasoning Physics would have not reached the state of development it has today. Correspondingly, quantitative reasoning and problem solving skills are a desirable outcomes from the process of teaching and learning of physics. Thus, supported by results from published research, we will show evidence that a well structured problem solving strategy taught as a dynamical process offers a feasible way for students to learn physics quantitatively and conceptually, while helping them to reach the state of an Adaptive Expert highly skillful on innovation and efficiency, a desired...
Full Text Available Compared with speech, effective writing requires a number of things: a high degree of organization in the development of ideas and information; a high degree of accuracy so that there is no ambiguity of meaning; the use of complex grammar devices for focus and emphasis; and a careful choice of vocabulary, grammatical patterns, and sentence structures to create a style which is appropriate to the subject matter and the prospective readers.Students are aware of their own problems in writing, and they have attitudes and feelings about the writing process. Teachers can play a valuable part in raising awareness of the process of composition by talking explicitly about the stages of writing as well as by structuring tasks to take account of this.Teachers can play a support role during the early stages of the composition process by helping students to get their ideas together. This can be done by talking about things to generate ideas, by doing things such as interviewing other students, by pooling information, ideas, or opinions in the class, or by reading texts of various kinds.The teacher can also provide good models for writing, indirectly, by encouraging good reading habits but also directly, when appropriate, by analysing textual structure, particularly with some types of more formal academic writing.Planning activities structured by the teacher can help students to develop a sense of direction in their writing, though they should always be encouraged to regard a plan as an enabling device or support rather than as a rigid control.Teachers can encourage the drafting process by creating a workshop atmosphere in their classrooms, to the extent of providing rough paper, scissors, paste, erasers, etc. And while monitoring writing in progress, they can suggest that these are used for chopping and changing the structure of the text. Teachers can support the drafting process in various ways. They can intervene quietly, questioning and advising, in order to help writers get their ideas down on paper in English. Or they can encourage students to read each other’s work and suggest restructurings and revisions. Giving help during writing proves far more effective than giving it afterwards.
Anca Marina R?DULESCU
In situ production in the oil sector will require water plant operators for steam-based technologies. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations require water treatment and there is no training program in the industry neither course specific to these operations, in Canada, to train water treatment plant operators. Five major oilsands producers, forming the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative (OSLI), developed a course which will be launched by the Southern Alberta Insitute of Technology in 2012 as a 12-month program including classes on industrial safety, environmental regulations, water chemistry and unit operations. An Internet component will also be accessible for operators working in the industry.
Formación de habilidades profesionales en la enseñanza de la pediatría. Evolución histórica y tendencias Training of professional skills in the teaching of pediatrics. Historical development and trends
Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación observacional analítica, de carácter histórico, sobre las tendencias de la enseñanza de la pediatría, fundamentalmente a partir de 1959 en Cuba; para ello, los indicadores analíticos incluyeron la formación de habilidades profesionales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en esa especialidad, atendiendo a la estructuración del modelo de profesional y la visión para el cambio paradigmático de formación en la carrera de medicina (de la tendencia curativa a la sociomédica).An analytical observational research of historical character on the trends of the teaching of pediatrics, primarily from 1959 in Cuba was conducted. Thus, analytical indicators included the training of professional skills in the teaching-learning process in that specialty based on the structure of the professional model and vision for the paradigm change of the training in medical career (from curative to socio-medical tendency).
Emma Aurora Bastart Ortiz; Reinaldo Reyes Mediaceja; Ricardo Maure Pichín
Full Text Available Print-based instructional materials have been more popular than any other medium for teaching practical skills during the delivery of technical and vocational education and training via distance learning. However, the approach has its shortcomings and in recent times alternatives have been sought. The comparative instructional effectiveness of one such alternative is the focus of this paper. The study sought to examine the instructional effectiveness of video-based instructional materials vis-à-vis traditional print-based instructional materials for teaching distance learners of a Block-Laying and Concreting practical skills programme. An experimental design was used and participants were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: Users of video-based instructional materials or users of print-based instructional materials. A researcher-designed performance test and an achievement test of 20 multiple-choice items were used to collect data from 34 participants who used print-based instructional materials and 35 participants who used video-based instructional materials to learn practical skills. The instruments were based on the instructional objectives of lessons on mortar and wall finish. Pilot test data for the achievement test yielded Cronbach’s alpha of 0.84. Descriptive statistics and t-test at a 0.05 level of significance were used to analyse the data. The results indicated that the two instructional materials were pedagogically equivalent in terms of theoretical knowledge acquired. Practical skills acquired, however, were significantly higher among users of video-based instructional materials. Finally, users of video-based instructional materials displayed significantly superior craftsmanship.
Background: Ineffective physicians' communication skills have detrimental consequences for patients and their relatives, such as insufficient detection of psychological disturbances, dissatisfaction with care, poor compliance, and increased risks of litigation for malpractice. These ineffective comm...
Bragard, I; Scalliet, Pierre; Razavi, D.; Marchal, Sébastien; Merckaert, I.; Delvaux, Nathalie; Libert, Yves; Reynaert, Christine
Full Text Available In today’s postmodern world, change is the only thing for sure. As a result, creative capacity is the key. Learning creative thinking in fact is a useful vehicle for adult learners to polish their abilities and orientate the world around them. This article attempts to review creativity-related literature and to provide some salient considerations for adult educators with the desire to promote creativity in the classrooms. To begin, the definition of creativity was disclosed. Then the process of creativity was reviewed. Following this line, several factors, including personality traits, knowledge and expertise, motivation and self-efficacy, learning style and thinking style, teaching approaches, assessment and reward, and environment, that might facilitate or stifle creativity were discussed. Finally, some suggestions for adult educators were provided.
Kuan Chen Tsai
Details of Syncrude's Effective Reading in Context (ERIC) workplace literacy program were presented as part of a series of case studies addressing best practices in the development of essential skills in the workplace. ERIC was designed to enhance supervisors' key essential skills, including reading comprehension, writing and the ability to deal with organizational changes and technological advances. Due to its success, Syncrude now offers ERIC to all of its employees and has made it available to a variety of businesses and institutions across Canada. ERIC was implemented due to a shortage of skilled workers, and concerns that a lack of essential skills in the workforce was affecting productivity. ERIC is delivered in 2 phases: a curriculum adaptation phase and a pilot workshop phase where the skills of all participants are assessed individually. Participants are given samples of printed materials they regularly encounter in their jobs. They are then assessed on how well they can generalize, synthesize and analyze the material. Program evaluations are reviewed to ensure that participants can transfer learned skills into new areas, including work tasks. It costs between $6000 and $12,000 to adapt ERIC for a specific workplace. Details of instructor training methods and course manuals were presented. Over the past 16 years, 6 large industry partners and 9 educational partners have been involved in the delivery of ERIC, which has been adapted to a variety of settings, including an Aboriginal pre-trades program at Keyano College. It was concluded that the implementation of ERIC in organizations has led to increased productivity and a decrease in work-related incidents. The Syncrude Essential Skills training program has now been expanded to include a math and writing component.
BACKGROUND: In response to declining instruction in technical skills, the authors instituted a novel method to teach basic procedural skills to medical students beginning the surgery clerkship. METHODS: Sixty-three medical students participated in a skills training laboratory. The first part of the laboratory taught basic suturing skills, and the second involved a cadaver with pig skin grafted to different anatomic locations. Clinical scenarios were simulated, and students performed essential procedural skills. RESULTS: Students learned most of their suturing skills in the laboratory skills sessions, compared with the emergency room or the operating room (P = .01). Students reported that the laboratory allowed them greater opportunity to participate in the emergency room and operating room. Students also felt that the suture laboratory contributed greatly to their skills in wound closure. Finally, 90% of students had never received instruction on suturing, and only 12% had performed any procedural skills before beginning the surgery rotation. CONCLUSIONS: The laboratory described is an effective way of insuring that necessary technical skills are imparted during the surgery rotation.
DiMaggio PJ; Waer AL; Desmarais TJ; Sozanski J; Timmerman H; Lopez JA; Poskus DM; Tatum J; Adamas-Rappaport WJ
Abstract in english The Department of Education, educators, parents and various stakeholders are concerned about the literacy levels of learners in South-African schools. Various national and international studies revealed shockingly low levels and underachievement. In 2006 the Department of Education revealed the disturbing fact that 61% of South African learners still cannot read by the end of grade 3. Results of a systemic evaluation that was undertaken in 2007 revealed an alarmingly low (more) average of 36% for literacy. The Department of Education launched various investigations to establish why the levels of reading proficiency for South African learners are so poor. The Foundations for Learning Campaign was one of the responses to address these concerns and an effort to assist teachers in facilitating literacy skills effectively. South African educators are experiencing increased pressure to teach literacy skills (including reading) effectively. It is imperative that effective reading instruction should commence in the foundation phase, where the basis for more advanced skills is established. In order to help learners to become better readers, teachers need support to deal with problems typically experienced in South African classrooms. These problems include large classes, a lack of teaching expertise/ training as well as a lack of resources in many classrooms. The purpose of this study was to describe how recently developed multimedia learning and teaching support material (MLTSM) by means of a digital book disc (DBD) can enhance the reading skills of foundation phase learners. It also describes the benefits of the DBD for the South African school context and the potential it has to enrich and support reading instruction in the foundation phase. The DBD is a form of electronic mobile learning facilitated by a DVD player that can be used as MLTSM. The DBD uses multimedia (written and spoken words, visual illustrations or animation) presented in a mobile format (portable DVD players). According to Mayer's cognitive theory of multimedia learning, the working memory includes both visual and auditory channels and learning is enhanced when both these channels are used during multimedia supported learning activities. The proposed model provides guidelines for the development and integration of MTLSM on a DBD to enable learners to become skilled in reading and writing, while enjoying the process of becoming literate. The DBD focuses on phonemic awareness, word recognition, reading comprehension and fluency as important components of reading instruction. Shared reading instruction activities where learners follow the text and join in when they are able to do so, improves motivation. Stories, poems and songs that relate to the themes (context) in the classroom, are examples of the different kinds of text used on the DBD. Relevant teaching and learning principles that support reading proficiency while using the DBD, are discussed. These include active learner participation, motivation, reinforcement of positive attitudes, self assessment and immediate feedback. The study also demonstrates how relevant learning material that relate to the learner's experience, edutainment and scaffolding can contribute to effective reading instruction. Different multimedia principles that support and enhance reading profi ciency are also explained. The DBD enables the teacher to facilitate enrichment (additional stories) as well as remedial activities, where learners experiencing difficulties/problems, can repeat learning activities according to their individual needs. The differentiated stories allow learners with varying abilities to choose activities that relate to their developmental level providing the appropriate level of challenge. Thematic stories and other reading material can also be produced by individual teachers to enhance the relevancy of the content for the learner's world, experience and interest. The DBD addresses some of the problems typical of South African schools. These include a lack of electricity, educational and de
Klopper, Audrey; Nel, Carisma
A backpacking course offered at the Pennsylvania State University teaches safety and proper use of equipment. This well planned course resulted in an appreciation for the outdoors, ecological awareness, self-reliance, and attainment of new experiences and skills. (CJ)
Felton, Harry F.
The hallmark of osteopathic medical education is the inclusion of hands-on instruction in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM), which includes palpatory diagnosis and osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). This OMM training typically involves a primary instructor presenting theory and techniques with step-by-step demonstrations to a large group of first- and second-year osteopathic medical students. Additional instructors, referred to as table trainers, assist the primary instructor by supervising the students as they practice the presented techniques. To the authors' knowledge, there is no currently accepted standard for a table trainer-to-student ratio in OMM skills laboratories within osteopathic medical schools in the United States. However, through a Google Web search and PubMed literature review, the authors identified published trainer-to-student ratios used in other health care skills training curricula. Psychomotor skills training courses in health care fields typically have a table trainer-to-student ratio of 1 trainer to 8 or fewer students. On the basis of these findings and psychomotor skills learning theory, the authors conclude that this ratio is likely sufficient for OMM skills training.
Snider KT; Seffinger MA; Ferrill HP; Gish EE
Though many teachers would like to incorporate creative activities into their teaching, there are few practical suggestions to help them accomplish this goal (Yager 2000). In this article, the authors introduce four strategies to help integrate creative-thinking skills into high school science instruction: SCAMPER; Six Thinking Hats; Agreement, Disagreement, and Irrelevance; and Creative Problem Solving.
Seung, Eulsun; Park, Soonhye
A hybrid (face-to-face and online) professional development (PD) course focused on energy science for middle and high school teachers (N = 47) was conducted using the teaching science as inquiry (TSI) framework. Data from the PD indicates that online opportunities enhanced participation and that the TSI structure improved teachers' inquiry implementation. Teachers found the TSI modes of inquiry easily accessible and effectively implemented them (modes correspond to the inquiry mechanisms of investigation, such as product evaluation, authoritative, inductive, deductive, and descriptive). On the other hand, the TSI phase structure (i.e. learning cycle) was most helpful for teachers novice to inquiry teaching, suggesting that modification of the PD is needed to promote more in-depth use of the phases in the TSI framework. In terms of content, teacher interest in energy science was high, which resulted in implementation of energy science activities across a range of disciplines. However, teachers' confidence in teaching energy science through inquiry was low compared to similar TSI PD courses on other subjects (mean perceived pedagogical content knowledge = 8.96 ± 2.07 SD for energy compared to 15.45 ± 1.83, 16.44 ± 1.81 and 15.63 ± 1.69, for elementary astronomy, high school aquatic science, and college aquatic science, respectively). These data support current findings on the complexities of teaching and understanding energy science content and suggest the need for additional teacher PD opportunities in energy science in order to provide opportunities for teachers to increase both their content knowledge and their confidence in teaching energy science.
Seraphin, Kanesa Duncan; Philippoff, Joanna; Parisky, Alex; Degnan, Katherine; Warren, Diana Papini
The effect of computer-assisted learning versus conventional teaching methods on the acquisition and retention of handwashing theory and skills in pre-qualification nursing students: a randomised controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: High quality health care demands a nursing workforce with sound clinical skills. However, the clinical competency of newly qualified nurses continues to stimulate debate about the adequacy of current methods of clinical skills education and emphasises the need for innovative teaching strategies. Despite the increasing use of e-learning within nurse education, evidence to support its use for clinical skills teaching is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether nursing students could learn and retain the theory and skill of handwashing more effectively when taught using computer-assisted learning compared with conventional face-to-face methods. DESIGN: The study employed a two group randomised controlled design. The intervention group used an interactive, multimedia, self-directed computer-assisted learning module. The control group was taught by an experienced lecturer in a clinical skills room. Data were collected over a 5-month period between October 2004 and February 2005. Knowledge was tested at four time points and handwashing skills were assessed twice. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two-hundred and forty-two first year nursing students of mixed gender; age; educational background and first language studying at one British university were recruited to the study. Participant attrition increased during the study. RESULTS: Knowledge scores increased significantly from baseline in both groups and no significant differences were detected between the scores of the two groups. Skill performance scores were similar in both groups at the 2-week follow-up with significant differences emerging at the 8-week follow-up in favour of the intervention group, however, this finding must be interpreted with caution in light of sample size and attrition rates. CONCLUSION: The computer-assisted learning module was an effective strategy for teaching both the theory and practice of handwashing to nursing students and in this study was found to be at least as effective as conventional face-to-face teaching methods.
Bloomfield J; Roberts J; While A
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using problem-based module (PBM) in the subject of Biology on high school students’ problem-solving skill and achievement. This research used the quasi-experiment method with Non-Equivalent Pretest and Posttest Control Group Design, which involved two science classes, in which one group was assigned as control group and another one as experiment group, in a high school in Pekan Baru, Indonesia. The problem-solving ability and the product of learning were descriptively analyzed before being inferentially analyzed. To find out whether or not there is any difference in their problem-solving skill, t-Test and N-gain test was conducted on the experimental group’s and control group’s concept mastery level and product of learning. The result shows that the problem-solving skill percentage of the experimental group was 95.47% (very good), whereas that of the control group was 25.12% (low). The average of student’s achievement in the experimental group was 84.26% (good), while that of the control group equaled 79.08% (moderate). The average of the product of learning was 89.89% (good) for the experimental group, whereas that of the control group was 52.10% (low). The findings showed that PBM can actually increase problem-solving skill, students’ achievement, and students’ learning product, with the experimental group getting higher percentage in all three aspects compared to the control group by using PBM in their Biology class. The implication of this study is the increase in the quality of learning through learning innovation using learning module. The panned and organized implementation of this module by teachers will not only improve students’ thinking skills, but also increase the quality of science and technology, consistent with the aim of Indonesia education.
Wan Syafii; Ruhizan Mohd Yasin
A method of teaching writing to adult students of English as a second language is presented. The method emphasizes the first-person point of view. For an individual in a new culture with limited vocabulary and uncertain knowledge of structure, beginning with the self and observed events can be reassuring. With this method, described as being a…
This response to an article by Donna Kerr (Teachers College Record, Spring 1983) stresses the importance of teacher salaries as a means of attracting talented college graduates to teaching. Teacher effectiveness is greatly influenced by classroom experience. Improving preservice teacher education may have a limited effect on teacher improvement.…
Murnane, Richard J.
Full Text Available The main aim of this study has been the application of a sport and social program intervention to solve the daily problems of conviviality in the classroom of physical education, based on the teaching and learning of social values, attitudes and social skills. 24 children between 9-12 years of Guadix (Granada) have taken part in this study, learning social values that allow them to improve the social relations with their mates. In the data collection of information, three instruments were used; an initial and final sociogram (pre-post) was carried out with the objective of know the social relations of the group; two group interviews, in which the students talked about their learning process and the diary of the teacher, in which the teacher analyzed the program and the advance of the students. The results of three used instruments were compared, the analysis of data shows that there had been considerable changes in the attitude of the students, therefore the personal conflicts that were frequent to the beginning of the research, were diminishing in a gradual way along the experience. The students and the teacher showed their satisfaction for the improvement of their social skills and relationships through the sport motor learning.
MAR CEPERO GONZÁLEZ; Mª NIEVES MARÍN REGALADO; JUAN TORRES GUERRERO
Full Text Available The use of Multimedia applications in Learning provides useful concepts for Instructional Content Design.This study aimed to investigate the effect of design electronic curriculum and multimedia applications onacquiring e-content design skills, and improving their attitudes towards e-learning. To achieve theobjective of the study, the researchers developed a test to measure the efficiencies of designing electroniccontent and the measure of attitudes towards e-learning, The results showed that study of both coursescontributed positively to the acquisition of design skills of e-content , The results revealed that there arestatistical significant differences between the scores of the students in the two applications (pre and post)on the total score of the attitude measure and three areas of it.
Natheer K Gharaibeh; Mohareb A Alsmadi
BACKGROUND: An emerging body of evidence indicates that relative to typically developing children, children with autism are selectively impaired in their ability to recognize facial identity. A critical question is whether face recognition skills can be enhanced through a direct training intervention. METHODS: In a randomized clinical trial, children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were pre-screened with a battery of subtests (the Let's Face It! Skills battery) examining face and object processing abilities. Participants who were significantly impaired in their face processing abilities were assigned to either a treatment or a waitlist group. Children in the treatment group (N = 42) received 20 hours of face training with the Let's Face It! (LFI!) computer-based intervention. The LFI! program is comprised of seven interactive computer games that target the specific face impairments associated with autism, including the recognition of identity across image changes in expression, viewpoint and features, analytic and holistic face processing strategies and attention to information in the eye region. Time 1 and Time 2 performance for the treatment and waitlist groups was assessed with the Let's Face It! Skills battery. RESULTS: The main finding was that relative to the control group (N = 37), children in the face training group demonstrated reliable improvements in their analytic recognition of mouth features and holistic recognition of a face based on its eyes features. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a relatively short-term intervention program can produce measurable improvements in the face recognition skills of children with autism. As a treatment for face processing deficits, the Let's Face It! program has advantages of being cost-free, adaptable to the specific learning needs of the individual child and suitable for home and school applications.
Tanaka JW; Wolf JM; Klaiman C; Koenig K; Cockburn J; Herlihy L; Brown C; Stahl S; Kaiser MD; Schultz RT
Full Text Available This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cycle (TLC), based on Vygotsky’s notion of scaffolding. Assessment was conducted by comparing students’ writing samples, before and after the teaching intervention. The results indicated that the teacher’s active scaffolding processes at the early stage of the cycle benefited students by making them aware of the different ways texts are organised for different communicative purposes. In addition, students’ confidence level increased and the approach encouraged a positive attitude towards writing.
Full Text Available O exame físico cardiovascular, em particular a ausculta cardíaca, é uma das habilidades clínicas mais difíceis para os alunos durante seu treinamento médico. Estudos sugerem que o uso de tecnologias, como o estetoscópio digital, aumente a acurácia do exame clínico, entretanto, seu impacto no ensino da propedêutica da ausculta cardíaca em alunos de graduação de Medicina não é conhecido. O objetivo é demonstrar a utilidade do estetoscópio digital, em comparação com métodos tradicionais, como instrumento de ensino da ausculta cardíaca. Estudo de intervenção, longitudinal, controlado, unicêntrico e randomizado. Foram inscritos 38 alunos de medicina para um curso de semiologia cardiovascular com duração de oito semanas. Definiu-se um programa com aulas expositivas e à beira do leito nas enfermarias de Cardiologia. Nas aulas práticas, os alunos foram randomizados em dois grupos: 1) (n = 21) estetoscópio digital (Littmann® modelo 3200, 3M); e 2) (n = 17) estetoscópios convencionais. Foi realizada uma avaliação pré-treinamento, através de um teste utilizando o software Heart Sounds®, que foi repetida ao final do curso. As médias das avaliações foram comparadas pelo teste T pareado e não pareado. Observa-se que, ao final do curso, houve uma melhora significativamente maior no grupo que utilizou o estetoscópio digital (51,9%) quando comparado ao grupo que utilizou o estetoscópio convencional (29,5%). Intervenções de curta duração para o ensino de semiologia cardíaca são capazes de contribuir de modo significativo para melhora da proficiência da identificação dos sons cardíacos. O uso do estetoscópio digital demonstrou ser um fator positivo no ensino dessas habilidades.Physical cardiovascular examination, particularly cardiac auscultation, is one of the most difficult clinical skills for students during their medical training. Studies suggest that the use of technologies such as digital stethoscope increase the accuracy of clinical examination, however, its impact on the teaching of cardiac auscultation for undergraduate students of medicine is not known. The objective is to demonstrate the usefulness of the digital stethoscope compared to traditional methods as a tool in the teaching of auscultatory skills. nterventional, longitudinal, controlled, unicenter and randomized study. Thirty-eight medicine students were enrolled for a cardiovascular semiology course lasting eight weeks. The course program included lectures and bedside practice in Cardiology wards. In the practical lessons, the students were randomized into two groups: 1) (n = 21) digital stethoscope (Littmann® Model 3200, 3M); and 2) (n = 17) conventional stethoscopes. A pre-training evaluation was conducted through a test using the software Heart Sounds®, which was repeated after the course. The average scores were compared by paired T test and unpaired T test. It is observed that, at the end of the course, there was a significantly greater improvement in the group that used the digital stethoscope (51.9%) compared to the group using the conventional stethoscope (29.5%). Short-term interventions for cardiac semiology teaching are able to contribute significantly to improving proficiency in the identification of heart sounds. The use of digital stethoscope proved to be a positive factor in teaching these skills.
Claudio Tinoco Mesquita; Jader Costa dos Reis; Luciana Silveira Simões; Eduardo Cardoso de Moura; Gustavo Amarante Rodrigues; Carolina Cunto de Athayde; Hugo Lima Machado; Pedro Gemal Lanzieri
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O exame físico cardiovascular, em particular a ausculta cardíaca, é uma das habilidades clínicas mais difíceis para os alunos durante seu treinamento médico. Estudos sugerem que o uso de tecnologias, como o estetoscópio digital, aumente a acurácia do exame clínico, entretanto, seu impacto no ensino da propedêutica da ausculta cardíaca em alunos de graduação de Medicina não é conhecido. O objetivo é demonstrar a utilidade do estetoscópio digital, em compar (more) ação com métodos tradicionais, como instrumento de ensino da ausculta cardíaca. Estudo de intervenção, longitudinal, controlado, unicêntrico e randomizado. Foram inscritos 38 alunos de medicina para um curso de semiologia cardiovascular com duração de oito semanas. Definiu-se um programa com aulas expositivas e à beira do leito nas enfermarias de Cardiologia. Nas aulas práticas, os alunos foram randomizados em dois grupos: 1) (n = 21) estetoscópio digital (Littmann® modelo 3200, 3M); e 2) (n = 17) estetoscópios convencionais. Foi realizada uma avaliação pré-treinamento, através de um teste utilizando o software Heart Sounds®, que foi repetida ao final do curso. As médias das avaliações foram comparadas pelo teste T pareado e não pareado. Observa-se que, ao final do curso, houve uma melhora significativamente maior no grupo que utilizou o estetoscópio digital (51,9%) quando comparado ao grupo que utilizou o estetoscópio convencional (29,5%). Intervenções de curta duração para o ensino de semiologia cardíaca são capazes de contribuir de modo significativo para melhora da proficiência da identificação dos sons cardíacos. O uso do estetoscópio digital demonstrou ser um fator positivo no ensino dessas habilidades. Abstract in english Physical cardiovascular examination, particularly cardiac auscultation, is one of the most difficult clinical skills for students during their medical training. Studies suggest that the use of technologies such as digital stethoscope increase the accuracy of clinical examination, however, its impact on the teaching of cardiac auscultation for undergraduate students of medicine is not known. The objective is to demonstrate the usefulness of the digital stethoscope compared (more) to traditional methods as a tool in the teaching of auscultatory skills. nterventional, longitudinal, controlled, unicenter and randomized study. Thirty-eight medicine students were enrolled for a cardiovascular semiology course lasting eight weeks. The course program included lectures and bedside practice in Cardiology wards. In the practical lessons, the students were randomized into two groups: 1) (n = 21) digital stethoscope (Littmann® Model 3200, 3M); and 2) (n = 17) conventional stethoscopes. A pre-training evaluation was conducted through a test using the software Heart Sounds®, which was repeated after the course. The average scores were compared by paired T test and unpaired T test. It is observed that, at the end of the course, there was a significantly greater improvement in the group that used the digital stethoscope (51.9%) compared to the group using the conventional stethoscope (29.5%). Short-term interventions for cardiac semiology teaching are able to contribute significantly to improving proficiency in the identification of heart sounds. The use of digital stethoscope proved to be a positive factor in teaching these skills.
Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Reis, Jader Costa dos; Simões, Luciana Silveira; Moura, Eduardo Cardoso de; Rodrigues, Gustavo Amarante; Athayde, Carolina Cunto de; Machado, Hugo Lima; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal
Full Text Available The analysis presented here is a continuation of the author’s research and teaching activities directed toward a better understanding of critical thinking processes among undergraduate students in the philosophy of the social sciences. Over a span of ten or more years, what I have been basically concerned with is the use of overlapping intellectual domains (e.g., sociology, philosophy of social science, and cognitive psychology) as a means of identifying both issues and pedagogical strategies that instructors in the human sciences may find useful in enhancing their own teaching and stimulating the creative problem-solving side of their student’s intellectual development. To this end, I place these comments within the tradition of Mills (1959) and Parsons (1968). The first reflects the belief, as always given in Mills, that good teaching and research are a function of the creativity of the social scientist; the second, Parsons, in his meticulous attention to the = concepts of sociology, but also as having a deep understanding of how these concepts interact with, for instance, epistemological concerns from philosophy, historical analysis as a means of tracing the origins of sociological thought (e.g., Weber, Durkheim and Marx), and the centrality of economics in grasping the motivations of actors in both micro and macro contexts.The irony of juxtaposing (and accepting) Mills and Parsons simultaneously is of course recognized; however, it is meant to underscore the point that plausible eclecticism may be a desirable attitude to foster in ourselves and our students. Additionally, the analysis importantly reflects - as types of intervening conceptualvariables between Mills and Parsons - the works of Berger and Luckmann (1967) and the latter works of Coleman (1990). Coleman’s most recent work on the need to fully conceptualize the logical and languagebased origins of social theory (e.g., “norms”) reflects my own emphasis on the need to critically analyze the logical and semantic structures of human science concepts as a part of the philosophy of the social sciences. This concern dovetails very closely with Berger and Luckmann’s classic work in the sociology of knowledge of how the cognitive-conceptual-language link is the source of our “constructions of social reality.” The view presented here is that the use of certain pedagogical strategies and techniques - that are rather atypical but nonetheless creative in their approach - will demonstrate how, indeed, critical thinking about the nature of our concepts (i.e., “language”) can give us a more insightful view of the close connection between language and (our) social reality(ies).1 What follows is an attempt to demonstrate how a term from the domain of analytic philosophy can be expanded to include concerns central to the teaching of the human sciences.
Steven I. Miller
Like a spirited idea exchange among experienced professors, Teaching Tips: Innovations in Undergraduate Science Instruction brings you the best thinking from campuses nationwide about how to engage undergraduate science students. Published to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Society for College Science Teachers (SCST), Tips is a quick-read compilation of more than 50 innovative approaches that SCST members have found especially effective. The book is organized into three parts: ï¿½ Pedagogical Practices includes using instant messaging as an involvement tool, encouraging active learning in large classes, and using "peer coercion" to stimulate teamwork ï¿½ Assessment Activities covers pretests and post-tests to encourage more effective learning, Web-based warm-up exercises to assess student misconceptions, and poetry-writing exercises to encourage creative thinking in the sciences ï¿½ Content Challenges offers approaches to teaching specific topics from calculations and conversions to conceptual physics, and ways to encourage active learning (using a portfolio approach, games like bingo and Jeopardy, substances like Jell-O, and even student-drawn comic strips) Most of the ideas in the book are applicable across the sciences. Because the tips are only 500 to 700 words each, all contributors have provided contact information so you can learn more by e-mailing them directly.
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de la investigación que se presenta fue diagnosticar las competencias docentes en los posgrados en administración. El estudio fue una investigación no experimental cuantitativa con un alcance exploratorio. Como instrumento para recopilar la información se utilizó un cuestionario organizado por los factores de docencia, investigación, planeación y evaluación. La muestra total fue de 59 docentes distribuidos en cuatro programas de maestría: a) en Admini (more) stración Pública; b) en Administración de Negocios; c) en Alta Dirección y d) en Administración. Las principales conclusiones de la investigación fueron que el análisis ha mostrado que una estructura tetra-factorial es viable y adecuada. También se muestra que profesores le dan importancia al desarrollo de proyectos de investigación que les permitan avanzar en el conocimiento científico y a la publicación de sus resultados. Abstract in english The objective of the research presented in this paper was to determine the teaching skills in the graduate administration programs. The study was a non-experimental quantitative research with an exploratory range. A test organized by factors such as teaching, research, planning and evaluation was used as an instrument to gather information. The total sample comprised 59 teachers assigned in four Master programs: a) Public Administration; b) Business Administration; c) Sen (more) ior Management; and d) Administration. The main conclusions of this research were the viability and adequacy of a tetra-factorial structure. It is also shown that professors give special importance to research projects development and the publications of the results through publications allowing them to improve scientific knowledge.
Cardoso, Edgar O; Cerecedo, María T; Vanegas, Eduardo A
Questions have long been used as a teaching tool by teachers and preceptors to assess students' knowledge, promote comprehension, and stimulate critical thinking. Well-crafted questions lead to new insights, generate discussion, and promote the comprehensive exploration of subject matter. Poorly constructed questions can stifle learning by creating confusion, intimidating students, and limiting creative thinking. Teachers most often ask lower-order, convergent questions that rely on students' factual recall of prior knowledge rather than asking higher-order, divergent questions that promote deep thinking, requiring students to analyze and evaluate concepts. This review summarizes the taxonomy of questions, provides strategies for formulating effective questions, and explores practical considerations to enhance student engagement and promote critical thinking. These concepts can be applied in the classroom and in experiential learning environments.
Tofade T; Elsner J; Haines ST
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo relata a experiência de um grupo de docentes do curso de Medicina da Universidade Estadual de Londrina no ensino de comunicação no módulo de Habilidades do currículo integrado. A constatação da importância da comunicação no relacionamento médico-paciente e na evolução de doenças levou à elaboração de uma estrutura com dificuldades progressivas ao longo dos quatro primeiros anos do curso. Os conteúdos abordados variam desde a observação de p (more) acientes em sala de espera até a discussão técnica sobre a abordagem da transmissão de informações, adesão ao tratamento e manejo de grupos especiais de pacientes em diferentes fases da vida. As estratégias utilizadas incluem observação de pacientes, entrevistas, discussões em grupo, dramatizações, filmes, mesas-redondas, conferências e depoimentos de pacientes. A avaliação é feita em duas partes, formativa e cognitiva. O treinamento da comunicação visa desenvolver a competência do aluno em aprimorar seu vínculo com o paciente, potencializar os processos de obtenção e transmissão de informações, o manejo do paciente e a promoção da adesão ao tratamento. Abstract in english This article relates an experience of a group of teachers of the Integrated Medical Course of the State University of Londrina in teaching communication in the Skills Module. The awareness of the importance of communication skills not only in the doctor-patient relationship but also in the evolution of diseases led to the design of a module with progressive difficulties throughout the first years of the course. The content of the module ranges from observation of patients (more) in the waiting room to discussions on how to transmit information, treatment adherence and management of special groups of patients in different stages of life. The methods used include observation of patients, interviews, group discussions, role-playing, films, round tables, conferences and statements of patients. The evaluation occurs in two parts: formative and cognitive. The training of communication skills is aimed at developing the ability of the student to establish a good doctor-patient relationship, history taking and transmission of information and at promoting treatment adherence.
Turini, Barbara; Martins Neto, Daniel; Tavares, Marcelo de Sousa; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas; Silva, Vera Lucia Menezes da; Thomson, Zuleika
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of using the Cognitive Behaviour Modification (CBM) technique on the subtraction skills of third grade hearing and deaf/hard-of-hearing students. The results indicated that the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students and the CBM and non-CBM hearing students made more progress in solving the subtraction problems than the non-CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students. The results also showed that there were no significant differences between the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing and the non-CBM hearing students; and there were no significant differences between the CBM and non-CBM hearing students. The results revealed that the CBM hearing students achieved significantly higher post-test scores than the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students. However, the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students obtained a significantly higher gain score compared to the CBM and non-CBM hearing students. Implications for teachers and suggestions for future research are discussed in this paper. PMID:11131624
Al-Hilawani, Y A
OBJECTIVE: Many geographic locations are without services and staff available to provide treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of group parent training on ADHD treatment delivered via videoconferencing. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-two subjects were enrolled in the study, with 9 subjects in the videoconference session (treatment group) and 13 in the face-to-face session (control group). The parent child relationship questionnaire for child and adolescents (PCQ-CA), Vanderbilt assessment scales (parent and teacher versions), children global assessment scale, clinical global impression-severity score, clinical global impression-improvement score, and social skills rating system assessed the effectiveness of the treatment. A Likert scale evaluated parents' acceptance of the training modality. Our results showed that the parent training program significantly improved parents' disciplinary practices based on the PRQ-CA, parent ratings of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder symptoms, and the children's global functioning. RESULTS: The treatment effects did not differ between the videoconference and face-to-face groups; however, the videoconference group evidenced statistically greater improvement on the hyperactive symptoms of Vanderbilt assessment scales. Our findings suggest that parent training through a videoconferencing modality may be as effective as face-to-face training and is well accepted by parents. CONCLUSIONS: Parent training via videoconferencing may be an important tool for addressing ADHD in geographic locations that do not have access to appropriate treatment providers.
Xie Y; Dixon JF; Yee OM; Zhang J; Chen YA; Deangelo S; Yellowlees P; Hendren R; Schweitzer JB
Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…
Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern
Developing online teaching skills can occur through involvement in learn-by-doing strategies, which incorporates informal, organic or need-driven strategies. Such processes are sometimes labeled as "bottom-up" staff development processes. In other contexts, teaching staff are formally directed to develop online teaching skills through a series of…
Northcote, Maria; Reynaud, Daniel; Beamish, Peter
Enseñanza de técnicas quirúrgicas básicas en simuladores biológicos: Experiencia pedagógica en el pregrado The teaching of basic surgical skills in the biologic simulators: Undergraduate educational experience
Full Text Available Introducción: las maniobras quirúrgicas básicas que un médico generalista debería aprender en el cursado de la Carrera de Medicina, implican la adquisición de destrezas y habilidades manuales de tipo cruentas. Estos procedimientos, por su carácter de invasivos, representan una dificultad en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje tradicional realizada sobre el paciente. Se propone una alternativa pedagógica para la adquisición de habilidades quirúrgicas básicas en simuladores biológicos en el pregrado. Material y Métodos: durante el año 2002 se desarrollaron en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste dos cursos teórico-prácticos de Técnicas Quirúrgicas Básicas destinados a alumnos de los dos últimos años de la carrera. Los simuladores fueron trozos de carne, intestino delgado, corazón y pulmón de vaca, alas de pollo, cerdos vivos y cadáveres de los mismos. Los alumnos practicaron diferentes procedimientos quirúrgicos guiados por un tutor. La práctica estuvo precedida por una clase teórica de la técnica, aplicada al paciente. Las condiciones para aprobar el curso fueron: asistir al 80% de las jornadas y un examen final práctico sobre simuladores, de las destrezas adquiridas. Al finalizar debieron contestar una encuesta. Resultados: el cupo de 50 alumnos por curso fue cubierto completamente. El 100% de los alumnos aprobó el examen final práctico. La encuesta catalogó la modalidad pedagógica como excelente en un 96% y muy buena en el 4%. Conclusiones: en la búsqueda de una solución pedagógica de cómo adquirir habilidades y destrezas en maniobras quirúrgicas básicas, esta metodología resultó ser una excelente alternativa en el pregrado.Background: learning basic surgical procedures in medical school, involves acquisition of certain bloody skills. Therefore, to teach this kind of procedure on the patient is becoming more difficult nowadays. An educational alternative is proposed to teach basics surgical skills in undergraduate students in Medical School. Methods: during entire 2002, two theoretical-practical courses on Basic Surgical Maneuvers were developed in the Medicine School of UNNE. These courses were assigned to the 5th and 6th year’s students. Used models included meet piece, bovine’s bowel, heart and lungs, chick’s wings; additionally live anesthetized swine and cadavers. All the students had to practice different procedures leaded by an instructor. Before performing these procedures theoretical explanation was supplied in the classroom. Attend to al least 80% of all given class, and to pass a practical final test were the only conditions to pass these courses. All the students had to fill up a survey to assess the perfomance of these courses. Results: the quota of 50 students by each course was completely covered. All the students (100%) passed successfully the courses. The survey reflected this experience as excellent (96%) or very good (4%) in teaching basic surgical procedures. Conclusion: the training in Biologic Models has shown as an excellent strategy to undergraduate surgical education.
Ricardo Alberto Torres; Raúl Daniel Orban; Edgardo Emilio Serra; María Cristina Marecos; Luis Vargas; Luis Ignacio Deffis; Miguel Ignacio González; Marcos Tulio Tomasella
Full Text Available Introduction:To have a successful life, functional life skills are essential. However, in educational systems, there is not enough time for the realization of all the needs. One of the most fundamental goals of needs assessment activities is to identify the needs and goals and their importance for practical applications. The main purpose of this study was to determine the priorities of life skills for high school girls in the third grade, to design more desirable educational programs for them.Methods:In a descriptive study on the third grade students, teachers, advisors and parents, 200 subjects were selected through cluster sampling. The research instrument included three valid and reliable questionnaires in which there were 10 questions on the priorities of life skills.Results:Overall, life skill priorities from the viewpoint of all the subjects include self-awareness, decision making, effective communication, creative thinking, empathy, interpersonal relationship, coping with stress, problem solving, critical thinking, and coping with emotions. Of the 120 high school female students 7.56%, had not undergone any education on life skills.Conclusion:The priorities of life skills from the viewpoint of the three groups of third grade students, parents and teachers were different. More than half of the students (7.56%) had no education on the skills. Self- awareness, effective communication with others and decision making were identified as the first three priorities.
Mahnaz Solhi; Maryam Sahrayyan; Hamid Haghani; Shiva Beagizadeh
Full Text Available Teaching English to speakers of other languages can be looked at from many different angles. One useful way is to look at the teaching process as the teaching of various language skills. There are, in general, four language skills, each based upon the modality of emphasis. These are the Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing skills. Generally speaking, it is emphasized that we first teach listening, then speaking, then reading and writing. However, in real life situations of language communication, these skills are interdependent in many ways, even though they can be taught independently to some extent. Listening in English is attending to and interpreting oral English. Listening is necessary to develop the speaking skill. The student listens to oral speech in English, then separates into segments the stretch of utterances he hears, groups them into words, phrases, and sentences, and, finally, he understands the message these carry. Listening prepares the students to understand the speech of the native speakers of English as they speak naturally in a normal speed and normal manner.
Anca Marina R?dulescu
Die Ignorierung der Linguistik in der Theorie und Praxis des Schriftspracherwerbs. Uberlegungen zu einer Neubestimmung des Verhaltnisses von Padagogik und Phonetik/Phonologie (Ignoring Linguistics in the Theory and the Practice of the Teaching of Writing Skills. Reflections on a Redefinition of the Relation between Pedagogics and Phonetics/Phonology).
Criticizes the practice of teaching writing skills and the research about teaching writing because it lacks the adequate linguistic foil for the analysis of the learning processes and the systematic representation of the written language that ought to be based on the structures of language as it is spoken by children. (CMK)
Rober-Siekmeyer, Christa; Spiekermann, Helmut
Abstract Background Skills labs provide a sheltered learning environment. As close supervision and individual feedback were proven to be important in ensuring effective skills training, we implemented a cross-year peer tutor system in our skills lab of internal medicine that allowed...
Weyrich Peter; Schrauth Markus; Kraus Bernd; Habermehl Daniel; Netzhammer Nicolai; Zipfel Stephan; Jünger Jana; Riessen Reimer
OBJECTIVE: The training objectives for postgraduate education in the United States and Canada both state that teaching skills should be formally developed during training. This article reviews the development of the Teaching-to-Teach program at the University of Toronto Department of Psychiatry, the current curriculum, evaluation, and future directions of the program. The authors highlight some of the challenges encountered and discuss ideas for implementation of similar programs in diverse training settings. METHODS: A Teaching-to-Teach curriculum was developed with separate tracks for junior and senior residents. Topics covered include one-to-one teaching, the one-minute clinical preceptor model, challenging teaching scenarios, and providing effective feedback. RESULTS: In 2007, 100% of residents who responded to an evaluation questionnaire agreed or strongly agreed that the topics covered were relevant, and in 2008, 92% of respondents agreed that topics were relevant. In 2007, all respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they felt more prepared to teach. In 2008, 85% of respondents felt more prepared to teach. In 2007, all respondents felt that the amount of teaching was good or too little, but in 2008, 46% of respondents felt there was too much teaching. CONCLUSION: The large size of the University of Toronto psychiatry program may make this curriculum difficult to generalize to smaller training sites. The use of online modules, collaboration between programs, or individual teaching electives may be other ways of implementing a teaching to teach program. Overall, our curriculum was well-received by trainees and they felt better prepared to take on the role of teacher after participating.
Dang K; Waddell AE; Lofchy J
This article describes an approach to teaching the basic skills of tennis to students in grades 4 and 5. It relates a five-lesson unit suitable to a near-weekly class schedule. The author found it effective when seeing his students as infrequently as once every four days for fifty minutes.
ENSEÑANZA DE LAS HABILIDADES NO INTERPRETATIVAS EN RADIOLOGÍA: REVISIÓN DE LA LITERATURA, EXPERIENCIA LOCAL Y PROYECCIONES FUTURAS TEACHING NON-INTERPRETIVE SKILLS IN RADIOLOGY TRAINING: LITERATURE SEARCH, LOCAL EXPERIENCE AND FUTURE TRENDS
Full Text Available Se aborda el tema de la enseñanza de los aspectos humanísticos de la atención médica en radiología (Habilidades No Interpretativas: HNI) a través de una revisión de la literatura disponible y de la experiencia local en el Departamento de Radiología de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Chile, entre los años 2000 y 2004. Tanto de lo publicado en la literatura como de la experiencia local, se deduce que la enseñanza de las HNI debería ser incluida en el programa de formación de especialistas en radiología. Sugerimos un modelo para su enseñanza en radiología, que haga más práctico su aprendizaje, e incluirlo formalmente en el "Programa de Formación de Especialistas en Radiología".We discuss the relevance of including the teaching of humanistic aspects of medical care in Radiology Residency Training Programs (i.e. "Non-interpretive skills", HNI, as per its Spanish acronym), through a review of available literature on this topic and our experience at the Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, from 2000 to 2004. Based on the published literature and our own local experience, we conclude that including Non-interpretive skills such as communication abilities and interpersonal competences, in Radiology Residency Training Programs, is relevant. We propose a teaching model designed to enhance practica! learning of those skills.
Dulia Ortega T; César García M
The nursing process consists of five interrelated steps: assessment, diagnosis, planning, intervention, and evaluation. In the nursing process, the nurse collects a great deal of data and information. The amount of data and information may exceed the amount the nurse can process efficiently and correctly. Thus, the nurse needs assistance to become proficient in the planning of nursing care, due to the difficulty of simultaneously processing a large set of information. Computer systems are viewed as tools to expand the capabilities of the nurse's mind. Using computer technology to support clinicians' decision making may provide high-quality, patient-centered, and efficient healthcare. Although some existing nursing information systems aid in the nursing process, they only provide the most fundamental decision support--i.e., standard care plans associated with common nursing diagnoses. Such a computerized decision support system helps the nurse develop a care plan step-by-step. But it does not assist the nurse in the decision-making process. The decision process about how to generate nursing diagnoses from data and how to individualize the care plans still reminds of the nurse. The purpose of this study is to develop a pilot structure in electronic nursing record system integrated with international nursing standard for improving the proficiency and accuracy of plan of care in clinical pathway process. The proposed pilot systems not only assist both student nurses and nurses who are novice in nursing practice, but also experts who need to work in a practice area which they are not familiar with. PMID:17108542
Hao, Angelica Te-Hui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Li-Fang, Huang; Jian, Wen-Shan; Wu, Li-Bin; Kao, Ching-Chiu; Lu, Mei-Show; Chang, Her-Kung
Full Text Available This article takes the design and study of the experiment which is related to the relationship between the stretch and outer force of rubber band as example in order to discuss the task on small-scale physics experiment. By designing and studying the task, students are expected to develop such ability as making observations, doing experiments, asking questions, thinking scientifically, analyzing and solving problems. The task also aims at training students' creativity and developing their consciousness and spirit of innovation.
In Andhra Pradesh, India, chemical experimenting in under graduate college labs by students is neglected because most of the intermediate (10+1 and 10+2) students concentrate on writing competitive exams like EAMCET (Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test), IIT JEE (Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Test), AIEEE (All India…
Lakshmi, B. Samrajya; Rao, B. Venkateswara
Like a spirited idea exchange among experienced professors, Teaching Tips: Innovations in Undergraduate Science Instruction brings you the best thinking from campuses nationwide about how to engage undergraduate science students. Published to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Society for College Science Teachers (SCST), Tips is a quick-read compilation of more than 50 innovative approaches that SCST members have found especially effective. The book is organized into three parts: ï¿½ Pedagogical Practices includes using instant messaging as an involvement tool, encouraging active learning in large classes, and using "peer coercion" to stimulate teamwork ï¿½ Assessment Activities covers pretests and post-tests to encourage more effective learning, Web-based warm-up exercises to assess student misconceptions, and poetry-writing exercises to encourage creative thinking in the sciences ï¿½ Content Challenges offers approaches to teaching specific topics from calculations and conversions to conceptual physics, and ways to encourage active learning (using a portfolio approach, games like bingo and Jeopardy, substances like Jell-O, and even student-drawn comic strips) Most of the ideas in the book are applicable across the sciences. Because the tips are only 500 to 700 words each, all contributors have provided contact information so you can learn more by e-mailing them directly.
Outlines the history of study skills, a subject that has changed little in the last century, and discusses the present state of study skills and how to teach them. Describes the hm Study Skills Program, which incorporates seven important values into a coordinated continuous plan. (Author/WD)
Marshak, David; Burkle, Candace Regan
"Welcome to Conversions Rock" is a new math program designed to build and reinforce the important skills of converting fractions, decimals, and percents for students in grades 6-8. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation, this program seeks to provide skill-building, real-world math to help students become successful in the classroom and beyond. [A…
Actuarial Foundation, 2013
Background: Recently, there has been growing interest in the emotional aspects of teaching and learning in general education and in physical education (PE). Scholars have argued that high-quality teaching and learning depend on a teacher's knowledge of students' emotions (Hargreaves 1998, 2000, 2002; McCaughtry 2004; McCaughtry and Rovegno 2003;…
Klemola, Ulla; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; O'Sullivan, Mary
Backpacking serves as the vehicle for teaching basic secondary school subjects in this curriculum guide which suggests various learning activities for teaching human relations, environmental education, and camping. The activities, some for the classroom and some for the trail, are designed to help students observe, draw conclusions, and develop…
Maughan, Durrell A.; And Others
This study sought to compare a data-rich learning (DRL) environment that utilized online data as a tool for teaching about renewable energy technologies (RET) to a lecture-based learning environment to determine the impact of the learning environment on students' knowledge of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) concepts related to renewable energy technologies and students' problem solving skills. Two purposefully selected Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science teachers were included in the study. Each teacher taught one class about RET in a lecture-based environment (control) and another class in a DRL environment (treatment), for a total of four classes of students (n=128). This study utilized a quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, control-group design. The initial hypothesis that the treatment group would have a significant gain in knowledge of STEM concepts related to RET and be better able to solve problems when compared to the control group was not supported by the data. Although students in the DRL environment had a significant gain in knowledge after instruction, posttest score comparisons of the control and treatment groups revealed no significant differences between the groups. Further, no significant differences were noted in students' problem solving abilities as measured by scores on a problem-based activity and self-reported abilities on a reflective questionnaire. This suggests that the DRL environment is at least as effective as the lecture-based learning environment in teaching AP Environmental Science students about RET and fostering the development of problem solving skills. As this was a small scale study, further research is needed to provide information about effectiveness of DRL environments in promoting students' knowledge of STEM concepts and problem-solving skills.
Motor skills and concepts acquisition and retention: a comparison between two styles of teaching. Adquisición y retención de habilidades motrices y de sus conceptos: una comparación entre dos estilos de enseñanza.
Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the command and guided discovery teaching style on learning manipulative skills and concepts by primary schoolchildren. Fifty nine first grade children, 6 to 7 years of age, were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD; Ulrich, 1985) was used for the assessment of motor performance. Skill concepts were assessed by a paper and pensil test based on those of Hopple (1995). Multivariate analysis of variance (2 styles of teaching X 3 measures) for repeated measures was used for data analysis. Results showed that both groups significantly improved skill performance. However, children in the command group, contrary to those in the guided discovery group, exhibited significantly lower scores in the retention measure, compared to their acquisition scores. Skill concepts acquisition and retention was achieved by all children. It seems that both styles are effective for both motor skill and concept learning but the guided discovery style contributes to better motor learning gains.Resumen El propósito de este estudio es investigar el efecto que dos estilos de enseñanza diferentes, la enseñanza basada en el comando y la enseñanza mediante el descubrimiento guiado, producen en la adquisición de habilidades motrices y de sus conceptos, en alumnos de Enseñanza Primaria. Tras distribuir aleatoriamente a cincuenta nueve alumnos de Primer Grado, 6 a 7 años, en dos grupos, se les aplicó el test de Desarrollo Motor Grueso (Ulrich, 1985) para evaluar el rendimiento en habilidades motrices. Los conceptos de la habilidad fueron evaluados por un test escrito, basado en los de Hopple (1995). Para el análisis de datos, fue empleado el análisis de la variación multivariante (2 estilos de enseñanza X 3 mediciones) para las medidas repetidas.Aunque los resultados demostraron que ambos grupos mejoraron significativamente el rendimiento en las habilidades, los niños del grupo con los que se utilizó el comando, contrariamente a los niños del grupo que trabajaron mediante el descubrimiento guiado, exhibieron puntuaciones notablemente más bajas en la medida de la retención que en la de la adquisición. Por otro lado, la adquisición y la retención de los conceptos, fueron alcanzadas por todos los niños. Por tanto, parece que ambos estilos son eficaces para el aprendizaje de las habilidades motrices y de sus conceptos, pero el descubrimiento guiado contribuye a mayores mejoras en el aprendizaje motriz.
Vassiliki Derri; Maria Pachta
Full Text Available In an exploratory study (Note 1) of the role of salary level and other factors in motivating undergraduate math, science, and technology majors to consider a career as a K-12 teacher, the salary level students said would motivate them to consider a career in teaching was related to the salary expected in their chosen non-teaching occupation, but not to three of the Big 5 personality dimensions of extroversion, agreeableness, and openness, nor concern for others or career risk aversion. An annual starting salary 45% above the local average would attract 48% of the sophomore students and 37% of the juniors. Focus group results suggested that low pay was an important reason for not considering K-12 teaching, but that perceived job demands and abilities and interests were also important reasons for not being attracted to a teaching career.
Full Text Available Rationale and features of collaborative learning and a CALL website construction is discussed to verify the validity of the application of collaborative learning in foreign language teaching. It shows that collaborative learning can effectively promote learners to communicate with others and enhance their abilities to solve problems with the support to group members. Thus it can improve the development of creative thinking and train lifelong learning skills.