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Commiphora oddurensis Chiov. and C. suffruticosa Teshome (Burseraceae): : taxonomy, distribution, ecology and conservation status.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On field trips to southeastern Ethiopia in 2012 the authors collected a semi-prostrate shrub of the genus Commiphora and matching the taxon named â??Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160â? in the Flora of Ethiopia (1989). In the Flora of Somalia (1999) â??Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160â? was considered a synonym of Commiphora oddurensis Chiov. However, in 2006 â??Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160â? was described as a distinct species endemic to southeastern Ethiopia and named Commiphora suffruticosa Teshome. Although validly published, that scientific name has not been included in international data bases. After field observations and examination of almost all existing material in herbaria, it is concluded that the two taxa are best treated as subspecies, with some overlap in certain characters and a population of specimens in Central Somalia intermediate in leaf morphology: Commiphora oddurensis subsp. oddurensis, widely distributed in northeastern Kenya and northeastern and central Somalia, and subsp. suffruticosa, restricted to southeastern Ethiopia and adjacent parts of Southern Somalia. Apart from discussions and formal taxonomy, the paper includes new information on habit and habitat, distribution maps and conservation status, as well as photographs of living plants of C. oddurensis subsp. suffruticosa.

Demissew, Sebsebe; Friis, Ib

2013-01-01

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Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens. PMID:16341431

Silva, W M; Matsumura-Tundisi, T

2005-08-01

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Modern Grid Initiative Distribution Taxonomy Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the final report for the development of a toxonomy of prototypical electrical distribution feeders. Two of the primary goals of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Modern Grid Initiative (MGI) are 'to accelerate the modernization of our nation's electricity grid' and to 'support demonstrations of systems of key technologies that can serve as the foundation for an integrated, modern power grid'. A key component to the realization of these goals is the effective implementation of new, as well as existing, 'smart grid technologies'. Possibly the largest barrier that has been identified in the deployment of smart grid technologies is the inability to evaluate how their deployment will affect the electricity infrastructure, both locally and on a regional scale. The inability to evaluate the impacts of these technologies is primarily due to the lack of detailed electrical distribution feeder information. While detailed distribution feeder information does reside with the various distribution utilities, there is no central repository of information that can be openly accessed. The role of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the MGI for FY08 was to collect distribution feeder models, in the SynerGEE{reg_sign} format, from electric utilities around the nation so that they could be analyzed to identify regional differences in feeder design and operation. Based on this analysis PNNL developed a taxonomy of 24 prototypical feeder models in the GridLAB-D simulations environment that contain the fundamental characteristics of non-urban core, radial distribution feeders from the various regions of the U.S. Weighting factors for these feeders are also presented so that they can be used to generate a representative sample for various regions within the United States. The final product presented in this report is a toolset that enables the evaluation of new smart grid technologies, with the ability to aggregate their effects to regional and national levels. The distribution feeder models presented in this report are based on actual utility models but do not contain any proprietary or system specific information. As a result, the models discussed in this report can be openly distributed to industry, academia, or any interested entity, in order to facilitate the ability to evaluate smart grid technologies.

Schneider, Kevin P.; Chen, Yousu; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Engel, David W.; Thompson, Sandra E.

2008-11-01

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The relationships between the isoelectric point and: length of proteins, taxonomy and ecology of organisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of isoelectric point (pI of proteins in a proteome is universal for all organisms. It is bimodal dividing the proteome into two sets of acidic and basic proteins. Different species however have different abundance of acidic and basic proteins that may be correlated with taxonomy, subcellular localization, ecological niche of organisms and proteome size. Results We have analysed 1784 proteomes encoded by chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, and also mitochondria, plastids, prokaryotic plasmids, phages and viruses. We have found significant correlation in more than 95% of proteomes between the protein length and pI in proteomes – positive for acidic proteins and negative for the basic ones. Plastids, viruses and plasmids encode more basic proteomes while chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, mitochondria and phages more acidic ones. Mitochondrial proteomes of Viridiplantae, Protista and Fungi are more basic than Metazoa. It results from the presence of basic proteins in the former proteomes and their absence from the latter ones and is related with reduction of metazoan genomes. Significant correlation was found between the pI bias of proteomes encoded by prokaryotic chromosomes and proteomes encoded by plasmids but there is no correlation between eukaryotic nuclear-coded proteomes and proteomes encoded by organelles. Detailed analyses of prokaryotic proteomes showed significant relationships between pI distribution and habitat, relation to the host cell and salinity of the environment, but no significant correlation with oxygen and temperature requirements. The salinity is positively correlated with acidicity of proteomes. Host-associated organisms and especially intracellular species have more basic proteomes than free-living ones. The higher rate of mutations accumulation in the intracellular parasites and endosymbionts is responsible for the basicity of their tiny proteomes that explains the observed positive correlation between the decrease of genome size and the increase of basicity of proteomes. The results indicate that even conserved proteins subjected to strong selectional constraints follow the global trend in the pI distribution. Conclusion The distribution of pI of proteins in proteomes shows clear relationships with length of proteins, subcellular localization, taxonomy and ecology of organisms. The distribution is also strongly affected by mutational pressure especially in intracellular organisms.

Smolarczyk Kamila

2007-06-01

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Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the dog : taxonomy, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology and pathogenicity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the species, including the latest research outcomes, with emphasis on taxonomy, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology and pathogenicity. Despite the important taxonomic changes that have occurred over the past few years, the risk of misidentification in canine specimens is low and does not have serious consequences for clinical practice. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage in the dog is more frequent and genetically heterogeneous compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus in man. It appears that these staphylococcal species have evolved separately through adaptation to their respective natural hosts and differ with regard to various aspects concerning ecology, population structure and evolution of antibiotic resistance.Further understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of S. pseudintermedius is hampered by the lack of a standard method for rapid and discriminatory typing and by the limited data available on longitudinal carriage and population structure of meticillin-susceptible strains. With regard to pathogenicity, it is only now that we are starting to explore the virulence potential of S. pseudintermedius based on genomic and proteomic approaches, and more research is needed to assess the importance of individual virulence factors and the possible existence of hypervirulent strains.

Bannoehr, Jeanette; Guardabassi, Luca

2012-01-01

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An improved Greengenes taxonomy with explicit ranks for ecological and evolutionary analyses of bacteria and archaea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reference phylogenies are crucial for providing a taxonomic framework for interpretation of marker gene and metagenomic surveys, which continue to reveal novel species at a remarkable rate. Greengenes is a dedicated full-length 16S rRNA gene database that provides users with a curated taxonomy based on de novo tree inference. We developed a ‘taxonomy to tree' approach for transferring group names from an existing taxonomy to a tree topology, and used it to apply the Greengenes, National Cen...

Mcdonald, Daniel; Price, Morgan N.; Goodrich, Julia; Nawrocki, Eric P.; Desantis, Todd Z.; Probst, Alexander; Andersen, Gary L.; Knight, Rob; Hugenholtz, Philip

2012-01-01

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Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución  

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Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S) and Tierra del Fuego (55° S). Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such...

CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS; MAXIMILLIAN RÜTH

2005-01-01

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Merging Taxonomy with Ecological Population Prediction in a Case Study of Vibrionaceae ? †  

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We synthesized population structure data from three studies that assessed the fine-scale distribution of Vibrionaceae among temporally and spatially distinct environmental categories in coastal seawater and animals. All studies used a dynamic model (AdaptML) to identify phylogenetically cohesive and ecologically distinct bacterial populations and their predicted habitats without relying on a predefined genetic cutoff or relationships to previously named species. Across the three studies, popu...

Preheim, Sarah P.; Timberlake, Sonia; Polz, Martin F.

2011-01-01

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Taxonomy, Life History, and Ecology of a Mountain-Mahogany Defoliator, 'Stamnodes animata' (Pearsall), in Nevada,  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1978-79, the first known outbreak of the geometrid Stamnodes animata killed extensive stands of curlleaf mountain-mahogany, Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt., on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada. Taxonomy of the genus is revised and life stages ...

M. M. Furniss D. C. Ferguson K. W. Voget J. W. Burkhardt A. R. Tiedemann

1988-01-01

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Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.Foram realizadas coletas em 207 corpos de água, distribuídos em 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos (UHGRH do estado de São Paulo no período de 1999 a 2002, abrangendo grandes e pequenos reservatórios, lagoas marginais e grandes rios. Nestas coletas foram analisadas as espécies do gênero Thermocyclops quanto à taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e freqüência de ocorrência. O gênero Thermocyclops ocorreu em corpos de água com zona limnética bem desenvolvida e com raras exceções em ambientes estritamente litorâneos. Foram registradas quatro espécies, sendo Thermcyclops iguapensis espécie nova, que ocorreu nos reservatórios das UHGRHs Ribeira do Iguape e Paraíba do Sul. A descrição da espécie nova e a distribuição das quatro espécies são apresentadas, mostrando que Thermocyclops decipiens foi a espécie mais freqüente, ocorrendo em 71% dos corpos de água com região limnética desenvolvida. Esta espécie é característica de ambientes eutróficos, onde ocorre em grande número, e a espécie Thermocyclops minutus é característica de ambientes oligotróficos. Thermocyclops inversus e Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. não são espécies freqüentes, mas podem co-ocorrer com a espécie Thermocyclops decipiens.

W. M. Silva

2005-08-01

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Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species / Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram realizadas coletas em 207 corpos de água, distribuídos em 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos (UHGRH) do estado de São Paulo no período de 1999 a 2002, abrangendo grandes e pequenos reservatórios, lagoas marginais e grandes rios. Nestas coletas foram analisadas as espécies do gên [...] ero Thermocyclops quanto à taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e freqüência de ocorrência. O gênero Thermocyclops ocorreu em corpos de água com zona limnética bem desenvolvida e com raras exceções em ambientes estritamente litorâneos. Foram registradas quatro espécies, sendo Thermcyclops iguapensis espécie nova, que ocorreu nos reservatórios das UHGRHs Ribeira do Iguape e Paraíba do Sul. A descrição da espécie nova e a distribuição das quatro espécies são apresentadas, mostrando que Thermocyclops decipiens foi a espécie mais freqüente, ocorrendo em 71% dos corpos de água com região limnética desenvolvida. Esta espécie é característica de ambientes eutróficos, onde ocorre em grande número, e a espécie Thermocyclops minutus é característica de ambientes oligotróficos. Thermocyclops inversus e Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. não são espécies freqüentes, mas podem co-ocorrer com a espécie Thermocyclops decipiens. Abstract in english The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits [...] mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.

W. M., Silva; T., Matsumura-Tundisi.

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Ecologic and Geographic Distribution of Filovirus Disease  

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We used ecologic niche modeling of outbreaks and sporadic cases of filovirus-associated hemorrhagic fever (HF) to provide a large-scale perspective on the geographic and ecologic distributions of Ebola and Marburg viruses. We predicted that filovirus would occur across the Afrotropics: Ebola HF in the humid rain forests of central and western Africa, and Marburg HF in the drier and more open areas of central and eastern Africa. Most of the predicted geographic extent of Ebola HF has been obse...

Peterson, A. Townsend; Bauer, John T.; Mills, James N.

2004-01-01

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Ascidians at Currais islands, Paraná, Brazil: taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As Ilhas Currais são formadas por um grupo de três pequenas formações rochosas localizadas no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil, sendo um local de interesse para o estudo do grupo Ascidiacea. A diversidade da região sublitoral local é bastante alta, e Currais foi recentemente proposto como local a ser [...] transformado em Unidade de Conservação. Foi desenvolvido um estudo de campo na maior das três ilhas, com o intuito de se conhecer a distribuição espacial e temporal de ascídias. Foram realizadas três amostragens entre 2002 e 2003, nos lados norte e sul da ilha, em três diferentes profundidades. Vinte espécies foram registradas, sendo as mais comuns Didemnum rodriguesi, Didemnum speciosum e Didemnum granulatum. Três são possíveis espécies novas e serão descritas futuramente. Nove espécies representam novos registros para o Estado do Paraná: Perophora regina, Didemnum speciosum, Trididemnum orbiculatum, Eudistoma carolinense, Aplidium pentatrema, Molgula phytophila, Botryllus tuberatus, Symplegma brakenhielmi e Polyandrocarpa anguinea. As espécies encontram-se distribuídas principalmente entre a faixa dos seis aos 15 m, tendo sido observada uma redução da abundância em profundidades maiores de 15 m. Algumas espécies parecem preferir o lado norte da ilha. Algumas espécies apresentam variações temporais de abundância, sendo mais comuns ou na primavera ou no verão, mas não é possível ainda afirmar que exista um padrão sazonal entre anos. Abstract in english The Currais Islands is a group of a few small rocky islands in the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil, which provides an interesting location for the study of ascidians. Subtidal diversity is very high and the islands have recently been proposed as a Conservation Unit. A field study was established [...] on the largest island to understand ascidian distributions on spatial and temporal scales. Transects, sampled three times during 2002 and 2003, were established on northern and southern locations of the island as well as at three depths. Twenty species were recorded; the most common were Didemnum rodriguesi, Didemnum speciosum and Didemnum granulatum. Three species are possibly new and will be described elsewhere. An additional nine are new records for the state of Paraná: Perophora regina, Didemnum speciosum, Trididemnum orbiculatum, Eudistoma carolinense, Aplidium pentatrema, Molgula phytophila, Botryllus tuberatus, Symplegma brakenhielmi and Polyandrocarpa anguinea. While all these species are distributed between 6 and 15 m, there is a tendency to reduction of abundance towards 15 m in several species. Some species appear to prefer the north side of the island. Several species show temporal changes in abundance, with some being most common in the spring and others in the summer, but we can not affirm yet that there is a seasonal pattern between years.

Rosana Moreira da, Rocha; Suzana Barros de, Faria.

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Numerical Taxonomy Numerical Taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For some strange reason the attitudes of taxonomists and systematists towards the phrase "numerical taxonomy" fall into two extreme positions. On the one hand are those who think numerical taxonomy provides the only means of reaching objective conclusions, that any other approach to taxonomy is sterile, subjective, and really not quite scientific. At the other extreme are those taxonomists who think numerical taxonomy has no place in their science, that it is unclean or is likely to be the death of taxonomy.For some strange reason the attitudes of taxonomists and systematists towards the phrase "numerical taxonomy" fall into two extreme positions. On the one hand are those who think numerical taxonomy provides the only means of reaching objective conclusions, that any other approach to taxonomy is sterile, subjective, and really not quite scientific. At the other extreme are those taxonomists who think numerical taxonomy has no place in their science, that it is unclean or is likely to be the death of taxonomy.

Inger Robert F.

1973-09-01

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[Research perspectives and achievements in taxonomy and distribution of bats in China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese chiropterologists have made significant improvements into research on bat taxonomy and distribution. Overall, scholars recorded 6 new species of bats, alongside 11 species recorded species in the Chinese Mainland and 4 new bat species of Murina in Taiwan. Chinese chiropterologists intensively cooperated with the international experts on bats, and adopted several new, multidisciplinary methods to carry out their studies. Likewise, in China, an increased awareness of bat conservation has been growing. While publications on Chiroptera are continuing to increase increased in China, the methodology of these studies remains to be further developed in hopes of revealing the new and cryptic bat species. Considering the vast territory of China and the migrational habit of bats, we expect that with more refined methodology, more new species of bats and their distributions may be uncovered in the near future. Concurrently, it is important to reexamine the known species by the new taxonomic methods and fauna analysis through which the distribution and subdivision of bats can be updated. Additionally, an international platform for exchanging information of bats needs to be established to enhance the academic cooperation for bat researches. It is highly possible that China will soon become an important research center on taxonomy, distribution, phylogenetics and diversity evolution of Chiroptera, especially as Chinese researchers continues create new knowledge for bats at the ?, ? and ? taxonomic levels. PMID:24415704

Liu, Zhi-Xiao; Zhang, You-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Biao

2013-12-01

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A survey and taxonomy of distributed certificate authorities in mobile ad hoc networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Certificate authorities (CAs are the main components of PKI that enable us for providing basic security services in wired networks and Internet. But, we cannot use centralized CAs, in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. So, many efforts have been made to adapt CA to the special characteristics of MANETs and new concepts such as distributed CAs (DCAs have been proposed that distribute the functionality of CA between MANET nodes. In this article, we study various proposed DCA schemes for MANET and then classify these schemes according to their internal structures and techniques. Finally, we propose the characteristics of an ideal DCA system that can be used to verify the completeness of any DCA scheme. This classification and taxonomy identify the weakness and constraints of each scheme, and are very important for designing more secure, scalable, and high performance DCA systems for MANETs and other networks.

Jabbehdari Sam

2011-01-01

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Demography of birds in a neotropical forest: Effects of allometry, taxonomy, and ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative demographic studies of terrestrial vertebrates have included few samples of species from tropical forests. We analyzed 9 yr of mark-recapture data and estimated demographic parameters for 25 species of birds inhabiting lowland forests in central Panama. These species were all songbirds (Order Passeriformes) ranging in mass from 7 to 57 g. Using Jolly-Seber stochastic models for open populations, we estimated annual survival rate, population size, and recruitment between sampling periods for each species. We then explored relationships between these parameters and attributes such as body size, phylogenetic affiliation, foraging guild, and social behavior. Larger birds had comparatively long life-spans and low recruitment, but body size was not associated with population size. After adjusting for effects of body size, we found no association between phylogenetic affiliation and any demographic trait. Ecological attributes, especially foraging guild, were more clearly associated with interspecific variation in all demographic traits. Ant-followers had comparatively long life-spans, but species that participate in flocks did not live longer than solitary species. The allometric associations we observed were consistent with those demonstrated in other studies of vertebrates; thus. these relationships appear to be robust. Our finding that ecological factors were more influential than phylogenetic affiliation contrasts with comparative studies of temperate-zone birds and suggests that the relative importance of environmental vs. historical factors varies geographically.

Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.

1995-01-01

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The ecology and taxonomy of estuarine benthic diatoms and their use as bioindicators in a highly stratified estuary (Ebro Estuary, NE lberian Peninsula): a multidisciplinary approach = L’ecologia i la taxonomia de les diatomees bentòniques estuarianes i el seu ús com a bioindicadors en un estuari altament estratificat (l’estuari de l’Ebre, NE Península Ibèrica): un estudi multidisciplinari.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The general aim of the thesis was to improve knowledge of the ecology and taxonomy of estuarine benthic diatoms in a highly stratified Mediterranean estuary, in order to evaluate their potential use as bioindicators of this ecosystem. To achieve that, diatom community composition was described and the factors affecting its composition and distribution were elucidated. Once the main anthropogenic pressures in the Ebro Estuary had been established, the response of diatoms to these pressures was...

Rovira Torres, Laia

2013-01-01

19

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male and S. mucronata (both sexes. They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif

2009-01-01

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Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and Distribution of Their Host Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal endophytes – fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease – are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets.

Higginbotham, Sarah J.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Ibanez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Studies on the taxonomy and distribution of freshwater sponges in Lake Baikal.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the summers of 1993-2001, we carried out expeditions in order to collect sponges and to review their taxonomy and distribution in Lake Baikal. A total of 1,539 specimens were collected in our expeditions. Most specimens were classified into 2 families 7 genera, and 14 species, though some remained unclassified because of taxonomic confusion. Most sponges belonged to the family of Lubomirskiidae which were distributed widely in Lake Baikal. A few sponges with gemmules, which were confined to the "Little sea" near Olkhon Island and to an estuary in the North Basin, belonged to the Spongillidae. In qualitative survey of vertical distribution, B. intermedia showed the highest frequency among all species and found more often in shallow zones. L. baicalensis was second with regard to frequency and also found more often in shallow zones. Though S. papyracea had been believed to inhabit only deeper zones, it occurred in shallow zones as well. In this survey, the biomass of sponges at 10 m depth showed maximum value and showed the second largest at 20m depth. PMID:19198774

Masuda, Yoshiki

2009-01-01

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Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado) en Chile  

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ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South...

Bjerke, Jarle W.; ARVE ELVEBAKK; WANDA QUILHOT

2003-01-01

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Taxonomy and distribution of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Insecta from Cuba  

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Full Text Available Heteroptera is a worldwide distributed group of insects inhabiting both terrestrial and aquatic habitats and has an important ecological role. A survey of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera from Cuba is provided based on literature reports and field collections. General data on species geographical distribution are given, along with altitude and collection season. Representatives of 86 species and morphospecies of the infraorders Dipsocoromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha are listed, distributed in 35 genera and 16 families were found. Based on distributional data, a preference for habitats of stagnant water or slow current and lower altitudes is inferred. Fifteen species are distributed throughout the entire island. A higher species diversity was found in the Eastern sector, with 53 species (61.63%, 16 of which (18.60% are confined to this area. The strongest biological similarity was found between Eastern and Western sectors (25%, and the weakest between Western and Central sectors (14%. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 897-907. Epub 2010 September 01.Heteroptera es un grupo de insectos que se distribuyen en todo el mundo, viven en ambientes terrestres y acuáticos, en los que tienen un papel ecológico muy importante. Mediante la literatura y colecciones en el campo se estudiaron los Heterópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos de Cuba, junto con datos sobre la distribución geográfica de las especies, altitud y estaciones de colecta. Se enumeran representantes de 86 especies y morfospecies de los infraórdenes Dipsocoromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha, con un total de 35 géneros y 16 familias. Los datos de distribución muestran una preferencia por los ambientes de aguas lentas o estancadas y áreas de baja altitud. Quince especies se distribuyen en toda la isla; el sector Oriental es el mejor representado, con 53 especies (61.63%, 16 de ellas (18.60% confinadas a este sector. La similitud biológica más fuerte se encontró entre los sectores oriental y occidental (25% y la más débil entre los sectores occidental y central (14%.

Carlos Naranjo

2010-09-01

24

NCBI: Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The Taxonomy Database is a curated classification and nomenclature for all of the organisms in the public sequence databases. This currently represents about 10% of the described species of life on the planet.

NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information)

2012-01-20

25

Ecological distribution of stream macroalgae in different spatial scales using taxonomic and morphological groups  

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Full Text Available We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two drainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State , Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins, shading regime (open and shaded stream segments, mesohabitats (riffles and pools, and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05m2. A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments, while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments.

Rogério Antonio Krupek

2012-01-01

26

Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay. This paper provides comments on the subspecific taxonomy and geographic distribution of Sais rosalia (Cramer, 1779) (Lepidoptera, Nym [...] phalidae, Ithomiini), as well as an up-to-date distributional map, complemented with unpublished distributional data based on specimens deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus S. Moure, Curitiba, Brazil and the Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Peru. The following synonyms are proposed: Sais rosalia camariensis Haensch, 1905 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Papilio rosalia Cramer, 1779 and Sais rosalia brasiliensis Talbot, 1928 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Sais rosalia rosalinde Weymer, 1890. Additionally, the first country records of Sais rosalia in Paraguay, including the southernmost record of the species, are documented.

Ríos Díaz, Sergio D.; Dias, Fernando M. S.; Casagrande, Mirna M.; Mielke, Olaf H. H.; Lamas, Gerardo.

27

Metabolic profiles of countries and ecological distribution conflicts.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Social metabolism" is a notion that links up the natural sciences and the social sciences, and also human history. Work has been done by some groups in Europe in order to operationalize the old idea of looking at the economy from the point of view of "social metabolism". This paper is an attempt to consider the links between each society’s characteristic metabolic profile and the ecological distribution conflicts, at different scales (international, national, regional).

Marti?nez Alier, Joan

2004-01-01

28

The Dusky Large Blue â?? Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) in the Transylvanian basin: New data on taxonomy and ecology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maculinea nausithous (Bergsträsser, 1779) was recently discovered in two parts of the Transylvanian basin. External characters of these populations completely agree with the original description of Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) and show some small but constant differences against the Central European nominotypic populations. Since the habitats and host ant selection of these populations are also different from the Central European populations, we consider M. nausithous kijevensis stat. rev. as valid subspeci� c taxon. Specimens with the same external characters were also collected in northeastern Romania, in Kazakhstan and in the western part of the Altai Mts. Therefore we believe that this subspecies has a wider Euro-Siberian distribution.

Rákosy, Laszló; Tartally, András

2010-01-01

29

On the challenge of fitting tree size distributions in ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patterns that resemble strongly skewed size distributions are frequently observed in ecology. A typical example represents tree size distributions of stem diameters. Empirical tests of ecological theories predicting their parameters have been conducted, but the results are difficult to interpret because the statistical methods that are applied to fit such decaying size distributions vary. In addition, binning of field data as well as measurement errors might potentially bias parameter estimates. Here, we compare three different methods for parameter estimation--the common maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and two modified types of MLE correcting for binning of observations or random measurement errors. We test whether three typical frequency distributions, namely the power-law, negative exponential and Weibull distribution can be precisely identified, and how parameter estimates are biased when observations are additionally either binned or contain measurement error. We show that uncorrected MLE already loses the ability to discern functional form and parameters at relatively small levels of uncertainties. The modified MLE methods that consider such uncertainties (either binning or measurement error) are comparatively much more robust. We conclude that it is important to reduce binning of observations, if possible, and to quantify observation accuracy in empirical studies for fitting strongly skewed size distributions. In general, modified MLE methods that correct binning or measurement errors can be applied to ensure reliable results. PMID:23469137

Taubert, Franziska; Hartig, Florian; Dobner, Hans-Jürgen; Huth, Andreas

2013-01-01

30

First detection of African Swine Fever Virus in Ornithodoros porcinus in Madagascar and new insights into tick distribution and taxonomy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background African Swine Fever Virus has devastated more than the half of the domestic pig population in Madagascar since its introduction, probably in 1997-1998. One of the hypotheses to explain its persistence on the island is its establishment in local Ornithodoros soft ticks, whose presence has been reported in the past from the north-western coast to the Central Highlands. The aim of the present study was to verify such hypothesis by conducting tick examinations in three distinct zones of pig production in Madagascar where African Swine Fever outbreaks have been regularly reported over the past decade and then to improve our knowledge on the tick distribution and taxonomy. Results Ornithodoros ticks were only found in one pig farm in the village of Mahitsy, north-west of Antananarivo in the Central Highlands, whereas the tick seemed to be absent from the two other study zones near Ambatondrazaka and Marovoay. Using 16SrDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, it was confirmed that the collected ticks belonged to the O. porcinus species and is closely related to the O. p. domesticus sub-species Walton, 1962. ASFV was detected in 7.14% (13/182 of the field ticks through the amplification of part of the viral VP72 gene, and their ability to maintain long-term infections was confirmed since all the ticks came from a pig building where no pigs or any other potential vertebrate hosts had been introduced for at least four years. Conclusions Considering these results, O. porcinus is a reservoir for ASFV and most likely acts as vector for ASFV in Madagascar, but its apparent restricted distribution may limit its role in the epidemiology of the disease in domestic pigs.

Albina Emmanuel

2010-11-01

31

Biogeography and ecology of Cetraria aculeata, a widely distributed lichen with a bipolar distribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological and historical biogeography of lichens have rarely been studied in a concerted effort, but both aspects have to be taken into consideration when explaining the distributional patterns of species. This review summarizes, partly preliminary, results from a series of studies on phylogeography, ecophysiology and symbiotic interactions of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. This species is not only widespread but also occupies a very wide ecological niche. Evidence suggests that Cetraria acul...

Christian Printzen; Stephanie Domaschke; Fernando Fernández-Mendoza; Sergi? Pérez-Ortega

2013-01-01

32

Ecological distribution of stream macroalgae in different spatial scales using taxonomic and morphological groups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types) with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two dr [...] ainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State , Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins), shading regime (open and shaded stream segments), mesohabitats (riffles and pools), and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05m2). A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups) were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments), while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments) were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments.

Krupek, Rogério Antonio; Branco, Ciro Cesar Zanini.

33

A Taxonomy of Mixing and Outcome Distributions Based on Conjugacy and Bridging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The generalized linear mixed model is commonly used for the analysis of hierarchical non-Gaussian data. It combines an exponential family model formulation with normally distributed random effects. A drawback is the difficulty of deriving convenient marginal mean functions with straightforward parametric interpretations. Several solutions have been proposed, including the marginalized multilevel model (directly formulating the marginal mean, together with a hierarchical association structure)...

Kenward, Michael G.; Molenberghs, Geert

2013-01-01

34

Brazilian species of Onychophora with notes on their taxonomy and distribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A revision of the currently known distribution of Onychophora (velvet worms) in Brazil is presented. Twenty-four morphospecies (half of them undescribed) belonging to four genera of the Peripatidae (Peripatus Guilding, 1826, Epiperipatus Clark, 1913, Macroperipatus Clark, 1913 and Oroperipatus Cockerell, 1908) are recorded. This high number of "unidentified" morphospecies is due to three major reasons: the poor quality of the characters used in species-level identification, the inadequate spe...

Cristiano Sampaio-Costa; Amazonas Chagas-Junior; Baptista, Renner L. C.

2009-01-01

35

The scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha) of Tunisia: taxonomy, distribution and habitats  

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The present paper provides a review of the composition, distribution and habitat preferences of the scolopendromorph centipedes of Tunisia. Five (sub-)genera and 8 (sub-)species have hitherto been reported from the country, of which two are of uncertain status. After a study of significant amount of new material collected in the period 2003-2008, 6 species, namely Scolopendra canidens Newport, 1844, S. morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Cormocephalus gervaisianus (C.L. Koch, 1841), Otostigmus spinicau...

2008-01-01

36

[Taxonomy and distribution of the hermatypic corals (Scleractinia) of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico].  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of some recent detailed accounts about the scleractinian corals of the Archipiélago de Revillagigedo, taxonomic work on this fauna has been sparse. Consequently, solid taxonomic background is needed, especially to support further studies at community level. During five field trips (between 1990 and 1995) collections were made at different depths on three of the archipelago islands: Socorro, Clarión and San Benedicto. A total of 250 specimens were collected. Coral identifications were made using co-occurrence methods concomitant with their descriptions, diagnosis and illustrations from a number of publications, and with morphological analysis. Coral distributions were taken from literature. Twenty-two species of zooxanthellate scleractinian corals are described, with their local and world-wide geographic distribution, and each illustrated with macro and microphotographs. Keys to the genera and species of the archipelago are also included. Porites and Pocillopora exhibit the highest species richness with a great intraspecific variation, as well as a number of morphological convergences within and between species which form species complexes, and several new species and morphs. Clarion, the oldest and most isolated island of the archipelago, harbors a number of coral morphs that are probable new species. More than half of the species found at the Revillagigedos are distributed exclusively on oceanic islands of the eastern Pacific and close to one third exist only at this archipelago. The Revillagigedos have strong faunal similarities and share a number of endemics with Clipperton Atoll, all of which support the idea that these islands constitute a separate biogeographic subregion within the eastern Pacific. Lastly, the present document substantiates the hypothesis that the Revillagigedos are important stepping-stone islands for the migration of in-shore marine species from the Central to the eastern Pacific. PMID:12189813

Ketchum, J T; Reyes Bonilla, H

2001-01-01

37

Typha laxmannii Lepech. the new, expansive kenophyte in Poland: Distribution and taxonomy  

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Full Text Available The paper provides data on a new antropophyte species - Typha laxmannii Lepech. which spreads throughout Poland as a hemiagriophyte. Its present distribution in Poland is given on a cartogramme map in a 10×10 km square grid and its geographic element, population numbers and notes on habitats are provided. An identification key to 5 species of the Typha genus, two native, one new which is the topic of this paper, and two which can be expected to be discovered in Poland.

Agnieszka Nikel

2005-03-01

38

The scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha of Tunisia: taxonomy, distribution and habitats  

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Full Text Available The present paper provides a review of the composition, distribution and habitat preferences of the scolopendromorph centipedes of Tunisia. Five (sub-genera and 8 (sub-species have hitherto been reported from the country, of which two are of uncertain status. After a study of significant amount of new material collected in the period 2003-2008, 6 species, namely Scolopendra canidens Newport, 1844, S. morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Cormocephalus gervaisianus (C.L. Koch, 1841, Otostigmus spinicaudus (Newport, 1844, Cryptops punicus Silvestri, 1896 and C. trisulcatus Brölemann, 1902, were found in the country. New illustrations and, where appropriate, brief descriptions of the species are given, along with an identification key for the Tunisian scolopendromorphs. Cryptops anomalans Newport 1844, Scolopendra oraniensis Lucas, 1846 and S. cingulata Latreille, 1829 are excluded from the country’s list since all previous records are most likely based on misidentifications. Cryptops trisulcatus and C. punicus are recorded for the first time from Tunisia and Libya, respectively. The taxonomic position of C. punicus is discussed and the species is transferred from the subgenus Trigonocryptops to Cryptops. Scolopendra morsitans scopoliana is synonymised under S. morsitans. S. canidens, O. spinicaudus and C. punicus are well adapted to arid and semidesert biotopes and have much wider ranges compared to the other three species which are restricted to the northern, more humid parts of the country. S. canidens is the only myriapod in Tunisia found in a pure sandy desert.

Nesrine Akkari

2008-09-01

39

Brazilian species of Onychophora with notes on their taxonomy and distribution  

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Full Text Available A revision of the currently known distribution of Onychophora (velvet worms in Brazil is presented. Twenty-four morphospecies (half of them undescribed belonging to four genera of the Peripatidae (Peripatus Guilding, 1826, Epiperipatus Clark, 1913, Macroperipatus Clark, 1913 and Oroperipatus Cockerell, 1908 are recorded. This high number of "unidentified" morphospecies is due to three major reasons: the poor quality of the characters used in species-level identification, the inadequate specimen conservation in ethanol, and, in most cases, the lack of additional specimens for analysis of intra- and inter-specific variation. The morphological characters currently used to separate Peripatidae species present a large degree of variation and may not be sufficient to allow accurate identification. There are records of these animals from 16 states, located in four political regions of the country (North, Center-West, Northeast and Southeast. Oroperipatus balzani is recorded for the first time from Brazil. The southernmost record for Onychophora is Itacuruçá island, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State (E. edwardsii and the northernmost is Vila Tepequém, Amajari, Roraima State (Epiperipatus sp. 4. Considering the large territorial area of Brazil and the paucity of localities where Onychophora have been collected, we may expect a total diversity of these animals much larger than the currently known one.

Cristiano Sampaio-Costa

2009-09-01

40

Brazilian species of Onychophora with notes on their taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A revision of the currently known distribution of Onychophora (velvet worms) in Brazil is presented. Twenty-four morphospecies (half of them undescribed) belonging to four genera of the Peripatidae (Peripatus Guilding, 1826, Epiperipatus Clark, 1913, Macroperipatus Clark, 1913 and Oroperipatus Cocke [...] rell, 1908) are recorded. This high number of "unidentified" morphospecies is due to three major reasons: the poor quality of the characters used in species-level identification, the inadequate specimen conservation in ethanol, and, in most cases, the lack of additional specimens for analysis of intra- and inter-specific variation. The morphological characters currently used to separate Peripatidae species present a large degree of variation and may not be sufficient to allow accurate identification. There are records of these animals from 16 states, located in four political regions of the country (North, Center-West, Northeast and Southeast). Oroperipatus balzani is recorded for the first time from Brazil. The southernmost record for Onychophora is Itacuruçá island, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State (E. edwardsii) and the northernmost is Vila Tepequém, Amajari, Roraima State (Epiperipatus sp. 4). Considering the large territorial area of Brazil and the paucity of localities where Onychophora have been collected, we may expect a total diversity of these animals much larger than the currently known one.

Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Chagas-Junior, Amazonas; Baptista, Renner L. C..

 
 
 
 
41

Taxonomy and distribution of Formica dusmeti Emery, 1909 and of F. frontalis Santschi, 1919 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae  

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Full Text Available In the present work, we indicate the distribution of and taxonomic differences between Formica dusmeti and Formica frontalis (stat. n.. Morphological differences include a total absence of hairs in F. dusmeti as opposed to uniformly scattered hairs in F. frontalis. These two species have similar coloration and hairless scapes and eyes. In addition, we describe the male and female of F. frontalis, a species that was considered until now to be a subspecies of F. truncorum. We consider F. frontalis to be a separate species from F. truncorum, differentiated by a lack of hairs on the eyes, scapes and genae in the workers of the former. The males of F. frontalis are distinguished from F. truncorum by hairless eyes and scapes. Finally, a key has been formulated for the workers in the rufa, sanguinea and exsecta groups of the genus Formica in the Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se señalan las diferencias existentes entre Formica dusmeti y Formica frontalis (stat. n. y su distribución. Estas diferencias estriban en la ausencia total de quetas en F. dusmeti y la presencia de numerosas quetas uniformemente distribuidas en F. frontalis. Estas dos especies presentan en común la coloración y la ausencia de quetas en escapo y ojos. Describimos el macho y la hembra de F. frontalis, especie que era considerada hasta ahora como subespecie de F. truncorum. En este artículo la elevamos a especie y la diferenciamos de F. truncorum por la ausencia de quetas en los ojos, escapos y genas de las obreras. Los machos se diferencian también por la ausencia de quetas en ojos y escapos. Por último se realiza una clave para las obreras de la Península Ibérica de las especies de Formica de los grupos rufa, sanguinea y exsecta.

Martínez-Ibáñez, Mª. D.

1998-12-01

42

Packaging and distributing ecological data from multisite studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies of global change and other regional issues depend on ecological data collected at multiple study areas or sites. An information system model is proposed for compiling diverse data from dispersed sources so that the data are consistent, complete, and readily available. The model includes investigators who collect and analyze field measurements, science teams that synthesize data, a project information system that collates data, a data archive center that distributes data to secondary users, and a master data directory that provides broader searching opportunities. Special attention to format consistency is required, such as units of measure, spatial coordinates, dates, and notation for missing values. Often data may need to be enhanced by estimating missing values, aggregating to common temporal units, or adding other related data such as climatic and soils data. Full documentation, an efficient data distribution mechanism, and an equitable way to acknowledge the original source of data are also required.

Olson, R.J.; Voorhees, L.D.; Field, J.M.; Gentry, M.J.

1996-10-01

43

Microbial biogeography: from taxonomy to traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biogeographic variation of life has predominantly been studied using taxonomy, but this focus is changing. There is a resurging interest in understanding patterns in the distribution not only of taxa but also of the traits those taxa possess. Patterns of trait variation shed light on fundamental questions in biology, including why organisms live where they do and how they will respond to environmental change. Technological advances such as environmental genomics place microbial ecology in a unique position to move trait-based biogeography forward. We anticipate that as trait-based biogeography continues to evolve, micro- and macroorganisms will be studied in concert, establishing a science that is informed by and relevant to all domains of life. PMID:18497288

Green, Jessica L; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Whitaker, Rachel J

2008-05-23

44

Infra-specific folk taxonomy in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in Ethiopia: folk nomenclature, classification, and criteria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations. Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.

Mekbib Firew

2007-12-01

45

A revision of distribution and the ecological description of Orobanche picridis (Orobanchaceae at the NE limit of its geographical range from Poland and Ukraine  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the current distribution of Orobanche picridis in Poland and Ukraine, within the Polish borders in the interwar period, based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as the results of my field studies. The largest number of its localities is in S and SE Poland in the Wy?yna ?l?sko-Krakowska, Wy?yna Ma?opolska, Wy?yna Lubelska uplands, Middle Roztocze, Small Polesie, the Pogórze Przemyskie foreland and in the former Tarnopol province (W Ukraine. These are the north-easternmost sites known for the species and extend its limit range. A map of its distribution in Poland and Ukraine is included. The taxonomy, biology, and ecology of O. picridis are also discussed.

Renata Piwowarczyk

2012-03-01

46

Uses and Requirements of Ecological Niche Models and Related Distributional Models  

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Full Text Available Abstract.—Modeling approaches that relate known occurrences of species to landscape features to discover ecological properties and predict geographic occurrences have seen extensive recent application in ecology, systematics, and conservation. A key component in this process is estimation or characterization of species’ distributions in ecological space, which can then be useful in understanding their potential distributions in geographic space. Hence, this process is often termed ecological niche modeling or (less boldly species distribution modeling. Applications of this approach vary widely in their aims, products, and requirements; this variety is reviewed herein, examples are provided, and differences in data needs and possible interpretations are discussed.

A. Townsend Peterson

2006-01-01

47

Projecting date palm distribution in Iran under climate change using topography, physicochemical soil properties, soil taxonomy, land use, and climate data  

Science.gov (United States)

This study set out to model potential date palm distribution under current and future climate scenarios using an emission scenario, in conjunction with two different global climate models (GCMs): CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS), and MIROC-H (MR), and to refine results based on suitability under four nonclimatic parameters. Areas containing suitable physicochemical soil properties and suitable soil taxonomy, together with land slopes of less than 10° and suitable land uses for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) were selected as appropriate refining tools to ensure the CLIMEX results were accurate and robust. Results showed that large regions of Iran are projected as likely to become climatically suitable for date palm cultivation based on the projected scenarios for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2100. The study also showed CLIMEX outputs merit refinement by nonclimatic parameters and that the incremental introduction of each additional parameter decreased the disagreement between GCMs. Furthermore, the study indicated that the least amount of disagreement in terms of areas conducive to date palm cultivation resulted from CS and MR GCMs when the locations of suitable physicochemical soil properties and soil taxonomy were used as refinement tools.

Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit; Taylor, Subhashni

2014-01-01

48

Distribution and ecology of Bulinus truncatus in Khuzestan, Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a 5-year study on the distribution and ecology of Bulinus truncatus in Khuzestan, south-western Iran, are described. Live snails were found in 4 foci, namely, the main focus, the upper Karun River, the lower Karkheh River, and the Bala Rud watershed; in addition, dead snails were found in 3 other foci. The patchy distribution of snails was related to the presence of surface waters and to their chemical composition.Monthly observations on the population dynamics of the snails and on the role of the snails in the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium and S. bovis were carried out in 14 ponds, 9 canals, 5 swamps, 2 field drains, 1 spring and 1 stream-pool. In standing waters, the peak of snail population could potentially occur in 2 seasons-May-July and November-January-but the main seasons for the transmission of mammalian schistosome cercariae were April-May and October-November. In flowing waters, a higher number of snails might be found in summer in some canals and in winter in another group of canals. Canals were found to be more important sites of transmission of human schistosomes than were village ponds. Transmission took place mainly in hot months when man-water contacts were greatest. Village ponds accessible to livestock were found to be important in the transmission of bovine schistosomiasis. As new irrigation systems have been expanding in this area of Khuzestan, more attention should be paid to flowing waters than to standing waters in future schistosomiasis control programmes. PMID:5304436

Chu, K Y; Massoud, J; Arfaa, F

1968-01-01

49

Distribution and ecology of Bulinus truncatus in Khuzestan, Iran*  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a 5-year study on the distribution and ecology of Bulinus truncatus in Khuzestan, south-western Iran, are described. Live snails were found in 4 foci, namely, the main focus, the upper Karun River, the lower Karkheh River, and the Bala Rud watershed; in addition, dead snails were found in 3 other foci. The patchy distribution of snails was related to the presence of surface waters and to their chemical composition. Monthly observations on the population dynamics of the snails and on the role of the snails in the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium and S. bovis were carried out in 14 ponds, 9 canals, 5 swamps, 2 field drains, 1 spring and 1 stream-pool. In standing waters, the peak of snail population could potentially occur in 2 seasons—May—July and November—January—but the main seasons for the transmission of mammalian schistosome cercariae were April—May and October—November. In flowing waters, a higher number of snails might be found in summer in some canals and in winter in another group of canals. Canals were found to be more important sites of transmission of human schistosomes than were village ponds. Transmission took place mainly in hot months when man—water contacts were greatest. Village ponds accessible to livestock were found to be important in the transmission of bovine schistosomiasis. As new irrigation systems have been expanding in this area of Khuzestan, more attention should be paid to flowing waters than to standing waters in future schistosomiasis control programmes.

Chu, K. Y.; Massoud, J.; Arfaa, F.

1968-01-01

50

Interpretation of Models of Fundamental Ecological Niches and Species’ Distributional Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling?that is, estimation of the dimensions of fundamental ecological niches of species?to predict their geographic distributions is increasingly being employed in systematics, ecology, conservation, public health, etc. This technique is often (of necessity based on data comprising records of presences only. In recent years, many modeling approaches have been devised to estimate these interrelated expressions of a species’ ecology, distributional biology, and evolutionary history?nevertheless, in many cases, a formal basis in ecological and evolutionary theory has been lacking. In this paper, we outline such a formal basis for the suite of techniques that can be termed ‘ecological niche modeling,’ analyze example situations that can be modeled using these techniques, and clarify the interpretation of results.

Jorge Soberon

2005-01-01

51

Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales, variables associated with climate, energy, and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity. Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens. The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS, simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR, conditional autoregressive models (CAR, spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. To test the assumption of stationarity, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used. Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa, particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique. We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/ energy hypotheses, and as we expected, support varied among bat families and model selection. Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families. Altitude range was the only independent variable that was sig­nificant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness. Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models, while those of SEVM models differed. Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationa­rity was violated, the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models. Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges, and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3: 279–293, 2013].

M. Corrie SCHOEMAN, F. P. D. (Woody COTTERILL, Peter J. TAYLOR, Ara MONADJEM

2013-06-01

52

The NCBI Taxonomy database  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The NCBI Taxonomy database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) is the standard nomenclature and classification repository for the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising the GenBank, ENA (EMBL) and DDBJ databases. It includes organism names and taxonomic lineages for each of the sequences represented in the INSDC’s nucleotide and protein sequence databases. The taxonomy database is manually curated by a small group of scientists at the NCBI who use th...

2012-01-01

53

On the Ecology and Distribution of Ixoid Ticks in Plantation Forests of the Ukrainian Steppe Zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among ixodid ticks of plantation forests the following species were widespread: I. ricinus, R. rossicus, and D. marginatus, which have a broad ecological and geographical distribution. The presence of Hyalomma plumbeum and Haemaphysalis punctata was recor...

S. M. Brovko

1969-01-01

54

Distribution and Ecology of Cytotypes of the Aster amellus Aggregates in the Czech Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

• Background and Aims Polyploidy is viewed as an important mechanism of sympatric speciation, but only a few studies have documented patterns of distribution and ecology of different cytotypes in their contact zone. Aster amellus agg. (Asteraceae) is one of the species with documented multiple ploidy levels. The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and ecology of two cytotypes, diploid (2n = 18) and hexaploid (2n = 54), of Aster amellus agg. at their contact zone in the C...

Manda?kova?, Terezie; Mu?nzbergova?, Zuzana

2006-01-01

55

Taxonomy of Replay Attacks.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a taxonomy of replay attacks on cryptographic protocols in terms of message origin and destination. The taxonomy is independent of any method used to analyze or prevent such attacks. It is also complete in the sense that any replay att...

P. Syverson

1994-01-01

56

Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids.

Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

2013-11-01

57

Geographic Distributions and Ecology of Ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20x20 m. A total of five species were found including C...

Sutthira Khumkratok; Kriangsuk Boongtiang; Prasit Chutichudet; Pairot Pramaul

2012-01-01

58

Warfare Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho;); Thor Hanson (University of Idaho;)

2008-09-01

59

Taxonomies of Organizational Knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper systematizes organizational knowledge, starting from the classical dichotomy of tacit and explicit, and outlining the importance of these taxonomies, which may seem reductive, in properly understanding the nature of organizational knowledge and operating with it in business.

2008-01-01

60

Brucella taxonomy and evolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taxonomy and nomenclature represent man-made systems designed to enhance understanding of the relationship between organisms by comparison of discrete sets of properties. Initial efforts at bacterial taxonomy were flawed as a result of the previous use of nonsystematic approaches including common names resulting in confusing and inaccurate nomenclature. A decision was made to start afresh with bacterial nomenclature and to avoid the hazards experienced in the taxonomic classification of highe...

Ficht, Thomas

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Taxonomy of Handover Activities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Handover of software systems is a critical stage in the system lifecycle. Despite this, it is still an under researched area. In this paper, we have developed an initial taxonomy of activities for software handover. Our taxonomy consists of seven process components where each component clusters logically coherent activities. The process components are Management and Administration, Maintenance Environment, Version and Configuration Management, Deployment, Training, Documentation and, Maintai...

Khan, Ahmad Salman; Kajko-mattsson, Mira

2010-01-01

62

Review: Ecological distribution of Dipterocarpaceae species in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dipterocarpaceae is one of the biggest family with >500 species in the world, and most of dipterocarps population are grown in Indonesia which have high economical value of wood. One of the most important value from dipterocarps species is high on endemicities; there are up to 128 species (53.78% from 238 dipterocarps species in Indonesia. Distribution of dipterocarps species would be affected by some factors especially edaphic, climate, and altitude. In Indonesia the dipterocarps species distribution could be shown from islands groups, number of species and forest types. Based on the observation of herbarium collection in Herbarium Bogoriense the distribution of the most dipterocarps species was in the altitude of 0-500 m and 500-1000 m on the dipterocarps forest type. Kalimantan and Sumatra were the two bigger islands with have the dipterocarps species distributed relatively high on population and species.

PURWANINGSIH

2004-07-01

63

Distribution and ecology of charophytes in the Baltic Sea.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Charophytes form a highly evolved, unique group of benthic macroalgae, which has a worldwide distribution in fresh and brackish waters. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution and seasonal growth pattern of charophytes in the Baltic Sea area and determine the importance of the key environmental factors and invertebrate grazing on the development of charophyte communities. This thesis is focused on two species – the charophytes Chara connivens Salzm. ex A. Braun and Chara tomen...

Torn, Kaire

2008-01-01

64

Octaviania asterosperma (hypogeous Basidiomycota. Recent data to ecology and distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses place Octaviania asterosperma in the Boletales, with Leccinum being the closest relative. Results of the structural investigation of O. asterosperma ectomycorrhiza with Fagus sylvatica confirm this systematic position. In Europe the species is an ectomycorrhizal partner of broad-leaved trees, such as Carpinus, Corylus, Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. This paper aims at presenting the new data to the distribution of O. asterosperma in Central Europe. The description of the basidiocarps discovered in Poland in the recent years is also given, together with evidence for the parasitic relationship of Sepedonium laevigatum with O. asterosperma. We also present the information concerning all known localities of the species in Poland and its distribution map. Data on the ecologz, distribution and status O. asterosperma in Europe, and some structural aspects of basidiocarps and spores, are also summarized.

Piotr Mleczko

2010-12-01

65

Gametophytic Plasticity among Four Species of Ferns with Contrasting Ecological Distributions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of this study were to test the hypothesis that plasticity of life history traits is greater among species with broad ecological distributions than among species with narrow ecological distributions and to determine whether homosporous filicalean fern gametophytes exhibit adaptively meaningful responses to soil substrates. Sporophyte populations of Asplenium platyneuron and Polystichum acrostichoides have broader ecological distributions and were therefore expected to exhibit a greater amount of gametophytic plasticity than either Asplenium rhizophyllum or Diplazium pycnocarpon. Changes in reproductive effort (i.e., gametangia mm-2) were investigated across the four following soil treatments, which represent major edaphic environments on which sporophyte populations of these species occur: stream bank, Pinus strobus canopy, oak forest ridge top, and soil from a lime-bearing rock outcrop. Our results failed to support the "ecological breadth" hypothesis. Three of the four species-A. rhizophyllum, D. pycnocarpon, and P. acrostichoides-exhibited similar amounts and directions of plasticity, with reproductive effort greatest in treatments that were unfavorable to growth; A. platyneuron exhibited the least amount of plasticity. Nevertheless, species-specific patterns in gametophytic size and reproductive effort reflected the distributions of their sporophytic counterparts. Plasticity of size-related reproductive effort may be common among homosporous filicalean fern gametophytes because of their short life spans and limited capacity for vegetative competition. PMID:10506469

Greer; McCarthy

1999-09-01

66

Distribution and ecology of the mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Flanders (Belgium)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A literature survey and the identification of all available collection material resulted in a checklist and distribution maps for the mayflies occurring in Flanders. In addition, the relationship between the occurrence of mayflies and water characteristics was analysed. Of the 32 species that have been recorded, six are now extinct in Flanders (three of which are potamal species), while the majority of the remaining species are rare and their populations are often strongly isolated and theref...

Lock, Koen; Goethals, Peter

2011-01-01

67

Ecology of Legionella pneumophila within water distribution systems.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reservoir for hospital-acquired Legionnaires disease has been shown to be the potable water distribution system. We investigated the influence of the natural microbial population and sediment (scale and organic particulates) found in water systems as growth-promoting factors for Legionella pneumophila. Our in vitro experiments showed that: (i) water from hot-water storage tank readily supported the survival of L. pneumophila, (ii) the concentration of sediment was directly related to the ...

Stout, J. E.; Yu, V. L.; Best, M. G.

1985-01-01

68

Distribution and ecology of the caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Flanders (Belgium)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on a literature survey and the identification of all available collection material, a checklist and distribution maps for the caddisflies occurring in Flanders were prepared. Of the 126 species that have been recorded, 16 arc now extinct in Flanders, while the majority of the remaining species is rare and their populations are often vulnerable due to isolation. Caddisflies only occurred at high oxygen levels and relatively low conductivities and three species assemblages could be recogn...

2012-01-01

69

Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae), taxonomia e distribuição geográfica no Brasil / Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae), taxonomy and geographical distribution in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees) Grolle é uma espécie urbanizada que cresce, preferencialmente, sobre estipe de palmeira ou outras árvores. Sua distribuição geográfica foi ampliada para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e, também, para municípios de outros estados já referidos. Algumas associações da espé [...] cie com outras briófitas são apresentadas. Dados palinológicos, baseados em observações sob microscopia de luz (ML) e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), também estão incluídos no trabalho. Abstract in english Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees) Grolle is an urbanized species that grows preferentially on palm-tree trunks and other trees. Its geographical distribution was extended to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, also, to cities of other aforementioned states. Some associations of these species with other [...] bryophytes are presented. Palynological data, based on observations under light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), are also included.

Olga, Yano; Andréa Pereira, Luizi-Ponzo.

70

Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae, taxonomia e distribuição geográfica no Brasil Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae, taxonomy and geographical distribution in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees Grolle é uma espécie urbanizada que cresce, preferencialmente, sobre estipe de palmeira ou outras árvores. Sua distribuição geográfica foi ampliada para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e, também, para municípios de outros estados já referidos. Algumas associações da espécie com outras briófitas são apresentadas. Dados palinológicos, baseados em observações sob microscopia de luz (ML e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, também estão incluídos no trabalho.Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees Grolle is an urbanized species that grows preferentially on palm-tree trunks and other trees. Its geographical distribution was extended to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, also, to cities of other aforementioned states. Some associations of these species with other bryophytes are presented. Palynological data, based on observations under light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, are also included.

Olga Yano

2006-12-01

71

Distribution, ecology, and immunosuppressive properties of Tricholoma populinum (Basidiomycetes).  

Science.gov (United States)

Tricholoma populinum is widely distributed in Europe and North America. In the GDR 110 localities have been recorded, ranging from sea level to 470 m s.m. It is associated with many Populus spp. on acidic and neutral ground; its frequency has locally increased by recultivation of slap-dumps and waste land with poplars. Maximum of fructification is in the first decade of October. Investigations, stimulated by empiric observations on immunosuppressive effects of the mushroom in allergic diseases of man, lead to isolation of ergosterol peroxide as one substance responsible for these effects. PMID:2220166

Kreisel, H; Lindequist, U; Horak, M

1990-01-01

72

Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

Gulinck Hubert

2008-10-01

73

ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF BEECH WOODLANDS IN THE CENTRAL APENNINE THROUGH FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF ELLENBERG INDICATORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Habitats are often described using a phytosociological approach, meaning that plant communities are classified through a floristic data set. As this approach is based exclusively on a floristic assemblage analysis, much of the ecological information about the species may be lost. For this reason, Ellenberg indicators (EIV are used to incorporate the information provided by vegetation relevés; for each species, the EIVs express the ecological requirements for seven main environmental factors. Based on that assumption, this study focuses on the use of EIVs in detecting discriminants in a homogeneous habitat (via similarity-dissimilarity tests for each Ellenberg indicator. This helps to identify the key ecological factors structuring the vegetation. The study area is located in the Upper Sangro Valley in the central Apennines (Abruzzo region where 94 phytosociological relevés and pedological profiles were carried out in beech and mixed woodlands. Based on a flora set, the Cluster Analysis divided the vegetation relevés into seven groups which are floristically distinguished. For each of the groups, the frequency distribution of the single EIV of all the recorded species in each relevé was compared through a non-parametric test which delivered the probability of two distributions being the same. Combining the results of the two different analyses we were able to rearrange the outcome of the cluster analysis into an ecological classification, which was then confirmed by field data on soil parameters.

G. FANELLI

2010-01-01

74

Ecological Factors Affecting the Distribution of Woody Vegetation Near the Arkansas River, Tulsa County  

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Full Text Available Ecological factors affecting plant distribution were studied over different rock strata and slope exposures above the Arkansas River, Tulsa County. Here the Wann sandstone caprock is underlain by the Iola limestone formation. The vegetation was analyzed taxonomically by a complete collection throughout one growing season. Belt transects crossing rock strata on all slope exposures permitted computation of parameters summarized by an Importance Percentage for each woody species. Differences in species populations and degree of mesophytism exist on the slope exposures. Sandstone upland dominants are post and blackjack oaks. Smoke-tree, rare in Oklahoma, and chinquapin oak are closely associated in limestone microhabitats, where each occupies a separate niche. The smoke-tree, of disjunct distribution, appears to be a relict of widespread occurrence in past geologic periods. Its survival with limited ecological amplitude is due to the continuance of the microhabitats to which it is so well adapted.

Anne Wanamnaker Long

2004-12-01

75

[Investigation on wild resources of Dendrobium officinale distribution and ecological envirment in Anhui].  

Science.gov (United States)

The wild resources of Dendrobium officinale in Anhui province were studied by textural research, data collection, interview survey and regional survey, in order to investigate the resources distribution and ecological characters and provide the reference for Anhui Dendrobium industry. In this paper, a part of producing areas of wild D. officinale in Anhui province was selected to analyze the ecological characters. As a result, we find that the wild resources of D. officinale in Anhui distributed only sporadic and the conditions of growth environment were harsh. Our findings may provide some suggestions on wild resources protection and artificial cultivation in suitable environments because the wild resources of D. officinale in Anhui are decreasing rapidly and facing an endangered situation. PMID:24791481

Jin, Yan-Yan; Fang, Cheng-Wu; Yang, Qi-Qing; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Chuan-Biao; Zhang, Ming-Yan; Wang, Wu; Wang, Lin

2013-12-01

76

Particulate Organic Matter Distribution along the Lower Amazon River: Addressing Aquatic Ecology Concepts Using Fatty Acids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the greatest challenges in understanding the Amazon basin functioning is to ascertain the role played by floodplains in the organic matter (OM) cycle, crucial for a large spectrum of ecological mechanisms. Fatty acids (FAs) were combined with environmental descriptors and analyzed through multivariate and spatial tools (asymmetric eigenvector maps, AEM and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM). This challenge allowed investigating the distribution of suspended particulate o...

Mortillaro, Jean-michel; Rigal, Franc?ois; Rybarczyk, Herve?; Bernardes, Marcelo; Abril, Gwenae?l; Meziane, Tarik

2012-01-01

77

Species abundance distributions and richness estimations in fungal metagenomics - lessons learned from community ecology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results of diversity and community ecology studies strongly depend on sampling depth. Completely surveyed communities follow log-normal distribution, whereas power law functions best describe incompletely censused communities. It is arguable whether the statistics behind those theories can be applied to voluminous next generation sequencing data in microbiology by treating individual DNA sequences as counts of molecular taxonomic units (MOTUs). This study addresses the suitability of species ...

2011-01-01

78

Ecological Niche Modeling to Estimate the Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is transmitted predominately by the mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The primary reservoirs of the virus are wading birds, with swine serving as amplifying hosts. Despite the development of a JEV vaccine, people remain unvaccinated in endemic countries and are susceptible to JEV infection. The distribution of the JEV vector(s) provides essential information for preventive measures. This study used an ecological niche modeling program to predict the distribu...

Miller, Robin H.; Masuoka, Penny; Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-chul; Somer, Todd; Grieco, John

2012-01-01

79

Residues, Distributions, Sources, and Ecological Risks of OCPs in the Water from Lake Chaohu, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The levels of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water from Lake Chaohu were measured by a solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer detector. The spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of the OCPs were analyzed. The annual mean concentration for the OCPs in Lake Chaohu was 6.99?ng/L. Aldrin, HCHs, and DDTs accounted for large proportions of the OCPs. The spatial pollution followed the order of Central Lakes?>?Wester...

Liu, Wen-xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-zhen; He, Qi-shuang; Ouyang, Hui-ling; Yang, Bin; Wang, Qing-mei; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-jiao; Wu, Wen-jing; Xu, Fu-liu

2012-01-01

80

Geographic Distributions and Ecology of Ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae in Northeastern Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20x20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp. forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand.

Prasit Chutichudet

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Species abundance distributions and richness estimations in fungal metagenomics--lessons learned from community ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of diversity and community ecology studies strongly depend on sampling depth. Completely surveyed communities follow log-normal distribution, whereas power law functions best describe incompletely censused communities. It is arguable whether the statistics behind those theories can be applied to voluminous next generation sequencing data in microbiology by treating individual DNA sequences as counts of molecular taxonomic units (MOTUs). This study addresses the suitability of species abundance models in three groups of plant-associated fungal communities - phyllosphere, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We tested the impact of differential treatment of molecular singletons on observed and estimated species richness and species abundance distribution models. The arbuscular mycorrhizal community of 48 MOTUs was exhaustively sampled and followed log-normal distribution. The ectomycorrhizal (153 MOTUs) and phyllosphere (327 MOTUs) communities significantly differed from log-normal distribution. The fungal phyllosphere community in particular was clearly undersampled. This undersampling bias resulted in strong sensitivity to the exclusion of molecular singletons and other rare MOTUs that may represent technical artefacts. The analysis of abundant (core) and rare (satellite) MOTUs clearly identified two species abundance distributions in the phyllosphere data - a log-normal model for the core group and a log-series model for the satellite group. The prominent log-series distribution of satellite phyllosphere fungi highlighted the ecological significance of an infrequent fungal component in the phyllosphere community. PMID:21155911

Unterseher, Martin; Jumpponen, Ari; Opik, Maarja; Tedersoo, Leho; Moora, Mari; Dormann, Carsten F; Schnittler, Martin

2011-01-01

82

Genomic taxonomy of vibrios  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome...

Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Alves, Nelson Jr; Ussery, David; Iida, Tetsuya; Thompson, Fl

2010-01-01

83

The integrative future of taxonomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[Background]: Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. [Results]: Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives...

Padial, Jose? M.; Miralles, Aure?lien; Riva, Ignacio La; Vences, Miguel

2010-01-01

84

Potential ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats in Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis, an often-fatal tick-borne apicomplexan that infects domestic cats, has not been evaluated or identified despite its continued emergence. Infection of C. felis is characterized by lethargy, icterus, fever, anorexia, anemia, and death. The natural vertebrate reservoir of C. felis is the bobcat (Lynx rufus). To determine the possible distribution of C. felis in three states where infection is common (Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas), two separate approaches to ecological niche modeling were implemented. First, a model relating several different climatic layers to geographic locations where cases of C. felis infection were confirmed in domestic cats was developed to predict the possible distribution of the parasite. The second model incorporated occurrences of bobcats with environmental layers and land cover suitable for tick vectors to identify areas of overlap where C. felis transmission was likely. Results of both models indicated a high probability of C. felis from central Oklahoma to south-central Missouri. However, other predicted areas of C. felis occurrence varied between the two modeling approaches. Modeling the vertebrate reservoir and the tick vector predicted a broader possible distribution compared to modeling cases of C. felis infection in domestic cats. Our results suggest that C. felis is likely to extend beyond areas predicted by case modeling due to the presence of both the vector and reservoir. PMID:23131576

Mueller, Elisha K; Baum, Kristen A; Pape?, Monica; Cohn, Leah A; Cowell, Annette K; Reichard, Mason V

2013-02-18

85

The Ecology of Diatoms in Hardwater Habitats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diatoms comprise the major group of algae in Iowa waters. Their ecological significance, important in pollution evaluation studies, cannot be fully appreciated without a thorough knowledge of their taxonomy. A scale for abundance rating was used giving at...

J. D. Dodd

1971-01-01

86

Roles of thermal adaptation and chemical ecology in Liriomyza distribution and control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many Liriomyza species are pests of agricultural and ornamental plants. In the past two decades, the occurrence and distribution of certain Liriomyza species have changed dramatically, leading to an extensive body of research papers. First, we review the association of thermal tolerance with population dynamics, geographic distribution, and species displacement. Differences in thermal tolerances between species result in their differential geographic locations and overwintering ranges. Displacements among Liriomyza species are associated with their temperature adaptation. We examine the chemical linkage of plants, Liriomyza, and their parasitoids. Chemical compounds from host and nonhost plants mediate the behavior of Liriomyza and their parasitoids. Liriomyza and their parasitoids use chemical cues to locate their hosts. Induced compounds can be used as attractants of parasitoids or repellents of Liriomyza. Thus, understanding the thermal tolerances and chemical ecology of Liriomyza may enable researchers to predict geographic distribution and to develop novel control strategies. PMID:18710304

Kang, Le; Chen, Bing; Wei, Jia-Ning; Liu, Tong-Xian

2009-01-01

87

Progress of soil radionuclide distribution studies for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group: 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two nuclear sites have been under intensive study by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) during 1980 and 1981, NS201 in area 18 and NS219,221 in area 20. In support of the various studies Los Alamos National Laboratory (Group LS-6) has provided consultation and evaluations relative to radionuclide distributions in soils inundated with radioactive debris from those tests. In addition, a referee effort was also conducted in both analysis of replicate samples and in evaluating various data sets for consistency of results. This report summarizes results of several of the data sets collected to test certain hypotheses relative to radionuclide distributions and factors affecting calculations of hypotheses relative to radionuclide distributions and factors affecting calculations of radionuclide inventories and covers the period February 1980 to May 1981.

Essington, E.H.

1981-01-01

88

Problems of the radiocaesium distribution in several components of forest ecological systems and bog ecological systems as well as in deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Germany the south-western part of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg was most heavily affected by the Chernobyl fallout of radiocaesium. The contamination of agricultural food was decreasing in a short time to a harmless level; on the other hand, in special regions there is high contamination of deer, of some species of fungi, of berries and of the browsing of deer up to now. Restrictions in shooting should be taken into account in the time interval of highest contamination. Increasing the supply with minerals, e. g. by mineral fertilizers, is a possible way to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium in natural ecological systems. To develop an efficient measuring management for agricultural foodstuff or for deer, mushrooms and other food from natural ecological systems or forest ecological systems it is necessary to distribute the measuring stations in the areas of the highest contamination and to evaluate the data by computer programs

1994-06-06

89

Distribution and ecology of Ostracodes from 34 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Ostracodes (bivalved Crustaceans) inhabit nearly all aquatic environments from the marine realm to continental freshwater bodies and represent important bio-indicators since their calcific shells are readily preserved in the lake sediments in high numbers. Furthermore they record a plentifulness of information about palaeoenvironments. This data can be used for reconstructing climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. We obtained 112 surface sediment samples from 34 lakes on the plateau to investigate distribution and ecology of ostracodes for understanding the implications of aquatic environmental factors on the distribution of ostracodes. There were 12 species identified: Candona candida, Candona xizangensis, Fabaeformiscandona gyirongensis, Potamocypris villosa, Heterocypris sp. , Eucypris gyirongensis, Ilyocypris sp. , Cytherissa lacustris, Leucuocythere dorsotuberosa, Leucocytherella sinensis, and Limnocythere inopinata. Corresponding environmental factors including water depth, specific conductivity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored in various lakes. The range of specific conductivity was between 275 and 202000 ?S/cm. A Principle Component Analysis (PCA) depicted that ostracode diversity gained high relations with specific conductivity (r = -0.43) and dissolved oxygen (r = 0.43). This indicated that specific conductivity could be the main factor driving the distribution of ostracodes on the Tibetan Plateau. Keywords: Ostracodes, Tibetan Plateau, lacustrine sediment, ecology, diversity

Peng, P.; Fürstenberg, S.; Frenzel, P.; Guo, Y.; Zhu, L.; Gifty-Akita, L.

2013-12-01

90

Ocean distribution, feeding ecology, and return of Pacific salmon in the 1997 El Nino event year  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the 1997 El Nino event on the offshore distribution, migration and feeding ecology of Pacific salmon in the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea, and on the return pattern of Japanese chum salmon, was studied. The run pattern of adult chum salmon showed extreme fluctuation by area and run timing. The 1997 abundance and return rate of early runs was significantly increased in the Okhotsk and Nemuro regions compared to the previous five-year means but the abundance and return rate of Japan Sea populations and some of the late runs was decreased. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Kaeriyama, M. [Hokkaido Tokai Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Urawa, S.; Fukuwaka, M. [National Salmon Resources Centre, Nakanoshima, Sapporo (Japan); Myers, K.W.; Davis, N.D. [Washington Univ., Fisheries Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Takagi, S.; Ueda, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Faculty of Fisheries, Hakodate, Hokkaido (Japan); Nagasawa, K.; Ishida, Y. [National Research Inst. of Far Seas Fisheries, Shimizu, Shizuoka (Japan)

1998-12-31

91

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

Spotila, J.R.

1992-11-01

92

Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

Beatley, J.C.

1976-01-01

93

Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution, sources and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu were studied. Results showed that the measured heavy metals had varied spatial distribution patterns, indicating that they had complex origins and controlling factors. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that the total phosphorus and the loss on ignition were positively correlated with the measured metals except Cd. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb might originate from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater, whereas As predominantly originated from natural processes. Potential ecological risk indices indicated that sediment from Wuli Lake, Gonghu Bay and the Northwest Area suffered high pollution, whereas other areas of Lake Taihu were moderately polluted. A comparison of metal levels with the effects range low (ERL) and effects range median (ERM) showed that metals exceeded their corresponding ERL limit at 13.6–72.3% (72.3% for As, 52.4% for Pb, 27.7% for Cu, 22.8% for Cd, 16.0 for Hg and 13.6% for Cr) of the sites investigated. Moreover, 3.90% and 0.50% of the sites sampled exceeded the ERM thresholds for Hg and Pb, respectively.

2011-10-01

94

Ecological distribution and population physiology defined by proteomics in a natural microbial community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An important challenge in microbial ecology is developing methods that simultaneously examine the physiology of organisms at the molecular level and their ecosystem level interactions in complex natural systems.We integrated extensive proteomic, geochemical, and biological information from 28 microbial communities collected from an acid mine drainage environment and representing a range of biofilm development stages and geochemical conditions to evaluate how the physiologies of the dominant and less abundant organisms change along environmental gradients. The initial colonist dominates across all environments, but its proteome changes between two stable states as communities diversify, implying that interspecies interactions affect this organism s metabolism. Its overall physiology is robust to abiotic environmental factors, but strong correlations exist between these factors and certain subsets of proteins, possibly accounting for its wide environmental distribution. Lower abundance populations are patchier in their distribution, and proteomic data indicate that their environmental niches may be constrained by specific sets of abiotic environmental factors. This research establishes an effective strategy to investigate ecological relationships between microbial physiology and the environment for whole communities in situ

Muller, R [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Denef, Vincent [University of California, Berkeley; Kalnejals, Linda [University of California, Berkeley; Suttle, K Blake [Imperial College, London; Thomas, Brian [University of California, Berkeley; Wilmes, P [University of California, Berkeley; Smith, Richard L. [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; Nordstrom, D Kirk [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; McCleskey, R Blaine [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

2010-01-01

95

Harnessing the world's biodiversity data: promise and peril in ecological niche modeling of species distributions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances allow harnessing enormous stores of biological and environmental data to model species niches and geographic distributions. Natural history museums hold specimens that represent the only information available for most species. Ecological niche models (sometimes termed species distribution models) combine such information with digital environmental data (especially climatic) to offer key insights for conservation biology, management of invasive species, zoonotic human diseases, and other pressing environmental problems. Five major pitfalls seriously hinder such research, especially for cross-space or cross-time uses: (1) incorrect taxonomic identifications; (2) lacking or inadequate databasing and georeferences; (3) effects of sampling bias across geography; (4) violation of assumptions related to selection of the study region; and (5) problems regarding model evaluation to identify optimal model complexity. Large-scale initiatives regarding data availability and quality, technological development, and capacity building should allow high-quality modeling on a scale commensurate with the enormous potential of and need for these techniques. PMID:22352858

Anderson, Robert P

2012-07-01

96

Geographical ecology of the palms (Arecaceae): determinants of diversity and distributions across spatial scales  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background The palm family occurs in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Palms are of high ecological and economical importance, and display complex spatial patterns of species distributions and diversity. Scope This review summarizes empirical evidence for factors that determine palm species distributions, community composition and species richness such as the abiotic environment (climate, soil chemistry, hydrology and topography), the biotic environment (vegetation structure and species interactions) and dispersal. The importance of contemporary vs. historical impacts of these factors and the scale at which they function is discussed. Finally a hierarchical scale framework is developed to guide predictor selection for future studies. Conclusions Determinants of palm distributions, composition and richness vary with spatial scale. For species distributions, climate appears to be important at landscape and broader scales, soil, topography and vegetation at landscape and local scales, hydrology at local scales, and dispersal at all scales. For community composition, soil appears important at regional and finer scales, hydrology, topography and vegetation at landscape and local scales, and dispersal again at all scales. For species richness, climate and dispersal appear to be important at continental to global scales, soil at landscape and broader scales, and topography at landscape and finer scales. Some scaleâ??predictor combinations have not been studied or deserve further attention, e.g. climate on regional to finer scales, and hydrology and topography on landscape and broader scales. The importance of biotic interactions â?? apart from general vegetation structure effects â?? for the geographic ecology of palms is generally underexplored. Future studies should target scaleâ??predictor combinations and geographic domains not studied yet. To avoid biased inference, one should ideally include at least all predictors previously found important at the spatial scale of investigation.

Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.

2011-01-01

97

Cluster size distributions: signatures of self-organization in spatial ecologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three different lattice-based models for antagonistic ecological interactions, both nonlinear and stochastic, exhibit similar power-law scalings in the geometry of clusters. Specifically, cluster size distributions and perimeter-area curves follow power-law scalings. In the coexistence regime, these patterns are robust: their exponents, and therefore the associated Korcak exponent characterizing patchiness, depend only weakly on the parameters of the systems. These distributions, in particular the values of their exponents, are close to those reported in the literature for systems associated with self-organized criticality (SOC) such as forest-fire models; however, the typical assumptions of SOC need not apply. Our results demonstrate that power-law scalings in cluster size distributions are not restricted to systems for antagonistic interactions in which a clear separation of time-scales holds. The patterns are characteristic of processes of growth and inhibition in space, such as those in predator-prey and disturbance-recovery dynamics. Inversions of these patterns, that is, scalings with a positive slope as described for plankton distributions, would therefore require spatial forcing by environmental variability. PMID:12079527

Pascual, Mercedes; Roy, Manojit; Guichard, Frédéric; Flierl, Glenn

2002-05-29

98

Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran. Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN. Vegetation was classified into different groups. The topographic conditions were recorded in quadrate locations. Soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. Soil acidity, bulk density, saturation moisture, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchangeable capacity, available phosphorous, soil texture, lime, biomass of earthworms, litter carbon and litter nitrogen were measured. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patters were mainly related to soil characteristics such as pH, bulk density, texture, phosphorous, organic carbon, nitrogen and CEC. Totally, considering the habitat conditions and ecological needs, each plant species has a significant relation with soil properties.

Y. Kooch

2007-01-01

99

Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest), located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in th [...] e study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species) and Polypodiaceae (22 species). The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species) and Thelypteris (9 species). Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

Pereira, Anna Flora de Novaes; Silva, Ivo Abraão Araújo da; Santiago, Augusto César Pessôa; Barros, Iva Carneiro Leão.

100

Ecological segregation drives fine-scale cytotype distribution of Senecio carniolicus in the Eastern Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to uncover patterns and processes of segregation of co-existing cytotypes, we investigated a zone in the eastern Alps (Austria) where diploid and hexaploid individuals of the alpine herb Senecio carniolicus Willd. (Asteraceae) co-occur. Linking the fine-scale distribution of cytotypes to environmental and spatial factors revealed segregation along an ecological gradient, which was also reflected in the cytotype-associated plant assemblages. Compared to diploids, hexaploids are found in more species-rich and denser communities. This may be due to their better competitive ability and lower tolerance of abiotic stress compared to the diploids. The lack of any intermediate cytotypes suggests the presence of strong reproductive isolation mechanisms, whose nature is, however, elusive.

Hulber, Karl; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Flatscher, Ruth; Berger, Andreas; Dobrovsky, Rainer; Niessner, Sophie; Nigl, Thomas; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Kubesova, Magdalena; Rauchova, Jana; Suda, Jan; Schonswetter, Peter

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ecological Distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray-A New Exotic Weed in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray was studied in six states of the southwestern Nigeria using three locations in each of the States. The presence of T. diversifolia was recorded in all the States and locations surveyed in varying numbers with associated weeds. Survey data were analysed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA. The first two ordination axes of the DCA accounted for 67.2% (Axis 1, 40.6%; Axis 2, 26.6% of variance on the site and species components. The DCA separated Ogun State locations from others. T. diversifolia was found to be closely associated with Boerhavia coccinea, Fleurya ovaliflora, Indigofera subulata, Merremia dissecta, Mimosa pudica, Momordica foetida, Phyllanthus mimosoides, other species of Phyllanthus, Physalis angulata, Schrankia leptocarpa and Sesbania parchycarpa in Ekiti, Lagos, Ondo, Osun and Oyo States while these species were absent in Ogun State.

K.S. Chukwuka

2007-01-01

102

Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ecological study of the microfungi occurring in the various forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India has been carried-out by the soil plate technique. Soil samples from 5 different forest communities viz., moist deciduous forest dominated by tree ferns, Diospyros forest, Terminalia forest, Shorea forest and scrub forest dominated by Acacia and Dalbergia sp. were collected during October, 1983. Some physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were analysed and their role in distribution of fungi in 5 soil types was studied and discussed. 43 fungal species were isolated, of which Asperigillus niger I and Penicillium janthinellum occurred in all the 5 soil types. Statistically, none of the edaphic factors showed positive significant correlation with the number of fungi.

Shashi Chauhan

1985-06-01

103

Vertical distribution and ecology of vascular epiphytes in a lowland tropical rain forest of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated the vertical distribution and ecology of vascular epiphytes. Ten trees were sampled within the Brazilian National Forest of Caxiuanã, Brazil, using single rope climbing techniques. In total, 476 epiphyte individuals were sampled distributed over 60 species and 19 families. Alpha diversity (Fisher’s alpha of the vascular epiphytes was 18.16. Trees were divided into six separate height zones, species and families were distributed in a clear vertical zonation pattern which was confirmed by both a Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Weighted Averaging (WA. Araceae and Orchidaceae showed a similar pattern to sites in Guyana and French Guiana. However, the Pteridophyte/Angiosperm ratio was far higher and no Bromeliaceae were found. Furthermore, trees in the study area appeared to contain a relative small number of epiphytes; nevertheless, overall species richness was relatively high. Only one species (Elaphoglossum styriacum Mickel appeared to be a true indicator species for a specific height zone, because this species had far more sampled individuals. Other species could not be considered as indicator species, because they were far less abundant.

Edwin Theodoor Pos

2010-12-01

104

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

A. P. Palacz

2013-05-01

105

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources

Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael

2013-01-01

106

Taxonomy and distribution of the green algal genus Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in Brazil Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero de algas verdes Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) no Brasil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Halimeda is a genus of calcified coenocytic green algae with a well known ecological importance in some tropical areas. Bleached calcified segments of Halimeda may accumulate in large deposits of economic potential as is the case in the northeastern coast of Brazil. In a survey of the genus in Brazil based on recent collections and examination of abundant material deposited on Brazilian herbaria we identified seven species: Halimeda cuneata Hering, H. discoidea Decaisne, H. gracilis Harvey ex...

Maria Elizabeth Bandeira-Pedrosa; Pereira, Sonia M. B.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

2004-01-01

107

Microbial genomic taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A need for a genomic species definition is emerging from several independent studies worldwide. In this commentary paper, we discuss recent studies on the genomic taxonomy of diverse microbial groups and a unified species definition based on genomics. Accordingly, strains from the same microbial species share >95% Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), >95% identity based on multiple alignment genes, ?70% in silico Genome-to-Genome Hybridization similarity (GGDH). Species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) and supertree analysis. In addition to the established requirements for species descriptions, we propose that new taxa descriptions should also include at least a draft genome sequence of the type strain in order to obtain a clear outlook on the genomic landscape of the novel microbe. The application of the new genomic species definition put forward here will allow researchers to use genome sequences to define simultaneously coherent phenotypic and genomic groups. PMID:24365132

Thompson, Cristiane C; Chimetto, Luciane; Edwards, Robert A; Swings, Jean; Stackebrandt, Erko; Thompson, Fabiano L

2013-01-01

108

Racial taxonomy in genomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the reflexive, biosocial nature of genomic meaning making around race, drawing on discourse analysis of 732 articles on genomics and race published from the years 1986-2010, in-depth interviews with 36 of the world's most elite genomics researchers, interviews with 15 critics, policymakers, and trainees involved in debates over race, and participant observation at a core genotyping facility that specializes in ancestry estimation. I reveal how biomedical researchers identify with, value, and make sense of the taxonomies they construct. My analysis goes beyond a consideration of instrumental rationales to analyze the experiential and political motivations that shape how researchers get involved in racial ethical dilemmas. I theorize taxonomic practice as a reflexive form of biosociality, a conscious shaping of social notions about biology and race to produce a future that researchers themselves want to live in. I demonstrate how reflexive biosociality paradoxically leads researchers to advance social explanations for race while investing in genomics as a solution to racial quandaries. PMID:21840637

Bliss, Catherine

2011-10-01

109

The distribution, abundance and ecology of the blue coral Heliopora coerulea (Pallas) in the Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Heliopora coerulea (Alcyonaria, Coenothecalia), widespread since the Cretaceous, is today found in the Indo-Western Pacific between 25° N and 25° S but is uncommon throughout most of its range. Studies around its reported southern and eastern limits of distribution (Great Barrier Reef, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Western Samoa, Tuvalu, Gilbert Group) suggest that ocean temperature (a lower marginal isotherm of 22°C), duration of larval life-span, prevailing currents, and the geological and climatic history of isolated archipelagoes determine distribution. Heliopora was found to be far more abundant in the equatorial Central Pacific sites (Tuvalu and Gilbert growps) than in the Western Pacific (Great Barrier Reef, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Ponape, Palau). Heliopora comprised up to 16% of beach sediments in Tuvalu atolls, and was the dominant coral (averaging 40% of substrate between 6 m and 10 m on reef slopes) in coral assemblages on Tarawa Atoll. From ecological studies in Tarawa it is suggested that competition from the more specialized and “aggressive” Scleractinia (particularly Acroporidae and Faviidae) is the major factor limiting abundance in the equatorial Western Pacific.

Zann, Leon P.; Bolton, Lesley

1985-09-01

110

Ecology Drives the Distribution of Specialized Tyrosine Metabolism Modules in Fungi  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene clusters encoding accessory or environmentally specialized metabolic pathways likely play a significant role in the evolution of fungal genomes. Two such gene clusters encoding enzymes associated with the tyrosine metabolism pathway (KEGG #00350) have been identified in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The l-tyrosine degradation (TD) gene cluster encodes a functional module that facilitates breakdown of the phenolic amino acid, l-tyrosine through a homogentisate intermediate, but is also involved in the production of pyomelanin, a fungal pathogenicity factor. The gentisate catabolism (GC) gene cluster encodes a functional module likely involved in phenolic compound degradation, which may enable metabolism of biphenolic stilbenes in multiple lineages. Our investigation of the evolution of the TD and GC gene clusters in 214 fungal genomes revealed spotty distributions partially shaped by gene cluster loss and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Specifically, a TD gene cluster shows evidence of HGT between the extremophilic, melanized fungi Exophiala dermatitidis and Baudoinia compniacensis, and a GC gene cluster shows evidence of HGT between Sordariomycete and Dothideomycete grass pathogens. These results suggest that the distribution of specialized tyrosine metabolism modules is influenced by both the ecology and phylogeny of fungal species.

Greene, George H.; McGary, Kriston L.; Rokas, Antonis; Slot, Jason C.

2014-01-01

111

[Ecological distribution patterns of soil microbes under artificial Eucalyptus grandis stand].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to find out the ecological distribution patterns of soil microbes under artificial Eucalyptus grandis stand, the amount and distribution of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in Hongya County of Sichuan Province were investigated in 2004. The results showed that soil microbial population under Eucalyptus grandis stand varied with seasons, being the maximum in autumn, fewer in spring, and the minimum in summer. The numbers were decreased in order of bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi, which were mainly concentrated in 0-20 cm soil layer, and rapidly decreased with increasing soil depth. In 0-60 cm soil layer, the numbers of aerobic bacteria were 0. 31 x 10(6) - 14.39 x 10(6), actinomycetes were 0.06 x 10(6) - 0.79 x 10(6), fungi were 0.06 x 10(6) - 0.79 x 10(6), and anaerobes were 0.05 x 10(6) - 3.22 x 10(6) CFU x g(-1). Comparing with artificial C. glauca stand and farming land, Eucalyptus grandis stand had a larger number of soil microbes, suggesting that Eucalyptus grandis was benefit for soil microbial activity. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener index of the physiological groups of bacteria was 0.773 and 1.896, respectively. PMID:16262052

Feng, Jian; Zhang, Jian

2005-08-01

112

Predicting the Current and Future Potential Distributions of Lymphatic Filariasis in Africa Using Maximum Entropy Ecological Niche Modelling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modelling the spatial distributions of human parasite species is crucial to understanding the environmental determinants of infection as well as for guiding the planning of control programmes. Here, we use ecological niche modelling to map the current potential distribution of the macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Africa, and to estimate how future changes in climate and population could affect its spread and burden across the continent. We used 508 community-specific infe...

Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin

2012-01-01

113

Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the view...

2012-01-01

114

Fine-Scale Distribution Patterns of Synechococcus Ecological Diversity in Microbial Mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-tim vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to °2' pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O2 concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes.

Becraft, Eric D.; Cohan, Frederick M.

2011-01-01

115

Fine-Scale Distribution Patterns of Synechococcus Ecological Diversity in Microbial Mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-tim vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to °2' pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O2 concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes.

Becraft, Eric D.; Cohan, Frederick M.

2011-01-01

116

Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-?m vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to O?, pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O? concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes. PMID:21890675

Becraft, Eric D; Cohan, Frederick M; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I; Ward, David M

2011-11-01

117

Taxonomy and distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in Venezuela: II. The subgenus Trichopygomyia of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) Taxonomía y distribución geográfica de los flebótomos en Venezuela: II. El Subgénero Trichopygomyia del género Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Species of sandflies in the subgenuys Trichopygomyia of the genus Lutzomyia occurring in Venezuela are reviewd. A new species, Lutzomyia pinna n. sp. is described. A distribution map and a pictorial key for maleds are provided with remarks on the ecological data collected in Venezuela.Se hace una revisión de las especies de flebótomos del género Trichopygomyia, registradas hasta el presente en Venezuela. Se describe un nuevo taxon, Lutzomyia pinna n. sp. elevándose a 4 el número de e...

1989-01-01

118

Taxonomy and distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in Venezuela: I. The Oswaldoi species group of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) Taxonomía y distribución geográfica de los flebótomos en Venezuela: I. El grupo oswaldoi del género Lutzomyia (Dipetera: Psichodidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Species of sandflies in the oswaldoi-group of the genus Lutzomyia occuring in Venezuela are reviewed. A new species, Lutzomyia saccai n. sp. is described. A distribution map and pictorial keys for males and females are provided with notes on biological and ecological data collected in Venezuela.Se hace una revisión de las especies de flebótomos del grupo oswaldoi del género Lutzomyia, has el momento registradas en Venezuela. Se describe una nueba especie, Lutzomyia saccai n. sp. Se pro...

1989-01-01

119

Applied Ecology Seminar. Training Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is material on planning, administering, collecting, evaluating, interpreting, and reporting biological data related to water quality studies in both fresh and marine waters. Topics include aquatic ecology, water pollution, taxonomy, bacteriology, bioassays, water quality enhancement, and administration of water quality standards. Each of…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

120

Micromamíferos (Didelphimorphia y Rodentia) del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina): Taxonomía y distribución / Small mammals (Didelphimorphia and Rodentia) from southwestern Buenos Aires province, Argentina: Taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Species of small mammals from southwestern Buenos Aires province range within a wide variety of habitats, herbaceous (Pampean District), shrubs (Monte District), steppes, and xerophytic woodlands (Espinal District). Their natural history is still poorly known. In this paper we make a synthesis of th [...] e taxonomy and distribution of the marsupials (Marmosinae) and rodents (Sigmodontinae) of southwestern Buenos Aires province. Distributional records and taxonomical information were obtained from field survey, analyses of raptor pellets, revision of specimens housed in collections in Argentina, and literature. Between Sierra de la Ventana (38º S) and the río Negro (41ºS) occur two species of marmosines and 14 of sigmodontine rodents. Some of these species show a restricted distribution (e.g., Phyllotis xanthopygus, endemic for Sierra de la Ventana), and others are widespread (e.g. Akodon azarae or Calomys musculinus) across different phytogeographic units. A cluster analysis at local scale shows an ordination of small mammal assemblages with the topology (Sierra de la Ventana + Southern AtlanticCoast) (Espinal + Monte). The zoogeographic unicity of the Monte in the study area is evidenced by two sigmodontines, Akodon iniscatus and Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. The micromammal assemblage of Sierra de la Ventana may be characterized as pampasic. The wide distribution of A. azarae and C. musculinus may reflect the anthropic activities developed during the last century. These activities on shrub steppe have certainly diluted the original zoogeographic boundaries and allowed the dispersion of opportunistic sigmodontine species.

Ulyses F. J., Pardiñas; Agustín M., Abba; Mariano L., Merino.

 
 
 
 
121

Biomonitors and the assessment of ecological impacts: Distribution of herbivorous epifauna in contaminated macroalgal beds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determined metal contents of co-occurring algae Padina crassa and Sargassum sp. in Port Jackson (Australia), and relationships between metal levels and the abundance of epifaunal amphipods. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations were amongst the highest yet recorded in these algae. Copper, manganese and lead concentrations were far greater in P. crassa than Sargassum sp., possibly due to the low growth of P. crassa in proximity to contaminated sediments. However, in manipulative experiments the proximity of algae to sediments did not explain these differences. The abundance of herbivorous amphipods correlated negatively with the copper content of P. crassa, but not with the lower concentrations in Sargassum sp. The greater contamination of P. crassa led to patchy distributions of metals in algal beds and recolonisation experiments showed Sargassum sp. acts as a refuge from contaminants for epifauna. The contamination of macroalgae may pose threats to epifauna in harbours around the world. - The accumulation of metals by macroalgae may pose ecological threats to herbivorous epifauna in ports and harbours worldwide

2008-11-01

122

Biogeographical distribution and ecological ranges of benthic cyanobacteria in East Antarctic lakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, the cyanobacterial diversity from microbial mats in lakes of Eastern Antarctica was investigated using microscopic and molecular approaches. The present study assessed the biogeographical distribution of cyanobacteria in Antarctica. Five samples were taken from four lakes spanning a range of different ecological environments in Larsemann Hills, Vestfold Hills and Rauer Islands to evaluate the influence of lake characteristics on the cyanobacterial diversity. Seventeen morphospecies and 28 16S rRNA gene-based operational taxonomic units belonging to the Oscillatoriales, Nostocales and Chroococcales were identified. The internal transcribed spacer was evaluated to complement the 16S rRNA gene data and showed similar but more clear-cut tendencies. The molecular approach suggested that potential Antarctic endemic species, including a previously undiscovered diversity, are more abundant than has been estimated by morphological methods. Moreover, operational taxonomic units, also found outside Antarctica, were more widespread over the continent than potential endemics. The cyanobacterial diversity of the most saline lakes was found to differ from the others, and correlations between the sampling depth and the cyanobacterial communities can also be drawn. Comparison with database sequences illustrated the ubiquity of several cyanobacterial operational taxonomic units and their remarkable range of tolerance to harsh environmental conditions. PMID:16867145

Taton, Arnaud; Grubisic, Stana; Balthasart, Pierre; Hodgson, Dominic A; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Wilmotte, Annick

2006-08-01

123

Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of sediments, attention has seldom been paid to the problem in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to find the distribution and ecological risk of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in surface sediment of Baiyangdian which is the biggest wetland in Northeast China. We apply three methodologies. The first is literature analysis comparing total concentrations of heavy metals with other water bodies around world. The second is Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (EQSS), National Environmental Protection Agency of China 1995, and the third is Soil and Aquatic Sediment Guidelines and Standards issued by New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The results show that compared to other water bodies around the world, the seven heavy metals are low. However, Cd was found in the most polluting level of EQSS near a village and was second grade some distance from it. The village was also the most polluted site of Zn,which was in the second grade. When assessed by NYSDEC, Cu, Cr, and As contaminated the sediment and with moderate impacts on benthic life while Pb, Hg, and Zn were found at tolerable levels throughout Baiyangdian. The centre of Cu and Cr contamination was also near the village. As is the most polluting heavy metals with a major occurrence in the middle of the wetland. There were no heavy metals creating severe disturbance to the benthic communities. Based on the assessment, this article proposes different options for more sustainable management.

Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling

2011-01-01

124

Prevalence and distribution of ocular onchocerciasis in three ecological zones in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) sponsored a baseline study in Nigeria between 1998 and 1999 on the prevalence and distribution of Onchocerciasis. The randomly selected 1,064 subjects in the baseline study underwent detailed eye examination in Cross River (rain forest), Taraba (savanna) and Kogi (forest-savanna) States. This paper compares and contrasts the public health significance of ocular onchocerciasis in these ecological zones. A blindness prevalence of 2.4% was recorded in the study, onchocerciasis being responsible for 30.2% of the bilaterally blind subjects. Onchocerciasis-induced blindness prevalence was relatively high in the rain forest and forest savanna zones of Cross River and Kogi States, Cross River having the highest site-specific prevalence (50.0%), followed by Kogi (41.7%). Taraba recorded only 27.3%. Other conditions identified included glaucoma, optic nerve disease and cataract rates of which were also found to be high among the population (6.9%, 6.5 % and 8.9% respectively). Anterior segment onchocercal lesions, punctate and sclerosing keratitis were the predominant features of the infection in the savanna zone (14.1% and 6.3% respectively), while posterior segment lesions were much more common in the forest zone. The need to sustain the present efforts to control onchocerciasis through mass ivermectin treatment is recommended. PMID:21735992

Umeh, R E; Mahmoud, A O; Hagan, M; Wilson, M; Okoye, O I; Asana, U; Biritwum, R; Ogbu-Pearce, P; Elhassan, E; Yaméogo, L; Braideo, E I; Seketeli, A

2010-12-01

125

[Species diversity and ecological distribution of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria].  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important discovery in microbiology and environmental sciences, which can simultaneously remove NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N, being valuable in environmental engineering. However, anaerobic ammonium oxidizers are extremely slow-growing, and their population's doubling time is longer than 11 days, which seriously restricts the application of anammox process. Therefore, the study of anammox bacteria is of significance. It has been proved that besides planctomycetes, the first recognized anammox bacteria, both nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria are also capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. These anammox bacteria have wide-spread habitats, which offered a chance to exploit new bacterial resources for anammox. Nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria have the function of anammox, and their metabolic diversity provides a basis to speed up the start-up of anammox reactor. It was revealed that anaerobic digestion sludge can present anammox activity, with sulphate as electron acceptor. The new bioreaction lays a foundation for the development of novel N-removal biotechnology, being conducive to the development and application of anammox to get more bacterial resources for anammox and to make clear the ecological distribution of anammox bacteria. PMID:19803186

Chen, Ting-Ting; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Bao-Lan

2009-05-01

126

Biomonitors and the assessment of ecological impacts: Distribution of herbivorous epifauna in contaminated macroalgal beds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We determined metal contents of co-occurring algae Padina crassa and Sargassum sp. in Port Jackson (Australia), and relationships between metal levels and the abundance of epifaunal amphipods. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations were amongst the highest yet recorded in these algae. Copper, manganese and lead concentrations were far greater in P. crassa than Sargassum sp., possibly due to the low growth of P. crassa in proximity to contaminated sediments. However, in manipulative experiments the proximity of algae to sediments did not explain these differences. The abundance of herbivorous amphipods correlated negatively with the copper content of P. crassa, but not with the lower concentrations in Sargassum sp. The greater contamination of P. crassa led to patchy distributions of metals in algal beds and recolonisation experiments showed Sargassum sp. acts as a refuge from contaminants for epifauna. The contamination of macroalgae may pose threats to epifauna in harbours around the world. - The accumulation of metals by macroalgae may pose ecological threats to herbivorous epifauna in ports and harbours worldwide.

Roberts, David A. [Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)], E-mail: d.roberts@student.unsw.edu.au; Johnston, Emma L.; Poore, Alistair G.B. [Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2008-11-15

127

A Taxonomy for Teaching Second Language Listening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a taxonomy of real-world listening tasks as a conceptual framework for teaching listening in a second language, and discusses the implications of the taxonomy for the design of listening instruction and the selection of authentic texts. The key elements of the taxonomy are listener function and listener response. (26 references)…

Lund, Randall J.

1990-01-01

128

Dynamic taxonomies and faceted search  

CERN Multimedia

Current access paradigms for the Web, i.e., direct access via search engines or database queries and navigational access via static taxonomies, have recently been criticized because they are too rigid or simplistic to effectively cope with a large number of practical search applications. A third paradigm, dynamic taxonomies and faceted search, focuses on user-centered conceptual exploration, which is far more frequent in search tasks than retrieval using exact specification, and has rapidly become pervasive in modern Web data retrieval, especially in critical applications such as product selec

Sacco, Giovanni Maria

2009-01-01

129

A taxonomy fuzzy filtering approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our work proposes the use of topic taxonomies as part of a filtering language. Given a taxonomy, a classifier is trained for each one of its topics. The user is able to formulate logical rules combining the available topics, e.g. (Topic1 AND Topic2) OR Topic3, in order to filter related documents in a stream. Using the trained classifiers, every document in the stream is assigned a belief value of belonging to the topics of the filter. These belief values are then aggregated using logical ope...

Vrettos S.; Stafylopatis A.

2003-01-01

130

Measurement of ecological niche of Quercus aliena and Q. serrata under environmental factors treatments and its meaning to ecological distribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quercus aliena and Q. serrata are both occur as natural vegetation alongside natural freshwater bodies of the southernKorea Peninsula. Q. serrata dominates over Q. aliena as secondary forest vegetation in the present day. In order to explainthese natural distributional traits of the oak species, we conducted some experiments with oak seedlings which treatedwith major important environmental resources, including light, moisture and nutrients, under controlled conditions.We then measured the ec...

2012-01-01

131

Ecological attributes and distribution of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana Lamb. Holmboe] in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to determine ecoregions and the effect of ecological properties on natural distribution of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana Lamb. (Holmboe)] in Turkey. The results suggest that 6 ecoregions exist and climate, parent material, topography, anthropogenic factors, floristic composition, competition are ecological factors that determine the distribution of Black pine in Turkey. But, climatic elements such as precipitation and temperature are the dominant factors. The six ecoregions with different characteristics have been identified and distribution ofAnatolian black pine revealed depending on ecological features of each region. Each region has its own characteristics that affect the growth and distribution of black pine. Productive black pine forest are found on the subhumid-semiarid areas receiving humid air mass coming from the seas either on northern or southern coastal mountains of Turkey. The poor and/or lowest productive stands occur in the semiarid parts of Inner Anatolia. Black pine can grow on all material in the semi-arid and sub-humid cold climates, but deep weatheared parent materials are the best for growing of black pine. PMID:23424857

Atalay, Ibrahim; Efe, Recep

2012-04-01

132

Amerind taxonomy and testable hypotheses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acceptance of a 30,000 yr B.P. age for Valsequillo sets new parameters for hypotheses of Paleoindian entry into America. A review of Amerind taxonomy defines the early groups as Otamid-Sundadonts. Isolation in America led to an adaptive radiation that has implications for the origin and dispersal of Pithecanthropus. PMID:9653503

Pichardo, M

1998-06-01

133

A Taxonomy of Technical Animation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT. This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

D. Van??ek

2011-01-01

134

Ecological Distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl). A. Gray-A New Exotic Weed in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl). A. Gray was studied in six states of the southwestern Nigeria using three locations in each of the States. The presence of T. diversifolia was recorded in all the States and locations surveyed in varying numbers with associated weeds. Survey data were analysed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). The first two ordination axes of the DCA accounted for 67.2% (Axis 1, 40.6%; Axis 2, 26.6%) of variance on the site a...

2007-01-01

135

Ecological and spatial modeling : mapping ecosystems, landscape changes, and plant species distribution in Llanos del Orinoco, Venezuela  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The transformation of Llanos del Orinoco, focused on the flooding savanna, is evaluated in terms of the change and replacement of the savanna ecosystem and the plant species distribution under a Landscape Ecological approach. This research is carried out at three spatial scales: sub-continental, regional and local. At sub-continental scale, monthly composites NOAA-AVHRR normalized vegetation index (NDVI) images were interpreted based on the phenology of savanna ecosystems in the Llanos del Or...

Moreno, E. J. C.

2007-01-01

136

Contributions to Distribution, Reproduction Biology and Ecology of Vormela peregusna (G?ldenstadt, 1770 (Mammalia: Carnivora in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, both captured and uncaptured Vormela peregusna were investigated for their distribution, reproduction biology, some ecological observations and morphological characteristics in our laboratory, and campus area at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey. It was observed that there is a cannibalism within population in Vormela peregusna. The morphological evaluations indicated that Turkish V. peregusna is the same to V. peregusna from Israel.

Co kun Tez

2001-01-01

137

Particulate organic matter distribution along the lower Amazon River: addressing aquatic ecology concepts using fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the greatest challenges in understanding the Amazon basin functioning is to ascertain the role played by floodplains in the organic matter (OM) cycle, crucial for a large spectrum of ecological mechanisms. Fatty acids (FAs) were combined with environmental descriptors and analyzed through multivariate and spatial tools (asymmetric eigenvector maps, AEM and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM). This challenge allowed investigating the distribution of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), in order to trace its seasonal origin and quality, along a 800 km section of the Amazon river-floodplain system. Statistical analysis confirmed that large amounts of saturated FAs (15:0, 18:0, 24:0, 25:0 and 26:0), an indication of refractory OM, were concomitantly recorded with high pCO(2) in rivers, during the high water season (HW). Contrastingly, FAs marker which may be attributed in this ecosystem to aquatic plants (18:2?6 and 18:3?3) and cyanobacteria (16:1?7), were correlated with higher O(2), chlorophyll a and pheopigments in floodplains, due to a high primary production during low waters (LW). Decreasing concentrations of unsaturated FAs, that characterize labile OM, were recorded during HW, from upstream to downstream. Furthermore, using PCNM and AEM spatial methods, FAs compositions of SPOM displayed an upstream-downstream gradient during HW, which was attributed to OM retention and the extent of flooded forest in floodplains. Discrimination of OM quality between the Amazon River and floodplains corroborate higher autotrophic production in the latter and transfer of OM to rivers at LW season. Together, these gradients demonstrate the validity of FAs as predictors of spatial and temporal changes in OM quality. These spatial and temporal trends are explained by 1) downstream change in landscape morphology as predicted by the River Continuum Concept; 2) enhanced primary production during LW when the water level decreased and its residence time increased as predicted by the Flood Pulse Concept. PMID:23029412

Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Rigal, François; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Bernardes, Marcelo; Abril, Gwenaël; Meziane, Tarik

2012-01-01

138

Distribution, sources and ecological risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban landscape river.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contents of 16 priority water-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, potential external pollution sources and sediment from the famous landscape of the Qinghuai River were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The distribution, composition, source and ecological risk of PAHs were analyzed. The following results were obtained: (1) Benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[ghi] perylene were not detected in all samples. The total contents of 16 priority PAHs (PAH16) varied from 52.5 to 745.3 ng l(-1) with the average of 174.0 ng l(-1) in water, from 96.0 to 1,064.6 ng l(-1) with the average of 329.2 ng l(-1) in potential sources, from 931.7 to 15,295.5 ng g(-1) with the average of 7,133.6 ng g(-1) in sediments. (2) The concentration of PAH16 in water is lower than in sediment and higher rings are more easily detected in sediment. The percentage of higher ring (four- to six-rings) PAHs accounted for more than 55.6% of PAHs in sediment. (3) The value of FLA/(FLA+Pyr) was higher than 0.5 at most sampling points which illustrated the source was related with petrogenic such as liquid fossil fuel combustion. (4) The potential ecosystem risk of low ring PAH for upstream conflux of external Qinhuai River was less than 10%, while it was 10-50% for other sampling points; The four rings PAH shows lower potential ecosystem risk than other ring PAH in this study area; Dibenzo [ah] anthracene (DahA) shows high potential ecosystem risk at all sampling points. PMID:22797219

Ao, Jing; Ruan, Xiaohong; Yan, Yixing; Cai, Mei

2012-01-01

139

ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF BEECH WOODLANDS IN THE CENTRAL APENNINE THROUGH FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF ELLENBERG INDICATORS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Habitats are often described using a phytosociological approach, meaning that plant communities are classified through a floristic data set. As this approach is based exclusively on a floristic assemblage analysis, much of the ecological information about the species may be lost. For this reason, Ellenberg indicators (EIV) are used to incorporate the information provided by vegetation relevés; for each species, the EIVs express the ecological requirements for seven main environmental f...

Crosti, R.; Nicola, C.; Fanelli, G.; Testi, A.

2010-01-01

140

Society's nature: Ecological economics and the combined challenge of environment and distribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper introduces the emerging field of ecological economics and evaluates its potential for addressing some of the concerns within development studies. It takes as its point of departure the study of the relationship between nature and society that emerged in the wake of the environmental discourse in the 1960s. In the first section, a new perspective in the study of the interaction between society and nature is briefly outlined. Thereafter, the field of ecological economics is discussed ...

Røpke, Inge

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran  

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Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the viewpoint of green space function and a great part of the role of urban green space is undertaken by private green spaces. “What effect do private greeneries located in residential areas have on the quality of citizens’ life or what kind of reality is asserted by their development and distribution pattern in the urban life of today’s modern society” were issues of less attention. Thus, considering the interconnection of green space production and distribution pattern (public and private with the rest of natural, social, economic and fabric conditions, the present research benefits from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a dependent variable which has been influenced by ecological, social, fabric and economic variables and has analyzed them to identify effective factors in Tehran inequality urban green space. The present article theoretically makes use of urban political ecology approach and is considered a correlational research. The required data have been prepared and analyzed by some types of software such as ArcGIS, ArcView, IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine, and SPSS. In conducting this research some techniques have been used such as; “Average Distance to Nearest Neighbor”, “Square Analysis”, “Correlational Analysis and Factor Analysis”. 2-Theoretical basis The present study is theoretically based on an urban political ecology approach. Urban components including green space from urban political ecological perspective are considered a kind of social production whose imagination and change are influenced by political economy, dominant pattern of public and private ownership in society (Heynen, Perkins and Roy, 2006: 3. The aforementioned perspective clearly states that urban material conditions which includes urban environment too are controlled and manipulated by the elite and city experts to serve their interests. This issue is conducive to make some of the urban social groups marginalized and deprived from natural riches and urban environmental artifacts. As a result, the quality of urban environment (physically and socially increases in some neighborhoods and decreases in others (Heynen, Kaika and Swyngedouw, 2006: 1-15. Since unequal greenery distribution with creating imbalanced ecological conditions often plays its role in a feedback cycle on environment quality and intensification of inequalities within urban life environment, the present study uses pattern of canopy distribution located in areas of residential uses (private and public to reveal social, economic and spatial inequalities in Tehran. 3- DiscussionThe results of this research in relation to Tehran city confirm the determining position of urban political ecology in forming distribution pattern and density of trees canopy located in areas of Tehran. This is a subject which is confirmed by studies conducted on urban green space (including public and private in the cities such as San Diego, Toronto (by Perkins, Heynen and Wilson 2004, Scobedo and colleagues 2005, Heynen, Perkins and Roy 2006 and Conway, Shakeel and Atallah 2011. Also, so far many researchers on the urban issues of Tehran city (such as Madanipoor 2005, Horkad 2009 have emphasized the conformity of natural topography over social topography in Tehran. The result f this attempt, while confirming aforementioned perspectives, indicated that the distribution pattern of canopy density in residential areas(private urban green space has a greater capability to portray social classifications and environmental quality and as a result spatial inequalities in Tehran city du

T. Karami

2012-01-01

142

Comparative ecology of widely-distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address

MacKenzie, Brian; Jansen, Teunis

2014-01-01

143

Distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments along southeast coast of the Caspian Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to evaluate heavy metal concentrations of Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn), their spatial distribution, enrichment factor index (EF), the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk (PER) in two different seasons of the year (winter and summer) in surface sediments along southeast coast of the Caspian Sea. The results indicated that there were significant differences between concentrations of As, Ni and Pb in two different seasons. Considering PER, sediments from southeast Caspian coast had low ecological risk. According to PLI, sediment from the southeast coast had no pollution. Risk assessment showed that As threshold concentrations to occasionally be exceeded in the study area. PMID:24606766

Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Bagheri, Hossein; Kheirabadi, Vahid; Zaferani, Ghasem Ghorbanzadeh; Teymori, Mohammad Bagher; Hamzehpoor, Ali; Soltani, Farzaneh; Haghparast, Sarah; Harami, Sayyed Reza Moussavi; Ghorghani, Nasrin Farzaneh; Ganji, Sahar

2014-04-15

144

Taxonomía y distribución del género Leptoscelis en Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini) / Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Leptoscelis in Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se revisa el género Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini) para Costa Rica y se describe una especie nueva, L. conspicuus. Se discuten sus relaciones con L. quadrisignatus (Distant) y L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin es sinonimizada con L. quadrisignatus. Se cita por pri [...] mera vez L. tricolor para Costa Rica. El trabajo incluye nuevos datos de distribución para el género, ilustraciones de las especies y de los parámeros y una clave para la identificación de las especies costarricenses. Abstract in english The genus Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini) from Costa Rica is revised. One new species, L. conspicuus, is described and compared with L. quadrisignatus (Distant) and L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin is synonymized with L. quadrisignatus. Leptoscelis tricolor is rec [...] orded for the first time from Costa Rica. New distribution records are presented. Habitus illustrations and drawings of parameres are provided. A key to the known Costarican species is presented.

Harry, Brailovsky; Ernesto, Barrera.

145

Taxonomy of Bacteria Nodulating Legumes  

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Over the years, the term “rhizobia” has come to be used for all the bacteria that are capable of nodulation and nitrogen fixation in association with legumes but the taxonomy of rhizobia has changed considerably over the last 30 year. Recently, several non- rhizobial species belonging to alpha and beta subgroup of Proteobacteria have been identified as nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts. Here we provide an overview of the history of the rhizobia and the widespread phylogenetic diversity of ...

Rivas, Ra Uacute L.; Paula García-Fraile; Encarna Velázquez

2009-01-01

146

LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORAL TAXONOMIES IN UNIVERSITIES  

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Full Text Available The study was intended to recognize and replicate the Yukl’s (1989-2004 behavioral taxonomies in the university settings in Sindh. A comprehensive questionnaire based on the items in taxonomies was developed, face validity of the questionnaire was test and found suitable. A total of 90 university Deans and head of Departments were randomly selected from public and private universities of Sindh. Categorical reliability of the data was checked and found highly reliable. The majority of the respondents were male, post graduate, above 50 years of age, married and had more than 15 years of experience. The statistical analysis describes the typical Sindhi culture among the respondents. A large number of university leadership focused on the relation as compared to task and change at the universities. This research also supports partial replication of three dimensions i.e., Relation, Task and Change as Yukl’s behavioral taxonomies with first order factor analysis. Relation factor was replicated completely, while other two were replicated in two different facets each i.e., Change was replicated in two facets – Improvement and Process and Task was also replicated in two facets – Improvement and Process. Making a second order factor analysis assured these two factors were replicated completely.

Riaz Ahmed Mangi

2011-10-01

147

An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Mart?n, 1984 in the Mediterranean  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided.

Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Galil, Bella S.; Arvanitidis, Christos

2011-01-01

148

Taxonomia e distribuição de Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce A. Evans (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta Taxonomy and distribution of Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce A. Evans (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta  

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Full Text Available Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce A. Evans é uma espécie sul americana, ocorrendo nas Florestas Amazônica e Atlântica. Caracteriza-se, principalmente, pela presença do segundo e primeiro dentes do lóbulo contíguos um ao outro e ausência de inovações. Entre as espécies neotropicais, C. aneogyna é a única que pode apresentar ocelos, porém, a presença destes não é constante. Descrição, ilustração, comentários sobre a morfologia e distribuição geográfica são fornecidos e discutidos. Está sendo referida pela primeira vez para a Bolívia.Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce A. Evans is a South American species found in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. It is characterized mainly by the presence of the first and second teeth of the lobule that are adjacent to each other and the lack of innovations. Among the neotropical species, C. aneogyna is the only one that has ocelli; however, their presence is not constant. A description, illustration, and comments on the morphology and geographic distribution are provided. This species is reported for the first time for Bolivia.

Cid José Passos Bastos

2012-09-01

149

Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado en Chile  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile, Islas Juan Fernández y en regiones costeras al sur de los 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica y M. tenuis son más frecuentes en las zonas más australes de Chile; también se han encontrado en hábitats de altura y bajas latitudes. Se incluyen, además, M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens y M. wandae. Varias especies sorediosas crecen como pioneras en sustratos jóvenes. Los patrones de distribución a lo largo de gradientes de humedad y de luz son variables. Se presentan mapas de distribución y clave de las especies.

JARLE W BJERKE

2003-03-01

150

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. Final report, 1 September 1988--30 June 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

Spotila, J.R.

1992-11-01

151

ASPECTOS ECOLÓGICOS Y DISTRIBUCION GEOGRÁFICA DE CARRANGENOPHYTAS / CARRAGENOPHYTAS ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las especies carragenófitas están definidas como macroalgas miembro del Phylum Rodophyta, Clase Rodophyceae, Subclase Florideophycidae, Orden Gigartinales. Las especies de mayor importancia comercial a nivel internacional son de los géneros Betaphycus, Eucheuma y Kappaphycus; y a nivel nacional espe [...] cies de los géneros Gigartina, Mazzaella y Sarcothalia. Debido a su importancia comercial, el género Gigartina, ha sido objeto de investigaciones como: Ecología de las poblaciones de las costas estuarinas y abiertas de la especie del noreste del Atlántico; ha sido investigado por Mathieson y Tveter (1976) con relación a las cantidades y calidad de su carragenina. Estudios de las respuestas a fotoperíodos (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) han identificado "ventanas" reproductivas, sugiriendo que las explicaciones de multiplicación vegetativa son cada vez más exclusivas, a diferencia de la producción y gametangial o tetrasporangial, en las poblaciones de las altas latitudes de una especie europea generalizada. La determinación genética de los patrones de ramificación y límites de tolerancia a la temperatura se han establecido para varias especies de (Guiry et al., 1987.; Buschmann, 2001). La viabilidad del cultivo de especies en sustratos artificiales ha sido evaluada por Mumford y Waaland (1980), y demostró tener potencial comercial. Este género tiene distribución en todo el mundo en mares templados a fríos, sin embargo, muy pocas especies ocurren en las regiones subtropicales. Los centros de diversidad de especies particularmente rica son California, Japón, Nueva Zelanda, Chile y Sudáfrica (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011). Abstract in english The carragenophytas species are defined as macro-algae, members of the Phylum Rodophyta, Rodophyceae Class, Florideophycidae Subclass, Gigartinales Order. The most important commercial species at the international level are the Betaphycus, Eucheuma and Kappaphycus genera and at the national level th [...] e species belonging to the Gigartina, Mazzaella and Sarcothalia genera. Because of its commercial importance, the Gigartina genus has been the object of investigations such as: Ecology of populations in estuaries and open coast in the North-East Atlantic species; it has been studied by Mathieson and Tveter (1976) in relation with its carragenine quantity and quality. Studies about the response to photoperiods (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) have identified reproductive "windows" suggesting that the explanations for vegetative multiplication are more exclusive each time, different from gametangial or tetra-sporangial production in populations of high latitudes from a generalized European species. Genetic determination of ramification patterns and tolerance limits to temperature has been established for several species (Guiry et al., 1987; Buschmann, 2001). Species cultivation viability in artificial substrates has been evaluated by Mumford y Waaland (1980), and it showed commercial potential. This genus has distribution worldwide in warm and cold seas. However, very few species happen in subtropical regions. The particularly rich species biodiversity centers are California, Japan, New Zealand, Chile y South Africa (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011).

MARGARITA DEL R., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ; RAÚL A., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ.

152

Ecological Ordination and Distribution of Hygrophilous Species Growing on a Mediterranean Riverbank (SW Spain  

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Full Text Available The Guadiamar riverbanks are home to riparian plant communities, such as alder, poplar and ash forests, tamujares, salt marshes,reed beds, etc. characteristic of Mediterranean rivers. A data set of these communities, including floristic relevés and environmentalvariables (physical and chemical soil properties, bioclimate was analysed to correlate their floristic composition/species distributionwith environmental variables. By means of an RDA (redundancy analysis and a complementary cluster analysis four groups of specieswere discriminated according to their ecological requirements. The RDA displayed three major, parallel-running gradients (i.e., textural,bioclimatic and chemical in environmental variables. Other less conspicuous, crossed gradients revealed the impact of man-madealterations, particularly in the middle reaches of the river. The results can be helpful in the planning of future ecologically orientedrestoration programmes of wetlands.

Fernando DEL MORAL TORRES

2012-11-01

153

The distribution of Wolbachia in fig wasps: correlations with host phylogeny, ecology and population structure.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We surveyed for the presence and identity of Wolbachia in 44 species of chalcid wasps associated with 18 species of Panamanian figs. We used existing detailed knowledge of the population structures of the host wasps, as well as the ecological and evolutionary relationships among them, to explore the relevance of each of these factors to Wolbachia prevalence and mode of transmission. Fifty-nine per cent of these wasp species have Wolbachia infections, the highest proportion reported for any gr...

Shoemaker, D. Dewayne; Machado, Carlos A.; Molbo, Drude; Werren, John H.; Windsor, Donald M.; Herre, Edward Allen

2002-01-01

154

A Fault Taxonomy for Service-Oriented Architecture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a popular design paradigm for distributed systems today. Its dynamics and loose coupling are predestined for self-adaptive systems. This adaptivity and complexity, however, opens many chances for a failure. Therefore, a clear understanding of the kinds of faults that may occur is necessary for detection, tolerance, and testing, e.g. by fault injection. For this purpose, we present a fault taxonomy for service-oriented architecture. Starting with a defini...

2007-01-01

155

Description of a new species of the genus Leporinus Spix (Characiformes: Anostomidae from the rio Araguaia, Brazil, with comments on the taxonomy and distribution of L. parae and L. lacustris  

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Full Text Available A new species of the genus Leporinus is described from the rio Araguaia, in Mato Grosso and Goiás states, Brazil. The new species has the dental formula 4/3, a unique feature within the genus; all other species of Leporinus have dental formulae 3/3, 3/4 or 4/4. In addition, the new species can also be distinguished by the following combination of characters: 36 to 37 scales in the lateral line, 4/4.5 or 4/5 series of scales in the transversal line, 16 circumpeduncular scale series, anal fin surpassing base of lower caudal-fin rays and three blotches along the lateral line. The new species shares with L. parae and L. lacustris a rather deep body, terminal mouth, long anal fin, three small dark blotches on the lateral line, the latter two, particularly the last one, usually fading, and preference for lentic habitats. Comments on the taxonomy and distribution of the species L. parae and L. lacustris are provided.Uma nova espécie do gênero Leporinus é descrita do rio Araguaia, nos estados do Mato Grosso e Goiás, Brasil. A característica mais notável da nova espécie é sua fórmula dental 4/3, única entre as espécies do gênero que possuem fórmula dental 3/3, 3/4 ou 4/4. A nova espécie também pode ser reconhecida pela combinação das seguintes características: 36 a 37 escamas na linha lateral, 4/4,5 ou 4/5 séries de escamas na linha transversal, 16 series de escamas circumpedunculares, nadadeira anal ultrapassando a base dos raios inferiores da nadadeira caudal e presença de três manchas escuras ao longo da linha lateral. A nova espécie compartilha com L. parae e L. lacustris corpo alto, boca terminal, nadadeira anal longa e escura, três manchas escuras na linha lateral pequenas, sendo as duas últimas, em especial a última, geralmente apagadas, e preferência por habitats lênticos. Além disso, são feitos comentários sobre a taxonomia e a distribuição de L. parae e L. lacustris.

Heraldo A. Britski

2008-03-01

156

Description of a new species of the genus Leporinus Spix (Characiformes: Anostomidae) from the rio Araguaia, Brazil, with comments on the taxonomy and distribution of L. parae and L. lacustris  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma nova espécie do gênero Leporinus é descrita do rio Araguaia, nos estados do Mato Grosso e Goiás, Brasil. A característica mais notável da nova espécie é sua fórmula dental 4/3, única entre as espécies do gênero que possuem fórmula dental 3/3, 3/4 ou 4/4. A nova espécie também pode ser reconhecid [...] a pela combinação das seguintes características: 36 a 37 escamas na linha lateral, 4/4,5 ou 4/5 séries de escamas na linha transversal, 16 series de escamas circumpedunculares, nadadeira anal ultrapassando a base dos raios inferiores da nadadeira caudal e presença de três manchas escuras ao longo da linha lateral. A nova espécie compartilha com L. parae e L. lacustris corpo alto, boca terminal, nadadeira anal longa e escura, três manchas escuras na linha lateral pequenas, sendo as duas últimas, em especial a última, geralmente apagadas, e preferência por habitats lênticos. Além disso, são feitos comentários sobre a taxonomia e a distribuição de L. parae e L. lacustris. Abstract in english A new species of the genus Leporinus is described from the rio Araguaia, in Mato Grosso and Goiás states, Brazil. The new species has the dental formula 4/3, a unique feature within the genus; all other species of Leporinus have dental formulae 3/3, 3/4 or 4/4. In addition, the new species can also [...] be distinguished by the following combination of characters: 36 to 37 scales in the lateral line, 4/4.5 or 4/5 series of scales in the transversal line, 16 circumpeduncular scale series, anal fin surpassing base of lower caudal-fin rays and three blotches along the lateral line. The new species shares with L. parae and L. lacustris a rather deep body, terminal mouth, long anal fin, three small dark blotches on the lateral line, the latter two, particularly the last one, usually fading, and preference for lentic habitats. Comments on the taxonomy and distribution of the species L. parae and L. lacustris are provided.

Britski, Heraldo A.; Birindelli, José L. O..

157

Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: An example for plants exposed to nickel in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the 'free' nickel (Ni2+) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account. - The use of bioavailability toxicity data can improve species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA)

2007-07-01

158

Distribution and ecology of the lichen Fellhanera gyrophorica in the Pojezierze Olszty?skie Lakeland and its status in Poland  

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Full Text Available The study presents recent data on the distribution of Fellhanera gyrophorica (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycota in Poland, a rare lichen with a crustose, usually sterile thallus. Both previous and new localities of the species are presented with data on its eco­logy and general distribution. Furthermore, this paper provides detailed results on floristic investigations of the species in the forest areas of the Pojezierze Olszty?skie Lakeland (Northern Poland. Fertile specimens of F. gyrophorica have been observed in Poland for the second time and in the world – for the third time. Also, a new substrate for this species has been found: Acer platanoides. In addition, Carpinus betulus and Populus tremula were also found to be the species' substrates in Poland. Based on this study and previous reports, F. gyrophorica seems to be a relatively common species in north-eastern Poland.

Dariusz Kubiak

2011-12-01

159

Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinati [...] onal military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity) can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major), suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major) were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

Samy, Abdallah M.; Campbell, Lindsay P.; Peterson, A. Townsend.

160

Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city–forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research.

Szabo, Matias P. J.; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Distributed Self-regulation Induced by Negative Feedbacks in Ecological and Economic Systems  

CERN Multimedia

We consider an ecological system governed by Lotka-Volterra dynamics and an example of an economic system as a mesomarket with perfect competition. We propose a mechanism for cooperative self-regulation that enables the system under consideration to respond properly to changes in the environment. This mechanism is based on (1) active individual behavior of the system elements at each hierarchical level and (2) self-processing of information caused by the hierarchical organization. It is shown how the proposed mechanism suppresses nonlocal interaction of elements belonging to a particular level as mediated by higher levels.

Gafiychuk, V V; Ulanowicz, R E; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

1998-01-01

162

GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

2013-01-01

163

A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

164

Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH) method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP) based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993). We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-...

2012-01-01

165

Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. Conservation implications: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

George J. Chirima

2012-07-01

166

Ecological composition and distribution of the diatoms from the Laguna Superior, Oaxaca, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

A taxonomic study of diatoms was carried out in a tropical coastal lagoon. Material for this study consists of water samples obtained from February-March 1992 to November-December 2000. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed the presence of 373 taxa of which the families Bacillariaceae (67 species) and Chaetocerotaceae (37 species) were the most abundant groups. The species Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Coscinodiscus radiatus var. radiatus, Ditylum brightwellii, Thalassiosira eccentrica and Entomoneis alata were found associated with moderate water quality and forming blooms. In addition, a regional comparison between Mexico and South America of the identified species is given. For practical handling, indicative values obtained from their ecological composition are incorporated as well as a code of the floristic list. Achecklist of the species and their occurrence are given. PMID:22315822

Moreno-Ruiz, José Luis; Tapia-Garcia, Margarito; Licea, Sergio; Figueroa-Torres, María Guadalupe; Esquivel, Alfonso; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo; González-Fernández, José Manuel; González-Macias, Maria Del Carmen

2011-07-01

167

Application of RAPD Technique in Insect Taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional insect taxonomy was the main way of insect classification, which classified the insects by morphology. However, morphological classification has significant limitations at lower taxonomic levels because it is diffeicult to confirm its taxonomy boundaries. The definition of the taxonomic boundaries at lower level relies on environmental and subjective factors. In recent years, the development in the technology of molecular biology and traditional taxonomy has provided broad prospect for insect taxonomy. This paper summarizes the basic technology of random amplification of polymorphic DNA(RAPD teachnology, analyzes the advantages of RAPD, simple and rapid, low cost, high sensitivity, not high demand for purity of template and fully reflect polymorphism of the template. Meanwhile, the shortages of this technology, such as poor stability and reproducibility, can not distinguish homozygote from heterozygote and has the problem of co-migrating and so on. Also in this paper, the applications of RAPD in classification and identification and phylogeny analysis of homoptera?blattariae?diptera?lepidoptera?orthoptera?coleoptera in recent years are expatiated. In addition, RAPD extends the application range of molecular biological techniques in the study of insect taxonomy. Moreover, RAPD are successfully applied to the study of insect taxonomy. All this signfificantly improves the study level of insect taxonomy, and will have more expansive application foreground with the increasing development of related technology means.

LI Guang-jing

2009-04-01

168

A taxonomy of automatic differentiation tools  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the current automatic differentiation (AD) tools have similar characteristics. Unfortunately, the similarities between these various AD tools often cannot be easily ascertained by reading the corresponding documentation. To clarify this situation, a taxonomy of AD tools is presented. The taxonomy places AD tools into the Elemental, Extensional, Integral, Operational, and Symbolic classes. This taxonomy is used to classify twenty-nine AD tools. Each tool is examined individually with respect to the mode of differentiation used and the degree of derivatives computed. A list detailing the availability of the surveyed AD tools is provided in the Appendix. 54 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Juedes, D.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

1991-01-01

169

Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha-1). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha-1). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

2008-09-01

170

Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (á-LoCoH) method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate sp [...] ecies within the Kruger National Park (KNP) based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980-1993). We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

George J., Chirima; Norman, Owen-Smith; Barend F.N., Erasmus.

171

Distribution and ecology of Biatoridium monasteriense J. Lahm ex Körb in Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new site of Biatoridium monasteriense was discovered during a lichenological investigation in Bia?owie?a National Park. The paper presents information on the distribution of this species in Poland.

Anna ?ubek

2012-01-01

172

Distribution and ecology of Biatoridium monasteriense J. Lahm ex Körb in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new site of Biatoridium monasteriense was discovered during a lichenological investigation in Bia?owie?a National Park. The paper presents information on the distribution of this species in Poland.

Anna ?ubek

2012-03-01

173

Ecology and distribution of an invasive species Aster­lanceolatus willd. on wet habitats in Belgrade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species Aster lanceolatus occupies a significant position in the world and European lists of invasive species. Its spreading potential is a hazardous factor to the biodiversity in many countries. There are no relevant data on the wider proportion of this species in the area of Belgrade. The sites of Aster lanceolatus are annual or pioneer communities along the water courses, abandoned and neglected areas, forest margins, moist meadows. The study areas are located near a choice of water courses in Belgrade. The aim of the study was to assess the species ecology and population density, synecological interrelationships among the coenobionts of the communities in which it occurs, and also to map its the habitats. The study of population density was performed on the supplemented and partially modified 'CPS SKEW' form, applied in West European countries, by the principle of squares. The species was determined by standard floristic method, and the species location by GPS system. It was concluded that Aster lanceolatus was dominant and wild at all study sites. The individuals and populations are especially numerous on the river islands Ada Ciganlija and Veliko Ratno Ostrvo, along the stream Kumodršaki Potok and the Danube left bank, where the number of individuals per squares is above 1300 and the degree of coverage is 100%. Its spreading potential is conditioned by the species biology, and the expansiveness by climate changes, anthropogenic impacts and the competitive interrelationships.

Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica

2009-01-01

174

A Distributed Architecture for Sharing Ecological Data Sets with Access and Usage Control Guarantees  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In our information-age, the necessary scientic exploration is mainly driven by mining new insights from many diverse data sets. While there is a consensus that a collaborative data infrastructure is needed to allow researchers in dierent domains to collaborate on the same data sets in order to get new insights, there are signicant barriers to the realization of this vision. One of the key challenge is to allow scientists to share their data widely while retaining some form of control over who accesses this data (access control) and more importantly how it is used (usage control). Access and usage control is necessary to enforce existing open data policies. We have proposed the vision of trusted cells: A decentralized infrastructure, based on secure hardware running on devices equipped with trusted execution environments at the edges of the Internet. We originally described the utilization of trusted cells for the management of personal data. We describe our vision and report on our progress towards the implementation of trusted cells on off-the-shelf hardware components. We show how trusted cells deployed in the field and throughout the community could make it possible to share ecological data sets with access and usage control guarantees. We rely on examples from terrestrial research and monitoring in the arctic in the context of the INTERACT project.

Bonnet, Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier

175

Dynamic creation and distribution of flexible climate indices for ecological modeling and climate change impact assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing the potential impacts of climate change on human-environment systems increasingly requires unique and non-standard derivative climate model products that are specific to the research or adaptation question being addressed. In addition, the analysis often requires data at a finer-scale than what is available from raw climate model output; necessitating some form of downscaling to address the information needs of the scientist or decision-maker. Finally, the use of climate model ensembles is becoming a standard practice in order to better quantify projection uncertainty and to take advantage of the proliferation of multi-model climate experiments. However, obtaining these data is a time-consuming and potentially difficult process if the user is unfamiliar with the data standards or lacks the computing resources to store or retrieve large amounts of raw climate model output. In response the U.S. Geological Survey has developed a data portal to provide pre-calculated and dynamically-derived indices of temperature and precipitation projections. The initial dataset consists of threshold summaries and temporal statistics for an ensemble of statistically downscaled climate models. This web visualization and data access portal is based on the Geo Data Portal Data Integration Framework leveraging numerous open standards and software implementations. As a result of standards adherence, very little to no customization is required to incorporate additional datasets into the portal; thus allowing for the inclusion of a wide variety of climatological or ecological data for assessment and planning purposes.

Terando, A. J.; Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.; Suftin, I.; Sibley, D.; Lewein, S.

2011-12-01

176

Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

2008-10-01

177

Ecological significance of assimilate distribution in Agropyron repens clones under influence of the copper smelter Legnica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The studies on couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. P. Beauv. populations growing in stress conditions in close vicinity of a copper smelter concern the integrity of clonal structure. The connections of tillers within a clone and the interclonal integrity was investigated by means of assimilate translocation, using 14C. It was found that heavy metal stress affects the phenotypic plasticity of couch grass in regard to clonal growth of the phalanx type. The phalanx type growth is supported by a considerable integration, which allows the redistribution of resources, through internal routes, from places rich in resources to such clone parts, which cover a surface poor in nutritive compounds. In an unpolluted (control couch grass population representing the guerilla type of growth, the translocation of assimilates concerns only the closest (sister ramets. The phalanx type of growth in couch grass subjected to contamination favours also the accumulation of organic matter and macronutrients (N, Ca in zones of occurrence of Agropyron repens clusters, which are in deficit in areas close to the smelter. The irregular accumulation of heavy metals and the deficit of macronutrients in soil, form near the smelter a patchy environment. In this patchy environment couch grass, as one of few plants, finds appropriate conditions for foraging. The whole of factors in the studied polluted area creates a unique dynamic system between couch grass clones and the local ecological conditions.

Teresa Brej

2001-06-01

178

Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0–3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120–200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system.

Gao, Mengxu; Li, Qun; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Juanle

2014-03-01

179

Tephritid taxonomy into the 21st century - Research opportunities and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We write with the firm conviction that taxonomic research forms the essential foundation for all other areas of investigation within the field of biology. This has been well demonstrated in the Tephritidae and is a position at which we have arrived through many years' experience in fruit fly systematic research covering taxonomy, behaviour, biology, ecology and pest control. The importance of sound taxonomic research is highlighted at this time by the known presence of many sibling species complexes across the family. Within the Dacinae, for example, major pest species often occur within groups of closely related species, most of which are not pests. The dorsalis complex of Southeast Asia and the musae complex of Papua New Guinea are examples. Tephritid taxonomy has a long history (over two centuries) and rich heritage with some 4,500 species having been described since the mid-1700s. This research has been carried out in major research centres around the world and particularly in Australia, Europe, Hawaii, mainland USA and South Africa. In Mexico in February 1998, a significant meeting was held on the biology/behaviour and taxonomy of Tephritidae. Specialist researchers in this area presented valuable and interesting data on 'Phylogeny and Evolution of Behaviour' in fruit flies. In summarising current knowledge on the taxonomy and biology of the Tephritidae, the meeting highlighted the outstanding achievements of taxonomy in its contributions to both basic research and pest management programmes over many decades of tephritid studies world-wide. This presentation provides a link between the meetings in Mexico and Penang and enables us to present a summary of our current knowledge and genuine valuable applications of tephritid taxonomy to the overall fruit fly research and pest management effort. In doing this, this presentation also fits into the theme of this conference in Penang, 'Fruit Flies- current global scenario'

1998-06-01

180

TBC: a clustering algorithm based on prokaryotic taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the study of microbial ecology. Massive sequencing of PCR amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene has been widely used to understand the microbial community structure of a variety of environmental samples. The resulting sequencing reads are clustered into operational taxonomic units that are then used to calculate various statistical indices that represent the degree of species diversity in a given sample. Several algorithms have been developed to perform this task, but they tend to produce different outcomes. Herein, we propose a novel sequence clustering algorithm, namely Taxonomy-Based Clustering (TBC). This algorithm incorporates the basic concept of prokaryotic taxonomy in which only comparisons to the type strain are made and used to form species while omitting full-scale multiple sequence alignment. The clustering quality of the proposed method was compared with those of MOTHUR, BLASTClust, ESPRIT-Tree, CD-HIT, and UCLUST. A comprehensive comparison using three different experimental datasets produced by pyrosequencing demonstrated that the clustering obtained using TBC is comparable to those obtained using MOTHUR and ESPRIT-Tree and is computationally efficient. The program was written in JAVA and is available from http://sw.ezbiocloud.net/tbc. PMID:22538644

Lee, Jae-Hak; Yi, Hana; Jeon, Yoon-Seong; Won, Sungho; Chun, Jongsik

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Chile / Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado) en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten [...] los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina). Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile), Islas Juan Fernández y en regiones costeras al sur de los 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica y M. tenuis son más frecuentes en las zonas más australes de Chile; también se han encontrado en hábitats de altura y bajas latitudes. Se incluyen, además, M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens y M. wandae. Varias especies sorediosas crecen como pioneras en sustratos jóvenes. Los patrones de distribución a lo largo de gradientes de humedad y de luz son variables. Se presentan mapas de distribución y clave de las especies. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ec [...] ology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina). Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile) and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.

JARLE W, BJERKE; ARVE, ELVEBAKK; WANDA, QUILHOT.

182

Assessing ecological risk of zinc in Japan using organism- and population-level species sensitivity distributions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Japan, the Environmental Quality Standard for zinc, established in 2003, was the first standard for the protection of aquatic species. To achieve this environmental criterion, the National Effluent Standard was lowered from 5 mgL(-1) to 2 mgL(-1) in 2006. However, some industries were permitted to apply a provisional effluent standard until 2011, when the provisional standard will revert to the national standard. Therefore, discussion about the environmental management of and countermeasures for the risk of zinc continues in Japan. The aim of this paper is to present the current status of the risk of zinc. Using long-term monitoring data for zinc from more than 3000 monitoring sites in Japan, both freshwater and marine, we found that the geometric mean concentration of zinc at freshwater sites was about 10.8 microgL(-1) and that the annual mean concentrations have been generally decreasing. We identified sites where zinc concentrations were high, and we also identified the most likely sources of zinc responsible for the high concentrations. The ecological risk of zinc was estimated at the conventional individual level and at the population level. Individual-level risk was detected at about 20% of freshwater sites, and population-level risk at about 2%. The risks were lower in more recent years; however, they remain at unacceptable levels. Our results show the necessity of risk reduction strategies. We propose a new approach for risk management and countermeasures that consider both individual- and population-level risks. PMID:20447674

Tsushima, Kouji; Naito, Wataru; Kamo, Masashi

2010-07-01

183

Contributions to Distribution, Reproduction Biology and Ecology of Vormela peregusna (G?ldenstadt, 1770) (Mammalia: Carnivora) in Turkey  

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In this study, both captured and uncaptured Vormela peregusna were investigated for their distribution, reproduction biology, some ecological observations and morphological characteristics in our laboratory, and campus area at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey. It was observed that there is a cannibalism within population in Vormela peregusna. The morphological evaluations indicated that Turkish V. peregusna is the same to V. peregusna from Israel.

Co kun Tez; Slam Gunduz; Lu, Haluk Kefel O.

2001-01-01

184

Species Distribution Models and Ecological Suitability Analysis for Potential Tick Vectors of Lyme Disease in Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Species distribution models were constructed for ten Ixodes species and Amblyomma cajennense for a region including Mexico and Texas. The model was based on a maximum entropy algorithm that used environmental layers to predict the relative probability of presence for each taxon. For Mexico, species geographic ranges were predicted by restricting the models to cells which have a higher probability than the lowest probability of the cells in which a presence record was located. There was spatial nonconcordance between the distributions of Amblyomma cajennense and the Ixodes group with the former restricted to lowlands and mainly the eastern coast of Mexico and the latter to montane regions with lower temperature. The risk of Lyme disease is, therefore, mainly present in the highlands where some Ixodes species are known vectors; if Amblyomma cajennense turns out to be a competent vector, the area of risk also extends to the lowlands and the east coast.

Illoldi-Rangel, Patricia; Rivaldi, Chissa-Louise; Sissel, Blake; Trout Fryxell, Rebecca; Gordillo-Perez, Guadalupe; Rodriguez-Moreno, Angel; Williamson, Phillip; Montiel-Parra, Griselda; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Sarkar, Sahotra

2012-01-01

185

Distribution and ecological risk of antibiotics in a typical effluent-receiving river (Wangyang River) in north China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the occurrence and distribution of sixteen antibiotics belonging to four groups in surface water, sediment and groundwater samples from the Wangyang River (WYR), a typical river receiving sewage discharges were investigated. Laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the studied area. The aqueous samples were unavoidably contaminated with antibiotics, and the target antibiotics present in high levels were oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 3.6×10(5), 9.7×10(3), 6.9×10(4), 1.2×10(4), 4.8×10(3), and 1.1×10(3)ngL(-1), respectively. Oxytetracycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and roxithromycin were the most frequently detected compounds in sediment samples, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 1.6×10(5), 1.7×10(4), 2.1×10(3) and 2.5×10(3)ngg(-1), respectively. The results also revealed that the high intensity of aquaculture activities could contribute to the increasing levels of antibiotics in the area. According to the ratios of measured environmental concentration (MEC) to predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC), chlortetracycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin-H2O and sulfamethoxazole may present possible environmental risk to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechococcus leopoliensis and M. aeruginosa. Attention should be given to the long-term ecological effects caused by the continuous discharge of antibiotics in the WYR area. PMID:25048915

Jiang, Yonghai; Li, Mingxiao; Guo, Changsheng; An, Da; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Xi, Beidou

2014-10-01

186

Allopatric distribution, ecology and conservation status of the Pilosella alpicola group (Asteraceae)  

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The Pilosella alpicola group comprises four morphologically distinct and geographically vicariant alpine taxa. We performed a thorough herbarium revision and literature survey to infer their distributional pattern(s). Pilosella alpicola s.s. occurs in the Alps in two disjunct areas: the Swiss Valais Alps and the Italian Dolomites. Historical records come also from the Austrian Alps (Gurktaler Alps and Hohe Tauern) and from one site from the Alpes Maritimes (Col de Larche), but the localities ...

S?ingliarova?, Barbora; S?uvada, Ro?bert; Mra?z, Patrik

2013-01-01

187

Species Distribution Models and Ecological Suitability Analysis for Potential Tick Vectors of Lyme Disease in Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Species distribution models were constructed for ten Ixodes species and Amblyomma cajennense for a region including Mexico and Texas. The model was based on a maximum entropy algorithm that used environmental layers to predict the relative probability of presence for each taxon. For Mexico, species geographic ranges were predicted by restricting the models to cells which have a higher probability than the lowest probability of the cells in which a presence record was located. There was spatia...

Illoldi-rangel, Patricia; Rivaldi, Chissa-louise; Sissel, Blake; Trout Fryxell, Rebecca; Gordillo-pe?rez, Guadalupe; Rodri?guez-moreno, Angel; Williamson, Phillip; Montiel-parra, Griselda; Sa?nchez-cordero, Vi?ctor; Sarkar, Sahotra

2012-01-01

188

Ecological and technological factors influencing the distribution of toxin producing micromycetes on oats and their products  

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The article deals with investigation of micromycetes detected on oats grown for food and fodder under climatic conditions of Lithuania. Attention is focused on the oat varieties that are popular in Lithuania and whose grain is used for producing oat flakes and other products. The distribution of micromycetes spread on oats grown in various regions of Lithuania was investigated in 2003–2005. During the study period, fungi of Alternaria, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Drechslera, Penicillium, Asperg...

Lugauskas, Albinas; Levinskaite?, Loreta; Mac?kinaite?, Rimute?; Raudoniene?, Vita; Railiene?, Marija; Raila, Algirdas

2006-01-01

189

Distribution, Ecology and Conservation of the Common Otter (Lutra lutra in DPRK (North Korea  

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Full Text Available The Red Data Book of DPRK says that the otter belongs to the category of vulnerable species (VU and suffers from a serious decrease in its numbers recently, although it was widely distributed in the middle and upper parts of rivers all over the country in the past. Therefore, the protection of the otter and its habitat is one of the important issues for species diversity conservation.

Chong Jong Ryol

2011-01-01

190

Incorporating Color into Integrative Taxonomy: Analysis of the Varied Tit (Sittiparus varius) Complex in East Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species designations are critically important scientific hypotheses that serve as the foundational units in a wide range of biological subdisciplines. A growing realization that some classes of data fail to delimit species under certain conditions has led to increasingly more integrative taxonomies, whereby species discovery and hypothesis testing are based on multiple kinds of data (e.g., morphological, molecular, behavioral, ecological, etc.). However, although most taxonomic descriptions have been based on morphology, some key morphological features, such as color, are rarely quantified and incorporated into integrative taxonomic studies. In this article, we applied a new method of ultraviolet digital photography to measure plumage variation in a color-variable avian species complex, the varied tit (Sittiparus varius). Plumage measurements corroborated species limits defined by morphometric, mitochondrial DNA, and nuclear DNA disjunctions and provided the only evidence for distinguishing two recently evolved species. Importantly, color quantification also provided a justification for lumping putative taxa with no evidence of evolutionary independence. Our revised taxonomy thus refines conservation units for listing and management and clarifies the primary units for evolutionary studies. Species tree analyses, which applied the newly delimited species as operational taxonomic units, revealed a robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the group that establishes a foundation for future biogeographic analyses. This study demonstrates how digital photography can be used to incorporate color character variation into integrative taxonomies, which should lead to more informed, more rigorous, and more accurate assessments of biodiversity. [Color, digital photography, integrative taxonomy, Sittiparus varius, species delimitation, varied tit.]. PMID:24603127

McKay, Bailey D; Mays, Herman L; Yao, Cheng-Te; Wan, Dongmei; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Nishiumi, Isao

2014-07-01

191

Ecology and distribution of Asellus aquaticus (1. ) in Norway, including relation to acidification in lakes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acellus aquaticus inhabits pristine oligotrophic and dystrophic lakes, as well as eutrophic sites influenced by agriculture or organic pollution. Total hardness in lakes with A. aquaticus was 0.23 -20.80 degrees dh (1 degrees dh = 10 mg ''CaO''/1) and pH 4.8 -8.8. Slow immigration and cold climate (above 1050 m altitude) restrict the distribution of the species. Acidification has occurred in lakes containing A. Aquaticus. It threatens existing populations and restricts the number of potentially new habitats for future immigration.

Okland, K.A.

1980-01-01

192

The potential distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Libya based on ecological niche model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectored by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Libya have driven considerable effort to develop a predictive model for the potential geographical distribution of this disease. We collected adult P. papatasi from 17 sites in Musrata and Yefern regions of Libya using four different attraction traps. Our trap results and literature records describing the distribution of P. papatasi were incorporated into a MaxEnt algorithm prediction model that used 22 environmental variables. The model showed a high performance (AUC = 0.992 and 0.990 for training and test data, respectively). High suitability for P. papatasi was predicted to be largely confined to the coast at altitudes <600 m. Regions south of 300 degrees N latitude were calculated as unsuitable for this species. Jackknife analysis identified precipitation as having the most significant predictive power, while temperature and elevation variables were less influential. The National Leishmaniasis Control Program in Libya may find this information useful in their efforts to control zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Existing records are strongly biased toward a few geographical regions, and therefore, further sand fly collections are warranted that should include documentation of such factors as soil texture and humidity, land cover, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to increase the model's predictive power. PMID:22679884

Abdel-Dayem, M S; Annajar, B B; Hanafi, H A; Obenauer, P J

2012-05-01

193

Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution  

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Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

Tânia Tarabini Castellani

2004-11-01

194

Time to revisit polyphasic taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria does not specify a working strategy, editors and reviewers of taxonomic journals commonly request a polyphasic taxonomic approach that includes phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic information for the description of novel bacterial species. Whole genome sequences provide an insight into the genetic nature of microbial species, yield new and superior tools for delineating bacterial species and for studying their phylogeny, and provide a window on an organism's metabolic potential. These new insights and tools are gradually introduced in the polyphasic taxonomic practice. The genus Burkholderia, a controversial group of bacteria with both benign and devastating characteristics, is used as an example to show that the modern practice of polyphasic taxonomy is counterproductive in light of the tremendous number of bacterial species that awaits formal description and naming. Bacterial taxonomists must urgently reconsider how to describe and name novel bacteria in the genomic era, and should consider using a full genome sequence and a minimal description of phenotypic characteristics as a basic, sufficient, cost-effective and appropriate biological identity card for a species description. PMID:24633913

Vandamme, Peter; Peeters, Charlotte

2014-07-01

195

Blastocystis: Taxonomy, biology and virulence  

Science.gov (United States)

The unicellular protist Blastocystis has long been an unsolved puzzle for taxonomists, microbiologists and clinicians. Over the years, the organism has been bounced on and off the different branches of the tree of life due the possession of unique phenotypic characters intermediary to different organisms. The organism is polymorphic with only few of forms such as vacuolar, granular, amoeboid, and the cyst form being commonly known. However it could exist in other forms much more frequently than the widely known forms which could be missed by the unaware observer. Certain older concepts in the life cycle of Blastocystis although has been proven wrong are still being followed in various textbooks and other trustworthy internet sources. The causal role of Blastocystis in human disease has long been a subject of controversy. It is widely believed that certain subtypes of the organism are virulent. But this is not so as other factors are also involved in the clinical outcome of the infection. In these contexts, this review intends to shed light on the past misconceptions and the recent findings on the taxonomy, biology and the virulence of this organism.

Parija, Subhash Chandra; Jeremiah, SS

2013-01-01

196

Deep-sea surface-dwelling enteropneusts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Their ecology, distribution and mode of life  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecology, distribution and mode of life of three species of surface-dwelling enteropneusts is described, based on ROV observations and samples on the flanks of the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) at comparative stations north and south of the Sub-Polar Front. Tergivelum cinnabarinum was most abundant in the north (mean=4.56 ind. 1000 m-2±3.50 s.d.) and occurred at low densities in the south (mean=1.19±1.68 s.d.). Yoda purpurata was dominant in the south (mean=17.00 ind. 1000 m-2±12.32 s.d.) but only one individual was found in the north. The within-station distribution of all enteropneust species encountered was generally random. T. cinnabarinum was larger (mean total length 142 mm) than Y. purpurata (mean total length 70 mm). Size distributions suggested smaller individuals of both species on the western side of the MAR. Size and density of enteropneusts were generally higher in areas with higher carbon flux to the seafloor. A single individual of Allapasus isidis was observed drifting and settling to the seafloor at the SW site. Traces on the seafloor made by T. cinnabarinum covered a much higher percentage of the total seabed area surveyed (mean=0.323%±0.155 s.d.) than those of Y. purpurata (mean=0.034%±0.037 s.d.). Stable isotope values for T. cinnabarinum suggested that it was a typical surficial deposit feeder. Enteropneusts appear to be abundant and an important bioturbator on the sedimented seafloor of the MAR at around 2500 m depth.

Jones, Daniel O. B.; Alt, Claudia H. S.; Priede, Imants G.; Reid, William D. K.; Wigham, Benjamin D.; Billett, David S. M.; Gebruk, Andrey V.; Rogacheva, Antonina; Gooday, Andrew J.

2013-12-01

197

Semisupervised Learning Taxonomy-Aware Catalog Integration  

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Full Text Available Data integration is the major important task for online commercial portals and commerce search engine based applications. The data integration task faced by online commercial portals and e-commerce search engines are the integration of products coming from multiple providers to their product catalogs. Categorization of products from the data provides into the master taxonomy and whereas make use of the data provider taxonomy information becomes major problem. Overcome this problem we classify the products based on their textual based classifier and taxonomy-aware step that adjusts the results of a textual based classifier to ensure that products that are close together in the provider taxonomy remain close in the master taxonomy. In taxonomy aware calibration step the base classifier derives the parameters value by tuning the values. Existing base classifier step, still it becomes major problem identify candidate products for labeling the products, to overcome these problem we proposed a Semi supervised learning techniques to incrementally retrain the base classifier with elements chosen during the taxonomy-aware calibration step. Proposed system it categorizes the product based on their parameters choosen from calibration. Semi supervised learning algorithm involves a large amount of unlabeled product data with only a small number of labeled product data. Semisupervised based active learning method identifies the candidate products for labeling. Proposed system finds the each candidate parameter ?? and then find the optimal parameter ? such that the improve the accuracy on the validation set is maximized. An experimental result shows that the Semi supervised learning algorithm that are efficient and thus applicable to the large data sets that are typical on the web.

D.Umavathi M.Sc1 , R.Tamil selvi M.Sc., M.Phil

2013-08-01

198

Use of ecological niche modeling as a tool for predicting the potential distribution of Microcystis sp (cyanobacteria in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit, Mexico  

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Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling is an important tool to evaluate the spatial distribution of terrestrial species, however, its applicability has been little explored in the aquatic environment. Microcystis sp., a species of cyanobacteria, is widely recognized for its ability to produce a group of toxins known as microcystins, which can cause death of animals as fish, birds and mammals depending on the amount of toxin absorbed. Like any taxonomic group, cyanobacteria has environmental thresholds, therefore, a suitable ecological niche will define their distribution. This study was conducted in Aguamilpa Hydroelectric Reservoir, an artificial ecosystem that started operations in 1994. In this system we evaluated the potential distribution of Microcystis sp., by generating a prediction model based on the concept of ecological niche MAXENT, using a Digital Elevation Model in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha spatial resolution and monitoring eleven physicochemical and biological variables and nutrients in water. The distribution maps were developed using ArcMap 9.2®. The results indicated that Microcystis sp., is distributed mainly in the upper tributary basin (Huaynamota basin during the dry season. There was less chance to find cyanobacteria in the entire system during the cold dry season, while during the warm dry season cyanobacteria was recognized at the confluence of two rivers. During the rainfall season there were no reports of cyanobacteria presence. This species is often associated with arising trophic processes of anthropogenic origin; therefore, attention is required in specific areas that have been identified in this work to improve Aguamilpa’s watershed management and restoration. It was also recognized the importance of phosphorus and nitrogen interaction, which determines the distribution of Microcystis sp., in the Aguamilpa Reservoir. The results of this study demonstrated that ecological niche modeling was a suitable tool to assess the spatial distribution of microalgae in freshwater environments.

Enrique Martinez-Meyer

2012-04-01

199

Preliminary note on the distribution and ecology of Culicoides imicola in Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on Culicoides imicola were obtained during studies carried out during the recent outbreak of African horse sickness in Portugal. The previous most northerly published record of C. imicola in Portugal was 38 degrees 40'N (Pégöes). In the present work the geographical distribution of this species is extended to the parallel of 41 degrees 17'N. We have also confirmed the continuous presence of adult C. imicola in Southern Portugal (Alentejo and Algarve) throughout the year. In the laboratory we obtained this species from a sample of cattle faeces and from another of soil contaminated with animal excreta. In relation to host association 57.37% of C. imicola were trapped in the vicinity of pigsties. Finally, we collected 11,463 Culicoides of which 12.47% were C. imicola. PMID:8435485

Capela, R; Sousa, C; Pena, I; Caeiro, V

1993-01-01

200

Ecological Features of Oyster Beds Distribution in Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf  

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Full Text Available The aims of the present investigation were to study the feature of biotic environment of oyster beds and to study quantitatively the biodiversity of fauna and flora living within these habitats. Eighteen selected oyster beds, within the Exclusive Economic Zone of Qatar were investigated by scuba diving. Most of the oyster beds were found in the area with sandy-rocky and Coral blocks bottom forms. Pearl oysters abundance varied widely between the different beds and within the same beds due to the variations in the bottom substrates. The associated biota was composed mainly of Algae (4%, Porifera (3%, Cnidaria (8%, Polychaeta (4%, Echinodermata (13%, Mollusca (55%, Chordate (2% and Crustacean (11%. The comparison of our findings on the occurrence and distribution of marine biota to previous studies has shown similarities between Qatar and other Gulf States particularly Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

J.A. Al-Khayat

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The Distribution and Ecology of the Arctic Plant Iceland Purslane (Koenigia islandica in Scotland  

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Full Text Available Koenigia islandica has a disjunct Arctic-sub Arctic circumpolar distribution extending southwards to several isolated mountain ranges of northern Europe, Asia and North America. The population of this plant on the Isle of Skye (at altitude 461-726 m and Isle of Mull at (385-523 m was the most Southerly in Europe and therefore the most vulnerable likely to exhibit the impact of climatic fluctuations on numbers and survivorship. Koenigia was also an annual, which made it particularly vulnerable to adverse conditions and exhibited large fluctuations in number and survivorship between years. Mapping the precise position of colonies of Koenigia on island of Mull and Skye was done by geographical positioning systems (GPS.

Qasair Rashid

2003-01-01

202

Biomonitors and the assessment of ecological impacts: distribution of herbivorous epifauna in contaminated macroalgal beds.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined metal contents of co-occurring algae Padina crassa and Sargassum sp. in Port Jackson (Australia), and relationships between metal levels and the abundance of epifaunal amphipods. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations were amongst the highest yet recorded in these algae. Copper, manganese and lead concentrations were far greater in P. crassa than Sargassum sp., possibly due to the low growth of P. crassa in proximity to contaminated sediments. However, in manipulative experiments the proximity of algae to sediments did not explain these differences. The abundance of herbivorous amphipods correlated negatively with the copper content of P. crassa, but not with the lower concentrations in Sargassum sp. The greater contamination of P. crassa led to patchy distributions of metals in algal beds and recolonisation experiments showed Sargassum sp. acts as a refuge from contaminants for epifauna. The contamination of macroalgae may pose threats to epifauna in harbours around the world. PMID:18281133

Roberts, David A; Johnston, Emma L; Poore, Alistair G B

2008-11-01

203

Distribution and ecological effect of mercury in Laogang landfill, Shanghai, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laogang landfill near Shanghai is the largest landfill in China, and receives about 10000 t of daily garbage per day. Samples of topsoil and plants were analyzed to evaluate mercury pollution from the landfill. For topsoil samples, there were significant correlations among total mercury (HgT), combinative mercury (HgC) and gaseous mercury (HgG), and content of total organic carbon (TOC), but, no significantly relationship was found between Hg content and filling time. Hg content changes in vertical profiles with time showed that the average HgT of profiles 1992, 1996, and 2000 was similar, but their average HgG was quite different. HgT was significantly correlated with HgC in profile 1992 and 2000, and HgT was significantly correlated with HgG in profile 1996. HgG/HgT ratio in profile samples decreased in the order of (HgG/HgT)1992 > (HgG/Hg)1996 > (Hg/HgT)2000. A simple outline of Hg release in landfill could be drawn: with increasing of filling time, degradation undergoes different biodegradation, accordingly, gaseous mercury goes through small, more, and small proportion to total mercury. Distribution of Hg in plants was inhomogeneous, following the order of leaf > root > stem. The highest value of leaf may be associated with higher atmospheric Hg from landfill. Ligneous plants (e.g. Phyllostachys glanca, Prunus salicina and Ligustrum lucidum) are capable of enriching more Hg than herbaceous plants. PMID:17915729

Ding, Zhen-hua; Tang, Qing-he; Liu, Cai-e; Wang, Wen-hua; Zhuang, Min; Lin, Yi-ming

2007-01-01

204

Distribution, diversity and ecology of modern freshwater ostracodes (Crustacea, and hydrochemical characteristics of Lago Petén Itzá, Guatemala  

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Full Text Available We analyzed modern ostracode species assemblages and water column physico-chemical characteristics in Lago Péten Itzá, Guatemala. Lake waters are dominated by sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium and magnesium and display a total ion concentration of ~11 meq L-1. Eleven extant ostracode species were identified. We found higher abundances of living ostracodes, as well as relatively higher species richness (eight species and biodiversity (H of 1.6 between the littoral zone and a water depth of 20 m. At water depths >40 m, these variables all decreased. The thermocline is located at a water depth of ~20-40 m. Cluster analysis revealed three water depth ranges in the lake of importance to ostracode distribution: 1 littoral zone (0.1-3 m, 2 water depths from the base of the littoral zone to the base of the thermocline (3-40 m, and 3 water depths below the thermocline (40-160 m. The assemblage "Darwinula-Heterocypris-Pseudocandona-Strandesia" is characteristic of waters 40 m. Ostracode taxa from Lago Petén Itzá show specific ecological preferences related to water depth and associated physico-chemical characteristics, thus illustrating the potential of ostracodes as indicators of lake level changes and hydrodynamics.

Burkhard SCHARF

2010-02-01

205

Distribution and ecology of seagrass communities in the Western Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Nine seagrasses were identified and their distributions on coral reef islands and the African coastline studied. 2. Transects were worked to show the vertical zonation of the seagrasses. The more important communities encountered in order from low water spring tide level to the infralittoral were a Halodule uninervis community, a halodule - Thalassi or Thalassia - Cymodocea serrulata community, a Thalassia - Syringodium community, a Thalassia hemprichii community, and finally a Cymodocea ciliata community. 3. Halodule was the main pioneer species. 4. Thalassia and Cymodocea ciliata formed beds which in thelatter seagrass grew at depths of up to 40m. 5. Cymodecea ciliata grew on exposed or semi-exposed shores and formed mats 30-40cm thick. 6. The main environmental factors influencing the zonation of these seagrasses are substrate type, water depth, exposure to waves and current, and tidal range. They grow where water temperatures ranges between 26-30°C, but in littoral pools they may have to withstand temperatures as high as 38°C for short periods. 7. The substrates in which these seagrasses grow range from fine sand and silt to coarse sand mixed with coral debris. Thalassia was the only species which tolerated anoxic sediments and its roots can ramify through black sediments smelling of hydrogen sulphide. Halodule and Syringodium tolerates some lowering of sediment oxygen content. 8. Average standing stock of the main communities expressed as g Fresh Weight per square metre were ss follows: Halodule uninervis, 2430; Halophila ovalis, 465; Thalassia-Halodule, 4250; Thalassia-Cymodecea serrulata, 2907; Thalassia hemprichii, 4125; Cymodocea ciliata, 6050. There was evidence that seagrass biomass increased from LWS down into the infralittoral. The same communities were also analysed for the standing crops of assocated algae and macrofauna.

Aleem, A. A.

206

[Species composition and ecological distribution of planktonic diatoms in the Changjiang River estuary during spring].  

Science.gov (United States)

53 water samples were collected from 28 stations in typical regions where redtide frequently occurred in the Changjiang River estuary during Spring, 2002. In total, 80 diatom species and varieties belonging to 31 genera were identified, among which, genera with high species biodiversity included Coscinodiscus which contained 17 species and Pleurosigma which contained 8 species and varieties. Quantitative analysis of diatom cell density showed that Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissma (3.48 x 10(3) cells.L-1, 28.54%), Melosira sulcata (1.43 x 10(3) cells.L-1, 16.98%) and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (0.71 x 10(3) cells.L-1, 9.85%) were dominant species, which occurred at almost all stations. Higher cell density of Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissma and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens occurred at stations along 123 degrees E, while that of Melosira sulcata occurred at stations around Changjiang River at 31-32 degrees N. The total diatom cell density ranged from 0.43 x 10(3)-23.3 x 10(3) cells.L-1, with average of 4.61 x 10(3) cells.L-1. At station DD15 located at 123 degrees E and 30.5 degrees N, the highest diatom cell density was found, which was 1.85 x 10(4) cells.L-1 at surface water layer, and 2.33 x 10(4) cells.L-1 at middle water layer (30 m) respectively. Horizontally, the diatom cell density showed scattered distribution, while vertically, it was commonly higher at surface water layer than that at middle water layer. PMID:14587319

Gao, Yahui; Yu, Qiubo; Qi, Yuzao; Zhou, Jingzhong; Lu, Douding; Li, Yang; Cheng, Changping

2003-07-01

207

ECOLOGIA Y DISTRIBUCION DE HYDROCOTYLE CRYPTOCARPA SPEG. EN SUDAMERICA / ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROCOTYLE CRYPTOCARPA SPEG. IN SOUTH AMERICA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hydrocotyle cryptocarpa ha sido descubierto recientemente en diferentes localidades de Chile. Se expone brevemente el actual conocimiento sobre su distribución geográfica, ciclo de vida y autoecología. H. cryptocarpa posee inflorescencias unifloras y frutos monospermos y geocarpos, dichas caracterís [...] ticas la ubican en una posición aislada dentro del género Hydrocotyle. Esta especie es anual y crece en ambientes acuáticos temporales. Adaptaciones especiales a este tipo de habitat son una forma de vida tenagófita (germinación bajo el agua, floración y fructificación durante la ecofase terrestre) y representativa de un "amphibious fluctuation responder" (hojas largamente pecioladas durante la ecofase acuática, hojas de pecíolos breves en la ecofase terrestre). Su distribución es disyunta, con poblaciones halladas en Chile central (desde la Región de Coquimbo a la de La Araucanía) y otras halladas en torno al límite entre Uruguay y Argentina. Abstract in english Hydrocotyle cryptocarpa has recently been discovered from different localities in Chile. Our current knowledge about its total distribution, life cycle and ecology are summarized. H. cryptocarpa is monanthous, monospermous and geocarpous. With these characters, it has an isolated position within the [...] genus Hydrocotyle. The species is annual and occurs in seasonal wetlands. Special adaptations to this habitat are the life cycle as a tenagophyte (germination under water, flowering and fruiting after desiccation of the pool) and as an amphibious fluctuation responder (long-stalked leaves in the aquatic ecophase, short-stalked leaves in the terrestrial ecophase). The distribution is highly disjunct, with populations recorded from central Chile (Region of Coquimbo to de La Araucanía), Uruguay and eastern Argentina.

Miguel, Alvarez; Carlos, Ramírez; Ulrich, Deil.

208

Allium olivieri Boiss. (Alliaceae, a new taxon to Turkey, with contributions to its taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Allium olivieri Boiss. (Alliaceae is reported as a new record for Turkish flora. It was identified using the collected specimens and Flora orientalis, Flora of Iraq and Flora Iranica. The detailed description, illustrations, geographical distribution, habitat, status of IUCN extinction risk and some comments and discussions on the taxonomy of the species are given.

?smail Eker

2011-09-01

209

Revisiting the Panko-Halverson Taxonomy of Spreadsheet Errors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the Panko-Halverson taxonomy of spreadsheet errors and suggest revisions. There are several reasons for doing so: First, the taxonomy has been widely used. Therefore, it should have scrutiny; Second, the taxonomy has not been widely available in its original form and most users refer to secondary sources. Consequently, they often equate the taxonomy with the simplified extracts used in particular experiments or field studies; Third, pe...

Panko, Raymond R.

2008-01-01

210

A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation.

Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara

2011-01-01

211

THE INDO-PACIFIC GEMMULA SPECIES IN THE SUBFAMILY TURRINAE: ASPECTS OF FIELD DISTRIBUTION, MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY, RADULAR ANATOMY AND FEEDING ECOLOGY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The biology, feeding ecology and phylogenetic relationships of marine snails in the family Turridae remain poorly understood. Here we report our study on four deep-water species in the genus Gemmula, a major group in this family. The four species G. speciosa (Reeve 1843), G. sogodensis (Olivera 2005), G. kieneri (Doumet 1940) and G. diomedea (Powell 1964) were collected at five different sites in the Philippines, and their pattern of distribution in the sites, their feeding behaviour as well ...

Heralde, Francisco M.; Kantor, Yuri I.; Astilla, Mary Anne Q.; Lluisma, Arturo O.; Geronimo, Rollan; Alin?o, Porfirio M.; Watkins, Maren; Corneli, Patrice Showers; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Santos, Ameurfina D.; Concepcion, Gisela P.

2010-01-01

212

Fundamentals of ecology. Vol. 2. Grundlagen der Oekologie. Bd. 2. Standorte und Anwendung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following topics are discussed: freshwater flora and fauna; marine ecosystems; shelf, krill, mangroves, and coral reefs; terrestrial biota and biogeographic regions; deciduous wood, grassland, desert; microbial-ecological perspectives: taxonomy, efficiency, turnover; aquaculture, agriculture, forestry; types, cost, and phases of environmental pollution; specific population ecology of humans.

Odum, E.P.

1980-01-01

213

The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Marzano's Taxonomy--the most current and comprehensive guide in 50 years to define the new standard for education--is a resource for all directors of curriculum and instruction, directors of staff development, principals, and teachers. Developed by Robert Marzano and John S. Kendall, internationally recognized experts in the development and…

Marzano, Robert J.; Kendall, John S.

2006-01-01

214

Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

1998-06-01

215

Ecological distribution and population structure of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthoidea) on the southeastern Brazilian coast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste estudo foram analisar a distribuição ecológica e a estrutura populacional de A. schmitti no litoral sudeste brasileiro. Os caranguejos foram coletados, mensalmente, de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999 nas enseadas: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) e Mar Virado (MV), onde também f [...] oram obtidas amostras de água e sedimento para análise dos fatores ambientais. A maior abundância de A. schmitti foi verificada em UBM (224), seguida por UBA (154) e MV (23) e não apresentou associação com os fatores ambientais analisados. O motivo da baixa abundância desses caranguejos em MV pode ser a alta ação de ondas que movimenta o material biodetrítico acumulado no fundo e, frequentemente, remove pequenos caranguejos de seus abrigos entre fragmentos de conchas. Os indivíduos foram 269 machos e 132 fêmeas, das quais apenas 4 eram ovígeras. O recrutamento juvenil ocorreu o ano todo, sendo menos intenso na primavera. A maior abundância de indivíduos, bem como as fêmeas ovígeras, ocorreu em 1999, quando a entrada da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS) foi mais intensa do que no ano anterior. Esta influência ambiental pode ser o principal fator modulador para esta população. Abstract in english This investigation analyzed the ecological distribution and population structure of A. schmitti on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Crabs were sampled monthly from January 1998 to December 1999 at the following bays: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) and Mar Virado (MV). Water and sediment samples we [...] re also collected from all sampling sites for an analysis of environmental factors. Acantholobus schmitti was most abundant at UBM (224), followed by UBA (154) and MV (23) but its abundance showed no association with the environmental factors analyzed. The low abundance of these crabs in MV may be due to the high wave action that moved biodetritic material accumulated on the bottom and frequently removed small crabs from their sheltered positions among the shell fragments. The individuals captured included 269 males and 132 females, of which only 4 specimens were brooding females. Juvenile recruitment occurred throughout the year, but was less intense in the spring. The major abundance of individuals as well as of ovigerous females occurred during 1999, when the entrance of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) was stronger than in previous year. This environmental influence could be the main factor modulating this population.

Vivian, Fransozo; Thiago Elias da, Silva; Patrícia Bianca, Fumis; Giovana, Bertini; Paloma Aparecida de, Lima.

216

Ecological distribution and fate of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past 2"1/_2 yr a study was conducted on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a radioactive waste pond which has been receiving low-level Pu processing waste for about 30 yr. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization and studies of the ecological behavior of Pu and Am in an ultra-eutrophic aquatic environment. The purpose of this work is to explain Pu and Am concentrations at specific ecological sites, rates of accumulation at these sites, important export routes out of the pond, and potential pathways to man. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrator of transuranics in the pond system. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments that are the major sink for Pu and Am in this system, is also a major concentrator of transuranics. Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Thus, transuranics appear to be relatively immobile in this aquatic ecosystem

1976-02-01

217

The Ecological Behavior of Plutonium and Americium in a Freshwater Ecosystem: Phase I, Limnological Characterization and Isotopic Distribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this interim report is to present the first year's findings from a study initiated in July 1973 to depict the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation. This report deals with the l...

R. M. Emery D. C. Klopfer W. C. Weimer

1974-01-01

218

Situation of classical swine fever and the epidemiologic and ecologic aspects affecting its distribution in the American continent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral transboundary animal disease that is highly contagious among domestic and wild pigs, such as boars and peccaries. Today, far from being what was classically described historically, the disease is characterized as having a varied clinical picture, and its diagnosis depends on resorting to proper sample collection and prompt dispatch to a laboratory that can employ several techniques to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Laboratory findings should be complemented with a field analysis of the occurrence of disease to have a better understanding of its epidemiology. The disease is still present in various regions and countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, thus hindering production, trade, and the livestock economy in the region. Consequently, it is among the diseases included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Currently, there are epidemiologic and ecologic aspects that characterize its geographical distribution in the region such as: continued trends in the demand for pork and pork products; an increase in swine investment with low production costs which are able to compete advantageously in international markets; the convention of associating CSF in the syndrome of "swine hemorrhagic diseases" owing to the historical description of its acute presentation and not to the new and more frequent subacute presentations or the diseases with which it may be confused (notably, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and porcine dermopathic nephropathy syndrome, among others); dissemination of the virus through asymptomatic hosts such as piglets infected in utero; frequent lack of quality control and registration of vaccines and vaccinations; feeding of swine with contaminated food waste (swill); the common practice of smuggling animals and by-products across borders; the backyard family production system or extensive open field methods of swine rearing with minimal input in care and feeding; poor understanding of the epidemiologic role that boars and peccaries could have in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the Americas; and new procedures in animal welfare that some countries are adopting for the production, transport, and slaughter of domestic animals. Consequently, many countries (i.e., Canada, USA, Chile, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, and Mexico, where 13 of 32 States are disease free) have given priority to the control and progressive eradication of CSF. In other parts of the Americas, the disease appears under control, as is the case of the five countries of the Andean Region and the 12 northern States of Brazil. In South America, Chile, Uruguay and 13 States in Brazil are disease free. Argentina has mounted a national campaign and is in the process of eradicating the disease. No recent information on its presence or distribution in Paraguay is available. With no master strategy to harmoniously progress in the control and eradication of the disease, 17 countries of the region, jointly led by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, developed the Continental Plan for the Eradication of CSF whose objective is expected to be reached by 2020. PMID:15604470

Vargas Terán, Moisés; Calcagno Ferrat, Nelson; Lubroth, Juan

2004-10-01

219

Hierarchical Taxonomy in Multi-Party System  

CERN Multimedia

We propose the use of hierarchical taxonomy to analyze the legislative election results as a model of multi-party system to show the robustness in political system. As an example we use the result of Indonesian legislative election 2004 is analyzed with certain comparative with the previous one (1999). We construct the graph theoretical analysis by finding the Euclidean distances among political parties. The distances are then treated in ultrametric spaces by using the minimum spanning tree algorithm. By having the Indonesian hierarchical taxonomy model of political parties we show some patterns emerging the pattern agrees with the classical anthropological analysis of socio-political system in Indonesia. This fact accentuates a character of robustness in Indonesian political society as a self-organized system evolves to critical state. Some small perturbations i.e.: different voting process resulting the same pattern and occasions statistically, emerges from the social structure based upon political streams:...

Situngkir, H

2004-01-01

220

Horizontal policies in public procurement: a taxonomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public procurement is widely used to promote objectives of an economic, environmental and social nature, such as the economic development of disadvantaged social groups. This article elaborates a detailed taxonomy of such “horizontal” policies. This study is valuable, first, to facilitate analysis of the practical phenomenon of horizontal policies and of the policy implications of different approaches and, second, to illuminate and develop the relevant regulatory frameworks under national...

Arrowsmith, Sue

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

A taxonomy for human reliability analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A human interaction taxonomy (classification scheme) was developed to facilitate human reliability analysis in a probabilistic safety evaluation of a nuclear power plant, being performed at Ontario Hydro. A human interaction occurs, by definition, when operators or maintainers manipulate, or respond to indication from, a plant component or system. The taxonomy aids the fault tree analyst by acting as a heuristic device. It helps define the range and type of human errors to be identified in the construction of fault trees, while keeping the identification by different analysts consistent. It decreases the workload associated with preliminary quantification of the large number of identified interactions by including a category called 'simple interactions'. Fault tree analysts quantify these according to a procedure developed by a team of human reliability specialists. The interactions which do not fit into this category are called 'complex' and are quantified by the human reliability team. The taxonomy is currently being used in fault tree construction in a probabilistic safety evaluation. As far as can be determined at this early stage, the potential benefits of consistency and completeness in identifying human interactions and streamlining the initial quantification are being realized

1984-01-01

222

Modeling ecological niches and predicting geographic distributions: a test of six presence-only methods / Modelado de nichos ecológicos y predicción de distribuciones geográficas: comparación de seis métodos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La predicción de las distribuciones geográficas de las especies obtenida mediante el modelado de sus nichos ecológicos, representa una línea de investigación en expansión, la cual ha sido aplicada en múltiples áreas de conocimiento tales como ecología, sistemática y salud pública. La creciente dispo [...] nibilidad y variedad de tales métodos y algoritmos de predicción determina su evaluación como necesaria. En este estudio, comparamos 6 algoritmos (Maxent, BioMapper, Domain, FloraMap, GARP, Weights of Evidence) con respecto a su habilidad para predecir las distribuciones geográficas de 10 especies de aves de México, para las cuales se cuenta con suficientes datos distribucionales. No obstante, los resultados de nuestro estudio sugieren la necesidad de elaborar nuevos criterios para la evaluación de modelos. Abstract in english Modeling ecological niches of species as a means to predict geographic distributions is a growing field that has been applied to numerous challenges of importance in ecology, systematics, and human well-being. The increasing availability and variety of such predictive algorithms requires testing the [...] ir performance. In this study, we compare 6 such algorithms (Maxent, BioMapper, DOMAIN, FloraMap, the genetic algorithm GARP, and weights of evidence) as regards their ability to predict the geographic distributions of 10 species of Mexican birds for which ample distributional data are available. The results of this study nevertheless led to reflections on how model quality should be evaluated.

Miguel A., Ortega-Huerta; A, Townsend Peterson.

223

Aconitum in Central Europe: from Linnaean taxonomy to molecular markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A role of the Linnaean taxonomy in the arising of historical-biogeographical hypotheses is envisioned. The first example concerns the presumed hybrid origin of an Eastern-Sudetic endemic Aconium plicatum subsp. sudeticum. It was described on the basis of a unique character set including glandular hairiness of the indumentum. A PCR-RAPD+ISSR fingerpriting confirmed the supposition based on the morphological analysis. The second example is dealt with the marginal populations. They are of special interest because of the ecological and population genetic phenomena, including genetic drift and subsequent schizoendemism (endemovicarism, a form of the peripatric speciation. Aconitum bucovinense occurs in two marginal, isolated populations in the Western Bieszczady Mts. (E Carpathians. They form a unique morphotype recognized by a taxonomic revision. A PCR-ISSR protocol was used to check a hypothesis on the genetic distinctness of the small, isolated populations. In the effect the lowering by 13% of genetic diversity in the marginal populations, in comparison to the core population, was noted. However, the genetic depauperation was accompanied by the existence of unique bands leading to the distinct genetic stocks in the marginal populations.

Józef Mitka

2012-03-01

224

[Pollution distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from the different eastern dredging regions of Lake Taihu].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the distribution characteristics of nutrients and heavy metals in sediments from different eastern dredging regions of Lake Taihu, the surface and core sediment samples at 5 sites (in East Taihu Lake and Xukou Bay) were collected in 2012. Contents of nutrients (TOC, TN and TP) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediments were measured and the pollution degrees of heavy metals were evaluated with the potential ecological risk method. The results showed that the heavy metal contents in Xukou Bay were generally higher than those in East Taihu Lake, whereas the nutrients contents showed the reverse trend. There were significant differences between the phytoplankton-dominated and culture lake regions. The concentrations of both nutrients and heavy metals decreased with increasing profile depth. Moreover, the contents of nutrients and heavy metals in the sediments of all dredged areas were lower than those in the un-dredged areas, suggesting that dredging may be a useful approach for decreasing nutrients and heavy metals loading in sediments, but its effectiveness decreased with time. Significant positive correlations were found among different heavy metals and nutrients, indicating that they were from the same pollution source. The Hakanson potential ecological risk index was applied for assessing the status of sediment heavy metal enrichment and the result indicated that sediment dredging could reduce the extent of potential ecological risk. The risk index in different sites followed the order: X1 > D1 > D3 > X2 > D2, while the risk index in site X1 of Xukou Bay was higher than that in site D1 of East Taihu Lake. And the comprehensive ecological risk grades in sites X1 and D1 were in the moderate range, while the sites D2, D3 and X2 were low. PMID:24720203

Mao, Zhi-Gang; Gu, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Zeng, Qing-Fei; Gu, Xian-Kun; Li, Xu-Guang

2014-01-01

225

A revision of distribution and historical analysis of preferred hosts of Orobanche ramosa (Orobanchaceae in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Polish localities of Orobanche ramosa L., branched broomrape, are either extinct or have not been confirmed for many years. This paper presents two new localities of O. ramosa in Poland from the P?askowy? Proszowicki plateau (Wy?yna Ma?opolska upland and the Nizina Nadwi?la?ska lowland (Kotlina Sandomierska basin. Habitat preferences and the abundance at the sites are described. A revised map of the distribution and a historical analysis of preferred hosts in Poland are included. The taxonomy, biology, ecology and control methods of O. ramosa are also discussed.

Renata Piwowarczyk

2012-03-01

226

Toward a DNA taxonomy of Alpine Rhithrogena (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) using a mixed Yule-coalescent analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquatic larvae of many Rhithrogena mayflies (Ephemeroptera) inhabit sensitive Alpine environments. A number of species are on the IUCN Red List and many recognized species have restricted distributions and are of conservation interest. Despite their ecological and conservation importance, ambiguous morphological differences among closely related species suggest that the current taxonomy may not accurately reflect the evolutionary diversity of the group. Here we examined the species status of nearly 50% of European Rhithrogena diversity using a widespread sampling scheme of Alpine species that included 22 type localities, general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model analysis of one standard mtDNA marker and one newly developed nDNA marker, and morphological identification where possible. Using sequences from 533 individuals from 144 sampling localities, we observed significant clustering of the mitochondrial (cox1) marker into 31 GMYC species. Twenty-one of these could be identified based on the presence of topotypes (expertly identified specimens from the species' type locality) or unambiguous morphology. These results strongly suggest the presence of both cryptic diversity and taxonomic oversplitting in Rhithrogena. Significant clustering was not detected with protein-coding nuclear PEPCK, although nine GMYC species were congruent with well supported terminal clusters of nDNA. Lack of greater congruence in the two data sets may be the result of incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphism. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of both gene regions recovered four of the six recognized Rhithrogena species groups in our samples as monophyletic. Future development of more nuclear markers would facilitate multi-locus analysis of unresolved, closely related species pairs. The DNA taxonomy developed here lays the groundwork for a future revision of the important but cryptic Rhithrogena genus in Europe. PMID:21611178

Vuataz, Laurent; Sartori, Michel; Wagner, André; Monaghan, Michael T

2011-01-01

227

A taxonomy and discussion of software attack technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Software is a complex thing. It is not an engineering artifact that springs forth from a design by simply following software coding rules; creativity and the human element are at the heart of the process. Software development is part science, part art, and part craft. Design, architecture, and coding are equally important activities and in each of these activities, errors may be introduced that lead to security vulnerabilities. Therefore, inevitably, errors enter into the code. Some of these errors are discovered during testing; however, some are not. The best way to find security errors, whether they are introduced as part of the architecture development effort or coding effort, is to automate the security testing process to the maximum extent possible and add this class of tools to the tools available, which aids in the compilation process, testing, test analysis, and software distribution. Recent technological advances, improvements in computer-generated forces (CGFs), and results in research in information assurance and software protection indicate that we can build a semi-intelligent software security testing tool. However, before we can undertake the security testing automation effort, we must understand the scope of the required testing, the security failures that need to be uncovered during testing, and the characteristics of the failures. Therefore, we undertook the research reported in the paper, which is the development of a taxonomy and a discussion of software attacks generated from the point of view of the security tester with the goal of using the taxonomy to guide the development of the knowledge base for the automated security testing tool. The representation for attacks and threat cases yielded by this research captures the strategies, tactics, and other considerations that come into play during the planning and execution of attacks upon application software. The paper is organized as follows. Section one contains an introduction to our research and a discussion of the motivation for our work. Section two contains a presents our taxonomy of software attacks and a discussion of the strategies employed and general weaknesses exploited for each attack. Section three contains a summary and suggestions for further research.

Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

2005-03-01

228

Distribution of grasshoppers (Othoptera: Acridoidea) in the Tapacurá ecological station (São Lourenço da Mata, PE / Brazil) Distribuição de gafanhotos (Othoptera: Acridoidea) na estação ecológica do tapacurá (São Lourenço Da Mata, PE)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last five years, collection and periodic observation in the Tapacurá Ecological Station, São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, have been carried out to produce a systematic ecological inventory of grasshopper distribution within the station based on the classifying criteria for Acridoidea, providing new data on families, subfamilies, tribes, genera and species related to the various types of vegetation and environments the station affords.Através de procedimento de coleta...

Av, Almeida; Cag, Ca?mara

2008-01-01

229

Antibiotics in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ocean is an important sink of land-based pollutants. Previous studies showed that serious antibiotic pollution occurred in the coastal waters, but limited studies focused on their presence in offshore waters. In this study, eleven antibiotics in three different categories were investigated in offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China. The results indicated that three antibiotics dehydration erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim occurred throughout the offshore waters at concentrations of 0.10–16.6 ng L?1 and they decreased exponentially from the rivers to the coastal and offshore waters. The other antibiotics all presented very low detection rates (?1). Although the concentrations were very low, risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that sulfamethoxazole, dehydration erythromycin and clarithromycin at most of sampling sites posed medium or low ecological risks (0.01 ?1. ? Their concentrations decreased exponentially from the rivers to the offshore waters. ? Some antibiotics in the offshore water posed medium or low risks to some organisms. -- Some antibiotics were ubiquitous in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China and posed medium or low ecological risks to some sensitive organisms

2013-03-01

230

Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k{sub 0}-standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

Palmieri, Helena E.L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: help@cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio A. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br; Friese, Kurt [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research- UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany). Dept. of Lake Research], E-mail: kurt.friese@ufz.de

2007-07-01

231

Taxonomies of Educational Objectives and Theories of Classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classification is the taxonomic science in which a system of categories is established and in which the categories have some logical structure. Scientific classifications have included those by Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Lavoisier. Educational taxonomies include those developed by Bloom, Herbart, Dewey, and Piaget. The problems of taxonomy…

Travers, Robert M. W.

1980-01-01

232

Attack surfaces : A taxonomy for attacks on cloud services  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants. © 2010 IEEE.

Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

2010-01-01

233

The common eider (Somateria mollissima sedentaria) of eastern Hudson Bay. A survey of nest colonies and Inuit ecological knowledge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to the threat posed by oil exploration in central Hudson Bay, this study was designed to provide information on the numbers, breeding distribution and ecology of common eiders in the eastern part of the Bay. The east shore of the Bay is of particular concern as the prevailing west and northwest winds render it the most susceptible to oil damage. The results of this study establish a quantitative basis for monitoring the eider population and provide baseline ecological information for appropriate oil spill response planning. Seven subregions were selected for intensive ground surveys, three in nearshore archipelagos and four in the offshore. From the results, the estimated size of the breeding population of the Hudson Bay eider, from the Akulivik area in the north to the junction of Hudson and James Bays in the south, to be about 41,490 breeding pairs. Although there are some indications that the breeding population may have declined in some nearshore areas, it appears that as a whole the sedentaria population is healthy and stable. Data on the eider's ecology were collected during interviews with 41 Inuit from local communities. Extensive information was compiled on eider taxonomy, biogeography, behavior, diet, life history, and breeding and wintering ecology. 35 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs.

Nakashima, D.J.; Murray, D.J.

1988-01-01

234

Metabolic ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

2014-01-01

235

Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in urban soils of Shanghai: Spatial distribution, homologue group patterns and ecological risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are toxic, bioaccumulative, persistent, and ubiquitously present in the environment. Data on the presence of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in urban areas with dense population are still scarce to date. SCCPs and MCCPs were measured in urban soils from Shanghai to comprehensively investigate their levels, spatial distribution, homologue group patterns and ecological risk. The concentrations of CPs in soils varied from ND to 615ngg(-1) with a median value of 15.7ngg(-1) for SCCPs and from 1.95 to 188ngg(-1) with a median value of 7.98ngg(-1) for MCCPs, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs in most soils were higher than those of MCCPs. The total CP concentrations in soil samples were between 4.10 and 625ngg(-1) with a median value of 26.4ngg(-1). For different functional zones, the median concentrations of soil CPs were found higher in green land including park, greenbelt and campus than those in roadside. The highest concentrations of CPs in soils could be derived from sewage sludge application and wastewater irrigation for green land. Three types of soils were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for SCCPs and MCCPs, the most abundant homologue groups in the bulk of the soil samples were C11Cl5-7 and C13Cl5-7 for SCCPs, and C14Cl7-8 and C15Cl7-8 for MCCPs. Correlation analysis and PCA suggested that SCCPs and MCCPs in soils in the studied area derived from different sources. The preliminary ecological risk assessment indicates that soil CPs at present levels poses no significant ecological risk for soil-dwelling organisms. PMID:24846407

Wang, Xue-Tong; Wang, Xi-Kui; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Lei; Sun, Yan-Feng; Li, Mei; Wu, Ming-Hong

2014-08-15

236

Assessment of spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of the heavy metals in relation to granulometric contents of Veeranam lake sediments, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contents and spatial distributions of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been studied in surface sediments of Veeranam lake, Tamilnadu, India. Heavy metal contents are higher in open water area (limnetic zone) (OWA) than other two regions such as inflow river mouth (littoral zone) (IFR) and outflow river mouth region (OFR). Present metal contents are compared with both background and toxicological reference values. The comparative results suggest that the present metals except Cd and Pb create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this lake. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk (PER) are calculated and calculated PLI values (range: 1.18-4.09 with an average of 2.03) show that the present sediments are polluted significantly and these values are higher in OWA region. From the PER values, each single element has low potential ecological risk. However, Cd shows higher ecological risk. The comprehensive PER index of the sediments shows moderate degree. The magnetic susceptibility is higher in OWA region. Granulometric analysis confirms that the silt is major content. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out and obtained results suggested that the heavy metals in present lake have complicated contamination sources or controlling factors and the heavy metals such as Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn may be incorporated in magnetic minerals which are presented in silt grains. Also it shows that the role of silt is incorporating the cations on their surface and raising the level of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents. The present study recommends that the heavy metal levels are unlikely to cause additional adverse health risks to the aquatic ecosystem associated with this lake. PMID:22835728

Suresh, G; Sutharsan, P; Ramasamy, V; Venkatachalapathy, R

2012-10-01

237

Campylomorphus homalisinus (Elateridae): a new species for Lombardy (Italy), with notes on its ecology, distribution and biogeography  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Campylomorphus homalisinus has been found on Mt. Lesima (Northern Apennines) and it is the first record for the Lombardy region. Campylomorphus homalisinus is a rare orophilous species: it has a discontinuous chorology that may have been caused by glaciers dynamics during the Pleistocene era. Little is known about the ecology of the species. This record and the expert-based investigation we performed determined that Campylomorphus homalisinus inhabits shrublands and grasslands, but may also occur in the forests. This survey includes the only record of Campylomorphus homalisinus foraging on flowers, a behavior that is not rare in the family Elateridae. We hypothesize that adults integrate their diet with flower resources according to a generalist strategy.

2014-01-01

238

Entropy-based disciplinarity indicator: role taxonomy of journals in scientific communication systems  

CERN Document Server

In this research, a new indicator of disciplinarity-multidisciplinarity is developed, discussed and applied. EBDI is based on the combination of the frequency distribution of subject categories of journals citing or cited by the analysis unit and the spread and diversity of the citations among subject categories measured with Shannon-Wiener entropy. Its reproducibility, robustness and consistence are discussed. Four of the combinations of its values when applied to the cited and citing dimensions lead to a suggested taxonomy of the role that the studied unit might have in terms of the transformation of knowledge from different disciplines in the scientific communication system and its position respect a hypothetical thematic core of the discipline in which it has been classified. The indicator is applied to the journals belonging to the first quartile of JCR-SSCI 2011 Library and Information Science and an indicator-based taxonomy is applied and discussed, pointing to differential thematic roles of the journa...

Manana-Rodriguez, J

2013-01-01

239

A revised taxonomy of assistance animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of animals in various assistive, therapeutic, and emotional support roles has contributed to the uncoordinated expansion of labels used to distinguish these animals. To address the inconsistent vocabulary and confusion, this article proposes a concise taxonomy for classifying assistance animals. Several factors were identified to differentiate categories, including (1 whether the animal performs work or tasks related to an individual’s disability; (2 the typical level of skill required by the animal performing the work or task; (3 whether the animal is used by public service, military, or healthcare professionals; (4 whether training certifications or standards are available; and (5 the existence of legal public access protections for the animal and handler. Acknowledging that some category labels have already been widely accepted or codified, six functional categories were identified: (1 service animal; (2 public service animal; (3 therapy animal; (4 visitation ?animal; (5 sporting, recreational, or agricultural animal; and (6 support animal. This taxonomy provides a clear vocabulary for use by consumers, professionals working in the field, researchers, policy makers, and regulatory agencies.

Lindsay Parenti, MA, BCBA

2013-08-01

240

Ecological modeling of the spatial distribution of wild waterbirds to identify the main areas where avian influenza viruses are circulating in the Inner Niger Delta, Mali.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting areas of disease emergence when no epidemiological data is available is essential for the implementation of efficient surveillance programs. The Inner Niger Delta (IND) in Mali is a major African wetland where >1 million Palearctic and African waterbirds congregate. Waterbirds are the main reservoir of Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV). Our objective was to model their spatial distribution in order to predict where these viruses would be more likely to circulate. We developed a generalized linear model (GLM) and a boosted regression trees (BRT) model based on total aerial bird counts taken in winter over 6 years. We used remotely sensed environmental variables with a high temporal resolution (10 days) to predict the spatial distribution of four waterbird groups. The predicted waterbird abundances were weighted with an epidemiological indicator based on the prevalence of low pathogenic AIV reported in the literature. The BRT model had the best predictive power and allowed prediction of the high variability of waterbird distribution. Years with low flood levels showed areas with a higher risk of circulation and had better spatial distribution predictions. Each year, the model identified a few areas with a higher risk of AIV circulation. This model can be applied every 10 days to evaluate the risk of AIV emergence in wild waterbirds. By taking into account the IND's ecological variability, it allows better targeting of areas considered for surveillance. This could enhance the control of emerging diseases at a local and regional scale, especially when resources available for surveillance programs are scarce. PMID:20865438

Cappelle, Julien; Girard, Olivier; Fofana, Bouba; Gaidet, Nicolas; Gilbert, Marius

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Ecological economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

Marti?nez Alier, Joan

2001-01-01

242

Influence of three sour gas processing plants on the ecological distribution of epiphytic lichens in the vicinity of Fox Creek and Whitecourt, Alberta, Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological distributions of epiphytic lichens have been reduced by SO/sub 2/ emissions from three sour gas processing plants located near Fox Creek and Whitecourt, Alberta. Pollutants tend to concentrate in drainage channels leading to the Athabasca River. These channels parallel the prevailing wind. No sites were encountered which totally lacked lichens but at sites within 1 to 2 km downwind of gas plants and associated S storage blocks, the epiphytic lichen flora was reduced in variety, cover and vitality. An index of atmospheric purity (IAP) was calculated from epiphyte data using selected indicator species and air pollution zones determined. Zone maps of relative air purity were generated using the symap mapping package. Improvements to previous IAP methodologies are suggested. Average sulfation rates, S content, and stable S isotope abundance ratios are discussed as they relate to lichen diversity, vitality and IAP values.

Case, J.W.

1980-01-01

243

Peruvian Children’s Folk Taxonomy of Marine Animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Free listing was used to obtain names of marine animals from 234 Peruvian children with families involved in fishing activities. They live in the fishing towns of Vila-vila, Morro Sama and Ilo, located in Southern Peru. Fishes, birds and the category “other marine animal” were used for the classification of marine fauna by children. The group of 6-8 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 19.7 names per child, while the group of 9-11 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 25.7 names per child. Folk species of fish is the most frequently recorded category with a predominance of coastal species and with a mean frequency of 7.56 and 11.51 names per child for the groups of 6-8 year-olds and 9-11 year-olds, respectively. In contrast, bird names are less frequently recorded in the lists. Some bird and mollusc names have lexical under-differentiation at a generic level and apparently have lower cultural significance than fish. Children’s classification in different levels of organization is evidence of a folk biology. The folk taxonomy of marine animals could be influenced by the lesser cognitive development of younger children and the ecological salience of some species. Some species with coastal habitat exhibit a high dominance index of folk names. Cultural transmission of knowledge about birds could be failing due to the recent occupancy of the study sites by migratory people and the sexual division of work in the children’s families.

José Pizarro-Neyra

2011-01-01

244

Nesting ecology of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus at the eastern edge of their historic distribution  

Science.gov (United States)

Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations in North Dakota declined approximately 67% between 1965 and 2003, and the species is listed as a Priority Level 1 Species of Special Concern by the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. The habitat and ecology of the species at the eastern edge of its historical range is largely unknown. We investigated nest site selection by greater sage-grouse and nest survival in North Dakota during 2005 2006. Sage-grouse selected nest sites in sagebrush Artemisia spp. with more total vegetative cover, greater sagebrush density, and greater 1-m visual obstruction from the nest than at random sites. Height of grass and shrub (sagebrush) at nest sites were shorter than at random sites, because areas where sagebrush was common were sites in low seral condition or dense clay or clay-pan soils with low productivity. Constant survival estimates of incubated nests were 33% in 2005 and 30% in 2006. Variables that described the resource selection function for nests were not those that modeled nest survival. Nest survival was positively influenced by percentage of shrub (sagebrush) cover and grass height. Daily nest survival decreased substantially when percentage of shrub cover declined below about 9% and when grass heights were less than about 16 cm. Daily nest survival rates decreased with increased daily precipitation. ?? 2009 Wildlife Biology, NKV.

Herman-Brunson, K. M.; Jensen, K. C.; Kaczor, N. W.; Swanson, C. C.; Rumble, M. A.; Klaver, R. W.

2009-01-01

245

Artificial dam lakes as suitable habitats for exotic invertebrates: Ostracoda ecology and distribution in reservoirs of the Eastern Iberian Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reservoirs are the most common deep lakes in Spain, as a consequence of water needs and dry climate. Although these aquatic systems can play an important ecological role in such an area with few large natural lakes, they can also provide new habitats for exotic species, which can colonize ecosystems that native species have not explored yet. Here we present our results for a biannual survey of the ostracod fauna from 24 reservoirs in Xúquer River basin. We check which variables affect ostracod presence, test for differences between winter and summer assemblages, and compare our data with previous available ostracod records from the same river drainage network. Our results reveal that ostracod presence is positively related to high diversity of the invertebrate community and reservoir volume, and negatively with phosphorus concentration. Among the 22 species found, it is noteworthy the first Iberian record of Ilyocypris getica and the second European record of Candonocypris novaezelandiae. Ostracod assemblages significantly vary between summer and winter, and strong differences are found between ostracod communities of reservoirs and those from their connected rivers. Remarkably higher frequency of exotic species in the reservoirs confirms previous findings about the facilitation that artificial ecosystems confer to aquatic invasions.

Escrivà A.

2014-01-01

246

Summer distribution and ecological role of seabirds and marine mammals in the Norwegian and Greenland seas (June 1988)  

Science.gov (United States)

During the ARK V /2 expedition of RV Polarstern in the Norwegian and Greenland seas in June 1988, 380 half hour counts for marine vertebrates (seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans) were carried out. Results are presented as total numbers encountered and then converted into density and food intake. Mean food intake was 2.2 kg fresh weight per km 2 per day for seabirds, with a higher value in Atlantic water (2.5) lower values in polar water and the pack ice (1.7 and 1.9), and an intermediate value at the ice edge. The main species were the alcids (1.5, primarily Little Auk, Alle alle and Brünnich's Guillemot, Urea Iomvia) ,the Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis (0.5), and the Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (0.2). The ecological role of cetaceans was clearly lower, with a mean value of 0.2 and a maximum of 0.7 in Atlantic water (rough evaluation, due to the low number of contacts). The food intake by pinnipeds was 0.55 kg/km 2 day at the ice edge and 0.4 in the pack ice; they were mainly harp, Phoca groenlandica and hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, in one main concentration each and ringed seals, Phoca hispida, scattered on the pack. Data for July 1988 show a great similarity with these results, except for a lower density of alcids, which probably reflects that Little Auk, Brünnich's Guillemot and Common Guillemot, Uria aalge already had started to leave the region.

Joiris, Claude R.

1992-03-01

247

Ecology of Triatoma brasiliensis in northeastern Brazil: seasonal distribution, feeding resources, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a sylvatic population.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed some ecological parameters of Triatoma brasiliensis in rock piles in the state of Ceará during the rainy and dry seasons. The greatest density was in April (median = 12.5 triatomines/site). The greatest abundance was in December, when the insects were more dispersed and the density per site was lower (6 triatomines/site). The nutritional status of females and 5th instar nymphs was increased in July. The rate of T. cruzi infection reached its highest peak in July (10.9%). ELISA revealed that the principal food sources were birds (33.1%), followed by armadillos (18.8%). Food sources were more frequently identified during the rainy season. T. brasiliensis specimens collected in the drought tended to: i) present lower rates of T. cruzi infection and gut content reactivity to tested antisera, ii) have a poorer nutritional status, iii) exhibit lower fecundity, iv) be more dispersed among the studied collection sites, and v) be more abundant and easily collected in the surface of the rocks, possibly reflecting an increased searching for blood meals. Such findings underscore epidemiological concerns and allow inferences about the season when triatomines can more frequently invade the peridomestic environment in search of food and recolonize artificial structures. PMID:21175946

Sarquis, Otilia; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Oliveira, Lívia Silva; Duarte, Rosemere; D Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Oliveira, Tiago Guedes; Lima, Marli Maria

2010-12-01

248

Ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri in systems science and systematics  

CERN Multimedia

The originality of this book, which deals with such a new subject matter, lies in the application of methods and concepts never used before - such as ontologies and taxonomies, as well as thesauri - to the ordering of knowledge based on primary information. Chapters in the book also examine the study of ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri from the perspective of systematics and general systems theory. Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in Systems Science and Systematics will be extremely useful to those operating within the network of related fields, which includes documentation and informati

Currás, Emilia

2010-01-01

249

Phishing Detection Taxonomy for Mobile Device  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phishing is one of the social engineering attacks and currently hit on mobile devices. Based on security report by Lookout, 30% of Lookout users clicking on an unsafe link per year by using mobile device. Few phishing detection techniques have been applied on mobile device. However, review on phishing detection technique on the detection technique redundant is still need. This paper addresses the current trend phishing detection for mobile device and identifies significant criterion to improve phishing detection techniques on mobile device. Thus, existing research on phishing detection technique for computer and mobile device will be compared and analysed. Hence, outcome of the analysis becomes a guideline in proposing generic phishing detection taxonomy for mobile device

Cik Feresa Mohd Foozy

2013-01-01

250

Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%.

Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema

2006-01-01

251

Ecological niche modeling of coastal dune plants and future potential distribution in response to climate change and sea level rise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change (CC) and sea level rise (SLR) are phenomena that could have severe impacts on the distribution of coastal dune vegetation. To explore this we modeled the climatic niches of six coastal dunes plant species that grow along the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula, and projected climatic niches to future potential distributions based on two CC scenarios and SLR projections. Our analyses suggest that distribution of coastal plants will be severely limited, and more so in the case of local endemics (Chamaecrista chamaecristoides, Palafoxia lindenii, Cakile edentula). The possibilities of inland migration to the potential 'new shoreline' will be limited by human infrastructure and ecosystem alteration that will lead to a 'coastal squeeze' of the coastal habitats. Finally, we identified areas as future potential refuges for the six species in central Gulf of Mexico, and northern Yucatán Peninsula especially under CC and SLR scenarios. PMID:23625760

Mendoza-González, Gabriela; Martínez, M Luisa; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Vázquez, Gabriela; Gallego-Fernández, Juan B

2013-08-01

252

Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is--that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identification on a common data set of complete genomes: (i) SpeciesFinder, which is based on the complete 16S rRNA gene; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species-specific functional protein domain profiles; and finally (v) KmerFinder, which examines the number of cooccurring k-mers (substrings of k nucleotides in DNA sequence data). The performances of the methods were subsequently evaluated on three data sets of short sequence reads or draft genomes from public databases. In total, the evaluation sets constituted sequence data from more than 11,000 isolates covering 159 genera and 243 species. Our results indicate that methods that sample only chromosomal, core genes have difficulties in distinguishing closely related species which only recently diverged. The KmerFinder method had the overall highest accuracy and correctly identified from 93% to 97% of the isolates in the evaluations sets.

Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore

2014-01-01

253

Benchmarking of Methods for Genomic Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is—that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identification on a common data set of complete genomes: (i) SpeciesFinder, which is based on the complete 16S rRNA gene; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species-specific functional protein domain profiles; and finally (v) KmerFinder, which examines the number of cooccurring k-mers (substrings of k nucleotides in DNA sequence data). The performances of the methods were subsequently evaluated on three data sets of short sequence reads or draft genomes from public databases. In total, the evaluation sets constituted sequence data from more than 11,000 isolates covering 159 genera and 243 species. Our results indicate that methods that sample only chromosomal, core genes have difficulties in distinguishing closely related species which only recently diverged. The KmerFinder method had the overall highest accuracy and correctly identified from 93% to 97% of the isolates in the evaluations sets.

Cosentino, Salvatore; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Hasman, Henrik; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Ussery, David W.; Lund, Ole

2014-01-01

254

Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is-that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identification on a common data set of complete genomes: (i) SpeciesFinder, which is based on the complete 16S rRNA gene; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species-specific functional protein domain profiles; and finally (v) KmerFinder, which examines the number of cooccurring k-mers (substrings of k nucleotides in DNA sequence data). The performances of the methods were subsequently evaluated on three data sets of short sequence reads or draft genomes from public databases. In total, the evaluation sets constituted sequence data from more than 11,000 isolates covering 159 genera and 243 species. Our results indicate that methods that sample only chromosomal, core genes have difficulties in distinguishing closely related species which only recently diverged. The KmerFinder method had the overall highest accuracy and correctly identified from 93% to 97% of the isolates in the evaluations sets. PMID:24574292

Larsen, Mette V; Cosentino, Salvatore; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Hasman, Henrik; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Aarestrup, Frank M; Ussery, David W; Lund, Ole

2014-05-01

255

THE APPLICATION OF PIMKAT TAXONOMY IN CAREER TRAINING / Aplikace taxonomie PIMKAT v profesní príprav?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary pedagogical approaches to the career training of new police officers require a change in attitude of educators shifting the focus from traditional towards activating teaching methods. For this purpose there are nowadays in use, among others, model situations that make the process of education much more effective. The key issue remains to be the determination of real competences and the evaluation of students' performance. The performance evaluation of police trainees is a difficult and responsible endeavour as well as a significant element of the career training process. Many experienced educators often face difficulties in the course of their work that lead to questions - "What, when and based on what criteria should they evaluate?" Primarily, it is the determination of those criteria and their formulation with focus on their unambiguousness that optimizes use of practical "manuals" - taxonomies. In order to define objectives in the psychomotor domain so called PIMKAT taxonomy was developed at the Department of Pedagogy of the Philosophical Faculty of Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, whose practical application in career training is what the author deals with in the given contribution. The application of PIMKAT taxonomy gives subjects of the evaluation a groundwork for the formulation of conclusions based on the comparison between the achieved and intended state (the objective of education.Moderní pedagogické prístupy v profesní príprave nových policistu vyžadují zmenu dosavadního prístupu pedagogo od klasických metod výuky k aktivi-za?ním metodám. V sou?asné dobe jsou k tomuto ú?elu využívaný mimo jiné modelové situace, které významne zefektiv?ují eduka?ní proces. Zásadní otázkou zustává zjištení reálných kompetencí a hodnocení výkonu stu-dujících.Hodnocení výkonu policejních adeptu je složitou, zodpovednou ?inností a významnou složkou procesu edukace profesní prípravy. Rada méne zkušených pedagogu nará-ží ?asto ve své práci na problémy „Co, kdy a podle jakých kritérií hodnotit?". Zejména stanovení kritérií hodnocení a jejich formulace s p?ihlédnutím k jejich jednozna?nosti optimalizuje užití praktických „návodu" - taxonomií.Pro stanovení cílu výuky v psychomotorické oblasti byla formulována na katedre pedagogiky FF UPJŠ taxonomie PIMKAT, jejíž praktickou aplikací v profesní príprave se autor zabývá ve svém p?íspévku.Využití taxonomie PIMKAT prináší subjektum hodnocení podklad pro formulaci závéru na základé srovnání dosaženého stavu se stavem plánovaným (cílem výuky.

Zlámal Ji?í

2010-11-01

256

Ecology and distribution of bacteria in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station (Kalpakkam) thermal out fall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heterotrophic microorganisms especially mesophilic eubacteria, utilize a variety of organic substances as sole carbon and energy substances for their growth in pelagic waters. In the present investigation, distribution of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (CAHB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB) in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) was studied

2002-01-01

257

Distribution of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the ecological cycle of the central Yugoslavia mountainous region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the animal production cycle was studied. Samples of ground, grass, beef and bones, milk and cheese, taken from the mountainous part of central Yugoslavia, were analysed. The discrimination factors and concentration factors of the examined radionuclides were calculated. (author)

1982-06-11

258

Distribution and Ecology of the Recent Benthic Foraminifera from the sediments of Adyar River, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micropalaeontological investigation has been carried out, for the first time to study the systematic of recent Benthic Foraminifera from the Adyar River, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, Totally 20 sediment samples were collocted during March 2010. 46 benthic foraminiferal species belonging to 22 genus, 5 families and 3 sub orders are identified. Off which Miliolina (52% occupies the dominant place followed by Rotallina (33% Textularina (15%. From station no. 1 to 6 the foraminifeal species distribution shows decrease in order. The higher species are observed in the rivermouth area particularly in the sample no1. (254 species. The following species are abundantly distributed in this region namely Ammonia beccarii, Elpidiumcripsum, Spiroloculina communis and Textularia agglutinans followed by Ammobaculites exigus, Triloculina trigonula. In general the distribution of foraminifera is very low. The abundance of species in the river mount may be due to the mixing of marine and nearshore environment. All the species are illustrated with Scanning Electron Microscope Photographs. From the Zoogeographical distribution of the fa

M.Suresh Gandhi

2013-10-01

259

Taxonomía y distribución de los anofelinos en el estado de Veracruz, México (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae) / Taxonomy and distribution of the anopheline mosquitoes in the state of Veracruz, Mexico (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad humana causada por protozoarios del género Plasmodium y es transmitida por hembras de mosquito de ciertas especies de Anopheles. Se estima que en México el 33.1% de la población vive en áreas donde puede ocurrir la transmisión de la malaria. Veracruz es un es [...] tado donde la enfermedad es endémica debido a diversos factores que lo hacen una zona de riesgo para la transmisión, entre ellos las condiciones climáticas y la migración humana. Por lo anterior, en este trabajo se presentan las bases para la reactivación de la vigilancia entomológica del paludismo en el estado de Veracruz, para lo cual se provee la diagnosis ilustrada de la larva, la pupa y los adultos de ambos sexos de las especies de anofelinos del estado, así como las claves taxonómicas que permiten su reconocimiento, con base en el examen de ejemplares recolectados o depositados en colecciones entomológicas de referencia. También se obtuvieron mapas de distribución conocida y potencial de las especies por medio de GARP. Se mencionan además algunos datos bionómicos y la importancia médica de cada especie. Se conocen en Veracruz 18 especies de anofelinos, agrupadas en dos géneros, Chagasia con una especie y Anopheles con 17 pertenecientes a los subgéneros An. (Anopheles), An. (Kerteszia) y An. (Nyssorhynchus). Se reconocen cuatro grupos de especies de acuerdo a su capacidad de transmisión de plasmodios y por su amplitud de distribución: el grupo de alto riesgo constituido por 2 especies; el grupo de riesgo moderado o regional, con 8 especies; el de escaso riesgo, con 3 especies y el de riesgo nulo con 5 especies. Prácticamente todo el estado posee vectores potenciales por lo que debe reestablecerse la vigilancia permanente de sus poblaciones. Este trabajo aporta elementos de juicio para que el estado pueda ser, en un futuro cercano, certificado como área libre de paludismo. Abstract in english Malaria is a human disease caused by four species of the protozoon genus Plasmodium which are transmitted by Anophelinae female mosquitoes of some species of the genus Anopheles. It has been estimated that in Mexico 33.1% of the human population lives in areas where the transmission of malaria is po [...] ssible. The risk area includes the State of Veracruz that has been a traditional endemic zone in the past. Factors as weather, human density and human migration elevate the potential transmission risk. In this study, basic information needed for the reactivation of the entomological surveillance in the Veracruz State is provided, presenting the check-list with the illustrated diagnosis of larva, pupa, adult male and female, and taxonomic keys for the identification of species based in all postembryonic developmental stages. The known and potential distribution maps were obtained using GARP. Some bionomic data and the medical importance of the species are also mentioned. There are 18 Anophelinae species in Veracruz, grouped in two genera, Chagasia with one species and Anopheles with 17, pertaining to three subgenera An. (Anopheles), An (Kerteszia) and An. (Nyssorhynchus). According to the plasmodium transmission capability and distribution range, four groups of species are recognized: the high risk group, with 2 species; the median risk or regional risk group, with 8 species; the low risk group, with 3 species and the no risk group with 5 species. Potential malaria vectors are present throughout almost the entire state, so permanent surveillance of the anopheline populations must be reestablished. This study contributes strong elements for the future certification of the Veracruz State as an area free from malaria.

Adriana, Beltrán-Aguilar; Sergio, Ibáñez-Bernal; Fredy, Mendoza-Palmero; César A., Sandoval-Ruiz; Ruth A., Hernández-Xoliot.

260

Geographic distribution of need and access to health care in rural population: an ecological study in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equity in access to and utilization of health services is a common goal of policy-makers in most countries. The current study aimed to evaluate the distribution of need and access to health care services among Iran's rural population between 2006 and 2009. Methods Census data on population's characteristics in each province were obtained from the Statistical Centre of Iran and National Organization for civil registration. Data about the Rural Health Houses (RHHs were obtained from the Ministry of Health. The Health Houses-to-rural population ratio (RHP, crude birth rate (CBR and crude mortality rate (CMR in rural population were calculated in order to compare their distribution among the provinces. Lorenz curves of RHHs, CMR and CBR were plotted and their decile ratio, Gini Index and Index of Dissimilarity were calculated. Moreover, Spearman rank-order correlation was used to examine the relation between RHHs and CMR and CBR. Results There were substantial differences in RHHs, CMR and CBR across the provinces. CMR and CBR experienced changes toward more equal distributions between 2006 and 2009, while inverse trend was seen for RHHs. Excluding three provinces with markedly changes in data between 2006 and 2009 as outliers, did not change observed trends. Moreover; there was a significant positive relationship between CMR and RHP in 2009 and a significant negative association between CBR and RHP in 2006 and 2009. When three provinces with outliers were excluded, these significant associations were disappeared. Conclusion Results showed that there were significant variations in the distribution of RHHs, CMR and CBR across the country. Moreover, the distribution of RHHs did not reflect the needs for health care in terms of CMR and CBR in the study period.

Najafi Behzad

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Gliding Mammals Taxonomy of Living and Extinct Species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jackson, Stephen M., and Richard W. Thorington Jr. Gliding Mammals: Taxonomy of Living and Extinct Species. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 638, vi + 117 pages, 2012. There are 64 species of extant gliding mammals that are currently recognize...

R. W. Thorington S. M. Jackson

2012-01-01

262

Ecology of sepia offcinalis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article comprises an up-dated review of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the interactions between the species and the main variables of the environment in which it lives and its trophic, demographic and behavioural ecology.

Guerra, A?ngel

2006-01-01

263

Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments ({<=}8 {mu}m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at {<=}8 {mu}m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system.

Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; De Falco, G. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Como, S. [International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Casu, D. [Dip. di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Floris, A. [Dip. di Zoologia e Genetica evoluzionistica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Petrov, A.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, 99011 Sevastopol (Ukraine); Castelli, A. [Dip. di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Perilli, A. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)

2008-03-15

264

Ecological and social factors affecting the local habitat distribution of western sandpipers wintering at Bah?Santa Mar? Northwest Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of habitat selection often requires individuals to choose among habitats that differ in foraging profitability and predation danger. The local habitat distribution of Western Sandpipers (Calidris maur~] was studied at Bahia Santa Maria, northwest Mexico, for three non-breeding seasons (1 999-2002). Western Sandpipers are highly sexually dimorphic, males being lighter and smaller-billed than females, and thus males may use visual foraging more often, be more susceptible to interfer...

2005-01-01

265

Market Ecology, Pareto Wealth Distribution and Leptokurtic Returns in Microscopic Simulation of the LLS Stock Market Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The LLS stock market model is a model of heterogeneous quasi-rational investors operating in a complex environment about which they have incomplete information. We review the main features of this model and several of its extensions. We study the effects of investor heterogeneity and show that predation, competition, or symbiosis may occur between different investor populations. The dynamics of the LLS model lead to the empirically observed Pareto wealth distribution. Many p...

Solomon, Sorin; Levy, Moshe

2000-01-01

266

Geographic distribution of need and access to health care in rural population: an ecological study in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Equity in access to and utilization of health services is a common goal of policy-makers in most countries. The current study aimed to evaluate the distribution of need and access to health care services among Iran's rural population between 2006 and 2009. Methods: Census data on population's characteristics in each province were obtained from the Statistical Centre of Iran and National Organization for civil registration. Data about the Rural Health Houses (RHHs) were o...

Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Najafi, Behzad; Haghparast-bidgoli, Hassan

2011-01-01

267

The Distribution and Ecology of the Arctic Plant Iceland Purslane (Koenigia islandica) in Scotland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Koenigia islandica has a disjunct Arctic-sub Arctic circumpolar distribution extending southwards to several isolated mountain ranges of northern Europe, Asia and North America. The population of this plant on the Isle of Skye (at altitude 461-726 m) and Isle of Mull at (385-523 m) was the most Southerly in Europe and therefore the most vulnerable likely to exhibit the impact of climatic fluctuations on numbers and survivorship. Koenigia was also an annual, which made it particu...

Qasair Rashid; Headley, A. D.; Comber, D. P. M.

2003-01-01

268

Spatio-temporal distribution and ecological preferences of coexisting hydropsychid species (Trichoptera) in two Mediterranean river basins (S Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hydropsychids of two Mediterranean river basins in southern Spain (Guadaira and Guadalete) were investigated from January 1988 to January 1989. The distribution of hydropsychids along an environmental gradient related to altitude varied depending on species. Two distinct species assemblages were observed, one located in the lower altitude sites (the "downstream assemblage" comprising Hydropsyche pictetorum, Hydropsyche exocellata and Cheumatopsyche lepida) and the other in the upper-most ...

Prenda Mari?n, Jose?; Toja Santillana, Julia; Gallardo Mayenco, Alfonso

1998-01-01

269

Relevance of octanol-water distribution measurements to the potential ecological uptake of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) require various physicochemical modifications prior to use, suggesting that nanotubes having varied properties may pose risks in ecosystems. A means for estimating bioaccumulation potentials of variously modified CNTs for incorporation in predictive fate models would be highly valuable. An approach commonly used for sparingly soluble organic contaminants, and previously suggested for use as well with carbonaceous nanomaterials, involves measurement of their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (KOW) values. To test the applicability of this approach, a methodology was developed to measure apparent octanol-water distribution behaviors for purified multi-walled carbon nanotubes and those acid treated. Substantial differences in apparent distribution coefficients between the two types of CNTs were observed, but these differences did not influence accumulation by either earthworms (Eisenia foetida) or oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), both of which showed minimal nanotube uptake for both types of nanotubes. The results suggest that traditional distribution behavior-based KOW approaches are likely not appropriate for predicting CNT bioaccumulation. PMID:20821546

Petersen, Elijah J; Huang, Qingguo; Weber, Walter J

2010-05-01

270

Distribution of limnoterrestrial Tardigrada in Georgia and the Gulf Coast states of the United States of America with ecological remarks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report is an effort to improve understanding of the distribution of limnoterrestrial tardigrades in Georgia and the states along the Gulf Coast of the United States of America. We collected 14 species of tardigrades from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts and leaf litter in a statewide survey of Louisiana and reviewed all publications and theses reporting tardigrade distributions in the Gulf Coast states. Statewide surveys have been also conducted in Alabama, Florida, and Texas, while sampling in Mississippi and Georgia has been more localized. Currently 51 species have been identified in the region: 19 in Texas, 16 in Louisiana, 10 in Mississippi, 33 in Alabama, 3 in Georgia, and 15 in Florida. These tardigrades have been collected from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts on trees and rocks, from soil and leaf litter, and from freshwater. Twenty species are widely distributed in the region (i.e., found in ? 2 non-contiguous states, while 27 have been found in only one state. Eighteen species are probably cosmopolitan. Seven species, widespread in the Gulf Coast states but unknown elsewhere in the Nearctic Region – Echiniscus kofordi, Echiniscus cavagnaroi, Parexapodibius pilatoi, Hexapodibius christenberryae, Biserovus bindae, Minibiotus fallax and a new Macrobiotus cf. hufelandi – may represent a distinctive regional fauna in cryptogams.

Harry A. MEYER

2007-09-01

271

Ecology of the tawny mole cricket, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae): population estimation, spatial distribution, movement, and host relationships  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scapteriscus vicinus is the most important pest of turf and pasture grasses in Florida. This study develops a method of correlating sample results with true population density and provides the first quantitative information on spatial distribution and movement patterns of mole crickets. Three basic techniques for sampling mole crickets were compared: soil flushes, soil corer, and pitfall trapping. No statistical difference was found between the soil corer and soil flushing. Soil flushing was shown to be more sensitive to changes in population density than pitfall trapping. No technique was effective for sampling adults. Regression analysis provided a means of adjusting for the effects of soil moisture and showed soil temperature to be unimportant in predicting efficiency of flush sampling. Cesium-137 was used to label females for subsequent location underground. Comparison of mean distance to nearest neighbor with the distance predicted by a random distribution model showed that the observed distance in the spring was significantly greater than hypothesized (Student's T-test, p < 0.05). Fall adult nearest neighbor distance was not different than predicted by the random distribution hypothesis.

Hudson, W.G.

1985-01-01

272

TOWARDS A FACETED TAXONOMY TO STRUCTURE WEBGENRE CORPORA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of cyberjournalistic documents by proposing a taxonomy to structure web-genre corpora. It takes into account the peculiarities of this field, the new genres, their hybridization and complexness. In this sense, the taxonomy presented in this paper does not match a single theoretical framework, but it tries to gather the guidelines of various works intended to study online journalism and its genres. This theoretical flexibility is neede...

Joseba Ezeiza Ramos; Xavier Payá Ruiz; Ugurtzane Elordui Urkiza; Imanol Epelde Pagola

2011-01-01

273

The Cambrian trilobites of Jordan : taxonomy, systematic and stratigraphic significance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elicki, O. and Geyer, G. 2013. The Cambrian trilobites of Jordan - taxonomy, systematic and stratigraphic significance. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (1), 1-56. Warszawa. Marine carbonates and siliciclastic rocks of the Burj Formation in Jordan include paucispecific trilobite associations of the (traditional) Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary interval. Comprehensive new material of these trilobites allows a review of their taxonomy and systematic positions as well as a refined morphological descri...

Elicki, Olaf; Geyer, Gerd

2013-01-01

274

New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We divide these environme...

Hugues, Olivier; Fuchs, Philippe; Nannipieri, Olivier

2011-01-01

275

Simple ecological trade-offs give rise to emergent cross-ecosystem distributions of a coral reef fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecosystems are intricately linked by the flow of organisms across their boundaries, and such connectivity can be essential to the structure and function of the linked ecosystems. For example, many coral reef fish populations are maintained by the movement of individuals from spatially segregated juvenile habitats (i.e., nurseries, such as mangroves and seagrass beds) to areas preferred by adults. It is presumed that nursery habitats provide for faster growth (higher food availability) and/or low predation risk for juveniles, but empirical data supporting this hypothesis is surprisingly lacking for coral reef fishes. Here, we investigate potential mechanisms (growth, predation risk, and reproductive investment) that give rise to the distribution patterns of a common Caribbean reef fish species, Haemulon flavolineatum (French grunt). Adults were primarily found on coral reefs, whereas juvenile fish only occurred in non-reef habitats. Contrary to our initial expectations, analysis of length-at-age revealed that growth rates were highest on coral reefs and not within nursery habitats. Survival rates in tethering trials were 0% for small juvenile fish transplanted to coral reefs and 24-47% in the nurseries. As fish grew, survival rates on coral reefs approached those in non-reef habitats (56 vs. 77-100%, respectively). As such, predation seems to be the primary factor driving across-ecosystem distributions of this fish, and thus the primary reason why mangrove and seagrass habitats function as nursery habitat. Identifying the mechanisms that lead to such distributions is critical to develop appropriate conservation initiatives, identify essential fish habitat, and predict impacts associated with environmental change. PMID:21072542

Grol, Monique G G; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rypel, Andrew L; Layman, Craig A

2011-01-01

276

Ecological shortage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Meadows study (Limits to Growth) has made the environmental problem popular, but it has reduced the ecological problem to one of population and raw materials, leaving the conditions of social organisation and developmental policy out of consideration. This means that in spite of the repeated moral appeals, developing countries are left to their natural fate while fear and resignation are spread in the industrial nations. The present study tries to contradict this trend in consideration of interdependences in ecological development. (orig.)

1981-01-01

277

Ecological thresholds at the savanna-forest boundary: how plant traits, resources and fire govern the distribution of tropical biomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fire shapes the distribution of savanna and forest through complex interactions involving climate, resources and species traits. Based on data from central Brazil, we propose that these interactions are governed by two critical thresholds. The fire-resistance threshold is reached when individual trees have accumulated sufficient bark to avoid stem death, whereas the fire-suppression threshold is reached when an ecosystem has sufficient canopy cover to suppress fire by excluding grasses. Surpassing either threshold is dependent upon long fire-free intervals, which are rare in mesic savanna. On high-resource sites, the thresholds are reached quickly, increasing the probability that savanna switches to forest, whereas low-resource sites are likely to remain as savanna even if fire is infrequent. Species traits influence both thresholds; saplings of savanna trees accumulate bark thickness more quickly than forest trees, and are more likely to become fire resistant during fire-free intervals. Forest trees accumulate leaf area more rapidly than savanna trees, thereby accelerating the transition to forest. Thus, multiple factors interact with fire to determine the distribution of savanna and forest by influencing the time needed to reach these thresholds. Future work should decipher multiple environmental controls over the rates of tree growth and canopy closure in savanna. PMID:22554474

Hoffmann, William A; Geiger, Erika L; Gotsch, Sybil G; Rossatto, Davi R; Silva, Lucas C R; Lau, On Lee; Haridasan, M; Franco, Augusto C

2012-07-01

278

Fire Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

279

Biology and conservation of Xantus's Murrelet: Discovery, taxonomy and distribution  

Science.gov (United States)

The biology of Xantus's Murrelets Synthliboramphus hypoleucus is similar in many respects to better-studied Ancient Murrelets S. antiquus, especially regarding morphology and the species' precocial mode of post-hatching development. It nests mainly in rock crevices but also under shrubs on islands in southern California, United States, and northwestern Baja California, Mexico (27??N to 34??N). The species was discovered in 1859 by Ja??nos Xa??ntus. Two subspecies (S. h. hypoleucus and S. h. scrippsi) are recognized that show limited evidence of interbreeding. At sea, closely related Craveri's Murrelets S. craveri co-occur with Xantus's Murrelets off California and western Baja California during half the year, but the former species has a discrete breeding range in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Breeding was documented at 13 island groups between 1863 and 1976. Post-breeding dispersal as far north as central British Columbia, Canada (c. 52??N) was observed in the 1940s to 1960s. A few Xantus's Murrelets disperse south of breeding colonies to Magdalena Bay, Baja California (c. 24??N). The southernmost record is the type specimen collected by Xa??ntus near Cabo San Lucas, Baja California (c. 23??N). Chief threats to this species include introduced mammalian predators on breeding islands, heightened predation by natural predators in human-modified island habitats, and oil pollution. In January 2005, a Pacific Seabird Group special symposium, "Biology and conservation of the Xantus's Murrelet," highlighted conservation concerns and promoted publication of recent studies of this little-known alcid, with nine symposium papers published in this issue of Marine Ornithology. Much of what we know about Xantus's Murrelets has been learned in recent years, and many aspects of biology remain to be described.

Carter, H. R.; Sealy, S. G.; Burkett, E. E.; Piatt, J. F.

2005-01-01

280

Taxonomy, morphology and distribution of the Sellaphora stroemii complex (Bacillariophyceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Live and treated materials from three populations of diatoms collected in Italy, Slovakia and Spain, identified in previous inventories as Navicula stroemii Hust. sensu Krammer et Lange –Bertalot, were examined under light and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses highlighted the typical single H–shaped plastid, characteristic of the genus Sellaphora. Considering this, we thoroughly investigated type materials from the Sellaphora stroemii complex. According to the standard European d...

Bona, Francesca; Falasco, Elisa

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae)1  

Science.gov (United States)

For a monograph based on a polythetic concept, several thousands of herbarium specimens, and several hundreds of freshly collected and cultured specimens of Daldinia and allied Xylariaceae, originating from around the world, were studied for morphological traits, including by SEM, and chemically by HPLC profiles using UV-visible and mass spectrometric detection. Emphasis was given to tropical material, and importantly, ancient specimens, including as many types as possible, were tracked and studied to review earlier taxonomic concepts. An epitype of D. eschscholtzii was selected as representative of the morphochemotype that is most widely distributed in the tropics. Six new species of Daldinia from the tropics and the southern Hemisphere are described. Daldinia asphalatum is resurrected, and D. cudonia is regarded as its synonym. In addition, the following binomials are epi-, iso-, neo- and/or lectotypified: Daldinia asphalatum, D. caldariorum, D. clavata, D. cuprea, D. durissima, D. eschscholtzii, D. grandis, D. loculata, and D. vernicosa. Annellosporium and Versiomyces are regarded as synonyms of Daldinia. Many new synonymies in Daldinia are proposed, and some previously published names are rejected. In total, 47 taxa in Daldinia are recognised and a key is provided. Their biogeography, chorology, and ecology, as well as the importance of their secondary metabolites, are also discussed. The previous definition of the genus is emended. The species concept is based mainly on morphological and other phenotype-derived characters because, despite diligent search, no molecular data or cultures of several of the accepted species could be obtained. Daldinia is segregated into five major groups, based on phenotypic characteristics. Some unnamed but aberrant specimens were not found in good condition and are therefore not formally described as new species. However, they are illustrated in detail in a hope that this will facilitate the discovery of fresh material in future. A preliminary molecular phylogeny based on 5.8S/ITS nrDNA including numerous representatives of all hitherto described taxa for which cultures are extant, was found basically in agreement with the above mentioned segregation of the genus, based on morphological and chemotaxonomic evidence. In the rDNA based phylogenetic tree, Daldinia appears clearly distinct from members of the genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon; nevertheless, representatives of small genera of predominantly tropical origin (Entonaema, Phylacia, Ruwenzoria, Rhopalostroma, Thamnomyces) appear to have evolved from daldinioid ancestors and are nested inside the Daldinia clade. Interestingly, these findings correlate with chemotaxonomic characters to a great extent, especially regarding the distribution of marker metabolites in their mycelial cultures. Hence, the current study revealed for the first time that fungal secondary metabolite profiles can have taxonomic value beyond the species rank and even coincide with phylogenetic data. Taxonomic novelties: Daldinia andina sp. nov., D. australis sp. nov., D. hausknechtii sp. nov., D. rehmii sp. nov., D. starbaeckii sp. nov., D. theissenii sp. nov., D. cahuchosa comb. nov., D. nemorosa comb. nov.

Stadler, Marc; Laess?e, Thomas; Fournier, Jacques; Decock, Cony; Schmieschek, Beata; Tichy, Hans-Volker; Persoh, Derek

2014-01-01

282

Amphibians in Southern Apennine: distribution, ecology and conservation notes in the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (Southern Italy  

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Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.

Egidio Fulco

2012-12-01

283

The ecological impact of tidal pond channelization on the distribution of tilapia species (Perciformes: Cichlidae on Buguma creek, Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study of the tilapia species (Perciformes: Cichlidae of a tidal creek in the Southeast of theNiger Delta, Nigeria was conducted to assess the ecological impact of tidal pond channelization. Therewas no significant difference (p>0.05 in the values of the physical and chemical parameters, except fortransparency, water level and salinity (pSarotherodon melanotheron and Tilapia guineensis were recorded during the studies, with S. melanotheron being the dominant species.Orthogonal comparison using Duncan’s Multiple Range test showed that S. melanotheron was the causeof the observed difference in the tilapia population. Although there was positive correlation betweensalinity and the tilapia species at all stations, there was no significant correlation between tilapia speciesand the environmental variables. The findings of this study showed that channelized water bodies havelower qualify fish assemblage when compared to natural water bodies due to a loss of heterogeneoushabitat. Although channelization is inevitable in the development of brackishwater fish ponds,amelioration measures of its adverse effects deserve high priority. However since no significantdifference (p>0.05 existed in the distribution of T. guineensis, this study indicated that not all speciesare impacted by tidal pond channelization.

Blessing Julius Oribhabor

2011-12-01

284

Socio-ecology of the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) and the spatio-temporal distribution of Bayou virus in coastal Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Along the southeastern coast of the United States of America (USA), the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) is the primary host for the hantavirus, genotype Bayou. According to the socio-ecological model for a territorial, polygamous species, females should be distributed across space and time by habitat resources and predation risks, whereas males should space themselves according to the degree of female aggregation and reproductive synchrony. To investigate how females affect the male-male transmission paradigm of Bayou virus, rodents were captured, marked, released in two macrohabitat types and followed across a 30-month period. Microhabitat cover variables were quantified around the individual trap stations. A geodatabase was created from habitat and rodent capture data and analysed in a geographical information system. The ratio of breeding to non-breeding females was ~1:1, with breeding females overly dispersed and non-breeding females randomly dispersed. Spatial analyses revealed both macro- and microhabitat preferences in females. Compared to seronegatives, higher proportions of seropositive adult males were found consistently within closer proximities to breeding females but not to non-breeding females, indicating that male locations were not driven simply by habitat selection. Activities to acquire dispersed receptive females could be an important driver of Bayou virus transmission among male hosts. Herein, we describe an interdisciplinary effort providing a novel approach to elucidate the complexity of hantavirus trafficking and maintenance in rodent populations of a coastal marsh ecosystem. PMID:23733291

Holsomback, Tyla S; Van Nice, Christopher J; Clark, Rachel N; McIntyre, Nancy E; Abuzeineh, Alisa A; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

2013-05-01

285

THE INFLUENCE OF SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS, ECOLOGICAL PREFERENCES AND CALCIFICATION PROCESSES ON THE INCORPORATION OF STABLE OXYGEN AND CARBON ISOTOPES IN PLANKTIC FORAMINIFERAL CALCITE SHELLS  

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The presented thesis contributes to a better knowledge of planktic foraminiferal ecology as a prerequisite to understand the incorporation of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes into their calcite shells. This in turn provides the opportunity of improved proxy development and/or proxy calibration. The following manuscripts focus on different aspects of foraminiferal ecology and shell isotope-geochemistry in different hydrographic oceanic regions.

Wilke, Iris

2005-01-01

286

Biology, ecology and control of the Penthaleus species complex (Acari: Penthaleidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp. (Acari: Penthaleidae), are major agricultural pests in southern Australia and other parts of the world, attacking various pasture, vegetable and crop plants. Management of these mites has been complicated by the recent discovery of three cryptic pest species of Penthaleus, whereas prior research had assumed a single species. The taxonomy, population genetics, ecology, biology and control of the Penthaleus spp. complex are reviewed. Adult Penthaleus have a dark blue-black body approximately 1 mm in length, and eight red-orange legs. Within Australia, they are winter pests completing two or three generations a season, depending on conditions. The summer is passed as diapausing eggs, when long-distance dispersal is thought to occur. The Penthaleus spp. reproduce by thelytokous parthenogenesis, with populations comprising clones that differ ecologically. The three pest Penthaleus spp. differ markedly in their distributions, plant hosts, timing of diapause egg production and response to pesticides, highlighting the need to develop control strategies that consider each species separately. Chemicals are the main weapons used in current control programs, however research continues into alternative more sustainable management options. Host plant resistance, crop rotations, conservation of natural enemies, and improved timing of pesticide application would improve the management of these pests. The most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable means of control will result from the integration of these practices combined with the development of a simple field-based kit to distinguish the different mite species. PMID:15651522

Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Weeks, Andrew R

2004-01-01

287

BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF NERETVAN RUDD, Scardinius plotizza (HECKEL AND KNER, 1858 (PISCES, CYPRINIDAE IN THE HUTOVO BLATO WETLAND, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA  

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Full Text Available This paper presents data on the biological and ecological characteristics, distribution and habitat, vulnerability and the need for protection of Neretvan rudd Scardinius plotizza (Heckel and Kner, 1858 (Pisces, Cyprinidae, an endemic species of the lower River Neretva in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the area of Hutovo Blato wetland in Bosnia and Herzegovina, this species are numerously represented. It is a resident species and generally prevalent in the colder water areas of the Gornje Blato, such as Lake Deran where it inhabits the deeper central area covered with underwater vegetation. In the choice of habitat, less difference between juvenile and adult populations was observed. Although the current population status of this species in the Hutovo Blato may be assessed as stable, it is likely to be considered endangered in the future if the trends of various negative impacts that threaten its existence prolong. The wetland area of the Hutovo Blato, which is characterized by a large number of endemic species of narrow distribution range, is threatened by significant negative changes in habitat, hence urgent evaluation and protection measures are needed. In order to improve the conservation status of this species, as well as high ichthyological diversity of this area, of particular importance are the following: effective protection of habitat, improved water management measures and prevention of further introduction and spreading of exotic species. Also, it is necessary to accurately determine its taxonomic position. It is proposed that IUCN classifies this species as Near Threatened (NT in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the basis of its current status, as well as projections for future development and the IUCN criteria.

Jakov Dul?i?

2012-12-01

288

Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the distribution and ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ardebil Province of northwestern Iran, with special reference to the known dirofilariasis focus in Meshkinshahr County, was carried out in July-August 2005 and April-October 2006. In total, 17,533 adult mosquitoes and 3090 third- and fourth-instar larvae were collected on 14 occasions and identified using morphological characters and DNA sequence data. Twenty species belonging to seven genera were found: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. hyrcanus (Pallas), An. maculipennis Meigen, An. pseudopictus Grassi*, An. sacharovi Favre, An. superpictus Grassi, Aedes vexans (Meigen)*, Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi)*, Culex hortensis Ficalbi, Cx. modestus Ficalbi, Cx. pipiens Linnaeus, Cx. theileri Theobald, Cx. torrentium Martini*, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart), Cs. annulata (Schrank)*, Cs. subochrea (Edwards), Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas) s.l.* (= Aedes caspius sensu auctorum), Oc. geniculatus (Olivier)* (= Aedes geniculatus sensu auctorum) and Uranotaenia unguiculata Edwards (asterisks indicate new occurrence records for the province). The most prevalent species in adult catches were An. maculipennis (52%), Cx. theileri (45%) and Cx. hortensis (1%); the most prevalent species caught as larvae were Cx. theileri (27%), Cx. hortensis (21%) and An. maculipennis (19%). Anopheles maculipennis, Cx. pipiens and Cx. theileri were most widely distributed in the province. The occurrence of Cx. torrentium in Iran is verified based on differential characters of fourth-instar larvae. Anopheles maculipennis and An. sacharovi of the Maculipennis Group were identified from their diagnostic ITS2 sequences. For the first time, cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences were obtained from Iranian specimens of An. hyrcanus, An. pseudopictus, Cx. theileri and Oc. caspiuss.l. Culex theileri and An. maculipennis were found naturally infected with third-stage (infective) larvae of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) and Setaria labiatopapillosa (Alessandrini) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), respectively, for the first time in Iran. PMID:19493192

Azari-Hamidian, S; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Javadian, E; Abai, M R; Mobedi, I; Linton, Y-M; Harbach, R E

2009-06-01

289

Distribution of Genes for Virulence and Ecological Fitness among Diverse Vibrio cholerae Population in a Cholera Endemic Area: Tracking the Evolution of Pathogenic Strains  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae that cause acute enteric infections in humans are derived from environmental nonpathogenic strains. To track the evolution of pathogenic V. cholerae and identify potential precursors of new pathogenic strains, we analyzed 324 environmental or clinical V. cholerae isolates for the presence of diverse genes involved in virulence or ecological fitness. Of 251 environmental non-O1, non-O139 strains tested, 10 (3.9%) carried the toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) pathogenicity island encoding TCPs, and the CTX prophage encoding cholera toxin, whereas another 10 isolates carried the TCP island alone, and were susceptible to transduction with CTX phage. Most V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains carried these two major virulence determinants, as well as the Vibrio seventh pandemic islands (VSP-1 and VSP-2), whereas 23 (9.1%) non-O1, non-O139 strains carried several VSP island genes, but none carried a complete VSP island. Conversely, 30 (11.9%) non-O1, non-O139 strains carried type III secretion system (TTSS) genes, but none of 63 V. cholerae O1 or O139 strains tested were positive for TTSS. Thus, the distribution of major virulence genes in the non-O1, non-O139 serogroups of V. cholerae is largely different from that of the O1 or O139 serogroups. However, the prevalence of putative accessory virulence genes (mshA, hlyA, and RTX) was similar in all strains, with the mshA being most prevalent (98.8%) followed by RTX genes (96.2%) and hlyA (94.6%), supporting more recent assumptions that these genes imparts increased environmental fitness. Since all pathogenic strains retain these genes, the epidemiological success of the strains presumably depends on their environmental persistence in addition to the ability to produce major virulence factors. Potential precursors of new pathogenic strains would thus require to assemble a combination of genes for both ecological fitness and virulence to attain epidemiological predominance.

Rahman, M. Hasibur; Biswas, Kuntal; Hossain, M. Anwar; Sack, R. Bradley; Mekalanos, John J.

2008-01-01

290

Ecological Biology (Program Description)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Environmental Biology Ecological Biology Description The Ecological Biology Cluster supports ... findings into new paradigms. The Ecological Biology Cluster funds research in the following areas ...

291

ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level and to draw attention on the necessity of un ecological education.

GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

2011-04-01

292

Political ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

1979-01-01

293

Plant taxonomy: a historical perspective, current challenges, and perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxonomy is the science that explores, describes, names, and classifies all organisms. In this introductory chapter, we highlight the major historical steps in the elaboration of this science that provides baseline data for all fields of biology and plays a vital role for society but is also an independent, complex, and sound hypothesis-driven scientific discipline.In a first part, we underline that plant taxonomy is one of the earliest scientific disciplines that emerged thousands of years ago, even before the important contributions of Greeks and Romans (e.g., Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides). In the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, plant taxonomy benefited from the Great Navigations, the invention of the printing press, the creation of botanic gardens, and the use of the drying technique to preserve plant specimens. In parallel with the growing body of morpho-anatomical data, subsequent major steps in the history of plant taxonomy include the emergence of the concept of natural classification, the adoption of the binomial naming system (with the major role of Linnaeus) and other universal rules for the naming of plants, the formulation of the principle of subordination of characters, and the advent of the evolutionary thought. More recently, the cladistic theory (initiated by Hennig) and the rapid advances in DNA technologies allowed to infer phylogenies and to propose true natural, genealogy-based classifications.In a second part, we put the emphasis on the challenges that plant taxonomy faces nowadays. The still very incomplete taxonomic knowledge of the worldwide flora (the so-called taxonomic impediment) is seriously hampering conservation efforts that are especially crucial as biodiversity enters its sixth extinction crisis. It appears mainly due to insufficient funding, lack of taxonomic expertise, and lack of communication and coordination. We then review recent initiatives to overcome these limitations and to anticipate how taxonomy should and could evolve. In particular, the use of molecular data has been era-splitting for taxonomy and may allow an accelerated pace of species discovery. We examine both strengths and limitations of such techniques in comparison to morphology-based investigations, we give broad recommendations on the use of molecular tools for plant taxonomy, and we highlight the need for an integrative taxonomy based on evidence from multiple sources. PMID:24415467

Rouhan, Germinal; Gaudeul, Myriam

2014-01-01

294

A Taxonomy of Fallacies in System Safety Arguments  

Science.gov (United States)

Safety cases are gaining acceptance as assurance vehicles for safety-related systems. A safety case documents the evidence and argument that a system is safe to operate; however, logical fallacies in the underlying argument may undermine a system s safety claims. Removing these fallacies is essential to reduce the risk of safety-related system failure. We present a taxonomy of common fallacies in safety arguments that is intended to assist safety professionals in avoiding and detecting fallacious reasoning in the arguments they develop and review. The taxonomy derives from a survey of general argument fallacies and a separate survey of fallacies in real-world safety arguments. Our taxonomy is specific to safety argumentation, and it is targeted at professionals who work with safety arguments but may lack formal training in logic or argumentation. We discuss the rationale for the selection and categorization of fallacies in the taxonomy. In addition to its applications to the development and review of safety cases, our taxonomy could also support the analysis of system failures and promote the development of more robust safety case patterns.

Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Holloway, C. Michael; Pease, Jacob J.

2006-01-01

295

TAXONOMY FOR WSN SECURITY-A SURVEY  

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WSN is one of the dominant and emerging technology that shows great promise for  various application in military, ecological and health related areas.WSN is highly vulnerable to attacks and inclusion of wireless communication technology incurs various types of security threats.WSN requires security measures due to sensitive data and as sensor may operate in hostile unattended environment.WSN suffer from constraints like low computational capability, small memory limited energy resources p...

2013-01-01

296

Assessment of the diversity, abundance, and ecological distribution of members of candidate division SR1 reveals a high level of phylogenetic diversity but limited morphotypic diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone library surveys, quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization to investigate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of members of candidate division SR1 in multiple habitats. Using SR1-specific 16S rRNA gene primers, we identified multiple novel SR1 lineages in four different anaerobic environments: sediments from Zodletone Spring, a sulfide- and sulfur-rich spring in southwestern Oklahoma; inner layers of microbial mats obtained from Sperm Pool, a high-temperature, low-pH pool (55 degrees C, pH 2.5) in Yellowstone National Park; fresh bovine ruminal contents; and anaerobic freshwater pond sediments (Duck Pond) in Norman, Oklahoma. qPCR analysis indicated that SR1 members constitute a small fraction (Pond and ruminal samples but constitute a significant fraction (11.6 and 48.7%) of the total number of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in Zodletone Spring and the inner layers of Sperm Pool microbial mat samples, respectively. By using SR1-specific fluorescent probes, filamentous cells were identified as the sole SR1 morphotype in all environments examined, with the exception of Sperm Pool, where a second bacillus morphotype was also identified. Using a full-cycle 16S rRNA approach, we show that each of these two morphotypes corresponds to a specific phylogenetic lineage identified in the Sperm Pool clone library. This work greatly expands the intralineage phylogenetic diversity within candidate division SR1 and provides valuable quantification and visualization tools that could be used for investigating the ecological roles, dynamics, and genomics of this as-yet-uncultured bacterial phylum. PMID:19395567

Davis, James P; Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

2009-06-01

297

Distribution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of toxic heavy metals and metalloid in surface water of lakes in Daqing Heilongjiang Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is necessary to estimate heavy metal concentrations and risk in surface water for understanding the heavy metal contaminations and for sustainable protection of ecosystems and human health. To investigate the anthropogenic contribution of heavy metal accumulation surrounding an industrial city in China, the concentrations of six heavy metals, including mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) were examined; from four different regions of Daqing in autumn 2011 and winter 2012. The results showed heavy metals distributed in the industrial area at concentrations relatively higher than those in other three areas, while concentrations in the farming area and the protected area were lower. The heavy metal concentrations of water bodies in all areas, except those for Hg and As, Cu, Pb and Cr were lower than the cutoff values for the Class I water quality that was set as the highest standard to protect the national nature reserves. While Hg and As of lakes in industry region had a higher level than those in the agriculture and landscape water, the lowest allowed. The concentrations of all the heavy metals in winter were higher than in the autumn. Cu had a higher ecological risks level to freshwater organisms. The discharge of urban sewage and industrial wastewater might be a major pollutant source, thus these sources should identified before remediation efforts. Efforts are needed to protect the lakes from pollution and also to reduce environmental health risks. This study and the valuable data will pave the way for future research on these Lakes in Daqing. PMID:24420619

Wang, Xiaodi; Zang, Shuying

2014-05-01

298

Taxonomy and biogeography of Stephanoxis Simon, 1897 (Aves: Trochilidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Após a descrição no século XIX de duas espécies de beija-flores atualmente alocados no gênero Stephanoxis, ambos os táxons foram considerados subespécies por Peters (1945), sem que o autor fornecesse qualquer justificativa para tal decisão taxonômica. Com base em um expressivo número de exemplares n [...] ós reavaliamos a taxonomia e o limite de espécies dos representantes deste gênero, e demonstramos que ambos são mais bem tratados como espécies plenas sob os Conceitos Biológico e Filogenético de Espécie devido aos bem definidos padrões de plumagem e de distribuição geográfica, assim como pela distinta reciprocidade monofilética. Ambos os táxons são separados por cerca de 160 quilômetros entre a Serra do Mar, a leste, e a Serra de Paranapiacaba, a oeste, dentro do Estado de São Paulo. A distribuição das duas espécies de Stephanoxis é congruente com as de outras espécies de aves montanas, o que sugere eventos vicariantes compartilhados durante períodos interglaciais pretéritos. Abstract in english After the description in the 19th century of two hummingbird species currently allocated to the genus Stephanoxis, Peters (1945) merged both taxa into a single species without providing any rationale. Here we re-evaluate the taxonomy and species limits of the representatives of this genus based on a [...] n extensive number of specimens. We demonstrate these taxa are better treated as full species under both the Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts due to their well-defined range and plumage patterns and reciprocally diagnosability. They have distinct, allopatric distributions segregated by a 160 km gap between the Serra do Mar, to the east, and Serra de Paranapiacaba, to the west, in the state of São Paulo. Stephanoxis species have ranges which are congruent with other montane bird species? suggesting shared vicariance events during preterit interglacial periods.

Cavarzere, Vagner; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Vasconcelos, Marcelo Ferreira de; Grantsau, Rolf; Straube, Fernando Costa.

299

Predicting the distribution of a parasite using the ecological niche model, GARP Predicción de la distribución de un parásito usando el modelo de nicho ecológico, GARP  

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The ecological niche of a parasite exists only at the nexus of certain abiotic and biotic conditions suitable for both the definitive and intermediate hosts. However, the life cycles of most parasites are not known, or are poorly known, and using known ranges of hosts to find endemic parasitic infections has been difficult. However, with ecological niche modeling, we can create potential range maps using known localities of infection. Testing the validity of such maps requires knowledge of th...

2010-01-01

300

A knowledge engineering taxonomy for intelligent tutoring system development  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a study addressing the issue of developing an appropriate mapping of knowledge acquisition methods to problem types for intelligent tutoring system development. Recent research has recognized that knowledge acquisition methodologies are not general across problem domains; the effectiveness of a method for obtaining knowledge depends on the characteristics of the domain and problem solving task. Southwest Research Institute developed a taxonomy of problem types by evaluating the characteristics that discriminate between problems and grouping problems that share critical characteristics. Along with the problem taxonomy, heuristics that guide the knowledge acquisition process based on the characteristics of the class are provided.

Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Towards A Taxonomy Of Attacks Against Energy Control Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Control systems in the energy sector (e.g., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems) involve a hierarchy of sensing, monitoring and control devices connected to centralized control stations or centers. The incorporation of commercial off-the-shelf technologies in energy control systems makes them vulnerable to cyber attacks. A taxonomy of cyber attacks against control systems can assist the energy sector in managing the cyber threat. This paper takes the first step towards a taxonomy by presenting a comprehensive model of attacks, vulnerabilities and damage related to control systems. The model is populated based on a survey of the technical literature from industry, academia and national laboratories.

Fleury, Terry; Khurana, Himanshu; Welch, Von

302

Ecology of Drosophila aggregation pheromone  

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Many insect species use an aggregation pheromone to form groups with conspecifics in certain localities of the environment. This type of behaviour has a variety of implications for ecological interactions, both directly through the effect of the pheromone on the behaviour of con- and heterospecifics, and indirectly through the consequential aggregative distributions that may affect species interactions. The evolutionary ecology of the use of aggregation pheromone has received o...

Wertheim, B.

2001-01-01

303

Current and pending taxonomy of the Pasteurellaceae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the family Pasteurellaceae was established in 1981 the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant changes. 16S DNA sequencing showed in the early 1990-ties, that the three original genera were genetically heterogeneous. Presently, the family consists of 13 genetically coherent genera with 38 properly classified species. In addition, there are 24 misclassified species that have been excluded from the genera Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Heamophilus and which probably will be allocated to new genera in the future. At the moment 92 different taxa (named species and provisional taxa) have been described within the family. In the presentation different methods for species delineation will be presented and potential problems discussed in relation to selected examples. It is currently recommended that a new species should be separated from other species by at lest two phenotypic tests. Within genus Mannheimia the separation between M. haemolytica and M. glucosida was based on a polyphasic taxonomic investigation, but there is only one phenotypic character to separate the species and presently no genotypic test. A group of Mannheimia sp. is genetically distinct but lack common phenotypic characters and can consequently not be formally named. Such problems could be solved by establishing genomospecies. Histophilus somni represent a genotypically well defined species but show great phenotypic variability. Here a PCR test based on the rrn-operon was included in the formal species description. [Haemophilus] parasuis show marked variability in the rnn-operons and illustrates that analysis of 16S rDNA sequences can lead to incorrect conclusions in a non-clonal population. The separation between Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and A. lignieresii is not possible based on the rrn-operons alone but the existence of two separate species is evident based on AFLP-genotyping. Although 16S sequencing is a versatile tool for taxonomic investigations, its discriminative power for species delineation is in a number of cases limited. DNA-DNA hybridization is still regarded as a golden standard for separating species but the sequencing of housekeeping genes represents a promising alternative. Whole genome sequencing will probably accelerate as less labour intensive methods are developed and prices go down. Data from these genome sequencing projects will make a more detailed study of the genetic affiliation between strains and species feasible. At the same time the genotypic variation within a species and the description of the â??pan-genomesâ? and â??core-genomesâ? will represent a challenge to our conception of what a species is.

Angen, Ã?ystein Technical University of Denmark,

304

Fish-based groups for ecological assessment in rivers: the importance of environmental drivers on taxonomic and functional traits of fish assemblages Groupes ichtyologiques pour l'évaluation écologique des rivières : importance des facteurs environnementaux sur la taxonomie et les caractéristiques fonctionnelles des peuplements de poissons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of river-types is of practical value, serving as groups for which assessment procedures can be developed and applied. An abiotic typology was set by the Portuguese Water Agency, mainly based on 6 major morphoclimatic regions. However, to be biologically meaningful, this typology should fit the distribution patterns of the biological quality elements communities proposed in Water Framework Directive under the lowest possible human pressure. This study aimed to identify and characterize fish-based geographical groups for continental Portugal and their environmental and geographical discriptors, using taxonomic and functional traits. Sampling took place between 2004 and 2006 during Spring. Fish fauna from 155 reference sites was analysed using a multivariate approach. Cluster Analysis on fish composition identified 10 fish-groups, expressing a clear correspondence to the river basin level, due to the restrict basin distribution of many species. Groups showed a wider aggregation in 4 regions with a larger geographical correspondence, statistically supported by Similarity Analysis, both on fish composition and mostly on fish metrics/guilds. Principal Components Analysis revealed major environmental drivers associated to fish-groups and fish-regions. Fish-groups were hierarchically grouped over major and local regions, expressing a large-scale response to a North-South environmental gradient defined by temperature, precipitation, mineralization and altitude, and a regional scale response mainly to drainage area and flow discharge. From North to South, fish-regions were related to the morphoclimatic regions. Results contributed to reduce redundance in abiotic river-types and set the final typology for Portuguese rivers, constituting a fundamental tool for planning and managing water resources. L'utilisation de rivière-types est un moyen pratique, fournissant des groupes pour lesquels des procédures d'évaluation peuvent être développées et appliquées. Une typologie abiotique a été fixée par l'Agence de l'Eau Portugaise, principalement basée sur 6 principales régions morphoclimatiques. Toutefois, pour être biologiquement significative, cette typologie devrait correspondre aux schémas de distribution des communautés, éléments de qualité biologique, proposés dans la directive cadre sur l'eau sous la pression anthropique la plus basse possible. Cette étude visait à identifier et à caractériser des groupes géographiques reposant sur les communautés ichtyologiques pour le Portugal continental et leurs descripteurs environnementaux et géographiques, à l'aide de traits taxonomiques et fonctionnels. L'échantillonnage a eu lieu entre 2004 et 2006 au cours du printemps. La faune de poissons provenant de 155 sites de référence a été analysée en utilisant une approche multivariée. L’analyse de clusters sur la composition en poissons a identifié 10 groupes ichtyologiques, exprimant une correspondance claire à l'échelle du bassin versant, en raison de la distribution limitée à un bassin de nombreuses espèces. Les groupes ont montré une plus large agrégation dans 4 régions avec une plus grande correspondance géographique, confirmée statistiquement par l'analyse de similarité, à la fois sur la composition en poisson et surtout sur les métriques ichtyologiques ou les guildes. L’analyse en Composantes Principales a révélé les principaux facteurs environnementaux associés aux groupes et régions ichtyologiques. Les groupes ichtyologiques ont été regroupés hiérarchiquement sur des régions locales et plus grandes, exprimant une réponse à grande échelle à un gradient Nord-Sud de l'environnement défini par la température, les précipitations, la minéralisation et l'altitude, et une réponse à l'échelle régionale principalement à l'aire de drainage et au débit. Du Nord au Sud, les régions ichtyologiques étaient liées aux zones morphoclimatiques. Les résultats contribuent à réduire la redondance dans les types abiotiques de rivières et définissent

Matono P.

2012-06-01

305

Terrestrial ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

1977-10-01

306

Ecology of gelatious plankton : With emphasis on feeding interactions, distribution pattern and reproduction biology of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Baltic Sea  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Comb jellies were a relatively obscure group of zooplankton, until Mnemiopsis leidyi invaded the Black Sea in the 1980â??s with cascading effects on several ecosystem levels including commercial fisheries. This native to the east coasts of America triggered large public and scientific attention as a result of this invasion and its ecological and economic impacts. In 2005, when M. leidyi was sighted in Northern Europe for the first time, similar consequences were feared. The aim of my PhD project was to understand the potential impact of M. leidyi on the Baltic Sea ecosystem and constrains on its dispersal. Specifically, the project investigated (i) direct and indirect effects of M. leidyi on the Baltic cod population in its most important spawning ground, (ii) factors governing the spatial and temporal distribution of M. leidyi eggs, larvae and adults in the Baltic and, (iii) M. leidyi reproduction and its effect on population development. The approach involved 13 monthly monitoring cruises from high saline Skagerrak to low saline northern Baltic regions, in situ and laboratory controlled reproduction and feeding experiments, molecular analysis for species verification, and statistical modeling. The low feeding rates and passive negative selection of cod eggs in experiments demonstrate that M. leidyi does not pose a direct threat to the Baltic cod population at the environmental conditions characteristic for its spawning ground. Furthermore, the drastically reduced reproduction rates observed under low salinities suggest M. leidyi is not likely to compete with cod recruits prey. Spatial and temporal surveys show highest abundances during October, with a consistent absence of adult and larval M. leidyi in the northern Baltic. Abundances in the Kattegat were 60 times higher than in the central Baltic, suggesting that the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic is dependent on advection from high saline areas. This interpretation is consistent with the low reproduction rates measured and a low fraction of up-growing animals in the central Baltic. While adults were not observed from April to June in high saline areas, M. leidyi larvae were present throughout the year. It remains unclear where M. leidyi overwinters but high saline areas appear to be important in the annual establishment of the population. Laboratory and in situ reproduction experiments confirmed that fecundity is a major contributor to M. leidyiâ??s invasion success, although salinity is regulating, and possibly restricting, its range expansion in Northern Europe. Maximum reproduction rates are shown to be attained at low food concentrations, helping reconcile the high population densities observed in localized areas despite low food concentrations. An unexpected discovery was that the arctic relict ctenophore Mertensia ovum, thought to be restricted to the northern Baltic, also occurs in the high saline Kattegat/Skagerrak during winter and spring. Interestingly, in the northern Baltic the M. ovum population consists exclusively of larval-sized animals that are actively reproducing and maintaining a self-sustained population. Natural selection can favor early maturation at small size when mortality rates are high, and our results are consistent with this hypothesis. Currently, M. leidyi has established itself permanently in high and intermediate saline areas in Northern Europe. While the ecological impact of M. leidyi in the central Baltic appears to be limited concern, the environment in other European waters should be more favourable to their populations. In these areas, it is suggested that M. leidyi constitutes a potential threat to fisheries through resource competition with fishes

Jaspers, Cornelia

2012-01-01

307

Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology  

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Full Text Available Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, and scientific knowledge systems. Based on 61 in-depth interviews with these ocean experts, historical trends, abundance, and distribution over 80 years and a 50-mile region for 271 species emerged. Analyzing trends by ecological guild, e.g., herbivores, proved inappropriate to these data; rather, based on qualitative analyses, five distinct trends encompassing nearly all species emerged in what we term "social-ecological guilds." Ocean expert's observations of change were surprisingly consistent, regardless of their knowledge system, whereas perceptions of change varied widely. The historical picture was far broader and richer when the contributions of six knowledge systems were incorporated, compared to that of any one alone. Social-ecological guilds also matter critically from a management perspective, because understanding how experts from a multiplicity of perspectives observe, interpret, and respond to ecological change can help managers anticipate responses to management activities and perhaps to design better management strategies.

Larry B. Crowder

2011-03-01

308

A road map for synthesizing the scaling patterns in ecology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecology studies biodiversity in its variety and complexity. It describes how species distribute and perform in response to environmental changes. Ecological processes and structures are highly complex and adaptive. In order to quantify emerging ecological patterns and investigate their hidden mechanisms, we need to rely on the simplicity of mathematical language. This becomes especially apparent when dealing with scaling patterns in ecology. Indeed, nearly all of ecological ...

Hui, Cang

2013-01-01

309

A Taxonomy of Community-based Medical Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a classification of community-based medical education. Distinguishes between programs developed primarily to provide services to underserved communities; programs with a research focus; and programs that have student clinical training as their primary goal. The taxonomy is intended to contribute to development of a theory of…

Magzoub, Mohi Eldin M. A.; Schmidt, Henk G.

2000-01-01

310

Nanda’s taxonomy employment in brazil: integrative review  

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Full Text Available Objectives: to identify and to classify the studies developed in Brazil that had used in the practical assistencial the Taxonomy of the NANDA. Method: Integrative reveiw of the literature, carried through in the databases LILACS and MEDLINE, using itself the word-key Taxonomy and NANDA, being selected studies with summary, published in Brazil and that presented the practical application of the taxonomy. Results: of the 46 selected studies, 80.4% had been developed in the clinical area and excessively in the surgical area. It had predominance of prospectives studies in the hospital scene; the used theoretical referencial more had been of Horta and Orem. The studies had presented the descriptive delineations and study of case, having been classified as evidence level 4. Conclusion: the evidences point with respect to the use of the Taxonomy of the NANDA as bases for the development of the nursing assistance considering the universality of the language used in the practical area, the individuality of the necessities presented for the customers in the diverse scenes, the aiding of the education of the customer/family, to the results reached with specific interventions.

Daniella Soares dos Santos, Simone Roque Mazoni, Emilia Campos de Carvalho

2009-01-01

311

Memory read faults: taxonomy and automatic test generation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an innovative algorithm for the automatic generation of March tests. The proposed approach is able to generate an optimal March test for an unconstrained set of memory faults in very low computation time. Moreover, we propose a new complete taxonomy for memory read faults, a class of faults never carefully addressed in the past

Di Carlo, Stefano; Prinetto, Paolo Ernesto; Di Natale, Giorgio; Benso, Alfredo

2001-01-01

312

Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Teach Students about Plagiarism  

Science.gov (United States)

Melissa A. Vosen outlines a unit she has designed to help students comprehend the often unclear boundaries and issues surrounding plagiarism. Using Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain, students complete increasingly complex tasks, learning to construct a works cited page and assess scholarly opinions. They also research the consequences of…

Vosen, Melissa A.

2008-01-01

313

Taxonomy Development and Knowledge Representation of Nurses’ Personal Cognitive Artifacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nurses prepare knowledge representations, or summaries of patient clinical data, each shift. These knowledge representations serve multiple purposes, including support of working memory, workload organization and prioritization, critical thinking, and reflection. This summary is integral to internal knowledge representations, working memory, and decision-making. Study of this nurse knowledge representation resulted in development of a taxonomy of knowledge representations necessary to nursing...

Mclane, Sharon; Turley, James P.

2009-01-01

314

A taxonomy of myopic stability concepts for hedonic games  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a taxonomy of myopic stability concepts for hedonic games in terms of deviations, and discuss the status of the existence problems of stable coalition structures. In particular, we show that contractual strictly core stable coalition structures always exist, and provide sufficient conditions for the existence of contractually Nash stable and weak individually stable coalition structures on the class of separable games.

2005-01-01

315

The New Bloom's Taxonomy: Implications for Music Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic programs use objective and standardized assessment criteria. Music education programs have avoided such objective assessments via the assertion of subjectivity and aesthetics in music learning. In this article, the author introduces the revised Bloom's taxonomy as a tool to translate music education outcomes into objective educational…

Hanna, Wendell

2007-01-01

316

Merlin C. Wittrock and the Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Merl Wittrock, a cognitive psychologist who had proposed a generative model of learning, was an essential member of the group that over a period of 5 years revised the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," originally published in 1956. This article describes the development of that 2001 revision (Anderson and Krathwohl, Editors) and Merl's…

Krathwohl, David R.; Anderson, Lorin W.

2010-01-01

317

Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: 'Blooming' beyond a Simple Taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests that most students approach organic chemistry classes with a certain amount of apprehension and try to just manage or memorize the material rather than understand it. Recommends the use of Bloom's taxonomy as a way to increase comprehension and gives an example of how to use it in an organic chemistry classroom. (SOE)

Pungente, Michael D.; Badger, Rodney A.

2003-01-01

318

Monoclonal antibodies for bacterial identification and taxonomy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some uses of monoclonal antibodies in bacteriology are discussed with emphasis on identification and classification of microorganisms. It is pointed out that monoclonal antibodies are useful in diagnostic purposes, i.e., identification of bacteria and bacterial antigens in unknowns and classification of new isolates. They are also important for studying relationships among bacteria with phylogenetic significance and for elucidating their ecological history. The procedure for production of monoclonal antibodies is included. A comparison of these antibodies with antisera is made. Data are reviewed illustrating the use of monoclonal antibodies for the study of methanogenic bacteria. A perspective for the future is outlined concerning the potential of panels of monoclonal antibodies to resolve bacterial components of phylogenetic significance. 21 references, 2 figures.

Conway de Macario, E.; Macario, A.J.L.

1983-01-01

319

Distribution of environmentally sensitive elements in residential soils near a coal-fired power plant: potential risks to ecology and children's health.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and twelve soil samples were collected from residential areas surrounding a coal-fired power plant at Huainan City, Anhui Province, China. The concentrations of environmentally sensitive elements (ESEs As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in soil samples were determined, and their potential ecological and health risks were assessed. Mean concentrations of ESEs in the downwind soils of the power plant are relatively higher than those in the upwind soils, pointing to a potential ESEs input from coal combustion. The calculated ecological risk of ESEs in soils indicates a relatively low ecological risk. Hazard quotient (HQ) of ESEs in downwind soils is 1.5, suggesting a potential health risk for children. However, the carcinogenic risk values of ESEs in soils are within the acceptable non-hazardous range of 1E-06-1E-04. PMID:24091246

Tang, Quan; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Ruoyu

2013-11-01

320

Distribution of grasshoppers (Othoptera: Acridoidea in the Tapacurá ecological station (São Lourenço da Mata, PE / Brazil Distribuição de gafanhotos (Othoptera: Acridoidea na estação ecológica do tapacurá (São Lourenço Da Mata, PE  

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Full Text Available Over the last five years, collection and periodic observation in the Tapacur? Ecological Station, São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, have been carried out to produce a systematic ecological inventory of grasshopper distribution within the station based on the classifying criteria for Acridoidea, providing new data on families, subfamilies, tribes, genera and species related to the various types of vegetation and environments the station affords.Através de procedimento de coletas e observações periódicas, ao longo de cinco anos, na Estação Ecológica do Tapacurá, São Lourenço da Mata, PE, procedeu-se a um inventário sistemático-ecológico da distribuição dos gafanhotos da estação, adotando-se critérios classificatórios de Acridoidea com novos assinalamentos de famílias, subfamílias, tribos, gêneros e espécies, relacionados aos diversos tipos de vegetação e ambientes da estação.

AV. Almeida

2008-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

US ecology data system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Ecology computer data system was instituted March 1, 1982. This system was designed to manage the increasing flow of paperwork and data associated with the receipt and disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Richland, Washington and Beatty, Nevada. The system was modified and upgraded in 1984 to accommodate a revised shipping manifest pursuant to the requirements of 10 CFR 20.311. The data system is used to generate various reports for both internal and external distribution. The computer system is located at US Ecology's corporate headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky. Remote access terminals are located at the disposal sites. The system is supported by a Wang VS-100 processor. In addition to supporting the radwaste data system, the system supports a chemical waste data base, word processing, and electronic mail. The management and operation of this data base are described. 19 figures

1987-02-01

322

Industrial ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

Patel, C K

1992-02-01

323

Advances in molecular identification, taxonomy, genetic variation and diagnosis of Toxocara spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Toxocara contains parasitic nematodes of human and animal health significance, such as Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara vitulorum. T. canis and T. cati are among the most prevalent parasites of dogs and cats with a worldwide distribution. Human infection with T. canis and T. cati, which can cause a number of clinical manifestations such as visceral larva migrans (VLMs), ocular larva migrans (OLMs), eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EME), covert toxocariasis (CT) and neurotoxocariasis, is considered the most prevalent neglected helminthiasis in industrialized countries. The accurate identification Toxocara spp. and their unequivocal differentiation from each other and from other ascaridoid nematodes causing VLMs and OLMs has important implications for studying their taxonomy, epidemiology, population genetics, diagnosis and control. Due to the limitations of traditional (morphological) approaches for identification and diagnosis of Toxocara spp., PCR-based techniques utilizing a range of genetic markers in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have been developed as useful alternative approaches because of their high sensitivity, specificity, rapidity and utility. In this article, we summarize the current state of knowledge and advances in molecular identification, taxonomy, genetic variation and diagnosis of Toxocara spp. with prospects for further studies. PMID:22569289

Chen, Jia; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Xu, Min-Jun; Huang, Si-Yang; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2012-10-01

324

A Taxonomy and Survey of Grid Resource Planning and Reservation Systems for Grid Enabled Analysis Environment  

CERN Document Server

The concept of coupling geographically distributed resources for solving large scale problems is becoming increasingly popular forming what is popularly called grid computing. Management of resources in the Grid environment becomes complex as the resources are geographically distributed, heterogeneous in nature and owned by different individuals and organizations each having their own resource management policies and different access and cost models. There have been many projects that have designed and implemented the resource management systems with a variety of architectures and services. In this paper we have presented the general requirements that a Resource Management system should satisfy. The taxonomy has also been defined based on which survey of resource management systems in different existing Grid projects has been conducted to identify the key areas where these systems lack the desired functionality.

Ali, A; Mehmood, A; McClatchey, R; Willers, I; Bunn, J; Newman, H; Thomas, M; Steenberg, C; Ali, Arshad; Anjum, Ashiq; Mehmood, Atif; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Willers, Ian; Bunn, Julian; Newman, Harvey; Thomas, Michael; Steenberg, Conrad

2004-01-01

325

Advances and trends in the molecular systematics of anisakid nematodes, with implications for their evolutionary ecology and host-parasite co-evolutionary processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of molecular systematics to the anisakid nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Pseudoterranova and Contracaecum, parasites of aquatic organisms, over the last two decades, has advanced the understanding of their systematics, taxonomy, ecology and phylogeny substantially. Here the results of this effort on this group of species from the early genetic works to the current status of their revised taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary aspects are reviewed for each of three parasitic groups. It has been shown that many anisakid morphospecies of Anisakis, Contracaecum and Pseudoterranova include a certain number of sibling species. Molecular genetic markers provided a rapid, precise means to screen and identify several species that serve as definitive and intermediate and or/paratenic hosts of the so far genetically characterized species. Patterns of differential distribution of anisakid nematodes in various definitive and intermediate hosts are presented. Differences in the life history of related species can be due both to differential host-parasite co-adaptation and co-evolution, and/or to interspecific competition, that can reduce the range of potential hosts in sympatric conditions. Phylogenetic hypotheses attempted for anisakid nematodes and the possible evolutionary scenarios that have been proposed inferred from molecular data, also with respect to the phylogeny of their hosts are presented for the parasite-host associations Anisakis-cetaceans and Contracaecum-pinnipeds, showing that codivergence and host-switching events could have accompanied the evolution of these groups of parasites. Finally, examples in which anisakid nematodes recognized genetically at the species level in definitive and intermediate/paratenic hosts from various geographical areas of the Boreal and Austral regions and their infection levels have been used as biological indicators of fish stocks and food-web integrity in areas at high versus low levels of habitat disturbance (pollution, overfishing, by-catch) are presented. PMID:18486689

Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

326

Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

1992-06-15

327

A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has allowed to molecularly characterize many different cancer sites. This technology has the potential to individualize therapy and to discover new drug targets. However, due to technological differences and issues in standardized sample collection no study has evaluated the molecular profile of epithelial human cancer in a large number of samples and tissues. Additionally, it has not yet been extensively investigated whether metastases resemble their tissue of origin or tissue of destination. Methods We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The clustering profile was subsequently investigated and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Statistical enrichment of clinico-pathological annotations of groups of samples was investigated using Fisher exact test. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and DAVID functional enrichment analysis were used to investigate the molecular pathways. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were used to investigate prognostic significance of gene signatures. Results Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma clustered together with follicular differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which supports recent morphological descriptions of thyroid follicular carcinoma-like tumors in the kidney and suggests that they represent a subtype of chromophobe carcinoma. We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues. Next, a subset of ovarian tumors enriched with endometrioid histology clustered together with endometrium tumors, confirming that they share their etiopathogenesis, which strongly differs from serous ovarian tumors. In addition, the clustering of colon and breast tumors correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics. Moreover, a signature was developed based on our unsupervised clustering of breast tumors and this was predictive for disease-specific survival in three independent studies. Next, the metastases from ovarian, breast, lung and vulva cluster with their tissue of origin while metastases from colon showed a bimodal distribution. A significant part clusters with tissue of origin while the remaining tumors cluster with the tissue of destination. Conclusion Our molecular taxonomy of epithelial human cancer indicates surprising correlations over tissues. This may have a significant impact on the classification of many cancer sites and may guide pathologists, both in research and daily practice. Moreover, these results based on unsupervised analysis yielded a signature predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. Additionally, we hypothesize that metastases from gastrointestinal origin either remember their tissue of origin or adapt to the tissue of destination. More specifically, colon metastases in the liver show strong evidence for such a bimodal tissue specific profile.

De Moor Bart

2009-12-01

328

A Note on Extending Taylor's Power Law for Characterizing Human Microbial Communities: Inspiration from Comparative Studies on the Distribution Patterns of Insects and Galaxies, and as a Case Study for Medical Ecology  

CERN Document Server

Many natural patterns, such as the distributions of blood particles in a blood sample, proteins on cell surfaces, biological populations in their habitat, galaxies in the universe, the sequence of human genes, and the fitness in evolutionary computing, have been found to follow power law. Taylor's power law (Taylor 1961: Nature, 189:732-) is well recognized as one of the fundamental models in population ecology. A fundamental property of biological populations, which Taylor's power law reveals, is the near universal heterogeneity of population abundance distribution in habitat. Obviously, the heterogeneity also exists at the community level, where not only the distributions of population abundances but also the proportions of the species composition in the community are often heterogeneous. Nevertheless, existing community diversity indexes such as Shannon index and Simpson index can only measure "local" or "static" diversity in the sense that they are computed for each habitat at a specific time point, and t...

Ma, Zhanshan Sam

2012-01-01

329

European pea crabs - taxonomy, morphology, and host-ecology (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pinnotherids are small crabs symbiotic to a variety of invertebrates. The European species infest bivalves and sea squirts. Their way of life is parasitic and poses a threat to commercially exploited bivalves. While juveniles of both sexes still look very similar - being agile swimmers and partially free living - a metamorphosis takes place in the female after mating and results in a conspicuous sexual dimorphism. Thereafter, the female settles in its host definitely and is morphologically st...

Becker, Carola

2012-01-01

330

Murrayinella murray (Heron-Allen & Earland) and Schackoinella globosa (Millett): morphology, taxonomy and inferred ecology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Murrayinella murrayi (Heron-Allen & Earland) and Schackoinella globosa (Millett) are two small (maximum diameter about 110-180 ?m) benthic foraminifers, mainly observed in coastal Indo-Pacific waters (Loeblich & Tappan, 1994). They are common in the inner neritic assemblages of Phetchaburi (Thailand Gulf) (Melis & Violanti, 2006), and are also present in pelitic bottoms of the Khao Lak coastal area (Southwestern Thailand, Andaman Sea), affected by the December 26, 2004 tsunami. The two ta...

Violanti, Donata

2007-01-01

331

Leukemia Ecology: Ecological Prophylaxis of Leukemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Etiopathogenesis of leukemia; Ecological leukemogenic factors; Epidemiology of leukemias; Geochemical environment in relationship to health and disease; Leukemia risk factor bank; Perspectives of leukemia prophylaxis by ecological and dietary me...

J. Aleksandrowica A. B. Skotnicki

1982-01-01

332

NASA Taxonomies for Searching Problem Reports and FMEAs  

Science.gov (United States)

Many types of hazard and risk analyses are used during the life cycle of complex systems, including Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis, Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Reliability Analysis and analysis of Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) databases. The success of these methods depends on the availability of input data and the analysts knowledge. Standard nomenclature can increase the reusability of hazard, risk and problem data. When nomenclature in the source texts is not standard, taxonomies with mapping words (sets of rough synonyms) can be combined with semantic search to identify items and tag them with metadata based on a rich standard nomenclature. Semantic search uses word meanings in the context of parsed phrases to find matches. The NASA taxonomies provide the word meanings. Spacecraft taxonomies and ontologies (generalization hierarchies with attributes and relationships, based on terms meanings) are being developed for types of subsystems, functions, entities, hazards and failures. The ontologies are broad and general, covering hardware, software and human systems. Semantic search of Space Station texts was used to validate and extend the taxonomies. The taxonomies have also been used to extract system connectivity (interaction) models and functions from requirements text. Now the Reconciler semantic search tool and the taxonomies are being applied to improve search in the Space Shuttle PRACA database, to discover recurring patterns of failure. Usual methods of string search and keyword search fall short because the entries are terse and have numerous shortcuts (irregular abbreviations, nonstandard acronyms, cryptic codes) and modifier words cannot be used in sentence context to refine the search. The limited and fixed FMEA categories associated with the entries do not make the fine distinctions needed in the search. The approach assigns PRACA report titles to problem classes in the taxonomy. Each ontology class includes mapping words - near-synonyms naming different manifestations of that problem class. The mapping words for Problems, Entities and Functions are converted to a canonical form plus any of a small set of modifier words (e.g. non-uniformity NOT + UNIFORM.) The report titles are parsed as sentences if possible, or treated as a flat sequence of word tokens if parsing fails. When canonical forms in the title match mapping words, the PRACA entry is associated with the corresponding Problem, Entity or Function in the ontology. The user can search for types of failures associated with types of equipment, clustering by type of problem (e.g., all bearings found with problems of being uneven: rough, irregular, gritty ). The results could also be used for tagging PRACA report entries with rich metadata. This approach could also be applied to searching and tagging failure modes, failure effects and mitigations in FMEAs. In the pilot work, parsing 52K+ truncated titles (the test cases that were available), has resulted in identification of both a type of equipment and type of problem in about 75% of the cases. The results are displayed in a manner analogous to Google search results. The effort has also led to the enrichment of the taxonomy, adding some new categories and many new mapping words. Further work would make enhancements that have been identified for improving the clustering and further reducing the false alarm rate. (In searching for recurring problems, good clustering is more important than reducing false alarms). Searching complete PRACA reports should lead to immediate improvement.

Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.

2006-01-01

333

Taxonomy development and knowledge representation of nurses' personal cognitive artifacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses prepare knowledge representations, or summaries of patient clinical data, each shift. These knowledge representations serve multiple purposes, including support of working memory, workload organization and prioritization, critical thinking, and reflection. This summary is integral to internal knowledge representations, working memory, and decision-making. Study of this nurse knowledge representation resulted in development of a taxonomy of knowledge representations necessary to nursing practice.This paper describes the methods used to elicit the knowledge representations and structures necessary for the work of clinical nurses, described the development of a taxonomy of this knowledge representation, and discusses translation of this methodology to the cognitive artifacts of other disciplines. Understanding the development and purpose of practitioner's knowledge representations provides important direction to informaticists seeking to create information technology alternatives. The outcome of this paper is to suggest a process template for transition of cognitive artifacts to an information system. PMID:20351895

McLane, Sharon; Turley, James P

2009-01-01

334

In Search of a Taxonomy for Classifying Qualitative Spreadsheet Errors  

CERN Document Server

Most organizations use large and complex spreadsheets that are embedded in their mission-critical processes and are used for decision-making purposes. Identification of the various types of errors that can be present in these spreadsheets is, therefore, an important control that organizations can use to govern their spreadsheets. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy for categorizing qualitative errors in spreadsheet models that offers a framework for evaluating the readiness of a spreadsheet model before it is released for use by others in the organization. The classification was developed based on types of qualitative errors identified in the literature and errors committed by end-users in developing a spreadsheet model for Panko's (1996) "Wall problem". Closer inspection of the errors reveals four logical groupings of the errors creating four categories of qualitative errors. The usability and limitations of the proposed taxonomy and areas for future extension are discussed.

Przasnyski, Zbigniew; Seal, Kala Chand

2011-01-01

335

Distribution of Genes for Virulence and Ecological Fitness among Diverse Vibrio cholerae Population in a Cholera Endemic Area: Tracking the Evolution of Pathogenic Strains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae that cause acute enteric infections in humans are derived from environmental nonpathogenic strains. To track the evolution of pathogenic V. cholerae and identify potential precursors of new pathogenic strains, we analyzed 324 environmental or clinical V. cholerae isolates for the presence of diverse genes involved in virulence or ecological fitness. Of 251 environmental non-O1, non-O139 strains tested, 10 (3.9%) carried the toxin coregulated pilus (TC...

2008-01-01

336

Performativity of economic systems: Approach and implications for taxonomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper proposes to ground the taxonomy of economic systems on the identification of strongly performative institutions as distinctive features. I analyse performativity on the basis of the Aoki model of institutions, enriched by current approaches to performativity, which I combine with Searle's notion of a status function. Performativity is conceived as resulting from the conjunction of public representations (sign systems) and behavioral dispositions which channel strategic interactions ...

Herrmann-pillath, Carsten

2012-01-01

337

A taxonomy of UAS separation maneuvers and their automated execution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes to create a taxonomy of separation conflicts between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and intruding aircrafts to facilitate its insertion in non-segregated airspace. The classification is created according to the relative speeds, angular geometry, initial intent, etc. A catalog of separation maneuvers that best fit each scenario is introduced and evaluated through a real-time simulation environment. This advisory mechanism will benefit both the UAS pilot and the ATCo in order...

Pe?rez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enric; Royo Chic, Pablo; Prats Mene?ndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxi?, Cristina

2012-01-01

338

Evaluating A Taxonomy of Handover Activities in One Swedish Company  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Handing over a software system from development to maintenance is still an under-researched domain. The software community has a hazy insight into its constellation and inherent activities. In this paper, we have evaluated a preliminary version of a taxonomy of handover activities within one Swedish software company. The evaluation is conducted in an in-house handover context only. Despite this, our results provide evidence of its enormous complexity, variability and strong dependency on many...

2010-01-01

339

Taxonomies of squatting : unlawful occupation in a new legal order.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Legal responses to the activity of 'squatting' include criminal justice, civil actions, property law and housing policy. Some legal analyses of unauthorised occupation focus on the act of squatting, others on the squatter's claim to title through adverse possession. This paper explores recent developments in the law of adverse possession which have been shaped by particular discursive constructions of both squatters and dispossessed landowners. It develops a 'taxonomy of squatting' by mapping...

2008-01-01

340

Using HET Taxonomy to Help Stop Human Error  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flight crews make positive contributions to the safety of aviation operations. Pilots have to assess continuously changing situations, evaluate potential risks, and make quick decisions. However, even well-trained and experienced pilots make errors. Accident investigations have identified that pilots’ performance is influenced significantly by the design of the flightdeck interface. This research applies hierarchical task analysis (HTA) and utilizes the Human Error Template (HET) taxonomy t...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Quality control for terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Ontologies and taxonomies are among the most important computational resources for molecular biology and bioinformatics. A series of recent papers has shown that the Gene Ontology (GO), the most prominent taxonomic resource in these fields, is marked by flaws of certain characteristic types, which flow from a failure to address basic ontological principles. As yet, no methods have been proposed which would allow ontology curators to pinpoint flawed terms o...

Köhler Jacob; Munn Katherine; Rüegg Alexander; Skusa Andre; Smith Barry

2006-01-01

342

Idiom Taxonomies and Idiom Comprehension: Implications for English Teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Idioms are an important part of a language, as they are used to express ideas in a more concise and effective way. Idioms have a considerable role in a foreign language as in the mother tongue. Therefore, their learning and teaching in L2 are worthy of attention and research. This paper intends to define idioms, introduce their different taxonomies, discuss L2 idiom processing and comprehension, and use the information to endow English teachers with some pedagogical implications.

Noorolhoda Saberian

2012-01-01

343

Idiom Taxonomies and Idiom Comprehension: Implications for English Teachers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Idioms are an important part of a language, as they are used to express ideas in a more concise and effective way. Idioms have a considerable role in a foreign language as in the mother tongue. Therefore, their learning and teaching in L2 are worthy of attention and research. This paper intends to define idioms, introduce their different taxonomies, discuss L2 idiom processing and comprehension, and use the information to endow English teachers with some pedagogical implications.

Noorolhoda Saberian; Zahra Fotovatnia

2011-01-01

344

Idiom Taxonomies and Idiom Comprehension: Implications for English Teachers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Idioms are an important part of a language, as they are used to express ideas in a more concise and effective way. Idioms have a considerable role in a foreign language as in the mother tongue. Therefore, their learning and teaching in L2 are worthy of attention and research. This paper intends to define idioms, introduce their different taxonomies, discuss L2 idiom processing and comprehension, and use the information to endow English teachers with some pedagogical implications.

Noorolhoda Saberian; Zahra Fotovatnia

2012-01-01

345

The new resources on the Internet and their taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes new resources on the Internet and their taxonomy. The revised standard ISBD(CR for continuing resources is presented, together with changes and differences in the bibliographic description of serials versus integrating resources. The main features of the ISSN-manual revision,standard and format are described, as well as the possibility of using the ISSN number as a resource identifier and as a persistent namespace identifier in the frame of a URN.

Dunja Kal?i?

2004-01-01

346

A Taxonomy for a Constructive Approach to Software Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many software design and evaluation techniques, either the software evolution problem is not systematically elaborated, or only the impact of evolution is considered. Thus, most of the time software is changed by editing the components of the software system, i.e. breaking down the software system. The software engineering discipline provides many mechanisms that allow evolution without breaking down the system; however, the contexts where these mechanisms are applicable are not taken into account. Furthermore, the software design and evaluation techniques do not support identifying these contexts. In this paper, we provide a taxonomy of software evolution that can be used to identify the context of the evolution problem. The identified contexts are used to retrieve, from the software engineering discipline, the mechanisms, which can evolve the software software without breaking it down. To build such a taxonomy, we build a model for software evolution and use this model to identify the factors that effect the selection of software evolution mechanisms. Our approach is based on solution sets, however; the contents of these sets may vary at different stages of the software life-cycle. To address this problem, we introduce perspectives; that are filters to select relevant elements from a solution set. We apply our taxonomy to a parser tool to show how it coped with problematic evolution problems.

Mehmet Aksit

2007-08-01

347

Tetraploid Wheat Landraces in the Mediterranean Basin: Taxonomy, Evolution and Genetic Diversity  

Science.gov (United States)

The geographic distribution of genetic diversity and the population structure of tetraploid wheat landraces in the Mediterranean basin has received relatively little attention. This is complicated by the lack of consensus concerning the taxonomy of tetraploid wheats and by unresolved questions regarding the domestication and spread of naked wheats. These knowledge gaps hinder crop diversity conservation efforts and plant breeding programmes. We investigated genetic diversity and population structure in tetraploid wheats (wild emmer, emmer, rivet and durum) using nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeats, functional variations and insertion site-based polymorphisms. Emmer and wild emmer constitute a genetically distinct population from durum and rivet, the latter seeming to share a common gene pool. Our population structure and genetic diversity data suggest a dynamic history of introduction and extinction of genotypes in the Mediterranean fields.

Oliveira, Hugo R.; Campana, Michael G.; Jones, Huw; Hunt, Harriet V.; Leigh, Fiona; Redhouse, David I.; Lister, Diane L.; Jones, Martin K.

2012-01-01

348

Sound Ecologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

Michelle Duffy

2010-02-01

349

Sound Ecologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

Michelle Duffy

2010-03-01

350

Sound ecologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

Duffy, Michelle

2010-01-01

351

Paleobiogeography and taxonomy of the genus Concholepas (Lamarck, 1801: a review and new evidences Paleobiogeografía y taxonomía del género Concholepas (Lamarck, 1801: una revisión y nuevas evidencias  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The muricid gastropod Concholepas concholepas, known in Chile as 'loco', is an important component of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities, and is one of the main invertebrates targeted by small-scale fishers (divers in Chile. Because of its ecological importance and economical value, numerous studies have been conducted to describe its life history, ecology and to understand population dynamics, fishery and management. However, little effort has been done to address the causal factor (s behind its current geographic distribution and moreover little is known about the past distribution of the different species in the genus. In this paper, first we review the paleobiogeography, historical relationships, taxonomy and geographical distribution of Concholepas species, so to contribute in the reconstruction on the past history of the genus. Second, we discuss the robustness of using shell traits when classifying specimens of the genus Concholepas. Third, we evaluate the taxonomic status of C. concholepas including samples from Peru, the continental coast of Chile and Juan Fernández Archipelago, using a molecular approach. Four main conclusions are reached: (1 the evolutionary history of the genus Concholepas has been characterized by successive phenotypically different forms where the fossils species appear to be distinguishable states in the same evolving lineage; (2 the historical biogeography of Concholepas was probably the result of a southward direction process of expansions and extinctions, with the ancestral species being located in south-central Peru; (3 C. concholepas corresponds to a single taxonomic unit along its continental geographical range of distribution; (4 the mtDNA variation present in C. concholepas does not support the existence of the subspecies C. concholepas fernandizianus in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. We suggest that these results should be considered in future ecological, fishery, management and conservation studies on C. concholepas along the Peruvian and Chilean coast and in the Juan Fernández Archipelago.El gastrópodo muricido Concholepas concholepas, conocido en Chile como 'loco', es un importante componente de comunidades marinas intermareales y submareales y es una de las principales especies de invertebrados en la pesquería artesanal chilena. Debido a su importancia y valor económico, se han realizado numerosos estudios para describir su historia de vida, ecología y entender las dinámicas poblacionales, pesquería y manejo. Sin embargo, menores esfuerzos han sido realizados para entender los factores causales detrás de su actual distribución geográfica y más aún poco es conocido acerca de la pasada distribución de las diferentes especies del género. En este trabajo, nosotros primero revisamos la paleobiogeografía, relaciones históricas y taxonomía, de las especies del género Concholepas para contribuir en la reconstrucción de la historia pasada del género. Segundo, discutimos la robustez de usar caracteres morfológicos en la taxonomía del género. Tercero, usando una aproximación molecular evaluamos el estatus taxonómico de C. concholepas incluyendo muestras desde Perú, la costa continental de Chile y del archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Se obtuvieron cuatro conclusiones principales: (1 la historia evolutiva del género Concholepas ha sido caracterizada por sucesivas formas fenotípicamente diferentes, donde las especies fósiles parecen ser estados morfológicos distinguibles de un único linaje evolutivo; (2 la biogeografía histórica de Concholepas parece ser resultado de un proceso continuo de expansión y extinción con dirección sur, con las especies ancestrales localizadas en el centro-sur de Perú; (3 C. concholepas corresponde a una sola unidad taxonómica a lo lago de su rango de distribución continental; (4 la variación en el ADNmt detectada en C. concholepas no apoya la existencia de la subespecie C. concholepas fernandizianus en el Archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Sugerimos que estos resultados deberán ser considera

LEYLA CÁRDENAS

2008-09-01

352

Climate changes in the Lake Titicaca area: Evidence from ostracod ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of lake and wetland paleoecology has undergone recently significant changes. Quantitative statistical methods (transfer functions) have been developed to infer past limnological conditions. The large number of altiplanean lakes in the Central Andes, distributed over a hydrologically and climatically diverse area between 14 and 22° south, provide an ideal natural laboratory for this kind of approach. Changes in the water volume and chemistry of these aquatic environments, which result from their hydrological response to seasonal and long-term trends in the regional evaporation-precipitation balance are archived in the sediment records as characteristic biological signatures. The taxonomy and biogeography of several different groups oforganisms have been studied in some detail, but relevant ecological studies have been done only on ostracods. This study attempts to reconstruct past environments of Lake Titicaca and adjacent lacustrine systems by using quantitative information about tbe response of ostracod communities to habitat heterogeneity and environmental variability, especially lake-level and water chemistry. The high-amplitude paleoenvironmental variations indicated by the transfer function developed have important implications for regional climate dynamics. In particular, the inferred high-amplitude lake-level fluctuations are attributed primarily to drastic changes in ITCZ displacements during the last 10,000 years.

Mourguiart, Philippe; Montenegro, Maria Eugenia

353

Molecular systematics, phylogeny and ecology of anisakid nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845: an update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in the taxonomy and ecological aspects concerning geographical distribution and hosts of the so far genetically recognised nine taxa of the nematodes belonging to genus Anisakis (i.e. A. pegreffii, A. simplex s.s., A. simplex C, A. typica, A. ziphidarum, Anisakis sp., A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata and A. paggiae) are here summarized. Genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships inferred from allozyme (20 enzyme-loci) and mitochondrial (sequences of cox-2 gene) markers, are revised and compared. The two genetic analyses are congruent in depicting their phylogenetic relationships. Two main clusters are showed to exist in the obtained trees, one encompassing the species A. pegreffii, A. simplex s.s., A. simplex C, A. typica, A. ziphidarum and Anisakis sp.; while, the second including A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata and A. paggiae. The existence of two clades is also supported by their morphological differentiation in adult and larval morphology. Comparison of phylogenetic relationships among Anisakis spp. with those currently available for their cetacean definitive hosts suggests parallelism between host and parasite phylogenetic tree topologies. Preliminary data for reconstruction of a possible co-evolutionary scenario between cetacean hosts and their Anisakis endoparasites suggests that cospeciation and host-switching events may have accompanied the evolution of this group of parasites. Finally, genetic/molecular markers for the identification of the so far genetically recognized taxa of Anisakis at any life-stage and both sexes were given also in relation to human anisakiosis is discussed. PMID:16800118

Mattiucci, S; Nascetti, G

2006-06-01

354

Ecological Flora of the British Isles at the University of York  

Science.gov (United States)

This botanical database, offered through the University of York with support from the British Ecological Society and the Natural Environment Research Council, contains data for over 1700 species found in the British Isles. Users have a number of search options with this database, including searches by plant taxonomy (both scientific and common name searches possible), ecological and morphological characteristic, and plant diseases and pests. All search options -- excluding common name -- use plant/ disease/ insect scientific name only. Some datasets are as yet incomplete, but users are encouraged to submit missing data.

355

Compartment models of the diffusion MR signal in brain white matter: a taxonomy and comparison.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aims to identify the minimum requirements for an accurate model of the diffusion MR signal in white matter of the brain. We construct a taxonomy of multi-compartment models of white matter from combinations of simple models for the intra- and the extra-axonal spaces. We devise a new diffusion MRI protocol that provides measurements with a wide range of imaging parameters for diffusion sensitization both parallel and perpendicular to white matter fibres. We use the protocol to acquire data from two fixed rat brains, which allows us to fit, study and compare the different models. The study examines a total of 47 analytic models, including several well-used models from the literature, which we place within the taxonomy. The results show that models that incorporate intra-axonal restriction, such as ball and stick or CHARMED, generally explain the data better than those that do not, such as the DT or the biexponential models. However, three-compartment models which account for restriction parallel to the axons and incorporate pore size explain the measurements most accurately. The best fit comes from combining a full diffusion tensor (DT) model of the extra-axonal space with a cylindrical intra-axonal component of single radius and a third spherical compartment of non-zero radius. We also measure the stability of the non-zero radius intra-axonal models and find that single radius intra-axonal models are more stable than gamma distributed radii models with similar fitting performance. PMID:22001791

Panagiotaki, Eleftheria; Schneider, Torben; Siow, Bernard; Hall, Matt G; Lythgoe, Mark F; Alexander, Daniel C

2012-02-01

356

Fast reactor knowledge preservation system: Taxonomy and basic requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA has taken the initiative to coordinate efforts of Member States in the preservation of knowledge in the area of fast reactors. In the framework of this initiative, the IAEA intends to create an international database compiling information from different Member States on fast reactors through a web portal. Other activities related to this initiative are being designed to accumulate and exchange information on the fast reactor area, to facilitate access to this information by users in different countries and to assist Member States in preserving the experience gained in their countries. The purpose of this publication is to develop a taxonomy of the Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation System (FRKPS) that will facilitate the preservation of the world's fast reactor knowledge base, to identify basic requirements of this taxonomy on the basis of the experience gained in the fast reactor area, as well as results of previous IAEA activities on fast reactor knowledge preservation. The need for such taxonomy arises from the fact that during the past 15 years there has been stagnation in the development of fast reactors in the industrialized countries that were involved, earlier, in intensive development of this area. All studies on fast reactors have been stopped in countries such as Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States of America and the only work being carried out is related to the decommissioning of fast reactors. Many specialists who were involved in the studies and development work in this area in these countries have already retired or are close to retirement. In countries such as France, Japan and the Russian Federation that are still actively pursuing the evolution of fast reactor technology, the situation is aggravated by the lack of young scientists and engineers moving into this branch of nuclear power

2008-12-01

357

Common Dimensions of Social Skills of Children and Adolescents: A Taxonomy of Positive Behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews, analyzes, and synthesizes two decades of factor-analytic research on child and adolescent social skills to derive an empirically based taxonomy. Five behavioral dimensions occur consistently: Peer Relations, Self-Management, Academic, Compliance, and Assertion. Clinicians and researchers may use taxonomy to provide nomenclature with which…

Caldarella, Paul; Merrell, Kenneth W.

1997-01-01

358

Metacognitive Activities in Text-Studying and Problem-Solving: Development of a Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the construction of a hierarchical taxonomy of metacognitive activities for the interpretation of thinking-aloud protocols of students in secondary education, who studied texts on history and physics. After testing an initial elaborate taxonomy on a restricted number of protocols by multiple raters, it appeared that the…

Meijer, Joost; Veenman, Marcel V. J.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A. M.

2006-01-01

359

Robust Markers Reflecting Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Rhizobia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genomic ANI (Average Nucleotide Identity) has been found to be able to replace DNA-DNA hybridization in prokaryote taxonomy. The ANI of each of the core genes that has a phylogeny congruent with the reference species tree of rhizobia was compared to the genomic ANI. This allowed us to identify three housekeeping genes (SMc00019-truA-thrA) whose ANI reflected the intraspecies and interspecies genomic ANI among rhizobial strains, revealing an ANI gap (?2%) between the inter- and intra-species...

Zhang, Yan Ming; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Feng; Chen, Wen Xin

2012-01-01

360

The unholy trinity: taxonomy, species delimitation and DNA barcoding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent excitement over the development of an initiative to generate DNA sequences for all named species on the planet has in our opinion generated two major areas of contention as to how this ‘DNA barcoding’ initiative should proceed. It is critical that these two issues are clarified and resolved, before the use of DNA as a tool for taxonomy and species delimitation can be universalized. The first issue concerns how DNA data are to be used in the context of this initiative; this is the D...

Desalle, Rob; Egan, Mary G.; Siddall, Mark

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A Taxonomy of Frauds and Fraud Detection Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Fraud is growing noticeably with the expansion of modern technology and the universal superhighways of communication, resulting in the loss of billions of dollars worldwide each year. Several recent techniques in detecting fraud are constantly evolved and applied to many commerce areas. The goal of this paper is to propose a new taxonomy and a comprehensive review of different types of fraud and data mining techniques of fraud detection. The novelty of this paper is collecting all types of frauds that can detect by data mining techniques and review some real time approaches that have capability to detect frauds in real time.

Laleh, Naeimeh; Abdollahi Azgomi, Mohammad

362

Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role.

Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

1981-01-01

363

When some clinical cases can challenge the phoniatric taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is proposed that taxonomy--the science and practice of classification--can offer significant help in the assessment of vocal dysfunction and in expanding the range of treatment options available to physicians. The first two clinical cases involve instances of "spasmodic dysphonia" which are susceptible to the usual botulinum toxin injections; those two cases were improved by an equally-effective phoniatric orientation that does not subject the patient to repeated injections. Treatment in the second two cases was also redesigned using a phoniatric approach to the patients' problem, after earlier ENT consultations had failed to diagnose malignancy. PMID:21977705

Faure, M-A; Pérouse, A R; Coulombeau, B

2011-01-01

364

Cryptosporidium taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been an explosion of descriptions of new species of Cryptosporidium during the last two decades. This has been accompanied by confusion regarding the criteria for species designation, largely because of the lack of distinct morphologic differences and strict host specificity among Cryptosporidium spp. A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptosporidium species. All reports of new Cryptosporidium species should include at least four basic components: oocyst morphology, natural host specificity, genetic characterizations, and compliance with the ICZN. Altogether, 13 Cryptosporidium spp. are currently recognized: C. muris, C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. hominis, C. wrairi, C. felis, and C. cannis in mammals; C. baïleyi, C. meleagridis, and C. galli in birds; C. serpentis and C. saurophilum in reptiles; and C. molnari in fish. With the establishment of a framework for naming Cryptosporidium species and the availability of new taxonomic tools, there should be less confusion associated with the taxonomy of the genus Cryptosporidium. The clarification of Cryptosporidium taxonomy is also useful for understanding the biology of Cryptosporidium spp., assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp. in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources. PMID:14726456

Xiao, Lihua; Fayer, Ronald; Ryan, Una; Upton, Steve J

2004-01-01

365

Toward A Unifying Taxonomy and Definition for Meditation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the fabrication of categories based exclusively on first-person perspectives. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on a third-person paradigm borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation as a dynamic process composed of several related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings.

JonathanDavidNash

2013-11-01

366

Forest Fire Ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

Zucca, Carol; And Others

1995-01-01

367

Integrating Ethno-Ecological and Scientific Knowledge of Termites for Sustainable Termite Management and Human Welfare in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human–termite interactions and farmers’ indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many commun...

Sileshi, Gudeta W.; Philip Nyeko; Nkunika, Phillip O. Y.; Sekematte, Benjamin M.; Akinnifesi, Festus K.; Ajayi, Oluyede C.

2009-01-01

368

Wildfire History and Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, this site offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies.

2008-09-17

369

Paleobiogeography and taxonomy of the genus Concholepas (Lamarck, 1801): a review and new evidences / Paleobiogeografía y taxonomía del género Concholepas (Lamarck, 1801): una revisión y nuevas evidencias  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El gastrópodo muricido Concholepas concholepas, conocido en Chile como 'loco', es un importante componente de comunidades marinas intermareales y submareales y es una de las principales especies de invertebrados en la pesquería artesanal chilena. Debido a su importancia y valor económico, se han rea [...] lizado numerosos estudios para describir su historia de vida, ecología y entender las dinámicas poblacionales, pesquería y manejo. Sin embargo, menores esfuerzos han sido realizados para entender los factores causales detrás de su actual distribución geográfica y más aún poco es conocido acerca de la pasada distribución de las diferentes especies del género. En este trabajo, nosotros primero revisamos la paleobiogeografía, relaciones históricas y taxonomía, de las especies del género Concholepas para contribuir en la reconstrucción de la historia pasada del género. Segundo, discutimos la robustez de usar caracteres morfológicos en la taxonomía del género. Tercero, usando una aproximación molecular evaluamos el estatus taxonómico de C. concholepas incluyendo muestras desde Perú, la costa continental de Chile y del archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Se obtuvieron cuatro conclusiones principales: (1) la historia evolutiva del género Concholepas ha sido caracterizada por sucesivas formas fenotípicamente diferentes, donde las especies fósiles parecen ser estados morfológicos distinguibles de un único linaje evolutivo; (2) la biogeografía histórica de Concholepas parece ser resultado de un proceso continuo de expansión y extinción con dirección sur, con las especies ancestrales localizadas en el centro-sur de Perú; (3) C. concholepas corresponde a una sola unidad taxonómica a lo lago de su rango de distribución continental; (4) la variación en el ADNmt detectada en C. concholepas no apoya la existencia de la subespecie C. concholepas fernandizianus en el Archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Sugerimos que estos resultados deberán ser considerados en futuros estudios de ecología, pesquería, conservación y manejo en C. concholepas a lo largo de la costa chileno-peruana y en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Abstract in english The muricid gastropod Concholepas concholepas, known in Chile as 'loco', is an important component of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities, and is one of the main invertebrates targeted by small-scale fishers (divers) in Chile. Because of its ecological importance and economical value, numero [...] us studies have been conducted to describe its life history, ecology and to understand population dynamics, fishery and management. However, little effort has been done to address the causal factor (s) behind its current geographic distribution and moreover little is known about the past distribution of the different species in the genus. In this paper, first we review the paleobiogeography, historical relationships, taxonomy and geographical distribution of Concholepas species, so to contribute in the reconstruction on the past history of the genus. Second, we discuss the robustness of using shell traits when classifying specimens of the genus Concholepas. Third, we evaluate the taxonomic status of C. concholepas including samples from Peru, the continental coast of Chile and Juan Fernández Archipelago, using a molecular approach. Four main conclusions are reached: (1) the evolutionary history of the genus Concholepas has been characterized by successive phenotypically different forms where the fossils species appear to be distinguishable states in the same evolving lineage; (2) the historical biogeography of Concholepas was probably the result of a southward direction process of expansions and extinctions, with the ancestral species being located in south-central Peru; (3) C. concholepas corresponds to a single taxonomic unit along its continental geographical range of distribution; (4) the mtDNA variation present in C. concholepas does not support the existence of the subspecies C. concho

LEYLA, CÁRDENAS; FRÉDÉRIQUE, VIARD; JUAN CARLOS, CASTILLA.

370

Distributed and dynamic modelling of hydrology, phosphorus and ecology in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes: Evaluating alternative strategies to meet WFD standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues of diffuse and point source phosphorus (P) pollution in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes are explored using a catchment model of the river system. A multibranch, process based, dynamic water quality model (INCA-P) has been applied to the whole river system to simulate water fluxes, total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations and ecology. The model has been used to assess impacts of both agricultural runoff and point sources from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) on water quality. The results show that agriculture contributes approximately 40% of the phosphorus load and point sources the other 60% of the load in this catchment. A set of scenarios have been investigated to assess the impacts of alternative phosphorus reduction strategies and it is shown that a combined strategy of agricultural phosphorus reduction through either fertiliser reductions or better phosphorus management together with improved treatment at WWTPs would reduce the SRP concentrations in the river to acceptable levels to meet the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements. A seasonal strategy for WWTP phosphorus reductions would achieve significant benefits at reduced cost. PMID:24594744

Whitehead, P G; Jin, L; Crossman, J; Comber, S; Johnes, P J; Daldorph, P; Flynn, N; Collins, A L; Butterfield, D; Mistry, R; Bardon, R; Pope, L; Willows, R

2014-05-15

371

Software Engineering Challenges for Adaptive Robotic Ecologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adaptive Robotic ecologies are networks of heterogeneous robotic devices (sensors, actuators, automated appliances) pervasively embedded in everyday environments, where they cooperate to the delivery of of useful services and adapt to evolving operational and user needs. Adaptive robotic ecologies offer a disruptive new paradigm by which to introduce cognitive robots into the everyday life of people, by distributing sensing, cognition and actuation within the smart space. However, their effec...

Dragone, Mauro; Swords, David; Ohare, Gregory

2013-01-01

372

Association of soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels and anthropogenic impacts in a rapidly urbanizing region: spatial distribution, soil-air exchange and ecological risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and surrounding areas was examined on a basis of six land-use types and four geographic regions, from which the impacts of anthropogenic events on the terrestrial environment were evaluated. No significant difference in the concentrations of ?28PAH and ?15PAH (sums of 28 and 15 PAHs, respectively) was found among the land-use types of industry, landfill and residency. On the other hand, higher soil PAH concentrations occurred in the central PRD characterized by dense population and high urbanization level, compared to other geographic regions. Source diagnostics implicated the combustions of coal and refined petroleum as the major input sources of anthropogenic PAHs. Furthermore, low molecular weight PAHs tended to volatilize from soil to air while the opposite was prevailing for high molecular weight PAHs. The mean annual diffusive flux of ?15PAH (852 ?g m(-2)yr(-1)) from the soil to the atmosphere in the central PRD was greater than those in the PRD's periphery (195 ?g m(-2)yr(-1)), West region (322 ?g m(-2)yr(-1)) and East region (84.9 ?g m(-2)yr(-1)), suggesting that the central PRD may have become a secondary source of PAHs to the surrounding areas. Finally, ecological risk assessment based on the classification from Maliszewska-Kordybach showed that 3.5% of soil within the central PRD was heavily contaminated by PAHs and 5.2 million residents may be subjected to high health risk. PMID:24412913

Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; He, Zai-Cheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

2014-03-01

373

Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae were the preferred host of the olive fruit fly. Family Rosaceae had nine host tree species followed by Rutaceae (five host tree species. Other host tree species were distributed in Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Lythraceae and Malpigiaceae families. These hosts were mostly fruit trees with the exceptions of Brazilian pepper tree, carob, crape myrtle and ornamental plum. The host list reflects typical hosts and is not comprehensive. It is unknown if different olive cultivars are more attractive to the fly or more susceptible to fly damage. The pest directly attacks olive fruits and can devastate entire harvests. Adults feed on nectar, honeydew and other opportunistic sources of liquid or semi-liquid food. University of California scientists are now developing specific information about the olive fruit fly in California and have synthesized useful findings from Europe, where the pest has long been established.

Mohammad Athar

2005-12-01

374

Organización de los contenidos en los sitios Web: las taxonomías / Organization of Web Site Contents: Taxonomies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se abordan las taxonomías en la organización y representación de los contenidos en el Web. Se abordan las taxonomías en la arquitectura de información, la función del arquitecto de información; así como los principales elementos a considerar para construir una taxonomía. [...] Abstract in english The taxonomies in the organization and representation of the contents in the Web are considered, as well as the taxonomies in information architecture, the function of the information architect, and the main elements to take into consideration to make a taxonomy. [...

Fernández Hernández, Anisleiby.

375

A modest proposal: global rationalization of ecological footprint to eliminate ecological debt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the context of ecological overshoot, extreme poverty, and profligate consumption, we propose using ecological footprint analysis (EFA to regulate and rationalize material consumption worldwide. EFA quantifies human-consumption flows relative to renewable natural capital stocks given specified levels of technology. Worldwide, 1.8 global hectares (gha of bioproductive land exist per person, yet the human population is currently consuming 2.2 gha per person. Given global overshoot and the radically uneven distribution of consumption, we propose a global regime of cap-and-trade of ecological footprint. Under the terms of our modest proposal, all nations would be allocated population-based ecological footprints of an “earthshare” of 1.8 gha per person. Nations with large per capita footprints would be obligated to make reductions through some combination of reduced consumption, resource-productivity gains, population decreases, ecological restoration, and purchase of footprint credits. In contrast, countries with small per capita footprints could sell footprint credits to finance modernization along ecological lines. Mathematical simulation of our proposal indicates global convergence of nations’ ecological footprints in 136 years. In our view, the obscenity of contemporary ecological degradation and human suffering is perhaps rivaled by the audacity of our proposal to commodify biocapacity worldwide. We leave it to the reader to compare our response to institutional failure and the problem of distributive justice to the remedy Swift offered in 1729.

William Anderson

2008-04-01

376

Taxonomy of Armillaria in the Patagonian forests of Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomy of Armillaria in southern South America has received little attention since the work of Singer and others. In this study we examine the morphological traits and cultural features for taxa representing the lineages revealed based on molecular phylogeny, and we link them to previously described taxa based on morphology. Lineages I-IV were identified as Armillaria novae-zelandiae, A. montagnei, A. umbrinobrunnea comb. nov. and A. sparrei respectively. They could be differentiated morphologically based on dimension, features of the epicutis, annulus, stipe, hymenophoral trama and flavor and characteristics in culture. Furthermore there was no evidence of host preference for the species recognized. This is the first study integrating the phylogeny and morphology of Armillaria species from Patagonia, and it provides a foundation for future research on these fungi in South America. PMID:20361506

Pildain, María B; Coetzee, Martin P A; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Rajchenberg, Mario

2010-01-01

377

TAXONOMY OF PSEUDOMONAS PISCICIDA (BEIN) BUCK, MEYERS, AND LEIFSON.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hansen, A. J. (University of Idaho, Moscow), O. B. Weeks, and R. R. Colwell. Taxonomy of Pseudomonas piscicida (Bein) Buck, Meyers, and Leifson. J. Bacteriol. 89:752-761. 1965.-Twenty strains of marine bacteria showing the properties of pigmentation and icthyotoxicity were studied for selected physiological features. A quantitative taxonomic analysis with an electronic computer was performed. Eighteen species of Pseudomonas were included in the computer analysis as reference strains. The marine collection formed a homogeneous cluster, 80% similarity, and showed a 67 to 70% similarity to certain of the Pseudomonas species: P. atlantica, P. geniculata, P. synxantha, and P. taetrolens. The marine strains are treated as a phenon describing the species P. piscicida. The species was characterized by the hypothetical Median Organism concept; P. piscicida 14 corresponded most closely to the Median Organism. PMID:14273657

HANSEN, A J; WEEKS, O B; COLWELL, R R

1965-03-01

378

Taxonomy of Pseudomonas piscicida (Bein) Buck, Meyers, and Leifson1  

Science.gov (United States)

Hansen, A. J. (University of Idaho, Moscow), O. B. Weeks, and R. R. Colwell. Taxonomy of Pseudomonas piscicida (Bein) Buck, Meyers, and Leifson. J. Bacteriol. 89:752–761. 1965.—Twenty strains of marine bacteria showing the properties of pigmentation and icthyotoxicity were studied for selected physiological features. A quantitative taxonomic analysis with an electronic computer was performed. Eighteen species of Pseudomonas were included in the computer analysis as reference strains. The marine collection formed a homogeneous cluster, 80% similarity, and showed a 67 to 70% similarity to certain of the Pseudomonas species: P. atlantica, P. geniculata, P. synxantha, and P. taetrolens. The marine strains are treated as a phenon describing the species P. piscicida. The species was characterized by the hypothetical Median Organism concept; P. piscicida 14 corresponded most closely to the Median Organism.

Hansen, A. J.; Weeks, O. B.; Colwell, R. R.

1965-01-01

379

A taxonomy for differentiating entrepreneurship education across disciplines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Entrepreneurship education (E-Ed) is maturingâ??from debate about whether or not it can be done, to how it should be done (Katz, 2003; Kuratko, 2005); from business schools teaching start-ups through a business plan format, toward converging upon a broader attitudechanging framework (Mwasalwiba, 2010) centered around the learning of enterprise behavior. Despite these advances, the implicit â??one-size-fits-allâ? assumption of a generic approach to E-Ed across disciplines remains. Yet, poor alignment between stakeholder goals (Matlay, 2011), program content and pedagogy, and success indicators (Mwasalwiba, 2010) are surfacing as major impeding issues as E-Ed establishes itself outside of the business school setting (Vesper & Gartner, 1997; Etzkowitz et al., 2000; Gibb, 2005; Heinonen & Hytti, 2010). With the movement toward broadening target groups for E-Ed, the diversity of stakeholders is increasing, and the need for a tailored, discipline-specific approach to E-Ed is becoming rapidly apparent. As a first step toward differentiating E-Ed across disciplines, we propose the establishment of an E-Ed framework that can guide and align stakeholders, program designers, and educators in the construction of courses and curricula. At the core of this framework is a taxonomy for discipline-specific entrepreneurship education content and learning goalsâ??different educations have varying inherent strengths and weakness vis-à-vis entrepreneurship, and thus have different pathways and barriers to develop entrepreneurial graduates (Blenker et al., 2008; Johnson et al., 2006; Neck and Greene, 2011). The objective of this paper is to establish a taxonomy whereby the differences between university disciplines are identified and organized from an entrepreneurial perspective (Jones and Matlay, 2011; Jones et al., 2012), and to analyze and discuss specific impact that these differences, pathways, and barriers to entrepreneurship represent.

Warhuus, Jan P.; Blenker, Per

380

Bridging the Host-Network Divide: Survey, Taxonomy, and Solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract: "This paper presents a new direction in security awareness tools for system administration--the Host-Network (HoNe) Visualizer. Our requirements for the HoNe Visualizer come from needs system administrators expressed in interviews, from reviewing the literature, and from conducting usability studies with prototypes. We present a tool taxonomy that serves as a framework for our literature review, and we use the taxonomy to show what is missing in the administrator's arsenal. Then we unveil our tool and its supporting infrastructure that we believe will fill the empty niche. We found that most security tools provide either an internal view of a host or an external view of traffic on a network. Our interviewees revealed how they must construct a mental end-to-end view from separate tools that individually give an incomplete view, expending valuable time and mental effort. Because of limitations designed into TCP/IP [RFC-791, RFC-793], no tool can effectively correlate host and network data into an end-to-end view without kernel modifications. Currently, no other visualization exists to support end-to-end analysis. But HoNe's infrastructure overcomes TCP/IP's limitations bridging the network and transport layers in the network stack and making end-to-end correlation possible. The capstone is the HoNe Visualizer that amplifies the users' cognitive power and reduces their mental workload by illustrating the correlated data graphically. Users said HoNe would be particularly good for discovering day-zero exploits. Our usability study revealed that users performed better on intrusion detection tasks using our visualization than with tools they were accustomed to using regardless of their experience level."

Fink, Glenn A.; Duggirala, Vedavyas; Correa, Ricardo; North, Christopher L.

2007-04-17

 
 
 
 
381

On the ecology and distribution of the species of the simulium damnosum complex in different bioclimatic zones of Liberia and Guinea.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chromosomal identification of Simulium damnosum material collected in Liberia and Guinea revealed five species of this complex. S. yahense Vajime and Dunbar: Widely distributed in the rain forest zone (Liberia, Southern Guinea) and in the Fouta Djallon mountains. Breeding places typically in small watercourses, shaded streams and narrow rivers. S. sanctipauli Vajime and Dunbar: Restricted to the rain forest zone. Breeding confined to large rivers. S. soubrense Vajime and Dunbar: Breeding established in large and medium rivers under high forest (Liberia) and in the Guinea savanna (head waters of the Niger and its sout