WorldWideScience
1

Commiphora oddurensis Chiov. and C. suffruticosa Teshome (Burseraceae): : taxonomy, distribution, ecology and conservation status.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On field trips to southeastern Ethiopia in 2012 the authors collected a semi-prostrate shrub of the genus Commiphora and matching the taxon named “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” in the Flora of Ethiopia (1989). In the Flora of Somalia (1999) “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” was considered a synonym of Commiphora oddurensis Chiov. However, in 2006 “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” was described as a distinct species endemic to southeastern Ethiopia and named Commiphora suffruticosa Teshome. Although validly published, that scientific name has not been included in international data bases. After field observations and examination of almost all existing material in herbaria, it is concluded that the two taxa are best treated as subspecies, with some overlap in certain characters and a population of specimens in Central Somalia intermediate in leaf morphology: Commiphora oddurensis subsp. oddurensis, widely distributed in northeastern Kenya and northeastern and central Somalia, and subsp. suffruticosa, restricted to southeastern Ethiopia and adjacent parts of Southern Somalia. Apart from discussions and formal taxonomy, the paper includes new information on habit and habitat, distribution maps and conservation status, as well as photographs of living plants of C. oddurensis subsp. suffruticosa.

Demissew, Sebsebe; Friis, Ib

2013-01-01

2

Taxonomy, biodiversity, and ecology of Apusozoa (Protozoa)  

OpenAIRE

Apusozoa (Protozoa) is a phylum of heterotrophic gliding zooflagellates of unknown taxonomic affiliation, commonly observed in environmental samples. Almost nothing was previously known about the diversity and ecology of apusozoan species though, as bacterivores, they are probably important functional constituents within microbial assemblages.We explored apusozoan morphological and genetic diversity, ecology, and related methodological questions. By culturing environmental material ...

Glu?cksman, Edvard; Cavalier-smith, Thomas

2011-01-01

3

Taxonomy, phylogeny and reproductive ecology of Gentiana lutea L.  

OpenAIRE

This research focuses on taxonomy, phylogeny and reproductive ecology of Gentiana lutea. L.. Taxonomic analysis is a critical step in botanical studies, as it is necessary to recognize taxonomical unit. Herbarium specimens were observed to assess the reliability of several subspecies-diagnostic characters. The analysis of G. lutea genetic variability and the comparison with that of the other species of sect. Gentiana were performed to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among G. lutea sub...

Rossi, Martina

2012-01-01

4

Marine ecology service reuse through taxonomy-oriented SPL development  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, reusing software applications encourages researchers and industrials to collaborate in order to increase software quality and to reduce software development costs. However, effective reuse is not easy and only a limited portion of reusable models actually offers effective evidence regarding their appropriateness, usability and/or effectiveness. Focusing reuse on a particular domain, such as marine ecology, allows us to narrow the scope; and along with a systematic approach such as software product line development, helps us to potentially improving reuse. From our experiences developing a subdomain-oriented software product line (SPL for the marine ecology subdomain), in this paper we describe semantic resources created for assisting this development and thus promoting systematic software reuse. The main contributions of our work are focused on the definition of a standard conceptual model for marine ecology applications together with a set of services and guides which assist the process of product derivation. The services are structured in a service taxonomy (as a specialization of the ISO 19119 std) in which we create a new set of categories and services built over a conceptual model for marine ecology applications. We also define and exemplify a set of guides for composing the services of the taxonomy in order to fulfill different functionalities of particular systems in the subdomain.

Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Pol`la, Matias; Arias, Maximiliano; del Socorro Doldan, Maria; Morsan, Enrique

2014-12-01

5

First record of Hypsocephalus dahli in Switzerland with a review of ist distribution, ecology and taxonomy (Araneae, Linyphiidae)  

OpenAIRE

The spider species Hypsocephalus dahli (Lessert, 1909) is recorded for the first time in Switzerland from museum material collected in 1974. The information given in the literature and unpublished data on this rare species are summarised including an annotated distribution map. All published pictures of males are compared with the holotype. Figures of the male palp and the vulva of the Swiss specimens are provided.

Frick, Holger

2008-01-01

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Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución  

OpenAIRE

Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S) and Tierra del Fuego (55° S). Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such...

CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS; MAXIMILLIAN RÜTH

2005-01-01

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[Distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in the Sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of a microgastropod identified as Potamopyrgus sp. was detected previously in the Maracaibo System; nevertheless, a detailed morphological analysis identified this snail in other genera. The objective of this work is to update the distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis in the Maracaibo System, Venezuela in samples obtained between 2001 and 2009. The presence of hundreds of individuals of P. platyrachis were observed in the estuary, indeed in the localities of the Gran Eneal lagoon (4 111 snails), Peonías lagoon (229 snails), Punta Capitán Chico (758 snails), San Francisco (2 517 snails), Curarire (240 snails), Apon River mouth (173 snails), Ojeda City (240 snails), Bachaquero (128 snails) and Tomoporo de Agua (385 snails). We performed a taxonomical analysis, and emphasized in ecological aspects, such as the distribution of the species and habitat features, as near vegetation and type of associated sediment. We found three morphotypes of the species, one smooth, another with spiral striations and the other with spines. Smooth morphotype was exclusive of the Gran Eneal lagoon, Peonías lagoon, Punta Capitan Chico and Apon River mouth localities, whereas the other two morphotypes were found together in the remaining localities. According to our detailed anatomical and taxonomical analysis we propose a synonymy between P. platyrachis and the other species described like Pyrgophorus parvulus and Pyrgophorus spinosus. PMID:22017122

Nava, Mario; Severeyn, Héctor; Machado, Nakary

2011-09-01

8

The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae) in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presented. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América...

Macculloch, Ross D.; Amy Lathrop; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Raffael Ernst; Michelle Kalamandeen

2009-01-01

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Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.Foram realizadas coletas em 207 corpos de água, distribuídos em 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos (UHGRH do estado de São Paulo no período de 1999 a 2002, abrangendo grandes e pequenos reservatórios, lagoas marginais e grandes rios. Nestas coletas foram analisadas as espécies do gênero Thermocyclops quanto à taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e freqüência de ocorrência. O gênero Thermocyclops ocorreu em corpos de água com zona limnética bem desenvolvida e com raras exceções em ambientes estritamente litorâneos. Foram registradas quatro espécies, sendo Thermcyclops iguapensis espécie nova, que ocorreu nos reservatórios das UHGRHs Ribeira do Iguape e Paraíba do Sul. A descrição da espécie nova e a distribuição das quatro espécies são apresentadas, mostrando que Thermocyclops decipiens foi a espécie mais freqüente, ocorrendo em 71% dos corpos de água com região limnética desenvolvida. Esta espécie é característica de ambientes eutróficos, onde ocorre em grande número, e a espécie Thermocyclops minutus é característica de ambientes oligotróficos. Thermocyclops inversus e Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. não são espécies freqüentes, mas podem co-ocorrer com a espécie Thermocyclops decipiens.

W. M. Silva

2005-08-01

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Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species / Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram realizadas coletas em 207 corpos de água, distribuídos em 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos (UHGRH) do estado de São Paulo no período de 1999 a 2002, abrangendo grandes e pequenos reservatórios, lagoas marginais e grandes rios. Nestas coletas foram analisadas as espécies do gên [...] ero Thermocyclops quanto à taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e freqüência de ocorrência. O gênero Thermocyclops ocorreu em corpos de água com zona limnética bem desenvolvida e com raras exceções em ambientes estritamente litorâneos. Foram registradas quatro espécies, sendo Thermcyclops iguapensis espécie nova, que ocorreu nos reservatórios das UHGRHs Ribeira do Iguape e Paraíba do Sul. A descrição da espécie nova e a distribuição das quatro espécies são apresentadas, mostrando que Thermocyclops decipiens foi a espécie mais freqüente, ocorrendo em 71% dos corpos de água com região limnética desenvolvida. Esta espécie é característica de ambientes eutróficos, onde ocorre em grande número, e a espécie Thermocyclops minutus é característica de ambientes oligotróficos. Thermocyclops inversus e Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. não são espécies freqüentes, mas podem co-ocorrer com a espécie Thermocyclops decipiens. Abstract in english The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits [...] mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.

W. M., Silva; T., Matsumura-Tundisi.

2005-08-01

11

A Taxonomy and Survey of Distributed Computing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Technology is the combination of knowledge and working hard. When users want to accomplish something using special technology, they do not want to know how it works. Technologies are coming to solve and ease our complex problems. It means that users only want to employ technology without any expert skills. Distributed computing is one of the technologies that is used to solve large and complex computational problems. It is based on distributed systems to address computational problems. In this study we are going to highlight the most well-known distributed computing paradigms and explain their technology building blocks. We provide a comprehensive explanation of cloud computing, volunteer computing and also volunteer cloud computing paradigm along with their advantages and also their open issues.

Mohammadfazel Anjomshoa

2015-01-01

12

The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae) in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América do Sul. Os espécimes e registros de Oxyrhopus da Guyana foram examinados. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis e O. petola ocorre na Guyana. Os dados de morfologia e coloração destas espécies são apr [...] esentados. As distribuições destas espécies e caracteres para distinguir essas espécies são discutidos. Abstract in english Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presen [...] ted. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.

Ross D., MacCulloch; Amy, Lathrop; Philippe J. R., Kok; Raffael, Ernst; Michelle, Kalamandeen.

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The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presented. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América do Sul. Os espécimes e registros de Oxyrhopus da Guyana foram examinados. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis e O. petola ocorre na Guyana. Os dados de morfologia e coloração destas espécies são apresentados. As distribuições destas espécies e caracteres para distinguir essas espécies são discutidos.

Ross D. MacCulloch

2009-01-01

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A survey and taxonomy of distributed certificate authorities in mobile ad hoc networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Certificate authorities (CAs are the main components of PKI that enable us for providing basic security services in wired networks and Internet. But, we cannot use centralized CAs, in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. So, many efforts have been made to adapt CA to the special characteristics of MANETs and new concepts such as distributed CAs (DCAs have been proposed that distribute the functionality of CA between MANET nodes. In this article, we study various proposed DCA schemes for MANET and then classify these schemes according to their internal structures and techniques. Finally, we propose the characteristics of an ideal DCA system that can be used to verify the completeness of any DCA scheme. This classification and taxonomy identify the weakness and constraints of each scheme, and are very important for designing more secure, scalable, and high performance DCA systems for MANETs and other networks.

Jabbehdari Sam

2011-01-01

15

The necessity of DNA taxonomy to reveal cryptic diversity and spatial distribution of meiofauna, with a focus on Nemertea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meiofauna represent one of the most abundant and diverse communities in marine benthic ecosystems. However, an accurate assessment of diversity at the level of species has been and remains challenging for these microscopic organisms. Therefore, for many taxa, especially the soft body forms such as nemerteans, which often lack clear diagnostic morphological traits, DNA taxonomy is an effective means to assess species diversity. Morphological taxonomy of Nemertea is well documented as complicated by scarcity of unambiguous character states and compromised by diagnoses of a majority of species (and higher clades) being inadequate or based on ambiguous characters and character states. Therefore, recent studies have advocated for the primacy of molecular tools to solve the taxonomy of this group. DNA taxonomy uncovers possible hidden cryptic species, provides a coherent means to systematize taxa in definite clades, and also reveals possible biogeographic patterns. Here, we analyze diversity of nemertean species by considering the barcode region of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and different species delineation approaches in order to infer evolutionarily significant units. In the aim to uncover actual diversity of meiofaunal nemerteans across different sites in Central America, COI sequences were obtained for specimens assigned here to the genera Cephalothrix, Ototyphlonemertes, and Tetrastemma-like worms, each commonly encountered in our sampling. Additional genetic, taxonomic, and geographic data of other specimens belonging to these genera were added from GenBank. Results are consistent across different DNA taxonomy approaches, and revealed (i) the presence of several hidden cryptic species and (ii) numerous potential misidentifications due to traditional taxonomy. (iii) We additionally test a possible biogeographic pattern of taxonomic units revealed by this study, and, except for a few cases, the putative species seem not to be widely distributed, in contrast to what traditional taxonomy would suggest for the recognized morphotypes. PMID:25093815

Leasi, Francesca; Norenburg, Jon L

2014-01-01

16

Introducing W.A.T.E.R.S.: a Workflow for the Alignment, Taxonomy, and Ecology of Ribosomal Sequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background For more than two decades microbiologists have used a highly conserved microbial gene as a phylogenetic marker for bacteria and archaea. The small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene, also known as 16 S rRNA, is encoded by ribosomal DNA, 16 S rDNA, and has provided a powerful comparative tool to microbial ecologists. Over time, the microbial ecology field has matured from small-scale studies in a select number of environments to massive collections of sequence data that are paired with dozens of corresponding collection variables. As the complexity of data and tool sets have grown, the need for flexible automation and maintenance of the core processes of 16 S rDNA sequence analysis has increased correspondingly. Results We present WATERS, an integrated approach for 16 S rDNA analysis that bundles a suite of publicly available 16 S rDNA analysis software tools into a single software package. The "toolkit" includes sequence alignment, chimera removal, OTU determination, taxonomy assignment, phylogentic tree construction as well as a host of ecological analysis and visualization tools. WATERS employs a flexible, collection-oriented 'workflow' approach using the open-source Kepler system as a platform. Conclusions By packaging available software tools into a single automated workflow, WATERS simplifies 16 S rDNA analyses, especially for those without specialized bioinformatics, programming expertise. In addition, WATERS, like some of the newer comprehensive rRNA analysis tools, allows researchers to minimize the time dedicated to carrying out tedious informatics steps and to focus their attention instead on the biological interpretation of the results. One advantage of WATERS over other comprehensive tools is that the use of the Kepler workflow system facilitates result interpretation and reproducibility via a data provenance sub-system. Furthermore, new "actors" can be added to the workflow as desired and we see WATERS as an initial seed for a sizeable and growing repository of interoperable, easy-to-combine tools for asking increasingly complex microbial ecology questions.

Ludäscher Bertram

2010-06-01

17

Theropithecus gelada distribution and variations related to taxonomy: history, challenges and implications for conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the uniqueness and importance of Theropithecus in palaeontological studies, little is known about the geographical and taxonomic differentiation in this genus, now restricted to the Ethiopian Highlands. Traditionally, the single living species Theropithecus gelada (Rüppell 1835) has been considered to comprise two subspecies: the nominate T. g. gelada in the northern highlands, and T. g. obscurus Heuglin 1863, from latitude 12 degrees to 9 degrees N in the south. Both the distributions and the physical characters of these two subspecies are poorly defined, and even in recent major taxonomic revisions, the validity of T. g. obscurus has been questioned. The history of gelada taxonomy and museum collections is reviewed here, and results are compared with the biogeography and major physical features of the Ethiopian Highlands. It is concluded that major gaps exist in our knowledge of the differentiation and distributions of Theropithecus populations. Following this literature review, a series of priority regions for taxonomic research and conservation are identified. These include the gathering of data on (1) geladas inhabiting the Wollo Region, from where obscurus was originally described; (2) the identity of geladas of the Tigray Region northeast of the Tacazzé River, and their current conservation status; (3) the identity of the Shewa population, usually assigned to obscurus; and (4) the identity and current status of geladas found northeast and south of Lake Tana, including Gojjam. PMID:20509040

Gippoliti, Spartaco

2010-10-01

18

Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

19

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male and S. mucronata (both sexes. They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif

2009-01-01

20

Early Carboniferous Chinese and Australian „Siphonodendron” (Anthozoa, Rugosa): ecological and geographical influence on taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

Normal marine salinity is the main limiting factor for the Subclass Rugosa. Water depth and temperature are less critical. Individual characteristics of specimens and some characteristics of species are, however, excellent environmental indicators. Being distributed exclusively by larvae, Rugosa required free distribution by means of marine currents, as well as midway areas suitable for settlement and metamorphosis of the larvae. Not distance but rather geography and midway environments are t...

Fedorowski, Jerzy

2008-01-01

21

Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently. Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological research have provided so much data and insights, that among insects - and arguably most other terrestrial organisms - carabid beetles are one of the most worthwhile model groups for biological studies.

Rikjan Vermeulen

2011-05-01

22

Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological research have provided so much data and insights, that among insects - and arguably most other terrestrial organisms - carabid beetles are one of the most worthwhile model groups for biological studies. PMID:21738408

Kotze, D. Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J.; Lövei, Gábor L.; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

2011-01-01

23

On the Widespread Occurrence of the Inverse Square Distribution in Social Sciences and Taxonomy  

CERN Document Server

The widespread occurrence of an inverse square relation in the hierarchical distribution of sub-communities within communities (or sub-species within species) has been recently invoked as a signature of hierarchical self-organization within social and ecological systems. Here we show that, whether such systems are self-organized or not, this behavior is the consequence of the tree-like classification method. Different tree-like classifications (both of real and truly random systems) display a similar statistical behaviour when considering the sizes of their sub-branches.

Caldarelli, G; De Rios, P L; Servedio, V D P; Caldarelli, Guido; Cartozo, Cecile Caretta; Rios, Paolo De Los; Servedio, Vito D.P.

2003-01-01

24

Besprechung der CD „SNUDEBILLER 3 - studies on taxonomy, biology and ecology of Curculionoidea” vom Curculio-Institut, Mönchengladbach  

OpenAIRE

Am 1. November 2002 erschien die 3. Ausgabe des SNUDEBILLER, der weltweit ersten digitalen Fachzeitschrift zur Taxonomie, Biologie und Ökologie der Rüsselkäfer auf CD ROM. Der Rezensent hat lange gewartet und die Entwicklung des SNUDEBILLER-Reaktionsteams im CURCULIO-Institut in den letzten drei Jahren aufmerksam beobachtet, bevor er sich jetzt an eine erste Bestandsaufnahme wagt.

Wenzel, Edmund

2008-01-01

25

The Geomyces fungi: ecology and distribution  

Science.gov (United States)

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating disease affecting hibernating bats, first documented in winter 2006 in eastern North America. Over 5.5 million bats of several species may have died as a result of this disease. The fungus Geomyces destructans is now considered the causal agent of WNS, and this species may have been recently introduced into North American bat hibernation habitats. This overview summarizes the ecology and distribution of Geomyces fungi. Species in this genus are common in the soils of temperate and high-latitude ecosystems and are capable of withstanding and thriving in cold, low-nutrient polar environments. These species are dispersed by wind, groundwater, arthropods, birds, and mammals and are carried by humans, their clothing, and their equipment. These characteristics present significant challenges to biologists, managers, and others charged with controlling the spread of WNS and G. destructans in other parts of North America and the biosphere.

Hayes, Mark A.

2012-01-01

26

The reminiscence bump for public events: A review of its prevalence and taxonomy of alternative age distributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present paper examines the extant literature on the reminiscence bump for public events (the finding that public events are generally remembered best by those in adolescence or early adulthood at the time of their occurrence), with the aim of identifying (i) whether this bump in fact represents a legitimate effect, and (ii) the alternative age distributions that are otherwise seen in recall for public events. I conclude that, though the bump is frequently found, the legitimacy of the effect is contingent upon the strictness of the standard one employs. I also find significant exceptions to the bump, with a number of alternative age distributions seen in the literature. Therefore, I present a taxonomy of these alternative age distributions. Lastly, I discuss the implications of the existing literature regarding the mechanisms underlying the bump and offer suggestions for future research.

Koppel, Jonathan Mark

2013-01-01

27

Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans ... Nematoda Caenorhabditis_elegans _L.png Caenorhabditis_elegans _NL.png Caeno ... rhabditis_elegans _S.png Caenorhabditis_elegans _NS.png http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

28

Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series  

OpenAIRE

Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome coun...

Saxena, R. B.

2010-01-01

29

CARRAGENOPHYTAS ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The carragenophytas species are defined as macro-algae, members of the Phylum Rodophyta, Rodophyceae Class, Florideophycidae Subclass, Gigartinales Order. The most important commercial species at the international level are the Betaphycus, Eucheuma and Kappaphycus genera and at the national level the species belonging to the Gigartina, Mazzaella and Sarcothalia genera. Because of its commercial importance, the Gigartina genus has been the object of investigations such as: Ecology of populations in estuaries and open coast in the North-East Atlantic species; it has been studied by Mathieson and Tveter (1976 in relation with its carragenine quantity and quality. Studies about the response to photoperiods (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984 have identified reproductive “windows” suggesting that the explanations for vegetative multiplication are more exclusive each time, different from gametangial or tetra-sporangial production in populations of high latitudes from a generalized European species. Genetic determination of ramification patterns and tolerance limits to temperature has been established for several species (Guiry et al., 1987; Buschmann, 2001. Species cultivation viability in artificial substrates has been evaluated by Mumford y Waaland (1980, and it showed commercial potential. This genus has distribution worldwide in warm and cold seas. However, very few species happen in subtropical regions. The particularly rich species biodiversity centers are California, Japan, New Zealand, Chile y South Africa (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011.

MARGARITA DEL R. SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ

2012-12-01

30

Revision of the world Monoctonia Starý, parasitoids of gall aphids: taxonomy, distribution, host range, and phylogeny (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: Aphidiinae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper represents a contribution to the knowledge of the taxonomy of Monoctonia Starý aphid parasitoids obtained using the barcoding region of the mitochondrial COI gene. We discuss the phylogenetic position of the genus within the subtribe Monoctonina, redescribe known species, and describe Monoctonia japonica sp. n. from Japan in the association Pemphigus matsumurai Monzen/Populus maximowiczii. A key for species identification is provided. Also, we review and discuss the host records, origin, and geographical distribution of Monoctonia species. It is hypothesized that the genus Monoctonia evolved in Paleogene forests of the temperate (and subtropical) belt, most probably in the European part of the Mediterranean region, which is also the center of origin of their host plants.  PMID:25661225

Rakhshani, Ehsan; Starý, Petr; Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; ?krki?, Jelisaveta; Moghaddam, Mostafa Ghafouri; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Petrovi?, Andjeljko; Tomanovi?, Željko

2015-01-01

31

Ecological distribution of stream macroalgae in different spatial scales using taxonomic and morphological groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two drainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State , Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins, shading regime (open and shaded stream segments, mesohabitats (riffles and pools, and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05m2. A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments, while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments.

Rogério Antonio Krupek

2012-01-01

32

Taxonomy Icon Data: Asian Swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Asian Swallowtail Papilio ... xuthus Arthropoda Papilio _xuthus_L.png Papilio _xuthus_NL.png Papilio _x ... uthus_S.png Papilio _xuthus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ... n/icon.cgi?i=Papilio +xuthus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ... con.cgi?i=Papilio +xuthus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ... icon.cgi?i=Papilio +xuthus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Common mormon [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Common mormon Papilio ... polytes Arthropoda Papilio _polytes_L.png Papilio _polytes_NL.png Papilio _po ... lytes_S.png Papilio _polytes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ... on/icon.cgi?i=Papilio +polytes&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ... icon.cgi?i=Papilio +polytes&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Papilio +polytes&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

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[Helminths of birds and mammals from Israel. VI. The taxonomy and ecology of Trichostrongylid Nematodes (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen species of trichostronglyloid nematodes have so far been recorded from wild birds and mammals in Israel and surrounding territories. Three species were found in birds: Amidostomum fulicae (Rudolphi, 1819) in Fulica atra L., 1758, A. acutum (Lundahl, 1848) in Anas crecca L., 1758 AND Amidostomum sp. in Ceryle rudis L., 1758. Ten species, 3 of which are new, were found in small mammals: Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Giles, 1892) in Hystrix indica Kerr, 1792; Tenorastrongylus josephi n. sp. in Mus musculus L., 1758; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Travassos, 1914) in Rattus norvegicus Berk, 1796 and Rattus rattus L., 1758; Nippostrongylus witenbergi Greenberg, 1972, in Nesokia indica Gray et Hardw., 1832; Heligmonina nevoi n. sp. in Spalax ehrenbergi, Nehring, 1898; Boreostrongylus seurati (Travassos et Darriba, 1929) in Gerbillus allenbyi Thomas, 1918, G. pyramidum Geoffrey, 1825, G. (Dipodillus) dasyurus, Meriones sacramenti Thomas, 1922 and M. tristrami Thomas, 1892; Boreostrongylus minutus (Dujardin, 1845) in Microtus guentheri Danford et Alsen, 1880; Heligmosomoides polygyrus polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) in Apodemus mystacinus Danf. et Alst., 1877 and A. sylvaticus L., 1758; Suncinema witenbergi n. sp. in Crocidura russula Herm., 1780. Ecologic and zoogeographic relationships are discussed. PMID:776059

Wertheim, G; Durette-Desset, M

1975-01-01

35

Taxonomy Icon Data: soybean [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available soybean Glycine ... max Glycine _max_L.png Glycine _max_NL.png Glycine _max_S.png Glycine _max_NS.png ht ... tp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine +max&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon ... .cgi?i=Glycine +max&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available sorghum ... Sorghum ... bicolor Sorghum _bicolor_L.png Sorghum _bicolor_NL.png Sorghum _bicolor_S.png Sorghum ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum +bicolor&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ... icon.cgi?i=Sorghum +bicolor&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: rape [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available rape Brassica ... napus Brassica _napus_L.png Brassica _napus_NL.png Brassica _napus_S.png Brassica _nap ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica +napus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic ... on.cgi?i=Brassica +napus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: apple [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available apple Malus ... pumila Malus _pumila_L.png Malus _pumila_NL.png Malus _pumila_S.png Malus _pumila_NS.png ... http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus +pumila&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ... con.cgi?i=Malus +pumila&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

39

Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum ... annuum Capsicum _annuum_L.png Capsicum _annuum_NL.png Capsicum _annuum_S.png ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum +annuum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ... con.cgi?i=Capsicum +annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

40

Typha laxmannii Lepech. the new, expansive kenophyte in Poland: Distribution and taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper provides data on a new antropophyte species - Typha laxmannii Lepech. which spreads throughout Poland as a hemiagriophyte. Its present distribution in Poland is given on a cartogramme map in a 10×10 km square grid and its geographic element, population numbers and notes on habitats are provided. An identification key to 5 species of the Typha genus, two native, one new which is the topic of this paper, and two which can be expected to be discovered in Poland.

Agnieszka Nikel

2005-03-01

41

Infra-specific folk taxonomy in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in Ethiopia: folk nomenclature, classification, and criteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations. Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.

Mekbib Firew

2007-12-01

42

Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta in Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil: Taxonomy and distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed the morphogical features of the centric diatom Skeletonema potamos (Weber Hasle from Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the abundance and dis- tribution of the species along the salinity gradient in the lagoon. Samples from the water surface were taken monthly at eight stations along the longitudinal axis of the lagoon, from December 1987 to December 1988. The species were counted by the Utermöhl method, and the density (cells.mL-1 was estimated based on live cells. The morphology of the specimens agrees with the type, from the Little Miami River, Ohio, U.S.A., except for the convexity and the pattern of granules on the valve face. Skeletonema potamos was found in the winter and spring, and was distributed in the limnetic, oligohaline and mesohaline zones of the lagoon. The cell con- centration appeared to be controlled by the salinity, with a significant negative correlation observed. Light and competition probably also influence the development of S. potamos populations in the Patos Lagoon.

Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

2011-07-01

43

Taxonomy and distribution of Formica dusmeti Emery, 1909 and of F. frontalis Santschi, 1919 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work, we indicate the distribution of and taxonomic differences between Formica dusmeti and Formica frontalis (stat. n.. Morphological differences include a total absence of hairs in F. dusmeti as opposed to uniformly scattered hairs in F. frontalis. These two species have similar coloration and hairless scapes and eyes. In addition, we describe the male and female of F. frontalis, a species that was considered until now to be a subspecies of F. truncorum. We consider F. frontalis to be a separate species from F. truncorum, differentiated by a lack of hairs on the eyes, scapes and genae in the workers of the former. The males of F. frontalis are distinguished from F. truncorum by hairless eyes and scapes. Finally, a key has been formulated for the workers in the rufa, sanguinea and exsecta groups of the genus Formica in the Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se señalan las diferencias existentes entre Formica dusmeti y Formica frontalis (stat. n. y su distribución. Estas diferencias estriban en la ausencia total de quetas en F. dusmeti y la presencia de numerosas quetas uniformemente distribuidas en F. frontalis. Estas dos especies presentan en común la coloración y la ausencia de quetas en escapo y ojos. Describimos el macho y la hembra de F. frontalis, especie que era considerada hasta ahora como subespecie de F. truncorum. En este artículo la elevamos a especie y la diferenciamos de F. truncorum por la ausencia de quetas en los ojos, escapos y genas de las obreras. Los machos se diferencian también por la ausencia de quetas en ojos y escapos. Por último se realiza una clave para las obreras de la Península Ibérica de las especies de Formica de los grupos rufa, sanguinea y exsecta.

Martínez-Ibáñez, Mª. D.

1998-12-01

44

The Dusky Large Blue – Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) in the Transylvanian basin: New data on taxonomy and ecology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maculinea nausithous (Bergsträsser, 1779) was recently discovered in two parts of the Transylvanian basin. External characters of these populations completely agree with the original description of Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) and show some small but constant differences against the Central European nominotypic populations. Since the habitats and host ant selection of these populations are also different from the Central European populations, we consider M. nausithous kijevensis stat. rev. as valid subspeciÀ c taxon. Specimens with the same external characters were also collected in northeastern Romania, in Kazakhstan and in the western part of the Altai Mts. Therefore we believe that this subspecies has a wider Euro-Siberian distribution.

Rákosy, Laszló; Tartally, András

2010-01-01

45

Ecological distribution of stream macroalgae in different spatial scales using taxonomic and morphological groups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types) with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two dr [...] ainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State , Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins), shading regime (open and shaded stream segments), mesohabitats (riffles and pools), and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05m2). A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups) were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments), while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments) were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments.

Rogério Antonio, Krupek; Ciro Cesar Zanini, Branco.

46

Abundance-variance and abundance-occupancy relationships in a marine host-parasite system: the importance of taxonomy and ecology of transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abundance-occupancy and abundance-variance relationships are two of the most general macroecological patterns capturing essential fundamentals of the structuring of species distributions and are widely documented for free-living animal and plant species populations at different spatial scales. However, empirical data for parasites have been gathered using appropriate sampling designs only recently. We performed analyses across species of the variation in infection parameters and patterns of aggregation of the most widespread parasites in the marine sparid fish Boops boops across seven localities of two marine biogeographical regions, the North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean. We used a large dataset of multiple population samples replicated over time for 20 parasite species and carried out assessments both intraspecifically and interspecifically, across taxonomic and ecological groupings. This taxonomically diverse complex of species representing five major metazoan higher taxa with differing transmission ecologies allowed us to assess the effect of taxonomic and ecological determinants on the abundance-occupancy and abundance-variance relationships in the model marine host-parasite system. The results revealed that: (i) a power function, relating spatial variance to mean abundance, represents a suitable model for the spatial distribution of the species; (ii) prevalence, abundance and the degree of spatial heterogeneity are true species characteristics and differ consistently between higher level taxonomic groupings; (iii) infection parameters and abundance-variance relationship are dependent on host specificity and regional distribution patterns of the parasites; and (iv) the observed infection parameters agree well with predictions from the epidemiological negative binomial abundance-occupancy model built on parameters of Taylor's power law both within and across species. PMID:22051400

Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana; Morand, Serge; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

2011-11-01

47

Ecology and Taxonomy of Water Canyon, Canadian County, Oklahoma, Master's Thesis, University of Oklahoma 1961 [Revised 2013  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous canyons have been cut into the Rush Springs Sandstone of Permian age in West Central Oklahoma and subsequently refilled. Some of these canyons have been partly exposed by erosion of the sediment fill. Fossils collected indicate the canyon fill is sub-Pleistocene to geologically recent. The microclimate of these canyons is more mesic compared to the dryer prairie uplands. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum persists there, far west of its other locations in very eastern Oklahoma. Beginning in 1932 several of these sediment-filled canyons began a process of rapid erosion, exposing the rock walls of the canyons. This study is a comparison of Water Canyon and two of its branches: Water Branch Canyon, a stable canyon wooded with mature vegetation including sugar maple and Activity Branch Canyon, a newly excavated canyon branch that began eroding after excessive rainfall in 1932. This study was completed in 1960. Six transects are used to show the distribution of the 233 plant species found in the Water Canyon complex. Herbaceous species generally were unique to each canyon type.

Constance E. Taylor

2014-03-01

48

Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution / Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los moluscos del extremo sur de Sudamérica son desde un punto de vista taxonómico moderadamente bien conocidos. Sin embargo, la literatura está dispersa, hay poca información sobre sus hábitat y son muy pocos los registros distribucionales, particularmente en el área de los fiordos comprendidos entr [...] e la Isla de Chiloé (42° S) y Tierra del Fuego (55° S). Aunque se sabe bastante acerca de la biología y ecología de algunas especies de Nacellidae, la taxonomía del grupo ha sido relativamente poco estudiada, particularmente en áreas remotas del planeta, como es el caso de los fiordos chilenos. El interés del presente estudio ha sido clarificar el estatus nomenclatural y describir las características morfológicas y distribuciones de los Nacellidae chilenos. En particular, se plantearon los siguientes objetivos: (i) clarificar la identidad de las especies descritas, (ii) descripción de detalles morfológicos, destacando los caracteres diagnósticos de cada especie, y (iii) delimitación y discusión de sus rangos geográficos. El análisis de los Nacellidae de los fiordos chilenos ha permitido el reconocimiento de una especie de Nacella (Nacella) y siete de N. (Patinigera), cuyas principales diferencias a nivel de especie radican en la concha (forma, espesor y color) y en la morfología de la dentición radular. El género Nacella y su subgénero Patinigera son habitantes exclusivos de aguas antárticas y subantárticas. Estos organismos son lapas de aguas frías fundamentalmente subantárticas, pero que también se extienden hacia la Antártica por el área del Arco de Escocia, y hacia el norte a lo largo de la costa chilena, hasta el área de Valparaíso a 33° S (N. (P.) clypeater). Aparentemente este género tiene su centro de distribución en la Provincia magallánica en el sur de Sudamérica, correspondiendo a un área de elevada diversidad de especies (N. (N.) mytilina, N. (P.) chiloensis, N. (P.) deaurata, N. (P.) delicatissima, N. (P.) flammea, N. (P.) magellanica, N. (P.) venosa), donde las especies tienden a dispersarse hacia el este, con un transporte larval probablemente facilitado por la corriente de deriva del oeste que opera fuertemente en la zona subantártica Abstract in english Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S) and Tierra del Fuego (55° [...] S). Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such as the Chilean fjords. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the nomenclatural status, and establish the morphological characteristics and distribution of the Chilean Nacellidae. Especially, the following three objectives are pursued: (i) to clarify the correct identity of existing species; (ii) to describe of morphological details, highlighting the clear diagnostic characters of each species, and (iii) to delimitate and discuss their geographical range in Chile. The examination of the Nacellidae of the Chilean fiords has resulted in the recognition of one species of Nacella (Nacella) and seven species of Nacella (Patinigera), wherein the principal specific differences are in the shell (shape, thickness and color) and in radular teeth morphology. The genus Nacella and its subgenus Patinigera are cold-water limpets, and are exclusively inhabitants of Subantarctic and Antarctic waters. The greater part of their range being subantarctic, but extending to the Antarctic by way of the Scotia Arc, and also ranging northward up the Chilean coast to at least Valparaiso at 33° S (only N. (P.) clypeater). They apparently have their centre of distribution in the Magellanic Province of southern South America, corresponding to an area with a high degree of di

CLAUDIO, VALDOVINOS; MAXIMILLIAN, RÜTH.

2005-09-01

49

Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available llama ... Lama ... glama ... Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Lama _glama _L.png Lama ... _glama _NL.png Lama _glama _S.png Lama _glama _NS.png http://b ... iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama +glama &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic ... on.cgi?i=Lama +glama &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ... con.cgi?i=Lama +glama &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: field mustard [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available field mustard Brassica rapa ... Brassica_rapa _L.png Brassica_rapa _NL.png Brassica_rapa _S.png Brassic ... a_rapa _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon. ... cgi?i=Brassica+rapa &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Brassica+rapa &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Brassica+rapa &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Budding yeast [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Saccharomyces_cerevisiae _L.png Saccharomyces_cerevisiae _N ... L.png Saccharomyces_cerevisiae _S.png Saccharomyces_cerevisiae _NS.png http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus japonicus [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Lotus japonicus ... Lotus japonicus ... Lotus_japonicus _L.png Lotus_japonicus _NL.png Lotus_japonicus _S.p ... ng Lotus_japonicus _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon. ... cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Lotus+japonicus &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Lotus+japonicus &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

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Projecting date palm distribution in Iran under climate change using topography, physicochemical soil properties, soil taxonomy, land use, and climate data  

Science.gov (United States)

This study set out to model potential date palm distribution under current and future climate scenarios using an emission scenario, in conjunction with two different global climate models (GCMs): CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS), and MIROC-H (MR), and to refine results based on suitability under four nonclimatic parameters. Areas containing suitable physicochemical soil properties and suitable soil taxonomy, together with land slopes of less than 10° and suitable land uses for date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera) were selected as appropriate refining tools to ensure the CLIMEX results were accurate and robust. Results showed that large regions of Iran are projected as likely to become climatically suitable for date palm cultivation based on the projected scenarios for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2100. The study also showed CLIMEX outputs merit refinement by nonclimatic parameters and that the incremental introduction of each additional parameter decreased the disagreement between GCMs. Furthermore, the study indicated that the least amount of disagreement in terms of areas conducive to date palm cultivation resulted from CS and MR GCMs when the locations of suitable physicochemical soil properties and soil taxonomy were used as refinement tools.

Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit; Taylor, Subhashni

2014-11-01

54

Taxonomy Icon Data: valencia orange [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available valencia orange Citrus ... sinensis Citrus _sinensis_L.png Citrus _sinensis_NL.png Citrus _sinensis_S.p ... ng Citrus _sinensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i ... con/icon.cgi?i=Citrus +sinensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Clementine [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Clementine Citrus ... clementina Citrus _clementina_L.png Citrus _clementina_NL.png Citrus _clementina_ ... S.png Citrus _clementina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ... _icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus +clementina&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Toxoplasma ... gondii Toxoplasma ... gondii Toxoplasma _gondii_L.png Toxoplasma _gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma _ ... gondii_S.png Toxoplasma _gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ... n/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma +gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: koji mold [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available koji mold Aspergillus ... oryzae Aspergillus _oryzae_L.png Aspergillus _oryzae_NL.png Aspergillus _oryz ... ae_S.png Aspergillus _oryzae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ... n/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus +oryzae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available fruit fly Drosophila ... melanogaster Arthropoda Drosophila _melanogaster_L.png Drosophila _melanogast ... er_NL.png Drosophila _melanogaster_S.png Drosophila _melanogaster_NS.png ... http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila +melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available cabbage Brassica ... oleracea Brassica _oleracea_L.png Brassica _oleracea_NL.png Brassica _oleracea_S.p ... ng Brassica _oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i ... con/icon.cgi?i=Brassica +oleracea&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available potato Solanum ... tuberosum Solanum _tuberosum_L.png Solanum _tuberosum_NL.png Solanum _tuberosum_S.pn ... g Solanum _tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ ... icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum +tuberosum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Bornean orangutan [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Bornean orangutan Pongo ... pygmaeus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Pongo _pygm ... aeus_L.png Pongo _pygmaeus_NL.png Pongo _pygmaeus_S.png Pongo _pygmaeu ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo +pygmaeus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

62

Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales, variables associated with climate, energy, and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity. Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens. The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS, simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR, conditional autoregressive models (CAR, spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. To test the assumption of stationarity, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used. Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa, particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique. We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/ energy hypotheses, and as we expected, support varied among bat families and model selection. Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families. Altitude range was the only independent variable that was sig­nificant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness. Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models, while those of SEVM models differed. Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationa­rity was violated, the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models. Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges, and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3: 279–293, 2013].

M. Corrie SCHOEMAN, F. P. D. (Woody COTTERILL, Peter J. TAYLOR, Ara MONADJEM

2013-06-01

63

Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis "Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842" (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies - Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km(2). Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925-1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most Pteropus phaeocephalus pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5-10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp.) being a preferred food. Records of females with young (April, July) and pregnant females (July) suggest an extended breeding season. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus appears most threatened by the prospect of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies. PMID:24194666

Buden, Donald W; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J

2013-01-01

64

Ecological distribution of four co-occurring Mediterranean heath species  

OpenAIRE

Erica australis, E. scoparia, E. arborea and Calluna vulgaris are the most abundant heath species on acid, sandstone-derived soils of the Strait of Gibraltar region (southern Spain and northern Morocco). Despite their apparently similar ecological requirements, these four species are somewhat ecologically segregated. Erica australis is abundant only on poor, shallow soils, with a high content in soluble aluminium, generally on mountain ridges and summits. Erica scoparia becomes dominant on de...

Ojeda Copete, Fernando; Arroyo Mari?n, Juan; Maran?o?n, Teodoro

2000-01-01

65

Benefits from ecological study methods to taxonomy of enchytraeids in southern Mata Atlântica / Benefícios de métodos de estudos ecológicos para a taxonomia de enquitreídeos no sul da Mata Atlântica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar como a taxonomia beneficia-se de métodos quantitativos e de amostragem ecológicos nos estudos dos enquitreídeos. Enquitreídeos (pequenos parentes das minhocas) foram coletados em diferentes fases de regeneração da Mata Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. F [...] oram combinadas as pesquisas ecológica e taxonômica, pois os enquitreídeos são pouco estudados e difíceis de identificar, e muitas espécies novas eram esperadas. O grande número de espécimes coletados permitiu testar diagnoses de espécies por meio da investigação das amplitudes de variações de caracteres em uma série mais ampla de espécimes. Diagnoses de espécies simplificadas, adaptadas às condições locais do ambiente, foram desenvolvidas, o que permitiu a identificação de todos os exemplares, incluindo juvenis. Caracteres-chave e estados de caracteres foram formulados para três gêneros: Achaeta, Hemienchytraeus e Guaranidrilus. Entre várias espécies novas, uma espécie rara, possível remanescente da fauna autóctone da floresta, foi encontrada e descrita. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine how taxonomy benefited from the ecological quantitative and site-based sampling methods in enchytraeids studies. Enchytraeids (small relatives of earthworms) were sampled in different phases of rain forest regeneration in the southern Mata Atlântica in Par [...] aná, Brazil. The research combined ecological and taxonomic work, because enchytraeids are poorly studied and difficult to identify, and many new species were expected. The provision of large numbers of specimens enabled the test of species diagnoses by investigating the ranges of character variations in a larger series of specimens. Simplified species diagnoses adapted to the local conditions that allowed the identification of all specimens, juveniles included, were developed. Key characters and character states are presented for the three genera: Achaeta, Hemienchytraeus and Guaranidrilus. Among several new species, a rare species, possibly a remnant of the autochthonous forest fauna, was found and described.

Rüdiger Maria, Schmelz; Rut Maria Collado de la, Peña; Jörg, Römbke.

2009-08-01

66

Towards a taxonomy of accounting  

OpenAIRE

The homological transfer research method was used to derive a tentative taxonomy of the discipline of Accounting from the Nolan and Wetherbe taxonomy of the related discipline Management Information Systems. First the Nolan and Wetherbe taxonomy was updated to reflect recent developments in MIS. Then its concepts were replaced by equivalent accounting concepts to yield a homologous taxonomy of Accounting. Finally the proposed taxonomy was validated empirically by classifying 151 articles from...

Koornhof, Carolina

1993-01-01

67

Taxonomy Icon Data: tomato [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available tomato Solanum ... lycopersicum Solanum _lycopersicum_L.png Solanum _lycopersicum_NL.png Solanum _lycop ... ersicum_S.png Solanum _lycopersicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono ... my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum +lycopersicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ ...

68

Natural history of the Chinchilla genus (Bennett 1829): Considerations of their ecology, taxonomy and conservation status / Historia natural del género Chinchilla (Bennett 1829): Consideraciones de su ecología, taxonomía y estado de conservación  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En los últimos años se ha generado nueva y valiosa información de las dos especies silvestres de chinchillas; sin embargo ésta sigue siendo insuficiente para una protección efectiva. En este trabajo hacemos una revisión de algunos aspectos fundamentales de su historia natural, sintetizando y entrega [...] ndo nuevos antecedentes de su ecología, taxonomía y estado de conservación, en base a la revisión de la literatura disponible, y toma de datos en el campo. En relación a su ecología, hemos identificado nuevas colonias de ambas especies, tanto por investigación científica como por reportes técnicos ambientales. Para la mayoría de esas colonias se ha identificado la vegetación a la que están asociadas, depredadores y otras especies de roedores simpátridos. La taxonomía de ambas especies ha sido controversial. Una propuesta fue sometida a la ICZN en el 2003 y las recomendaciones fueron describir un neotipo para el género y ambas especies; sin embargo, los especímenes originales descritos por Bennett (1829), Lichtenstein (1830) y Waterhouse (1844) existen en museos de Europa y deben ser considerados como los respectivos sintipos. Finalmente, el estado de conservación de estas especies ha sido catalogado como críticamente en peligro tanto por instituciones nacionales como internacionales, esto debido a que la mayoría de las colonias son pequeñas, fragmentadas y aisladas, sin embargo, ahora la mayor amenaza es la relación geográfica de las nuevas colonias con áreas de explotación minera. Se argumenta con esta información la necesidad de desarrollar un programa de conservación de ambas especies, que considere ámbitos fundamentales de la biología de la especie, tales como la ecología, genética y reproducción. Abstract in english Over the last years there has been new and valuable information in both wild chinchillas, however this is still insufficient for effective protection. In this paper we review some fundamental aspects of its natural history, synthesizing and delivering new information about their ecology, taxonomy an [...] d conservation status, based on the review of available literature, and field data collection. In relation to their ecology we have been identified new colonies of both species, for scientific research as well as environmental technical reports. For most of these colonies we identified vegetation to which they are associated, predators and other sympatric rodent species. The taxonomy of these species is controversial. A proposal was submitted to ICZN in 2003, and the recommendations were to describe a neotype for genus and species, but the original specimens described by Bennett (1829), Lichtenstein (1830) and Waterhouse (1844) are in museums from Europe and should be considered as syntypes. Conservation status of both species is critically endangered because most colonies are threatened by mining exploitation. Therefore, it is essential to explore new regions to identify new colonies and compare them with modern methods such as molecular markers. Finally, with this information we argue the need to develop a conservation programs for both species; it should consider critical areas of their biology, such as ecology, genetics and reproduction.

PABLO, VALLADARES FAÚNDEZ; ÁNGEL, SPOTORNO OYARZÚN; CARLOS, ZULETA RAMOS.

2014-12-01

69

Comment: 2 [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available bottlenosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus Tursiops_truncatus_L.png 2.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database ... er for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ????????? ttamura 2008/1 0/29 11 :43: ...

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Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Florida lancelet (amphioxus) Branchiostoma floridae Branchiostoma_floridae_L.png 61 .png Taxonomy ... er for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ????????????(????????) t ... tamura 2009/04/21 ... 1 2:50:03 ...

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Comment: 8 [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 8.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Scien ... ce licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ?????????????????????? ... ????? ttamura 2008/11 /06 1 7:02:45 ...

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Comment: 7 [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 7.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ??????????????? ttamura 2008/ 11 /06 1 6:11 :43 ...

73

A Taxonomy of Networks  

CERN Document Server

The study of networks has grown into a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor across the natural, social, and information sciences. Yet there have been very few attempts to investigate the interrelatedness of the different classes of networks studied by different disciplines. Here, we introduced a framework to establish a taxonomy of networks from various origins. The provision of this family tree not only helps understand the kinship of networks, but also facilitates the transfer of empirical analysis, theoretical modeling, and conceptual developments across disciplinary boundaries. The framework is based on probing the mesoscopic properties of networks, an important source of heterogeneity for their structure and function. Using our method, we computed a taxonomy for 752 individual networks and a separate taxonomy for 12 network classes. We also computed three within-class taxonomies for political, fungal, and financial networks, and found them to be insightful in each case.

Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J; Fricker, Mark D; Jones, Nick S

2010-01-01

74

Past, Present and Future Distributions of an Iberian Endemic, Lepus granatensis: Ecological and Evolutionary Clues from Species Distribution Models  

OpenAIRE

The application of species distribution models (SDMs) in ecology and conservation biology is increasing and assuming an important role, mainly because they can be used to hindcast past and predict current and future species distributions. However, the accuracy of SDMs depends on the quality of the data and on appropriate theoretical frameworks. In this study, comprehensive data on the current distribution of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) were used to i) determine the species’ ecogeog...

Acevedo, Pelayo; Melo-ferreira, Jose?; Real, Raimundo; Alves, Paulo Ce?lio

2012-01-01

75

Ecological Niche Model used to examine the distribution of an invasive, non-indigenous coral.  

Science.gov (United States)

All organisms have a set of ecological conditions (or niche) which they depend on to survive and establish in a given habitat. The ecological niche of a species limits its geographical distribution. In the particular case of non-indigenous species (NIS), the ecological requirements of the species impose boundaries on the potential distribution of the organism in the new receptor regions. This is a theoretical assumption implicit when Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) are used to assess the potential distribution of NIS. This assumption has been questioned, given that in some cases niche shift may occur during the process of invasion. We used ENMs to investigate whether the model fit with data from the native range of the coral Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 successfully predicts its invasion in the Atlantic. We also identified which factors best explain the distribution of this NIS. The broad native distributional range of T. coccinea predicted the invaded sites well, especially along the Brazilian coast, the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The occurrence of T. coccinea was positively related to calcite levels and negatively to eutrophy, but was rather unaffected to other variables that often limit other marine organisms, suggesting that this NIS has wide ecological limits, a trait typical of invasive species. PMID:25465286

Carlos-Júnior, L A; Barbosa, N P U; Moulton, T P; Creed, J C

2015-02-01

76

Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Old world swallowtail Papilio ... machaon Arthropoda Papilio _machaon_L.png Papilio _machaon_NL.png Papilio ... pilio_machaon_S.png Papilio _machaon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ... on/icon.cgi?i=Papilio +machaon&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ... icon.cgi?i=Papilio +machaon&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Papilio +machaon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

77

An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979 and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided.

Georgios Chatzigeorgiou

2011-11-01

78

Distribution of Lutra maculicollis in Rwanda : ecological constraints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of 10 rwandese lakes, where there are still quite important populations of Lutra maculicollis, has pointed out a few characteristics of the habitat favorable to the survival of these populations. The ecological constraints for the survival of these populations are: the abundance of small fishes, the continuity of the lake side vegetation, the absence of crocodiles and pollution by pesticides, and the low level of predation by man.

Lejeune A.

1990-02-01

79

Distribution of Lutra maculicollis in Rwanda : ecological constraints  

OpenAIRE

The study of 10 rwandese lakes, where there are still quite important populations of Lutra maculicollis, has pointed out a few characteristics of the habitat favorable to the survival of these populations. The ecological constraints for the survival of these populations are: the abundance of small fishes, the continuity of the lake side vegetation, the absence of crocodiles and pollution by pesticides, and the low level of predation by man.

Lejeune A.; Frank A.

1990-01-01

80

Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae), taxonomia e distribuição geográfica no Brasil / Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae), taxonomy and geographical distribution in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees) Grolle é uma espécie urbanizada que cresce, preferencialmente, sobre estipe de palmeira ou outras árvores. Sua distribuição geográfica foi ampliada para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e, também, para municípios de outros estados já referidos. Algumas associações da espé [...] cie com outras briófitas são apresentadas. Dados palinológicos, baseados em observações sob microscopia de luz (ML) e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), também estão incluídos no trabalho. Abstract in english Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees) Grolle is an urbanized species that grows preferentially on palm-tree trunks and other trees. Its geographical distribution was extended to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, also, to cities of other aforementioned states. Some associations of these species with other [...] bryophytes are presented. Palynological data, based on observations under light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), are also included.

Olga, Yano; Andréa Pereira, Luizi-Ponzo.

2006-12-01

81

Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae, taxonomia e distribuição geográfica no Brasil Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae, taxonomy and geographical distribution in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees Grolle é uma espécie urbanizada que cresce, preferencialmente, sobre estipe de palmeira ou outras árvores. Sua distribuição geográfica foi ampliada para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e, também, para municípios de outros estados já referidos. Algumas associações da espécie com outras briófitas são apresentadas. Dados palinológicos, baseados em observações sob microscopia de luz (ML e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, também estão incluídos no trabalho.Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees Grolle is an urbanized species that grows preferentially on palm-tree trunks and other trees. Its geographical distribution was extended to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, also, to cities of other aforementioned states. Some associations of these species with other bryophytes are presented. Palynological data, based on observations under light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, are also included.

Olga Yano

2006-12-01

82

Species lifetime distribution for simple models of ecologies  

OpenAIRE

Interpretation of empirical results based on a taxa's lifetime distribution shows apparently conflicting results. Species' lifetime is reported to be exponentially distributed, whereas higher order taxa, such as families or genera, follow a broader distribution, compatible with power law decay. We show that both these evidences are consistent with a simple evolutionary model that does not require specific assumptions on species interaction. The model provides a zero-order de...

Pigolotti, Simone; Flammini, Alessandro; Marsili, Matteo; Maritan, Amos

2005-01-01

83

Taxonomy of oxalotrophic Methylobacterium strains  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the oxalotrophic bacteria are facultative methylotrophs and play important ecological roles in soil fertility and cycling of elements. This study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of these bacteria and provides new information about the taxonomical variability within the genus Methylobacterium. Twelve mesophilic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic oxalate-oxidizing strains were included in this work that had been previously isolated from the soil and some plant tissues by the potassium oxalate enrichment method. The isolates were characterized using biochemical tests, cellular lipid profiles, spectral characteristics of carotenoid pigments, G+C content of the DNA, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The taxonomic similarities among the strains were analyzed using the simple matching ( S SM) and Jaccard ( S J) coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. The phylogenetic position of the strains was inferred by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences. All isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, oxidase and catalase positive, and required no growth factors. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, the strains formed four closely related clusters sharing ?85% similarity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences demonstrated that oxalotrophic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic strains could be identified as members of the genus Methylobacterium. Except for M. variabile and M. aquaticum, all of the Methylobacterium type strains tested had the ability of oxalate utilization. Our results indicate that the capability of oxalate utilization seems to be an uncommon trait and could be used as a valuable taxonomic criterion for differentiation of Methylobacterium species.

Sahin, Nurettin; Kato, Yuko; Yilmaz, Ferah

2008-10-01

84

Puebla: Distribution, taxonomy, and conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined 96 museum specimens belonging to 14 species of Carnivora from the Mexican State of Puebla. In addition, four species were documented based on literature records and by indirect evidence. The carnivorous mammals of Puebla belong to 5 families, 18 genera, 18 species and 23 subspecies. Eight of these 23 taxa are reported herein for the first time from the state of Puebla. Of the 18 species, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Lontra longicaudis, Taxidea taxus, and Galictis vittata are considered by Norma Oficial Mexicana as threatened species, Leopardus wiedii and Eira barbara in danger of extinction, and Potos flavus is under special protection. We found Lynx rufus, Canis latrans, Taxidea taxus, and Bassariscus astutus were found only in the Nearctic region of the State, whereas Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii, Lontra longicaudis, Galictis vittata, Eira barbara, Potos flavus, and Nasua narica were found only in the Neotropical region of the State. The remaining seven species (Puma concolor, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, Mustela frenata, Mephitis macroura, Spilogale putorius, Conepatus leuconotus, and Procyon lotor have been taken in both the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Localities in the Sierra Norte de Puebla had the greatest species richness and abundance of individuals. The carnivores confront serious conservation problems in the state because they are hunted indiscriminately as trophies and by the local residents as harmful species. Moreover they are hunted for economic benefit by the sale of theirs skins or as living pets. The carnivores in some areas are used as food items and for therapeutic proprieties of their fat, skin, or bones. Unfortunately at this time we can?t assess the full impact of these activities on the local populations.

Jos\\u00E9 Ram\\u00EDrez-Pulido

2005-01-01

85

Comment: 237 [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 237.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci ... ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ?????????????????????? ... ?????????????????? ttamura 2008/11 /11 ... 1 2:11 :40 2011 /09/1 4 21 :1 0:36 ...

86

Comment: 13 [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 1 3.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science ... licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ???????????????????? tta ... mura 2008/11 /06 1 7:1 4:44 ...

87

Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 21 9.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center ... for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ????:??? HNI-???????? bando 20 1 0/02/1 5 1 5:31 :07 201 0/02/1 6 09:53:27 ...

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Comment: 6 [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 6.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ???????????? ttamura 2008/11 /06 ... 1 6:1 0:21 ...

89

Characteristics of plants distribution in botanical gardens outside the ecological optimum ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the results of the botanical gardens activity in the introduction and acclimatization of plants appearing: in the distribution of species beyond their natural ecological optimum, in the creation of collections of closely related species capable to spontaneous hybridization, in the formation of sources of invasive species. The role of botanic gardens as anthropogenic centers of evolution and distribution of plants is emphasized.? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????????: ? ??????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????; ? ???????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????????????????? ????? ? ??????; ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????.

Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

2012-11-01

90

Characteristics of plants distribution in botanical gardens outside the ecological optimum ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????  

OpenAIRE

This article discusses the results of the botanical gardens activity in the introduction and acclimatization of plants appearing: in the distribution of species beyond their natural ecological optimum, in the creation of collections of closely related species capable to spontaneous hybridization, in the formation of sources of invasive species. The role of botanic gardens as anthropogenic centers of evolution and distribution of plants is emphasized.? ?????? ?????? ?????...

Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich; Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich

2012-01-01

91

Octaviania asterosperma (hypogeous Basidiomycota. Recent data to ecology and distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses place Octaviania asterosperma in the Boletales, with Leccinum being the closest relative. Results of the structural investigation of O. asterosperma ectomycorrhiza with Fagus sylvatica confirm this systematic position. In Europe the species is an ectomycorrhizal partner of broad-leaved trees, such as Carpinus, Corylus, Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. This paper aims at presenting the new data to the distribution of O. asterosperma in Central Europe. The description of the basidiocarps discovered in Poland in the recent years is also given, together with evidence for the parasitic relationship of Sepedonium laevigatum with O. asterosperma. We also present the information concerning all known localities of the species in Poland and its distribution map. Data on the ecologz, distribution and status O. asterosperma in Europe, and some structural aspects of basidiocarps and spores, are also summarized.

Piotr Mleczko

2010-12-01

92

Mathematical ecology analysis of geographical distribution of soybean-nodulating Bradyrhizobia in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We characterized the relationship between the genetic diversity of indigenous soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia from weakly acidic soils in Japan and their geographical distribution in an ecological study of indigenous soybean rhizobia. We isolated bradyrhizobia from three kinds of Rj-genotype soybeans. Their genetic diversity and community structure were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region with 11 Bradyrhizobium USDA strains as references. We used data from the present study and previous studies to carry out mathematical ecological analyses, multidimensional scaling analysis with the Bray-Curtis index, polar ordination analysis, and multiple regression analyses to characterize the relationship between soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobial community structures and their geographical distribution. The mathematical ecological approaches used in this study demonstrated the presence of ecological niches and suggested the geographical distribution of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia to be a function of latitude and the related climate, with clusters in the order Bj123, Bj110, Bj6, and Be76 from north to south in Japan. PMID:24240318

Saeki, Yuichi; Shiro, Sokichi; Tajima, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Sameshima-Saito, Reiko; Sato, Takashi; Yamakawa, Takeo

2013-01-01

93

Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

Gulinck Hubert

2008-10-01

94

Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Kuroda's ... s ea hare Aplys ia kurodai Mollus ca Aplys ia_kurodai_L.png Aplys ia_kurodai_NL.png Aplys ia_ ... kurodai_S .png Aplys ia_kurodai_NS .png http://bios ciencedbc.jp ... /taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplys ia+kurodai&t=L http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ... n/icon.cgi?i=Aplys ia+kurodai&t=NL http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ... on/icon.cgi?i=Aplys ia+kurodai&t=S ... http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

95

Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus ... Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus _L.png ... Andrias_japonicus _NL.png Andrias_japonicus _S.png Andrias_japonicus _N ... /biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Andrias+japonicus &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Andrias+japonicus &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

96

Octaviania asterosperma (hypogeous Basidiomycota). Recent data to ecology and distribution  

OpenAIRE

Phylogenetic analyses place Octaviania asterosperma in the Boletales, with Leccinum being the closest relative. Results of the structural investigation of O. asterosperma ectomycorrhiza with Fagus sylvatica confirm this systematic position. In Europe the species is an ectomycorrhizal partner of broad-leaved trees, such as Carpinus, Corylus, Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. This paper aims at presenting the new data to the distribution of O. a...

Piotr Mleczko; Maciej Kozak; Maria ?awrynowicz; Grzegorz Dubiel

2010-01-01

97

ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF BEECH WOODLANDS IN THE CENTRAL APENNINE THROUGH FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF ELLENBERG INDICATORS  

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Full Text Available Habitats are often described using a phytosociological approach, meaning that plant communities are classified through a floristic data set. As this approach is based exclusively on a floristic assemblage analysis, much of the ecological information about the species may be lost. For this reason, Ellenberg indicators (EIV are used to incorporate the information provided by vegetation relevés; for each species, the EIVs express the ecological requirements for seven main environmental factors. Based on that assumption, this study focuses on the use of EIVs in detecting discriminants in a homogeneous habitat (via similarity-dissimilarity tests for each Ellenberg indicator. This helps to identify the key ecological factors structuring the vegetation. The study area is located in the Upper Sangro Valley in the central Apennines (Abruzzo region where 94 phytosociological relevés and pedological profiles were carried out in beech and mixed woodlands. Based on a flora set, the Cluster Analysis divided the vegetation relevés into seven groups which are floristically distinguished. For each of the groups, the frequency distribution of the single EIV of all the recorded species in each relevé was compared through a non-parametric test which delivered the probability of two distributions being the same. Combining the results of the two different analyses we were able to rearrange the outcome of the cluster analysis into an ecological classification, which was then confirmed by field data on soil parameters.

G. FANELLI

2010-01-01

98

Taxonomy Icon Data: common water flea [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available common water flea Daphnia ... pulex Arthropoda Daphnia _pulex_L.png Daphnia _pulex_NL.png Daphnia _pule ... x_S.png Daphnia _pulex_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Daphnia +pulex&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic ...

99

Distribution and ecology of pollen lodged within the Latin American Pollen Database  

OpenAIRE

The cornerstone of palaeoecological research, concerned with vegetation dynamics over the recent geological past, is a good understanding of the present-day ecology and distribution of the taxa. This is particularly necessary in areas of high floral diversity such as Latin America. Vegetation reconstructions, based on numerous pollen records, now exist with respect to all major vegetation associations from Latin America. With this ever-increasing number of sedimentary records becoming availab...

Marchant, R.; Almeida, L.; Behling, H.; Berri?o, J. C.; Bush, M.; Cleef, A. M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Kappelle, M.; Oliveira, P.; Texeira Oliviera-filho, A.; Lozano-garci?a, S.; Hooghiemstra, H.

2002-01-01

100

Carbon acquisition mechanisms by planktonic desmids and their link to ecological distribution  

OpenAIRE

To test if different inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake mechanisms underlie the ecological distribution pattern of planktonic desmids, we performed pH-drift experiments with 12 strains, belonging to seven species, originating from lakes of different pH. Staurastrum brachiatum Ralfs and Staurodesmus cuspidatus (Ralfs) Teil. var. curvatus (W. West) Teil., species confined to acidic, soft water habitats, showed remarkably different behavior in the pH drift experiments: S. brachiatum appeared to use CO...

Spijkerman, E.; Maberly, S. C.; Coesel, P. F. M.

2005-01-01

101

Mathematical Ecology Analysis of Geographical Distribution of Soybean-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia in Japan  

OpenAIRE

We characterized the relationship between the genetic diversity of indigenous soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia from weakly acidic soils in Japan and their geographical distribution in an ecological study of indigenous soybean rhizobia. We isolated bradyrhizobia from three kinds of Rj-genotype soybeans. Their genetic diversity and community structure were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S–23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region with 11 Bradyrhizobium USDA strains as ref...

Saeki, Yuichi; Shiro, Sokichi; Tajima, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Sameshima-saito, Reiko; Sato, Takashi; Yamakawa, Takeo

2013-01-01

102

[Heavy metals distribution characteristics and ecological risk evaluation in surface sediments of dammed Jinshan lake].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to reveal the pollution loading of heavy metals in Dammed Jinshan lake, six heavy metals (As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr) from 18 sediment samples were analyzed using ICP, and the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the sediment were comprehensively evaluated through concentration coefficient, geo-acumulation indexes, potential ecological risk evaluation and traceability analysis. The results showed that (1) the average contents of As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd were 23.22, 26.20, 24.42, 143.12, 245.30 and 0.67 mg x kg(-1), respectively, in the surface sediments of dammed Jinshan Lake. The average contents of Pb and Cu were lower than the primary standard and secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. The average contents of Zn and Cr were lower than the primary standard and higher than the secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. The average contents of As and Cd were higher than the primary and secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. From the spatial distribution, the contents of Pb and Zn were the highest at sampling site No. 1, which was located at the Beigushan Square. The contents of As,Cu, Cr, Cd were the highest at sampling sites Nos. 12, 3, 14, and 7, respectively; (2) The order of concentration coefficient was As > Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu, which indicated that the enrichment amount of As was the highest and that of Cu was the lowest; (3) Based on the geo-acumulation indexes, the Cu is clean and Pb, Zn, Cd is the light pollution and As, Cr moderate pollution; (4) The order of Potential ecological risk coefficient was Cd > As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn were of light ecological risk and As, Cd were of medium ecological risk. From the spatial distribution, the sampling sites Nos. 1, 6, 7 and 12 had medium potential ecological risk, and the rest sample points had slight potential ecological risk; (5) The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the main reason for the differences of heavy metals in surface sediments of Jinshan lake was the different sediment environmental background value at the 18 samples sites. Besides, the pollution sources in each sampling sites also contributed to the differences in heavy metals; (6) the influence of the dam on the heavy metals distribution was not clear, and requires long-term study. PMID:25639085

Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Long-Mei; Chen, Xi; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Li, Yi-Min; Liu, Biao

2014-11-01

103

Distribution of natural uranium in Jiuquan ecological environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of natural uranium in soil, forage grass, ox, sheep and camel at Jiuquan area was determined, and the data were analyzed. Its natural distribution under equilibrium and the transfer from the soil to the forage grass then to the animal body were studied. The results show that the uranium concentration in soil was decreasing from 3.09mg/kg to 2.36 mg/kg (corresponding to the surface to 30 cm), then increasing to 2.82mg/kg (corresponding to 100 cm), so the lowest was at the depth of 30 cm. The descending order of concentration in eight kind of forage grasess is Chenopodium album L., Triticum Sativum Lam, Agropyron cristatum(L.) Gaertu, Hordeum vulgare var nudum (Ard.) Hook, Avenasativa L., Sphaerophysa salsula(Pall.) DC, Medicago sativa L. and Phragmites communis Trin, i.e. from the highest 1.48 x 10-3mg/kg to the lowest 0.051 x 10-3mg/kg. The U concentration in mutton was (0.48 ? 1.86) x 10-6mg/kg and the average was 0.89 x 10-6mg/kg, in sheep bone was (3.60 ? 16.20) x 10-6mg/kg and the average was 9.9 x 10-6mg/kg. The concentration of uranium in the mixed sample of beef and ox bone was 7.54 x 10-6mg/kg, and in the camel meat and bone was 3.35 x 10-6mg/kg. The uptake of uranium from soil by the forage grass varies with the amount of U in the soil, the type of soil and grass species. The transfer coefficients CT1 of uranium from soil surface layer, i. e. O to 30 cm, to forage grass were 2.98 x 10-4 for Chenopodium album L., 2.79 x 10-4 for Triticum sativum Lam and 2.67 x 10-5 for Phragmites communis Trin respectively. The coefficients CT2 of U from the forage grass to ox, sheep and camel body were 7.29 x 10-3 ? 1.44 x 10-1 for sheep bone, 5.10 x 10-3 ? 1.25 x 10-1 for the mixed sample of beef and ox bone, 2.26 x 10-3 ? 5.5 x 10-2 for the mixed sample of camel meat and bone and 2.45 x 10-5 ? 2.41 x 10-4 for mutton respectively. The same results were obtained for eight kind of forage grasses

104

Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition  

Science.gov (United States)

Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and?18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (?25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

2014-11-01

105

Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to system administrators, software developers and vulnerability researchers is not yet achieved, this work has resulted in the most exhaustive collection of vulnerability data to date.

Polepeddi, S

2004-12-08

106

The taxonomy, biology and chemistry of the fungal Pestalotiopsis genus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of evidence indicates that the Pestalotiopsis genus represents a huge and largely untapped resource of natural products with chemical structures that have been optimized by evolution for biological and ecological relevance. So far, 196 secondary metabolites have been encountered in this genus. This review systematically surveys the taxonomy, biology and chemistry of the Pestalotiopsis genus. It also summarises the biosynthetic relationships and chemical synthesis of metabolites from this genus. There are 184 references. PMID:22249927

Yang, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Jing-Ze; Luo, Du-Qiang

2012-06-01

107

Taxonomy Icon Data: Reeve's pond turtle [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Reeve's ... pond turtle Chinemys ... reeves ii Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Chinemys _reeves ii_L.png C ... hinemys _reeves ii_NL.png Chinemys _reeves ii_S .png Chinemys _r ... eeves ii_NS .png http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico ... n.cgi?i=Chinemys +reeves ii&t=L http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Chinemys +reeves ii&t=NL http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

108

Taxonomy and distribution of the green algal genus Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in Brazil / Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero de algas verdes Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Halimeda é um gênero de algas verdes de talo cenocítico e calcificado que desempenha importante papel ecológico em regiões tropicais. Segmentos calcificados e branqueados de Halimeda podem-se acumular em grandes depósitos com potencial econômico, como ocorre na costa nordeste do Brasil. O levantamen [...] to do gênero no Brasil, baseado em coletas recentes e em abundante material depositado em herbários brasileiros, mostrou a presença de sete espécies: Halimeda cuneata Hering, H. discoidea Decaisne, H. gracilis Harvey ex J. Agardh, H. incrassata (Ellis) Lamouroux, H. opuntia (Linnaeus) Lamouroux, H. simulans Howe e H. tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux, as quais são descritas em detalhe, com ênfase nos caracteres diagnósticos. Nossos estudos mostraram que a forma e tamanho dos utrículos em vista frontal, vistos em microscopia eletrônica de varredura, permite a distinção entre algumas espécies. Exemplares férteis de Halimeda cuneata e H. discoidea são descritos pela primeira vez para a costa brasileira. Para cada espécie é indicada a distribuição vertical e geográfica na costa brasileira, extendendo-se o limite sul de distribuição do gênero no Atlântico ocidental. Abstract in english Halimeda is a genus of calcified coenocytic green algae with a well known ecological importance in some tropical areas. Bleached calcified segments of Halimeda may accumulate in large deposits of economic potential as is the case in the northeastern coast of Brazil. In a survey of the genus in Brazi [...] l based on recent collections and examination of abundant material deposited on Brazilian herbaria we identified seven species: Halimeda cuneata Hering, H. discoidea Decaisne, H. gracilis Harvey ex J. Agardh, H. incrassata (Ellis) Lamouroux, H. opuntia (Linnaeus) Lamouroux, H. simulans Howe and H. tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux. These species are described in detail, with emphasis on diagnostic characters. Our study has shown that the shape and size of the utricula in surface view, under scanning electron microscopy, can be utilized to discriminate some species. Fertile specimens of Halimeda cuneata and H. discoidea are reported for the first time in the region. Data on vertical and geographical distribution are presented for each species and the southern limit of the genus in the western Atlantic was extended.

Maria Elizabeth, Bandeira-Pedrosa; Sonia M.B., Pereira; Eurico C., Oliveira.

2004-06-01

109

Taxonomy and distribution of the green algal genus Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta in Brazil Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero de algas verdes Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Halimeda is a genus of calcified coenocytic green algae with a well known ecological importance in some tropical areas. Bleached calcified segments of Halimeda may accumulate in large deposits of economic potential as is the case in the northeastern coast of Brazil. In a survey of the genus in Brazil based on recent collections and examination of abundant material deposited on Brazilian herbaria we identified seven species: Halimeda cuneata Hering, H. discoidea Decaisne, H. gracilis Harvey ex J. Agardh, H. incrassata (Ellis Lamouroux, H. opuntia (Linnaeus Lamouroux, H. simulans Howe and H. tuna (Ellis & Solander Lamouroux. These species are described in detail, with emphasis on diagnostic characters. Our study has shown that the shape and size of the utricula in surface view, under scanning electron microscopy, can be utilized to discriminate some species. Fertile specimens of Halimeda cuneata and H. discoidea are reported for the first time in the region. Data on vertical and geographical distribution are presented for each species and the southern limit of the genus in the western Atlantic was extended.Halimeda é um gênero de algas verdes de talo cenocítico e calcificado que desempenha importante papel ecológico em regiões tropicais. Segmentos calcificados e branqueados de Halimeda podem-se acumular em grandes depósitos com potencial econômico, como ocorre na costa nordeste do Brasil. O levantamento do gênero no Brasil, baseado em coletas recentes e em abundante material depositado em herbários brasileiros, mostrou a presença de sete espécies: Halimeda cuneata Hering, H. discoidea Decaisne, H. gracilis Harvey ex J. Agardh, H. incrassata (Ellis Lamouroux, H. opuntia (Linnaeus Lamouroux, H. simulans Howe e H. tuna (Ellis & Solander Lamouroux, as quais são descritas em detalhe, com ênfase nos caracteres diagnósticos. Nossos estudos mostraram que a forma e tamanho dos utrículos em vista frontal, vistos em microscopia eletrônica de varredura, permite a distinção entre algumas espécies. Exemplares férteis de Halimeda cuneata e H. discoidea são descritos pela primeira vez para a costa brasileira. Para cada espécie é indicada a distribuição vertical e geográfica na costa brasileira, extendendo-se o limite sul de distribuição do gênero no Atlântico ocidental.

Maria Elizabeth Bandeira-Pedrosa

2004-06-01

110

Progress of soil radionuclide distribution studies for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group: 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two nuclear sites have been under intensive study by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) during 1980 and 1981, NS201 in area 18 and NS219,221 in area 20. In support of the various studies Los Alamos National Laboratory (Group LS-6) has provided consultation and evaluations relative to radionuclide distributions in soils inundated with radioactive debris from those tests. In addition, a referee effort was also conducted in both analysis of replicate samples and in evaluating various data sets for consistency of results. This report summarizes results of several of the data sets collected to test certain hypotheses relative to radionuclide distributions and factors affecting calculations of hypotheses relative to radionuclide distributions and factors affecting calculations of radionuclide inventories and covers the period February 1980 to May 1981

111

Genomic taxonomy of vibrios  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ? 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

Iida Tetsuya

2009-10-01

112

Genomic taxonomy of vibrios  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. RESULTS: We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae andV. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.). A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. CONCLUSION: The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.

2009-01-01

113

Past, present and future distributions of an Iberian Endemic, Lepus granatensis: ecological and evolutionary clues from species distribution models.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of species distribution models (SDMs) in ecology and conservation biology is increasing and assuming an important role, mainly because they can be used to hindcast past and predict current and future species distributions. However, the accuracy of SDMs depends on the quality of the data and on appropriate theoretical frameworks. In this study, comprehensive data on the current distribution of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) were used to i) determine the species' ecogeographical constraints, ii) hindcast a climatic model for the last glacial maximum (LGM), relating it to inferences derived from molecular studies, and iii) calibrate a model to assess the species future distribution trends (up to 2080). Our results showed that the climatic factor (in its pure effect and when it is combined with the land-cover factor) is the most important descriptor of the current distribution of the Iberian hare. In addition, the model's output was a reliable index of the local probability of species occurrence, which is a valuable tool to guide species management decisions and conservation planning. Climatic potential obtained for the LGM was combined with molecular data and the results suggest that several glacial refugia may have existed for the species within the major Iberian refugium. Finally, a high probability of occurrence of the Iberian hare in the current species range and a northward expansion were predicted for future. Given its current environmental envelope and evolutionary history, we discuss the macroecology of the Iberian hare and its sensitivity to climate change. PMID:23272115

Acevedo, Pelayo; Melo-Ferreira, José; Real, Raimundo; Alves, Paulo Célio

2012-01-01

114

Distribution and ecology of Ostracodes from 34 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Ostracodes (bivalved Crustaceans) inhabit nearly all aquatic environments from the marine realm to continental freshwater bodies and represent important bio-indicators since their calcific shells are readily preserved in the lake sediments in high numbers. Furthermore they record a plentifulness of information about palaeoenvironments. This data can be used for reconstructing climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. We obtained 112 surface sediment samples from 34 lakes on the plateau to investigate distribution and ecology of ostracodes for understanding the implications of aquatic environmental factors on the distribution of ostracodes. There were 12 species identified: Candona candida, Candona xizangensis, Fabaeformiscandona gyirongensis, Potamocypris villosa, Heterocypris sp. , Eucypris gyirongensis, Ilyocypris sp. , Cytherissa lacustris, Leucuocythere dorsotuberosa, Leucocytherella sinensis, and Limnocythere inopinata. Corresponding environmental factors including water depth, specific conductivity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored in various lakes. The range of specific conductivity was between 275 and 202000 ?S/cm. A Principle Component Analysis (PCA) depicted that ostracode diversity gained high relations with specific conductivity (r = -0.43) and dissolved oxygen (r = 0.43). This indicated that specific conductivity could be the main factor driving the distribution of ostracodes on the Tibetan Plateau. Keywords: Ostracodes, Tibetan Plateau, lacustrine sediment, ecology, diversity

Peng, P.; Fürstenberg, S.; Frenzel, P.; Guo, Y.; Zhu, L.; Gifty-Akita, L.

2013-12-01

115

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

Spotila, J.R.

1992-11-01

116

Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

Beatley, J.C.

1976-01-01

117

Ocean distribution, feeding ecology, and return of Pacific salmon in the 1997 El Nino event year  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the 1997 El Nino event on the offshore distribution, migration and feeding ecology of Pacific salmon in the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea, and on the return pattern of Japanese chum salmon, was studied. The run pattern of adult chum salmon showed extreme fluctuation by area and run timing. The 1997 abundance and return rate of early runs was significantly increased in the Okhotsk and Nemuro regions compared to the previous five-year means but the abundance and return rate of Japan Sea populations and some of the late runs was decreased. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Kaeriyama, M. [Hokkaido Tokai Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Urawa, S.; Fukuwaka, M. [National Salmon Resources Centre, Nakanoshima, Sapporo (Japan); Myers, K.W.; Davis, N.D. [Washington Univ., Fisheries Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Takagi, S.; Ueda, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Faculty of Fisheries, Hakodate, Hokkaido (Japan); Nagasawa, K.; Ishida, Y. [National Research Inst. of Far Seas Fisheries, Shimizu, Shizuoka (Japan)

1998-12-31

118

Spatial correlations of population and ecological factors with distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in southwestern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis as a dynamic disease may be markedly influenced by demographic and ecological factors. A geospatial information system study was developed to determine the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases in relation to population, climatic and environmental factors in Fars province, southwest of Iran. Methods: The dwelling addresses of 217 VL patients were obtained from hospital files. A hazard map produced by unifying buffers (5 km around nomads travel routes (NTR was developed to survey the effect of close proximity to NTR on the distribution of VL. Mean annual rainfall (MAR, mean annual temperature (MAT, four months temperature mean (T4, elevation, slope and landcover were climatic and environmental factors that have been analysed. Finally, data of dwelling foci were extracted from maps and analysed using logistic regression models. Results: Close proximity to NTR was the most important factor influenced on the disease distribution. Climatic factors were in second rank. Among them, temperature especially T4 is the most effective variable and rainfall was also shown to be another effective climatic agent. Most cases of VL were reported from temperate and semiarid areas in western and central regions while arid condition was a confined factor. The environmental factor of landcovers including urban, dry farm and thin forest regions was revealed as the third rank effective factor. Altitude importance was only shown when its effect was studied independently from other factors. Interpretation & conclusion: These findings present the distribution of VL in Fars province is influenced by combination of ecological and nomads demographical variables although closeness to NTR and nomads role in distribution and continuance of kala-azar are the most important factors.

Mohammad Amin Ghatee

2013-08-01

119

A taxonomy of innovation networks  

OpenAIRE

In this discussion paper we develop a theory-based typology of innovation networks with a special focus on public-private collaboration. This taxonomy is theoretically based on the concept of life cycles which is transferred to the context of innovation networks as well as on the mode of network formation which can occur either spontaneous or planned. The taxonomy distinguishes six different types of networks and incorporates two plausible alternative developments that eventually lead to a si...

Scho?n, Benjamin; Pyka, Andreas

2012-01-01

120

Taxonomy of cloud computing services  

OpenAIRE

Cloud computing is a highly discussed topic, and many big players of the software industry are entering the development of cloud services. Several companies want to explore the possibilities and benefits of cloud computing, but with the amount of cloud computing services increasing quickly, the need for a taxonomy framework rises. This paper describes the available cloud computing services, and proposes a treestructured taxonomy based on their characteristics, to easily classify cloud computi...

Hoefer, C. N.; Karagiannis, G.

2010-01-01

121

The Distributional Ecology of the Maned Sloth: Environmental Influences on Its Distribution and Gaps in Knowledge  

OpenAIRE

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We develop...

Moreira, Danielle Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Siqueira, Marinez Ferreira; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Se?rgio Lucena

2014-01-01

122

Predicting the potential geographical distribution of Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) based on ecological niche modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhodnius neglectus is frequently found in palm trees and bird nests in sylvatic environments. However, adult specimens infected by Trypanosoma cruzi have been invading houses in central Brazil. Analyzing and predicting the geographical distribution of this species may improve vector surveillance strategies for Chagas disease. Ecological niche modeling using the genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) was applied to predict the geographical distribution of R. neglectus from occurrence records and a set of 23 predictor variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation, altitude, and vegetation). Additionally, the geographical distribution of R. neglectus was compared with the geographical distribution of four species of palm trees and two species of birds from the study region. The models were able to predict, with high probability, the occurrence of R. neglectus as a regular (although nonendemic) species of the Cerrado biome in central Brazil. Caatinga, Amazonian savanna, Pantanal, and the Bolivian Chaco appear as areas with lower probabilities of potential occurrence for the species. A great overlap was observed between the distribution of R. neglectus, palm trees (Acrocomia aculeata and Syagrus oleracea), and birds (Phacellodomus ruber and Pseudoseisura cristata). By including new records for R. neglectus (from both sylvatic and domestic environments), our study showed a distribution increase toward the west and northeast areas of Brazil in the "diagonal of open/dry ecoregions of South America". These results should aid Chagas disease vector surveillance programs, given that household invasion by Rhodnius species maintains the risk of disease transmission and limits control strategies. PMID:19645302

Gurgel-Goncalves, Rodrigo; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba

2009-07-01

123

Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution, sources and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu were studied. Results showed that the measured heavy metals had varied spatial distribution patterns, indicating that they had complex origins and controlling factors. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that the total phosphorus and the loss on ignition were positively correlated with the measured metals except Cd. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb might originate from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater, whereas As predominantly originated from natural processes. Potential ecological risk indices indicated that sediment from Wuli Lake, Gonghu Bay and the Northwest Area suffered high pollution, whereas other areas of Lake Taihu were moderately polluted. A comparison of metal levels with the effects range low (ERL) and effects range median (ERM) showed that metals exceeded their corresponding ERL limit at 13.6–72.3% (72.3% for As, 52.4% for Pb, 27.7% for Cu, 22.8% for Cd, 16.0 for Hg and 13.6% for Cr) of the sites investigated. Moreover, 3.90% and 0.50% of the sites sampled exceeded the ERM thresholds for Hg and Pb, respectively.

124

Taxonomy and distribution of the green algal genus Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in Brazil Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero de algas verdes Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) no Brasil  

OpenAIRE

Halimeda is a genus of calcified coenocytic green algae with a well known ecological importance in some tropical areas. Bleached calcified segments of Halimeda may accumulate in large deposits of economic potential as is the case in the northeastern coast of Brazil. In a survey of the genus in Brazil based on recent collections and examination of abundant material deposited on Brazilian herbaria we identified seven species: Halimeda cuneata Hering, H. discoidea Decaisne, H. gracilis Harvey ex...

Maria Elizabeth Bandeira-Pedrosa; Pereira, Sonia M. B.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

2004-01-01

125

The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira de Siqueira, Marinez; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

2014-01-01

126

Geographical ecology of the palms (Arecaceae): determinants of diversity and distributions across spatial scales  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background The palm family occurs in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Palms are of high ecological and economical importance, and display complex spatial patterns of species distributions and diversity. Scope This review summarizes empirical evidence for factors that determine palm species distributions, community composition and species richness such as the abiotic environment (climate, soil chemistry, hydrology and topography), the biotic environment (vegetation structure and species interactions) and dispersal. The importance of contemporary vs. historical impacts of these factors and the scale at which they function is discussed. Finally a hierarchical scale framework is developed to guide predictor selection for future studies. Conclusions Determinants of palm distributions, composition and richness vary with spatial scale. For species distributions, climate appears to be important at landscape and broader scales, soil, topography and vegetation at landscape and local scales, hydrology at local scales, and dispersal at all scales. For community composition, soil appears important at regional and finer scales, hydrology, topography and vegetation at landscape and local scales, and dispersal again at all scales. For species richness, climate and dispersal appear to be important at continental to global scales, soil at landscape and broader scales, and topography at landscape and finer scales. Some scale–predictor combinations have not been studied or deserve further attention, e.g. climate on regional to finer scales, and hydrology and topography on landscape and broader scales. The importance of biotic interactions – apart from general vegetation structure effects – for the geographic ecology of palms is generally underexplored. Future studies should target scale–predictor combinations and geographic domains not studied yet. To avoid biased inference, one should ideally include at least all predictors previously found important at the spatial scale of investigation.

Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.

2011-01-01

127

Towards a taxonomy of spatial scale-dependence  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Spatial scale-dependence is a ubiquitous feature of ecological systems. This presents a challenge for ecologists who seek to discern general principles. A solution is to search for generalities in patterns of scale-dependence – that is, what kinds of things are scale-dependent, in what ways, and why? I argue that this is likely to be a productive way forward for ecology, but that progress in this direction is currently hindered by the conflation of a set of distinct concepts under the category of ‘scale-dependence’. Here, I propose a taxonomy of spatial scale-dependence that categorizes its major types in hopes of moving towards a more formal and unambiguous vocabulary. I argue that three major distinctions are necessary and sufficient for this goal: that between grain size and extent (the scale component), between data and models (the subject), and between true and perceived scale-dependence (the class). I illustrate the need for these distinctions with a set of examples demonstrating causes of different types of scale-dependence. I then describe how this taxonomy relates to an array of scale-related concepts from other fields. Finally, I discuss the generalization that biotic interactions are most important at small scales in light of this taxonomy.

Sandel, Brody Steven

2014-01-01

128

Diversity, distribution and ecology of benthic molluscan communities on the Portuguese continental shelf  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity, ecology and distribution patterns of the Portuguese continental shelf malacofauna and its relationship with abiotic factors were studied from samples covering the western and the southern coast. A total of 2544 specimens were identified corresponding to 169 taxa, mostly bivalves (62% of the total taxa). Abra alba was the most abundant and the most frequent species. The alpha diversity ranged from one species to 21 spp. 0.1 m- 2. The highest abundance and diversity were obtained in coarser sediments. Multivariate analysis based on the abundance data identified five major malacological groups: (a) Angulus pygmaeus and Thracia villosiuscula in the coarser sediments of the western inner and mid shelf; (b) Calyptraea chinensis and Leptochiton cancellatus in the heterogeneous and organically enriched sediments of the southern shelf; (c) Angulus fabula, Spisula subtruncata and Pharus legumen in the near shore exposed fine sands; (d) A. alba in muddy fine sands, mainly in the northwestern shelf and (e) Saccella commutata in the southwestern deeper shelf. The malacofauna could be used as a proxy for the major benthic communities known to occur in this area, except in muddy patches, where molluscs were absent or low abundant. Median grain-size, gravel content, depth and hydrodynamic regime were the environmental factors best related to the malacofauna spatial distribution patterns. This study sets the first record of Astarte borealis, Leptochiton asellus, Mercenaria mercenaria and Montacuta phascolionis in the Portuguese shelf and the most northern limit for Anadara polii, Glycymeris nummaria, and Leptochiton algesirensis along the northwestern shelf. This study also gives new ecological insights for several species, in terms of bathymetric range distribution, as well as habitat type and highlighted the transitional characteristics of the molluscan communities from this particular northeastern Atlantic area where boreal, temperate and subtropical faunas can coexist.

Martins, R.; Sampaio, L.; Quintino, V.; Rodrigues, A. M.

2014-10-01

129

Using the negative binomial distribution to model overdispersion in ecological count data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Poisson process is a commonly used starting point for modeling stochastic variation of ecological count data around a theoretical expectation. However, data typically show more variation than implied by the Poisson distribution. Such overdispersion is often accounted for by using models with different assumptions about how the variance changes with the expectation. The choice of these assumptions can naturally have apparent consequences for statistical inference. We propose a parameterization of the negative binomial distribution, where two overdispersion parameters are introduced to allow for various quadratic mean-variance relationships, including the ones assumed in the most commonly used approaches. Using bird migration as an example, we present hypothetical scenarios on how overdispersion can arise due to sampling, flocking behavior or aggregation, environmental variability, or combinations of these factors. For all considered scenarios, mean-variance relationships can be appropriately described by the negative binomial distribution with two overdispersion parameters. To illustrate, we apply the model to empirical migration data with a high level of overdispersion, gaining clearly different model fits with different assumptions about mean-variance relationships. The proposed framework can be a useful approximation for modeling marginal distributions of independent count data in likelihood-based analyses. PMID:21870615

Lindén, Andreas; Mäntyniemi, Samu

2011-07-01

130

Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran. Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN. Vegetation was classified into different groups. The topographic conditions were recorded in quadrate locations. Soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. Soil acidity, bulk density, saturation moisture, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchangeable capacity, available phosphorous, soil texture, lime, biomass of earthworms, litter carbon and litter nitrogen were measured. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patters were mainly related to soil characteristics such as pH, bulk density, texture, phosphorous, organic carbon, nitrogen and CEC. Totally, considering the habitat conditions and ecological needs, each plant species has a significant relation with soil properties.

Y. Kooch

2007-01-01

131

Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records [...] of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country.

Juliano Vilaverde, Schmitt; Hélio Amante, Miot.

1013-10-01

132

Macrophyte distribution and ecological status of the Turiec River (Slovakia: Changes after seven years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characteristics of diversity, abundance, distribution, and ecological status of aquatic macrophytes were observed in 2000 and 2007 on a circa 4.5 km long section of the Turiec River using Kohler's method. In comparison to 2000, the total number of macrophytes in 2007 increased markedly (from 25 to 35, although only the numbers of amphi­phytes and helophytes were changed substantially. The number of hydrophytes increased from 11 to 12; an invasive, Elodea canadenis, was the only new species. The relative plant mass of hydrophytes represents the bulk of all recorded species (95 and 80% in 2000 and 2007, respectively, and it was changed for most hydrophytes. The most significant changes were detected for Myriophyllum spicatum (decrease, filamentous algae (decrease, and Potamogeton crispus (increase. In 2007, the mean mass total (MMT sum of hydrophytes decreased from 16.46 to 14.5. On the other hand, the MMTsum of amphiphytes and helophytes doubled in value (7.4 and 14.1 in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Within hydrophytes, Batrachium species (including B. aquatile and B. trichophyllum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous (distribution ratio d > 0.5 in 2000, whereas in 2007 only Batrachium species and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous. At all times, Batrachium species were the most frequent species in the study area, and their abundance was relatively high (MMT> 2.5. A poor ecological status (MMP = 0.378 and MMP = 0.333 in 2000 and 2007, respectively of the surveyed river section was found in both years, but a slight decline of quality as determined on the basis of aquatic plants was observed after 7 years.

Hrivnák R.

2009-01-01

133

A taxonomy fuzzy filtering approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our work proposes the use of topic taxonomies as part of a filtering language. Given a taxonomy, a classifier is trained for each one of its topics. The user is able to formulate logical rules combining the available topics, e.g. (Topic1 AND Topic2 OR Topic3, in order to filter related documents in a stream. Using the trained classifiers, every document in the stream is assigned a belief value of belonging to the topics of the filter. These belief values are then aggregated using logical operators to yield the belief to the filter. In our study, Support Vector Machines and Naïve Bayes classifiers were used to provide topic probabilities. Aggregation of topic probabilities based on fuzzy logic operators was found to improve filtering performance on the Renters text corpus, as compared to the use of their Boolean counterparts. Finally, we deployed a filtering system on the web using a sample taxonomy of the Open Directory Project.

Vrettos S.

2003-01-01

134

Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest), located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in th [...] e study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species) and Polypodiaceae (22 species). The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species) and Thelypteris (9 species). Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

Anna Flora de Novaes, Pereira; Ivo Abraão Araújo da, Silva; Augusto César Pessôa, Santiago; Iva Carneiro Leão, Barros.

2013-12-01

135

Dynamic taxonomies and faceted search  

CERN Document Server

Current access paradigms for the Web, i.e., direct access via search engines or database queries and navigational access via static taxonomies, have recently been criticized because they are too rigid or simplistic to effectively cope with a large number of practical search applications. A third paradigm, dynamic taxonomies and faceted search, focuses on user-centered conceptual exploration, which is far more frequent in search tasks than retrieval using exact specification, and has rapidly become pervasive in modern Web data retrieval, especially in critical applications such as product selec

Sacco, Giovanni Maria

2009-01-01

136

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

Science.gov (United States)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

2013-11-01

137

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources

Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael

2013-01-01

138

Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran  

OpenAIRE

Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the view...

Karami, T.; Soleimani, M.; Afrakhteh, H.; Hataminejad, H.

2012-01-01

139

[Ecological distribution and spatial niche of pheasants in the Karst mountains of southwest Guangxi Province, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Karst mountain area along the Sino-Vietnam border of southwest Guangxi has been designated a "Global Biodiversity Hotspot" since 2003. We conducted a survey of pheasant species in this area, with seven species recorded, namely Chinese Francolin (Francolinus pintadeanus), Bar-backed Partridge (Arborophila brunneopectus), Mountain Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola fytchii), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) and Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Analysis and comparison of the distribution and spatial niche of these seven pheasant species revealed that Red Junglefowl had the widest spatial niche, while Chinese Francolin had the narrowest. The spatial niche overlap index was high between Chinese Francolin and the Common Pheasant, Chinese Bamboo Partridge, and Red Junglefowl. With narrow distribution range, small population, and lower ecological adaptability, it is likely that the Bar-backed Partridge is the most vulnerable pheasant species in this area. The results suggest more research and conservation measures are required for pheasant habitat protection in the Karst areas of southwest Guangxi. PMID:22006809

Yu, Chen-Xing; Yang, Gang; Li, Dong; Zhou, Fang

2011-10-01

140

Ecological characteristics of Triatoma patagonica at the Southern limit of its distribution (Chubut, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the ecological characteristics of Triatoma patagonica Del Ponte 1929 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae and evaluating the epidemiological importance of this species at its southernmost distribution limit. We carried out two surveys in the Province of Chubut, in summer and in spring, 1998. In each survey, we interviewed local health care agents for triatomine recognition and reports of the bugs, followed by entomological searches in houses and peridomestic and silvatic biotopes. The presence of T. patagonica was confirmed in two of the five localities indicated by interview. In agreement with previous studies, all these positive localities were east of the 11°C isotherm, within the Monte phytogeographic province. Triatomine abundance and infestation levels (in peridomiciles and peridomestic biotopes were higher in summer than in spring, possibly reflecting adverse environmental conditions such as flood and cold winter weather. In the silvatic environment, we found three adult bugs under rocks in summer. In peridomestic sites bugs were only found associated with chickens, which were also the only blood meal source identified. Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was not detected. We conclude that T. patagonica at its southernmost distribution limit does not represent a risk to public health due to its low abundance, lack of association with humans, and absence of T. cruzi infection.

Cristina Wisnivesky-Colli

2003-12-01

141

Ecological characteristics of Triatoma patagonica at the Southern limit of its distribution (Chubut, Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at identifying the ecological characteristics of Triatoma patagonica Del Ponte 1929 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and evaluating the epidemiological importance of this species at its southernmost distribution limit. We carried out two surveys in the Province of Chubut, in summer and in sp [...] ring, 1998. In each survey, we interviewed local health care agents for triatomine recognition and reports of the bugs, followed by entomological searches in houses and peridomestic and silvatic biotopes. The presence of T. patagonica was confirmed in two of the five localities indicated by interview. In agreement with previous studies, all these positive localities were east of the 11°C isotherm, within the Monte phytogeographic province. Triatomine abundance and infestation levels (in peridomiciles and peridomestic biotopes) were higher in summer than in spring, possibly reflecting adverse environmental conditions such as flood and cold winter weather. In the silvatic environment, we found three adult bugs under rocks in summer. In peridomestic sites bugs were only found associated with chickens, which were also the only blood meal source identified. Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was not detected. We conclude that T. patagonica at its southernmost distribution limit does not represent a risk to public health due to its low abundance, lack of association with humans, and absence of T. cruzi infection.

Cristina, Wisnivesky-Colli; Darío, Vezzani; Silvia M, Pietrokovsky; Hugo, Scurti; Jorge, Iriarte.

1077-10-01

142

Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet  

CERN Document Server

When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun.We know its approximate mass, temperature, age and size. In our work with extrasolar planets database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification), for example, like the Harvard classification for stars. This new taxonomy has to be comprehensible and present the important information about extrasolar planets. The important information of extrasolar planets are their mass, radius, period, density, eccentricity, temperature, and their distance from the parent star. There are too many parameters, that is, taxonomy with six parameters would be complicated and difficult to apply. We propose following the extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with only four parameters. The first parameter is the information about the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of the units of the mass of other known planets, where M - Mercury, E - Earth, N - Neptune, and J - Jupiter. The second parameter is the distance from its pa...

Plávalová, E

2011-01-01

143

Query Evaluation in P2P Systems of Taxonomy-based Sources: Algorithms, Complexity, and Optimizations  

CERN Document Server

In this study, we address the problem of answering queries over a peer-to-peer system of taxonomy-based sources. A taxonomy states subsumption relationships between negation-free DNF formulas on terms and negation-free conjunctions of terms. To the end of laying the foundations of our study, we first consider the centralized case, deriving the complexity of the decision problem and of query evaluation. We conclude by presenting an algorithm that is efficient in data complexity and is based on hypergraphs. More expressive forms of taxonomies are also investigated, which however lead to intractability. We then move to the distributed case, and introduce a logical model of a network of taxonomy-based sources. On such network, a distributed version of the centralized algorithm is then presented, based on a message passing paradigm, and its correctness is proved. We finally discuss optimization issues, and relate our work to the literature.

Meghini, Carlo; Analyti, Anastasia

2007-01-01

144

On the taxonomy and distribution of Crocidura cossyrensis and Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Soricidae in Maghreb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The paper examines the taxonomic status of North African Crocidura russula Auctorum. On the basis of morphological data, the taxon needs to be divided into at least two species: C. russula (Hermann, 1780 from western Europe, coastal Morocco and middle-western Algeria, up to about the Algiers area, and possibly even Sardinia and Ibiza, and another species, distributed in coastal middle-eastern Algeria, Tunisia, Pantelleria and, possibly, La Galite archipelago. The first and only available name for the above, eastern taxon is Crocidura cossyrensis Contoli, 1989.

Longino Contoli

2001-09-01

145

Distribution and ecology of Carex secalina in the Czech Republic and Slovakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current and historical occurrence as well as coenotic affinity and ecology of Carex secalina in the Czech Republic and Slovakia are presented. The study is based on revision of herbarium specimens from 25 herbaria, literature data excerption and a field survey carried out during 2004-2010. Altogether, 168 sites were documented in the Czech Republic divided to two separate areas. Stabile occurrence trend was found in last decades, because 45 localities were documented in period 1975-1999 (27% of sites and recent occurrence was confirmed at 42 localities (24% of sites. On the basis of our current knowledge the species was included into the IUCN threat category VU (vulnerable. In Slovakia, 19 localities of the species were recorded in total, but only 4 sites were confirmed recently (21% of sites recorded. However, only a small number of individuals was recorded there (less than 50 individuals in total and half of this sites is acutely threatened by destruction (ploughing, secondary succession. Therefore, the C. secalina status in the Slovak Red List was changed to the IUCN category "critically endangered" (CR. Results of the study are summarised in the maps of historical and current species distribution. C. secalina usually occurred in halophytic grassland communities, especially in association Agrostio stoloniferae-Juncetum ranarii Vicherek 1962. However, it may occur in many other communities which suggest that the species had not well-defined coenotic relationships. On the basis of our knowledge, we consider C. secalina as an obligate halophyte.

Pavol Eliáš jun.

2012-06-01

146

Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of sediments, attention has seldom been paid to the problem in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to find the distribution and ecological risk of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in surface sediment of Baiyangdian which is the biggest wetland in Northeast China. We apply three methodologies. The first is literature analysis comparing total concentrations of heavy metals with other water bodies around world. The second is Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (EQSS), National Environmental Protection Agency of China 1995, and the third is Soil and Aquatic Sediment Guidelines and Standards issued by New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The results show that compared to other water bodies around the world, the seven heavy metals are low. However, Cd was found in the most polluting level of EQSS near a village and was second grade some distance from it. The village was also the most polluted site of Zn,which was in the second grade. When assessed by NYSDEC, Cu, Cr, and As contaminated the sediment and with moderate impacts on benthic life while Pb, Hg, and Zn were found at tolerable levels throughout Baiyangdian. The centre of Cu and Cr contamination was also near the village. As is the most polluting heavy metals with a major occurrence in the middle of the wetland. There were no heavy metals creating severe disturbance to the benthic communities. Based on the assessment, this article proposes different options for more sustainable management.

Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling

2011-01-01

147

Hydropower developments in Canada: number, size and jurisdictional and ecological distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For over 200 years, energy production and consumption, along with all human activities, have been contributing to global warming. This report is part of a project that examines 10 major energy sectors to provide information on Canada's energy options in the face of climate change; this present study gives information on hydropower reservoirs and associated dams in Canada. The mapping, jurisdictional and ecological distribution of reservoirs and dams across Canada is provided herein. Canada's hydropower installations are composed of 271 large hydropower facilities covering 58,015 km2 with a capacity of 71,857 MW, accounting for 44% of Canada's total technical hydroelectric capacity. Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia are the provinces with the most large hydropower dams; 19% of the watersheds are occupied in part by hydropower reservoirs and the taiga shield, boreal shield and montane cordillera ecozones contain most of the reservoir areas. The majority of future developments are expected to be built within 5km of intact forest landscapes.

Lee, Peter G.; Hanneman, Matt; Cheng, Ryan [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)

2011-08-15

148

Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available [ Credits ] Search across metadata and databases: Home About Archive Update History Contact us T ... axonomy Icon Taxonomy Icon Images ... (PNG format) Data detail Data name Taxonomy Icon I ...

149

Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta) en la Laguna dos Patos, sur del Brasil: Taxonomía y distribución / Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta) in Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil: Taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo analizamos las características morfológicas de la diatomea céntrica Skeletonema potamos (Weber) Hasle de la Laguna dos Patos, sur del Brasil, usando microscopia de luz y electrónica de barrido. Discutimos la abundancia y la distribución de la población a lo largo del gradiente [...] de salinidad en la laguna. Las muestras de la superficie del agua fueron recogidas mensualmente en ocho estaciones a lo largo del eje longitudinal de la laguna, en el periodo de diciembre 1987 a diciembre 1988. Las muestras fueron contadas por el método de Utermöhl, y la densidad (cels.mL-1) estimada en base de las células vivas. La morfología de los individuos concuerda con la especie-tipo del río Little Miami, localizado en Ohio, USA, a excepción de la convexidad y del patrón de gránulos en la cara valvar. Skeletonema potamos fue encontrada en el invierno y primavera, y distribuida en las zonas limnéticas, oligohalina y mesohalina de la laguna. La densidad de la población presenta una correlación negativa significativa con la salinidad. La luz y la competencia probablemente también influencian el desarrollo de las poblaciones de la especie S. potamos en la Laguna dos Patos. Abstract in english We analyzed the morphogical features of the centric diatom Skeletonema potamos (Weber) Hasle from Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the abundance and distribution of the species along the salinity gradient in the lagoon. Samples from the water su [...] rface were taken monthly at eight stations along the longitudinal axis of the lagoon, from December 1987 to December 1988. The species were counted by the Utermöhl method, and the density (cells.mL-1) was estimated based on live cells. The morphology of the specimens agrees with the type, from the Little Miami River, Ohio, U.S.A., except for the convexity and the pattern of granules on the valve face. Skeletonema potamos was found in the winter and spring, and was distributed in the limnetic, oligohaline and mesohaline zones of the lagoon. The cell concentration appeared to be controlled by the salinity, with a significant negative correlation observed. Light and competition probably also influence the development of S. potamos populations in the Patos Lagoon.

Lezilda, Carvalho Torgan; Vanessa, Becker; Cristiane, Bahi dos Santos.

2009-08-01

150

Current status of viroid taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids. PMID:25216773

Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

2014-12-01

151

Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial...

Austin Brian

2011-01-01

152

Solar and Extrasolar Planet Taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

A mass-based definition for planets is proposed with dynamical circumstances and compositional characteristics used to define types of planets. Dynamical planet classes include Principal planets, Belt planets, Moons, and Rogue planets. Compositional classes include rock, ice, and gas planets with refined classes when sufficient data is available. The dynamical and compositional definitions are combined with a six class planetary mass scale into a taxonomy that can be used to...

Russell, David

2013-01-01

153

A Taxonomy for Semi-Supervised Learning Methods  

OpenAIRE

We propose a simple taxonomy of probabilistic graphical models for the semi-supervised learning problem. We give some broad classes of algorithms for each of the families and point to specific realizations in the literature. Finally, we shed more detailed light on the family of methods using input-dependent regularization (or conditional prior distributions) and show parallels to the Co-training paradigm.

Chapelle, O.; Schoelkopf, Bernhard; Zien, A.; Seeger, Matthias

2006-01-01

154

GENETIC DIVERSITY RESOURCES, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF FIFTEEN NEW RECORDS OF ORCHID SPECIES TO ASSAM OF EASTERN HIMALAYA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present paper deals 15 Orchid species with 12 genera viz., Bryobium pudicum, Bulbophyllum apodum, Chrysoglossum ornatum, Cleisostoma linearilobatum, C. simondii, Collabium chinense, Diploprora championii, Eria connate, E. ferruginea, Taeniophyllum crepidiforme, Tainia wrayana, Thelasis pygmaea, Thrixspermum acuminatissimum, T. pygmaeum, and Z. glandulosa were recorded from Dibrugarh district of Assam of Eastern Himalaya for the first time and reported as new distributional records to the state. Out of 15 species 11 species are epiphytic and the rest 4 are terrestrial in habitat. All the species are enumerated with latest citation, brief description, phonology, present ecological status and local distribution within Assam.

Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, R. L. Borah², G. C. Sharma³ and Rajendra Yonzone4

2012-06-01

155

ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T. angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Tainia species in the regions.

Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² and Rajendra Yonzone³

2012-06-01

156

Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the viewpoint of green space function and a great part of the role of urban green space is undertaken by private green spaces. “What effect do private greeneries located in residential areas have on the quality of citizens’ life or what kind of reality is asserted by their development and distribution pattern in the urban life of today’s modern society” were issues of less attention. Thus, considering the interconnection of green space production and distribution pattern (public and private with the rest of natural, social, economic and fabric conditions, the present research benefits from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a dependent variable which has been influenced by ecological, social, fabric and economic variables and has analyzed them to identify effective factors in Tehran inequality urban green space. The present article theoretically makes use of urban political ecology approach and is considered a correlational research. The required data have been prepared and analyzed by some types of software such as ArcGIS, ArcView, IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine, and SPSS. In conducting this research some techniques have been used such as; “Average Distance to Nearest Neighbor”, “Square Analysis”, “Correlational Analysis and Factor Analysis”. 2-Theoretical basis The present study is theoretically based on an urban political ecology approach. Urban components including green space from urban political ecological perspective are considered a kind of social production whose imagination and change are influenced by political economy, dominant pattern of public and private ownership in society (Heynen, Perkins and Roy, 2006: 3. The aforementioned perspective clearly states that urban material conditions which includes urban environment too are controlled and manipulated by the elite and city experts to serve their interests. This issue is conducive to make some of the urban social groups marginalized and deprived from natural riches and urban environmental artifacts. As a result, the quality of urban environment (physically and socially increases in some neighborhoods and decreases in others (Heynen, Kaika and Swyngedouw, 2006: 1-15. Since unequal greenery distribution with creating imbalanced ecological conditions often plays its role in a feedback cycle on environment quality and intensification of inequalities within urban life environment, the present study uses pattern of canopy distribution located in areas of residential uses (private and public to reveal social, economic and spatial inequalities in Tehran. 3- DiscussionThe results of this research in relation to Tehran city confirm the determining position of urban political ecology in forming distribution pattern and density of trees canopy located in areas of Tehran. This is a subject which is confirmed by studies conducted on urban green space (including public and private in the cities such as San Diego, Toronto (by Perkins, Heynen and Wilson 2004, Scobedo and colleagues 2005, Heynen, Perkins and Roy 2006 and Conway, Shakeel and Atallah 2011. Also, so far many researchers on the urban issues of Tehran city (such as Madanipoor 2005, Horkad 2009 have emphasized the conformity of natural topography over social topography in Tehran. The result f this attempt, while confirming aforementioned perspectives, indicated that the distribution pattern of canopy density in residential areas(private urban green space has a greater capability to portray social classifications and environmental quality and as a result spatial inequalities in Tehran city du

T. Karami

2012-01-01

157

Particulate organic matter distribution along the lower Amazon River: addressing aquatic ecology concepts using fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the greatest challenges in understanding the Amazon basin functioning is to ascertain the role played by floodplains in the organic matter (OM) cycle, crucial for a large spectrum of ecological mechanisms. Fatty acids (FAs) were combined with environmental descriptors and analyzed through multivariate and spatial tools (asymmetric eigenvector maps, AEM and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM). This challenge allowed investigating the distribution of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), in order to trace its seasonal origin and quality, along a 800 km section of the Amazon river-floodplain system. Statistical analysis confirmed that large amounts of saturated FAs (15:0, 18:0, 24:0, 25:0 and 26:0), an indication of refractory OM, were concomitantly recorded with high pCO(2) in rivers, during the high water season (HW). Contrastingly, FAs marker which may be attributed in this ecosystem to aquatic plants (18:2?6 and 18:3?3) and cyanobacteria (16:1?7), were correlated with higher O(2), chlorophyll a and pheopigments in floodplains, due to a high primary production during low waters (LW). Decreasing concentrations of unsaturated FAs, that characterize labile OM, were recorded during HW, from upstream to downstream. Furthermore, using PCNM and AEM spatial methods, FAs compositions of SPOM displayed an upstream-downstream gradient during HW, which was attributed to OM retention and the extent of flooded forest in floodplains. Discrimination of OM quality between the Amazon River and floodplains corroborate higher autotrophic production in the latter and transfer of OM to rivers at LW season. Together, these gradients demonstrate the validity of FAs as predictors of spatial and temporal changes in OM quality. These spatial and temporal trends are explained by 1) downstream change in landscape morphology as predicted by the River Continuum Concept; 2) enhanced primary production during LW when the water level decreased and its residence time increased as predicted by the Flood Pulse Concept. PMID:23029412

Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Rigal, François; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Bernardes, Marcelo; Abril, Gwenaël; Meziane, Tarik

2012-01-01

158

Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

2014-12-01

159

Comparative ecology of widely-distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address

Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.

2014-01-01

160

Ecology and the ratchet of events: Climate variability, niche dimensions, and species distributions  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change in the coming centuries will be characterized by interannual, decadal, and multidecadal fluctuations superimposed on anthropogenic trends. Predicting ecological and biogeographic responses to these changes constitutes an immense challenge for ecologists. Perspectives from climatic and ecological history indicate that responses will be laden with contingencies, resulting from episodic climatic events interacting with demographic and colonization events. This effect is compounded by the dependency of environmental sensitivity upon life-stage for many species. Climate variables often used in empirical niche models may become decoupled from the proximal variables that directly influence individuals and populations. Greater predictive capacity, and morefundamental ecological and biogeographic understanding, will come from integration of correlational niche modeling with mechanistic niche modeling, dynamic ecological modeling, targeted experiments, and systematic observations of past and present patterns and dynamics.

Jackson, S.T.; Betancourt, J.L.; Booth, R.K.; Gray, S.T.

2009-01-01

161

Description of a new species of the genus Leporinus Spix (Characiformes: Anostomidae from the rio Araguaia, Brazil, with comments on the taxonomy and distribution of L. parae and L. lacustris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new species of the genus Leporinus is described from the rio Araguaia, in Mato Grosso and Goiás states, Brazil. The new species has the dental formula 4/3, a unique feature within the genus; all other species of Leporinus have dental formulae 3/3, 3/4 or 4/4. In addition, the new species can also be distinguished by the following combination of characters: 36 to 37 scales in the lateral line, 4/4.5 or 4/5 series of scales in the transversal line, 16 circumpeduncular scale series, anal fin surpassing base of lower caudal-fin rays and three blotches along the lateral line. The new species shares with L. parae and L. lacustris a rather deep body, terminal mouth, long anal fin, three small dark blotches on the lateral line, the latter two, particularly the last one, usually fading, and preference for lentic habitats. Comments on the taxonomy and distribution of the species L. parae and L. lacustris are provided.Uma nova espécie do gênero Leporinus é descrita do rio Araguaia, nos estados do Mato Grosso e Goiás, Brasil. A característica mais notável da nova espécie é sua fórmula dental 4/3, única entre as espécies do gênero que possuem fórmula dental 3/3, 3/4 ou 4/4. A nova espécie também pode ser reconhecida pela combinação das seguintes características: 36 a 37 escamas na linha lateral, 4/4,5 ou 4/5 séries de escamas na linha transversal, 16 series de escamas circumpedunculares, nadadeira anal ultrapassando a base dos raios inferiores da nadadeira caudal e presença de três manchas escuras ao longo da linha lateral. A nova espécie compartilha com L. parae e L. lacustris corpo alto, boca terminal, nadadeira anal longa e escura, três manchas escuras na linha lateral pequenas, sendo as duas últimas, em especial a última, geralmente apagadas, e preferência por habitats lênticos. Além disso, são feitos comentários sobre a taxonomia e a distribuição de L. parae e L. lacustris.

Heraldo A. Britski

2008-03-01

162

Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta) do curso inferior do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil: taxonomia e distribuição temporal / Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta) from the lower course of Negro river (Amazon, Brazil): taxonomy and temporal distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo relata a taxonomia e distribuição temporal do gênero Pinnularia ocorrente no curso inferior do rio Negro (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W) ao longo de um ciclo anual. O trabalho foi conduzido a partir da análise de amostras coletadas na coluna d'água, em escala mensal, entre os meses de outu [...] bro de 2002 a setembro de 2003. As espécies foram descritas e comentadas com base na sua morfologia e morfometria. Onze espécies e quatro variedades foram identificadas, ilustradas e incluídas em chave taxonômica. Dois táxons registrados neste estudo, P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot e P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer, constituem primeira citação de ocorrência para o rio Negro. Temporalmente, a maior riqueza de espécies ocorreu entre os meses de outubro a dezembro de 2002, período de águas baixas, quando houve provavelmente maior interação entre água e sedimento possibilitando aporte de indivíduos da região bentônica. Considerando a ocorrência dos táxons ao longo do estudo, somente P. confirma foi considerada frequente, estando presente em mais de 50% das amostras analisadas. Abstract in english This study reports the taxonomy and temporal distribution of the Pinnularia genus occurring in the lower course Negro river (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W) along an annual cycle. Samples were collected in the water column monthly, from October 2002 to September 2003. The species were described and com [...] mented based on their morphology and morphometry. Eleven species and four varieties are registered, illustrated and incorporated in a taxonomic key. P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot and P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer are the first references to Negro river. Temporally, the highest species richness occurred from October and December 2002, low water period, when happened more interaction between water and sediment, and the contribution of the benthos individuals. On base in taxa occurrence during this study, only P. confirma was frequently, with occurrence in more than 50% of sample analyzed.

Andreia Cavalcante, Pereira; Lezilda Carvalho, Torgan; Sérgio, Melo.

2012-09-01

163

Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado en Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile, Islas Juan Fernández y en regiones costeras al sur de los 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica y M. tenuis son más frecuentes en las zonas más australes de Chile; también se han encontrado en hábitats de altura y bajas latitudes. Se incluyen, además, M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens y M. wandae. Varias especies sorediosas crecen como pioneras en sustratos jóvenes. Los patrones de distribución a lo largo de gradientes de humedad y de luz son variables. Se presentan mapas de distribución y clave de las especies.

JARLE W BJERKE

2003-03-01

164

Taxonomy of difficulties in general practice.  

OpenAIRE

A questionnaire combining qualitative and quantitative methods was used to compile a taxonomy of the difficulties experienced by general practitioners in their practices. Difficulties are grouped in 11 categories, ranging from clinical diagnosis to physicians' personal feelings. The taxonomy can be used as a guide for planning medical education or as a starting point for further research in general practice.

Beaulieu, M. D.; Lecle?re, H.; Bordage, G.

1993-01-01

165

In search of environmental role of cylindrospermopsin: a review on global distribution and ecology of its producers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a significant interest in cyanotoxins over recent decades, their biological role is still poorly elucidated. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial metabolite that is globally identified in surface fresh- and brackish waters and whose producers are observed to spread throughout different climate zones. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the characteristics and global distribution of CYN-producing species, the variety of their chemotypes and the occurrence of strains which, while incapable of toxin synthesis, are able to produce other bioactive compounds including those that are hitherto unknown and yet to be identified. Environmental conditions that can trigger CYN production and promote growth of CYN-producers in aquatic ecosystems are also discussed. Finally, on the basis of existing experimental evidence, potential ecological role(s) of CYN are indicated. It is eventually concluded that CYN can be at least partially responsible for the ecological success of certain cyanobacteria species. PMID:25222334

Rzymski, Piotr; Poniedzia?ek, Barbara

2014-12-01

166

A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

167

Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is a combined approach that inherits the edge-based approach of the edge counting scheme, which is then enhanced by the node-based approach of the information content calculation. When tested on a common data set of word pair similarity ratings, the proposed approach outperforms other computational models. It gives the highest correlation value (r = 0.828) with a benchmark based on human similarity judgements, whereas an upper bound (r = 0.885) is observed when human subjects replicate the same task.

Jiang, J J; Jiang, Jay J.; Conrath, David W.

1997-01-01

168

GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

2013-01-01

169

Distribution and Occurrence of Mango Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz and Sacc in Humid Agro-ecology of Southwest Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is grown in different agro-ecologies of Ethiopia and its production and productivity is limited by several biotic and abiotic factors. Mango anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is considered as the most important mango disease in the country that contribute significantly to pre and post harvest fruit losses. However, the distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose both in the field and at market in mango producing areas of southwestern Ethiopia is not yet documented. In this study, distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose in three potential mango producing districts and one urban area in Jimma region, SW Ethiopia were assessed. At the same time knowledge and attitude of farmers against mango anthracnose was also assessed. The results showed that mango anthracnose was 100% prevalent in the study area. Anthracnose incidence and severity varied across farmer’s field and market places. The disease incidence under farmer’s fields ranged from 41-72.1% on leaf and from 36.2-74% on fruit. We found higher (95.3 vs. 82% and lower (70.7 vs. 64% incidence and severity in the market, respectively. The disease was more severe in the market place than in the farmer’s fields. It was confirmed that the identified fungus was C. gloeosporioides. So, for better understanding of the prevalence and distribution of this disease and to design appropriate management options, similar assessments across different mango growing agro-ecologies and along mango value chain is crucial.

Ayantu Tucho

2014-01-01

170

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. Final report, 1 September 1988--30 June 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

Spotila, J.R.

1992-11-01

171

Tephritid taxonomy into the 21st century - Research opportunities and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We write with the firm conviction that taxonomic research forms the essential foundation for all other areas of investigation within the field of biology. This has been well demonstrated in the Tephritidae and is a position at which we have arrived through many years' experience in fruit fly systematic research covering taxonomy, behaviour, biology, ecology and pest control. The importance of sound taxonomic research is highlighted at this time by the known presence of many sibling species complexes across the family. Within the Dacinae, for example, major pest species often occur within groups of closely related species, most of which are not pests. The dorsalis complex of Southeast Asia and the musae complex of Papua New Guinea are examples. Tephritid taxonomy has a long history (over two centuries) and rich heritage with some 4,500 species having been described since the mid-1700s. This research has been carried out in major research centres around the world and particularly in Australia, Europe, Hawaii, mainland USA and South Africa. In Mexico in February 1998, a significant meeting was held on the biology/behaviour and taxonomy of Tephritidae. Specialist researchers in this area presented valuable and interesting data on 'Phylogeny and Evolution of Behaviour' in fruit flies. In summarising current knowledge on the taxonomy and biology of the Tephritidae, the meeting highlighted the outstanding achievements of taxonomy in its contributions to both basic research aits contributions to both basic research and pest management programmes over many decades of tephritid studies world-wide. This presentation provides a link between the meetings in Mexico and Penang and enables us to present a summary of our current knowledge and genuine valuable applications of tephritid taxonomy to the overall fruit fly research and pest management effort. In doing this, this presentation also fits into the theme of this conference in Penang, 'Fruit Flies- current global scenario'

172

A taxonomy of automatic differentiation tools  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the current automatic differentiation (AD) tools have similar characteristics. Unfortunately, the similarities between these various AD tools often cannot be easily ascertained by reading the corresponding documentation. To clarify this situation, a taxonomy of AD tools is presented. The taxonomy places AD tools into the Elemental, Extensional, Integral, Operational, and Symbolic classes. This taxonomy is used to classify twenty-nine AD tools. Each tool is examined individually with respect to the mode of differentiation used and the degree of derivatives computed. A list detailing the availability of the surveyed AD tools is provided in the Appendix. 54 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Juedes, D.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

1991-01-01

173

TAXONOMY DEVELOPMENT IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS: DEVELOPING A TAXONOMY OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS  

OpenAIRE

The complexity of the information systems field often lends itself to classification schemes, or taxonomies, which provide ways to understand the similarities and differences among objects under study. Developing a taxonomy, however, is a complex process that is often done in an ad hoc way. This research-in-progress paper uses the design science paradigm to develop a systematic method for taxonomy development in information systems. The method we propose uses an indicator or operational level...

Nickerson, Robert; Muntermann, Jan; Varshney, Upkar; Isaac, Henri

2009-01-01

174

ASPECTOS ECOLÓGICOS Y DISTRIBUCION GEOGRÁFICA DE CARRANGENOPHYTAS / CARRAGENOPHYTAS ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las especies carragenófitas están definidas como macroalgas miembro del Phylum Rodophyta, Clase Rodophyceae, Subclase Florideophycidae, Orden Gigartinales. Las especies de mayor importancia comercial a nivel internacional son de los géneros Betaphycus, Eucheuma y Kappaphycus; y a nivel nacional espe [...] cies de los géneros Gigartina, Mazzaella y Sarcothalia. Debido a su importancia comercial, el género Gigartina, ha sido objeto de investigaciones como: Ecología de las poblaciones de las costas estuarinas y abiertas de la especie del noreste del Atlántico; ha sido investigado por Mathieson y Tveter (1976) con relación a las cantidades y calidad de su carragenina. Estudios de las respuestas a fotoperíodos (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) han identificado "ventanas" reproductivas, sugiriendo que las explicaciones de multiplicación vegetativa son cada vez más exclusivas, a diferencia de la producción y gametangial o tetrasporangial, en las poblaciones de las altas latitudes de una especie europea generalizada. La determinación genética de los patrones de ramificación y límites de tolerancia a la temperatura se han establecido para varias especies de (Guiry et al., 1987.; Buschmann, 2001). La viabilidad del cultivo de especies en sustratos artificiales ha sido evaluada por Mumford y Waaland (1980), y demostró tener potencial comercial. Este género tiene distribución en todo el mundo en mares templados a fríos, sin embargo, muy pocas especies ocurren en las regiones subtropicales. Los centros de diversidad de especies particularmente rica son California, Japón, Nueva Zelanda, Chile y Sudáfrica (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011). Abstract in english The carragenophytas species are defined as macro-algae, members of the Phylum Rodophyta, Rodophyceae Class, Florideophycidae Subclass, Gigartinales Order. The most important commercial species at the international level are the Betaphycus, Eucheuma and Kappaphycus genera and at the national level th [...] e species belonging to the Gigartina, Mazzaella and Sarcothalia genera. Because of its commercial importance, the Gigartina genus has been the object of investigations such as: Ecology of populations in estuaries and open coast in the North-East Atlantic species; it has been studied by Mathieson and Tveter (1976) in relation with its carragenine quantity and quality. Studies about the response to photoperiods (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) have identified reproductive "windows" suggesting that the explanations for vegetative multiplication are more exclusive each time, different from gametangial or tetra-sporangial production in populations of high latitudes from a generalized European species. Genetic determination of ramification patterns and tolerance limits to temperature has been established for several species (Guiry et al., 1987; Buschmann, 2001). Species cultivation viability in artificial substrates has been evaluated by Mumford y Waaland (1980), and it showed commercial potential. This genus has distribution worldwide in warm and cold seas. However, very few species happen in subtropical regions. The particularly rich species biodiversity centers are California, Japan, New Zealand, Chile y South Africa (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011).

MARGARITA DEL R., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ; RAÚL A., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ.

2012-12-01

175

Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: An example for plants exposed to nickel in soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the 'free' nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account. - The use of bioavailability toxicity data can improve species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA)

Semenzin, Elena [Consorzio Venezia Ricerche, c/o VEGApark, Via della Liberta 5-12, 30175 Marghera-Venice (Italy)]. E-mail: semenzin.cvr@vegapark.ve.it; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M. [Wageningen University, Department of Environmental Science, Subdepartment of Soil Quality, PO Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: erwin.temminghoff@wur.nl; Marcomini, Antonio [Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Santa Marta - Dorsoduro 2137, 30121 Venice (Italy)]. E-mail: marcom@unive.it

2007-07-15

176

Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: An example for plants exposed to nickel in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the 'free' nickel (Ni2+) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account. - The use of bioavailability toxicity data can improve species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA)

177

Distribution and ecology of the lichen Fellhanera gyrophorica in the Pojezierze Olszty?skie Lakeland and its status in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study presents recent data on the distribution of Fellhanera gyrophorica (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycota in Poland, a rare lichen with a crustose, usually sterile thallus. Both previous and new localities of the species are presented with data on its eco­logy and general distribution. Furthermore, this paper provides detailed results on floristic investigations of the species in the forest areas of the Pojezierze Olszty?skie Lakeland (Northern Poland. Fertile specimens of F. gyrophorica have been observed in Poland for the second time and in the world – for the third time. Also, a new substrate for this species has been found: Acer platanoides. In addition, Carpinus betulus and Populus tremula were also found to be the species' substrates in Poland. Based on this study and previous reports, F. gyrophorica seems to be a relatively common species in north-eastern Poland.

Dariusz Kubiak

2011-12-01

178

The distribution of Wolbachia in fig wasps: correlations with host phylogeny, ecology and population structure.  

OpenAIRE

We surveyed for the presence and identity of Wolbachia in 44 species of chalcid wasps associated with 18 species of Panamanian figs. We used existing detailed knowledge of the population structures of the host wasps, as well as the ecological and evolutionary relationships among them, to explore the relevance of each of these factors to Wolbachia prevalence and mode of transmission. Fifty-nine per cent of these wasp species have Wolbachia infections, the highest proportion reported for any gr...

Shoemaker, D. Dewayne; Machado, Carlos A.; Molbo, Drude; Werren, John H.; Windsor, Donald M.; Herre, Edward Allen

2002-01-01

179

Regionalizing Aquatic Ecosystems Based on the River Subbasin Taxonomy Concept and Spatial Clustering Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed.

Jiahu Zhao

2011-11-01

180

Extrasolar planet taxonomy: a new statistical approach  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we present the guidelines for an extrasolar planet taxonomy. The discovery of an increasing number of extrasolar planets showing a vast variety of planetary parameters, like Keplerian orbital elements and environmental parameters, like stellar masses, spectral types, metallicity etc., prompts the development of a planetary taxonomy. In this work via principal component analysis followed by hierarchical clustering analysis, we report the definition of five robus...

Marchi, Simone

2007-01-01

181

Metabolic fingerprinting applied in diatom taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

The main aim of this thesis was to investigate if and how metabolic fingerprinting can be applied in diatom taxonomy. Even though both morphology and gene sequences have been shown to be appropriate tools in diatom taxonomy there are cases where these give contradicting results, like in the case of cryptic species. Cryptic species have similar morphology but are genetically different. Another issue with these two tools is that they do not offer much information about the function of a species...

Huseby, Siv

2012-01-01

182

Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinati [...] onal military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity) can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major), suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major) were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

Abdallah M., Samy; Lindsay P., Campbell; A. Townsend, Peterson.

2014-01-01

183

Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Chile / Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado) en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten [...] los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina). Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile), Islas Juan Fernández y en regiones costeras al sur de los 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica y M. tenuis son más frecuentes en las zonas más australes de Chile; también se han encontrado en hábitats de altura y bajas latitudes. Se incluyen, además, M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens y M. wandae. Varias especies sorediosas crecen como pioneras en sustratos jóvenes. Los patrones de distribución a lo largo de gradientes de humedad y de luz son variables. Se presentan mapas de distribución y clave de las especies. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ec [...] ology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina). Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile) and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.

JARLE W, BJERKE; ARVE, ELVEBAKK; WANDA, QUILHOT.

2003-03-01

184

Distributed Self-regulation Induced by Negative Feedbacks in Ecological and Economic Systems  

CERN Document Server

We consider an ecological system governed by Lotka-Volterra dynamics and an example of an economic system as a mesomarket with perfect competition. We propose a mechanism for cooperative self-regulation that enables the system under consideration to respond properly to changes in the environment. This mechanism is based on (1) active individual behavior of the system elements at each hierarchical level and (2) self-processing of information caused by the hierarchical organization. It is shown how the proposed mechanism suppresses nonlocal interaction of elements belonging to a particular level as mediated by higher levels.

Gafiychuk, V V; Ulanowicz, R E; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

1998-01-01

185

Distribution and Ecological Range of the Alien Plant Species Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae) in Taiwan  

OpenAIRE

In the past two decades Mikania micrantha Kunth, a climbing plant species originating from tropicalAmerica, has spread across Taiwan. It can now be found frequently in the lowlands and lower mountain areasup to 1,000 m a.s.l. in the centre and south of the island. Mikania micrantha is considered a problematic invasivealien plant species which is said to cause economical as well as environmental damage. This study investigatedthe ecological site characteristics of M. micrantha in Taiwan. 112 v...

Willis, Maja; Stefan Zerbe; Yau-Lun Kuo

2008-01-01

186

The taxobook principles and practices of building taxonomies  

CERN Document Server

This book outlines the basic principles of creation and maintenance of taxonomies and thesauri. It also provides step by step instructions for building a taxonomy or thesaurus and discusses the various ways to get started on a taxonomy construction project.Often, the first step is to get management and budgetary approval, so I start this book with a discussion of reasons to embark on the taxonomy journey. From there I move on to a discussion of metadata and how taxonomies and metadata are related, and then consider how, where, and why taxonomies are used.Information architecture has its corner

Hlava, Marjorie

2014-01-01

187

A Taxonomy of Daemons in Self-stabilization  

CERN Document Server

We survey existing scheduling hypotheses made in the literature in self-stabilization, commonly referred to under the notion of daemon. We show that four main characteristics (distribution, fairness, boundedness, and enabledness) are enough to encapsulate the various differences presented in existing work. Our naming scheme makes it easy to compare daemons of particular classes, and to extend existing possibility or impossibility results to new daemons. We further examine existing daemon transformer schemes and provide the exact transformed characteristics of those transformers in our taxonomy.

Dubois, Swan

2011-01-01

188

Assessing spatial distribution, sources, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Nansi Lake, Eastern China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study is conducted to investigate the spatial distribution, sources and ecological risk of seven heavy metals in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, Eastern China. A total of 29 samples were collected in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, and were analyzed for three nutrients (TN, TOC and TP), two major metals (Al and Fe), as well as seven trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Fe and Al were 14.41, 0.22, 71.10, 30.1, 0.048, 29.14, 90.2, 30,816 and 70,653 mg kg-1, respectively, and the mean contents of these metals were higher than the background values with the exception of Cu and Fe. The spatial distribution indicated that the contents of all seven heavy metals were characterized by relatively higher contents in the upper lake than the lower lake. The hotspots with high values of As, Cd and Hg were associated with the river mouths, and the hotspots of Pb were mainly located around the dam in the central part, while no significant associations were displayed between spatial distribution of Cr, Cu, Zn and the river mouths. The mean enrichment factor (EF) values of As, Cd, Hg and Pb were 2.03, 2.93, 3.21 and 2.18, respectively, showing their moderate enrichment, while Cr, Cu and Zn with mean EF values of 1.19, 0.89 and 1.01 were deficiency to minimal enrichment. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses suggested that PC1 controlled by Cr, Cu and Zn was a lithogenic component, and come from parent rocks leaching. PC2 including Cd and partially Hg represented the factor from industrial wastewater discharge. PC3 showed elevated loadings of As and partially Cd, and could be attributed to the agricultural practices. While PC4 including Pb and partially Hg, was dominated by coal combustion. The results of potential ecological risk suggested that sediment environment of Nansi Lake suffered from high ecological risk. (author)

189

Development and validation of a taxonomy of adverse handover events in hospital settings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To develop and validate a taxonomy to classify and support the analysis of adverse events related to patient handovers in hospital settings. A taxonomy was established using descriptions of handover events extracted from incident reports, interviews and root cause analysis reports. The inter-rater reliability and distribution of types of handover failures and causal factors. The taxonomy contains five types of failures and seven types of main causal factors. The taxonomy was validated against 432 adverse handover event descriptions contained in incident reports (stratified random sample from the Danish Patient Safety Database, 200 events) and 47 interviews with staff conducted at a large hospital in the Capital Region (232 events). The most prevalent causes of adverse events are inadequate competence (30 %), inadequate infrastructure (22 %) and busy ward (18 %). Inter-rater reliability (kappa) was 0.76 and 0.87 for reports and interviews, respectively. Communication in clinical contexts has been widely recognized as giving rise to potentially hazardous events, and handover situations are particularly prone to failures of communication or unclear allocation of responsibility. The taxonomy provides a tool for analyzing adverse handover events to identify frequent causes among reported handover failures. In turn, this provides a basis for selecting safety measures including handover protocols and training programmes.

Andersen, Henning Boje; Siemsen, Inger Margrete D.

2014-01-01

190

A taxonomic wish-list for community ecology.  

OpenAIRE

Community ecology seeks to explain the number and relative abundance of coexisting species. Four research frontiers in community ecology are closely tied to research in systematics and taxonomy: the statistics of species richness estimators, global patterns of biodiversity, the influence of global climate change on community structure, and phylogenetic influences on community structure. The most pressing needs for taxonomic information in community ecology research are usable taxonomic keys, ...

Gotelli, Nicholas J.

2004-01-01

191

Allium olivieri Boiss. (Alliaceae, a new taxon to Turkey, with contributions to its taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Allium olivieri Boiss. (Alliaceae is reported as a new record for Turkish flora. It was identified using the collected specimens and Flora orientalis, Flora of Iraq and Flora Iranica. The detailed description, illustrations, geographical distribution, habitat, status of IUCN extinction risk and some comments and discussions on the taxonomy of the species are given.

?smail Eker

2011-09-01

192

Semisupervised Learning Taxonomy-Aware Catalog Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data integration is the major important task for online commercial portals and commerce search engine based applications. The data integration task faced by online commercial portals and e-commerce search engines are the integration of products coming from multiple providers to their product catalogs. Categorization of products from the data provides into the master taxonomy and whereas make use of the data provider taxonomy information becomes major problem. Overcome this problem we classify the products based on their textual based classifier and taxonomy-aware step that adjusts the results of a textual based classifier to ensure that products that are close together in the provider taxonomy remain close in the master taxonomy. In taxonomy aware calibration step the base classifier derives the parameters value by tuning the values. Existing base classifier step, still it becomes major problem identify candidate products for labeling the products, to overcome these problem we proposed a Semi supervised learning techniques to incrementally retrain the base classifier with elements chosen during the taxonomy-aware calibration step. Proposed system it categorizes the product based on their parameters choosen from calibration. Semi supervised learning algorithm involves a large amount of unlabeled product data with only a small number of labeled product data. Semisupervised based active learning method identifies the candidate products for labeling. Proposed system finds the each candidate parameter ?? and then find the optimal parameter ? such that the improve the accuracy on the validation set is maximized. An experimental result shows that the Semi supervised learning algorithm that are efficient and thus applicable to the large data sets that are typical on the web.

D.Umavathi M.Sc1 , R.Tamil selvi M.Sc., M.Phil

2013-08-01

193

Trace elements distribution and ecological risk assessment of seawater and sediments from Dingzi Bay, Shandong Peninsula, North China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected trace elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr and Zn) in seawater and sediments from Dingzi Bay, a semi-enclosed bay suffering from severe degradation located in the Shandong Peninsula, were investigated to evaluate the spatial distribution and potential ecological risk. Results indicated that higher concentrations occurred in the inner bay. Calculation of pollution load index (PLI) showed overall low values while the concentration factor (CF) indicated that Hg, As and Cd were at moderate risk levels in the region. Based on the effects-range classification, As was likely to pose environment risk. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that in addition to background contributions, the trace elements contamination could also be affected by anthropogenic pollution sources. The results of present study provide useful background information for further marine investigation and management in the region. PMID:25455380

Pan, Jingjin; Pan, Jin-Fen; Wang, Min

2014-12-15

194

Ecological composition and distribution of the diatoms from the Laguna Superior, Oaxaca, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

A taxonomic study of diatoms was carried out in a tropical coastal lagoon. Material for this study consists of water samples obtained from February-March 1992 to November-December 2000. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed the presence of 373 taxa of which the families Bacillariaceae (67 species) and Chaetocerotaceae (37 species) were the most abundant groups. The species Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Coscinodiscus radiatus var. radiatus, Ditylum brightwellii, Thalassiosira eccentrica and Entomoneis alata were found associated with moderate water quality and forming blooms. In addition, a regional comparison between Mexico and South America of the identified species is given. For practical handling, indicative values obtained from their ecological composition are incorporated as well as a code of the floristic list. Achecklist of the species and their occurrence are given. PMID:22315822

Moreno-Ruiz, José Luis; Tapia-Garcia, Margarito; Licea, Sergio; Figueroa-Torres, María Guadalupe; Esquivel, Alfonso; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo; González-Fernández, José Manuel; González-Macias, Maria Del Carmen

2011-07-01

195

Predicting the potential geographic distribution of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis in India based on MAXENT ecological niche model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley has recently emerged as a serious insect pest of cotton in India. This study demonstrates the use of Maxent algorithm for modeling the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis in India with presence-only data. Predictions were made based on the analysis of the relationship between 111 occurrence records for P. solenopsis and the corresponding current and future climate data defined on the study area. The climate data from worldclim database for current (1950-2000) and future (SRES A2 emission scenario for 2050) conditions were used. DIVA-GIS, an open source software for conducting spatial analysis was used for mapping the predictions from Maxent. The algorithm provided reasonable estimates of the species range indicating better discrimination of suitable and unsuitable areas for its occurrence in India under both present and future climatic conditions. The fit for the model as measured by AUC was high, with value of 0.930 for the training data and 0.895 for the test data, indicating the high level of discriminatory power for the Maxent. A Jackknife test for variable importance indicated that mean temperature of coldest quarter with highest gain value was the most important environmental variable determining the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis. The approaches used for delineating the ecological niche and prediction of potential geographic distribution are described briefly. Possible applications and limitations of the present modeling approach in future research and as a decision making tool in integrated pest management are discussed. PMID:25204075

Fand, Babasaheb B; Kumar, Mahesh; Kamble, Ankush L

2014-09-01

196

Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0-3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120-200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system.

Gao, Mengxu; Li, Qun; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Juanle

2014-03-01

197

76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

...building energy performance data taxonomy. DOE has created this measured building energy performance data taxonomy...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Direct requests...information related to a measured building energy performance data...

2011-11-30

198

Taxonomies of networks from community structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: they can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi. PMID:23030977

Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

2014-01-01

199

Taxonomies of networks from community structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: They can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi.

Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Fenn, Daniel J.; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

2012-09-01

200

SCIRehab Project Series: The Psychology Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: The integration of psychologists as members of the rehabilitation team has occurred in conjunction with the evolution and adoption of interdisciplinary teams as the standard of care in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Although the value of psychological services during rehabilitation is endorsed widely, specific interventions and their association with patient outcomes have not been examined adequately. Objective: To address this shortcoming, psychologists from 6 SCI centers collaborated to develop a psychology intervention taxonomy and documentation framework. Methods: Utilizing an interactive process, the lead psychologists from 6 centers compiled an inclusive list of patient characteristics assessed and interventions delivered in routine psychological practice at the participating rehabilitation facilities. These were systematically grouped, defined, and compared. Results: The resulting taxonomy became the basis of a documentation framework utilized by psychologists for the study. The psychology taxonomy includes 4 major clinical categories (assessment, psychotherapeutic interventions, psychoeducational interventions, and consultation) with 5 to 10 specific activities in each category. Conclusions: Examination of psychological interventions and their potential association with positive outcomes for persons who sustain SCI requires the development of a taxonomy. Results of these efforts illustrate similarities and differences in psychological practice among SCI centers and offer the opportunity to blend research and clinical practice in an innovative approach to evidence-based practice improvement. The established taxonomy provides a basic framework for future studies on the effect of psychological interventions. PMID:19810633

Wilson, Catherine; Huston, Toby; Koval, Jill; Gordon, Samuel A; Schwebel, Andrea; Gassaway, Julie

2009-01-01

201

Revisiting the Panko-Halverson Taxonomy of Spreadsheet Errors  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the Panko-Halverson taxonomy of spreadsheet errors and suggest revisions. There are several reasons for doing so: First, the taxonomy has been widely used. Therefore, it should have scrutiny; Second, the taxonomy has not been widely available in its original form and most users refer to secondary sources. Consequently, they often equate the taxonomy with the simplified extracts used in particular experiments or field studies; Third, pe...

Panko, Raymond R.

2008-01-01

202

DIVERSITY RESOURCES, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF HERMINIUM R. Br. A LESS KNOWN TERRESTRIAL ORCHID SPECIES OF DARJEELING HIMALAYA OF INDIA  

OpenAIRE

The present paper deals botanical description with five Herminium viz., Herminium jaffreyanum, H. lanceum, H. mackinnonii, H. macrophyllum and H. quinquelobum terrestrial Orchid species diversity resources and distribution in Darjeeling Himalaya of India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with ecological status, voucher specimen numbers, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of H...

Rajendra Yonzone D Lama, R. B. Bhujel

2012-01-01

203

Ecological significance of assimilate distribution in Agropyron repens clones under influence of the copper smelter Legnica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The studies on couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. P. Beauv. populations growing in stress conditions in close vicinity of a copper smelter concern the integrity of clonal structure. The connections of tillers within a clone and the interclonal integrity was investigated by means of assimilate translocation, using 14C. It was found that heavy metal stress affects the phenotypic plasticity of couch grass in regard to clonal growth of the phalanx type. The phalanx type growth is supported by a considerable integration, which allows the redistribution of resources, through internal routes, from places rich in resources to such clone parts, which cover a surface poor in nutritive compounds. In an unpolluted (control couch grass population representing the guerilla type of growth, the translocation of assimilates concerns only the closest (sister ramets. The phalanx type of growth in couch grass subjected to contamination favours also the accumulation of organic matter and macronutrients (N, Ca in zones of occurrence of Agropyron repens clusters, which are in deficit in areas close to the smelter. The irregular accumulation of heavy metals and the deficit of macronutrients in soil, form near the smelter a patchy environment. In this patchy environment couch grass, as one of few plants, finds appropriate conditions for foraging. The whole of factors in the studied polluted area creates a unique dynamic system between couch grass clones and the local ecological conditions.

Teresa Brej

2001-06-01

204

A Distributed Architecture for Sharing Ecological Data Sets with Access and Usage Control Guarantees  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In our information-age, the necessary scientic exploration is mainly driven by mining new insights from many diverse data sets. While there is a consensus that a collaborative data infrastructure is needed to allow researchers in dierent domains to collaborate on the same data sets in order to get new insights, there are signicant barriers to the realization of this vision. One of the key challenge is to allow scientists to share their data widely while retaining some form of control over who accesses this data (access control) and more importantly how it is used (usage control). Access and usage control is necessary to enforce existing open data policies. We have proposed the vision of trusted cells: A decentralized infrastructure, based on secure hardware running on devices equipped with trusted execution environments at the edges of the Internet. We originally described the utilization of trusted cells for the management of personal data. We describe our vision and report on our progress towards the implementation of trusted cells on off-the-shelf hardware components. We show how trusted cells deployed in the field and throughout the community could make it possible to share ecological data sets with access and usage control guarantees. We rely on examples from terrestrial research and monitoring in the arctic in the context of the INTERACT project.

Bonnet, Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier

205

Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

2008-10-01

206

Distribution and Ecological Range of the Alien Plant Species Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past two decades Mikania micrantha Kunth, a climbing plant species originating from tropicalAmerica, has spread across Taiwan. It can now be found frequently in the lowlands and lower mountain areasup to 1,000 m a.s.l. in the centre and south of the island. Mikania micrantha is considered a problematic invasivealien plant species which is said to cause economical as well as environmental damage. This study investigatedthe ecological site characteristics of M. micrantha in Taiwan. 112 vegetation surveys were carried out in habitatswhere the alien plant was present. A comparison between sites with a high and a low abundance was carriedout in order to assess which factors especially influence the extensive spread of the plant. Furthermore, theinfluence of disturbances was examined. Results showed that Mikania micrantha grows very dense in habitatswhich are characterized by good light conditions combined with vertical structures, such as trees. Resultsrevealed that this invader occurs most frequently in agricultural fallows and wastelands, but it could hardly befound in the intensively managed plantations in the investigation area. Results provide great evidence that theplant is strongly influenced by disturbances, but only if impacts occur rarely.

Willis, Maja

2008-11-01

207

Ecology and distribution of an invasive species Aster­lanceolatus willd. on wet habitats in Belgrade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species Aster lanceolatus occupies a significant position in the world and European lists of invasive species. Its spreading potential is a hazardous factor to the biodiversity in many countries. There are no relevant data on the wider proportion of this species in the area of Belgrade. The sites of Aster lanceolatus are annual or pioneer communities along the water courses, abandoned and neglected areas, forest margins, moist meadows. The study areas are located near a choice of water courses in Belgrade. The aim of the study was to assess the species ecology and population density, synecological interrelationships among the coenobionts of the communities in which it occurs, and also to map its the habitats. The study of population density was performed on the supplemented and partially modified 'CPS SKEW' form, applied in West European countries, by the principle of squares. The species was determined by standard floristic method, and the species location by GPS system. It was concluded that Aster lanceolatus was dominant and wild at all study sites. The individuals and populations are especially numerous on the river islands Ada Ciganlija and Veliko Ratno Ostrvo, along the stream Kumodršaki Potok and the Danube left bank, where the number of individuals per squares is above 1300 and the degree of coverage is 100%. Its spreading potential is conditioned by the species biology, and the expansiveness by climate changes, anthropogenic impacts and the competitive interrelationships.

Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica

2009-01-01

208

LAS homolog distribution shift during wastewater treatment and composting ecological implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The behavior of LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) in different environmental compartments was studied through wastewater treatment process steps in sewage treatment plants of Alicante and Benidorm (activated sludge type) as well as in Guardamar (lagoons). The fate of LAS, using a specific HPLC method, was monitored during treatment sludge compostage and soil amendment operations. Finally, the marine sediments close to a submarine wastewater sewer outfall were analyzed. The results show significant differences between distribution of LAS homologs in water and solids (sludges, sediments, and soils), as compared to the original distribution in detergent formulations, yielding a lower LAS average molecular weight in water samples. The change observed in the homolog distribution of LAS implies a reduction in the toxicity to Daphnia, because a lower average molecular weight of LAS is less toxic.

Prats, D.; Ruiz, F.; Vazquez, B.; Zarzo, D. (Univ. of Alicante (Spain). Div. Chemical Engineering); Berna, J.L.; Moreno, A. (Petresa, Madrid (Spain))

1993-09-01

209

Distribution and ecological risk of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organochlorine contamination in the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt was assessed based on 26 surface sediments samples collected from several locations on the Egyptian coast, including harbors, coastal lakes, bays, and estuaries. The distribution and potential ecological risk of contaminants is described. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were widely distributed in the coastal environment of Egypt. Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and chloropyrifos ranged from 0.29 to 377ngg(-1) dw, 0.07 to 81.5ngg(-1) dw, and below the detection limit (DL) to 288ngg(-1) dw, respectively. Other organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) studied were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower. OCP and PCBs had higher concentrations at Burullus Lake, Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria Eastern Harbor, and El Max Bay compared to other sites. OCP and PCB contamination is higher in the vicinity of possible input sources such as shipping, industrial activities and urban areas. PCB congener profiles indicated they were derived from more than one commercially available mixture. The ratios of commercial chlordane and heptachlor metabolites indicate historical usage; however, DDT and HCHs inputs at several locations appear to be from recent usage. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs are similar to those observed in sediments from coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Ecotoxicological risk from DDTs and PCBs is greatest in Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria Harbor, and El-Max Bay. PMID:23880242

Barakat, Assem O; Mostafa, Alaa; Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; El Sayed, Nadia B

2013-09-01

210

Distribution and ecological risk of antibiotics in a typical effluent-receiving river (Wangyang River) in north China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the occurrence and distribution of sixteen antibiotics belonging to four groups in surface water, sediment and groundwater samples from the Wangyang River (WYR), a typical river receiving sewage discharges were investigated. Laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the studied area. The aqueous samples were unavoidably contaminated with antibiotics, and the target antibiotics present in high levels were oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 3.6×10(5), 9.7×10(3), 6.9×10(4), 1.2×10(4), 4.8×10(3), and 1.1×10(3) ng L(-1), respectively. Oxytetracycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and roxithromycin were the most frequently detected compounds in sediment samples, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 1.6×10(5), 1.7×10(4), 2.1×10(3) and 2.5×10(3) ng g(-1), respectively. The results also revealed that the high intensity of aquaculture activities could contribute to the increasing levels of antibiotics in the area. According to the ratios of measured environmental concentration (MEC) to predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC), chlortetracycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin-H2O and sulfamethoxazole may present possible environmental risk to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechococcus leopoliensis and M. aeruginosa. Attention should be given to the long-term ecological effects caused by the continuous discharge of antibiotics in the WYR area. PMID:25048915

Jiang, Yonghai; Li, Mingxiao; Guo, Changsheng; An, Da; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Xi, Beidou

2014-10-01

211

Distribution and ecology of deep-water benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Bathyal and abyssal foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico are distributed among thirteen generic predominance facies. Five predominance facies nearly encircle the Gulf basin along the slope and rise; a sixth predominance facies blankets the Sigsbee Plain, and a seventh is restricted to the Mississippi Fan. The remaining eight predominance facies have more restricted distributions. The areal patterns of these predominance facies can be related chiefly to water mass and substrate characteristics; modifications are brought about by calcite dissolution, upwelling, and sill depth. Analysis of ancient generic predominance facies is useful in predicting relative paleobathymetry and other paleoenvironmental properties. ?? 1984.

Poag, C.W.

1984-01-01

212

A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation.

Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara

2011-01-01

213

Building Accurate Semantic Taxonomies from Monolingual MRDs  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a method that combines a set of unsupervised algorithms in order to accurately build large taxonomies from any machine-readable dictionary (MRD). Our aim is to profit from conventional MRDs, with no explicit semantic coding. We propose a system that 1) performs fully automatic exraction of taxonomic links from MRD entries and 2) ranks the extracted relations in a way that selective manual refinement is allowed. Tested accuracy can reach around 100% depending on the degree of coverage selected, showing that taxonomy building is not limited to structured dictionaries such as LDOCE.

Rigau, G; Agirre, E; Rigau, German; Rodriguez, Horacio; Agirre, Eneko

1998-01-01

214

Interdisciplinary medical social work: a working taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings from a year-long exploratory study aimed at describing universal functions of medical social work with interdisciplinary teams in acute care settings are reported here. A universal taxonomy of interdisciplinary social work skills and competencies was empirically identified through a participatory action research framework. Findings support previous conceptual descriptions of medical social work's overarching and historical role to help interdisciplinary teams in acute care to consider patients' home environment, knowledge, beliefs, culture, and resources during assessment, treatment, and discharge planning. The empirically determined taxonomy reported is intended to provide social workers a framework with which to articulate and evaluate their core competencies on interdisciplinary medical teams. PMID:25050659

Maramaldi, Peter; Sobran, Alexandra; Scheck, Lisa; Cusato, Natalie; Lee, Irene; White, Erina; Cadet, Tamara J

2014-01-01

215

Taxonomy of P2P Applications  

OpenAIRE

Peer-to-peer (p2p) networks have gained immense popularity in recent years and the number of services they provide continuously rises. Where p2p-networks were formerly known as file-sharing networks, p2p is now also used for services like VoIP and IPTV. With so many different p2p applications and services the need for a taxonomy framework rises. This paper describes the available p2p applications grouped by the services they provide. A taxonomy framework is proposed to classify old and recent...

Brands, E. H. T. B.; Karagiannis, G.

2009-01-01

216

Distribution, ecology and inhibition of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in relation to acid drainage from Witwatersrand gold mine dumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution and ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in gold mine dumps and possible means for its inhibition were investigated. A literature survey of the micro-ecology of mine waste dumps in various parts of the world was undertaken. A linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), NANSA 80/S, and a cetyl pyridinium chloride, Ceepryn, were tested as possible inhibitors for mine dump application. The LAS was rejected because it is poorly soluble in water and required higher concentrations than SLS for the inhibition of T.ferrooxidans. Ceepryn was an efficient inhibitor, but its efficiency was dramatically impeded in the presence of mine dump sand making it unsuitable for application on dumps. The SLS and LAS were tested against a mixed population of T.ferrooxidans from gold mine dumps and these bacteria were shown to be marginally more resistant to the inhibitors than the pure T.ferrooxidans culture. Sampling from mine dumps on the Witwatersrand suggested that the major T.ferrooxidans populations occurred in the moist sand of the drainage areas at the base of dumps, with few viable iron-oxidising bacteria located on the surfaces or in the centre of dumps. Sites of low moisture in dumps contained few or no viable bacteria. In the laboratory the bacterial viability decreased rapidly with loss of moisture from the sand. Moisture was shown to be important to bacterial activity and should be considered with respect to acid drainage control. Experimental sand columns showed thntrol. Experimental sand columns showed that iron was leached with water from mine dump sand in the absence and presence of bacteria. In this study substrates, moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide availability, ph, temperature, microorganisms and metal pollutants of uranium waste dumps are also covered

217

Use of ecological niche modeling as a tool for predicting the potential distribution of Microcystis sp (cyanobacteria in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling is an important tool to evaluate the spatial distribution of terrestrial species, however, its applicability has been little explored in the aquatic environment. Microcystis sp., a species of cyanobacteria, is widely recognized for its ability to produce a group of toxins known as microcystins, which can cause death of animals as fish, birds and mammals depending on the amount of toxin absorbed. Like any taxonomic group, cyanobacteria has environmental thresholds, therefore, a suitable ecological niche will define their distribution. This study was conducted in Aguamilpa Hydroelectric Reservoir, an artificial ecosystem that started operations in 1994. In this system we evaluated the potential distribution of Microcystis sp., by generating a prediction model based on the concept of ecological niche MAXENT, using a Digital Elevation Model in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha spatial resolution and monitoring eleven physicochemical and biological variables and nutrients in water. The distribution maps were developed using ArcMap 9.2®. The results indicated that Microcystis sp., is distributed mainly in the upper tributary basin (Huaynamota basin during the dry season. There was less chance to find cyanobacteria in the entire system during the cold dry season, while during the warm dry season cyanobacteria was recognized at the confluence of two rivers. During the rainfall season there were no reports of cyanobacteria presence. This species is often associated with arising trophic processes of anthropogenic origin; therefore, attention is required in specific areas that have been identified in this work to improve Aguamilpa’s watershed management and restoration. It was also recognized the importance of phosphorus and nitrogen interaction, which determines the distribution of Microcystis sp., in the Aguamilpa Reservoir. The results of this study demonstrated that ecological niche modeling was a suitable tool to assess the spatial distribution of microalgae in freshwater environments.

Enrique Martinez-Meyer

2012-04-01

218

Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in the microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-µm vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to O2, pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O2 concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes.

Becraft, E.; Cohan, F.

2011-01-01

219

New ecological mechanism of formation of spatial distribution of radionuclides in river ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioecological expeditions on the Yenissei river revealed 'spotty' distribution of radioisotopes in bottom sediments and along the coastline of the river. This work presents results of theoretical analysis of the formation mechanism of stable spatial non-uniformities of river ecosystem components by population interactions of 'predator-prey' type between the phytoplukton and zooplankton. 'Patchiness contrast' (i.e. the amplitude of the radionuclide spatial propagation wave in the water) for the large oscillations control by increasing or decreasing current velocity depends both on the boundary concentrations of phytoplankton and zooplankton and on the established nature of their interpopulation interactions (or coefficients of interactions). Variation of the below given interaction parameters within the 'phytoplanbon-zooplankton' system makes increase the amplitude of spatial distribution wave: decrease of algal growth rate; increase of algal death rate; decrease of zooplankton death rate; increase of interaction coefficients. It was shown for small oscillations that the period of component distribution waves is in proportion to the current velocity and the amplitude of 'small' waves does not depend on the water current velocity. Theoretically it has been also found that with deep limitation of phytoplankton growth by biogenous elements the 'standing wave' is observed to deteriorate and monotonous distribution of radionuclide concentration fields is found to form. (a concentration fields is found to form. (author)

220

DIVERSITY RESOURCES, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF HERMINIUM R. Br. A LESS KNOWN TERRESTRIAL ORCHID SPECIES OF DARJEELING HIMALAYA OF INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper deals botanical description with five Herminium viz., Herminium jaffreyanum, H. lanceum, H. mackinnonii, H. macrophyllum and H. quinquelobum terrestrial Orchid species diversity resources and distribution in Darjeeling Himalaya of India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with ecological status, voucher specimen numbers, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Herminium species in the regions. For the assessment of present ecological status, plot of 5mx5m quadrates was laid down diagonally in the field for terrestrial orchid species. Of them, three are sparse and the rest two are rare status in the region. June to October is the main flowering seasons of these species. It is found that the diversity and distribution frequency of Herminium species is rich and widespread throughout the Darjeeling Himalaya.

Rajendra Yonzone1* D. Lama1, R. B. Bhujel2, Khyanjeet Gogoi3 and Samuel Rai4

2012-06-01

221

The potential distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Libya based on ecological niche model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectored by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Libya have driven considerable effort to develop a predictive model for the potential geographical distribution of this disease. We collected adult P. papatasi from 17 sites in Musrata and Yefern regions of Libya using four different attraction traps. Our trap results and literature records describing the distribution of P. papatasi were incorporated into a MaxEnt algorithm prediction model that used 22 environmental variables. The model showed a high performance (AUC = 0.992 and 0.990 for training and test data, respectively). High suitability for P. papatasi was predicted to be largely confined to the coast at altitudes sand fly collections are warranted that should include documentation of such factors as soil texture and humidity, land cover, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to increase the model's predictive power. PMID:22679884

Abdel-Dayem, M S; Annajar, B B; Hanafi, H A; Obenauer, P J

2012-05-01

222

POLYCHAETES SPECIES DIVERSITY APPLYING MONITORING DATA FOR SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY UPDATE, ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

OpenAIRE

Since research on soft-seabed macrozoobenthic community, including polychaetes, of Mediterranean and in particular Italian Saes still display a lack of data concerning taxonomic aspects and species distribution patterns, and the pre-existing information are frequently outdated, further studies and revisions of data are a primary necessity. These habitats are widely common in coastal areas all over the world and host most of sensitive and protected benthic habitats, species and typical biocoen...

La Porta, Barbara

2011-01-01

223

Taxonomy and systematic position of tremellaceous fungi  

OpenAIRE

The taxonomy of fungi from the orders Tremellales, Auriculariales. Septobasidiales and related groups (Tulasnellales, Dacrymycetales, Exobasidiales, Sporobolomycetaceae) and the taxonomic position of these fungi within class Basidiomycetes is discussed. The author also presents ideas on the origin, evolution and age of tremellaceous fungi.

W?adys?aw Wojewoda

1980-01-01

224

Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

225

Ecological Niche Modelling using satellite data for assessing distribution of threatened species Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. is a narrow endemic, tuberous twiner of Asclepiadaceae family. It is medicinally important: tubers are nutritive and edible, leaves are digestive and a cure for dysentery and diarrhea. Exploitation for its tubers and poor regeneration of this species has shrunk its distribution. In order to know its present status, we report here the results of its appraisal in Rajasthan, using remote sensing and ground truthing in the past five years (2009-14). A base map of C. bulbosa was prepared using Geographical Information System (GIS), open source software Quantum GIS, SAGA. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) +Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Satellite Data were used in this study. ASTER and GDEM Data was clipped with district boundary and provided color range to get elevation information. A digital elevation model of Rajasthan physiography was developed from ASTER GDEM of 30-m resolution. GIS layers of Area of occurrences for C. bulbosa plant and elevation were created. This map along with topographic sheets of 1:50000 were used for field traversing and ground truthing as per GPS location inferred from map. Its geographic distribution was assessed using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm that employed 12 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, and elevation data. Results of this modelling predicted occurrence of C. bulbosa in the districts of Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Pali, Ajmer, Jhalawar, Dungarpur, Banswara, Baran, Kota, Bundi and Chittorgarh. Ground validation in these districts revealed its presence only at four places in three districts confirming its rarity. Analysis of dominance at their sites of occurrence revealed their poor populations and sub dominant status (RIV = 20-32) and very low density (2-12 plants per tenth ha).

Kumar, S.; Kulloli, R. N.; Tewari, J. C.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, A.

2014-11-01

226

Ecological studies in the bay of Paranaguá: I. horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton  

OpenAIRE

Five stations were sampled monthly in the Bay of Paranaguá during one year cycle (1983-1984) to measure basic environmental parameters, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis with the purpose of understanding the principal factors that regulate the phytoplankton growth and distribution throughout the year. Surface temperature varied from 17 to 30ºC. The yearly average values for salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH ranged from 9.38 to 32.00‰, 5.17 to 5.53 ml/l and 7.46 to 8.18, respectivel...

Brandini, Frederico P.

1985-01-01

227

Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

Tânia Tarabini Castellani

2004-11-01

228

An Extended and Granular Classification of Cloud’s Taxonomy and Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent time cloud computing has come forwarded as one of the most admired computing model in knowledge domain that concerns about the distributed information systems to support the whole world as a cloud community. Distributed, virtualization and service-oriented nature have given ascendancy to cloud computing to distinguish from its core descendants like grid computing, geographical information systems, and distributed system. Although cloud computing dominants the e-society, but it is still in under research, progress. The architecture of cloud’s taxonomy and its services are very significant issues for cloudifications because every day some new advancements and developments are adjoined under its umbrella. In this paper we proposed an extended and granular classification of taxonomy for cloud computing and specified services that is a detailed ontology of cloud, which will be helpful for researchers and stakeholders in better understanding, developing, and implementing cloud technology and services to their lives.

Shah Murtaza Rashid Al Masud

2012-05-01

229

Ecological factors related to the widespread distribution of sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chagas disease transmission risk is a function of the presence of triatomines in domestic habitats. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is one of the main vectors implicated in transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Ecuador. This triatomine species is present in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats in the country. To determine the distribution of sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis and the factors related to this distribution, triatomine searches were conducted between 2005 and 2009 in southern Ecuador. Methods Manual triatomine searches were conducted by skilled bug collectors in 23 communities. Sylvatic searched sites were selected by a directed sampling, where microhabitats were selected by the searchers and b random sampling, where sampling points where randomly generated. Domiciliary triatomine searches were conducted using the one man-hour method. Natural trypanosome infection was determined by microscopic examination and PCR. Generalized linear models were used to test the effect of environmental factors on the presence of sylvatic triatomines. Results In total, 1,923 sylvatic individuals were collected representing a sampling effort of 751 man-hours. Collected sylvatic triatomines were associated with mammal and bird nests. The 1,219 sampled nests presented an infestation index of 11.9%, a crowding of 13 bugs per infested nest, and a colonization of 80% of the nests. Triatomine abundance was significantly higher in squirrel (Sciurus stramineus nests located above five meters from ground level and close to the houses. In addition, 8.5% of the 820 examined houses in the same localities were infested with triatomines. There was a significant correlation between R. ecuadoriensis infestation rates found in sylvatic and synanthropic environments within communities (p = 0.012. Parasitological analysis revealed that 64.7% and 15.7% of the sylvatic bugs examined (n = 300 were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli respectively, and 8% of the bugs presented mixed infections. Conclusions The wide distribution of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations may jeopardize the effectiveness of control campaigns conducted to eliminate domestic populations of this species. Also, the high T. cruzi infection rates found in sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador could constitute a risk for house re-infestation and persistent long-term Chagas disease transmission in the region.

Grijalva Mario J

2012-01-01

230

Ecological suitability and spatial distribution of five Anopheles species in Amazonian Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-six sites characterized in Amazonian Brazil revealed distinct habitat diversification by examining the environmental factors associated with the distribution and abundance of five anopheline species (Diptera: Culicidae) in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus. These included three members of the Albitarsis Complex, Anopheles oryzalimnetes, Anopheles marajoara, Anopheles janconnae; Anopheles triannulatus, and Anopheles goeldii. Anopheles janconnae abundance had a positive correlation to water flow and a negative relationship to sun exposure. Abundance of An. oryzalimentes was associated with water chemistry. Anopheles goeldii larvae were abundant in shaded, more saline waters. Anopheles marajoara and An. triannulatus were negatively associated with available resources, although An. marajoara also showed several local correlations. These analyses suggest An. triannulatus is a habitat generalist, An. oryzalimentes and An. janconnae are specialists, and An. marajoara and An. goeldii could not be easily classified either way. Correlations described herein provide testable hypotheses for future research and identifying habitats for vector control. PMID:23546804

McKeon, Sascha N; Schlichting, Carl D; Povoa, Marinete M; Conn, Jan E

2013-06-01

231

Ecological Features of Oyster Beds Distribution in Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aims of the present investigation were to study the feature of biotic environment of oyster beds and to study quantitatively the biodiversity of fauna and flora living within these habitats. Eighteen selected oyster beds, within the Exclusive Economic Zone of Qatar were investigated by scuba diving. Most of the oyster beds were found in the area with sandy-rocky and Coral blocks bottom forms. Pearl oysters abundance varied widely between the different beds and within the same beds due to the variations in the bottom substrates. The associated biota was composed mainly of Algae (4%, Porifera (3%, Cnidaria (8%, Polychaeta (4%, Echinodermata (13%, Mollusca (55%, Chordate (2% and Crustacean (11%. The comparison of our findings on the occurrence and distribution of marine biota to previous studies has shown similarities between Qatar and other Gulf States particularly Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

J.A. Al-Khayat

2008-01-01

232

Ecological Suitability and Spatial Distribution of Five Anopheles Species in Amazonian Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-six sites characterized in Amazonian Brazil revealed distinct habitat diversification by examining the environmental factors associated with the distribution and abundance of five anopheline species (Diptera: Culicidae) in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus. These included three members of the Albitarsis Complex, Anopheles oryzalimnetes, Anopheles marajoara, Anopheles janconnae; Anopheles triannulatus, and Anopheles goeldii. Anopheles janconnae abundance had a positive correlation to water flow and a negative relationship to sun exposure. Abundance of An. oryzalimentes was associated with water chemistry. Anopheles goeldii larvae were abundant in shaded, more saline waters. Anopheles marajoara and An. triannulatus were negatively associated with available resources, although An. marajoara also showed several local correlations. These analyses suggest An. triannulatus is a habitat generalist, An. oryzalimentes and An. janconnae are specialists, and An. marajoara and An. goeldii could not be easily classified either way. Correlations described herein provide testable hypotheses for future research and identifying habitats for vector control. PMID:23546804

McKeon, Sascha N.; Schlichting, Carl D.; Povoa, Marinete M.; Conn, Jan E.

2013-01-01

233

[Resource and ecological distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi under pine forests of Huangshan Mountain district].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis are the most common and important tree species in the Huangshan Mountain district, and ectomycorrhizae plays an important role in their forestation. Our investigations in 1998-2003 showed that under the pine forests of this district, there were 43 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 10 families and 17 genera, of which, 43 were under Pinus massoniana forest, and 12 under Pinus taiwanensis forest. Only a few species were found under young Pinus massoniana forest, with the dominant of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coken and Rhizopogon spp., but under mature Pinus massoniana forest, there were plentiful species, with the dominant of Russulaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae and Canthurellaceae. The relationships between woody species and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and between fungi distribution and temperature, moisture and soil condition were discussed in this paper, which would benefit to the further studies on the effects of different ectomyrrhizal fungi to Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis forests. PMID:15943356

Ke, Lixia; Liu, Birong

2005-03-01

234

Distribution and ecology of marine turtles in waters off the southeastern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerial surveys of marine waters up to 222 km from shore in the Gulf of Mexico and nearby Atlantic Ocean suggest that marine turtles are largely distributed in waters less than 100 m in depth. The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) was observed nearly 50 times as often in waters off eastern and western Florida as in the western Gulf of Mexico. Loggerheads were present year round but the frequency of sightings in the winter months was lower than at other seasons. Green turtles (Chelonia rnydas) were infrequently observed but were most conspicuous in waters off eastern Florida. Kemp's ridleys (Lepidochelys kempi) were most frequently sighted off southwestern Florida and rarely observed in the western Gulf of Mexico. Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) were more conspicuous on the continental shelf than in adjacent deeper waters. A concentration of leatherback and loggerhead turtles occurred west of the Gulf Stream Current in August 1980, near Brevard County, Florida.

Fritts, T.H.; Hoffman, W.; McGehee, M.A.

1983-01-01

235

ECOLOGIA Y DISTRIBUCION DE HYDROCOTYLE CRYPTOCARPA SPEG. EN SUDAMERICA ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROCOTYLE CRYPTOCARPA SPEG. IN SOUTH AMERICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrocotyle cryptocarpa ha sido descubierto recientemente en diferentes localidades de Chile. Se expone brevemente el actual conocimiento sobre su distribución geográfica, ciclo de vida y autoecología. H. cryptocarpa posee inflorescencias unifloras y frutos monospermos y geocarpos, dichas características la ubican en una posición aislada dentro del género Hydrocotyle. Esta especie es anual y crece en ambientes acuáticos temporales. Adaptaciones especiales a este tipo de habitat son una forma de vida tenagófita (germinación bajo el agua, floración y fructificación durante la ecofase terrestre y representativa de un "amphibious fluctuation responder" (hojas largamente pecioladas durante la ecofase acuática, hojas de pecíolos breves en la ecofase terrestre. Su distribución es disyunta, con poblaciones halladas en Chile central (desde la Región de Coquimbo a la de La Araucanía y otras halladas en torno al límite entre Uruguay y Argentina.Hydrocotyle cryptocarpa has recently been discovered from different localities in Chile. Our current knowledge about its total distribution, life cycle and ecology are summarized. H. cryptocarpa is monanthous, monospermous and geocarpous. With these characters, it has an isolated position within the genus Hydrocotyle. The species is annual and occurs in seasonal wetlands. Special adaptations to this habitat are the life cycle as a tenagophyte (germination under water, flowering and fruiting after desiccation of the pool and as an amphibious fluctuation responder (long-stalked leaves in the aquatic ecophase, short-stalked leaves in the terrestrial ecophase. The distribution is highly disjunct, with populations recorded from central Chile (Region of Coquimbo to de La Araucanía, Uruguay and eastern Argentina.

Miguel Alvarez

2008-01-01

236

The distribution, dominance patterns and ecological niches of plankton functional types in Dynamic Green Ocean Models and satellite estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

We compare the spatial and temporal representation of phytoplankton functional types (pPFTs) in four different Dynamic Green Ocean Models (DGOMs; CCSM-BEC, NEMURO, PISCES and PlankTOM5) to derived phytoplankton distributions from two independent satellite estimates, with a particular focus on diatom distributions. Global annual mean surface biomass estimates for diatoms vary between 0.23 mmol C m-3 and 0.77 mmol C m-3 in the models, and are comparable to a satellite-derived estimate (0.41 mmol C m-3). All models consistently simulate a higher zonal mean diatom biomass contribution in the high latitudes than in the low latitudes, but the relative diatom contribution varies substantially between models with largest differences in the high latitudes (20% to 100% of total biomass). We investigate phytoplankton distribution in terms of annual and monthly mean dominance patterns, i.e. the distribution of locations where a given PFT contributes more than 50% to total biomass. In all models, diatoms tend to dominate large areas of the high latitudes of both hemispheres, and the area of the surface ocean dominated by diatoms is significantly higher in the models than in the satellite estimates. We estimate the realized ecological niches filled by the dominant pPFT at each location as a function of annual mean surface nitrate concentration (NO3), sea surface temperature (SST), and mixed layer depth. A general additive model (GAM) is used to map the probability of dominance of all pPFTs in niche and geographic space. Models tend to simulate diatom dominance over a wider temperature and nutrient range, whereas satellites confine diatom dominance to a narrower niche of low-intermediate annual mean temperatures (annual mean SST modelled probability of dominance explains the majority of the variance in the data (65.2-66.6%). For the satellite estimates, the explained deviance is much lower (44.6% and 32.7%). The differences in the representation of diatoms among models and compared to satellite estimates highlights the need to better resolve phytoplankton succession and phenology in the models. This work is part of the marine ecosystem inter-comparison project (MAREMIP).

Vogt, M.; Hashioka, T.; Payne, M. R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Alvain, S.; Aita, M. N.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Hirata, T.; Lima, I.; Sailley, S.; Yamanaka, Y.

2013-11-01

237

The Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Tina Menor estuary (Cantabria, southern Bay of Biscay): Distribution and ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent ostracods from the Tina Menor estuary (northern Spain, southern Bay of Biscay) have been analysed. Twenty-five species have been identified for the first time, 20 with living individuals during the sampling period. The most abundant species are Leptocythere castanea, Leptocythere porcellanea, Loxoconcha elliptica, Cytherois fischeri, and Hemicytherura hoskini, Leptocythere psammophila and Semicytherura aff. angulata. These species are grouped into four assemblages defining different environments: muddy inner estuary with euryhaline species (L. elliptica); middle estuary with silty sand flats and low marsh environments (L. castanea, L. porcellanea and C. fischeri); sandy outer estuary with marine characteristics (H. hoskini, S. aff. angulata, Leptocythere baltica and L. psammophila); and littoral to inner shelf environment (Caudites calceolatus, H. hoskini and Callistocythere murrayi). In the middle estuary, L. castanea also delimits sandy-silty low marshes, and L. porcellanea and C. fischeri the vegetated ecosystems. Multivariate analyses with the samples and species (cluster Q-type and detrended and canonical correspondence analysis) confirm that ostracod distribution in the Tina Menor estuary is controlled by sediment grain size and by the distance to the mouth of the estuary (associated to salinity). The geographical height in relation with mean tide levels (and therefore with emersion periods) also plays an important role in distribution. The results of this study confirm ostracod validity as tide-level markers due to the presence of C. fischeri below the MHWNT (mean high water neap tide), whereas L. castanea and L. porcellanea are present between the MHWNT and MHW (mean high water) levels. Ostracods can also indicate environmental changes due to human-influenced processes. Abundant individuals of L. elliptica in some areas of the middle estuary evidence discharges of lower-salinity water from a nearby fish farm. Ostracods from the marine shelf reach the inner estuary, but continental species are not provided by the rivers. The low river influence may be due to Nansa River flow regulation upstream, which hampers the transport of fluvial sediments, resulting in an increase in sand in the mudflat and low marshes, the latter fact confirmed by the numbers of L. castanea and L. porcellanea, much higher than in other estuaries in the southern Bay of Biscay.

Martínez-García, Blanca; Pascual, Ana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, Julio; Martín-Rubio, Maite; Rofes, Juan

2013-10-01

238

Distribution and ecology of pest fruit fly species in Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fruit flies belong to the very diverse family Tephritidae, which consists of over 4,500 species distributed in most temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries. In Asia and the Pacific regions, most of the major pest species belong to two genera. Bactrocera and Dacus. Representatives of Ceratitis occur in southwest Western Australia and the Indian Ocean islands and Carpomya occur in the Indian sub-continent and in Mauritius and Reunion. In the Asian region, 180 species of Bactrocera and 30 species of Dacus have been recorded and in the Australasian and Oceanic region, there are 270 species of Bactrocera and 27 species of Dacus. The diversity of species progressively decreases as the plant/host diversity decreases from west in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea to east in the Polynesian Island countries. The major pest species in the Asian region belong to the dorsalis complex (B. carambolae, B. dorsalis, B. occipitalis, B. philippinensis, B. papayae and B. pyrifoliae) and include other species such as B. cucurbitae, B. zonata, B. latifrons, and others. In the Pacific region, Australia has 100 species of fruit flies. Many Pacific Island countries each have endemic species, several of which are major pests. The factors that impact on populations of fruit flies include host ranges, life cycles, mating and oviposition behavior, dispersal capacity, nutritional, moisture, temperature and light requirements, and competition within and between species. (author)

239

Integrating evolution into geographical ecology: a phylogenetic perspective on palm distributions and community composition across scales  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Species distributions, assemblage composition, and species richness depend on both current environment and the diversification of lineages in past environments. On broad scales, processes that constrain diversifying lineages to certain regions or environments are particularly important. Through species pool effects, those processes also affect local community composition and richness. In addition, evolution directly affects local communities directly via niche-based assembly. We studied these effects with palms (Arecaceae) as a model group, using a) a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals in 430 transects in the Western Amazon, b) a set of range maps for all American palms (550 spp.), and c) global country-level presence/ absence data of all (>2400) palm species. These data were analysed with novel phylogenetic community structure and turnover methods. Globally, the phylogenetic structure of palm assemblages reflects several biogeographic and evolutionary processes. In the Americas, both dispersal limitation and a phylogenetically conserved temperature niche have constrained the evolution of palm species ranges. Broad-scale processes also influenced the local phylogenetic structure of Amazonian palm communities, which mainly reflects the evolution of habitat preferences.

Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.

240

Distribution and ecology of non-marine ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda from Friuli Venezia Giulia (NE Italy  

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Full Text Available From August 1981 to July 2007, 200 inland water bodies were sampled to gather information on the Recent ostracod fauna of Friuli Venezia Giulia (NE Italy. A total of 320 samples were collected from surface, interstitial and ground waters. Whenever possible, ostracod identification was performed at species level based on the morphology of both valves and limbs. Seventy-four taxa in 30 genera belonging to 9 different families (Darwinulidae, Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Notodromadidae, Cyprididae, Limnocytheridae, Cytheridae, Leptocytheridae and Xestoleberididae were identified. The maximum number of taxa per site was seven. The most common species was Cypria ophthalmica (133 records, followed by Cyclocypris ovum (86 records, C. laevis (49 records, Cypridopsis vidua (40 records and Notodromas persica (28 records. Of particular relevance is the occurrence of six species new to Italy: Microdarwinula zimmeri, Penthesilenula brasiliensis, Fabaeformiscandona wegelini, Pseudocandona semicognita, Candonopsis scourfieldi, and C. mediosetosa. Scanning electron microscopy images of valves are provided for most of the described taxa. Geographical distribution of ostracods and their occurrence in relation to environmental variables were examined. The results of this study indicate that Friuli Venezia Giulia hosts a very diverse ostracod fauna, representing a significant proportion of all ostracod taxa known thus far from Italy.

Koen MARTENS

2009-02-01

241

Distribution and ecology of Dormice (Myoxidae in Sicily: a preliminary account  

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Full Text Available Abstract Three dormouse species are recorded in Sicily: Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius and Eliomys quercinus. Their distribution is mapped according to the 10 x 10 km squares of the UTM grid. Data were collected until May 1993, mostly coming from pellet analysis, and direct records (vocalization listening, museum specimens, field observations, literature, etc.. The Fat dormouse (5.3% of 10 x 10 km squares and the Hazel dormouse (2.1% are mainly localized within deciduous wooded areas like the beech forests and the hazel groves mixed with oaks and chestnuts of Nebrodi and Madonie. The Fat dormouse is also present in south-eastern Sicily (Monti Iblei and on in Eolian island (Salina. The Garden dormouse shows the widest distribution (21.2%, ranging from sea level to the beech forests (1600 m a.s.1.. Dormice are rarely preyed upon by Owls in Sicily, generally forming less than 1.5% of the total prey, with the exception the Fat dormouse (5.3%. Other occasional predators, so far recorded, are the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes and the Lanner (Falco biarmicus. Hibernation regularly occurs at high altitudes, but seems to be absent or curtailed in the warm habitats below 500 m a.s.1. Riassunto Distribuzione ed ecologia dei Mioxidi in Sicilia: dati preliminari - Tre specie di Mioxidi vivono in Sicilia (Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus. Storicamente (1850 essi erano presenti nelle principali aree boscate (Nebrodi, Madonie, Etna, solo nella metà di questo secolo, il Ghiro ed il Quercino furono scoperti alle isole Eolie (Salina e Lipari. Si riporta la carta di distribuzione di ogni specie (griglia UTM, 100 kmq ricavata dall'analisi della dieta di predatori, osservazioni dirette, trappolamenti ed esemplari citati in bibliografia o conservati nei musei. Il Ghiro (5,3% ed il Moscardino (2,1% sono localizzati nei boschi decidui di querce e faggio e, più in basso di noccioli, querce e castagni dei Nebrodi, Peloritani e Madonie. Il Ghiro è presente anche sull'Etna ed in un'area meridionale della Sicilia (Iblei. Il Quercino mostra la distribuzione più ampia (21,2% ed è presente in una gran varietà di habitat dal livello del mare fino alle faggete delle Madonie. I Mioxidi in Sicilia risultano predati finora occasionalmente dalla Volpe e dal Lanario e raramente dal Barbagianni e dall'Allocco. Solo il Ghiro risulta predato regolarmente (5% dall'Allocco e risulta la preda più importante in termini di biomassa (47% nei boschi dell'Etna e dei Nebrodi. Il periodo di letargo, desunto da osservazioni dirette e dalle borre, sembrerebbe normale (autunno inoltrato-primavera alle alte quote e assente o molto ridotto e discontinuo sotto i 400 m.

Maurizio Sarà

1995-05-01

242

[Species composition and ecological distribution of planktonic diatoms in the Changjiang River estuary during spring].  

Science.gov (United States)

53 water samples were collected from 28 stations in typical regions where redtide frequently occurred in the Changjiang River estuary during Spring, 2002. In total, 80 diatom species and varieties belonging to 31 genera were identified, among which, genera with high species biodiversity included Coscinodiscus which contained 17 species and Pleurosigma which contained 8 species and varieties. Quantitative analysis of diatom cell density showed that Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissma (3.48 x 10(3) cells.L-1, 28.54%), Melosira sulcata (1.43 x 10(3) cells.L-1, 16.98%) and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (0.71 x 10(3) cells.L-1, 9.85%) were dominant species, which occurred at almost all stations. Higher cell density of Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissma and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens occurred at stations along 123 degrees E, while that of Melosira sulcata occurred at stations around Changjiang River at 31-32 degrees N. The total diatom cell density ranged from 0.43 x 10(3)-23.3 x 10(3) cells.L-1, with average of 4.61 x 10(3) cells.L-1. At station DD15 located at 123 degrees E and 30.5 degrees N, the highest diatom cell density was found, which was 1.85 x 10(4) cells.L-1 at surface water layer, and 2.33 x 10(4) cells.L-1 at middle water layer (30 m) respectively. Horizontally, the diatom cell density showed scattered distribution, while vertically, it was commonly higher at surface water layer than that at middle water layer. PMID:14587319

Gao, Yahui; Yu, Qiubo; Qi, Yuzao; Zhou, Jingzhong; Lu, Douding; Li, Yang; Cheng, Changping

2003-07-01

243

Toward a DNA taxonomy of Alpine Rhithrogena (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) using a mixed Yule-coalescent analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquatic larvae of many Rhithrogena mayflies (Ephemeroptera) inhabit sensitive Alpine environments. A number of species are on the IUCN Red List and many recognized species have restricted distributions and are of conservation interest. Despite their ecological and conservation importance, ambiguous morphological differences among closely related species suggest that the current taxonomy may not accurately reflect the evolutionary diversity of the group. Here we examined the species status of nearly 50% of European Rhithrogena diversity using a widespread sampling scheme of Alpine species that included 22 type localities, general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model analysis of one standard mtDNA marker and one newly developed nDNA marker, and morphological identification where possible. Using sequences from 533 individuals from 144 sampling localities, we observed significant clustering of the mitochondrial (cox1) marker into 31 GMYC species. Twenty-one of these could be identified based on the presence of topotypes (expertly identified specimens from the species' type locality) or unambiguous morphology. These results strongly suggest the presence of both cryptic diversity and taxonomic oversplitting in Rhithrogena. Significant clustering was not detected with protein-coding nuclear PEPCK, although nine GMYC species were congruent with well supported terminal clusters of nDNA. Lack of greater congruence in the two data sets may be the result of incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphism. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of both gene regions recovered four of the six recognized Rhithrogena species groups in our samples as monophyletic. Future development of more nuclear markers would facilitate multi-locus analysis of unresolved, closely related species pairs. The DNA taxonomy developed here lays the groundwork for a future revision of the important but cryptic Rhithrogena genus in Europe. PMID:21611178

Vuataz, Laurent; Sartori, Michel; Wagner, André; Monaghan, Michael T

2011-01-01

244

Hierarchical Taxonomy in Multi-Party System  

CERN Document Server

We propose the use of hierarchical taxonomy to analyze the legislative election results as a model of multi-party system to show the robustness in political system. As an example we use the result of Indonesian legislative election 2004 is analyzed with certain comparative with the previous one (1999). We construct the graph theoretical analysis by finding the Euclidean distances among political parties. The distances are then treated in ultrametric spaces by using the minimum spanning tree algorithm. By having the Indonesian hierarchical taxonomy model of political parties we show some patterns emerging the pattern agrees with the classical anthropological analysis of socio-political system in Indonesia. This fact accentuates a character of robustness in Indonesian political society as a self-organized system evolves to critical state. Some small perturbations i.e.: different voting process resulting the same pattern and occasions statistically, emerges from the social structure based upon political streams:...

Situngkir, H

2004-01-01

245

A Patient-Centric Taxonomy for Personal Health Records (PHRs)  

OpenAIRE

Today, the nascent field of personal health records (PHRs) lacks a comprehensive taxonomy that encompasses the full range of PHRs currently in existence and what may be possible. The Center for Information Technology Leadership (CITL) has created a taxonomy that broadly defines a PHR as having both an infrastructure component, which allows for data viewing and sharing, and an application component, allowing for selfmanagement and information exchange. The taxonomy also accounts for different ...

Vincent, Adam; Kaelber, David C.; Pan, Eric; Shah, Sapna; Johnston, Douglas; Middleton, Blackford

2008-01-01

246

Summary statistics for fossil spider species taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

Spiders (Araneae) are one of the most species-rich orders on Earth today, and also have one of the longest geological records of any terrestrial animal groups, as demonstrated by their extensive fossil record. There are currently around 1150 described fossil spider species, representing 2.6% of all described spiders (i.e. extinct and extant). Data for numbers of fossil and living spider taxa described annually (and various other metrics for the fossil taxa) were compiled from current taxonomi...

David Penney; Jason Dunlop; Yuri Marusik

2012-01-01

247

Aconitum in Central Europe: from Linnaean taxonomy to molecular markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A role of the Linnaean taxonomy in the arising of historical-biogeographical hypotheses is envisioned. The first example concerns the presumed hybrid origin of an Eastern-Sudetic endemic Aconium plicatum subsp. sudeticum. It was described on the basis of a unique character set including glandular hairiness of the indumentum. A PCR-RAPD+ISSR fingerpriting confirmed the supposition based on the morphological analysis. The second example is dealt with the marginal populations. They are of special interest because of the ecological and population genetic phenomena, including genetic drift and subsequent schizoendemism (endemovicarism, a form of the peripatric speciation. Aconitum bucovinense occurs in two marginal, isolated populations in the Western Bieszczady Mts. (E Carpathians. They form a unique morphotype recognized by a taxonomic revision. A PCR-ISSR protocol was used to check a hypothesis on the genetic distinctness of the small, isolated populations. In the effect the lowering by 13% of genetic diversity in the marginal populations, in comparison to the core population, was noted. However, the genetic depauperation was accompanied by the existence of unique bands leading to the distinct genetic stocks in the marginal populations.

Józef Mitka

2012-03-01

248

Diversity and Taxonomy of Endophytic Xylariaceous Fungi from Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)  

OpenAIRE

Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrob...

Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-chun; Xing, Yong-mei; Wang, Yun-qiang; Xing, Xiao-ke; Zhang, Da-wei; Liang, Han-qiao; Guo, Shun-xing

2013-01-01

249

Tetraploid Wheat Landraces in the Mediterranean Basin: Taxonomy, Evolution and Genetic Diversity  

OpenAIRE

The geographic distribution of genetic diversity and the population structure of tetraploid wheat landraces in the Mediterranean basin has received relatively little attention. This is complicated by the lack of consensus concerning the taxonomy of tetraploid wheats and by unresolved questions regarding the domestication and spread of naked wheats. These knowledge gaps hinder crop diversity conservation efforts and plant breeding programmes. We investigated genetic diversity and population st...

Oliveira, Hugo R.; Campana, Michael G.; Jones, Huw; Hunt, Harriet V.; Leigh, Fiona; Redhouse, David I.; Lister, Diane L.; Jones, Martin K.

2012-01-01

250

Revisiting the Panko-Halverson Taxonomy of Spreadsheet Errors  

CERN Document Server

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the Panko-Halverson taxonomy of spreadsheet errors and suggest revisions. There are several reasons for doing so: First, the taxonomy has been widely used. Therefore, it should have scrutiny; Second, the taxonomy has not been widely available in its original form and most users refer to secondary sources. Consequently, they often equate the taxonomy with the simplified extracts used in particular experiments or field studies; Third, perhaps as a consequence, most users use only a fraction of the taxonomy. In particular, they tend not to use the taxonomy's life-cycle dimension; Fourth, the taxonomy has been tested against spreadsheets in experiments and spreadsheets in operational use. It is time to review how it has fared in these tests; Fifth, the taxonomy was based on the types of spreadsheet errors that were known to the authors in the mid-1990s. Subsequent experience has shown that the taxonomy needs to be extended for situations beyond those original experiences; S...

Panko, Raymond R

2008-01-01

251

Extreme levels of hidden diversity in microscopic animals (Rotifera) revealed by DNA taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge and estimates of species richness at all scales are biased both by our understanding of the evolutionary processes shaping diversity and by the methods used to delineate the basic units of diversity. DNA taxonomy shows that diversity may be underestimated by traditional taxonomy, especially for microscopic animals. The effects of such hidden diversity are usually overlooked in ecological studies. Here, we estimate hidden diversity in bdelloid rotifers, a group of microscopic animals. We analyse cryptic diversity using a coalescent approach to infer taxonomical units from phylogenetic trees. Cryptic diversity was measured for eight traditional species of bdelloid rotifers and the results compared to that of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis species complex, which is well studied and for which cross-mating experiments have been performed to explicitly define some of the species boundaries. A taxonomic inflation of up to 34 potential cryptic taxa was found in bdelloids. Cryptic taxa within each traditional species may be spatially isolated, but do not have narrower ecological niches. The species deemed as generalists exhibit the highest cryptic diversity. Cryptic diversity based on molecular characterization is commonly found in animals; nevertheless, the amount of cryptic diversity in bdelloids is much higher than in other groups analysed so far, maybe because of their peculiar parthenogenetic reproduction, other than microscopic size. We discuss this hypothesis in the light of the available empirical evidence from other groups of microscopic invertebrates, such as tardigrades and mites, which share size, habitat heterogeneity, potential for dispersal, and/or parthenogenetic reproduction. PMID:19398026

Fontaneto, Diego; Kaya, Murat; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Barraclough, Timothy G

2009-10-01

252

THE EFFECT OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES ON THE INCIDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF APHID VECTORS OF PEPPER VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS, ON CULTIVATED PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distribution of aphid vectors of Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV was studied on cultivated pepper between 2003 and 2005 in the major pepper producing areas of the six agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. The aphids were isolated, identified and their transmission ability determined. Population of aphid vectors increased progressively in all the agro-ecological zones from March at the onset of raining season reaching a peak in August and then declining from September at the on set of the dry season. The Humid forest and Derived Savanna agro-ecological zones recorded highest mean population of aphids / leaf and types of aphid’s species compared with other agro-ecological zones. Six species of aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Aphis gossipii (Glover, Aphis craccivora (Koch, Aphis spiraecola (Patch, Aphis fabae (Blanchard, and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, were identified on the pepper fields surveyed in all the agro-ecological zones. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of M. persicae, A. gossipii, A. craccivora, and R. maidis while A. spiraecola and A. fabae that varied in occurrence in all the zones. Ability to transmit PVMV to a healthy pepper plants varied in all the identified aphid species but R. maidis was not able to transmit PVMV from infected to a healthy pepper plant. A more sustainable approach to controlling pepper viruses is by targeting the aphid vectors and preventing the vectors from reaching the crops because the aphid vectors which are virus specific are the major means of transmitting virus to healthy plant.

A.A. FAJINMI

2011-11-01

253

Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (?6PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953 ?g L?1, with the average value of 4.042 ± 3.929 ?g L?1. The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the ?6PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of ?6PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens. - Highlights: • Monthly variation in PAEs was first investigated in a large Chinese shallow lake. • Ecological and health risks with uncertainty were determined. • PAEs with low and high level of carbon would be from different sources. • DnBP predominated within PAE congeners and posed a much greater ecological risks. • The studied PAE congeners posed little health risks to the nearby citizens

254

Ecological distribution and population structure of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthoidea) on the southeastern Brazilian coast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste estudo foram analisar a distribuição ecológica e a estrutura populacional de A. schmitti no litoral sudeste brasileiro. Os caranguejos foram coletados, mensalmente, de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999 nas enseadas: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) e Mar Virado (MV), onde também f [...] oram obtidas amostras de água e sedimento para análise dos fatores ambientais. A maior abundância de A. schmitti foi verificada em UBM (224), seguida por UBA (154) e MV (23) e não apresentou associação com os fatores ambientais analisados. O motivo da baixa abundância desses caranguejos em MV pode ser a alta ação de ondas que movimenta o material biodetrítico acumulado no fundo e, frequentemente, remove pequenos caranguejos de seus abrigos entre fragmentos de conchas. Os indivíduos foram 269 machos e 132 fêmeas, das quais apenas 4 eram ovígeras. O recrutamento juvenil ocorreu o ano todo, sendo menos intenso na primavera. A maior abundância de indivíduos, bem como as fêmeas ovígeras, ocorreu em 1999, quando a entrada da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS) foi mais intensa do que no ano anterior. Esta influência ambiental pode ser o principal fator modulador para esta população. Abstract in english This investigation analyzed the ecological distribution and population structure of A. schmitti on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Crabs were sampled monthly from January 1998 to December 1999 at the following bays: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) and Mar Virado (MV). Water and sediment samples we [...] re also collected from all sampling sites for an analysis of environmental factors. Acantholobus schmitti was most abundant at UBM (224), followed by UBA (154) and MV (23) but its abundance showed no association with the environmental factors analyzed. The low abundance of these crabs in MV may be due to the high wave action that moved biodetritic material accumulated on the bottom and frequently removed small crabs from their sheltered positions among the shell fragments. The individuals captured included 269 males and 132 females, of which only 4 specimens were brooding females. Juvenile recruitment occurred throughout the year, but was less intense in the spring. The major abundance of individuals as well as of ovigerous females occurred during 1999, when the entrance of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) was stronger than in previous year. This environmental influence could be the main factor modulating this population.

Vivian, Fransozo; Thiago Elias da, Silva; Patrícia Bianca, Fumis; Giovana, Bertini; Paloma Aparecida de, Lima.

2013-12-01

255

Taxonomy Icon Data - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available [ Credits ] Search ... across metadata and databases: Home About Archive Update History Contact us T ... on a website using URLs of the icons. In a simple search ... table, you can narrow down the icons using a taxon ... EST/taxonomy_icon_en.zip File size: 14.1 KB Simple search ... URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/tax ...

256

The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

Adams, Katherine

2002-01-01

257

Attack surfaces : A taxonomy for attacks on cloud services  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants. © 2010 IEEE.

Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

2010-01-01

258

Entropy-based disciplinarity indicator: role taxonomy of journals in scientific communication systems  

CERN Document Server

In this research, a new indicator of disciplinarity-multidisciplinarity is developed, discussed and applied. EBDI is based on the combination of the frequency distribution of subject categories of journals citing or cited by the analysis unit and the spread and diversity of the citations among subject categories measured with Shannon-Wiener entropy. Its reproducibility, robustness and consistence are discussed. Four of the combinations of its values when applied to the cited and citing dimensions lead to a suggested taxonomy of the role that the studied unit might have in terms of the transformation of knowledge from different disciplines in the scientific communication system and its position respect a hypothetical thematic core of the discipline in which it has been classified. The indicator is applied to the journals belonging to the first quartile of JCR-SSCI 2011 Library and Information Science and an indicator-based taxonomy is applied and discussed, pointing to differential thematic roles of the journa...

Manana-Rodriguez, J

2013-01-01

259

Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn. ssp. laricio (Poiret Maire distribution in the Sila mountain range  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most well-known and vast Calabrian pine forests are in the Sila mountain range, southern Italy. In this paper, present-day distribution of Calabrian pine in the Sila district was analyzed and compared with forest maps dating back to 1935 in order to assess the changes in land use. Main ecological and anthropogenic factors affecting Calabrian pine forest distribution were investigated by logistic regression models to identify the most important predictors of Ca­labrian pine persistence, expansion, and transition over the period 1935-2006. In 2006, the area covered by Calabrian pine forests and mixed Calabrian pine-beech forests was 36 100 ha and 20 221 ha, respectively. Overall, pine forest area increased by 38% between 1935 and 2006. Logistic regression revealed that Calabrian pine distribution in the Sila district was affected by both ecolo­gical (bioclimate, soil, and elevation and anthropogenic factors (management, fire. Based on our results, four different potential dynamics of Calabrian pine stands are discussed in the perspective of the sustainable management and conservation of this important mountain forest habitat.

Nicolaci A

2014-11-01

260

Taxonomy for spatial domain LSB steganography techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding technique is a well-known and broadly employed method in multimedia steganography, used mainly in applications involving single bit-plane manipulations in the spatial domain [1]. The key advantages of LSB procedures are they are simple to understand, easy to implement, have high embedding capacity, and can be resistant to steganalysis attacks. Additionally, the LSB approach has spawned numerous applications and can be used as the basis of more complex techniques for multimedia data embedding. In the last several decades, hundreds of new LSB or LSB variant methods have been developed in an effort to optimize capacity while minimizing detectability, taking advantage of the overall simplicity of this method. LSB-steganalysis research has also intensified in an effort to find new or improved ways to evaluate the performance of this widely used steganographic system. This paper reviews and categorizes some of these major techniques of LSB embedding, focusing specifically on the spatial domain. Some justification for establishing and identifying promising uses of a proposed SD-LSB centric taxonomy are discussed. Specifically, we define a new taxonomy for SD-LSB embedding techniques with the goal of aiding researchers in tool classification methodologies that can lead to advances in the state-of-the-art in steganography. With a common framework to work with, researchers can begin to more concretely identify core tools and common techniques to establish common standards of practice for steganography in general. Finally, we provide a summary on some of the most common LSB embedding techniques followed by a proposed taxonomy standard for steganalysis.

Collins, James C.; Agaian, Sos S.

2014-05-01

261

Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

262

TAXONOMY OF STREPTOMYCES SP. STRAIN 3B  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strain Streptomyces sp. 3B produces high activity extracellular proteolytic complex, in which serine- and metalloproteases are identified. The general and some other significant properties for the taxonomy of the strain were studied by the methods of the International Streptomycetes Project. The results of the investigation of Streptomyces sp. 3B and the comparative references about Streptomyces species with similar taxonomic characteristics identified it as Streptomyces albovinaceus . The antibiotic activity and sensitivity was also tested. Strain 3B was resistant to the group of the penicillin antibiotics

Stefka Antonova-Nikolova, Nikoleta Tzekova and Ljubomira Yocheva

263

Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS) and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 ?m long) and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 ?m diam). Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C) than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C). Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus.

Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian

2011-01-01

264

Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 ?m long and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 ?m diam. Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C. Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus.

R.A. Samson

2011-11-01

265

A revised taxonomy of assistance animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of animals in various assistive, therapeutic, and emotional support roles has contributed to the uncoordinated expansion of labels used to distinguish these animals. To address the inconsistent vocabulary and confusion, this article proposes a concise taxonomy for classifying assistance animals. Several factors were identified to differentiate categories, including (1 whether the animal performs work or tasks related to an individual’s disability; (2 the typical level of skill required by the animal performing the work or task; (3 whether the animal is used by public service, military, or healthcare professionals; (4 whether training certifications or standards are available; and (5 the existence of legal public access protections for the animal and handler. Acknowledging that some category labels have already been widely accepted or codified, six functional categories were identified: (1 service animal; (2 public service animal; (3 therapy animal; (4 visitation ­animal; (5 sporting, recreational, or agricultural animal; and (6 support animal. This taxonomy provides a clear vocabulary for use by consumers, professionals working in the field, researchers, policy makers, and regulatory agencies.

Lindsay Parenti, MA, BCBA

2013-08-01

266

SSU rDNA divergence in planktonic foraminifera: molecular taxonomy and biogeographic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of planktonic foraminifera in paleoceanography requires taxonomic consistency and precise assessment of the species biogeography. Yet, ribosomal small subunit (SSUr) DNA analyses have revealed that most of the modern morpho-species of planktonic foraminifera are composed of a complex of several distinct genetic types that may correspond to cryptic or pseudo-cryptic species. These genetic types are usually delimitated using partial sequences located at the 3'end of the SSUrDNA, but typically based on empirical delimitation. Here, we first use patristic genetic distances calculated within and among genetic types of the most common morpho-species to show that intra-type and inter-type genetic distances within morpho-species may significantly overlap, suggesting that genetic types have been sometimes inconsistently defined. We further apply two quantitative and independent methods, ABGD (Automatic Barcode Gap Detection) and GMYC (General Mixed Yule Coalescent) to a dataset of published and newly obtained partial SSU rDNA for a more objective assessment of the species status of these genetic types. Results of these complementary approaches are highly congruent and lead to a molecular taxonomy that ranks 49 genetic types of planktonic foraminifera as genuine (pseudo)cryptic species. Our results advocate for a standardized sequencing procedure allowing homogenous delimitations of (pseudo)cryptic species. On the ground of this revised taxonomic framework, we finally provide an integrative taxonomy synthesizing geographic, ecological and morphological differentiations that can occur among the genuine (pseudo)cryptic species. Due to molecular, environmental or morphological data scarcities, many aspects of our proposed integrative taxonomy are not yet fully resolved. On the other hand, our study opens up the potential for a correct interpretation of environmental sequence datasets. PMID:25119900

André, Aurore; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Morard, Raphaël; Ujiié, Yurika; Escarguel, Gilles; de Vargas, Colomban; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault; Douady, Christophe J

2014-01-01

267

[Distribution and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural soil of the Chongming Island in Shanghai].  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration and ecological risk of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in thirty-three surface soil samples collected from cultivated land in Chongming Island in July 2008. Those samples were extracted using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) and determined by GC-MS. Results showed that the concentrations of PAHs ranged between 24.92-1014.61 ng x g(-1) (dry weight), with a mean value of 192.83 ng x g(-1). The sixteen priority PAHs with exception of Indeno(1, 2, 3-cd) pyrene (IcdP) and Dibenzo(a, h)anthracene (DahA) were all detected in all the samples. The dominant compounds were 2-3 ring and 4 ring PAHs, which accounted for 42.6% and 42.2%, respectively, while the 5-6 ring PAHs accounted for 15.7%. PAHs in soil were mainly derived from the fossil oil and the combustion of wood and coal, as determined by the concentration ratio method. The non-industrial combustion and automobile exhaust emissions in Chongming Island may be two of the important sources of PAHs in farmland soil. The analysis of ecological risk showed that the agricultural soil of Chongming Island had low ecological risk. PMID:23379152

Lü, Jin-Gang; Bi, Chun-Juan; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Zhou, Jie-Cheng; Han, Jing-Chao

2012-12-01

268

When everything converges: integrative taxonomy with shell, DNA and venomic data reveals Conus conco, a new species of cone snails (Gastropoda: Conoidea).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cone snails have long been studied both by taxonomists for the diversity of their shells and by biochemists for the potential therapeutic applications of their toxins. Phylogenetic approaches have revealed that different lineages of Conus evolved divergent venoms, a property that is exploited to enhance the discovery of new conotoxins, but is rarely used in taxonomy. Specimens belonging to the Indo-West Pacific Conus lividus species complex were analyzed using phenetic and phylogenetic methods based on shell morphology, COI and 28S rRNA gene sequences and venom mRNA expression and protein composition. All methods converged to reveal a new species, C. conco n. sp. (described in Supplementary data), restricted to the Marquesas Islands, where it diverged recently (?3mya) from C. lividus. The geographical distribution of C. conco and C. lividus and their phylogenetic relationships suggest that the two species diverged in allopatry. Furthermore, the diversity of the transcript sequences and toxin molecular masses suggest that C. conco evolved unique toxins, presumably in response to new selective pressure, such as the availability of new preys and ecological niches. Furthermore, this new species evolved new transcripts giving rise to original toxin structures, probably each carrying specific biological activity. PMID:25132129

Puillandre, Nicolas; Stöcklin, Reto; Favreau, Philippe; Bianchi, Estelle; Perret, Frédéric; Rivasseau, Audrey; Limpalaër, Loïc; Monnier, Eric; Bouchet, Philippe

2014-11-01

269

Ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri in systems science and systematics  

CERN Document Server

The originality of this book, which deals with such a new subject matter, lies in the application of methods and concepts never used before - such as ontologies and taxonomies, as well as thesauri - to the ordering of knowledge based on primary information. Chapters in the book also examine the study of ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri from the perspective of systematics and general systems theory. Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in Systems Science and Systematics will be extremely useful to those operating within the network of related fields, which includes documentation and informati

Currás, Emilia

2010-01-01

270

Download - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available [ Credits ] Search across metadata and databases: Home About Archive Update History Contact us T ... Download Please note that the data "Commment" and "Images ... on Comment", shown in the bottom half of this page ... 4.1 KB) Simple search and download 3 Taxonomy Icon Images ... (PNG format) taxonomy_icon_png.zip (7.9 MB) - Plea ... different terms of use. Terms of use for the data "Images ... on Comment" are described in the data "Comment". # ... mment_en.zip (5.7 KB) Simple search and download 5 Images ... on Comment taxonomy_icon_comment_png_en.zip (15.8 ...

271

Diversité floristique, ethnobotanique et taxonomie locale des mauvaises herbes de l'oignon au Nord-est du Bénin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Floristic Diversity, Ethno-botanic and Local Taxonomy of Onion's Weeds in the North East of Benin. A study has been conducted in order to document scientific names, local names and their significations, and also to apprehend onion's weed species nomenclature adopted by farmers in the North East of Benin. Thirty onion's households have been surveyed through semi-structured interviews and a floristic inventory was carried out in each of them. Weeds'species and their botanic families and also the criteria of their local names have been identified and have served to elaborate a local taxonomy typology. 71 species which belong to 26 botanic families and 17 species belonging to six families constitute respectively the general flora and the flora associated to onion in vegetation.Poaceae,Cyperaceae, Commelinaceae, Malvaceae, Fabaceae and Portulacaceae are the most important families according to their number of species. Ecology, morphology, resistance to hoe weeding and socio-cultural usages are the criteria that were used to develop the local denomination of 39 among 71 identified species, and have served to elaborate the typology of local taxonomy. The other 32 species without local names do not have any major agroecological, nor socio-cultural interest for farmers. The evaluation of the agronomic importance of the flora associated to onion's vegetation can contribute to a better control of the weeds of this crop.

Bello, S.

2013-01-01

272

Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%.

Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema

2006-01-01

273

A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.

Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

2004-12-23

274

A hierarchical taxonomy of top managers' goals.  

Science.gov (United States)

To embed goal theories more deeply in the domain of top-level leadership behavior and to provide a vehicle to facilitate future research, the authors developed a taxonomy of managerial goals. Interviews with 75 company leaders-founders and presidents-from 3 countries generated 2,182 articulated goals. Content analysis supported 2 taxonomic dimensions: goal content and hierarchical level. The goal content dimension specified 10 categories of substantive goal targets, and the second dimension captured the hierarchical structure of the top leaders' goal sets, with lower-level goals being instrumental toward achieving superordinate goals. The hierarchy comprised 5 goal levels: ultimate, enterprise, strategic, project, and process. Chi-square analyses revealed relationships between goal content and hierarchical level as well as differences between the national subsamples. PMID:12558219

Bateman, Thomas S; O'Neill, Hugh; Kenworthy-U'Ren, Amy

2002-12-01

275

Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km(2) region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D (2) model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species-habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D (2) (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered species listing. Our results identifying attributes important for delineating habitats or modeling connectivity will facilitate conservation and management of landscapes important for supporting current and future sage-grouse populations. PMID:23789066

Knick, Steven T; Hanser, Steven E; Preston, Kristine L

2013-06-01

276

Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is--that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identification on a common data set of complete genomes: (i) SpeciesFinder, which is based on the complete 16S rRNA gene; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species-specific functional protein domain profiles; and finally (v) KmerFinder, which examines the number of cooccurring k-mers (substrings of k nucleotides in DNA sequence data). The performances of the methods were subsequently evaluated on three data sets of short sequence reads or draft genomes from public databases. In total, the evaluation sets constituted sequence data from more than 11,000 isolates covering 159 genera and 243 species. Our results indicate that methods that sample only chromosomal, core genes have difficulties in distinguishing closely related species which only recently diverged. The KmerFinder method had the overall highest accuracy and correctly identified from 93% to 97% of the isolates in the evaluations sets.

Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore

2014-01-01

277

Field studies of harp seal (Phoca Groenlandica) distribution and feeding ecology in the Barents Sea in september 1990  

OpenAIRE

The harp seal Phoca groenlandica is the most abundant seal species in the Barents Sea, and it may be a significant predator on other marine resources in this area. In order to evaluate the ecological role of harp seals, field studies, including both analysis of harp seal stomach contents and concurrent estimates of prey abundance, were carried out in the Barents Sea during August/September 1990. It appeared that, at this time of the year, the harp seals were confined to the northmost areas of...

Nilssen, Kjell Tormod; Haug, Tore; Potelov, Vladimir

1991-01-01

278

Spatial distribution of trace elements and some aspects of ecological assessment of potential toxicity from Altai ore deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present report results of ecology-biogeochemical estimate of mineral industry areas are presented. Investigations were made in Altai. Test subjects are surface waters, soils and plants. Contaminants are present in waste waters from Altai mineral resource industry. They are divided into three main groups, of which the greatest environmental threat offer heavy metals and to a lesser degree, used chemical agents, oil products, phenols at al. The pollution of draining with macro components is insignificantly. The waste waters of studied enterprises are potential dangerous for environmental including biota

279

Taxonomy, distribution and population structure of invasive Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) in the Suquía River basin, Córdoba, Argentina / Taxonomía, distribución y estructura poblacional de Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) invasores en la cuenca del Río Suquía, Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las especies invasoras son una de las causas más importantes de la pérdida de biodiversidad y de las alteraciones que se producen en los servicios ecosistémicos; en ello reside la importancia de la detección de estas especies y su estudio. Las almejas asiáticas (Corbiculidae) son organismos invasore [...] s que ingresaron accidentalmente en el Río de La Plata, Argentina, presuntamente en la década de los 1960'. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron identificar las especies de corbicúlidos y determinar su distribución en distintas localidades a lo largo de la cuenca del Río Suquía, un área extensa localizada en el centro de Argentina. Asimismo, la estructura poblacional fue evaluada mensualmente durante el periodo de un año, en un sitio de la ciudad de Córdoba caracterizado por una alta influencia humana. Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) y Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844) en la cuenca del Rio Suquía. La primera sólo se encontró en un ambiente léntico (embalse San Roque), mientras que la segunda especie también se encontró a lo largo de los afluentes y arroyos de la cuenca. Corbicula largillierti mostró una variación en la densidad media, considerando los diferentes sitios; asimismo en la biomasa y las clases de tamaño en un mismo sitio, durante el período de estudio. La composición relativa de los sedimentos, la fluctuación del caudal y la contaminación humana podrían ser las responsables de las diferencias observadas. Abstract in english Invasive species are one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services, which underlines the importance of their detection and their study. The Asian clams (Corbiculidae) are invasive organisms that accidentally entered the La Plata River, Argentina, presumabl [...] y in the 1960s. The objectives of the present study were to identify the corbiculid species and to determine their distribution at several locations along the Suquía River basin, an extended area in central Argentina. In addition, population structure was evaluated monthly during one year, at a site in the city of Córdoba that is characterized by high human influence. The presence of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) and Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844) in the Suquía River basin is reported for the first time. The former species was found only in a lentic environment (San Roque reservoir), while the latter was also found along the tributary rivers and brooks of the basin. Corbicula largillierti showed variations in average density between the different sites and also in biomass and size classes throughout the study period at the site at Córdoba city. The relative composition of the sediments, flow fluctuation and human pollution may be responsible for the observed differences.

Paola B., Reyna; Ariana G., Morán; Marcos, Tatián.

2013-06-01

280

Essential content and risks taxonomy in development projects ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risks taxonomy in development projects by commonly known classification risks attributes is presented in the article, also possible kinds of risks and their presence on stages of development project are presented.? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ???????.

Semenova Anna I.

2012-08-01

281

Comment - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available [ Credits ] Search across metadata and databases: Home About Archive Update History Contact us T ... Comment Description of data contents Comments and images ... posted on icon entries through the Taxonomy Icon o ...

282

Essential content and risks taxonomy in development projects ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????  

OpenAIRE

Risks taxonomy in development projects by commonly known classification risks attributes is presented in the article, also possible kinds of risks and their presence on stages of development project are presented.? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????...

Semenova Anna I.

2012-01-01

283

The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological factors (e.g. the plant growth) or the economical factors as a simple monetary calculation, but also their mutual influences. Finally, the ecological-economic model enables us to make a risk assessment or evaluate adaptation strategies.

Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

2014-05-01

284

New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.  

OpenAIRE

This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We divide these environme...

Hugues, Olivier; Fuchs, Philippe; Nannipieri, Olivier

2011-01-01

285

Antibiotics in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ocean is an important sink of land-based pollutants. Previous studies showed that serious antibiotic pollution occurred in the coastal waters, but limited studies focused on their presence in offshore waters. In this study, eleven antibiotics in three different categories were investigated in offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China. The results indicated that three antibiotics dehydration erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim occurred throughout the offshore waters at concentrations of 0.10–16.6 ng L?1 and they decreased exponentially from the rivers to the coastal and offshore waters. The other antibiotics all presented very low detection rates (?1). Although the concentrations were very low, risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that sulfamethoxazole, dehydration erythromycin and clarithromycin at most of sampling sites posed medium or low ecological risks (0.01 ?1. ? Their concentrations decreased exponentially from the rivers to the offshore waters. ? Some antibiotics in the offshore water posed medium or low risks to some organisms. -- Some antibiotics were ubiquitous in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China and posed medium or low ecological risks to some sensitive organisms

286

Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k{sub 0}-standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

Palmieri, Helena E.L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: help@cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio A. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br; Friese, Kurt [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research- UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany). Dept. of Lake Research], E-mail: kurt.friese@ufz.de

2007-07-01

287

Levels, distribution pattern and ecological risk assessment of organochlorines pesticides (OCPs) in water and sediments from two tributaries of the Chenab River, Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residue levels, distribution patterns and ecological risk assessment of OCPs in water and sediment samples collected from two upstream feeding tributaries of the River Chenab, Pakistan were monitored. ?OCPs levels in water and sediment ranged between 8 and 76 ng L(-1) and 17 and 224 ng g(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of ?HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) was 3.3 ± 3.2 ng L(-1) and 8.4 ± 9 ng g(-1) for water and sediment samples, respectively, while ?DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) exhibited the average concentration of 9.07 ± 6.15 ng L(-1) and 40.3 ± 26.2 ng g(-1) for water and sediment samples, respectively. The concentration of DDT and HCHs in both water and sediment samples were about 80 % of total OCPs and DDTs were the predominant organochlorines in the investigated matrix. DDTs and HCHs in sediment samples posed higher ecotoxicological risk and results were significant when compared with the quality guidelines. Results of the present study should be taken seriously by higher authorities as there is a serious threat to ecological integrities by OCPs exposure. PMID:25204814

Mahmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

2014-11-01

288

Dynamics of market correlations: Taxonomy and portfolio analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The time dependence of the recently introduced minimum spanning tree description of correlations between stocks, called the “asset tree” has been studied in order to reflect the financial market taxonomy. The nodes of the tree are identified with stocks and the distance between them is a unique function of the corresponding element of the correlation matrix. By using the concept of a central vertex, chosen as the most strongly connected node of the tree, an important characteristic is defined by the mean occupation layer. During crashes, due to the strong global correlation in the market, the tree shrinks topologically, and this is shown by a low value of the mean occupation layer. The tree seems to have a scale-free structure where the scaling exponent of the degree distribution is different for “business as usual” and “crash” periods. The basic structure of the tree topology is very robust with respect to time. We also point out that the diversification aspect of portfolio optimization results in the fact that the assets of the classic Markowitz portfolio are always located on the outer leaves of the tree. Technical aspects such as the window size dependence of the investigated quantities are also discussed.

Onnela, J.-P.; Chakraborti, A.; Kaski, K.; Kertész, J.; Kanto, A.

2003-11-01

289

Adapted G-mode Clustering Method applied to Asteroid Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The original G-mode was a clustering method developed by A. I. Gavrishin in the late 60's for geochemical classification of rocks, but was also applied to asteroid photometry, cosmic rays, lunar sample and planetary science spectroscopy data. In this work, we used an adapted version to classify the asteroid photometry from SDSS Moving Objects Catalog. The method works by identifying normal distributions in a multidimensional space of variables. The identification starts by locating a set of points with smallest mutual distance in the sample, which is a problem when data is not planar. Here we present a modified version of the G-mode algorithm, which was previously written in FORTRAN 77, in Python 2.7 and using NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib packages. The NumPy was used for array and matrix manipulation and Matplotlib for plot control. The Scipy had a import role in speeding up G-mode, Scipy.spatial.distance.mahalanobis was chosen as distance estimator and Numpy.histogramdd was applied to find the initial seeds from which clusters are going to evolve. Scipy was also used to quickly produce dendrograms showing the distances among clusters. Finally, results for Asteroids Taxonomy and tests for different sample sizes and implementations are presented.

Hasselmann, Pedro H.; Carvano, Jorge M.; Lazzaro, D.

2013-11-01

290

Dynamics of market correlations Taxonomy and portfolio analysis  

CERN Document Server

The time dependence of the recently introduced minimum spanning tree description of correlations between stocks, called the ``asset tree'' have been studied to reflect the economic taxonomy. The nodes of the tree are identified with stocks and the distance between them is a unique function of the corresponding element of the correlation matrix. By using the concept of a central vertex, chosen as the most strongly connected node of the tree, an important characteristic is defined by the mean occupation layer (MOL). During crashes the strong global correlation in the market manifests itself by a low value of MOL. The tree seems to have a scale free structure where the scaling exponent of the degree distribution is different for `business as usual' and `crash' periods. The basic structure of the tree topology is very robust with respect to time. We also point out that the diversification aspect of portfolio optimization results in the fact that the assets of the classic Markowitz portfolio are always located on ...

Onnela, J P; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Kanto, A

2003-01-01

291

Morphological features, ecology, and distribution of poorly studied molluscan genera of the Colinae subfamily (Bastropoda, Buccinidae) from the far eastern seas of Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on the distribution of six genera of poorly studied buccinids of the Colinae subfamily (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae), namely, Colus Röding, 1799; Plicifusus Dall, 1902; Retifusus Dall, 1916; Aulacofusus Dall, 1918; Pararetifusus Kosuge, 1967; and Latisipo Dall, 1916, are presented. These mollusks are widely spread in the North Pacific region dwelling predominantly over loose sediments in a wide range of sea depths. Based on the morphology and contents of their digestive tracts, it is assumed that the representatives of the genera studied are predators with diverse diets. It is supposed that the increase in the dwelling depths had no significant influence on the feeding ecology of the species studied. Meanwhile, the lower abundance of preys at greater depths caused the lower population densities and modifications in the proboscis structure of selected taxa.

Kosyan, A. R.

2007-08-01

292

Is Bloom's Taxonomy reflected in the response pattern to MCQ items?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to find out whether taxonomic classification of MCQ items reflected differences in student behaviour. The data from one of this University's official open-book exams, in which students answer sixty MCQ items distributed over twelve content-areas of physiology were examined. The responses from all 153 candidates were then subjected to factor analysis. Analysis of individual item scores was unrewarding. Analysis of scores for item-groups based on taxonomy and content resulted in the identification of three factors, which carried predominant loadings from recall or look-up items, interpretation items, and problem-solving items, respectively. PMID:7366491

Huxham, G J; Naeraa, N

1980-01-01

293

Intermediate disturbance in the ecology of phytoplankton and the maintenance of species diversity: a synthesis  

OpenAIRE

This paper concludes a collection of contributions presented at the 8th Workshop of the International Association of Phytoplankton Taxonomy and Ecology. It derives a consensus as to the virtues and strengths of J. H. Connells Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH), its applicability to phytoplank- ton ecology and its theoretical and practical weaknesses. The view is expressed that the IDH is too useful a concept to reject and that, as a word model, it provides a powerful link between diver...

Reynolds, C. S.; Padisa?k, J.; Sommer, Ulrich

1993-01-01

294

Statistical ecology comes of age.  

Science.gov (United States)

The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

2014-12-01

295

The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 137Cs, 60Co, 54Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

296

Distribution of limnoterrestrial Tardigrada in Georgia and the Gulf Coast states of the United States of America with ecological remarks  

OpenAIRE

This report is an effort to improve understanding of the distribution of limnoterrestrial tardigrades in Georgia and the states along the Gulf Coast of the United States of America. We collected 14 species of tardigrades from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts) and leaf litter in a statewide survey of Louisiana and reviewed all publications and theses reporting tardigrade distributions in the Gulf Coast states. Statewide surveys have been also conducted in Alabama, Florida, and Texas...

Meyer, Harry A.; Hinton, Juliana G.

2007-01-01

297

Genomic taxonomy of the genus prochlorococcus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Prochlorococcus is globally abundant and dominates the total phytoplankton biomass and production in the oligotrophic ocean. The single species, Prochlorococcus marinus, comprises six named ecotypes. Our aim was to analyze the taxonomic structure of the genus Prochlorococcus. We analyzed the complete genomes of 13 cultured P. marinus type and reference strains by means of several genomic taxonomy tools (i.e., multilocus sequence analysis, amino acid identity, Karlin genomic signature, and genome to genome distance). In addition, we estimated the diversity of Prochlorococcus species in over 100 marine metagenomes from all the major oceanic provinces. According to our careful taxonomic analysis, the 13 strains corresponded, in fact, to ten different Prochlorococcus species. This analysis establishes a new taxonomic framework for the genus Prochlorococcus. Further, the analysis of the metagenomic data suggests that, in total, there may only be 35 Prochlorococcus species in the world's oceans. We propose that the dearth of species observed in this study is driven by high selective pressures that limit diversification in the global ocean. PMID:23963220

Thompson, Cristiane C; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Vieira, Nayra M; Edwards, Robert; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Thompson, Fabiano L

2013-11-01

298

Artificial dam lakes as suitable habitats for exotic invertebrates: Ostracoda ecology and distribution in reservoirs of the Eastern Iberian Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reservoirs are the most common deep lakes in Spain, as a consequence of water needs and dry climate. Although these aquatic systems can play an important ecological role in such an area with few large natural lakes, they can also provide new habitats for exotic species, which can colonize ecosystems that native species have not explored yet. Here we present our results for a biannual survey of the ostracod fauna from 24 reservoirs in Xúquer River basin. We check which variables affect ostracod presence, test for differences between winter and summer assemblages, and compare our data with previous available ostracod records from the same river drainage network. Our results reveal that ostracod presence is positively related to high diversity of the invertebrate community and reservoir volume, and negatively with phosphorus concentration. Among the 22 species found, it is noteworthy the first Iberian record of Ilyocypris getica and the second European record of Candonocypris novaezelandiae. Ostracod assemblages significantly vary between summer and winter, and strong differences are found between ostracod communities of reservoirs and those from their connected rivers. Remarkably higher frequency of exotic species in the reservoirs confirms previous findings about the facilitation that artificial ecosystems confer to aquatic invasions.

Escrivà A.

2014-01-01

299

Distribution and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from four lakes of Heilongjiang Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing concern for the lake environment because polluted sediments may cause ecotoxicological effects. In the current study, persistent organochlorine compounds (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and cyclodienes, were analyzed in core sediments taken from Huoshaohei Lake, Xihulu Lake, Wanghua Lake and Keqin Lake, Heilongjiang Province, China. The total OCPs concentrations ranged from 0.92 to 7.09, 0.15 to 9.95, 0.19 to 1.84 and 0.06 to 3.52 ng/g, respectively. The most dominant pollutants were the HCHs, high proportions of ?-HCH isomer indicating the recent input of lindane. The ratios of ?-HCH/?-HCH of four lakes are all lower than that in technical HCH mixtures indicating that there was input of lindane in the past several years, and the mean ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs are all <0.5, suggesting recent release of DDT compounds. Compared with the corresponding ecological environmental quality guidelines from Ingersoll and base on the model of risk based corrective action environmental health risk assessment, the sediments from the four lakes poses a lower potential hazard to human health and the environment but still should be taken into account. PMID:24420623

Hui, Hongkuan; Zang, Shuying

2014-05-01

300

Correlative and dynamic species distribution modelling for ecological predictions in the Antarctic: a cross-disciplinary concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developments of future scenarios of Antarctic ecosystems are still in their infancy, whilst predictions of the physical environment are recognized as being of global relevance and corresponding models are under continuous development. However, in the context of environmental change simulations of the future of the Antarctic biosphere are increasingly demanded by decision makers and the public, and are of fundamental scientific interest. This paper briefly reviews existing predictive models applied to Antarctic ecosystems before providing a conceptual framework for the further development of spatially and temporally explicit ecosystem models. The concept suggests how to improve approaches to relating species’ habitat description to the physical environment, for which a case study on sea urchins is presented. In addition, the concept integrates existing and new ideas to consider dynamic components, particularly information on the natural history of key species, from physiological experiments and biomolecular analyses. Thereby, we identify and critically discuss gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. These refer to process understanding of biological complexity, the need for high spatial resolution oceanographic data from the entire water column, and the use of data from biomolecular analyses in support of such ecological approaches. Our goal is to motivate the research community to contribute data and knowledge to a holistic, Antarctic-specific, macroecological framework. Such a framework will facilitate the integration of theoretical and empirical work in Antarctica, improving our mechanistic understanding of this globally influential ecoregion, and supporting actions to secure this biodiversity hotspot and its ecosystem services.

Thomas Saucède

2012-05-01

301

Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments (?8 ?m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were ies, impaired benthic assemblages were found at ?8 ?m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system

302

Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments ({<=}8 {mu}m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at {<=}8 {mu}m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system.

Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; De Falco, G. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Como, S. [International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Casu, D. [Dip. di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Floris, A. [Dip. di Zoologia e Genetica evoluzionistica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Petrov, A.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, 99011 Sevastopol (Ukraine); Castelli, A. [Dip. di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Perilli, A. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)

2008-03-15

303

Ecological niche modeling of coastal dune plants and future potential distribution in response to climate change and sea level rise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change (CC) and sea level rise (SLR) are phenomena that could have severe impacts on the distribution of coastal dune vegetation. To explore this we modeled the climatic niches of six coastal dunes plant species that grow along the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula, and projected climatic niches to future potential distributions based on two CC scenarios and SLR projections. Our analyses suggest that distribution of coastal plants will be severely limited, and more so in the case of local endemics (Chamaecrista chamaecristoides, Palafoxia lindenii, Cakile edentula). The possibilities of inland migration to the potential 'new shoreline' will be limited by human infrastructure and ecosystem alteration that will lead to a 'coastal squeeze' of the coastal habitats. Finally, we identified areas as future potential refuges for the six species in central Gulf of Mexico, and northern Yucatán Peninsula especially under CC and SLR scenarios. PMID:23625760

Mendoza-González, Gabriela; Martínez, M Luisa; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Vázquez, Gabriela; Gallego-Fernández, Juan B

2013-08-01

304

Prediction of global distribution of insect pest species in relation to climate by using an ecological informatics method.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to predict the worldwide distribution of two pest species-Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the Mediterranean fruit fly, and Lymantria dispar (L.), the gypsy moth-based on climatic factors. The distribution patterns of insect pests have most often been investigated using classical statistical models or ecoclimatic assessment models such as CLIMEX. In this study, we used an artificial neural network, the multilayer perceptron, trained using the backpropagation algorithm, to model the distribution of each species. The data matrix used to model the distribution of each species was divided into three data sets to (1) develop and train the model, (2) validate the model and prevent over-fitting, and (3) test each model on novel data. The percentage of correct predictions of the global distribution of each species was high for Mediterranean fruit fly for the three data sets giving 95.8, 81.5, and 80.6% correct predictions, respectively, and 96.8, 84.3, and 81.5 for the gypsy moth. Kappa statistics used to test the level of significance of the results were highly significant (in all cases P < 0.0001). A sensitivity analysis applied to each model based on the calculation of the derivatives of each of a large number of input variables showed that the variables that contributed most to explaining the distribution of C. capitata were annual average temperature and annual potential evapotranspiration. For L. dispar, the average minimum temperature and minimum daylength range were the main explanatory variables. The ANN models and methods developed in this study offer powerful additional predictive approaches in invasive species research. PMID:16813340

Gevrey, Muriel; Worner, S P

2006-06-01

305

Historical development and some emendations of dinoflagellate taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The historical development of dinoflagellate taxonomy in China and the world are reviewed, and the taxonomic status of some dinoflagellate groups in Chinese coastal seas are emended. It has been more than 200 years since the discovery of dinoflagellates, but following intensive study, increasing confusion and controversy in dinofalgellate taxonomy has become apparent. In this paper, a broad overview of the history of dinoflagellate taxonomy is presented, highlighting some major developments. Differences exist between the international and Chinese taxonomy system. When comparing the internationally accepted system (based on the information provided by the website algaeBASE with that used in China (based on the monograph Checklist of Marine Biota of China Seas, we found that they were very similar at the order level, but some differences existed at the family and genus levels. According to morphological and some physiological characteristics, a more reasonable taxonomy is presented. The main emendations are: (1 the three genera named Karenia, Karlodinium and Takayama, are separated from the family Gymnodiniaceae and classified as a new family Kareniaceae; (2 most species in the genus Ceratium are placed in Neoceratium; (3 the genus Alexandrium is separated from family Goniodomataceae, and placed in the family Gonyaulacaceae; (4 the family Heteraulacaceae is replaced by the family Goniodomataceae; and (5 two new orders, Oxyrrhinales and Pyrocystales, are established.

Xin Ma

2013-01-01

306

The migration patterns of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) at the southern limit of its distribution range: Ecological implications and fishery management  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to determine the diversity of migration patterns of the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)) present in the Minho estuary and in the adjacent coastal area (NW-Iberian Peninsula). Assessing the diversity of flounder migration patterns at the southern limit of its distribution allows the determination of characteristics of the species' ecology and provides useful information for fishery managers, since it is a regionally important estuarine fishery. An unexpected result of our study was that flounder appears to spawn in both estuarine and coastal areas and not just in coastal areas as was previously widely accepted. Our interpretation of otolith strontium distribution patterns from flounder specimens collected in the freshwater tidal area of the Minho estuary and in the lower estuary suggested that the flounders hatched in the estuary, while only 6.7% of those captured in the coastal area hatched in the coastal area. Ultimately, studies aimed at collecting larval stages and adult flounders must be made to confirm that flounders spawn in the estuary and to define new and better scientifically supported fishing policies, or simply to confirm the existing ones regarding temporal and spatial closures for each gear used in the Minho estuary.

Morais, Pedro; Dias, Ester; Babaluk, John; Antunes, Carlos

2011-02-01

307

Unified Taxonomy for Reference Ontology of Shape Features in Product Model  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a unified taxonomy of shape features. Such taxonomy is required to construct ontologies to address heterogeneity in product/shape models. Literature provides separate classifications for volumetric, deformation and free-form surface features. The unified taxonomy proposed allows classification, representation and extraction of shape features in a product model. The novelty of the taxonomy is that the classification is based purely on shape entities and therefore it is poss...

Gupta, Ravi Kumar; Gurumoorthy, B.

2013-01-01

308

Distribution of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the ecological cycle of the central Yugoslavia mountainous region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the animal production cycle was studied. Samples of ground, grass, beef and bones, milk and cheese, taken from the mountainous part of central Yugoslavia, were analysed. The discrimination factors and concentration factors of the examined radionuclides were calculated. (author)

309

Distribution and Ecology of the Recent Benthic Foraminifera from the sediments of Adyar River, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micropalaeontological investigation has been carried out, for the first time to study the systematic of recent Benthic Foraminifera from the Adyar River, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, Totally 20 sediment samples were collocted during March 2010. 46 benthic foraminiferal species belonging to 22 genus, 5 families and 3 sub orders are identified. Off which Miliolina (52% occupies the dominant place followed by Rotallina (33% Textularina (15%. From station no. 1 to 6 the foraminifeal species distribution shows decrease in order. The higher species are observed in the rivermouth area particularly in the sample no1. (254 species. The following species are abundantly distributed in this region namely Ammonia beccarii, Elpidiumcripsum, Spiroloculina communis and Textularia agglutinans followed by Ammobaculites exigus, Triloculina trigonula. In general the distribution of foraminifera is very low. The abundance of species in the river mount may be due to the mixing of marine and nearshore environment. All the species are illustrated with Scanning Electron Microscope Photographs. From the Zoogeographical distribution of the fa

M.Suresh Gandhi

2013-10-01

310

Ecological Biology (Program Description)  

Science.gov (United States)

... in the following areas. Ecology: Supports studies of community ecology and population interactions ... 7) co-evolution, and (8) chemical ecology. Ecology particularly encourages studies that reveal ...

311

ExploitingWeb Service Semantics Taxonomies vs. Ontologies  

CERN Document Server

Comprehensive semantic descriptions of Web services are essential to exploit them in their full potential, that is, discovering them dynamically, and enabling automated service negotiation, composition and monitoring. The semantic mechanisms currently available in service registries which are based on taxonomies fail to provide the means to achieve this. Although the terms taxonomy and ontology are sometimes used interchangably there is a critical difference. A taxonomy indicates only class/subclass relationship whereas an ontology describes a domain completely. The essential mechanisms that ontology languages provide include their formal specification (which allows them to be queried) and their ability to define properties of classes. Through properties very accurate descriptions of services can be defined and services can be related to other services or resources. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of describing service semantics through ontology languages and describe how to relate the semantics defi...

Dogac, A; Kabak, Y; Cingil, I; Dogac, Asuman; Laleci, Gokce; Kabak, Yildiray; Cingil, Ibrahim

2002-01-01

312

A taxonomy of control in intensified processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Process Intensification (PI) is a revolutionary approach to design, development and implementation of process and plant. PI technology offers improved environment in a chemical process in terms of better products, and processes which are safer, cleaner, smaller - and cheaper. PI is a strategy of making dramatic reductions in the size of unit operations within chemical plants, in order to achieve given production objectives. However, PI technology would be handicapped if such system is not properly controlled. There are some foreseeable problems in order to control such processes for instance, dynamic interaction between components that make up a control loop, response time of the instrumentations, availability of proper sensor and etc. In some cases, in order to control these systems, advanced control solutions have been applied i.e. model predictive controllers (MPC) and its different algorithms such as quadratic generalized predictive control (QGPC) and self tuning quadratic generalized predictive control (STQGPC). Nevertheless in some cases simpler solutions could be applied to control such system for example proportional integral controller in the control of reactive distillation systems. As mentioned, conventional control systems like proportional-integral, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and their different structures can be used in PI systems but due to inherent nonlinearity and fast responsiveness of PI systems, digital controllers-regarding PI systems, digital controllers-regarding to their robustness-are mostly applied in order to control PI systems. Regarding to the fact that choosing the appropriate control strategy is the most essential part of making PI systems possible to be handle easily, taxonomy of the usage of various control structure in controlling PI systems is proposed. This paper offers an overview and discussion on identifying potential problems of instrumentation in PI technology and available control strategies

313

How historical and present climat conditions affected the distribution of the mediterranean whter shrew?:a phylogeographical and ecological approach  

OpenAIRE

The Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus) is a semi-aquatic species with a wide but fragmented distribution across southern and center Europe and Asia Minor. This species is one of the least studied small mammal species not only of the Portuguese but also of the whole European fauna. As such, it is still unclear what are the major factors determining the fragmentation of the Mediterranean water shrew populations. The present work intended to better understand the influence of climate a...

Tapisso, Joaquim Severino Torres

2014-01-01

314

Relevance of octanol-water distribution measurements to the potential ecological uptake of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) require various physicochemical modifications prior to use, suggesting that nanotubes having varied properties may pose risks in ecosystems. A means for estimating bioaccumulation potentials of variously modified CNTs for incorporation in predictive fate models would be highly valuable. An approach commonly used for sparingly soluble organic contaminants, and previously suggested for use as well with carbonaceous nanomaterials, involves measurement of their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (KOW) values. To test the applicability of this approach, a methodology was developed to measure apparent octanol-water distribution behaviors for purified multi-walled carbon nanotubes and those acid treated. Substantial differences in apparent distribution coefficients between the two types of CNTs were observed, but these differences did not influence accumulation by either earthworms (Eisenia foetida) or oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), both of which showed minimal nanotube uptake for both types of nanotubes. The results suggest that traditional distribution behavior-based KOW approaches are likely not appropriate for predicting CNT bioaccumulation. PMID:20821546

Petersen, Elijah J; Huang, Qingguo; Weber, Walter J

2010-05-01

315

Ecological Status of a Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) Population at the Southern Edge of its Distribution (River Paiva, Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

An important population of the critically endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) was surveyed at the edge of its southern distribution (River Paiva, Portugal). Although an earlier study suggested that this population had a very low number of individuals (<500), a narrow distribution, and was mainly comprised by old specimens our data contradict these findings. Our assessment estimated a population with probably more than 5,000 individuals distributed across 80 km of the river length. From the 32 sites surveyed, 19 contained M. margaritifera with higher abundances verified in the middle and upper parts of the river (a maximum of 78 ind. per 100 m of river stretch was recorded). The pearl mussels showed a clear preference for areas near the banks, in shallow water, sandier and gravel sediments, and a high degree of riparian vegetation cover. The population structure was skewed with a very high percentage of large (and old) animals but 3.7 % of the individuals collected were juveniles (<60 mm in length); therefore, this population can be considered functional. Environmental characterization indicated that this river is still in excellent or good condition although some areas showed deterioration due to discharge of domestic effluents. The main conservation requirements of M. margaritifera in the River Paiva include maintaining the water quality (and if possible stopping the discharge of domestic effluents), increasing riparian vegetation cover, removing several weirs to increase connectivity, and increasing trout density.

Sousa, Ronaldo; Amorim, Ângela; Sobral, Carina; Froufe, Elsa; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

2013-11-01

316

Distribution of limnoterrestrial Tardigrada in Georgia and the Gulf Coast states of the United States of America with ecological remarks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report is an effort to improve understanding of the distribution of limnoterrestrial tardigrades in Georgia and the states along the Gulf Coast of the United States of America. We collected 14 species of tardigrades from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts and leaf litter in a statewide survey of Louisiana and reviewed all publications and theses reporting tardigrade distributions in the Gulf Coast states. Statewide surveys have been also conducted in Alabama, Florida, and Texas, while sampling in Mississippi and Georgia has been more localized. Currently 51 species have been identified in the region: 19 in Texas, 16 in Louisiana, 10 in Mississippi, 33 in Alabama, 3 in Georgia, and 15 in Florida. These tardigrades have been collected from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts on trees and rocks, from soil and leaf litter, and from freshwater. Twenty species are widely distributed in the region (i.e., found in ? 2 non-contiguous states, while 27 have been found in only one state. Eighteen species are probably cosmopolitan. Seven species, widespread in the Gulf Coast states but unknown elsewhere in the Nearctic Region – Echiniscus kofordi, Echiniscus cavagnaroi, Parexapodibius pilatoi, Hexapodibius christenberryae, Biserovus bindae, Minibiotus fallax and a new Macrobiotus cf. hufelandi – may represent a distinctive regional fauna in cryptogams.

Harry A. MEYER

2007-09-01

317

Towards A Taxonomy Of Attacks Against Energy Control Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Control systems in the energy sector (e.g., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems) involve a hierarchy of sensing, monitoring and control devices connected to centralized control stations or centers. The incorporation of commercial off-the-shelf technologies in energy control systems makes them vulnerable to cyber attacks. A taxonomy of cyber attacks against control systems can assist the energy sector in managing the cyber threat. This paper takes the first step towards a taxonomy by presenting a comprehensive model of attacks, vulnerabilities and damage related to control systems. The model is populated based on a survey of the technical literature from industry, academia and national laboratories.

Fleury, Terry; Khurana, Himanshu; Welch, Von

318

Salmonella phages and prophages: genomics, taxonomy, and applied aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since this book was originally published in 2007 there has been a significant increase in the number of Salmonella bacteriophages, particularly lytic virus, and Salmonella strains which have been fully sequenced. In addition, new insights into phage taxonomy have resulted in new phage genera, some of which have been recognized by the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The properties of each of these genera are discussed, along with the role of phage as agents of genetic exchange, as therapeutic agents, and their involvement in phage typing. PMID:25253259

Switt, Andrea I Moreno; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Wiedmann, Martin; Kropinski, Andrew M; Wishart, David S; Poppe, Cornelis; Liang, Yongjie

2015-01-01

319

Taxonomy, Ontology and Semantics at Johnson Space Center  

Science.gov (United States)

At NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Chief Knowledge Officer has been developing the JSC Taxonomy to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information environment of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seemless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

Berndt, Sarah Ann

2011-01-01

320

A Practitioner's Perspective on Taxonomy, Ontology and Findability  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the presenters perspective on developing a taxonomy for JSC to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday, while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seamless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

Berndt, Sarah

2011-01-01

321

A Simulated Stream Ecology Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a simulated field experience to study stream ecology in the classroom. Secondary students determine the composition of the stream community, describe the distribution of the benthic invertebrates, and design a food web. (Author/MA)

Zampella, Robert A.

1979-01-01

322

Distribución geográfica y ecológica de 13 especies de hongos silvestres comestibles en Oaxaca / Geographic and ecological distribution of 13 species of wild edible mushrooms in Oaxaca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Oaxaca es uno de los estados más ricos de México, tanto por su diversidad cultural como biológica, por lo que es importante el estudio e inventario de su biota. Sus habitantes poseen una vasta tradición en la recolección y consumo de hongos silvestres; sin embargo, para incluirlos en los programas d [...] e manejo integral de los bosques es necesario conocer sus requerimientos ecológicos y sus características biológicas, así como sus áreas de distribución, lo que implica el mapeo y monitoreo de sus poblaciones silvestres. En este contexto, se planteó sistematizar el conocimiento sobre el hábitat y distribución geográfica de 13 especies de macromicetos comestibles de importancia biológica y socioeconómica asociados a los bosques templados de Oaxaca, mediante el uso de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG), con el fin de generar un mapa de la distribución espacial conocida para dichos taxa, elaborado a partir de información bibliográfica y de herbarios. Las especies recolectadas en una mayor diversidad de ambientes fueron Cantharellus cibarius y Lycoperdon perlatum. A pesar del sesgo generado por la distribución espacial de las recolectas consideradas, ya que estas se concentran en regiones específicas, los SIG son una herramienta útil para determinar la distribución actual de los recursos fúngicos. Abstract in english Oaxaca is one of the riches states in Mexico, both culturally and for its biodiversity, so it is important to study and make an inventory of its biota. Its people have a rich tradition in the collection and/or consumption of various wild mushrooms, but in order to include them in forest management p [...] lans, it is necessary to know their ecological requirements and their biological characteristics as well as its distribution areas, which implies mapping and monitoring their wild populations. Therefore, it is was planned to systematize the knowledge about their habitat, phenology and distribution of 13 species of edible macrofungi of biological and socio-economic importance associated to the temperate forests of Oaxaca, by using GIS to generate a map of known spatial distribution of these species, starting from the information in literature and that that belong to several herbaria. The taxa collected in a wider range of environments were Cantharellus cibarius and Lycoperdon perlatum. Despite the bias generated by the spatial distribution of the analyzed collections, since they are gathered at specific regions, SIGs are a useful tool to determine the present distribution of fungic resources.

Marisela Cristina, Zamora-Martínez; Antonio, González Hernández; Fabián, Islas Gutiérrez; Eunice Nayeli, Cortés Barrera; Luz Iris, López Valdez.

2014-02-01

323

Ecological economics  

OpenAIRE

Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

Marti?nez Alier, Joan

2001-01-01

324

Taxonomy--General comments and update on taxonomy of Clostridia and Anaerobic cocci.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since such things as sites of normal carriage, type and severity of infections produced, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns may vary according to the particular species involved, accurate taxonomy for differentiation of species is important. For example, reclassification of the 'Bacteroides gracilis group' revealed that Sutterella wadsworthensis is actually responsible for the antimicrobial resistance seen in that group. With clostridia and anaerobic cocci, as with other taxa, there have been a number of recent changes in classification of existing taxa as well as description of novel taxa. It is important that both clinicians and microbiologists adapt quickly to new classification schemes and new taxa as soon as they are validated. For example, Peptostreptococcus is now restricted to the species P. anaerobius and five new genera have been created. There has also been significant reclassification of clostridia and new species of clostridia have also been described. PMID:16887670

Finegold, Sydney M; Song, Yuli; Liu, Chengxu

2002-10-01

325

Distribution and feeding ecology of dolphins along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores  

Science.gov (United States)

During Leg 1 of the MAR-ECO expedition on the R.V. G.O. Sars in June 2004 four main species of dolphins were observed along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores: pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) ( n=326), short-beaked common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) ( n=273), white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) ( n=103), and striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba) ( n=86). Pilot whales and white-sided dolphins were found in cold (5-16 °C) and less-saline (34.6-35.8‰) water masses in the northern part of the study area, whereas common and striped dolphins inhabited warmer (12-22 °C) and more-saline (34.8-36.7‰) waters in the south. Dolphins tended to aggregate in areas of steep slopes, but actual bottom depth appeared to be less important. Based on spatial correlations between dolphin occurrence and candidate prey organisms recorded acoustically and by midwater trawling, mesopelagic fishes and squids were assumed to be important prey items, with Benthosema glaciale probably being the most important prey for pilot whales and white-sided dolphins, while Lampanyctus macdonaldi, Stomias boa ferox and Chauliodus sloani were probably of particular importance for common dolphins. Cephalopods, especially Gonatus sp. and Teuthowenia megalops were the most likely prey species of pilot whales and striped dolphins, respectively. The difference in physical habitat north and south of the Sub-polar Frontal Zone seemed to have important effects on prey distribution, in turn influencing dolphin distribution.

Doksæter, L.; Olsen, E.; Nøttestad, L.; Fernö, A.

2008-01-01

326

Application of Modern Experimental Technique to Solve Morphological Complexity in Plants Taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern taxonomy has two approaches, i.e. classical and experimental taxonomy. Classical taxonomy uses morphological characters, while experimental taxonomy uses broader methods including chemistry, physics and mathematics, in the form of laboratory data that are revealed together with the progress of optical technique (microscope, chemistry methods (chromatography, electrophoresis, etc. Modern taxonomy tends to use series of interrelated data. More data used would result in more validity and give better clarification of taxonomic status. A lot of modern taxonomic data such as palynology, cytotaxonomy (cytology, chemical constituent (chemotaxonomy, isozyme and DNA sequencing were used recently.

SURANTO

2000-07-01

327

Evolution of secondary metabolites from an ecological and molecular phylogenetic perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary metabolites, at least the major ones present in a plant, apparently function as defence (against herbivores, microbes, viruses or competing plants) and signal compounds (to attract pollinating or seed dispersing animals). They are thus important for the plant's survival and reproductive fitness. Secondary metabolites therefore represent adaptive characters that have been subjected to natural selection during evolution. Molecular phylogenies of the Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Lamiaceae were reconstructed and employed as a framework to map and to interpret the distribution of some major defence compounds that are typical for the respective plant families; quinolizidine alkaloids and non-protein amino acids for legumes; tropane and steroidal alkaloids for Solanaceae, and iridoids and essential oils for labiates. The distribution of the respective compounds appears to be almost mutually exclusive in the families studied, implying a strong phylogenetic and ecological component. However, on a closer look, remarkable exceptions can be observed, in that certain metabolites are absent (or present) in a given taxon, although all the neighbouring and ancestral taxa express (or do not express, respectively) the particular trait. It is argued that these patterns might reflect differential expression of the corresponding genes that have evolved earlier in plant evolution. The inconsistent secondary metabolite profiles mean that the systematic value of chemical characters becomes a matter of interpretation in the same way as traditional morphological markers. Thus, the distribution of secondary metabolites has some value for taxonomy but their occurrence apparently reflects adaptations and particular life strategies embedded in a given phylogenetic framework. PMID:12946402

Wink, Michael

2003-09-01

328

An illustrated key to the soft-bottom caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) of the Iberian Peninsula and remarks to their ecological distribution along the Andalusian coast  

Science.gov (United States)

The soft-bottom caprellids of the Iberian Peninsula are revised. Nineteen species have been reported so far, 42 % being endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The lateral view of all of them is provided, together with an illustrated key for all the species. An ecological study was also conducted during 2007-2010 along the Andalusian coast to explore the relationships of caprellids with abiotic data. A total of 90 stations (0-40 m deep) were sampled and 40 contained caprellids. Along the Atlantic, caprellids were present in only 20 % of the stations, while along the Mediterranean coast, caprellids were present in the 75 % of the sampling sites. Furthermore, the abundance of caprellids was also higher in the Mediterranean coast. The dominant species was Pseudolirius kroyeri (present in 24 stations and showing the highest abundances with 1,780 ind/m2), followed by Phtisica marina (22 stations) and Pariambus typicus (11 stations). According to CCA and BIO-ENV, sediment type, P, pH and oxygen were the parameters that better explained the distribution of caprellids. Although the three dominant species were found in all types of sediment, the univariate approach showed that P. kroyeri was significantly more abundant in fine sediments (silt-clay and very fine sands) than in gross sediments (coarse and very coarse sands). The majority of studies dealing with caprellids from the Iberian Peninsula have been focused on shallow waters and further efforts are needed to explore biodiversity of deeper areas.

Guerra-García, José M.; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Corzo, Juan; Cobos-Muñoz, Vanessa; García-Adiego, Emilio M.; Giménez, Francisco Sempere; García-Gómez, J. Carlos

2013-06-01

329

Amphibians in Southern Apennine: distribution, ecology and conservation notes in the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (Southern Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.

Egidio Fulco

2012-12-01

330

The ecological impact of tidal pond channelization on the distribution of tilapia species (Perciformes: Cichlidae on Buguma creek, Rivers State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of the tilapia species (Perciformes: Cichlidae of a tidal creek in the Southeast of theNiger Delta, Nigeria was conducted to assess the ecological impact of tidal pond channelization. Therewas no significant difference (p>0.05 in the values of the physical and chemical parameters, except fortransparency, water level and salinity (pSarotherodon melanotheron and Tilapia guineensis were recorded during the studies, with S. melanotheron being the dominant species.Orthogonal comparison using Duncan’s Multiple Range test showed that S. melanotheron was the causeof the observed difference in the tilapia population. Although there was positive correlation betweensalinity and the tilapia species at all stations, there was no significant correlation between tilapia speciesand the environmental variables. The findings of this study showed that channelized water bodies havelower qualify fish assemblage when compared to natural water bodies due to a loss of heterogeneoushabitat. Although channelization is inevitable in the development of brackishwater fish ponds,amelioration measures of its adverse effects deserve high priority. However since no significantdifference (p>0.05 existed in the distribution of T. guineensis, this study indicated that not all speciesare impacted by tidal pond channelization.

Blessing Julius Oribhabor

2011-12-01

331

Spatial-temporal distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of nonylphenol and octylphenol in riverine outlets of Pearl River Delta, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aquatic environments of the Pearl River Delta in Southern China are subjected to contamination with various industrial chemicals from local industries. In this paper, the occurrence, seasonal variation and spatial distribution of alkylphenol octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP) in river surface water and sediments in the runoff outlets of the Pearl River Delta were investigated. NP and OP were detected in all water and sediment samples and their mean concentrations in surface water during the dry season ranged from 810 to 3366ng/L and 85.5 to 581ng/L, respectively, and those in sediments ranged from 14.2 to 95.2ng/g dw and 0.4 to 3.0ng/g dw, respectively. In surface water, much higher concentrations were detected in the dry season than those in the wet season. In sediments, the concentrations in the dry season were also mostly higher. High concentrations of NP and OP were found in Humen outlet, likely due to high levels of domestic and industrial wastewater discharges. An ecological risk assessment with the use of hazard quotient (HQ) was also carried out and the HQ values ranged from 3.6×10(-5) to 35 and 64% of samples gave a HQ>1, indicating that the current levels of NP and OP pose a significant risk to the relevant aquatic organisms in the region. PMID:25458690

Chen, Ru; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Yu, Qiming; Hong, Aihua; Duan, Shunshan

2014-11-01

332

Distribution and Ecology of Cyanobacteria in the Rocky Littoral of an English Lake District Water Body, Devoke Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cyanobacteria were sampled along two vertical and two horizontal transects in the littoral of Devoke Water, English Lake District. Profiles of cyanobacterium diversity and abundance showed that both attained a maximum close to the water line, but declined rapidly 20–40 cm above it. The distribution of individual species with height together with species and site ordinations showed that several taxa occurred in well-defined zones. A narrow “black zone” in the supralittoral was colonised mainly by species of Calothrix, Dichothrix and Gloeocapsa with pigmented sheaths. There was no evidence of lateral variation of species around the lake, but the height of the black zone correlated positively with wind exposure. The flora of Devoke Water is that of a base-poor mountain lake with some elements of a lowland, more alkaline water-body.

Allan Pentecost

2014-12-01

333

BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF NERETVAN RUDD, Scardinius plotizza (HECKEL AND KNER, 1858 (PISCES, CYPRINIDAE IN THE HUTOVO BLATO WETLAND, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents data on the biological and ecological characteristics, distribution and habitat, vulnerability and the need for protection of Neretvan rudd Scardinius plotizza (Heckel and Kner, 1858 (Pisces, Cyprinidae, an endemic species of the lower River Neretva in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the area of Hutovo Blato wetland in Bosnia and Herzegovina, this species are numerously represented. It is a resident species and generally prevalent in the colder water areas of the Gornje Blato, such as Lake Deran where it inhabits the deeper central area covered with underwater vegetation. In the choice of habitat, less difference between juvenile and adult populations was observed. Although the current population status of this species in the Hutovo Blato may be assessed as stable, it is likely to be considered endangered in the future if the trends of various negative impacts that threaten its existence prolong. The wetland area of the Hutovo Blato, which is characterized by a large number of endemic species of narrow distribution range, is threatened by significant negative changes in habitat, hence urgent evaluation and protection measures are needed. In order to improve the conservation status of this species, as well as high ichthyological diversity of this area, of particular importance are the following: effective protection of habitat, improved water management measures and prevention of further introduction and spreading of exotic species. Also, it is necessary to accurately determine its taxonomic position. It is proposed that IUCN classifies this species as Near Threatened (NT in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the basis of its current status, as well as projections for future development and the IUCN criteria.

Jakov Dul?i?

2012-12-01

334

Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the distribution and ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ardebil Province of northwestern Iran, with special reference to the known dirofilariasis focus in Meshkinshahr County, was carried out in July-August 2005 and April-October 2006. In total, 17,533 adult mosquitoes and 3090 third- and fourth-instar larvae were collected on 14 occasions and identified using morphological characters and DNA sequence data. Twenty species belonging to seven genera were found: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. hyrcanus (Pallas), An. maculipennis Meigen, An. pseudopictus Grassi*, An. sacharovi Favre, An. superpictus Grassi, Aedes vexans (Meigen)*, Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi)*, Culex hortensis Ficalbi, Cx. modestus Ficalbi, Cx. pipiens Linnaeus, Cx. theileri Theobald, Cx. torrentium Martini*, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart), Cs. annulata (Schrank)*, Cs. subochrea (Edwards), Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas) s.l.* (= Aedes caspius sensu auctorum), Oc. geniculatus (Olivier)* (= Aedes geniculatus sensu auctorum) and Uranotaenia unguiculata Edwards (asterisks indicate new occurrence records for the province). The most prevalent species in adult catches were An. maculipennis (52%), Cx. theileri (45%) and Cx. hortensis (1%); the most prevalent species caught as larvae were Cx. theileri (27%), Cx. hortensis (21%) and An. maculipennis (19%). Anopheles maculipennis, Cx. pipiens and Cx. theileri were most widely distributed in the province. The occurrence of Cx. torrentium in Iran is verified based on differential characters of fourth-instar larvae. Anopheles maculipennis and An. sacharovi of the Maculipennis Group were identified from their diagnostic ITS2 sequences. For the first time, cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences were obtained from Iranian specimens of An. hyrcanus, An. pseudopictus, Cx. theileri and Oc. caspiuss.l. Culex theileri and An. maculipennis were found naturally infected with third-stage (infective) larvae of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) and Setaria labiatopapillosa (Alessandrini) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), respectively, for the first time in Iran. PMID:19493192

Azari-Hamidian, S; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Javadian, E; Abai, M R; Mobedi, I; Linton, Y-M; Harbach, R E

2009-06-01

335

Applying a Knowledge Management Taxonomy to Secondary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of a corporate-based taxonomy of knowledge management to secondary schooling. Do the principles of knowledge management from the corporate world translate to the world of education; specifically, secondary schooling? This article examines categories of knowledge management articulated in…

Thambi, Melinda; O'Toole, Paddy

2012-01-01

336

Redesigning an E-Business Taxonomy: "Egreetings" Project Case Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how an electronic greeting card Web site, Egreetings, redesigned the site to improve the number of greetings sent by users. Goals included reorganizing the card collection, including taxonomy and controlled vocabulary; improving navigation and searching; placing ads and promotions; developing a music greeting collection; and improving…

Farnum, Chris

2002-01-01

337

Building a Better "Mouse" Trap: Schick's Taxonomy of Interactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers the idea of interactivity and its parameters, suggesting that historians must raise their expectations for educational software used in teaching their students. Presents a taxonomy of interactivity for computer tutorials stating that students need motivation, opportunity, and a means to learn. (CMK)

Schick, James B. M.

2000-01-01

338

Aspects of the taxonomy of Aloe arborescens Mill. (Asphodelaceae : Alooideae)  

OpenAIRE

Die taxonomischen Konzepte innerhalb der morphologisch variablen Aloe arborescens Mill. werden diskutiert. Frühere Versuche bezüglich der Taxonomie dieser Art variierten, und abweichendes Material wurde entweder unter Nutzung formeller taxonomischer Kategorien als neue Taxa beschrieben, oder ausgewählte Formen mit gärtnerisch erwünschten Merkmalen wurden als Cultivare behandelt. Wir schlagen vor, dass für diese Art gärtnerisch wichtige taxonomische Einheit...

Smith, G. F.; Klopper, Ronell Renett; Figueiredo, Estrela; Crouch, Neil R.

2012-01-01

339

Ecological distribution and bioavailability of uranium series radionuclides in terrestrial food chains: Key Lake uranium operations, northern Saskatchewan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine radionuclide uptake within the terrestrial ecosystem at uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan. The study site was the Key Lake mine, chosen because it has been an operational mine, mill, and surface tailings area for 15 years and will continue to be an active ore-milling and tailings disposal area for the next 40 years. The focus of the study was on the small mammal food chains in black spruce bogs nearest to the Key Lake facilities, since bog habitats tend to absorb and accumulate radionuclides. Three study sites were chosen on the basis of their proximity to sources of radioactive dust and the presence of bog habitats. Interconnected terrestrial ecosystem components were sampled at the same time at each site. Samples of needles, twigs, ground cover, litter, soils, small mammals, and birds were analyzed for the four radionuclides of greatest concern in the uranium decay series. Radiation doses were calculated to small mammals and birds, food chain transfer parameters were determined to enable future modelling of environmental pathways, and a variety of atmospheric dust collectors were pilot tested to examine the rates of radionuclide deposition from facility emissions to local environments. Four sets of conclusions are discussed regarding: radionuclide distribution within habitats and among sites; the radionuclides responsible for animal doses; the relative bioavailability of radionuclides among sites; and the mty of radionuclides among sites; and the measurement of atmospheric deposition rates

340

Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk assessment of multiple classes of UV filters in surface waters from different countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic UV filters are common ingredients of personal care products (PCPs), but little is known about their distribution in and potential impacts to the marine environment. This study reports the occurrence and risk assessment of twelve widely used organic UV filters in surface water collected in eight cities in four countries (China, the United States, Japan, and Thailand) and the North American Arctic. The number of compounds detected, Hong Kong (12), Tokyo (9), Bangkok (9), New York (8), Los Angeles (8), Arctic (6), Shantou (5) and Chaozhou (5), generally increased with population density. Median concentrations of all detectable UV filters were algae, while benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) were more likely to pose a risk to fishes and also posed high risk of bleaching in hard corals in aquatic recreational areas in Hong Kong. This study is the first to report the occurrence of organic UV filters in the Arctic and provides a wider assessment of their potential negative impacts in the marine environment. PMID:25261628

Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Wai, Tak-Cheung; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Liu, Wenhua; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

2014-12-15

341

Determinants of Anopheles seasonal distribution patterns across a forest to periurban gradient near Iquitos, Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a field ecology study of arbovirus and malaria activity in the Amazon Basin, Loreto Department, Peru, we collected mosquitoes landing on humans at a forest site and inside and outside of residences and military barracks at periurban, rural, and village sites. We collected 11 Anopheles spp. from these four sites. An. darlingi, the principal malaria vector in the region, accounted for 98.7% of all Anopheles spp. collected at Puerto Almendra. Peaks in landing activity occurred during the December and April collection periods. However, the percent of sporozoite-positive Anopheles spp. was highest 1-2 months later, when landing activity decreased to approximately 10% of the peak activity periods. At all sites, peak landing activity occurred about 2 hours after sunset. These data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, population density, and seasonal and habitat distribution of potential malaria vectors within the Amazon Basin region. PMID:22403317

Reinbold-Wasson, Drew D; Sardelis, Michael R; Jones, James W; Watts, Douglas M; Fernandez, Roberto; Carbajal, Faustino; Pecor, James E; Calampa, Carlos; Klein, Terry A; Turell, Michael J

2012-03-01

342

A philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one's moral knowledge about what one ought to do. We begin by unpacking the philosophical components of Andrew Jameton's original formulation from his landmark 1984 work and identify two key respects in which that formulation remains unclear: the origins of moral knowledge and impediments to acting on that moral knowledge. We then selectively review subsequent literature that shows that there is more than one concept of moral distress and that explores the origin of the values implicated in moral distress and impediments to acting on those values. This review sets the stage for identifying the elements of a philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress. The taxonomy uses these elements to create six categories of ethically significant moral distress: challenges to, threats to, and violations of professional integrity; and challenges to, threats to, and violations of individual integrity. We close with suggestions about how the proposed philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress sheds light on the concepts of moral residue and crescendo effect of moral distress and how the proposed taxonomy might usefully guide prevention of and future qualitative and quantitative empirical research on ethically significant moral distress. PMID:25503608

Thomas, Tessy A; McCullough, Laurence B

2015-02-01

343

Where to nest? Ecological determinants of chimpanzee nest abundance and distribution at the habitat and tree species scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conversion of forests to anthropogenic land-uses increasingly subjects chimpanzee populations to habitat changes and concomitant alterations in the plant resources available to them for nesting and feeding. Based on nest count surveys conducted during the dry season, we investigated nest tree species selection and the effect of vegetation attributes on nest abundance of the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau, a forest-savannah mosaic widely disturbed by humans. Further, we assessed patterns of nest height distribution to determine support for the anti-predator hypothesis. A zero-altered generalized linear mixed model showed that nest abundance was negatively related to floristic diversity (exponential form of the Shannon index) and positively with the availability of smaller-sized trees, reflecting characteristics of dense-canopy forest. A positive correlation between nest abundance and floristic richness (number of plant species) and composition indicated that species-rich open habitats are also important in nest site selection. Restricting this analysis to feeding trees, nest abundance was again positively associated with the availability of smaller-sized trees, further supporting the preference for nesting in food tree species from dense forest. Nest tree species selection was non-random, and oil palms were used at a much lower proportion (10%) than previously reported from other study sites in forest-savannah mosaics. While this study suggests that human disturbance may underlie the exclusive arboreal nesting at LCNP, better quantitative data are needed to determine to what extent the construction of elevated nests is in fact a response to predators able to climb trees. Given the importance of LCNP as refuge for Pan t. verus our findings can improve conservation decisions for the management of this important umbrella species as well as its remaining suitable habitats. Am. J. Primatol. 77:186-199, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25224379

Carvalho, Joana S; Meyer, Christoph F J; Vicente, Luis; Marques, Tiago A

2015-02-01

344

New data on morphometrics, distribution and ecology of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1849 (Orthoptera, Acrididae in Spain: is maghrebi a well defined subespecies?  

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Full Text Available We studied different populations of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1859 in Spain assigned to subspecies maghrebi by Fernandes (1968 and obtained some new records for the species. To see if maghrebi is a consistent taxon for the Iberian populations, we performed a morphometric analysis involving 53 individuals from different origins considering body size (front of the head to tip of the abdomen; the shape of pronotum and presence of a second anterior notch or sulcus; length of the antennae and epiphallum, according to the characters used to define subspecies maghrebi. If maghrebi is consistent, we would expect intermediate sizes between wagneri and rogenhoferi, the other two well separated subspecies considered for M.w. However, in our measurements we obtained that body size is not intermediate between M. w. wagneri and M. w. rogenhoferi contrary to expectations if assuming the existence of maghrebi. Body size is similar to wagneri and further, we recorded some of the smallest individuals described so far. Also, the pronotum varied widely across and within populations showing different phenotypes that formerly were used to separate maghrebi and wagneri. Taking into account body size, pronotum, length of antenna and epiphallum, we think that differences between the studied Spanish populations and wagneri form are not enough to assign the studied populations to maghrebi. In the studied area, M.w. shows a narrow ecological niche inhabiting shores or proximities of hipersaline lagoons wherever Suaeda vera (Forsskål 1791, Chenopodiacea is present, M.w. uses this plant as refuge and food. The species also inhabits bare saline low grounds with scattered S vera. It presents a markedly discontinuous and patchy distribution in Spain, showing up punctually, where the microhabitat is appropriate. We obtained a morphometric variability with a significant association between body size and locality, and between body size and the colour of posterior wings in males. Because of its wide range disjunction, its discontinuous regional distribution and morphological variability, we believe that M.w. is an interesting species to investigate possible substructuring of populations in which we probably may recognize ecological forms or varieties that deserve deeper and further study.Estudiamos distintas poblaciones de Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1859, considerado como M. w. maghrebi por Fernandes (1968 en España, con algunas nuevas citas para la especie. Para dilucidar si el taxón maghrebi es consistente en nuestras poblaciones, realizamos un análisis morfométrico de 53 ejemplares considerando los mismos caracteres utilizados para establecer dicha subespecie, a citar: tamaño del cuerpo, relieve y forma del pronoto, longitud de la antena y forma del epifalo. El tamaño de los individuos de nuestras poblaciones no es intermedio entre las formas conocidas de M. w. wagneri y M. w. rogenhoferi Saussuare, 1888, como cabría esperar asumiendo la existencia de maghrebi. Nuestras poblaciones no se apartan del tamaño de wagneri e incluso encontramos las menores tallas descritas para este taxón. El relieve del pronoto, y en particular la presencia de un segundo surco, el anterior, es muy variable abarcando en una misma población fenotipos dispares utilizados anteriormente para separar las formas maghrebi y wagneri. Las diferencias entre el tamaño del cuerpo, el pronoto, la longitud de la antena y la forma del epifalo no nos parecen suficientes para asignar como maghrebi al conjunto de las poblaciones estudiadas y separarlas de la subespecie nominada wagneri. M.w. es una especie de requerimientos ecológicos muy restringidos. La hemos encontrado a orillas de lagunas hipersalinas y siempre dependiendo de Suaeda vera (Forsskål, 1791 Chenopodiacea que utiliza como refugio y alimento, en particular en suelos desnudos y salitrosos donde predominan manchas de esa planta. Su distribución regional es marcadamente discontinua y muy puntual, presentándose allí donde el hábitat le es propicio. Aunque el análisis es preliminar, encontra

Aparicio, J. M.

2007-06-01

345

A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has allowed to molecularly characterize many different cancer sites. This technology has the potential to individualize therapy and to discover new drug targets. However, due to technological differences and issues in standardized sample collection no study has evaluated the molecular profile of epithelial human cancer in a large number of samples and tissues. Additionally, it has not yet been extensively investigated whether metastases resemble their tissue of origin or tissue of destination. Methods We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The clustering profile was subsequently investigated and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Statistical enrichment of clinico-pathological annotations of groups of samples was investigated using Fisher exact test. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and DAVID functional enrichment analysis were used to investigate the molecular pathways. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were used to investigate prognostic significance of gene signatures. Results Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma clustered together with follicular differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which supports recent morphological descriptions of thyroid follicular carcinoma-like tumors in the kidney and suggests that they represent a subtype of chromophobe carcinoma. We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues. Next, a subset of ovarian tumors enriched with endometrioid histology clustered together with endometrium tumors, confirming that they share their etiopathogenesis, which strongly differs from serous ovarian tumors. In addition, the clustering of colon and breast tumors correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics. Moreover, a signature was developed based on our unsupervised clustering of breast tumors and this was predictive for disease-specific survival in three independent studies. Next, the metastases from ovarian, breast, lung and vulva cluster with their tissue of origin while metastases from colon showed a bimodal distribution. A significant part clusters with tissue of origin while the remaining tumors cluster with the tissue of destination. Conclusion Our molecular taxonomy of epithelial human cancer indicates surprising correlations over tissues. This may have a significant impact on the classification of many cancer sites and may guide pathologists, both in research and daily practice. Moreover, these results based on unsupervised analysis yielded a signature predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. Additionally, we hypothesize that metastases from gastrointestinal origin either remember their tissue of origin or adapt to the tissue of destination. More specifically, colon metastases in the liver show strong evidence for such a bimodal tissue specific profile.

De Moor Bart

2009-12-01

346

Phytoplankton Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

347

Ecological shortage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Meadows study (Limits to Growth) has made the environmental problem popular, but it has reduced the ecological problem to one of population and raw materials, leaving the conditions of social organisation and developmental policy out of consideration. This means that in spite of the repeated moral appeals, developing countries are left to their natural fate while fear and resignation are spread in the industrial nations. The present study tries to contradict this trend in consideration of interdependences in ecological development. (orig.)

348

Founding RGB ecology: The ecology of synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an arising need to interpret an amount of ecological information that is more and more available. It is not only the pursuit of an easy handling of a large amount of data, but above all the quest for a deep and multivariate interpretation of many sources of ecological info. To this aim, I introduce here RGB ecology as a new branch of ecology devoted to the cartographic synthesis of ecological information. RGB ecology has the following properties: (1 it can not be separated from GIS cartography; (2 it can compact ecological information along space and time; (3 it can create a decision space for management decisions; (4 it can go beyond the third dimension by using compressive statistical techniques. RGB ecology can also be an effective flanker of several branches of ecology, such as landscape ecology, conservation ecology, urban ecology, forest ecology and so forth.

Alessandro Ferrarini

2012-06-01

349

A Taxonomy of Object-Oriented Measures Modeling the Object Oriented Space  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to control the quality of software and the software development process, it is important to understand the measurement of software. A first step toward a better comprehension of software measurement is the categorization of software measures by some meaningful taxonomy. The most worthwhile taxonomy would capture the fundamental nature of the object-oriented (O-O) space. The principal characteristics of object-oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. This paper introduces a taxonomy of measures based upon fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature. This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps or redundancies in the existing O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with measures taken from the literature.

Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

1997-01-01

350

A Taxonomy of Object-Oriented Measures Modeling the Object-Oriented Space  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to control the quality of software and the software development process, it is important to understand the measurement of software. A first step toward a better comprehension of software measurement is the categorization of software measures by some meaningful taxonomy. The most worthwhile taxonomy would capture the fundamental nature of the object-oriented (O-O) space. The principal characteristics of object-oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. This paper introduces a taxonomy of measures based upon fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature. This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps or redundancies in the existing O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with measures taken from the literature.

Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

1997-01-01

351

In Search of a Taxonomy for Classifying Qualitative Spreadsheet Errors  

CERN Document Server

Most organizations use large and complex spreadsheets that are embedded in their mission-critical processes and are used for decision-making purposes. Identification of the various types of errors that can be present in these spreadsheets is, therefore, an important control that organizations can use to govern their spreadsheets. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy for categorizing qualitative errors in spreadsheet models that offers a framework for evaluating the readiness of a spreadsheet model before it is released for use by others in the organization. The classification was developed based on types of qualitative errors identified in the literature and errors committed by end-users in developing a spreadsheet model for Panko's (1996) "Wall problem". Closer inspection of the errors reveals four logical groupings of the errors creating four categories of qualitative errors. The usability and limitations of the proposed taxonomy and areas for future extension are discussed.

Przasnyski, Zbigniew; Seal, Kala Chand

2011-01-01

352

NASA Taxonomies for Searching Problem Reports and FMEAs  

Science.gov (United States)

Many types of hazard and risk analyses are used during the life cycle of complex systems, including Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis, Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Reliability Analysis and analysis of Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) databases. The success of these methods depends on the availability of input data and the analysts knowledge. Standard nomenclature can increase the reusability of hazard, risk and problem data. When nomenclature in the source texts is not standard, taxonomies with mapping words (sets of rough synonyms) can be combined with semantic search to identify items and tag them with metadata based on a rich standard nomenclature. Semantic search uses word meanings in the context of parsed phrases to find matches. The NASA taxonomies provide the word meanings. Spacecraft taxonomies and ontologies (generalization hierarchies with attributes and relationships, based on terms meanings) are being developed for types of subsystems, functions, entities, hazards and failures. The ontologies are broad and general, covering hardware, software and human systems. Semantic search of Space Station texts was used to validate and extend the taxonomies. The taxonomies have also been used to extract system connectivity (interaction) models and functions from requirements text. Now the Reconciler semantic search tool and the taxonomies are being applied to improve search in the Space Shuttle PRACA database, to discover recurring patterns of failure. Usual methods of string search and keyword search fall short because the entries are terse and have numerous shortcuts (irregular abbreviations, nonstandard acronyms, cryptic codes) and modifier words cannot be used in sentence context to refine the search. The limited and fixed FMEA categories associated with the entries do not make the fine distinctions needed in the search. The approach assigns PRACA report titles to problem classes in the taxonomy. Each ontology class includes mapping words - near-synonyms naming different manifestations of that problem class. The mapping words for Problems, Entities and Functions are converted to a canonical form plus any of a small set of modifier words (e.g. non-uniformity NOT + UNIFORM.) The report titles are parsed as sentences if possible, or treated as a flat sequence of word tokens if parsing fails. When canonical forms in the title match mapping words, the PRACA entry is associated with the corresponding Problem, Entity or Function in the ontology. The user can search for types of failures associated with types of equipment, clustering by type of problem (e.g., all bearings found with problems of being uneven: rough, irregular, gritty ). The results could also be used for tagging PRACA report entries with rich metadata. This approach could also be applied to searching and tagging failure modes, failure effects and mitigations in FMEAs. In the pilot work, parsing 52K+ truncated titles (the test cases that were available), has resulted in identification of both a type of equipment and type of problem in about 75% of the cases. The results are displayed in a manner analogous to Google search results. The effort has also led to the enrichment of the taxonomy, adding some new categories and many new mapping words. Further work would make enhancements that have been identified for improving the clustering and further reducing the false alarm rate. (In searching for recurring problems, good clustering is more important than reducing false alarms). Searching complete PRACA reports should lead to immediate improvement.

Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.

2006-01-01

353

Evaluating the bases of supplier segmentation : A review and taxonomy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A taxonomy of segmentation bases is presented which builds a multi-disciplinary approach to the categorization of suppliers. Supplier segmentation, from a purchasing perspective, still appears to be in the early stages of providing a coherent strategic intent behind supplier assessment. Whilst fragmentary in nature, current portfolio models are grouped into two principal taxonomic constructs of power and dependence and relational factors. In particular, the prevalent use of transaction cost economics (TCE) in portfolio modelling provides a foundation for purchasers to appraise risks from supplier opportunism. We augment existing approaches with reference to inter-organisational theory and the resource-based view to show different modes of inter-firm value creation that act as constituents of a strategic intent for segmentation. Our resulting taxonomy draws together a holistic view of supplier segmentation covering supply market conditions, product/service characteristics, supplier characteristics, buyer characteristics, and buyer-supplier relational factors.

Day, Marc; Magnan, Gregory M.

2010-01-01

354

Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

JenniferMahony

2014-01-01

355

Fire Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

356

Taxonomy of the Neotropical freshwater crab family Trichodactylidae: VI. the genera Avotrichodactylus and Rodriguezia (Decapoda: Brachyura: Trichodactylidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The taxonomy of two trichodactyline genera of the Neotropical freshwater crab family Trichodactylidae are revised. The genus Avotrichodactylus Pretzmann, 1968, includes two species, A. constrictus (Pearse, 1911) and A. oaxensis Rodríguez, 1992; the genus Rodriguezia Bott, 1969, also has two species, [...] R. mensabak Cottarelli and Argano, 1977, and R. villalobosi (Rodríguez and Manrique, 1967). The taxonomic statuses of all the species are discussed and a short diagnosis is provided for each. A complete list of the material examined and a map of geographic distribution of the species are furnished.

Célio, Magalhães; Michael, Türkay.

2012-07-01

357

Using HET Taxonomy to Help Stop Human Error  

OpenAIRE

Flight crews make positive contributions to the safety of aviation operations. Pilots have to assess continuously changing situations, evaluate potential risks, and make quick decisions. However, even well-trained and experienced pilots make errors. Accident investigations have identified that pilots’ performance is influenced significantly by the design of the flightdeck interface. This research applies hierarchical task analysis (HTA) and utilizes the Human Error Template (HET) taxonomy t...

Li, Wen-chin; Harris, Don; Stanton, Neville A.; Hsu, Yueh-ling; Chang, Danny; Wang, Thomas; Young, Hong-tsu

2010-01-01

358

Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya  

OpenAIRE

The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphi...

Peterson, S. W.; Hong, S.; Samson, R. A.; Frisvad, J. C.; Varga, J.

2007-01-01

359

An Object-oriented Taxonomy of Medical Data Presentations  

OpenAIRE

A variety of methods have been proposed for presenting medical data visually on computers. Discussion of and comparison among these methods have been hindered by a lack of consistent terminology. A taxonomy of medical data presentations based on object-oriented user interface principles is presented. Presentations are divided into five major classes—list, table, graph, icon, and generated text. These are subdivided into eight subclasses with simple inheritance and four subclasses with multi...

Starren, Justin; Johnson, Stephen B.

2000-01-01

360

Quality control for terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Ontologies and taxonomies are among the most important computational resources for molecular biology and bioinformatics. A series of recent papers has shown that the Gene Ontology (GO), the most prominent taxonomic resource in these fields, is marked by flaws of certain characteristic types, which flow from a failure to address basic ontological principles. As yet, no methods have been proposed which would allow ontology curators to pinpoint flawed terms o...

Rüegg Alexander; Munn Katherine; Köhler Jacob; Skusa Andre; Smith Barry

2006-01-01

361

Constructing Taxonomies to Identify Distinctive Forms of Primary Healthcare Organizations  

OpenAIRE

Background. Primary healthcare (PHC) renewal gives rise to important challenges for policy makers, managers, and researchers in most countries. Evaluating new emerging forms of organizations is therefore of prime importance in assessing the impact of these policies. This paper presents a set of methods related to the configurational approach and an organizational taxonomy derived from our analysis. Methods. In 2005, we carried out a study on PHC in two health and social services regions of Qu...

Borge?s Da Silva, Roxane; Pineault, Raynald; Hamel, Marjolaine; Levesque, Jean-fre?de?ric; Roberge, Danie?le; Lamarche, Paul

2013-01-01

362

From Integrative Taxonomy to Species Description: one Step Beyond  

OpenAIRE

Integrative taxonomy was formally introduced in 2005 as a comprehensive framework to delimit and describe taxa by integrating information from different types of data and methodologies (Dayrat 2005; Will et al. 2005). Even if debate remains about the hierarchy of the types of characters and criteria to use for species delimitation (Schlick-Steiner et al., 2009; Padial et al., 2010; Yeates et al., 2011), most, if not all taxonomists agree that objectively evaluating several lines of evidence w...

Pante, Eric; Schoelinck, Charlotte; Puillandre, Nicolas

2014-01-01

363

Reducing the Representation Complexity of Lattice-Based Taxonomies  

OpenAIRE

Representing concept lattices constructed from large contexts often results in heavy, complex diagrams that can be impractical to handle and, eventually, to make sense of. In this respect, many concepts could allegedly be dropped from the lattice without impairing its relevance towards a taxonomy description task at a certain level of detail. We propose a method where the notion of stability is introduced to select potentially more pertinent concepts. We present some theoretical properties...

Kuznetsov, Sergei; Obiedkov, Sergei; Roth, Camille

2007-01-01

364

A compositional interpretation of trans-neptunian objects taxonomies  

Science.gov (United States)

Trans-neptunian objects (TNOs) are a population of small objects orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune. Because of their distance they are difficult to observe spectroscopically, but a large body of photometric observations is available and growing. TNOs are important tracers of the evolution of the outer Solar System and key when testing current dynamical evolution theories. Previous statistical studies of the colors of TNOs have yielded useful but limited results regarding the chemical history and evolution of these bodies. With the aim at obtaining compositional information on the small and distant TNOs we introduce a statistical cluster analysis (labelled albedo) based on colors and published albedos of TNOs. We compare it to a previous taxonomy, to illustrate the significance of including the albedo information when determining the composition of the objects. When the albedo contribution is removed from the data, the new taxonomy (now labelled classical) is in general agreement with the published ones, supporting the applicability of our approach. Making use of modeled reflectance spectra of a variety of plausible mixtures found on the surface of TNOs, we extract the average surface composition of each taxon, for both the classical and the albedo taxonomy, in a statistically consistent fashion. Differently from previous and classical, the albedo taxonomy establishes a direct link between the colors and albedos of the objects and their surface composition, allowing, for the first time, a quick assessment of the chemical history of TNOs. In fact, under closer examination the taxa show trends in composition that might be evolutionary in nature. If a simple 'snow lines' model is adopted, we can infer that albedo taxa relate the current objects' locations to their original ones, prior to the migration of the outer planets. We regard the large population that characterizes the darkest classes spread at a variety of semi-major axis distances as one of the intriguing results of this work.

Dalle Ore, Cristina Morea; Dalle Ore, Luciano V.; Roush, Ted L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Marzo, Giuseppe A.

2013-01-01

365

Learning Taxonomy for Text Segmentation by Formal Concept Analysis  

CERN Document Server

In this paper the problems of deriving a taxonomy from a text and concept-oriented text segmentation are approached. Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) method is applied to solve both of these linguistic problems. The proposed segmentation method offers a conceptual view for text segmentation, using a context-driven clustering of sentences. The Concept-oriented Clustering Segmentation algorithm (COCS) is based on k-means linear clustering of the sentences. Experimental results obtained using COCS algorithm are presented.

Lupea, Mihaiela; Marian, Zsuzsana

2010-01-01

366

A taxonomy of dignity: a grounded theory study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background This paper has its origins in Jonathan Mann's insight that the experience of dignity may explain the reciprocal relationships between health and human rights. It follows his call for a taxonomy of dignity: "a coherent vocabulary and framework to characterize dignity." Methods Grounded theory procedures were use to analyze literature pertaining to dignity and to conduct and analyze 64 semi-structured interviews with persons marginalized by the...

Jacobson Nora

2009-01-01

367

Taxonomy and phylogeny of Cryphonectria and allied genera  

OpenAIRE

This thesis represents a critical taxonomical review of the fungal genus Cryphonectria sensu lato. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of great importance because it includes many well known tree pathogens such as the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Cryphonectria cubensis. The many taxonomic changes introduced in studies presented in this thesis have largely arisen as a result of DNA sequence comparisons for Cryphonectria spp. that show...

Gryzenhout, Marieka

2006-01-01

368

A Taxonomy of Vision Systems for Ground Mobile Robots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces a taxonomy of vision systems for ground mobile robots. In the last five years, a significant number of relevant papers have contributed to this subject. Firstly, a thorough review of the papers is proposed to discuss and classify both past and the most current approaches in the field. As a result, a global picture of the state of the art of the last five years is obtained. Moreover, the study of the articles is used to put forward a comprehensive taxonomy based on the most up-to-date research in ground mobile robotics. In this sense, the paper aims at being especially helpful to both budding and experienced researchers in the areas of vision systems and mobile ground robots. The taxonomy described is devised from a novel perspective, namely in order to respond to the main questions posed when designing robotic vision systems: why?, what for?, what with?, how?, and where? The answers are derived from the most relevant techniques described in the recent literature, leading in a natural way to a series of classifications that are discussed and contextualized. The article offers a global picture of the state of the art in the area and discovers some promising research lines.

Jesus Marti?nez-Go?mez

2014-07-01

369

A taxonomy characterizing complexity of consumer eHealth Literacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are a range of barriers precluding patients from fully engaging in and benefiting from the spectrum of eHealth interventions developed to support patient access to health information, disease self-management efforts, and patient-provider communication. Consumers with low eHealth literacy skills often stand to gain the greatest benefit from the use of eHealth tools. eHealth skills are comprised of reading/writing/numeracy skills, health literacy, computer literacy, information literacy, media literacy, and scientific literacy [1]. We aim to develop an approach to characterize dimensions of complexity and to reveal knowledge and skill-related barriers to eHealth engagement. We use Bloom's Taxonomy to guide development of an eHealth literacy taxonomy that categorizes and describes each type of literacy by complexity level. Illustrative examples demonstrate the utility of the taxonomy in characterizing dimensions of complexity of eHealth skills used and associated with each step in completing an eHealth task. PMID:20351828

Chan, Connie V; Matthews, Lisa A; Kaufman, David R

2009-01-01

370

A taxonomy for mechanical ventilation: 10 fundamental maxims.  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Association for Respiratory Care has declared a benchmark for competency in mechanical ventilation that includes the ability to "apply to practice all ventilation modes currently available on all invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilators." This level of competency presupposes the ability to identify, classify, compare, and contrast all modes of ventilation. Unfortunately, current educational paradigms do not supply the tools to achieve such goals. To fill this gap, we expand and refine a previously described taxonomy for classifying modes of ventilation and explain how it can be understood in terms of 10 fundamental constructs of ventilator technology: (1) defining a breath, (2) defining an assisted breath, (3) specifying the means of assisting breaths based on control variables specified by the equation of motion, (4) classifying breaths in terms of how inspiration is started and stopped, (5) identifying ventilator-initiated versus patient-initiated start and stop events, (6) defining spontaneous and mandatory breaths, (7) defining breath sequences (8), combining control variables and breath sequences into ventilatory patterns, (9) describing targeting schemes, and (10) constructing a formal taxonomy for modes of ventilation composed of control variable, breath sequence, and targeting schemes. Having established the theoretical basis of the taxonomy, we demonstrate a step-by-step procedure to classify any mode on any mechanical ventilator. PMID:25118309

Chatburn, Robert L; El-Khatib, Mohamad; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo

2014-11-01

371

A New Similarity measure for taxonomy based on edge counting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces a new similarity measure based on edge counting in a taxonomy like WorldNet orOntology. Measurement of similarity between text segments or concepts is very useful for manyapplications like information retrieval, ontology matching, text mining, and question answering and so on.Several measures have been developed for measuring similarity between two concepts: out of these we seethat the measure given by Wu and Palmer [1] is simple, and gives good performance. Our measure isbased on their measure but strengthens it. Wu and Palmer [1] measure has a disadvantage that it does notconsider how far the concepts are semantically. In our measure we include the shortest path between theconcepts and the depth of whole taxonomy together with the distances used in Wu and Palmer [1]. Also themeasure has following disadvantage i.e. in some situations, the similarity of two elements of an IS-Aontology contained in the neighbourhood exceeds the similarity value of two elements contained in thesame hierarchy. Our measure introduces a penalization factor for this case based upon shortest lengthbetween the concepts and depth of whole taxonomy.

Manjula Shenoy.K

2012-11-01

372

A Taxonomy for a Constructive Approach to Software Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many software design and evaluation techniques, either the software evolution problem is not systematically elaborated, or only the impact of evolution is considered. Thus, most of the time software is changed by editing the components of the software system, i.e. breaking down the software system. The software engineering discipline provides many mechanisms that allow evolution without breaking down the system; however, the contexts where these mechanisms are applicable are not taken into account. Furthermore, the software design and evaluation techniques do not support identifying these contexts. In this paper, we provide a taxonomy of software evolution that can be used to identify the context of the evolution problem. The identified contexts are used to retrieve, from the software engineering discipline, the mechanisms, which can evolve the software software without breaking it down. To build such a taxonomy, we build a model for software evolution and use this model to identify the factors that effect the selection of software evolution mechanisms. Our approach is based on solution sets, however; the contents of these sets may vary at different stages of the software life-cycle. To address this problem, we introduce perspectives; that are filters to select relevant elements from a solution set. We apply our taxonomy to a parser tool to show how it coped with problematic evolution problems.

Selim Ciraci

2007-08-01

373

A taxonomy of dignity: a grounded theory study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper has its origins in Jonathan Mann's insight that the experience of dignity may explain the reciprocal relationships between health and human rights. It follows his call for a taxonomy of dignity: "a coherent vocabulary and framework to characterize dignity." Methods Grounded theory procedures were use to analyze literature pertaining to dignity and to conduct and analyze 64 semi-structured interviews with persons marginalized by their health or social status, individuals who provide health or social services to these populations, and people working in the field of health and human rights. Results The taxonomy presented identifies two main forms of dignity–human dignity and social dignity–and describes several elements of these forms, including the social processes that violate or promote them, the conditions under which such violations and promotions occur, the objects of violation and promotion, and the consequences of dignity violation. Together, these forms and elements point to a theory of dignity as a quality of individuals and collectives that is constituted through interaction and interpretation and structured by conditions pertaining to actors, relationships, settings, and the broader social order. Conclusion The taxonomy has several implications for work in health and human rights. It suggests a map to possible points of intervention and provides a language in which to talk about dignity.

Jacobson Nora

2009-02-01

374

Molecular taxonomy of the suborder Bodonina (Order Kinetoplastida), including the important fish parasite, Ichthyobodo necator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ichthyobodo necator is an important fish ectoparasite with a broad host and ecological range. A novel method, involving the use of an anesthetic, allowed the collection of large numbers of parasites from the skin and gills of hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis male x M. chrysops female). Genomic DNA from these samples was used to amplify and clone the 18S rRNA gene. The 18S rRNA gene was similarly cloned from Bodo caudatus, Bodo edax, Bodo saltans, an unidentified Bodo species, and Dimastigella trypaniformis. The resulting sequences were aligned with other representative kinetoplastid species using pileup and similarities in secondary structure. Phylogenetic relationships within the suborder Bodonina and representatives of the suborder Trypanosomatina were determined using maximum-likelihood statistics. The phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the order Kinetoplastida as a monophyletic assemblage consisting of at least two major lineages. One lineage consisted exclusively of L. necator, indicating that it may represent a new suborder. The second lineage consisted of all other kinetoplastid species. This second lineage appeared to contain at least 8 bodonine sublineages, none of which correlated with currently recognized families. For three sublineages, there was a close correspondence between the 18S phylogeny and the classical taxonomy of Dimastigella, Rhynchobodo, and Rhynchomonas. In contrast, Bodo and Cryptobia were polyphyletic, containing species in two or more sublineages that may represent separate genera. PMID:12046598

Callahan, Heather A; Litaker, R Wayne; Noga, Edward J

2002-01-01

375

Constructing and Mapping Fuzzy Thematic Clusters to Higher Ranks in a Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel methodology for mapping a system such as a research department to a related taxonomy in a thematically consistent way. The components of the structure are supplied with fuzzy membership profiles over the taxonomy. Our method generalizes the profiles in two steps: first, by fuzzy clustering, and then by mapping the clusters to higher ranks of the taxonomy. To be specific, we concentrate on the Computer Sciences area represented by the taxonomy of ACM Computing Classification System (ACM-CCS). We build fuzzy clusters of the taxonomy leaves according to the similarity between individual profiles by using a novel, additive spectral, fuzzy clustering method that, in contrast to other methods, involves a number of model-based stopping conditions. The clusters are not necessarily consistent with the taxonomy. This is formalized by a novel method for parsimoniously elevating them to higher ranks of the taxonomy using an original recursive algorithm for minimizing a penalty function that involves "head subjects" on the higher ranks of the taxonomy along with their "gaps" and "offshoots". An example is given illustrating the method applied to real-world data.

Mirkin, Boris; Nascimento, Susana; Fenner, Trevor; Pereira, Luís Moniz

376

Task-Based Navigation of a Taxonomy Interface to a Digital Repository  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: This is a study of hierarchical navigation; how users browse a taxonomy-based interface to an organizational repository to locate information resources. The study is part of a project to develop a taxonomy for an library and information science department to organize resources and support user browsing in a digital repository.…

Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Wang, Zhonghong; Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar

2012-01-01

377

A Learning Ecology Perspective for the Internet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the phenomenon of learning on the Internet in terms of a digital ecology metaphor, proposing that an ecological perspective is consistent with the perspective of distributed cognition. Topics include diverse participation; information production, access, and consumption; representations of knowledge; and experiences. (LRW)

Looi, Chee-Kit

2000-01-01

378

Predicting the distribution of a parasite using the ecological niche model, GARP / Predicción de la distribución de un parásito usando el modelo de nicho ecológico, GARP  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El nicho ecológico de un parásito existe sólo cuando coinciden condiciones abióticas y bióticas necesarias para los hospederos definitivos e intermediarios. No obstante, los ciclos de vida de la mayoría de los parásitos son poco conocidos; el usar áreas de distribución de hospederos para encontrar á [...] reas endémicas de parasitismo ha resultado difícil. Con el modelado de nicho, se pueden producir mapas del área de distribución potencial con base en sitios conocidos de presencia. Para probar la validez de estos mapas, se requiere el conocimiento de sitios de presencia de otros parásitos relacionados. En este estudio, encontramos que el nicho ecológico de un gusano parásito de ratones, Paranoplocephala macrocephala (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) permite predecir la presencia de 19 especies relacionadas de parásitos de 3 géneros en 23 diferentes hospederos a través del Neártico. Estos resultados apoyan la idea de que este grupo comparte una historia filogenética común que se refleja en nichos compartidos y que el modelado de nichos ofrece una manera de predecir la presencia de parásitos aunque no se conozcan todos los detalles de su ciclo de vida. Estos métodos permiten deducir reservorios u hospederos para estos parásitos. Abstract in english The ecological niche of a parasite exists only at the nexus of certain abiotic and biotic conditions suitable for both the definitive and intermediate hosts. However, the life cycles of most parasites are not known, or are poorly known, and using known ranges of hosts to find endemic parasitic infec [...] tions has been difficult. However, with ecological niche modeling, we can create potential range maps using known localities of infection. Testing the validity of such maps requires knowledge of the localities of other parasites with common history. Here, we find that the ecological niche of a tapeworm parasite of voles, Paranoplocephala macrocephala (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), allows prediction of the presence (in ecological and geographic space) of 19 related parasite species from 3 genera in 23 different hosts throughout the Nearctic. These results give credence to the idea that this group shares similar life cycle requirements despite phylogenetic distance. This work further validates ecological niche modeling as a means by which to predict occurrence of parasites when not all facets of the life cycle are confirmed. Such inductive methods create the opportunity for deducing potential reservoir or intermediate hosts, and complementing studies of parasite biodiversity and community ecology.

Terry R., Haverkost; Scott L., Gardner; A., Townsend Peterson.

2010-12-01

379

US ecology data system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Ecology computer data system was instituted March 1, 1982. This system was designed to manage the increasing flow of paperwork and data associated with the receipt and disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Richland, Washington and Beatty, Nevada. The system was modified and upgraded in 1984 to accommodate a revised shipping manifest pursuant to the requirements of 10 CFR 20.311. The data system is used to generate various reports for both internal and external distribution. The computer system is located at US Ecology's corporate headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky. Remote access terminals are located at the disposal sites. The system is supported by a Wang VS-100 processor. In addition to supporting the radwaste data system, the system supports a chemical waste data base, word processing, and electronic mail. The management and operation of this data base are described. 19 figures

380

Contribution to the taxonomy and ecology of the Azorean benthic marine algae  

OpenAIRE

Algal zonation patterns were studied in two sites (Caloura, south coast and Ribeirinha, north coast) of the island of São Miguel, Azores. At each site two stations were studied and the transects revealed the occurrence of two distinct and well established algal zones. In the first zone, daily immersed and emersed by the tide, the algae were growing in a dense and, short tangle forming a mat, referred to as algal turf. In the second zone, which was wet most of the time, the algae were larger ...

Neto, Ana I.

1992-01-01

381

The taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of the myrmecophilous Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relevance and integration of scientific knowledge to conservation management of the locally popular and highly endemic butterfly genus Chrysoritis are investigated within the research fields of taxonomy and biogeography. The butterfly genus Chrysoritis contains at least 41 species endemic to South Africa. The taxonomy of Chrysoritis has reached a state where revisions could easily result in a plethora of names between “lumping and splitting”. In practice, the state of the taxonomy of these butterflies on species level may alter their conservation priority. The two most species rich species groups in Chrysoritis have different centres of endemism, however, a butterfly atlas becomes a necessity to reveal more about their biogeography. There is an absence of butterfly species lists in many of our National Parks and Nature Reserves. Legislation should facilitate rather than limit the valuable role of the amateur lepidopterist to add distribution records. In turn, the amateur lepidopterists should adapt and make an effort to explore unknown localities, apart from monitoring butterflies at their well-known localities. The red listing of localised butterflies in South Africa, including a number of Chrysoritis species, is in need of an urgent review in the light of the most recent IUCN categories. A species such as Chrysoritis dicksoni should be protected by law - but at its known localities. The scenario that real conservation action is only needed if the last known locality of a butterfly is threatened, should be abolished. A paradigm shift to conserve the metapopulations of the highly endemic Chrysoritis genus and not merely a few of its species as items that appear on lists, seems necessary.

H. van Hamburg

2003-12-01

382

Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the SAVANNA included a land cover map, long-term weather data, soil maps, and a digital elevation model. Parameterization and calibration were conducted using field plots. Model predictions of herbaceous biomass production and weather were consistent with available data and spatial interpolations of snow were considered reasonable for this study. Dynamic outputs generated by SAVANNA were integrated with static variables, movement rules, and parameters developed for the individual-based model through the application of a habitat suitability index. Model validation indicated reasonable model fit when compared to an independent test set. The finished model was applied to 2 realistic management scenarios for the Jemez Mountains and management implications were discussed. Ongoing validation of the individual-based model presented in this dissertation provides an adaptive management tool that integrates interdisciplinary experience and scientific information, which allows users to make predictions about the impact of alternative management policies.

S.P. Rupp

2005-10-01

383

Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles and molecular (?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species

S.W. Peterson

2007-12-01

384

[The taxonomy of the musk deer (Artiodactyla, Mammalia)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of multiyear studies (1976-1996) of musk deer taxonomy and the published data were generalized. Two groups of subspecies were isolated on the basis of statistical analysis of 13 linear measurements and six indices in 388 skulls from different parts of the range. Group "sibirica" includes four subspecies: Siberian Moschus moschiferus moschiferus F., Verkhoyansk M. moschiferus articticus F., Far-Eastern M. moschiferus turowi Zal., and Sakhalin M. moschiferus sachalinensis F. Group "himalaica" contains three subspecies: Korean M. moschiferus parvipes Hol., Chinese M. moschiferus chrysogaster H., and Himalayan Moschus moschiferus leucogaster H. PMID:9518057

Sokolov, V E; Prikhod'ko, V I

1997-01-01

385

Ecological distribution and niche segregation of sibling species: the case of bean beetles, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say and A. obvelatus Bridwell  

OpenAIRE

1. Molecular techniques have greatly added to the number of known sympatric cryptic species in insects. Ecological differences between these newly distinguished species are little explored, but niches often appear to overlap strongly. These cases are good models for exploring new ideas about species coexistence and community structure. 2. Acanthoscelides obtectus and A. obvelatus are two sister species of bean bruchids, which have been confused until the last decade. One im...

Alvarez, Nadir; Mercier, Le?ny; Hossaert-mckey, Martine; Contreras-gardun?o, Jorge; Kunstler Georges; Aebi, Alexandre; Benrey, Betty

2007-01-01

386

Constructing taxonomies to identify distinctive forms of primary healthcare organizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Primary healthcare (PHC) renewal gives rise to important challenges for policy makers, managers, and researchers in most countries. Evaluating new emerging forms of organizations is therefore of prime importance in assessing the impact of these policies. This paper presents a set of methods related to the configurational approach and an organizational taxonomy derived from our analysis. Methods. In 2005, we carried out a study on PHC in two health and social services regions of Quebec that included urban, suburban, and rural areas. An organizational survey was conducted in 473 PHC practices. We used multidimensional nonparametric statistical methods, namely, multiple correspondence and principal component analyses, and an ascending hierarchical classification method to construct a taxonomy of organizations. Results. PHC organizations were classified into five distinct models: four professional and one community. Study findings indicate that the professional integrated coordination and the community model have great potential for organizational development since they are closest to the ideal type promoted by current reforms. Conclusion. Results showed that the configurational approach is useful to assess complex phenomena such as the organization of PHC. The analysis highlights the most promising organizational models. Our study enhances our understanding of organizational change in health services organizations. PMID:24959575

Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Pineault, Raynald; Hamel, Marjolaine; Levesque, Jean-Frédéric; Roberge, Danièle; Lamarche, Paul

2013-01-01

387

APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL METHODS IN TAXONOMY OF GENUS STREPTOMYCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An extensive literature review concerning the taxonomic status of the species of genus Streptomyces has been made. The classical microbiological and chemo taxonomical methods which form the base of the present classification of the species of this genus, as well as, the modern molecular biological approaches - analysis of protein patterns, multilocus enzyme electrophoretical (MLEE analysis, restriction analysis, analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 16S and 23S RNA, RNA/DNA sequencing, DNA finger-printing with different probes or polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were described. The profound analysis showed the advantages of the molecular biological methods for streptomyces taxonomy and indicated that none of these methods applied independently could solve the existing problems in the taxonomy of genus Streptomyces. A wider application of the molecular genetic approaches is necessary in order to specify the taxonomic status of the species included in category III and IV according to Bergey and to find a criterion for distinguishing between the closely related species, as well as, to e evaluate the homogeneity of some streptomyces species.

Krassimira Christova, Zdravka Sholeva and Valentina Chipeva

1995-01-01

388

Soil Formation and Taxonomy in Ye?il?rmak River Terraces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the soils of which parent material is alluvial and formed Ye?il?rmak river terraces were investigated. For this purposes four different profiles were excavated in the study area. Then twenty-seven soil samples were taken from horizons of four profiles and their physical and chemical analyses were done for soil taxonomy research. Profile of Kumocagi and Cakil were classified in subgroup as Typic Ustipsamments, Havaalan? and Mera profiles were classified Typic Haplustolls and Typic Argiustolls subgroups respectively. The pH values of soils varied between 7.38-8.41. These soils can be classified as low and highly basic. Most of the soil series had an irregular pH distribution in the profile. The range of carbonate content of the soils was 0.8-25.4%. Although carbonate content of soils showed a very wide range, majority of them can be classified as highly calcareous. In most of soils carbonate content was distributed irregulary in the profile. Organic matter content were between 0.14-6.11% in the soils. Although organic matter contents of the soils changed in a wide range most of them had low organic matter content. Organic matter content was over 4% in the surface horizon of only two profiles. Research result showed that, alluvial parent material, particle size, topograpy and time have different effect on investigation soils.

Alper Durak

2014-02-01

389

Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae were the preferred host of the olive fruit fly. Family Rosaceae had nine host tree species followed by Rutaceae (five host tree species. Other host tree species were distributed in Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Lythraceae and Malpigiaceae families. These hosts were mostly fruit trees with the exceptions of Brazilian pepper tree, carob, crape myrtle and ornamental plum. The host list reflects typical hosts and is not comprehensive. It is unknown if different olive cultivars are more attractive to the fly or more susceptible to fly damage. The pest directly attacks olive fruits and can devastate entire harvests. Adults feed on nectar, honeydew and other opportunistic sources of liquid or semi-liquid food. University of California scientists are now developing specific information about the olive fruit fly in California and have synthesized useful findings from Europe, where the pest has long been established.

Mohammad Athar

2005-12-01

390

Molecular ecology of marine mammals  

OpenAIRE

Marine mammals comprise a paraphyletic group of species whose current abundance and distribution has been greatly shaped by past environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts. This thesis describes molecular ecological approaches to answer questions regarding habitat requirements, genetic differentiation, and life-history trade-offs in three species of marine mammals.  The annual sea-ice dynamics of the Arctic may have large effects on the abundance and distribution of Arctic species such...

Olsen, Morten Tange

2012-01-01

391

Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

392

An overview of the taxonomy of Attalea (Arecaceae) / Una visión general de la taxonomía de Attalea (Arecaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: English Abstract in spanish Attalea (Arecaceae) es un género distribuido en toda la región Neotropical continental y en algunas islas Caribeñas. Las formas de vida de las especies de Attalea incluyen tanto pequeñas palmeras como plantas de gran tamaño, siempre con tallo solitario. El rango ecológico del género abarca prácticam [...] ente todos los ecosistemas neotropicales desde las dunas de arena costeras hasta el bosque sub-Andino (algunas especies llegan a 1600 m de altitud), pasando por todo tipo de bosque tropical, seco o húmedo, pantanos, sabanas, etc. La taxonomía del género ha sido poco entendida y conceptos conflictivos sobre géneros y especies existen desde hace décadas. Las dificultades taxonómicas resultan de la falta en los herbarios de material adecuado, en particular para las grandes especies, de la pérdida o destrucción de numerosos tipos y de la frecuente hibridación entre especies. En este artículo se analizan los trabajos taxonómicos más recientes sobre Attalea. El número de especies varía entre 29 y 67 según los autores, y un máximo estimado de 73 especies al combinar los diferentes trabajos; siendo 20 las especies en consenso entre autores. Las especies y grupos de especies más problemáticos se tratan detalladamente y se enfatiza el significado taxonómico de algunos caracteres como la inserción de las flores estaminadas en la raquilla, inserción de las pinas en el raquis, distribución de las fibras en el endocarpio, entre otros. Abstract in english The genus Attalea (Arecaceae) is distributed in continental habitats of the Neotropical region and in some Caribbean islands. Life forms of Attalea species vary from small acaulescent palms to tall and massive palms, always solitary. The ecological range of the genus encompasses most of the Neotropi [...] cal ecosystems, from coastal sand dunes to sub-Andean forests up to 1600 m in elevation, lowland wet to dry forests, savannas, swamps, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been poorly understood due to conflicting genus and species concepts that exist since the last decades. Taxonomical problems have been caused by the lack of adequate material, especially species of large size, loss of many types and difficulties in interpreting hybrids. In this article, I review the most recent taxonomic literature on Attalea. The number of species in Attalea varies from 29 to 67 depending on different authors, with a maximum estimate of 73 species when combining the revised publications. There is a consensus for the validity of 20 species among modern palm taxonomists. The most conflicting species or group of species are discussed in detail as well as the taxonomic significance of some characters such as the pattern of insertion of staminate flowers on rachillae, insertion of pinnae on rachis, and arrangement of fibrous strands in the endocarp.

Jean-Christophe, Pintaud.

2008-11-01

393

Tardigrade Species Distribution Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This website provides information about Tardigrades and introduces the Tardigrade Species Distribution Project. The objectives of the project are to engage students in hands-on science and to map the United State distribution of a new species of water bear (Milnesium sp.). The site includes links to water bear facts, information about the project, protocols, taxonomy, a pictorial key to Tardigrade genera, a glossary, results from the study, and references. It also includes links to a communication environment and external resources, such as a video, dedicated to tardigrades.

Karen Lindahl

394

Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of this review, an overview of heterothallic reproduction in Aspergillus and Penicillium is given. The new insights in the taxonomy of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera will help to interpret the results generated with comparative genomics studies or other studies dealing with evolution of, for example, enzymes, mating-type loci, virulence genes, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:24377856

Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

2014-01-01

395

A New Generic Taxonomy on Hybrid Malware Detection Technique  

CERN Document Server

Malware is a type of malicious program that replicate from host machine and propagate through network. It has been considered as one type of computer attack and intrusion that can do a variety of malicious activity on a computer. This paper addresses the current trend of malware detection techniques and identifies the significant criteria in each technique to improve malware detection in Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Several existing techniques are analyzing from 48 various researches and the capability criteria of malware detection technique have been reviewed. From the analysis, a new generic taxonomy of malware detection technique have been proposed named Hybrid Malware Detection Technique (Hybrid MDT) which consists of Hybrid Signature and Anomaly detection technique and Hybrid Specification based and Anomaly detection technique to complement the weaknesses of the existing malware detection technique in detecting known and unknown attack as well as reducing false alert before and during the intrusion ...

Robiah, Y; Zaki, M Mohd; Shahrin, S; Faizal, M A; Marliza, R

2009-01-01

396

Advantages and limitations of genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxonomic classification is an important field of microbiology, as it enables scientists to identify prokaryotes worldwide. Although the current classification system is still based on the one designed by Carolus Linnaeus, the currently available genomic content of several thousands of sequenced prokaryotic genomes represents a unique source of taxonomic information that should not be ignored. In addition, the development of faster, cheaper and improved sequencing methods has made genomics a tool that has a place in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. Thus, genomics has reached a stage where it may be used in prokaryotic taxonomic classification, with criteria such as the genome index of average nucleotide identity being an alternative to DNA-DNA hybridization. However, several hurdles remain, including the lack of genomic sequences of many prokaryotic taxonomic representatives, and consensus procedures to describe new prokaryotic taxa that do not, as yet, accommodate genomic data. We herein review the advantages and disadvantages of using genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy. PMID:23490121

Sentausa, E; Fournier, P-E

2013-09-01

397

Physiology and taxonomy of lactobacilli surviving radurization of meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to isolate radiation-resistant lacto-bacilli from radurized (5 kGy) vacuum-packaged meat and subject them to biochemical, metabolic and physiological testing in order to gain a clearer understanding of the taxonomy of this group as well as determine characteristics which may be of technological significance. All 113 of the lactobacilli isolated were homofermentative, aciduric and were allocated to the sub-genus Streptobacterium. Numerical taxonomy by unweighted pair-group average linkage analysis revealed the existence of 5 clusters of the isolates. The same 113 isolates were classified using a purely classical taxonomic approach where the isolates were divided into 4 groups according to species designation. The basis upon which they were identified as a particular species was mainly their carbohydrate fermentation pattern. Several of the 113 isolates were selected for tests to determine characteristics of technological importance. All L.sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to irradiation in the logarithmic phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycle. This phenomenon was not characteristic of all the bacteria and was not always related to high radiation-resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three authentic strains were subjected to radiation-sensitivity testing in a natural food system where the bacteria were irradiated in minced meat packaged under four different conditions. The organisms exhibited the highest death rates under CO2 packaging but resistance seemed to increase under N2-packaging. The radiation-resistance of the isolates was greater than that of the reference strains and all strains were approximately twice as resistant in the meat microenvironment than in a synthetic medium

398

Mathematics Teachers’ Interpretation of Higher-Order Thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated mathematics teachers’ interpretation of higher-order thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Thirty-two high school mathematics teachers from the southeast U.S. were asked to (a define lower- and higher-order thinking, (b identify which thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy represented lower- and higher-order thinking, and (c create an Algebra I final exam item representative of each thinking skill. Results indicate that mathematics teachers have difficulty interpreting the thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy and creating test items for higher-order thinking. Alternatives to using Bloom’s Taxonomy to help mathematics teachers assess for higher-order thinking are discussed.

Tony Thompson

2008-07-01

399

A Taxonomy of Performance Assurance Methodologies and its Application in High Performance Computer Architectures  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a systematic approach to the complex problem of high confidence performance assurance of high performance architectures based on methods used over several generations of industrial microprocessors. A taxonomy is presented for performance assurance through three key stages of a product life cycle-high level performance, RTL performance, and silicon performance. The proposed taxonomy includes two components-independent performance assurance space for each s...

Hemant Rotithor

2013-01-01

400

Assessing the health of zoological taxonomy: history, methods and contemporary challenges  

OpenAIRE

This work is the first approach to zoological taxonomy based on data from the largest bibliographic database of Zoology, the Zoological Record, analyzed through scientometric tools : science mapping and countings. It challenges the view that taxonomy would be an endangered field, as its objects of study are. In the current biodiversity crisis, this is not a form of decline, but rather a lack of involvement to determine the overall biodiversity before its disappearance. This work on publicatio...

Tancoigne, Elise

2011-01-01

401

Refining a taxonomy for guideline implementation: results of an exercise in abstract classification  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: To better understand the efficacy of various implementation strategies, improved methods for describing and classifying the nature of these strategies are urgently required. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot the feasibility of a taxonomy to classify the nature and content of implementation strategies. METHODS: A draft implementation taxonomy was developed based on the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) data collection checklist. The draft taxo...

Mazza, D.; Bairstow, P.; Buchan, H.; Chakraborty, Sp; Hecke, O.; Grech, C.; Kunnamo, I.

2013-01-01

402

Critiquing the mathematical literacy assessment taxonomy: Where is the reasoning and the problem solving?  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we consider the ways in which the Mathematical Literacy (ML) assessment taxonomy provides spaces for the problem solving and reasoning identified as critical to mathematical literacy competence. We do this through an analysis of the taxonomy structure within which Mathematical Literacy competences are assessed. We argue that shortcomings in this structure in relation to the support and development of reasoning and problem solving feed through into the kinds of questions that are...

Hamsa Venkat; Mellony Graven; Erna Lampen; Patricia Nalube

2011-01-01

403

Separating the wheat from the chaff - a taxonomy of open innovation  

OpenAIRE

Purpose – The main objective of this paper is to shed light on the confusion of terminologies related to open innovation through the development of an open innovation taxonomy. By analyzing published case studies using numerical taxonomy methods, it proposes a taxonomic classification of open innovation. Design/methodology/approach – Earlier work on firm collaboration and concepts related to open innovation in order to understand the main motivations, and conditions behind open innova...

Duarte, Vanessa; Sarkar, Sarkar

2011-01-01

404

[Human ecology and hygiene].  

Science.gov (United States)

Theoretical aspects of the human ecology, its place and significance in solution of biosphere protection problems are discussed. "Human ecology", "socioecology", interrelations of the terms with hygiene were also noted. Author supported the homocentric conception in the ecology problem aricing. Special attention was paid to the ecological education of physicians. PMID:1809648

Shepelin, O P

1991-11-01

405

Molecular Taxonomy of a Phantom Midge Species (Chaoborus flavicans in Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The larvae of Chaoborus are widely distributed in lakes, ponds, and reservoirs. These omnivorous Chaoborus larvae are crucial predators and play a role in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for small-sized prey. Larvae of Chaoborus are commonly known to produce predator-induced polyphenism in Daphnia sp. Nevertheless, their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are very poorly understood. As a fundamental study for understanding the role of Chaoborus in predator-prey interactions in a freshwater ecosystem, the molecular identification and phylogenetic relationship of Chaoborus were analyzed in this study. A molecular comparison based on partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI between species in Chaoborus was carried out for the identification of Chaoborus larvae collected from 2 localities in Korea. According to the results, the Chaoborus species examined here was identified as C. flavicans, which is a lake-dwelling species. Furthermore, partial mitochondrial genome including COI, COII, ATP6, ATP8, COIII, and ND3 were also newly sequenced from the species and concatenated 5 gene sequences excluding ATP8 with another 9 dipteran species were compared to examine phylogenetic relationships of C. flavicans. The results suggested that Chaoborus was more related to the Ceratopogonidae than to the Culicidae. Further analysis based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear gene sequences will provide a more robust validation of the phylogenetic relationships of Chaoborus within dipteran lineages.

Haein An

2012-01-01

406

On the ecology of Acer circinatum Pursh: a study of factors that affect the distribution of a small hardwood tree within oldgrowth forests in southwestern British Columbia, Canada  

OpenAIRE

Vine maple (Acer circinatum PURSH) is a common understory species in the temperate rainforests of southwest British Columbia. The influence of surficial geology, light availability, ground water levels, aspects of the microtopography and of vine maple persistence, priority effects and layering on the distribution pattern of vine maple within oldgrowth stands was investigated in this study. The distribution pattern was primarily influenced by surficial geology. High vine maple cover was signif...

Gaspar, Judit

2002-01-01

407

Taxonomy of the genus Metolinus Cameron (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Staphylininae, Xantholinini from China with description of three new species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the taxonomy of the genus Metolinus Cameron, 1920 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Staphylininae, Xantholinini from China and describes three new species: Metolinus xizangensis sp. n. from Xizang (Tibet, M. emarginatus sp. n. from Sichuan, and M. binarius sp. n. from Yunnan. The Chinese fauna of the genus is thus increased to 8 species in total. A key to eight Chinese species is provided. Female genital segments and other important morphological characters are illustrated in line drawings for the new species as well as M. shanicus Bordoni, 2002 and M. gardneri (Cameron, 1945. The text also provides color plates with habitus photographs and a map to show the species’ geographical distribution pattern. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZ-CAS.

Hongzhang Zhou

2011-06-01

408

Knowledge Management in Taxonomy and Biostratigraphy using TaxonConcept Software  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of fossils to constrain age models for geological samples is not as straightforward as it might seem. Even though index fossils have been defined as biostratigraphic time markers ambiguity arises from the synonymous use of taxonomic names. Progress in our understanding of the origin of certain species have sometimes lead to substantial changes in the taxonomic classification of these organisms. TaxonConcept was created as part of the Stratigraphy.net initiative as a tool to manage taxonomic information and complex knowledge networks to help resolve taxonomic ambiguities in biostratigraphy. Its workflow is based on the principles of open nomenclature. Open nomenclature allows researchers to comment on the identification of a specimen which cannot exactly be determined and is frequently used in synonymy lists. The use of such synonymy lists in TaxonConcept allows to work with taxonomic classifications that are uncertain, or where several versions exist. Every single taxonomic entity in TaxonConcept is recorded with its relevant citations in the literature. This allows to manage information on taxonomy. The members of working groups using TaxonConcept can record their opinion on the taxonomic classification of each taxon in the framework of open nomenclature and annotate it in free text. This managed and structured collection of taxonomic opinions is an example of knowledge management. Taxonomic opinions are otherwise dispersed throughout the literature, if recorded at all, and are only available to the specialist. Assembled as a collection, they represent our knowledge on the taxonomy of a certain group of organisms. In the terminology of computer science, the semantic relationships between taxonomic terms are an ontology. Open nomenclature offers a formal framework that lends itself very well to describe the nature of the relations between taxonomic terms. The use of such synonymy lists in a taxonomic information system allows interesting search options, ranging from tracking name changes to the investigation of complex taxonomic topologies. In addition to its synonymy and literature management, TaxonConcept allows to store many other information categories such as textual descriptions (e.g. diagnoses and comments), images, bioevents and specimen and collection data. Ecological information is scheduled for a later stage of the project. Already now TaxonConcept is linked to taxon names in paleoenvironmental data of the World Data Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (WDC-MARE), interfaces to other databases are planned. WDC-MARE stores environmental, marine and geological research data and frequently uses taxon names in its parameters. By linking TaxonConcept and WDC-MARE, synonymous names can be included in queries, e.g. when researching for stable isotope data measured on microfossils. TaxonConcept is not a project on authoritative taxonomic information, but is a tool for taxonomic projects to use to find a taxonomic consensus, e.g. to define a taxonomic framework for biostratigraphic studies. Both, the project specific hierarchical classification of selected taxa, as well as a project specific selection of any other information categories is supported by TaxonConcept. The results of such a taxonomic consensus can be used to create Fossilium Catalogus style summaries in various output formats which can later be used to create online or print publications.

Klump, J.; Huber, R.; Goetz, S.

2005-12-01

409

Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to Decemb [...] er 1992). A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

Anthony Érico, Guimarães; Carla, Gentile; Catarina Macedo, Lopes; Rubens Pinto de, Mello.

2000-01-01

410

Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - habitat distribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992). A total of 24, 943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respec