WorldWideScience

Sample records for taxonomy distribution ecology

  1. New distribution records for four mammal species, with notes on their taxonomy and ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    New distribution records for four small mammal species (Georychus capensis, Galerella pulverulenta, Rhinolophus swinnyi and Amblysomus julianae) are presented, along with relevant notes on the taxonomy, karyology and ecology of these species.

  2. Interaction of ecology, taxonomy and distribution in some Mesembryanthemaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. K. Hartmann

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Many taxa of the family Mesembryanthemaceae show close correlations between distribution and environmental factors, e.g. occurrence on limestone or quartzite only, but few cases have been studied in detail. Recent investigations in anatomy, morphology, life cycles, physiology, and in energetic properties indicate that fundamentally different patterns are developed in adaptation to arid conditions, even in reaction to identical edaphic and climatic factors.On the other hand, little is known about the immediate influence of changes in the natural environment. Studies in populations of the subgenus Cephalophyllum of the genus  Cephalophyllum N.E. Br. show strong correlations between precipitation data and habit, which can superimpose genetic dispositions. In addition, growth forms are well adapted to certain types of plant communities, so that superficially, a diffuse structural pattern results.Long term studies, in the field and in the greenhouse, of growth forms in relation to time, to precipitation, and to associations, allow first suggestions for adaptive pathways in the evolution of the group, and the results form a basis for taxonomic decisions in this highly confused taxon. Finally, the example offers aspects for the better understanding of interaction between ecology and distribution data.

  3. The Crotonia fauna of New Zealand revisited (Acari: Oribatida): taxonomy, phylogeny, ecological distribution and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    New Zealand contains 13 of the 69 species of Crotonia described globally and is the only place where all three genera of the Crotoniinae-Crotonia, Austronothrus and Holonothrus-have been recorded. Due to the pioneering work of Hammer (1966) and Luxton (1982) it also has the highest number of distribution records of Crotonia spp. anywhere. In the present study I build upon previous work to re-examine the Crotonia fauna of New Zealand in the light of recent taxonomic and biogeographical research. A new species is described, C. ramsayi sp. nov., a member of the Unguifera species group, and supplementary descriptions are provided for C. brachyrostrum (Hammer 1966), C. caudalis (Hammer, 1966), C. cophinaria (Michael, 1908), and C. unguifera (Michael 1908), as well as a key to species. Crotonia spp. from New Zealand occur predominantly in localities with relatively low mean annual temperature and high water balance, reflecting a requirement for cool, moist conditions. In New Zealand Crotonia spp. occur in an extremely wide variety of vegetation communities compared with other regions in its range (Australia, Africa and South America), and this is indicative that water balance requirements are met, regardless of vegetation type. Some elements of the New Zealand Crotonia fauna, notably the Cophinaria species group, are common to Australia, Africa and South America, indicating a shared evolutionary history pre-dating the separation of Africa from Gondwana 110 mya. The high proportion of species that occur west of the Alpine Fault is consistent with a relictual distribution of Gondwanan elements on the Australian Plate. However, it is unclear whether uplift of the Southern Alps formed a barrier to dispersal. A high representation of the morphologically closely-related Obtecta, Flagellata and Unguifera groups, shared only with South America (and, for Unguifera, with Oceania) represents a dramatically different faunal composition compared with other former Gondwanan landmasses and is consistent with submergence of most of New Zealand during the Oligocene (ca. 25 mya). All of these characteristics indicate a distinctive evolutionary pathway for the Crotonia fauna since New Zealand separated from the rest of Gondwana 80 mya. PMID:25947716

  4. Taxonomy, phylogeny and reproductive ecology of Gentiana lutea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on taxonomy, phylogeny and reproductive ecology of Gentiana lutea. L.. Taxonomic analysis is a critical step in botanical studies, as it is necessary to recognize taxonomical unit. Herbarium specimens were observed to assess the reliability of several subspecies-diagnostic characters. The analysis of G. lutea genetic variability and the comparison with that of the other species of sect. Gentiana were performed to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among G. lutea sub...

  5. Studies on taxonomy and distribution of Acridoidea (Orthoptera of Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Usmani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven species of locusts and grasshoppers representing 26 genera, four tribes and 12 subfamilies belonging to the families Pyrgomorphidae, Catantopidae and Acrididae are reported from different localities of Bihar. Their distinguishing characters and bio-ecological data are provided along with keys to tribes and subfamilies. This paper comprising of distribution and field observation along with taxonomy of Acridoid fauna is the first of its kind from the state.

  6. Orobanche flava (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, hosts and plant communities

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    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche flava is a species of Central European mountain ranges, mainly the Alps and Carpathian Mts. The paper presents the current distribution of O. flava in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999 and 2014. The distribution of species is centered in southern Poland, mainly in the Carpathian Mts., and, sporadically, in the Sudeten Mts. The distribution of O. flava in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, and ecology are also discussed.

  7. The relationships between the isoelectric point and: length of proteins, taxonomy and ecology of organisms

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    Smolarczyk Kamila

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of isoelectric point (pI of proteins in a proteome is universal for all organisms. It is bimodal dividing the proteome into two sets of acidic and basic proteins. Different species however have different abundance of acidic and basic proteins that may be correlated with taxonomy, subcellular localization, ecological niche of organisms and proteome size. Results We have analysed 1784 proteomes encoded by chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, and also mitochondria, plastids, prokaryotic plasmids, phages and viruses. We have found significant correlation in more than 95% of proteomes between the protein length and pI in proteomes – positive for acidic proteins and negative for the basic ones. Plastids, viruses and plasmids encode more basic proteomes while chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, mitochondria and phages more acidic ones. Mitochondrial proteomes of Viridiplantae, Protista and Fungi are more basic than Metazoa. It results from the presence of basic proteins in the former proteomes and their absence from the latter ones and is related with reduction of metazoan genomes. Significant correlation was found between the pI bias of proteomes encoded by prokaryotic chromosomes and proteomes encoded by plasmids but there is no correlation between eukaryotic nuclear-coded proteomes and proteomes encoded by organelles. Detailed analyses of prokaryotic proteomes showed significant relationships between pI distribution and habitat, relation to the host cell and salinity of the environment, but no significant correlation with oxygen and temperature requirements. The salinity is positively correlated with acidicity of proteomes. Host-associated organisms and especially intracellular species have more basic proteomes than free-living ones. The higher rate of mutations accumulation in the intracellular parasites and endosymbionts is responsible for the basicity of their tiny proteomes that explains the observed positive correlation between the decrease of genome size and the increase of basicity of proteomes. The results indicate that even conserved proteins subjected to strong selectional constraints follow the global trend in the pI distribution. Conclusion The distribution of pI of proteins in proteomes shows clear relationships with length of proteins, subcellular localization, taxonomy and ecology of organisms. The distribution is also strongly affected by mutational pressure especially in intracellular organisms.

  8. Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: revised distribution, taxonomy, phytocoenological and host relations

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    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Ma?opolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited for calamine mining (rich in zinc, lead and silver. This resulted in the formation of large areas of gangue containing toxic heavy metals. Since limestone, dolomite, marl and postglacial calcareous clay and sands occur there in most places, the soil is often strongly calcareous. Populations of O. lutea contain here many thousands of shoots. The distribution of the species in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, ecology and threats are also discussed.

  9. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova

    OpenAIRE

    W.M. Silva; T. Matsumura-Tundisi

    2005-01-01

    The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul b...

  10. A Taxonomy of Data Grids for Distributed Data Sharing, Management and Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Venugopal, S; Ramamohanarao, K; Venugopal, Srikumar; Buyya, Rajkumar; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2005-01-01

    Data Grids have been adopted as the platform for scientific communities that need to share, access, transport, process and manage large data collections distributed worldwide. They combine high-end computing technologies with high-performance networking and wide-area storage management techniques. In this paper, we discuss the key concepts behind Data Grids and compare them with other data sharing and distribution paradigms such as content delivery networks, peer-to-peer networks and distributed databases. We then provide comprehensive taxonomies that cover various aspects of architecture, data transportation, data replication and resource allocation and scheduling. Finally, we map the proposed taxonomy to various Data Grid systems not only to validate the taxonomy but also to identify areas for future exploration. Through this taxonomy, we aim to categorise existing systems to better understand their goals and their methodology. This would help evaluate their applicability for solving similar problems. This ...

  11. Decapod crustacean larvae inhabiting offshore Balearic Sea waters (western Mediterranean): taxonomy and ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, A.P. (Asvin Pérez)

    2015-01-01

    Summary Comprehending evolution, distribution and ecology of marine animals require information on reproductive biology and developmental patterns, as early life stages (larvae) constitute, for several taxa, critical periods within the life cycle in which abundance and distribution of populations are largely determined. Considering the importance of the decapod crustaceans on Mediterranean marine ecosystems and fisheries and the lack of information regarding their ecology, especially t...

  12. Taxonomy, Ecology, and Management of Native and Exotic Fruit Fly Species in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekesi, Sunday; De Meyer, Marc; Mohamed, Samira A; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Borgemeister, Christian

    2016-03-11

    Horticulture is one of the most important agricultural subsectors in Africa, providing income, creating employment opportunities, and enhancing food and nutritional security. However, tephritid fruit flies are responsible for both direct and indirect losses, with alien invasive species often having the most severe ecological and economic impact. In the past 20 years, systematic analysis of tephritids has provided comparative information on taxonomy, synonymy, and character-state differentiation. New molecular techniques are now available for identifying species, reconstructing phylogenies, and studying population genetic structures. Research on biology, host range and shifts, thermotolerance, and demography has provided useful information for developing predictive and ecological niche models to guide management methods. In recent years, the responses of various species to attractants have been documented. Several suppression methods, including the release of coevolved parasitoid species targeting invasives, have been promoted within the context of integrated pest management, leading to improvement in the quality and quantity of fruits and vegetables produced. However, there is still the need for wide-scale availability of these technologies to smallholder growers across Africa. PMID:26735644

  13. Orobanche elatior and O. kochii (Orobanchaceae in Poland: distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and seed micromorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Orobanche (Orobanchaceae, parasitic on Centaurea in Central Europe, were previously considered to belong to the O. elatior group. At present, the taxon is differentiated into two species, O. elatior Sutton and O. kochii F.W. Schultz. The paper presents for the first time the distribution of O. elatior and O. kochii in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and the literature data, as well as the results of field studies conducted between 1999 and 2014. The majority of the species’ localities are in south Poland: Silesia-Cracow, Ma?opolska and the Lublin Uplands. The distribution of both species in Poland is mapped and chronologically organized, and is thus the most recent in Europe. The taxonomy, host preferences, and ecology are also discussed. Seeds of both species were also investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy, which resulted in the designation of diagnostic features. The new color form of O. kochii f. citrina is described and illustrated. An account of all revised herbarium specimens collected from Poland, deposited in Poland and neighboring countries, is presented.

  14. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species / Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W. M., Silva; T., Matsumura-Tundisi.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas coletas em 207 corpos de água, distribuídos em 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos (UHGRH) do estado de São Paulo no período de 1999 a 2002, abrangendo grandes e pequenos reservatórios, lagoas marginais e grandes rios. Nestas coletas foram analisadas as espécies do gên [...] ero Thermocyclops quanto à taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e freqüência de ocorrência. O gênero Thermocyclops ocorreu em corpos de água com zona limnética bem desenvolvida e com raras exceções em ambientes estritamente litorâneos. Foram registradas quatro espécies, sendo Thermcyclops iguapensis espécie nova, que ocorreu nos reservatórios das UHGRHs Ribeira do Iguape e Paraíba do Sul. A descrição da espécie nova e a distribuição das quatro espécies são apresentadas, mostrando que Thermocyclops decipiens foi a espécie mais freqüente, ocorrendo em 71% dos corpos de água com região limnética desenvolvida. Esta espécie é característica de ambientes eutróficos, onde ocorre em grande número, e a espécie Thermocyclops minutus é característica de ambientes oligotróficos. Thermocyclops inversus e Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. não são espécies freqüentes, mas podem co-ocorrer com a espécie Thermocyclops decipiens. Abstract in english The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits [...] mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.

  15. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.Foram realizadas coletas em 207 corpos de água, distribuídos em 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos (UHGRH do estado de São Paulo no período de 1999 a 2002, abrangendo grandes e pequenos reservatórios, lagoas marginais e grandes rios. Nestas coletas foram analisadas as espécies do gênero Thermocyclops quanto à taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e freqüência de ocorrência. O gênero Thermocyclops ocorreu em corpos de água com zona limnética bem desenvolvida e com raras exceções em ambientes estritamente litorâneos. Foram registradas quatro espécies, sendo Thermcyclops iguapensis espécie nova, que ocorreu nos reservatórios das UHGRHs Ribeira do Iguape e Paraíba do Sul. A descrição da espécie nova e a distribuição das quatro espécies são apresentadas, mostrando que Thermocyclops decipiens foi a espécie mais freqüente, ocorrendo em 71% dos corpos de água com região limnética desenvolvida. Esta espécie é característica de ambientes eutróficos, onde ocorre em grande número, e a espécie Thermocyclops minutus é característica de ambientes oligotróficos. Thermocyclops inversus e Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. não são espécies freqüentes, mas podem co-ocorrer com a espécie Thermocyclops decipiens.

  16. A Taxonomy and Survey of Distributed Computing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadfazel Anjomshoa; Mazleena Salleh; Maryam Pouryazdanpanah Kermani

    2015-01-01

    Technology is the combination of knowledge and working hard. When users want to accomplish something using special technology, they do not want to know how it works. Technologies are coming to solve and ease our complex problems. It means that users only want to employ technology without any expert skills. Distributed computing is one of the technologies that is used to solve large and complex computational problems. It is based on distributed systems to ad...

  17. A Taxonomy and Survey of Distributed Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadfazel Anjomshoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology is the combination of knowledge and working hard. When users want to accomplish something using special technology, they do not want to know how it works. Technologies are coming to solve and ease our complex problems. It means that users only want to employ technology without any expert skills. Distributed computing is one of the technologies that is used to solve large and complex computational problems. It is based on distributed systems to address computational problems. In this study we are going to highlight the most well-known distributed computing paradigms and explain their technology building blocks. We provide a comprehensive explanation of cloud computing, volunteer computing and also volunteer cloud computing paradigm along with their advantages and also their open issues.

  18. Taxonomy and distribution pattern of the African rain forest butterfly genus Euphaedra Hübner sensu stricto with the description of three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and one of E. sarcoptera (Butler (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae, Adoliadini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pyrcz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Updated data on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and Euphaedra sarcoptera (Butler are presented. Three new subspecies of E. cyparissa and one of E. sarcoptera are described and their geographic distribution is presented. The monophyly of the genus Euphaedra sensu Hecq is assessed based on morphological, in particular male and female genitalia, and behavioural traits. Possible evolutionary reasons for the convergence of colour pattern between the sympatric subspecies of E. cyparissa and E. sarcoptera are discussed.

  19. A survey and taxonomy of distributed certificate authorities in mobile ad hoc networks

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    Jabbehdari Sam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Certificate authorities (CAs are the main components of PKI that enable us for providing basic security services in wired networks and Internet. But, we cannot use centralized CAs, in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. So, many efforts have been made to adapt CA to the special characteristics of MANETs and new concepts such as distributed CAs (DCAs have been proposed that distribute the functionality of CA between MANET nodes. In this article, we study various proposed DCA schemes for MANET and then classify these schemes according to their internal structures and techniques. Finally, we propose the characteristics of an ideal DCA system that can be used to verify the completeness of any DCA scheme. This classification and taxonomy identify the weakness and constraints of each scheme, and are very important for designing more secure, scalable, and high performance DCA systems for MANETs and other networks.

  20. The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae) in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ross D., MacCulloch; Amy, Lathrop; Philippe J. R., Kok; Raffael, Ernst; Michelle, Kalamandeen.

    Full Text Available Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América do Sul. Os espécimes e registros de Oxyrhopus da Guyana foram examinados. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis e O. petola ocorre na Guyana. Os dados de morfologia e coloração destas espécies são apr [...] esentados. As distribuições destas espécies e caracteres para distinguir essas espécies são discutidos. Abstract in english Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presen [...] ted. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.

  1. Contribution to the taxonomy and ecology of green cryosestic algae in the summer season 1995-96 at King George Island, S. Shetland Islands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, O.; Komárek, Ji?í

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 123, - (2001), s. 121-140. ISSN 1438-9134. [International conference: Algae and extreme environments. T?ebo?, 11.09.2000-16.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK6005114; GA AV ?R IAA6005002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cryoseston * green algae * cyanobacteria * ecology * seasonality * taxonomy * Antarctica Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2000

  2. Social Media Ecology in Distributed Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    In this position paper, we discuss about methods currently adopted for research- ing the use of social media in distributed workplace. We have extensively reviewed previ- ous empirical studies through an ongoing Systematic Mapping Study focused on the use of social media in distributed teams; from...... the review, we realized that research is mainly per- formed through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods and that each study usually fo- cuses on one specific kind social media at a time. We believe that the social media ecology should be researched as a whole and in relationship with the...

  3. Introducing W.A.T.E.R.S.: a Workflow for the Alignment, Taxonomy, and Ecology of Ribosomal Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludäscher Bertram

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For more than two decades microbiologists have used a highly conserved microbial gene as a phylogenetic marker for bacteria and archaea. The small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene, also known as 16 S rRNA, is encoded by ribosomal DNA, 16 S rDNA, and has provided a powerful comparative tool to microbial ecologists. Over time, the microbial ecology field has matured from small-scale studies in a select number of environments to massive collections of sequence data that are paired with dozens of corresponding collection variables. As the complexity of data and tool sets have grown, the need for flexible automation and maintenance of the core processes of 16 S rDNA sequence analysis has increased correspondingly. Results We present WATERS, an integrated approach for 16 S rDNA analysis that bundles a suite of publicly available 16 S rDNA analysis software tools into a single software package. The "toolkit" includes sequence alignment, chimera removal, OTU determination, taxonomy assignment, phylogentic tree construction as well as a host of ecological analysis and visualization tools. WATERS employs a flexible, collection-oriented 'workflow' approach using the open-source Kepler system as a platform. Conclusions By packaging available software tools into a single automated workflow, WATERS simplifies 16 S rDNA analyses, especially for those without specialized bioinformatics, programming expertise. In addition, WATERS, like some of the newer comprehensive rRNA analysis tools, allows researchers to minimize the time dedicated to carrying out tedious informatics steps and to focus their attention instead on the biological interpretation of the results. One advantage of WATERS over other comprehensive tools is that the use of the Kepler workflow system facilitates result interpretation and reproducibility via a data provenance sub-system. Furthermore, new "actors" can be added to the workflow as desired and we see WATERS as an initial seed for a sizeable and growing repository of interoperable, easy-to-combine tools for asking increasingly complex microbial ecology questions.

  4. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  5. Advances in Taxonomy, Ecology, and Biogeography of Dirivultidae (Copepoda) Associated with Chemosynthetic Environments in the Deep Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Gollner, Sabine; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Arbizu, Pedro Martínez; Bright, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Background Copepoda is one of the most prominent higher taxa with almost 80 described species at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The unique copepod family Dirivultidae with currently 50 described species is the most species rich invertebrate family at hydrothermal vents. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed the literature of Dirivultidae and provide a complete key to species, and map geographical and habitat specific distribution. In addition we discuss the ecology and origin of this famil...

  6. The Geomyces fungi: ecology and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating disease affecting hibernating bats, first documented in winter 2006 in eastern North America. Over 5.5 million bats of several species may have died as a result of this disease. The fungus Geomyces destructans is now considered the causal agent of WNS, and this species may have been recently introduced into North American bat hibernation habitats. This overview summarizes the ecology and distribution of Geomyces fungi. Species in this genus are common in the soils of temperate and high-latitude ecosystems and are capable of withstanding and thriving in cold, low-nutrient polar environments. These species are dispersed by wind, groundwater, arthropods, birds, and mammals and are carried by humans, their clothing, and their equipment. These characteristics present significant challenges to biologists, managers, and others charged with controlling the spread of WNS and G. destructans in other parts of North America and the biosphere.

  7. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Johan Kotze

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently. Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological research have provided so much data and insights, that among insects - and arguably most other terrestrial organisms - carabid beetles are one of the most worthwhile model groups for biological studies.

  8. On the Widespread Occurrence of the Inverse Square Distribution in Social Sciences and Taxonomy

    CERN Document Server

    Caldarelli, G; De Rios, P L; Servedio, V D P; Caldarelli, Guido; Cartozo, Cecile Caretta; Rios, Paolo De Los; Servedio, Vito D.P.

    2003-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of an inverse square relation in the hierarchical distribution of sub-communities within communities (or sub-species within species) has been recently invoked as a signature of hierarchical self-organization within social and ecological systems. Here we show that, whether such systems are self-organized or not, this behavior is the consequence of the tree-like classification method. Different tree-like classifications (both of real and truly random systems) display a similar statistical behaviour when considering the sizes of their sub-branches.

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Stegosaurus ... stenops Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/Dinosauria,Pterosauromorpha Stegosaurus _stenops ... _L.png Stegosaurus _stenops_NL.png Stegosaurus _stenops_S.png Stegosaur ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Stegosaurus +stenops&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ... icon.cgi?i=Stegosaurus +stenops&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Stegosaurus +stenops&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

  10. Unitary or unified taxonomy?

    OpenAIRE

    Scoble, Malcolm J

    2004-01-01

    Taxonomic data form a substantial, but scattered, resource. The alternative to such a fragmented system is a 'unitary' one of preferred, consensual classifications. For effective access and distribution the (Web) revision for a given taxon would be established at a single Internet site. Although all the international codes of nomenclature currently preclude the Internet as a valid medium of publication, elements of unitary taxonomy (UT) still exist in the paper system. Much taxonomy, unitary ...

  11. Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado) en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerke, Jarle W.; ARVE ELVEBAKK; WANDA QUILHOT

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma ... mansoni Platyhelminthes Schistosoma _mansoni_L.png Schistosoma _mansoni_NL.png Schistosoma ... soma_mansoni_S.png Schistosoma _mansoni_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ... on/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma +mansoni&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis ... elegans Nematoda Caenorhabditis _elegans_L.png Caenorhabditis _elegans_NL.png Caenorhabditis ... rhabditis_elegans_S.png Caenorhabditis _elegans_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ... on/icon.cgi?i=Caenorhabditis +elegans&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

  14. Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Our data set includes 38?008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

  15. Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio D., Ríos Díaz; Fernando M. S., Dias; Mirna M., Casagrande; Olaf H. H., Mielke; Gerardo, Lamas.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay. This paper provides comments on the subspecific taxonomy and geographic distribution of Sais rosalia (Cramer, 1779) (Lepidoptera, Nym [...] phalidae, Ithomiini), as well as an up-to-date distributional map, complemented with unpublished distributional data based on specimens deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus S. Moure, Curitiba, Brazil and the Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Peru. The following synonyms are proposed: Sais rosalia camariensis Haensch, 1905 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Papilio rosalia Cramer, 1779 and Sais rosalia brasiliensis Talbot, 1928 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Sais rosalia rosalinde Weymer, 1890. Additionally, the first country records of Sais rosalia in Paraguay, including the southernmost record of the species, are documented.

  16. An overview of the taxonomy of Attalea (Arecaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2008-01-01

    The genus Attalea (Arecaceae) is distributed in continental habitats of the Neotropical region and in some Caribbean islands. Life forms of Attalea species vary from small acaulescent palms to tall and massive palms, always solitary. The ecological range of the genus encompasses most of the Neotropical ecosystems, from coastal sand dunes to sub-Andean forests up to 1600 m in elevation, lowland wet to dry forests, savannas, swamps, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been poorly understood due ...

  17. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgae in different spatial scales using taxonomic and morphological groups

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Antonio, Krupek; Ciro Cesar Zanini, Branco.

    Full Text Available We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types) with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two dr [...] ainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State , Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins), shading regime (open and shaded stream segments), mesohabitats (riffles and pools), and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05m2). A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups) were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments), while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments) were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments.

  18. Chaetognatha of the Namibian Upwelling Region: Taxonomy, Distribution and Trophic Position

    OpenAIRE

    Bohata, Karolina; Koppelmann, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    In October 2010, the vertical distribution, biodiversity and maturity stages of Chaetognatha species were investigated at four stations located off Walvis Bay, Namibia. Seventeen species were detected and classified as pelagic, shallow-mesopelagic, deep-mesopelagic and bathypelagic species based upon the weighted mean depth derived from their average vertical distribution. High abundances of Chaetognatha were found in the upper 100 m at all stations of the Walvis Bay transect with a maximum v...

  19. First detection of African Swine Fever Virus in Ornithodoros porcinus in Madagascar and new insights into tick distribution and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Emmanuel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Swine Fever Virus has devastated more than the half of the domestic pig population in Madagascar since its introduction, probably in 1997-1998. One of the hypotheses to explain its persistence on the island is its establishment in local Ornithodoros soft ticks, whose presence has been reported in the past from the north-western coast to the Central Highlands. The aim of the present study was to verify such hypothesis by conducting tick examinations in three distinct zones of pig production in Madagascar where African Swine Fever outbreaks have been regularly reported over the past decade and then to improve our knowledge on the tick distribution and taxonomy. Results Ornithodoros ticks were only found in one pig farm in the village of Mahitsy, north-west of Antananarivo in the Central Highlands, whereas the tick seemed to be absent from the two other study zones near Ambatondrazaka and Marovoay. Using 16SrDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, it was confirmed that the collected ticks belonged to the O. porcinus species and is closely related to the O. p. domesticus sub-species Walton, 1962. ASFV was detected in 7.14% (13/182 of the field ticks through the amplification of part of the viral VP72 gene, and their ability to maintain long-term infections was confirmed since all the ticks came from a pig building where no pigs or any other potential vertebrate hosts had been introduced for at least four years. Conclusions Considering these results, O. porcinus is a reservoir for ASFV and most likely acts as vector for ASFV in Madagascar, but its apparent restricted distribution may limit its role in the epidemiology of the disease in domestic pigs.

  20. Taxonomy, Identification, Genetic Relationships and Distribution of Large Heracleum Species in Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahodová, Šárka; Fröberg, L.; Pyšek, Petr; Geltman, D.; Trybush, S.; Karp, A.

    Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 1-19 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Heracleum * genetic relationship * distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  1. The distribution and taxonomy of Lissotriton newts in Turkey (Amphibia, Salamandridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wielstra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two and perhaps three taxa of Lissotriton newt occur in Turkey. Their species status is controversial. The distribution of these taxa and the taxonomic status of each are reviewed and discussed. A database of 128 Turkish Lissotriton localities was compiled and species distribution models were constructed. We reiterate that the presence of L. (v. lantzi in Turkey is disputed and needs confirmation. The range of L. (v. kosswigi is restricted to north-western Anatolia – given the small global range of this Turkey endemic, a closer look at its conservation status is warranted. The distribution of L. v. schmidtleri covers western Asiatic and European Turkey. The findings support an allopatric distribution of the Turkish Lissotriton species. We reflect on the biological significance of previously reported morphological intermediates between L. (v. kosswigi and L. v. schmidtleri in the light of the recent proposal to recognize kosswigi at the species level. The available data are in line with species status for L. (v. lantzi and L. (v. kosswigi. Although L. v. schmidtleri is a genetically diverged taxon as well, the extent of gene flow with parapatric European Lissotriton taxa is as yet unknown.

  2. Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Orobanchaceae) in Poland: revised distribution, taxonomy, phytocoenological and host relations

    OpenAIRE

    Piwowarczyk Renata; Krajewski ?ukasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Ma?opolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited f...

  3. Chaetognatha of the Namibian upwelling region: taxonomy, distribution and trophic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohata, Karolina; Koppelmann, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    In October 2010, the vertical distribution, biodiversity and maturity stages of Chaetognatha species were investigated at four stations located off Walvis Bay, Namibia. Seventeen species were detected and classified as pelagic, shallow-mesopelagic, deep-mesopelagic and bathypelagic species based upon the weighted mean depth derived from their average vertical distribution. High abundances of Chaetognatha were found in the upper 100 m at all stations of the Walvis Bay transect with a maximum value of 20837 ind. 1000 m(-3) at the outer shelf station near the surface. The community was dominated by species of the Serratodentata group. Furthermore, the distribution of Chaetognatha did not seem to be influenced by low oxygen concentrations. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in Chaetognatha were determined for seven different areas located off northern Namibia. The values of ?(15)N ranged from 6.05 ‰ to 11.39 ‰, while the ?(13)C values varied between -23.89 ‰ and -17.03 ‰. The highest values for ?(15)N were observed at the Walvis Bay shelf break station. The lowest ?(13)C values were found at the Rocky Point offshore station, which was statistically different from all other areas. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were determined for four taxa (Sagitta minima, Planctonis group, Sagitta enflata, Sagitta decipiens). In this case, the ?(15)N values ranged from 6.17 ‰ to 10.38 ‰, whereas the ?(13)C values varied from -22.70 ‰ to -21.56 ‰. The lowest ?(15)N values were found for S. minima. The C- and N-content revealed maximum C-values for S. decipiens and maximum N-values for the Planctonis group. The C:N ratio of Chaetognatha ranged between 5.25 and 6.20. Overall, Chaetognatha are a diverse group in the pelagic food web of the Benguela Upwelling System and act as competitors of fish larvae and jelly fish by preying on copepods. PMID:23342016

  4. Typha laxmannii Lepech. the new, expansive kenophyte in Poland: Distribution and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Nikel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides data on a new antropophyte species - Typha laxmannii Lepech. which spreads throughout Poland as a hemiagriophyte. Its present distribution in Poland is given on a cartogramme map in a 10×10 km square grid and its geographic element, population numbers and notes on habitats are provided. An identification key to 5 species of the Typha genus, two native, one new which is the topic of this paper, and two which can be expected to be discovered in Poland.

  5. A PRELIMINARY ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE PAPILIONIDAE OF LAOS WITH NOTES ON TAXONOMY, PHENOLOGY, DISTRIBUTION AND VARIATION (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cotton

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available 63 Papilionid taxa of Laos are reported representing 60 biological species. Of these, the occurrence of Papilio elephenor is unproven, and that of Papilio krishna is refuted, leaving 58 species confirmed for Laos. Notes on their taxonomy, distribution, phenology and variation are given. The following synonymies or changes of status are herewith listed:Graphium antiphates itamputi is regarded as a separate subspecies from pompilius stat. rev.Papilio tamerlanus timur Ney, 1911 is a synonym of Papilio alebion mullah Alphéraky, 1897, syn. nov. The following combinations are therefore proposed for the collective species: Graphium mullah mullah (Alphéraky, 1897 comb. nov. applies to the Sichuan population; Graphium mullah chungianus (Murayama, 1961 comb. nov., for the Taiwanese subspecies; and Graphium mullah kooichii (Morita, 1996 comb. nov. for the Lao subspecies.The true type of Papilio arycles sphinx Fruhstorfer, 1899 is identified, and arycleoides Fruhstorfer, 1902 placed in synonymy, syn. nov.Teinopalpus imperialis bhumipoli Nakano & Sukkit, 1985, T. i. gerritesi Nakano, 1995, T. i. gillesi Turlin, 1991, and T. i. hakkaorum Schäffler 2004 are shown to be synonyms of Teinopalpus imperialis imperatrix de Nicéville, 1899, syn. nov.Atrophaneura varuna liziensis Zhao, 1997 is synonymized with A. varuna astorion (Westwood, 1842 syn. nov.The names elegans Chou et al., 2000, pulcher Chou et al., 2000 and longimacula Wang & Niu, 2002 are sunk as synonyms of Papilio bianor bianor syn. nov.Papilio bianor significans Fruhstorfer, 1902 is regarded as a valid subspecies (stat. rev. and the ranges of Papilio bianor gladiator Fruhstorfer, [1902] and ganesa Doubleday, 1842 are clarified.Papilio noblei de Nicéville, [1889] is shown to be monotypic, and haynei Tytler, 1926 is sunk as a synonym syn. nov.Papilio hipponous siamensis Godfrey, 1916 is synonymized with pitmani Elwes & de Nicéville, [1887] syn. nov.The taxon imitata Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2003 is considered conspecific with Papilio epycides and therefore the combination is Papilio epycides imitata stat. nov., comb. nov.

  6. Taxonomy and distribution of some katydids (Orthoptera Tettigoniidae) from tropical Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Results of the study of specimens collected in tropical Africa and preserved in different European collections and museums are reported and extensively illustrated. The following three new species are described: Horatosphaga aethiopica sp. n., Dapanera occulta sp. n. and Cestromoecha laeglae sp. n. In addition, new diagnostic characters or distributional data for Ruspolia differens (Serville, 1838), Thyridorhoptrum senegalense Krauss, 1877, Horatosphaga leggei (Kirby, 1909), Horatosphaga linearis (Rehn, 1910), Preussia lobatipes Karsch, 1890 and Dapanera eidmanni Ebner, 1943 are reported. Finally, Symmetropleura plana (Walker, 1869) is proposed to be transferred to the genus Symmetrokarschia Massa, 2015, Conocephalus carbonarius (Redtenbacher, 1891) to the genus Thyridorhoptrum Rehn & Hebard, 1915; the genus Gonatoxia Karsch, 1889 is proposed to be synonymized with Dapanera Karsch, 1889. PMID:26478704

  7. Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta in Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil: Taxonomy and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the morphogical features of the centric diatom Skeletonema potamos (Weber Hasle from Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the abundance and dis- tribution of the species along the salinity gradient in the lagoon. Samples from the water surface were taken monthly at eight stations along the longitudinal axis of the lagoon, from December 1987 to December 1988. The species were counted by the Utermöhl method, and the density (cells.mL-1 was estimated based on live cells. The morphology of the specimens agrees with the type, from the Little Miami River, Ohio, U.S.A., except for the convexity and the pattern of granules on the valve face. Skeletonema potamos was found in the winter and spring, and was distributed in the limnetic, oligohaline and mesohaline zones of the lagoon. The cell con- centration appeared to be controlled by the salinity, with a significant negative correlation observed. Light and competition probably also influence the development of S. potamos populations in the Patos Lagoon.

  8. An annotated catalogue and bibliography of the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the Recent Vetigastropoda of South Africa (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, David G

    2015-01-01

    A complete inventory of the known Recent vetigastropod fauna of South Africa is provided. Bibliographic citations to works discussing the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the species in a southern African or south-western Indian Ocean context are provided. Additional explanatory notes are given where pertinent.        New genus records for South Africa: Acremodontina B.A. Marshall, 1995; Choristella Bush, 1879; Cocculinella Thiele, 1909; Conjectura Finlay, 1926; Crosseola Iredale, 1924; Falsimargarita Powell, 1951; Lepetella Verrill, 1880; Profundisepta McLean & Geiger, 1998; Stomatella Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina Iredale, 1937; Synaptocochlea Pilsbry, 1890; Tibatrochus Nomura, 1940; Visayaseguenzia Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Zetela Finlay, 1926.        New species records for South Africa: Acremodontina aff. carinata Powell, 1940; Anatoma finlayi (Powell, 1937); Anatoma munieri (P. Fischer, 1862); Calliotropis acherontis B.A. Marshall, 1979; Calliotropis bucina Vilvens, 2006; Cocculinella minutissima (E.A. Smith, 1904); Diodora ruppellii (G.B. Sowerby (I), 1835); Emarginula costulata Deshayes, 1863; Emarginula decorata Deshayes, 1863; Jujubinus hubrechti Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Lepetella sp.; Seguenzia orientalis Thiele, 1925; Stomatella auricula Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia phymotis Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina angulata (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina cf. calliostoma (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina aff. danblumi Singer & Mienis, 1999; Stomatolina cf. rubra (Lamarck, 1822); Stomatolina sp.; Synaptocochlea concinna (Gould, 1845); Tectus mauritianus (Gmelin, 1791); Tibatrochus cf. incertus (Schepman, 1908); Turbo imperialis Gmelin, 1791; Turbo tursicus Reeve, 1848; Visayaseguenzia compsa (Melvill, 1904).New species: Spectamen martensi, replacement name for Spectamen semisculptum sensu Herbert (1987) (non Martens, 1904).        New name: Oxystele antoni is proposed as a new name for Trochus (Turbo) variegatus (non Gmelin, 1791 =Heliacus) Anton, 1838.        Revised taxonomy: Cyclostrema semisculptum Martens, 1904 is an earlier name for Solariella intermissa Thiele, 1925, and is referable to the genus Zetela Finlay, 1926; Margarita bicarinata A. Adams & Reeve, 1850 is considered to be a senior synonym of Solariella undata G.B. Sowerby (II), 1870, and is referable to the genus Ilanga Herbert, 1987. Validation of the name Trochus tigrinus Chemnitz, 1781 is credited to Dillwyn (1817) rather than Anton (1838).         New synonyms: Clanculus exquisita Turton, 1932 =Calliostoma africanum Bartsch, 1915; Cyclostrema alfredensis Bartsch, 1915 =Parviturbo alfredensis (Bartsch, 1915); Cynisca gloriosa Bartsch, 1915 =Cinysca spuria (Gould, 1861); Herbertina hayesi Herbert, 1995 =Bruceina chenoderma (Barnard, 1963); Ilanga millardi Herbert, 1987 =Ilanga humillima (Thiele, 1925); Leptothyra africana Bartsch, 1915 =Cinysca spuria (Gould, 1861); Leptothyra albocincta Turton, 1932 =Tricolia striolata (Turton, 1932); Solariella undata G.B. Sowerby (II), 1870, S. gratiosa Thiele, 1925 and S. valdiviae Thiele, 1925 =Ilanga bicarinata bicarinata (A. Adams & Reeve, 1850); Solariella chuni Thiele, 1925, S. intermissa Thiele, 1925, S. gilchristi Barnard, 1963 and S. macleari Barnard, 1963 =Zetela semisculpta (Martens, 1904); Turbo (Collonia) armillatus G.B. Sowerby (III), 1886 =Cinysca spuria (Gould, 1861).        New combinations: Basilissa (Ancistrobasis) compsa Melvill, 1904 is transferred to Visayaseguenzia; Calcar rhysopoma Barnard, 1964 is transferred to Bothropoma; Calliostoma glaucophaos Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Falsimargarita; Calliotropis chenoderma Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Bruceina; Collonia bicarinata Martens, 1902 is transferred to Cinysca; Crossea agulhasensis Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Conjectura; Cyclostrema semisculptum Martens, 1904 is transferred to Zetela; Cyclostremella farica Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Dikoleps; Cynisca africana Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Homalopoma; Leptogyra africana: Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Cirsonella

  9. Ecology and Taxonomy of Water Canyon, Canadian County, Oklahoma, Master's Thesis, University of Oklahoma 1961 [Revised 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance E. Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous canyons have been cut into the Rush Springs Sandstone of Permian age in West Central Oklahoma and subsequently refilled. Some of these canyons have been partly exposed by erosion of the sediment fill. Fossils collected indicate the canyon fill is sub-Pleistocene to geologically recent. The microclimate of these canyons is more mesic compared to the dryer prairie uplands. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum persists there, far west of its other locations in very eastern Oklahoma. Beginning in 1932 several of these sediment-filled canyons began a process of rapid erosion, exposing the rock walls of the canyons. This study is a comparison of Water Canyon and two of its branches: Water Branch Canyon, a stable canyon wooded with mature vegetation including sugar maple and Activity Branch Canyon, a newly excavated canyon branch that began eroding after excessive rainfall in 1932. This study was completed in 1960. Six transects are used to show the distribution of the 233 plant species found in the Water Canyon complex. Herbaceous species generally were unique to each canyon type.

  10. Taxonomy and distribution of Formica dusmeti Emery, 1909 and of F. frontalis Santschi, 1919 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ibáñez, Mª. D.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we indicate the distribution of and taxonomic differences between Formica dusmeti and Formica frontalis (stat. n.. Morphological differences include a total absence of hairs in F. dusmeti as opposed to uniformly scattered hairs in F. frontalis. These two species have similar coloration and hairless scapes and eyes. In addition, we describe the male and female of F. frontalis, a species that was considered until now to be a subspecies of F. truncorum. We consider F. frontalis to be a separate species from F. truncorum, differentiated by a lack of hairs on the eyes, scapes and genae in the workers of the former. The males of F. frontalis are distinguished from F. truncorum by hairless eyes and scapes. Finally, a key has been formulated for the workers in the rufa, sanguinea and exsecta groups of the genus Formica in the Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se señalan las diferencias existentes entre Formica dusmeti y Formica frontalis (stat. n. y su distribución. Estas diferencias estriban en la ausencia total de quetas en F. dusmeti y la presencia de numerosas quetas uniformemente distribuidas en F. frontalis. Estas dos especies presentan en común la coloración y la ausencia de quetas en escapo y ojos. Describimos el macho y la hembra de F. frontalis, especie que era considerada hasta ahora como subespecie de F. truncorum. En este artículo la elevamos a especie y la diferenciamos de F. truncorum por la ausencia de quetas en los ojos, escapos y genas de las obreras. Los machos se diferencian también por la ausencia de quetas en ojos y escapos. Por último se realiza una clave para las obreras de la Península Ibérica de las especies de Formica de los grupos rufa, sanguinea y exsecta.

  11. When taxonomy meets genomics: lessons from a common songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld, Jan T

    2015-06-01

    Taxonomy is being increasingly informed by genomics. Traditionally, taxonomy has relied extensively on phenotypic traits for the identification and delimitation of species, though with a growing influence from molecular phylogenetics in recent decades. Now, genomics opens up new and more powerful tools for analysing the evolutionary history and relatedness among species, as well as understanding the genetic basis for phenotypic traits and their role in reproductive isolation. New insights gained from genomics will therefore have major effects on taxonomic classifications and species delimitation. How a genomics approach can inform a flawed taxonomy is nicely exemplified by Mason & Taylor () in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They studied redpolls, which comprise a genus (Acanthis) of fringillid finches with a wide distribution in the Holarctic region, and whose species taxonomy has been a matter of much controversy for decades (Fig. ). Current authoritative checklists classify them into one, two or three species, and five or six subspecies, based largely on geographical differences in phenotypic traits. Previous studies, including a recent one of the subspecies on Iceland (Amouret et al. ), have found no evidence of differentiation between these taxa in conventional molecular markers. The lack of genetic structure has been interpreted as incomplete lineage sorting among rapidly evolving lineages. Now Mason & Taylor (), using a large data set of genomewide SNPs, verify that they all belong to a single gene pool with a common evolutionary history, and with little or no geographical structuring. They also show that phenotypic traits used in taxonomic classifications (plumage and bill morphology) are closely associated with polygenic patterns of gene expression, presumably driven by ecological selection on a few regulatory genes. Several lessons can be learned from this study. Perhaps the most important one for taxonomy is the risk of taxonomic inflation resulting from overemphasizing phenotypic traits under local adaptation and ignoring a lack of phylogenetic signal in molecular markers. PMID:26095582

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum ... annuum Capsicum _annuum_L.png Capsicum _annuum_NL.png Capsicum _annuum_S.png ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum +annuum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ... con.cgi?i=Capsicum +annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: onion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onion Allium ... cepa Allium _cepa_L.png Allium _cepa_NL.png Allium _cepa_S.png Allium _cepa_NS.png http ... ://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium +cepa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico ... n.cgi?i=Allium +cepa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic ...

  14. Packaging and distributing ecological data from multisite studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. J.; Voorhees, L. D.; Field, J. M.; Gentry, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of global change and other regional issues depend on ecological data collected at multiple study areas or sites. An information system model is proposed for compiling diverse data from dispersed sources so that the data are consistent, complete, and readily available. The model includes investigators who collect and analyze field measurements, science teams that synthesize data, a project information system that collates data, a data archive center that distributes data to secondary users, and a master data directory that provides broader searching opportunities. Special attention to format consistency is required, such as units of measure, spatial coordinates, dates, and notation for missing values. Often data may need to be enhanced by estimating missing values, aggregating to common temporal units, or adding other related data such as climatic and soils data. Full documentation, an efficient data distribution mechanism, and an equitable way to acknowledge the original source of data are also required.

  15. Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution / Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CLAUDIO, VALDOVINOS; MAXIMILLIAN, RÜTH.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos del extremo sur de Sudamérica son desde un punto de vista taxonómico moderadamente bien conocidos. Sin embargo, la literatura está dispersa, hay poca información sobre sus hábitat y son muy pocos los registros distribucionales, particularmente en el área de los fiordos comprendidos entr [...] e la Isla de Chiloé (42° S) y Tierra del Fuego (55° S). Aunque se sabe bastante acerca de la biología y ecología de algunas especies de Nacellidae, la taxonomía del grupo ha sido relativamente poco estudiada, particularmente en áreas remotas del planeta, como es el caso de los fiordos chilenos. El interés del presente estudio ha sido clarificar el estatus nomenclatural y describir las características morfológicas y distribuciones de los Nacellidae chilenos. En particular, se plantearon los siguientes objetivos: (i) clarificar la identidad de las especies descritas, (ii) descripción de detalles morfológicos, destacando los caracteres diagnósticos de cada especie, y (iii) delimitación y discusión de sus rangos geográficos. El análisis de los Nacellidae de los fiordos chilenos ha permitido el reconocimiento de una especie de Nacella (Nacella) y siete de N. (Patinigera), cuyas principales diferencias a nivel de especie radican en la concha (forma, espesor y color) y en la morfología de la dentición radular. El género Nacella y su subgénero Patinigera son habitantes exclusivos de aguas antárticas y subantárticas. Estos organismos son lapas de aguas frías fundamentalmente subantárticas, pero que también se extienden hacia la Antártica por el área del Arco de Escocia, y hacia el norte a lo largo de la costa chilena, hasta el área de Valparaíso a 33° S (N. (P.) clypeater). Aparentemente este género tiene su centro de distribución en la Provincia magallánica en el sur de Sudamérica, correspondiendo a un área de elevada diversidad de especies (N. (N.) mytilina, N. (P.) chiloensis, N. (P.) deaurata, N. (P.) delicatissima, N. (P.) flammea, N. (P.) magellanica, N. (P.) venosa), donde las especies tienden a dispersarse hacia el este, con un transporte larval probablemente facilitado por la corriente de deriva del oeste que opera fuertemente en la zona subantártica Abstract in english Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S) and Tierra del Fuego (55° [...] S). Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such as the Chilean fjords. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the nomenclatural status, and establish the morphological characteristics and distribution of the Chilean Nacellidae. Especially, the following three objectives are pursued: (i) to clarify the correct identity of existing species; (ii) to describe of morphological details, highlighting the clear diagnostic characters of each species, and (iii) to delimitate and discuss their geographical range in Chile. The examination of the Nacellidae of the Chilean fiords has resulted in the recognition of one species of Nacella (Nacella) and seven species of Nacella (Patinigera), wherein the principal specific differences are in the shell (shape, thickness and color) and in radular teeth morphology. The genus Nacella and its subgenus Patinigera are cold-water limpets, and are exclusively inhabitants of Subantarctic and Antarctic waters. The greater part of their range being subantarctic, but extending to the Antarctic by way of the Scotia Arc, and also ranging northward up the Chilean coast to at least Valparaiso at 33° S (only N. (P.) clypeater). They apparently have their centre of distribution in the Magellanic Province of southern South America, corresponding to an area with a high degree of diversification (N. (N.) mytilina, N. (P.) chiloensis,

  16. Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S and Tierra del Fuego (55° S. Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such as the Chilean fjords. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the nomenclatural status, and establish the morphological characteristics and distribution of the Chilean Nacellidae. Especially, the following three objectives are pursued: (i to clarify the correct identity of existing species; (ii to describe of morphological details, highlighting the clear diagnostic characters of each species, and (iii to delimitate and discuss their geographical range in Chile. The examination of the Nacellidae of the Chilean fiords has resulted in the recognition of one species of Nacella (Nacella and seven species of Nacella (Patinigera, wherein the principal specific differences are in the shell (shape, thickness and color and in radular teeth morphology. The genus Nacella and its subgenus Patinigera are cold-water limpets, and are exclusively inhabitants of Subantarctic and Antarctic waters. The greater part of their range being subantarctic, but extending to the Antarctic by way of the Scotia Arc, and also ranging northward up the Chilean coast to at least Valparaiso at 33° S (only N. (P. clypeater. They apparently have their centre of distribution in the Magellanic Province of southern South America, corresponding to an area with a high degree of diversification (N. (N. mytilina, N. (P. chiloensis, N. (P. deaurata, N. (P. delicatissima, N. (P. flammea, N. (P. magellanica, N. (P. venosa, wherefrom the species tends to spread eastward, with a larval transport probably assisted to a considerable extent by the prevailing West Wind Drift which strongly operates in the Subantarctic ZoneLos moluscos del extremo sur de Sudamérica son desde un punto de vista taxonómico moderadamente bien conocidos. Sin embargo, la literatura está dispersa, hay poca información sobre sus hábitat y son muy pocos los registros distribucionales, particularmente en el área de los fiordos comprendidos entre la Isla de Chiloé (42° S y Tierra del Fuego (55° S. Aunque se sabe bastante acerca de la biología y ecología de algunas especies de Nacellidae, la taxonomía del grupo ha sido relativamente poco estudiada, particularmente en áreas remotas del planeta, como es el caso de los fiordos chilenos. El interés del presente estudio ha sido clarificar el estatus nomenclatural y describir las características morfológicas y distribuciones de los Nacellidae chilenos. En particular, se plantearon los siguientes objetivos: (i clarificar la identidad de las especies descritas, (ii descripción de detalles morfológicos, destacando los caracteres diagnósticos de cada especie, y (iii delimitación y discusión de sus rangos geográficos. El análisis de los Nacellidae de los fiordos chilenos ha permitido el reconocimiento de una especie de Nacella (Nacella y siete de N. (Patinigera, cuyas principales diferencias a nivel de especie radican en la concha (forma, espesor y color y en la morfología de la dentición radular. El género Nacella y su subgénero Patinigera son habitantes exclusivos de aguas antárticas y subantárticas. Estos organismos son lapas de aguas frías fundamentalmente subantárticas, pero que también se extienden hacia la Antártica por el área del Arco de Escocia, y hacia el norte a lo largo de la costa chilena, hasta el área de Valparaíso a 33° S (N. (P. clypeater. Aparentemente este género tiene su centro de distribución en la Provincia magallánica en el sur de Sudamérica, correspondiendo a un área de elevada diversidad de especies (N. (N. mytilina, N. (P. chiloensis, N. (P. deaurata, N. (P. delicatissima, N. (P. flammea, N

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: alpaca [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alpaca ... Vicugna ... pacos ... Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Vicugna _pacos _L.p ... ng Vicugna _pacos _NL.png Vicugna _pacos _S.png Vicugna _pacos _NS. ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna +pacos &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic ... on.cgi?i=Vicugna +pacos &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Escherichia coli [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli ... Escherichia coli ... Escherichia_coli _L.png Escherichia_coli _NL.png Escherichia_coli ... i_S.png Escherichia_coli _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon. ... cgi?i=Escherichia+coli &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Escherichia+coli &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Escherichia+coli &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: mandrill [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mandrill Mandrillus sphinx ... Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Mandrillus_sphinx ... x_L.png Mandrillus_sphinx _NL.png Mandrillus_sphinx _S.png Mandrillus_sphinx _N ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Mandrillus+sphinx &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Mandrillus+sphinx &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guillardia theta [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guillardia theta ... Guillardia theta ... Guillardia_theta _L.png Guillardia_theta _NL.png Guillardia_theta ... a_S.png Guillardia_theta _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon. ... cgi?i=Guillardia+theta &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Guillardia+theta &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Guillardia+theta &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Doguera baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Doguera baboon Papio anubis ... Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_anubis _L. ... png Papio_anubis _NL.png Papio_anubis _S.png Papio_anubis _NS.png http ... ://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+anubis &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Papio+anubis &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Papio+anubis &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

  2. Soil radioactivity distribution studies for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the inception of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group in 1970, personnel from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) have contributed to the determination and evaluation of radionuclide inventory and distribution in soils at selected study sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) complex and surrounding areas. A brief historical survey of those activities is presented. During the period March 1977 to March 1978, LASL participated in workshops and information meetings, in preparation of nuclear site study protocols for estimation of inventory and distribution of various radionuclides, in evaluation of instrumental data that was collected in order to aid in defining specific nuclear site studies, and in referee activities for analysis of samples for radionuclide content. In that same period, several data sets were evaluated and are presented in this report. They include data relative to the vertical movement of plutonium and americium in desert soil profiles, and data relative to distribution of various isotopes of uranium in the blow-sand mounds at two study sites, one located on NTS and the other at the Tonopah Test Range. A series of recommendations for further studies are made relative to the redistribution of radionuclides in the desert environment of NTS

  3. Comparison between bioecological traits and taxonomy of benthic macroinvertebrates as tools for ecological risk assessment (ERA): The case of the St. Lawrence River

    OpenAIRE

    M. Desrosiers; Methot, G.; Pinel Alloul, B.; Archaimbault, V.; Usseglio Polatera, P.; Masson, S.; Martel, L.

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of a large research project aiming at developing an ERA tiered framework for sediment management, in the context of integrated management of contaminated sediment, site restoration and sustainable navigation. The purpose of this study is to assess sediment quality by exploring the relationships between chemical contamination and benthic community structure using classical taxonomy and functional traits approaches. During falls 2004-2005, macroinvertebrates were collected ...

  4. Projecting date palm distribution in Iran under climate change using topography, physicochemical soil properties, soil taxonomy, land use, and climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit; Taylor, Subhashni

    2014-11-01

    This study set out to model potential date palm distribution under current and future climate scenarios using an emission scenario, in conjunction with two different global climate models (GCMs): CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS), and MIROC-H (MR), and to refine results based on suitability under four nonclimatic parameters. Areas containing suitable physicochemical soil properties and suitable soil taxonomy, together with land slopes of less than 10° and suitable land uses for date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera) were selected as appropriate refining tools to ensure the CLIMEX results were accurate and robust. Results showed that large regions of Iran are projected as likely to become climatically suitable for date palm cultivation based on the projected scenarios for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2100. The study also showed CLIMEX outputs merit refinement by nonclimatic parameters and that the incremental introduction of each additional parameter decreased the disagreement between GCMs. Furthermore, the study indicated that the least amount of disagreement in terms of areas conducive to date palm cultivation resulted from CS and MR GCMs when the locations of suitable physicochemical soil properties and soil taxonomy were used as refinement tools.

  5. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum ... tuberosum Solanum _tuberosum_L.png Solanum _tuberosum_NL.png Solanum _tuberosum_S.pn ... g Solanum _tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ ... icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum +tuberosum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: barrel medic [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available barrel medic Medicago ... truncatula Medicago _truncatula_L.png Medicago _truncatula_NL.png Medicago _t ... runcatula_S.png Medicago _truncatula_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ... _icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago +truncatula&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma ... japonicum Schistosoma ... japonicum Platyhelminthes Schistosoma _japonicum_L.png Schistosoma ... oma_japonicum_NL.png Schistosoma _japonicum_S.png Schistosoma _japonicum_NS.png http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma +japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chinchilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chinchilla ... Chinchilla ... lanigera Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Chinchilla _lani ... gera_L.png Chinchilla _lanigera_NL.png Chinchilla _lanigera_S.png Chinchil ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchilla +lanigera&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: thale cress [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thale cress Arabidopsis ... thaliana Arabidopsis _thaliana_L.png Arabidopsis _thaliana_NL.png Arabidopsis ... sis_thaliana_S.png Arabidopsis _thaliana_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i ... con/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis +thaliana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fruit fly Drosophila ... melanogaster Arthropoda Drosophila _melanogaster_L.png Drosophila _melanogast ... er_NL.png Drosophila _melanogaster_S.png Drosophila _melanogaster_NS.png ... http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila +melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: valencia orange [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available valencia orange Citrus ... sinensis Citrus _sinensis_L.png Citrus _sinensis_NL.png Citrus _sinensis_S.p ... ng Citrus _sinensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i ... con/icon.cgi?i=Citrus +sinensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Clementine [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clementine Citrus ... clementina Citrus _clementina_L.png Citrus _clementina_NL.png Citrus _clementina_ ... S.png Citrus _clementina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ... _icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus +clementina&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Dictyostelium discoideum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium ... discoideum Dictyostelium ... discoideum Dictyostelium _discoideum_L.png Dictyostelium _d ... iscoideum_NL.png Dictyostelium _discoideum_S.png Dictyostelium _discoideum_NS.png h ... ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dictyostelium +discoideum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ...

  15. Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Corrie SCHOEMAN, F. P. D. (Woody COTTERILL, Peter J. TAYLOR, Ara MONADJEM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales, variables associated with climate, energy, and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity. Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens. The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS, simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR, conditional autoregressive models (CAR, spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. To test the assumption of stationarity, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used. Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa, particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique. We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/ energy hypotheses, and as we expected, support varied among bat families and model selection. Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families. Altitude range was the only independent variable that was sig­nificant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness. Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models, while those of SEVM models differed. Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationa­rity was violated, the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models. Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges, and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3: 279–293, 2013].

  16. Pectinaria chilensis NILSSON, 1928 (POLYCHAETA: PECTINARIIDAE): taxonomic characterization, new distributional records and ecological notes from the chilean coast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo A., Moreno,; Nicolás, Rozbaczylo; Roger D, Sepúlveda; Franklin D., Carrasco; Raúl, Soto.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Revisa-se Pectinaria chilensis da costa do Chile a partir de exemplares recolhidos em fundos brandos sub-litorais, entre 45 e 93m de profundidade, em quatro localidades ao norte do Chile. Estes espécimes foram comparados com exemplares recolhidos a 17m de profundidade em Coronel, Golfo de Arauco, Ch [...] ile, localidade padrão da espécie. Se inclui uma caracterização taxonômica, ilustrações, e novas localidades na distribuição geográfica da espécie. Se fornece informação do hábitat (batimetria, tipo de sedimento, conteúdo de matéria orgânica total e O2 dissolvido de fundo) e se inclui uma clave para diferenciar as duas espécies de Pectinariidae registradas no Chile. Abstract in spanish Se revisa Pectinaria chilensis de la costa de Chile a partir de ejemplares recolectados en fondos blandos sublitorales, entre 45 y 93m de profundidad, en cuatro localidades del norte de Chile. Estos especímenes fueron comparados con ejemplares recolectados a 17m de profundidad en Coronel, Golfo de A [...] rauco, Chile, localidad tipo de la especie. Se incluye una caracterización taxonómica, ilustraciones, y nuevas localidades en la distribución geográfica de la especie. Se provee información del hábitat (batimetría, tipo de sedimento, contenido de materia orgánica total y O2 disuelto de fondo) y se incluye una clave para diferenciar las dos especies de Pectinariidae registradas en Chile. Abstract in english The taxonomy, geographical distribution, and ecological aspects of Pectinaria chilensis are reviewed. Specimens were collected in sublittoral soft bottoms, between 45 and 93m depth, at four localities in northern Chile. These specimens are compared with individuals collected from 17m depth at Corone [...] l, Gulf of Arauco, Chile, the type locality of the species. A taxonomic characterization, illustrations and a list of new localities in the geographical distribution of this species are presented. Ecological information (bathymetry, sediment type, total organic matter content and dissolved O2 concentration of sea water above the bottom) is included, as well as a key for differentiating the two Pectinariidae species registered in Chile to date.

  17. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, Donald W; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis "Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842" (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies - Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies. PMID:24194666

  18. Plant Distribution and Habitat, Non-Agriculture - Targeted Ecological Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a MD iMAP hosted service. Find more information at http://imap.maryland.gov. The purpose of the Targeted Ecological Areas is to: (1) systematically identify...

  19. Revision of the world Monoctonia Starý, parasitoids of gall aphids: taxonomy, distribution, host range and phylogeny (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Starý, Petr; Pérez Hidalgo, N.; ?krki?, J.; Ghafouri Moghaddam, M.; Tomanovi?, S.; Petrovi?, A.; Tomanovi?, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 3905, ?. 4 (2015), s. 474-488. ISSN 1175-5326 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001; Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) ON173006; University of Zabol(IR) 89-9198 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Monoctonia japonica * Eriosomatinae * COI Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  20. Fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert: taxonomy, distribution, diversity, ecology and bioprospection for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vívian N; Cantrell, Charles L; Wedge, David E; Ferreira, Mariana C; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Jacob, Melissa R; Oliveira, Fabio S; Galante, Douglas; Rodrigues, Fabio; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Junior, Policarpo A S; Murta, Silvane; Romanha, Alvaro J; Barbosa, Emerson C; Kroon, Erna G; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Gomez-Silva, Benito; Galetovic, Alexandra; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity of cultivable rock-associated fungi from Atacama Desert. A total of 81 fungal isolates obtained were identified as 29 Ascomycota taxa by sequencing different regions of DNA. Cladosporium halotolerans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium cf. citrinum were the most frequent species, which occur at least in four different altitudes. The diversity and similarity indices ranged in the fungal communities across the latitudinal gradient. The Fisher-? index displayed the higher values for the fungal communities obtained from the siltstone and fine matrix of pyroclastic rocks with finer grain size, which are more degraded. A total of 23 fungal extracts displayed activity against the different targets screened. The extract of P.?chrysogenum afforded the compounds ?-linolenic acid and ergosterol endoperoxide, which were active against Cryptococcus neoformans and methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Our study represents the first report of a new habitat of fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert and indicated the presence of interesting fungal community, including species related with saprobes, parasite/pathogen and mycotoxigenic taxa. The geological characteristics of the rocks, associated with the presence of rich resident/resilient fungal communities suggests that the rocks may provide a favourable microenvironment fungal colonization, survival and dispersal in extreme conditions. PMID:26235221

  1. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Buden

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies—P. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females with young (April, July and pregnant females (July suggest an extended breeding season. Pteropus p. pelagicus appears most threatened by the prospect of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies.

  2. Ecology and Distribution of Copepods from the Salt Pan Ecosystems of Mumbai, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; NaveenKumar, K.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Ecology, distribution and diversity of Copepod collected from two salt pans of Mumbai, India, are presented. Copepods, the mai zooplankton components, consisted mainly of Bestiolina similis, Acartia southwelli, Oithona sp., O. similis, O. hebes...

  3. Ecology and distribution of recent planktonic foraminifera in eastern part of Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Kutty, M.K.

    Thirty species of living planktonic foraminifera have been studied from 97 plankton tows collected from the eastern Arabian Sea with an accent on their ecological and distributional aspects. Species density is higher with less dominance in the deep...

  4. Hirnantia sagittifera (Brachiopoda and Mucronaspis mucronata s.l. (Trilobita in the Upper Ordovician of the East Baltic: taxonomy and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Hints

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The brachiopod Hirnantia sagittifera (M’Coy and trilobite morphs of the genus Mucronaspis from the topmost Ordovician Porkuni Stage of the central East Baltic are described and compared with those from the Hirnantian Stage of other regions. These important Hirnantian taxa occur in the Livonian Tongue of the Central Baltoscandian Facies Belt of the Baltic Basin, where the Porkuni Stage is represented by the non-graptolitic Kuldiga and Saldus formations. Hirnantia sagittifera appears in the lowermost part of the Porkuni Stage and is rather widely distributed in the basin in spite of its rare finds in each locality. Our study of trilobites of the genus Mucronaspis has enabled us to observe morphological changes in its exoskeleton in time and to identify a succession of five morphotypes (morphs. In some characteristics these morphs are similar to those of different alleged species of the genus Mucronaspis (M. olini, M. danai, M. ganabina, M. mucronata but they cannot be definitely assigned to any of these species due to some variances. However, here for the first time a stratigraphically ordered collection is presented, which deserves attention in revising the taxonomy of highly variable Mucronaspis. The described brachiopods and trilobites occur mainly in the strata correlated with the Normalograptus extraordinarius graptolite Biozone. However, the uppermost finds of both taxa come from strata correlated with the N. persculptus Biozone.

  5. Distribution of Lutra maculicollis in Rwanda : ecological constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejeune A.

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of 10 rwandese lakes, where there are still quite important populations of Lutra maculicollis, has pointed out a few characteristics of the habitat favorable to the survival of these populations. The ecological constraints for the survival of these populations are: the abundance of small fishes, the continuity of the lake side vegetation, the absence of crocodiles and pollution by pesticides, and the low level of predation by man.

  6. Ecology Drives the Worldwide Distribution of Human Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Guernier Vanina; Hochberg Michael E; Guégan Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    Identifying the factors underlying the origin and maintenance of the latitudinal diversity gradient is a central problem in ecology, but no consensus has emerged on which processes might generate this broad pattern. Interestingly, the vast majority of studies exploring the gradient have focused on free-living organisms, ignoring parasitic and infectious disease (PID) species. Here, we address the influence of environmental factors on the biological diversity of human pathogens and their globa...

  7. Deep coral and associated species taxonomy and ecology: (DeepCAST) II Expedition Report, Roatan, Honduras, May 21-28, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Etnoyer, Peter J.; Shirley, Thomas C.; Lavelle, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    NOAA has a mandate to explore and understand deep-sea coral ecology under Magnuson-Stevens Sustainable Fisheries Conservation Act Reauthorization of 2009. Deep-sea corals are increasingly considered a proxy for marine biodiversity in the deep-sea because corals create complex structure, and this structure forms important habitat for associated species of shrimp, crabs, sea stars, brittle stars, and fishes. Yet, our understanding of the nature of the relationships between deep-corals and...

  8. Benefits from ecological study methods to taxonomy of enchytraeids in southern Mata Atlântica / Benefícios de métodos de estudos ecológicos para a taxonomia de enquitreídeos no sul da Mata Atlântica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rüdiger Maria, Schmelz; Rut Maria Collado de la, Peña; Jörg, Römbke.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar como a taxonomia beneficia-se de métodos quantitativos e de amostragem ecológicos nos estudos dos enquitreídeos. Enquitreídeos (pequenos parentes das minhocas) foram coletados em diferentes fases de regeneração da Mata Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. F [...] oram combinadas as pesquisas ecológica e taxonômica, pois os enquitreídeos são pouco estudados e difíceis de identificar, e muitas espécies novas eram esperadas. O grande número de espécimes coletados permitiu testar diagnoses de espécies por meio da investigação das amplitudes de variações de caracteres em uma série mais ampla de espécimes. Diagnoses de espécies simplificadas, adaptadas às condições locais do ambiente, foram desenvolvidas, o que permitiu a identificação de todos os exemplares, incluindo juvenis. Caracteres-chave e estados de caracteres foram formulados para três gêneros: Achaeta, Hemienchytraeus e Guaranidrilus. Entre várias espécies novas, uma espécie rara, possível remanescente da fauna autóctone da floresta, foi encontrada e descrita. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine how taxonomy benefited from the ecological quantitative and site-based sampling methods in enchytraeids studies. Enchytraeids (small relatives of earthworms) were sampled in different phases of rain forest regeneration in the southern Mata Atlântica in Par [...] aná, Brazil. The research combined ecological and taxonomic work, because enchytraeids are poorly studied and difficult to identify, and many new species were expected. The provision of large numbers of specimens enabled the test of species diagnoses by investigating the ranges of character variations in a larger series of specimens. Simplified species diagnoses adapted to the local conditions that allowed the identification of all specimens, juveniles included, were developed. Key characters and character states are presented for the three genera: Achaeta, Hemienchytraeus and Guaranidrilus. Among several new species, a rare species, possibly a remnant of the autochthonous forest fauna, was found and described.

  9. Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Khumayni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecology is the study of interaction of living organisms in the environment. However the modern meaning of the concept of ecology has a wider meaning than in the early decades of the development of this science. Currently, most often under the mistaken environmental issues are understood, above all, the protection of the environment. In many ways, this shift is due to sense more tangible consequences of human impact on the environment. When you are citing the document, use the following lin...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: tomato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tomato Solanum ... lycopersicum Solanum _lycopersicum_L.png Solanum _lycopersicum_NL.png Solanum _lycop ... ersicum_S.png Solanum _lycopersicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono ... my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum +lycopersicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dog Canis lupus ... familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus _fa ... miliaris_L.png Canis_lupus _familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus _familiaris_S.png Can ... is_lupus _familiaris_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ...

  12. Species lifetime distribution for simple models of ecologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pigolotti, Simone; Flammini, Alessandro; Marsili, Matteo; Maritan, Amos

    2005-01-01

    Interpretation of empirical results based on a taxa's lifetime distribution shows apparently conflicting results. Species' lifetime is reported to be exponentially distributed, whereas higher order taxa, such as families or genera, follow a broader distribution, compatible with power law decay. We show that both these evidences are consistent with a simple evolutionary model that does not require specific assumptions on species interaction. The model provides a zero-order de...

  13. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  14. Natural history of the Chinchilla genus (Bennett 1829): Considerations of their ecology, taxonomy and conservation status / Historia natural del género Chinchilla (Bennett 1829): Consideraciones de su ecología, taxonomía y estado de conservación

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PABLO, VALLADARES FAÚNDEZ; ÁNGEL, SPOTORNO OYARZÚN; CARLOS, ZULETA RAMOS.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha generado nueva y valiosa información de las dos especies silvestres de chinchillas; sin embargo ésta sigue siendo insuficiente para una protección efectiva. En este trabajo hacemos una revisión de algunos aspectos fundamentales de su historia natural, sintetizando y entrega [...] ndo nuevos antecedentes de su ecología, taxonomía y estado de conservación, en base a la revisión de la literatura disponible, y toma de datos en el campo. En relación a su ecología, hemos identificado nuevas colonias de ambas especies, tanto por investigación científica como por reportes técnicos ambientales. Para la mayoría de esas colonias se ha identificado la vegetación a la que están asociadas, depredadores y otras especies de roedores simpátridos. La taxonomía de ambas especies ha sido controversial. Una propuesta fue sometida a la ICZN en el 2003 y las recomendaciones fueron describir un neotipo para el género y ambas especies; sin embargo, los especímenes originales descritos por Bennett (1829), Lichtenstein (1830) y Waterhouse (1844) existen en museos de Europa y deben ser considerados como los respectivos sintipos. Finalmente, el estado de conservación de estas especies ha sido catalogado como críticamente en peligro tanto por instituciones nacionales como internacionales, esto debido a que la mayoría de las colonias son pequeñas, fragmentadas y aisladas, sin embargo, ahora la mayor amenaza es la relación geográfica de las nuevas colonias con áreas de explotación minera. Se argumenta con esta información la necesidad de desarrollar un programa de conservación de ambas especies, que considere ámbitos fundamentales de la biología de la especie, tales como la ecología, genética y reproducción. Abstract in english Over the last years there has been new and valuable information in both wild chinchillas, however this is still insufficient for effective protection. In this paper we review some fundamental aspects of its natural history, synthesizing and delivering new information about their ecology, taxonomy an [...] d conservation status, based on the review of available literature, and field data collection. In relation to their ecology we have been identified new colonies of both species, for scientific research as well as environmental technical reports. For most of these colonies we identified vegetation to which they are associated, predators and other sympatric rodent species. The taxonomy of these species is controversial. A proposal was submitted to ICZN in 2003, and the recommendations were to describe a neotype for genus and species, but the original specimens described by Bennett (1829), Lichtenstein (1830) and Waterhouse (1844) are in museums from Europe and should be considered as syntypes. Conservation status of both species is critically endangered because most colonies are threatened by mining exploitation. Therefore, it is essential to explore new regions to identify new colonies and compare them with modern methods such as molecular markers. Finally, with this information we argue the need to develop a conservation programs for both species; it should consider critical areas of their biology, such as ecology, genetics and reproduction.

  15. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

  16. EPA Web Taxonomy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  17. Comment: 13 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Human ... Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 13.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science ... licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ?? ?????????????????? ttamura 2008/11 ...

  18. Comment: 8 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 8.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Scien ... ce licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ?????????????????????? ... ????? ttamura 2008/11 /06 1 7:02:45 ...

  19. Comment: 7 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 7.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ??????????????? ttamura 2008/ 11 /06 1 6:11 :43 ...

  20. Comment: 2 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bottlenosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus Tursiops_truncatus_L.png 2.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database ... er for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ????????? ttamura 2008/1 0/29 11 :43: ...

  1. Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Florida lanc elet (amphioxus) Branc hiostoma floridae Branc hiostoma_floridae_L.png 61.png Taxonomy ... ic on (c ) Database C enter for Life Sc ienc e lic ensed un ... der CC ... Attribution2.1 Japan ????????????(?? ...

  2. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2011-01-01

    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the standpoint of inductive and hypothetico-deductive argumentation schemes and such fundamental criteria of classifications naturalness as their prognostic capabilities; foundation of a theory of "general taxonomy" as a "general logic", including elements of the axiomatic method. The latter concept constitutes a core of the program of general classiology; it is inconsistent due to absence of anything like "general logic". It is asserted that elaboration of a theory of taxonomy as a biological discipline based on the formal principles of epistemological rationality is not feasible. Instead, it is to be elaborated as ontologically rational one based on biologically sound metatheories about biological diversity causes. PMID:21469346

  3. Review: Ecological distribution of Dipterocarpaceae species in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURWANINGSIH

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Dipterocarpaceae is one of the biggest family with >500 species in the world, and most of dipterocarps population are grown in Indonesia which have high economical value of wood. One of the most important value from dipterocarps species is high on endemicities; there are up to 128 species (53.78% from 238 dipterocarps species in Indonesia. Distribution of dipterocarps species would be affected by some factors especially edaphic, climate, and altitude. In Indonesia the dipterocarps species distribution could be shown from islands groups, number of species and forest types. Based on the observation of herbarium collection in Herbarium Bogoriense the distribution of the most dipterocarps species was in the altitude of 0-500 m and 500-1000 m on the dipterocarps forest type. Kalimantan and Sumatra were the two bigger islands with have the dipterocarps species distributed relatively high on population and species.

  4. Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae), taxonomia e distribuição geográfica no Brasil / Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae), taxonomy and geographical distribution in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olga, Yano; Andréa Pereira, Luizi-Ponzo.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees) Grolle é uma espécie urbanizada que cresce, preferencialmente, sobre estipe de palmeira ou outras árvores. Sua distribuição geográfica foi ampliada para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e, também, para municípios de outros estados já referidos. Algumas associações da espé [...] cie com outras briófitas são apresentadas. Dados palinológicos, baseados em observações sob microscopia de luz (ML) e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), também estão incluídos no trabalho. Abstract in english Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees) Grolle is an urbanized species that grows preferentially on palm-tree trunks and other trees. Its geographical distribution was extended to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, also, to cities of other aforementioned states. Some associations of these species with other [...] bryophytes are presented. Palynological data, based on observations under light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), are also included.

  5. Ecology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lízal, Lubomír; Tošovská, Eva

    Praha : CERGE-EI, 2001 - (Hanousek, J.; Lízal, L.), s. 107-115 ISBN 80-86286-69-X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Czech Republic * ecology Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/books/pdf_01/VI.pdf

  6. Nonlinear ecological processes driving the distribution of marine decapod larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M.; Carbonell, A.; Tor, A.; Alvarez-Berastegui, D.; Balbín, R.; dos Santos, A.; Alemany, F.

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of the natural processes lead to many nonlinear interacting factors that influence the distribution and survival of marine pelagic species, particularly in their larval phase. The management of these ecosystems requires techniques that unveil those interactions by studying the system globally, including all relevant variables and combining both community and environmental data in a single step. Specifically, we apply an unsupervised neural network, the Self-Organising Map (SOM), to a combined dataset of environmental and decapod larvae community data from the Balearic sea, obtained in two years with contrasting environmental scenarios, as an Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) technique that provides a global and more detailed view of both the environmental processes and their influence on the distribution of such planktonic community. We examine the parental influence on the initial larval distribution by aggregating data by adult habitat, which also increments the signal to noise ratio (mean data patterns over noise due to outliers or measurement errors), and consider the distribution of larvae by development stage (as a proxy of age and hence of potential dispersion). The joined study of parental effect, drifting or concentration events determined by dynamical processes in the whole water column, and lifespan, draws the possible paths followed by larvae, and highlights the more influencing variables in their distribution. Investigation of the different aspects of dynamic height (absolute values, gradients or edges and correlations) clarified the effect of the oceanographic processes on decapods' larvae.

  7. When is an ecological network complex? Connectance drives degree distribution and emerging network properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée Poisot

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Connectance and degree distributions are important components of the structure of ecological networks. In this contribution, we use a statistical argument and simple network generating models to show that properties of the degree distribution are driven by network connectance. We discuss the consequences of this finding for (1 the generation of random networks in null-model analyses, and (2 the interpretation of network structure and ecosystem properties in relationship with degree distribution.

  8. Taxonomy, distribution and population structure of invasive Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia in the Suquía River basin, Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola B. Reyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services, which underlines the importance of their detection and their study. The Asian clams (Corbiculidae are invasive organisms that accidentally entered the La Plata River, Argentina, presumably in the 1960s. The objectives of the present study were to identify the corbiculid species and to determine their distribution at several locations along the Suquía River basin, an extended area in central Argentina. In addition, population structure was evaluated monthly during one year, at a site in the city of Córdoba that is characterized by high human influence. The presence of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 and Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844 in the Suquía River basin is reported for the first time. The former species was found only in a lentic environment (San Roque reservoir, while the latter was also found along the tributary rivers and brooks of the basin. Corbicula largillierti showed variations in average density between the different sites and also in biomass and size classes throughout the study period at the site at Córdoba city. The relative composition of the sediments, flow fluctuation and human pollution may be responsible for the observed differences.

  9. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Faulwetter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979 and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided.

  10. Ecological Distribution Of The Genus Crotalaria In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odewo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Geographical distribution and morphological features of the genus Crotalaria were studied. Methods follow conventional practice as reported by previous studies. Thirty six species of the genus Crotalaria were shown to be distributed in Nigeria. The genera were allopathic in nature. The species such as C. bongensis C. atrorubens C. cleomifolia C. anthyllopsis C. cuspidata C. bamendul C. calycina C. hyssopifolia C. incana C. graminicola and C. macrocalyx were prominent in savannah zones while C. acervata C. cylindrical C. cephalotes C. comosa C. retusa C.doniana C. glauca C. falcata C. goreensis among others were common in cultivated areas in forest zone of Nigeria. Qualitative leaf morphological features of selected crotalaria species in Nigeria were also revealed. It shows that the leaf margin leaf surface and leaf base are similar in features except in leaf shape that vary from lanceolate C. comosa and C. bongensis oblanceolate C. retusa C. goreensis C. ononoidea and C. lachnosema to obovate C. mucronata and C. naragutensis. This implies that most of the genus Crotalaria displays similar characteristic and the features among them shows overlap.

  11. The NCBI Taxonomy database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federhen, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The NCBI Taxonomy database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) is the standard nomenclature and classification repository for the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising the GenBank, ENA (EMBL) and DDBJ databases. It includes organism names and taxonomic lineages for each of the sequences represented in the INSDC's nucleotide and protein sequence databases. The taxonomy database is manually curated by a small group of scientists at the NCBI who use the current taxonomic literature to maintain a phylogenetic taxonomy for the source organisms represented in the sequence databases. The taxonomy database is a central organizing hub for many of the resources at the NCBI, and provides a means for clustering elements within other domains of NCBI web site, for internal linking between domains of the Entrez system and for linking out to taxon-specific external resources on the web. Our primary purpose is to index the domain of sequences as conveniently as possible for our user community. PMID:22139910

  12. Larval description of Drusus bosnicus Klapálek 1899 (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae), with distributional, molecular and ecological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    KU?INI?, MLADEN; PREVIŠI?, ANA; GRAF, WOLFRAM; MIHOCI, IVA; ŠOUFEK, MARIN; STANI?-KOŠTROMAN, SVJETLANA; LELO, SUVAD; VITECEK, SIMON; WARINGER, JOHANN

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present morphological, molecular and ecological features of the last instar larvae of Drusus bosnicus with data about distribution of this species in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We also included are the most important diagnostic features enabling separation of larvae of D. bosnicus from larvae of the other European Drusinae and Trichoptera species. PMID:26249056

  13. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling; Christensen, Per

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of sediments, attention has seldom been paid to the problem in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to find the distribution and ecological risk of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in surface sediment of Baiyangdian which...

  14. Puebla: Distribution, taxonomy, and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramírez-Pulido

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 96 museum specimens belonging to 14 species of Carnivora from the Mexican State of Puebla. In addition, four species were documented based on literature records and by indirect evidence. The carnivorous mammals of Puebla belong to 5 families, 18 genera, 18 species and 23 subspecies. Eight of these 23 taxa are reported herein for the first time from the state of Puebla. Of the 18 species, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Lontra longicaudis, Taxidea taxus, and Galictis vittata are considered by Norma Oficial Mexicana as threatened species, Leopardus wiedii and Eira barbara in danger of extinction, and Potos flavus is under special protection. We found Lynx rufus, Canis latrans, Taxidea taxus, and Bassariscus astutus were found only in the Nearctic region of the State, whereas Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii, Lontra longicaudis, Galictis vittata, Eira barbara, Potos flavus, and Nasua narica were found only in the Neotropical region of the State. The remaining seven species (Puma concolor, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, Mustela frenata, Mephitis macroura, Spilogale putorius, Conepatus leuconotus, and Procyon lotor have been taken in both the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Localities in the Sierra Norte de Puebla had the greatest species richness and abundance of individuals. The carnivores confront serious conservation problems in the state because they are hunted indiscriminately as trophies and by the local residents as harmful species. Moreover they are hunted for economic benefit by the sale of theirs skins or as living pets. The carnivores in some areas are used as food items and for therapeutic proprieties of their fat, skin, or bones. Unfortunately at this time we can?t assess the full impact of these activities on the local populations.

  15. Characteristics of plants distribution in botanical gardens outside the ecological optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of the botanical gardens activity in the introduction and acclimatization of plants appearing: in the distribution of species beyond their natural ecological optimum, in the creation of collections of closely related species capable to spontaneous hybridization, in the formation of sources of invasive species. The role of botanic gardens as anthropogenic centers of evolution and distribution of plants is emphasized.

  16. The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, U. Thara; Carey, Susan P.; Hallstein, Eric; Higgins, Paul A T; Kerr, Amber C.; Koteen, Laura E.; Smith, Adam B.; Watson, Reg; Harte, John; Norgaard, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    As human impacts to the environment accelerate, disparities in the distribution of damages between rich and poor nations mount. Globally, environmental change is dramatically affecting the flow of ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecological damages and their driving forces has not been estimated. Here, we conservatively estimate the environmental costs of human activities over 1961–2000 in six major categories (climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, agricultural intensifica...

  17. Ecological distribution of protosteloid amoebae in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Zahn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period of March 2004 to December 2007, samples of aerial litter (dead but still attached plant parts and ground litter (dead plant material on the ground were collected from 81 study sites representing a wide range of latitudes (34°S to 50°S and a variety of different types of habitats throughout New Zealand (including Stewart Island and the Auckland Islands. The objective was to survey the assemblages of protosteloid amoebae present in this region of the world. Twenty-nine described species of protosteloid amoebae were recorded by making morphological identifications of protosteloid amoebae fruiting bodies on cultured substrates. Of the species observed, Protostelium mycophaga was by far the most abundant and was found in more than half of all samples. Most species were found in fewer than 10% of the samples collected. Seven abundant or common species were found to display significantly increased likelihood for detection in aerial litter or ground litter microhabitats. There was some evidence of a general correlation between environmental factors - annual precipitation, elevation, and distance from the equator (latitude - and the abundance and richness of protosteloid amoebae. An increase in each of these three factors correlated with a decrease in both abundance and richness. This study provides a thorough survey of the protosteloid amoebae present in New Zealand and adds to a growing body of evidence which suggests several correlations between their broad distributional patterns and environmental factors.

  18. Reconstructing ecological niches and geographic distributions of caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus) during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Colombeau, Guillaume

    2008-12-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to reconstruct glacial distributions of species, identify their environmental characteristics, and understand their influence on subsequent population expansions. Traditional methods, however, provide only rough estimates of past distributions, and are often unable to identify the ecological and geographic processes that shaped them. Recently, ecological niche modeling (ENM) methodologies have been applied to these questions in an effort to overcome such limitations. We apply ENM to the European faunal record of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to reconstruct ecological niches and potential ranges for caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus), and evaluate whether their LGM distributions resulted from tracking the geographic footprint of their ecological niches (niche conservatism) or if ecological niche shifts between the LGM and present might be implicated. Results indicate that the LGM geographic ranges of both species represent distributions characterized by niche conservatism, expressed through geographic contraction of the geographic footprints of their respective ecological niches.

  19. Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

    2013-11-01

    Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids. Populations of A. sieberi were sampled widely in Iran and soil characteristics, climate and anatomical and phytochemical plant attributes were measured. Also, in parallel, an independent genetic assessment of populations was carried out using genetic fingerprinting. Two ploidy levels were identified: 75% of the 34 populations of A. sieberi populations sampled were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) with the remainder diploid (2n = 2x = 18). Plants of differing ploidy also differed anatomically, genetically and chemically. Tetraploid populations had larger cells and lower stomatal densities and a different essential oil composition. They also appear ecologically distinct, occupying more fertile, mesic habitats than diploids. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the existence of two genetically differentiated subgroups independent of ploidy but with some geographic and ecological pattern. We conclude that diploids and tetraploids have a different ecological distribution and that the absence of mixed diploid-tetraploid populations is a reflection of differing fitness in different habitats. We suspect that a key ecological difference between diploids and tetraploids is the increased stomatal size of tetraploids, possibly resulting from the increased genome and hence cell size following polyploidisation. Polyploid-formation may be constrained in arid habitats by problems of water-use efficiency associated with the larger stomata originally produced.

  20. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gulinck Hubert; Peterson Andrew T; Neerinckx Simon B; Deckers Jozef; Leirs Herwig

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework t...

  1. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulinck Hubert

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

  2. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T

    2008-01-01

    Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

  3. Ecological and methodological drivers of species’ distribution and phenology responses to climate change

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Christopher J.

    2015-12-10

    Climate change is shifting species’ distribution and phenology. Ecological traits, such as mobility or reproductive mode, explain variation in observed rates of shift for some taxa. However, estimates of relationships between traits and climate responses could be influenced by how responses are measured. We compiled a global dataset of 651 published marine species’ responses to climate change, from 47 papers on distribution shifts and 32 papers on phenology change. We assessed the relative importance of two classes of predictors of the rate of change, ecological traits of the responding taxa and methodological approaches for quantifying biological responses. Methodological differences explained 22% of the variation in range shifts, more than the 7.8% of the variation explained by ecological traits. For phenology change, methodological approaches accounted for 4% of the variation in measurements, whereas 8% of the variation was explained by ecological traits. Our ability to predict responses from traits was hindered by poor representation of species from the tropics, where temperature isotherms are moving most rapidly. Thus, the mean rate of distribution change may be underestimated by this and other global syntheses. Our analyses indicate that methodological approaches should be explicitly considered when designing, analysing and comparing results among studies. To improve climate impact studies, we recommend that: (1) re-analyses of existing time-series state how the existing datasets may limit the inferences about possible climate responses; (2) qualitative comparisons of species’ responses across different studies be limited to studies with similar methodological approaches; (3) meta-analyses of climate responses include methodological attributes as covariates and; (4) that new time series be designed to include detection of early warnings of change or ecologically relevant change. Greater consideration of methodological attributes will improve the accuracy of analyses that seek to quantify the role of climate change in species’ distribution and phenology changes.

  4. Ecological and methodological drivers of species' distribution and phenology responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; O'Connor, Mary I; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Schoeman, David S; Buckley, Lauren B; Burrows, Michael T; Duarte, Carlos M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Pandolfi, John M; Parmesan, Camille; Richardson, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is shifting species' distribution and phenology. Ecological traits, such as mobility or reproductive mode, explain variation in observed rates of shift for some taxa. However, estimates of relationships between traits and climate responses could be influenced by how responses are measured. We compiled a global data set of 651 published marine species' responses to climate change, from 47 papers on distribution shifts and 32 papers on phenology change. We assessed the relative importance of two classes of predictors of the rate of change, ecological traits of the responding taxa and methodological approaches for quantifying biological responses. Methodological differences explained 22% of the variation in range shifts, more than the 7.8% of the variation explained by ecological traits. For phenology change, methodological approaches accounted for 4% of the variation in measurements, whereas 8% of the variation was explained by ecological traits. Our ability to predict responses from traits was hindered by poor representation of species from the tropics, where temperature isotherms are moving most rapidly. Thus, the mean rate of distribution change may be underestimated by this and other global syntheses. Our analyses indicate that methodological approaches should be explicitly considered when designing, analysing and comparing results among studies. To improve climate impact studies, we recommend that (1) reanalyses of existing time series state how the existing data sets may limit the inferences about possible climate responses; (2) qualitative comparisons of species' responses across different studies be limited to studies with similar methodological approaches; (3) meta-analyses of climate responses include methodological attributes as covariates; and (4) that new time series be designed to include the detection of early warnings of change or ecologically relevant change. Greater consideration of methodological attributes will improve the accuracy of analyses that seek to quantify the role of climate change in species' distribution and phenology changes. PMID:26661135

  5. Comment: 237 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 237.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci ... ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 絵 や写真の投稿もできます。右は、没になったティラノザウ ...

  6. Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 21 9.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center ... for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ????:??? HNI-???????? bando 20 1 0/02/1 5 1 5:31 :07 201 0/02/1 6 09:53:27 ...

  7. Comment: 6 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 6.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ???????????? ttamura 2008/11 /06 ... 1 6:1 0:21 ...

  8. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling; Christensen, Per

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of sediments, attention has seldom been paid to the problem in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to find the distribution and ecological risk of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in surface sediment of Baiyangdian which is the biggest wetland in Northeast China. We apply three methodologies. The first is literature analysis comparing total concentrations of heavy metals with other water bodies around world. The second ...

  9. Distribution and Conservation of Davilla (Dilleniaceae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Pereira, Ismael; Gomes-Klein, Vera Lúcia; Groppo,Milton

    2014-01-01

    We have modeled the ecological niche for 12 plant species belonging to the genus Davilla (Dilleniaceae) which occur in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. This group includes endemic species lianas threatened by extinction and is therefore a useful indicator for forest areas requiring conservation. The aims are to compare the distribution and richness of species within the protected areas, assessing the degree of protection and gap analysis of reserves for this group. We used the Maxent algorithm ...

  10. Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shashi Chauhan; Ravinda K. Chauhan; Ashok K. Agarwal

    1985-01-01

    An ecological study of the microfungi occurring in the various forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India has been carried-out by the soil plate technique. Soil samples from 5 different forest communities viz., moist deciduous forest dominated by tree ferns, Diospyros forest, Terminalia forest, Shorea forest and scrub forest dominated by Acacia and Dalbergia sp. were collected during October, 1983. Some physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were analysed and their role in distribution of f...

  11. Improving ecological niche model transferability to predict the potential distribution of invasive exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengping Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling (ENM seeks to characterize the ecological requirements of species using their occurrence in association with environmental variables. The classic applications of ENM to biological invasions involve the calibration of niche modeling in the native range and the subsequent transfer of the calibrated models to other regions to predict areas of potential invasion. However, low niche model transferability has been reported in certain cases, resulting in artifactual conclusions in some studies (e.g., niche shift during a species’ invasion. Improving niche model transferability would allow precise predictions of the invasion potential of species, providing valuable information for invasion risk assessment. In this review, we address model input data (i.e., occurrence records and environmental variables, using the invasive Halyomorpha halys and Spartina alterniflora, to explore protocols for improving niche model transferability. We conclude that the knowledge of the biology, population equilibrium state, geographic distribution, and biogeographic history of the invasive species is crucial prior to niche modeling. In niche model calibration, the sufficient records should not only cover the geographic extent and the ecological dimension of the species’ distribution but also reduce the sample bias and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Selecting environmental variables should involve considerations of their biological importance in restricting the species’ distribution, the differences in occupied ecological space among geographic populations, and the dimensionality of the environmental space. Delimiting the geographic background for niche modeling should involve considerations of the species’ distributional range and population equilibrium state. We believe that, based on niche conservatism, niche model transferability can be guaranteed if niche models are built based on a reasonable approach. Caution is warranted in the case of interpretations of low niche model transferability in association with niche differentiation.

  12. The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, U Thara; Carey, Susan P; Hallstein, Eric; Higgins, Paul A T; Kerr, Amber C; Koteen, Laura E; Smith, Adam B; Watson, Reg; Harte, John; Norgaard, Richard B

    2008-02-01

    As human impacts to the environment accelerate, disparities in the distribution of damages between rich and poor nations mount. Globally, environmental change is dramatically affecting the flow of ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecological damages and their driving forces has not been estimated. Here, we conservatively estimate the environmental costs of human activities over 1961-2000 in six major categories (climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, agricultural intensification and expansion, deforestation, overfishing, and mangrove conversion), quantitatively connecting costs borne by poor, middle-income, and rich nations to specific activities by each of these groups. Adjusting impact valuations for different standards of living across the groups as commonly practiced, we find striking imbalances. Climate change and ozone depletion impacts predicted for low-income nations have been overwhelmingly driven by emissions from the other two groups, a pattern also observed for overfishing damages indirectly driven by the consumption of fishery products. Indeed, through disproportionate emissions of greenhouse gases alone, the rich group may have imposed climate damages on the poor group greater than the latter's current foreign debt. Our analysis provides prima facie evidence for an uneven distribution pattern of damages across income groups. Moreover, our estimates of each group's share in various damaging activities are independent from controversies in environmental valuation methods. In a world increasingly connected ecologically and economically, our analysis is thus an early step toward reframing issues of environmental responsibility, development, and globalization in accordance with ecological costs. PMID:18212119

  13. Geographic Distribution and Ecology of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Osorio, Lisardo; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata Latreille is the second most important vector of Chagas' disease in Colombia and is found in urban and periurban areas. From January 2007 to June 2008, we performed field work in 8 departments, 18 municipalities, and 44 rural villages, covering most of its known distribution and all of its ecological zones in the country. The goal was to determine the geographical distribution, the ecology, and house infestation indices of T. dimidiata over its range and hence the Chagas' disease transmission risk. In Colombia, T. dimidiata occupies a wide variety of ecosystems, from transformed ecosystems in the Andean biome with shrub and xerofitic vegetation to very dense forests in the humid tropical forests in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. According to genetic and ecological criteria, at least two T. dimidiata forms of this species are present: populations from the northwest of the country (Caribbean plains) are restricted to palm tree habitats, and domestic involvement is limited to sporadic visits because of attraction by light; and populations of the east region (Andean mountains) presenting a complex distributional pattern including sylvatic, peridomestic, and domiciliated ecotopes, and occupying a great variety of life zones. The latter population is of epidemiological importance due to the demonstrated migration and genetical flow of individuals among the different habitats. Control, therefore, must take into account its diversity of habitats. PMID:26487247

  14. [Distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Zhalong Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hua-Xiang; Zang, Shu-Ying; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Hong

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments of the Zhalong Wetland using ICP-MS, analyzed their spatial distributions, evaluated the potential ecological risk, and explored the pollution sources and environmental influencing factors. The results can be summarized as the followings: (1) The concentrations of Hg, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr were 0.065, 0.155, 10.26, 18.20, 21.35, 52.08 and 46.47 mg x kg(-1), respectively, which were all above the soil background values of the Songnen Plain. Their spatial distributions were distinctly different. The concentration of heavy metals in the north was higher than that in the south, and the east was higher than the west. Particularly in the eastern region, the concentrations of Hg and Cd were 20.8 and 32.4 times the minimum values of the whole area. And in the core zone, the concentration was relatively low. (2) The sequence of the potential ecological risk posed by the metals was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. The average potential ecological risk index (RI) of the Zhalong Wetland was 171.9 (ranged from 76.9-473.5), suggesting a moderate ecological risk. However, the potential ecological risk was extremely high in the east which should be treated as the major heavy metal pollution prevention site in the future. (3) Except for Hg and Pb, the concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly correlated to each other, indicating that those heavy metals had homology. (4) Organic matter was the major environmental influencing factor. However, the trend of land salinization in the Zhalong Wetland has been intensified, indicating a higher risk of heavy metal releasing from the sediments, to which the local authorities should pay enough attention. PMID:23798110

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Kuroda's ... s ea hare Aplys ia kurodai Mollus ca Aplys ia_kurodai_L.png Aplys ia_kurodai_NL.png Aplys ia_ ... kurodai_S .png Aplys ia_kurodai_NS .png http://bios ciencedbc.jp ... /taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplys ia+kurodai&t=L http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ... n/icon.cgi?i=Aplys ia+kurodai&t=NL http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ... on/icon.cgi?i=Aplys ia+kurodai&t=S ... http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

  16. Society's nature: Ecological economics and the combined challenge of environment and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the emerging field of ecological economics and evaluates its potential for addressing some of the concerns within development studies. It takes as its point of departure the study of the relationship between nature and society that emerged in the wake of the environmental dis......, in particular the combination of the environmental and distributional issues and the challenges therein. Finally, the paper reflects on the persuasive potential of ecological economics in relation to politics.......The paper introduces the emerging field of ecological economics and evaluates its potential for addressing some of the concerns within development studies. It takes as its point of departure the study of the relationship between nature and society that emerged in the wake of the environmental...... discourse in the 1960s. In the first section, a new perspective in the study of the interaction between society and nature is briefly outlined. Thereafter, the field of ecological economics is discussed as a specific example of this new perspective, followed by its potential link to the development debate...

  17. The integrative future of taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vences Miguel; De la Riva Ignacio; Miralles Aurélien; Padial José M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Western clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Western clawed frog Xenopus ... tropicalis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus _tropicalis_L.png Xenopus ... opus_tropicalis_NL.png Xenopus _tropicalis_S.png Xenopus _tropicalis_NS.png http:// ... biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus +tropicalis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: African clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available African clawed frog Xenopus ... laevis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus _laevis_L.png Xenopus _lae ... vis_NL.png Xenopus _laevis_S.png Xenopus _laevis_NS.png http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus +laevis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: yellow fever mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yellow fever mosquito Aedes ... aegypti Arthropoda Aedes _aegypti_L.png Aedes _aegypti_NL.png Aedes _ae ... gypti_S.png Aedes _aegypti_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ... on/icon.cgi?i=Aedes +aegypti&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

  1. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polepeddi, S

    2004-12-08

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to system administrators, software developers and vulnerability researchers is not yet achieved, this work has resulted in the most exhaustive collection of vulnerability data to date.

  2. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

  3. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  4. A Taxonomy of Meaningful Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Synthesizing a decade of research, the author describes a taxonomy of meaningful learning. The most meaningful learning outcome is problem solving. In this taxonomy, four different kinds of problem solving are arranged in a hierarchical manner. Prerequisite/corequisite with problem-solving outcomes are two fundamental reasoning skills that…

  5. Ten challenges to transform Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin D. Wheeler; Valdecasas, Antonio G.

    2005-01-01

    [EN] Taxonomy is at a crossroads. Although taxonomy has an impressive past, having documented and organized knowledge of nearly two million species, most of the basic work required to describe Earth’s biodiversity remains undone. Factors that guide the choices of research topics in science are considered. Ten challenges are presented to the taxonomic community that we believe will accelerate its revitalization.

  6. Ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of phytoplankton in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit. Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Macias-Cuellar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton species are an important basis of the food web for various systems such as pelagic, coastal and lake. Due to their photosynthetic capacity, this community is sensitive to changes in light availability, temperature, nutrient concentrations, herbivores consumption, parasitism and competition. Therefore, they show a high spatial and temporal variability related to environmental changes both natural and anthropogenic. However, as any taxonomic group, phytoplankton species have environmental thresholds, ecological niches that define their distribution. This study was located in Aguamilpa Dam, an artificial aquatic reservoir which started operations in 1994 for electric energy production. In this system the potential distribution of the phytoplankton was evaluated, where the highest species richness and restricted distribution areas were identified. Potential distribution models based on ecological niche definition were generated using ArcMap 9.2® with Maxent (Maximun Entropy Method. The development of distribution maps was carried out using Digital Elevation Models in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha, based on nine physico-chemical and biological water parameters monitored in the reservoir. The highest species richness areas were found in the Huaynamota river tributary and at the station called La Confluencia, while the less abundance areas were found in the Santiago river tributary during warm and cold dry seasons with a great abundance of cyanophyta. During the rainfall season, the Huaynamota river tributary diversity areas were extended and the presence of some dominant species of cyanophyta were indentified. These species can be associated with trophic processes related to anthropogenic pollutants in the reservoir. This study illustrates the potential application of niche modeling approach in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Spatial correlations of population and ecological factors with distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Ghatee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis as a dynamic disease may be markedly influenced by demographic and ecological factors. A geospatial information system study was developed to determine the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases in relation to population, climatic and environmental factors in Fars province, southwest of Iran. Methods: The dwelling addresses of 217 VL patients were obtained from hospital files. A hazard map produced by unifying buffers (5 km around nomads travel routes (NTR was developed to survey the effect of close proximity to NTR on the distribution of VL. Mean annual rainfall (MAR, mean annual temperature (MAT, four months temperature mean (T4, elevation, slope and landcover were climatic and environmental factors that have been analysed. Finally, data of dwelling foci were extracted from maps and analysed using logistic regression models. Results: Close proximity to NTR was the most important factor influenced on the disease distribution. Climatic factors were in second rank. Among them, temperature especially T4 is the most effective variable and rainfall was also shown to be another effective climatic agent. Most cases of VL were reported from temperate and semiarid areas in western and central regions while arid condition was a confined factor. The environmental factor of landcovers including urban, dry farm and thin forest regions was revealed as the third rank effective factor. Altitude importance was only shown when its effect was studied independently from other factors. Interpretation & conclusion: These findings present the distribution of VL in Fars province is influenced by combination of ecological and nomads demographical variables although closeness to NTR and nomads role in distribution and continuance of kala-azar are the most important factors.

  8. Problems of the radiocaesium distribution in several components of forest ecological systems and bog ecological systems as well as in deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany the south-western part of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg was most heavily affected by the Chernobyl fallout of radiocaesium. The contamination of agricultural food was decreasing in a short time to a harmless level; on the other hand, in special regions there is high contamination of deer, of some species of fungi, of berries and of the browsing of deer up to now. Restrictions in shooting should be taken into account in the time interval of highest contamination. Increasing the supply with minerals, e. g. by mineral fertilizers, is a possible way to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium in natural ecological systems. To develop an efficient measuring management for agricultural foodstuff or for deer, mushrooms and other food from natural ecological systems or forest ecological systems it is necessary to distribute the measuring stations in the areas of the highest contamination and to evaluate the data by computer programs

  9. REVIEW ON CURRENT WORLDWIDE STATUS, DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND DIETARY HABITS OF GOLDEN JACKAL, CANIS AUREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Negi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The golden jackal is a medium-sized predator and omnivore, with a range covering the southern parts of the Palearctic, South Asia and northeastern Africa. The entire jackal population is now confined to a few clusters grouped into 7 sub-areas with criteria such as connectivity and isolation. Causes of decline seem to be related to the limited habitat availability due to changes in human agro-pastoral activities, which resulted mainly in reduced day-cover availability and possibly reduced food base. This review summarizes the basic aspects of golden jackal distribution, ecology and dietary habits, analyses the main threats and problems of jackal management. The jackals seem to do well in moderately modified agro-systems with non- invasive human activities. Barriers for jackal expansion and population recovery seems to be the mountains with extensive high forests or unbroken scrub, heavy snowy winters and irregular food supply, large intensively cultivated areas without cover, urbanization and established wolf populations. Agro pastoral changes during the past 25-30 years has resulted in habitat and human use changes, which have largely contributed to the massive jackal population declines. Following a short introduction on phylogeny, classification, and evolutionary ecology of the Canidae, this review provides the latest information on the distribution, biology and conservation status of Canid aureus species, organized by geographical region.

  10. Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family crassulaceae in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family Crassul aceae have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 31 taxa, 15 are Irano-Turanian elements, 16 are Sino-Japanese elements and only one is Mediterranean element. Twenty nine taxa are classified as uniregional, while one is biregional element. Only one taxon is considered as pluriregional element. Rhodiola saxifragoides, Rosularia adenotricha subsp. chitralica and Hylotelephium pakistanicum are endemic taxa. While Rhodiola pachyclados and Rosularia sedoides are partim endemic. The former species is confined to (Kurrum valley) Pakistan and Afghanistan whereas the latter species distributed in Kashmir and N India. Rhodiola coccinea subsp. scabrida is subendemic to the peripheral belt of Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions. (author)

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Reeve's pond turtle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Reeve's ... pond turtle Chinemys ... reeves ii Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Chinemys _reeves ii_L.png C ... hinemys _reeves ii_NL.png Chinemys _reeves ii_S .png Chinemys _r ... eeves ii_NS .png http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico ... n.cgi?i=Chinemys +reeves ii&t=L http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Chinemys +reeves ii&t=NL http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

  12. An update on the ecological distribution of the Ixodidae ticks in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Madder, Maxime; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji

    2015-06-01

    In total 7657 ticks were collected from 121 dip tanks in 12 districts representative of Zimbabwe's five ecological regions between September 2013 and May 2014. Based on morphological traits four genera and 13 species of ticks were identified. Amblyomma hebraeum (60.3 %), Rhipicephalus microplus (58.7 %), Rhipicephalus decoloratus (47.1 %), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (56.2 %), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (67.8 %), Rhipicephalus (near) punctatus (13.2 %), Hyalomma truncatum (38 %) and Hyalomma rufipes (46.3 %) were found in all the ecological regions of the country. Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus compositus (0.8 %) were only found in the north central part of the country while Rhipicephalus simus (5 %) had a sparse distribution. The Haemaphysalis leachi group (1.7 %) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (1.7 %) were found whenever dogs were sampled suggesting these could be widespread throughout the country. The study confirmed the continued limited distribution of A. variegatum (3.3 %) in the north central parts of the country, whereas A. hebraeum was found to have a wide distribution also encroaching areas of high rainfall and lower temperatures where it was not previously recorded. A parapatric relationship existed between these two Amblyomma species. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was also widely distributed although its presence was dominant in the cooler and wetter parts of the country. The traditionally held view that Hyalomma species and R. evertsi evertsi can survive well under diverse conditions is upheld in this study. Rhipicephalus microplus was also present in dry regions but its adaptability to these regions requires further investigation. PMID:25721256

  13. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. RESULTS: We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae andV. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.). A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. CONCLUSION: The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

  14. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ? 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

  15. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael; Brevin, R.J.W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar...

  16. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet

    OpenAIRE

    Plávalová, E.

    2011-01-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extra-solar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extra-solar planets. I propose the following the extra-solar planet taxonomy scale w...

  17. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Alves, Nelson Jr; Ussery, David; Iida, Tetsuya; Thompson, FL

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of...... tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios....... RESULTS: We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a...

  18. Use of molecular markers in biochemical taxonomy of Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera: Tischerioidea) and Elachistidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulavi?i?t?, Brigita

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular biology has expanded greatly in the last ten years and currently many entomologists want to use this technology since it is a new level of carrying out studies of insect ecological systems and taxonomy. The study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences has become the method for a wide range of taxonomic, population and evolutionary investigations in Lepidoptera (Lunt et al, 1996). The increasing popularity of molecular taxonomy will undoubtedly exert a major impact on co...

  19. A topographic feature taxonomy for a U.S. national topographic mapping ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2013-01-01

    Using legacy feature lists from the U.S. National Topographic Mapping Program of the twentieth century, a taxonomy of features is presented for purposes of developing a national topographic feature ontology for geographic mapping and analysis. After reviewing published taxonomic classifications, six basic classes are suggested; terrain, surface water, ecological regimes, built-up areas, divisions, and events. Aspects of ontology development are suggested as the taxonomy is described.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image S earch Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... Taxonomy Icon Images ... (PNG format) Data detail Data name Taxonomy Icon I ...

  1. Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Y.; Bahmanyar, H. Jalilvand M. A.; Pormajidian, M. R.

    The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran). Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into different groups. The topographic conditions were recorded in quadrate locations. Soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer) and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm). Soil acidity, bulk density, saturation moisture, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchangeable capacity, available phosphorous, soil texture, lime, biomass of earthworms, litter carbon and litter nitrogen were measured. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patters were mainly related to soil characteristics such as pH, bulk density, texture, phosphorous, organic carbon, nitrogen and CEC. Totally, considering the habitat conditions and ecological needs, each plant species has a significant relation with soil properties.

  2. Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kooch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran. Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN. Vegetation was classified into different groups. The topographic conditions were recorded in quadrate locations. Soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. Soil acidity, bulk density, saturation moisture, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchangeable capacity, available phosphorous, soil texture, lime, biomass of earthworms, litter carbon and litter nitrogen were measured. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patters were mainly related to soil characteristics such as pH, bulk density, texture, phosphorous, organic carbon, nitrogen and CEC. Totally, considering the habitat conditions and ecological needs, each plant species has a significant relation with soil properties.

  3. Distribution, morphological variability, ecology and the present state of Nitella from Lake Ohrid and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajanovska Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research into 52 profiles of the littoral zone of the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid and numerous samples taken from its surroundings has resulted in a detailed picture of the composition of the Charophyta vegetation in the lake. The results of the research also include data regarding the species composition and present state of Nitella. The dominant species of Nitella is Nitella opaca, which is characterized by a specific distribution, morphological variability and ecology. The present state of Nitella is not steady, especially in the watershed of the lake, since in this area there are some permanent changes in the hydrology of the terrain. Therefore, there is a need to establish long-term and complex monitoring which will result in the prompt detection of risk factors and influences, thereby enabling a rapid reaction to a possible newly emerged negative state.

  4. Ecological Distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray-A New Exotic Weed in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Chukwuka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray was studied in six states of the southwestern Nigeria using three locations in each of the States. The presence of T. diversifolia was recorded in all the States and locations surveyed in varying numbers with associated weeds. Survey data were analysed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA. The first two ordination axes of the DCA accounted for 67.2% (Axis 1, 40.6%; Axis 2, 26.6% of variance on the site and species components. The DCA separated Ogun State locations from others. T. diversifolia was found to be closely associated with Boerhavia coccinea, Fleurya ovaliflora, Indigofera subulata, Merremia dissecta, Mimosa pudica, Momordica foetida, Phyllanthus mimosoides, other species of Phyllanthus, Physalis angulata, Schrankia leptocarpa and Sesbania parchycarpa in Ekiti, Lagos, Ondo, Osun and Oyo States while these species were absent in Ogun State.

  5. Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Vilaverde, Schmitt; Hélio Amante, Miot.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records [...] of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country.

  6. Macrophyte distribution and ecological status of the Turiec River (Slovakia: Changes after seven years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrivnák R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of diversity, abundance, distribution, and ecological status of aquatic macrophytes were observed in 2000 and 2007 on a circa 4.5 km long section of the Turiec River using Kohler's method. In comparison to 2000, the total number of macrophytes in 2007 increased markedly (from 25 to 35, although only the numbers of amphi­phytes and helophytes were changed substantially. The number of hydrophytes increased from 11 to 12; an invasive, Elodea canadenis, was the only new species. The relative plant mass of hydrophytes represents the bulk of all recorded species (95 and 80% in 2000 and 2007, respectively, and it was changed for most hydrophytes. The most significant changes were detected for Myriophyllum spicatum (decrease, filamentous algae (decrease, and Potamogeton crispus (increase. In 2007, the mean mass total (MMT sum of hydrophytes decreased from 16.46 to 14.5. On the other hand, the MMTsum of amphiphytes and helophytes doubled in value (7.4 and 14.1 in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Within hydrophytes, Batrachium species (including B. aquatile and B. trichophyllum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous (distribution ratio d > 0.5 in 2000, whereas in 2007 only Batrachium species and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous. At all times, Batrachium species were the most frequent species in the study area, and their abundance was relatively high (MMT> 2.5. A poor ecological status (MMP = 0.378 and MMP = 0.333 in 2000 and 2007, respectively of the surveyed river section was found in both years, but a slight decline of quality as determined on the basis of aquatic plants was observed after 7 years.

  7. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, Brian; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hatun, H.; Jansen, Teunis; Jacobsen, Jan Arge; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, Patrizio; Melvin, G.D.; Neilson, J.D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G.J.; Payne, Mark R.; Richardson, D.E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D.C.

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber...... especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins...

  8. An overview of the taxonomy of Attalea (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Attalea (Arecaceae is distributed in continental habitats of the Neotropical region and in some Caribbean islands. Life forms of Attalea species vary from small acaulescent palms to tall and massive palms, always solitary. The ecological range of the genus encompasses most of the Neotropical ecosystems, from coastal sand dunes to sub-Andean forests up to 1600 m in elevation, lowland wet to dry forests, savannas, swamps, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been poorly understood due to conflicting genus and species concepts that exist since the last decades. Taxonomical problems have been caused by the lack of adequate material, especially species of large size, loss of many types and difficulties in interpreting hybrids. In this article, I review the most recent taxonomic literature on Attalea. The number of species in Attalea varies from 29 to 67 depending on different authors, with a maximum estimate of 73 species when combining the revised publications. There is a consensus for the validity of 20 species among modern palm taxonomists. The most conflicting species or group of species are discussed in detail as well as the taxonomic significance of some characters such as the pattern of insertion of staminate flowers on rachillae, insertion of pinnae on rachis, and arrangement of fibrous strands in the endocarp.

  9. Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna Flora de Novaes, Pereira; Ivo Abraão Araújo da, Silva; Augusto César Pessôa, Santiago; Iva Carneiro Leão, Barros.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest), located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in th [...] e study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species) and Polypodiaceae (22 species). The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species) and Thelypteris (9 species). Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

  10. Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flora de Novaes Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in the study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species and Polypodiaceae (22 species. The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species and Thelypteris (9 species. Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

  11. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  12. The Striated Parachute Spider Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 (Araneae: Theraphosidae): a note on taxonomy, distribution and conservation status

    OpenAIRE

    M. Siliwal; Gupta, N; Molur, S.

    2013-01-01

    The known distribution range of Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 in India is from Mysuru in the north to Thiruvananthapuram in the south. During the recent surveys in northern Karnataka, P. striata was recorded from six locations in Dandeli and nearby areas in the Uttara Kannada District. With the new records from Uttara Kannada, the distribution range of this species extends to the northern part of the Western Ghats by ca. 400km from Mysuru. Additional records on distribution of P. stri...

  13. [Ecological distribution and spatial niche of pheasants in the Karst mountains of southwest Guangxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen-Xing; Yang, Gang; Li, Dong; Zhou, Fang

    2011-10-01

    The Karst mountain area along the Sino-Vietnam border of southwest Guangxi has been designated a "Global Biodiversity Hotspot" since 2003. We conducted a survey of pheasant species in this area, with seven species recorded, namely Chinese Francolin (Francolinus pintadeanus), Bar-backed Partridge (Arborophila brunneopectus), Mountain Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola fytchii), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) and Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Analysis and comparison of the distribution and spatial niche of these seven pheasant species revealed that Red Junglefowl had the widest spatial niche, while Chinese Francolin had the narrowest. The spatial niche overlap index was high between Chinese Francolin and the Common Pheasant, Chinese Bamboo Partridge, and Red Junglefowl. With narrow distribution range, small population, and lower ecological adaptability, it is likely that the Bar-backed Partridge is the most vulnerable pheasant species in this area. The results suggest more research and conservation measures are required for pheasant habitat protection in the Karst areas of southwest Guangxi. PMID:22006809

  14. Taxonomia e distribuição de Actinocythereis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Podocopida, Trachyleberididae) na plataforma continental brasileira Taxonomy and distribution Actinocythereis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Podocopida, Trachyleberididae) from the Brazilian continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia P. Machado; Núscia G. S. Drozinski

    2002-01-01

    A new species is described, Actinocythereis brasiliensis, from the southern Brazilian continental shelf. It is based on the analysis of 766 samples collected by oceanographical projects. The geographical distribution of this species has revealed its preference by the cold waters and terrigenous sediments and, has a bathymetric distribution between 22 and 164 m but, being concentrated in the shallower waters (< 60 m).

  15. Taxonomy and distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in Venezuela: I. The Oswaldoi species group of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) Taxonomía y distribución geográfica de los flebótomos en Venezuela: I. El grupo oswaldoi del género Lutzomyia (Dipetera: Psichodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dora Feliciangeli

    1989-01-01

    Species of sandflies in the oswaldoi-group of the genus Lutzomyia occuring in Venezuela are reviewed. A new species, Lutzomyia saccai n. sp. is described. A distribution map and pictorial keys for males and females are provided with notes on biological and ecological data collected in Venezuela.Se hace una revisión de las especies de flebótomos del grupo oswaldoi del género Lutzomyia, has el momento registradas en Venezuela. Se describe una nueba especie, Lutzomyia saccai n. sp. Se proporcion...

  16. Utility of Classical ?-Taxonomy for Biodiversity of Aquatic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decraemer, Wilfrida; Backeljau, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    "Classical ?-taxonomy" has different interpretations. Therefore, within the framework of an integrated taxonomic approach it is not relevant to divide taxonomy in different components, each being allocated a different weight of importance. Preferably, taxonomy should be seen in a holistic way, including the act of delimiting and describing taxa, based on different features and available methods, and taxonomy can not be interpreted without looking at evolutionary relationships. The concept of diversity itself is quite diverse as is the measure of diversity. Taxonomic descriptions of free-living aquatic nematodes are very valuable as they provide basic phenotypic information that is necessary for the functional ecological, behavioral, and evolutionary interpretation of data gathered from molecular analyses and of the organism as a whole. In general, molecular taxonomic analyses have the advantage of being much faster and of being able to deal with a larger number of specimens but also possess the important advantage of dealing with a huge amount of features compared to the morphology-based approach. However, just as morphological studies, molecular analyses deal only with partial of an organism. PMID:25861112

  17. Ecological distribution of pelagic copepods and species relationship to acidification, liming and natural recovery in a boreal area

    OpenAIRE

    Wærvågen, Svein Birger; Nilssen, Jens Petter

    2003-01-01

    Distribution and ecology of pelagic copepods were studied in a boreal area strongly affected by acidification in southern Norway. Differential regional composition of bedrock geology and Quaternary deposits combined with liming have produced aquatic sites with contrasting acidification and recovery histories. The omnivorous species Eudiaptomus gracilis showed a striking ability to tolerate both acidification and chemical recovery. The predominantly carnivorous species Heterocope saliens incre...

  18. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Zaldívar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata, capuchins (Cebus capucinus, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii. Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi, congo (Alouatta palliata, cara blanca (Cebus capucinus, y tití (Saimiri oerstedii. La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliográfica. Se estudió su diversidad genética utilizando electroforesis de isoenzimas. El riesgo de extinción se evaluó usando información bibliográfica. Se encontró que las cuatro especies presentaban variación en todos estos rasgos. Con estos datos, se realizó una correlación de Pearson entre el riesgo de extinción y las variables indicadoras de la distribución geográfica, los rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida y la diversidad genética, para aquellas especies con una amplia distribución geográfica. Se encontró una asociación entre el riesgo de extinción y la natalidad y la tasa de crecimiento poblacional; las especies con menor natalidad y menor tasa de crecimiento poblacional tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción; las especies con mayor diversidad genética tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se discute la importancia de estos rasgos para la conservación de estas especies.

  19. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Palacz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  20. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

    2013-11-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  1. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources

  2. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Palacz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom–coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  3. The integrative future of taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vences Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an integrative taxonomy that directly bear on what species are, how they can be discovered, and how much diversity is on Earth. Conclusions We conclude that taxonomy needs to be pluralistic to improve species discovery and description, and to develop novel protocols to produce the much-needed inventory of life in a reasonable time. To cope with the large number of candidate species revealed by molecular studies of eukaryotes, we propose a classification scheme for those units that will facilitate the subsequent assembly of data sets for the formal description of new species under the Linnaean system, and will ultimately integrate the activities of taxonomists and molecular biologists.

  4. Predicting the Current and Future Potential Distributions of Lymphatic Filariasis in Africa Using Maximum Entropy Ecological Niche Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Modelling the spatial distributions of human parasite species is crucial to understanding the environmental determinants of infection as well as for guiding the planning of control programmes. Here, we use ecological niche modelling to map the current potential distribution of the macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Africa, and to estimate how future changes in climate and population could affect its spread and burden across the continent. We used 508 community-specific infe...

  5. Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    T. Karami; M Soleimani; H. Afrakhteh; H. Hataminejad

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the view...

  6. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, Brian; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hatun, H.; Jansen, Teunis; Jacobsen, Jan Arge; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, Patrizio; Melvin, G.D.; Neilson, J.D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G.J.; Payne, Mark R.; Richardson, D.E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly...

  7. Taxonomia e distribuição de Actinocythereis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Podocopida, Trachyleberididae) na plataforma continental brasileira / Taxonomy and distribution Actinocythereis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Podocopida, Trachyleberididae) from the Brazilian continental shelf

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia P., Machado; Núscia G. S., Drozinski.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english A new species is described, Actinocythereis brasiliensis, from the southern Brazilian continental shelf. It is based on the analysis of 766 samples collected by oceanographical projects. The geographical distribution of this species has revealed its preference by the cold waters and terrigenous sedi [...] ments and, has a bathymetric distribution between 22 and 164 m but, being concentrated in the shallower waters (

  8. Historical freshwater fish ecology: a long-term view of distribution changes and biological invasions

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Clavero

    2015-01-01

    Past processes and events may have an important influence on contemporaneous ecological patterns, including current human impacts on landscapes and organisms. In spite of that, most of the ecological knowledge has been built upon short-term studies, which very rarely exceed one decade. Ecology and Conservation Biology have an important lack of historical approaches, a deficiency that may become a hindrance for the management of natural systems. In this talk I will present examples of how hist...

  9. Phase distribution of ecologically controlled chemical elements in production of extraction phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Content of 16 ecologically controlled chemical element (among them Cd, Sr, Th, U, V, Y) in solid and liquid phases of extraction phosphorus acid (EPA) production is determined. These elements are recommended to control by Scientific research institute of human ecology and environment to establish their extraction coefficients to phosphogypsum and EPA and optimal variant of production of ecologically sate phosphorus fertilizers. X-ray fluorescent, atomic-absorption and polarographic methods are used for analysis these elements

  10. A taxonomy fuzzy filtering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrettos S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work proposes the use of topic taxonomies as part of a filtering language. Given a taxonomy, a classifier is trained for each one of its topics. The user is able to formulate logical rules combining the available topics, e.g. (Topic1 AND Topic2 OR Topic3, in order to filter related documents in a stream. Using the trained classifiers, every document in the stream is assigned a belief value of belonging to the topics of the filter. These belief values are then aggregated using logical operators to yield the belief to the filter. In our study, Support Vector Machines and Naïve Bayes classifiers were used to provide topic probabilities. Aggregation of topic probabilities based on fuzzy logic operators was found to improve filtering performance on the Renters text corpus, as compared to the use of their Boolean counterparts. Finally, we deployed a filtering system on the web using a sample taxonomy of the Open Directory Project.

  11. Constructing a Business Model Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Pernille; Nielsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    in the contemporary literature. However, the research stream in relation to a business model taxonomy also needs a sound starting point in order to ensure valid and reliable outcomes. In this paper a research design for conducting such studies is presented and obstacles, which need to be overcome to......Abstract Purpose: The paper proposes a research design recipe capable of leading to future business model taxonomies and discusses the potential benefits and implications of achieving this goal. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper provides a review of relevant scholarly literature about business...... models to clarify the subject as well as highlighting the importance of past studies of business model classifications. In addition it reviews the scholarly literature on relevant methodological approaches, such as cluster analysis and latent class analysis, for constructing a business model taxonomy...

  12. The remote experiment position in actual taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Samoila, Cornel; Ursutiu, Doru; Cotfas, Petru; Zamfira, Sorin

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomy is a classification effort for establishment of learning/teaching operational objectives. There are some famous taxonomies, Bloom's being the most quoted. In spite of the fact that some researchers have tried to explain the position of elearning in already known taxonomies, this subject was not too much in the general attention. In the paper the authors intend to go deeply and to analyze the position of the new methodology-remote experiment-in the actual taxonomies. In addition they ...

  13. Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Horsfield, 1821 (Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae) in the dry lowlands of Sri Lanka: distribution, ecology, and threats

    OpenAIRE

    Thilina N. de Silva; Sumudu Fernando; Haritha B. de Silva; Parami Tennakoon

    2015-01-01

    The Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus is a globally threatened species of stork; in Sri Lanka, it is a scarce resident breeder, and the largest bird in the country, yet the population status and ecology of the species is poorly understood.  This study tracks the stork’s spatial distribution and habitat use within the island, along with aspects of its ecology.  Data was collected via field sampling and questionnaire surveys, over a period of five years across the lowlands of the country.  ...

  14. Prevalence and distribution of ocular onchocerciasis in three ecological zones in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, R E; Mahmoud, A O; Hagan, M; Wilson, M; Okoye, O I; Asana, U; Biritwum, R; Ogbu-Pearce, P; Elhassan, E; Yaméogo, L; Braideo, E I; Seketeli, A

    2010-12-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) sponsored a baseline study in Nigeria between 1998 and 1999 on the prevalence and distribution of Onchocerciasis. The randomly selected 1,064 subjects in the baseline study underwent detailed eye examination in Cross River (rain forest), Taraba (savanna) and Kogi (forest-savanna) States. This paper compares and contrasts the public health significance of ocular onchocerciasis in these ecological zones. A blindness prevalence of 2.4% was recorded in the study, onchocerciasis being responsible for 30.2% of the bilaterally blind subjects. Onchocerciasis-induced blindness prevalence was relatively high in the rain forest and forest savanna zones of Cross River and Kogi States, Cross River having the highest site-specific prevalence (50.0%), followed by Kogi (41.7%). Taraba recorded only 27.3%. Other conditions identified included glaucoma, optic nerve disease and cataract rates of which were also found to be high among the population (6.9%, 6.5 % and 8.9% respectively). Anterior segment onchocercal lesions, punctate and sclerosing keratitis were the predominant features of the infection in the savanna zone (14.1% and 6.3% respectively), while posterior segment lesions were much more common in the forest zone. The need to sustain the present efforts to control onchocerciasis through mass ivermectin treatment is recommended. PMID:21735992

  15. Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) as an ecological assessment tool in stream environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, C. E.; Tyler, S. W.; Boughton, D.; Belica, L.

    2009-12-01

    Temperature has long been used as an indicator of ecosystem health and suitability for aquatic species, particularly in sensitive areas crucial to the survival of declining important fish populations. Typically, temperature surveys are of long duration but very limited in spatial extent. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to assessing the ecology, and particularly the thermal regimes, of remaining near-pristine headwater catchments. These studies hope to assess habitats for native species restoration and identify key stream reaches where reproduction takes place, as well as seasonal thermal refugia supporting species survival and local thermal heterogeneities in larger stream systems that allow migratory pathways to persist. Raman-spectra distributed temperature sensing (DTS) along fiber-optic cables provides a unique opportunity to measure continuous longitudinal stream temperatures for hundreds of meters, allowing researchers to assess groundwater inflows, thermal refugia, and temperature heterogeneities at an extremely detailed spatial scale. In this compilation of studies, we present data from three semi-arid catchments (Strawberry Creek in the Great Basin, Squaw Creek the Sierra Nevada, and Horse Creek in the coastal range of California) to investigate seasonal and diurnal thermal behavior, the feedback between hydrology, geology and ecosystem function, and most importantly, the identification and spatial variability of thermal refugia.

  16. Hydropower developments in Canada: number, size and jurisdictional and ecological distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter G.; Hanneman, Matt; Cheng, Ryan [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    For over 200 years, energy production and consumption, along with all human activities, have been contributing to global warming. This report is part of a project that examines 10 major energy sectors to provide information on Canada's energy options in the face of climate change; this present study gives information on hydropower reservoirs and associated dams in Canada. The mapping, jurisdictional and ecological distribution of reservoirs and dams across Canada is provided herein. Canada's hydropower installations are composed of 271 large hydropower facilities covering 58,015 km2 with a capacity of 71,857 MW, accounting for 44% of Canada's total technical hydroelectric capacity. Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia are the provinces with the most large hydropower dams; 19% of the watersheds are occupied in part by hydropower reservoirs and the taiga shield, boreal shield and montane cordillera ecozones contain most of the reservoir areas. The majority of future developments are expected to be built within 5km of intact forest landscapes.

  17. Taxonomy of Stock Market Indices

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, G; Mantegna, R N; Bonanno, Giovanni; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate a set of time series of financial non-redundant time series. The set is composed by 29 stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. The correlation matrix is used to determine a distance matrix between the stock indices. By using the ultrametric matrix associated with the distance matrix we determine a meaningful taxonomy of the investigated stock indices. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in unpredictable non-redundant time series.

  18. Biology, ecology and distribution of the tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Acg

    2016-01-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis is the only tick in New Zealand that infests livestock. Throughout its range H. longicornis is exposed to and exhibits tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, although it flourishes more in moist, warm-temperate environments. This review examines aspects of the biology, physiology and ecology of H. longicornis that determine its distribution and seasonal activity in New Zealand, based on laboratory and field studies. Examples are also drawn from studies outside New Zealand for comparative purposes, especially in the context of seasonal activity as seen in less temperate latitudes. The tick is able to withstand a wide range of temperature, from its developmental threshold of ?12°C to nearly 40°C at its lethal limit, but its tolerance of dehydration is less wide, especially in the larva and adult, the former especially being the stage that largely determines suitable biotopes for the tick and its present distributional limits. The importance of H. longicornis to the New Zealand livestock industry has recently increased through the establishment and spread of Theileria orientalis Ikeda among dairy and beef cattle, although the tick has always posed production-limiting problems for cattle, deer and to a lesser extent, sheep. The tick's role as a vector of theileriosis and how aspects of the tick's biology affect the spread and maintenance of this disease are discussed. It is proposed that, of available wildlife hosts, the brown hare with its wide-ranging habits, is an important disseminator of ticks. Currently control of ticks is difficult partly because of their wide host range, overlapping activity periods of stadia, and also because the greater part of their annual cycle is spent on pasture. This means that acaricides alone do not satisfactorily reduce tick populations or provide comprehensive protection to stock, so integrated management combining pasture management with good husbandry and chemical prophylaxis is advocated. PMID:25849758

  19. A Distributed Model of Oilseed Biorefining, via Integrated Industrial Ecology Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Jeremy C.

    As the demand for direct petroleum substitutes increases, biorefineries are poised to become centers for conversion of biomass into fuels, energy, and biomaterials. A distributed model offers reduced transportation, tailored process technology to available feedstock, and increased local resilience. Oilseeds are capable of producing a wide variety of useful products additive to food, feed, and fuel needs. Biodiesel manufacturing technology lends itself to smaller-scale distributed facilities able to process diverse feedstocks and meet demand of critical diesel fuel for basic municipal services, safety, sanitation, infrastructure repair, and food production. Integrating biodiesel refining facilities as tenants of eco-industrial parks presents a novel approach for synergistic energy and material exchanges whereby environmental and economic metrics can be significantly improved upon compared to stand alone models. This research is based on the Catawba County NC EcoComplex and the oilseed crushing and biodiesel processing facilities (capacity-433 tons biodiesel per year) located within. Technical and environmental analyses of the biorefinery components as well as agronomic and economic models are presented. The life cycle assessment for the two optimal biodiesel feedstocks, soybeans and used cooking oil, resulted in fossil energy ratios of 7.19 and 12.1 with carbon intensity values of 12.51 gCO2-eq/MJ and 7.93 gCO2-eq/MJ, respectively within the industrial ecology system. Economic modeling resulted in a biodiesel conversion cost of 1.43 per liter of fuel produced with used cooking oil, requiring a subsidy of 0.58 per liter to reach the break-even point. As subsidies continue significant fluctuation, metrics other than operating costs are required to justify small-scale biofuel projects.

  20. On the taxonomy and distribution of Crocidura cossyrensis and Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Soricidae) in Maghreb

    OpenAIRE

    Longino Contoli; Gaetano Aloise

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The paper examines the taxonomic status of North African Crocidura russula Auctorum. On the basis of morphological data, the taxon needs to be divided into at least two species: C. russula (Hermann, 1780) from western Europe, coastal Morocco and middle-western Algeria, up to about the Algiers area, and possibly even Sardinia and Ibiza, and another species, distributed in coastal middle-eastern Algeria, Tunisia, P...

  1. On the taxonomy and distribution of Crocidura cossyrensis and Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Soricidae in Maghreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper examines the taxonomic status of North African Crocidura russula Auctorum. On the basis of morphological data, the taxon needs to be divided into at least two species: C. russula (Hermann, 1780 from western Europe, coastal Morocco and middle-western Algeria, up to about the Algiers area, and possibly even Sardinia and Ibiza, and another species, distributed in coastal middle-eastern Algeria, Tunisia, Pantelleria and, possibly, La Galite archipelago. The first and only available name for the above, eastern taxon is Crocidura cossyrensis Contoli, 1989.

  2. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet

    CERN Document Server

    Plávalová, E

    2011-01-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun.We know its approximate mass, temperature, age and size. In our work with extrasolar planets database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification), for example, like the Harvard classification for stars. This new taxonomy has to be comprehensible and present the important information about extrasolar planets. The important information of extrasolar planets are their mass, radius, period, density, eccentricity, temperature, and their distance from the parent star. There are too many parameters, that is, taxonomy with six parameters would be complicated and difficult to apply. We propose following the extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with only four parameters. The first parameter is the information about the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of the units of the mass of other known planets, where M - Mercury, E - Earth, N - Neptune, and J - Jupiter. The second parameter is the distance from its pa...

  3. Ecological diversity and taxonomic organization of animal communities

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Zhukov

    2005-01-01

    The species and taxonomy diversity are the impotant components of ecological diversity of living organism’s complexes. The article analyses the modern approaches of quantitative estimation of the ecosystem diversity. In hypothetical experiment the indexes have been tested to study the properties dealing with taxonomy complexity reflection. Diversity indexes have been used to analyze some real soil invertebrate’s complexes.

  4. Taxonomía y distribución del género Leptoscelis en Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini) / Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Leptoscelis in Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Harry, Brailovsky; Ernesto, Barrera.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa el género Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini) para Costa Rica y se describe una especie nueva, L. conspicuus. Se discuten sus relaciones con L. quadrisignatus (Distant) y L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin es sinonimizada con L. quadrisignatus. Se cita por pri [...] mera vez L. tricolor para Costa Rica. El trabajo incluye nuevos datos de distribución para el género, ilustraciones de las especies y de los parámeros y una clave para la identificación de las especies costarricenses. Abstract in english The genus Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini) from Costa Rica is revised. One new species, L. conspicuus, is described and compared with L. quadrisignatus (Distant) and L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin is synonymized with L. quadrisignatus. Leptoscelis tricolor is rec [...] orded for the first time from Costa Rica. New distribution records are presented. Habitus illustrations and drawings of parameres are provided. A key to the known Costarican species is presented.

  5. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDHI EKO HERNAWAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hernawan E. 2012. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae. Biodiversitas 13: 118-123. A taxonomic study was conducted on the giant clam’s specimens deposited in Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB, Cibinong Indonesia. Taxonomic overviews of the examined specimens are given with diagnostic characters, remarks, habitat and distribution. Discussion is focused on specific characters distinguishing each species. From seven species known to distribute in Indonesian waters, there are six species, Tridacna squamosa Lamarck, 1819; T. gigas Linnaeus, 1758; T. derasa Roding, 1798; T. crocea Lamarck, 1819; T. maxima Roding,1798; and Hippopus hippopus Linnaeus, 1758. This study suggests the need for collecting specimen of H. porcellanus Rosewater, 1982. Important characters to distinguish species among Tridacninae are interlocking teeth on byssal orifice, life habits, presence of scales and inhalant siphon tentacles.

  6. Ecology and the ratchet of events: Climate variability, niche dimensions, and species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S.T.; Betancourt, J.L.; Booth, R.K.; Gray, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change in the coming centuries will be characterized by interannual, decadal, and multidecadal fluctuations superimposed on anthropogenic trends. Predicting ecological and biogeographic responses to these changes constitutes an immense challenge for ecologists. Perspectives from climatic and ecological history indicate that responses will be laden with contingencies, resulting from episodic climatic events interacting with demographic and colonization events. This effect is compounded by the dependency of environmental sensitivity upon life-stage for many species. Climate variables often used in empirical niche models may become decoupled from the proximal variables that directly influence individuals and populations. Greater predictive capacity, and morefundamental ecological and biogeographic understanding, will come from integration of correlational niche modeling with mechanistic niche modeling, dynamic ecological modeling, targeted experiments, and systematic observations of past and present patterns and dynamics.

  7. Den ecology, distribution, and productivity of foxes at Kokechik Bay, Alaska: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In May 1985 fieldwork was initiated at Kokechik Bay, Alaska to collect information on the ecology of foxes inhabiting the nesting grounds of geese on the...

  8. Planetary Taxonomy: Label Round Bodies "Worlds"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Levison, H. F.

    2009-05-01

    The classification of planetary bodies is as important to Astronomy as taxonomy is to other sciences. The etymological, historical, and IAU definitions of planet rely on a dynamical criterion, but some authors prefer a geophysical criterion based on "roundness". Although the former criterion is superior when it comes to classifying newly discovered objects, the conflict need not exist if we agree to identify the subset of "round" planetary objects as "worlds". This addition to the taxonomy would conveniently recognize that "round" objects such as Earth, Europa, Titan, Triton, and Pluto share some common planetary-type processes regardless of their distance from the host star. Some of these worlds are planets, others are not. Defining how round is round and handling the inevitable transition objects are non-trivial tasks. Because images at sufficient resolution are not available for the overwhelming majority of newly discovered objects, the degree of roundness is not a directly observable property and is inherently problematic as a basis for classification. We can tolerate some uncertainty in establishing the "world" status of a newly discovered object, and still establish its planet or satellite status with existing dynamical criteria. Because orbital parameters are directly observable, and because mass can often be measured either from orbital perturbations or from the presence of companions, the dynamics provide a robust and practical planet classification scheme. It may also be possible to determine which bodies are dynamically dominant from observations of the population magnitude/size distribution.

  9. Distribution, Ecology and Population Structure of Euphorbia monchiquensis, an Endemism in Southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Fox

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia monchiquensis is, within the widespread and euryoecious E. paniculata-complex, an acidophilous subspecies, endemic in Southern Portugal. To evaluate the vulnerability of this taxon vis-a-vis disturbance and landuse changes, we studied the actual distribution, the population size, the ecological requirements and the coenological value of this taxon in the Serra de Monchique, a mountainous region in the Algarve Hinterland. Data sampling was between April and July 2001. The quite constant branching system of this half shrubby spurge allows to determine the age of the indivuduals from the plant architecture and therefore to study the demographic structure in a non-destructive way. 1618 individuals, clustered in 46 populations, have been registered in the Serra. 88% were in flower. Euphorbia monchiquensis is rare relative to its overall distribution. It shows a bimodal altitudinal and coenological pattern. The majority of the populations are concentrated in the most humid mid altitudes and on the luv-ward northwestern side of the Serra. A few populations occur in the dry lowlands, linked to riverine shrublets. The plant depends on a good water supply but does not need shadowing. Within its limited bioclimatic niche, the spurge has a certain capacity of recolonisation and is not extremely sensitive to disturbance. Humid forests of the Euphorbio monchiquensis-Quercetum canariensis are just one of the preferred sociological situations. The coenological spectrum includes pure cork oak forests, Castanea sativa coppices, Eucalyptus-afforestations, mantle communities (Lonicero-Rubetum, Rubo-Nerietum, Origanion virentis fringes, abandoned meadows and roadside verges. It was in this kind of secondary habitats with intermittent disturbance, that most of the juvenile plants could be stated. Only very few plantlings were found. Most of the recorded populations are well balanced in their medium age classes, others are overaged. A correlation between habitat qualities, the reproductive effort and the regeneration efficiency could not be found. Four inflorescence-morphotypes can be distinguished. The inflorescence architecture becomes more complex with increasing age. Euphorbia monchiquensis is not an extremely endangered, but a vulnerable species. It can be threatened by the process of Eucalyptus afforestation and by the spontaneous spread of Acacia dealbata. To give a reliable answer to the extinction risk, further aspects of its life cycle, seed bank characteristics, and reproductive behaviour have to be studied.

  10. Multiscale impacts of the fragmentation and spatial structure of habitats on freshwater fish distribution: integrating riverscape and landscape ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pichon, C.; Belliard, J.; Tales, E.; Gorges, G.; Clément, F.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the rivers of the Ile de France region, intimately linked with the megalopolis of Paris, are severely altered and freshwater fishes are exposed to habitat alteration, reduced connectivity and pollution. Several species thus present fragmented distributions and decreasing densities. In this context, the European Water Framework Directive (2000) has goals of hydrosystems rehabilitation and no further damage. In particular, the preservation and restoration of ecological connectivity of r...

  11. Contributions to Distribution, Reproduction Biology and Ecology of Vormela peregusna (G?ldenstadt, 1770 (Mammalia: Carnivora in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Co kun Tez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both captured and uncaptured Vormela peregusna were investigated for their distribution, reproduction biology, some ecological observations and morphological characteristics in our laboratory, and campus area at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey. It was observed that there is a cannibalism within population in Vormela peregusna. The morphological evaluations indicated that Turkish V. peregusna is the same to V. peregusna from Israel.

  12. Some like it cold: distribution, ecology and phylogeny of Arenaria bernensis Favarger (Caryophyllaceae) from the western Prealps in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Berthouzoz, Marjorie; Maendly, Simon; Bétrisey, Sébastien; Mangili, Sofia; Prunier, Patrice; LEXER, CHRISTIAN; Kozlowski, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Arenaria bernensis (Caryophyllaceae), traditionally placed within the Arenaria ciliata aggregate and discovered only in 1955, is a poorly studied endemic taxon of western Prealps in Switzerland. In this study, we aimed to deliver the first detailed appraisal on morphology, distribution and ecology of A. bernensis accompanied by first molecular insights into the A. ciliata aggregate using chloroplast (cp) DNA markers. Altogether 18 populations attributed morphologically to A. bernensis were fo...

  13. Taxonomy of an endemic Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) from the Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    [EN] The taxonomy of an Iberian endemic Aristolochia is treated, based on morphological and cytological characters. A brief description of its main diagnostic characters, distribution and habitat is included, as well as a distribution map and a few comments on its possible phylogenetic relationships. A new combination is proposed, raising this taxon from subspecies to a species proper: A. castellana (Nardi) Costa. A revised dichotomous key for the Iberian taxa of the genus is proposed.

  14. Taxonomia e distribuição de Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta) / Taxonomy and distribution of Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cid José Passos, Bastos.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans é uma espécie sul americana, ocorrendo nas Florestas Amazônica e Atlântica. Caracteriza-se, principalmente, pela presença do segundo e primeiro dentes do lóbulo contíguos um ao outro e ausência de inovações. Entre as espécies neotropicais, C. aneogyna é a ún [...] ica que pode apresentar ocelos, porém, a presença destes não é constante. Descrição, ilustração, comentários sobre a morfologia e distribuição geográfica são fornecidos e discutidos. Está sendo referida pela primeira vez para a Bolívia. Abstract in english Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans is a South American species found in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. It is characterized mainly by the presence of the first and second teeth of the lobule that are adjacent to each other and the lack of innovations. Among the neotropical species, C. aneogyn [...] a is the only one that has ocelli; however, their presence is not constant. A description, illustration, and comments on the morphology and geographic distribution are provided. This species is reported for the first time for Bolivia.

  15. ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² and Rajendra Yonzone³

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T. angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Tainia species in the regions.

  16. TAXONOMÍA Y DISTRIBUCIÓN DE DIATOMEAS EPILÍTICAS REGISTRADAS POR PRIMERA VEZ EN COLOMBIA. I / Taxonomy and distribution of epilithic diatoms reported for the first time in Colombia. I

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SILVIA ESTELA, SALA; AMELIA ALEJANDRA, VOUILLOUD; YASMIN, PLATA-DÍAZ; EDNA, PEDRAZA; ASTRID, PIMIENTA.

    2015-06-30

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en el marco del proyecto para elaborar un índice de calidad biológica para ríos de zonas bajas y de piedemonte del país basado en comunidades biológicas acuáticas, desarrollado en el Laboratorio de Biotecnología del Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, cuyo objetivo [...] es evaluar la calidad ecológica de los ríos de tierras bajas y de piedemonte dentro del área de influencia de Ecopetrol, a través de la implementación de un índice de calidad biológica utilizando diatomeas. Las 165 muestras analizadas hasta el momento provienen de muestras de perifiton de 83 sistemas lóticos de distintas regiones del país, de donde también se obtuvo información sobre temperatura del agua, pH, conductividad y oxígeno disuelto. El material fue estudiado con microscopio óptico y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Aquí reunimos 11 taxones de los cuales Achnanthidium macrocephalum(Hustedt) Round & Bukhtiyarova, Cymbopleura zimmermannii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Chamaepinnularia brasiliana Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Ch. brasilianopsis Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Planothidium lagerheimii (Cleve) Wetzel & Ector, Eunotioforma curvula (Hustedt) Kociolek & Burliga, Gomphonema archaevibrio fo. cuneatum Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg, Nitzschia clausii Hantzsch y N. filiformis var. conferta (Richter) Lange-Bertalot se mencionan por primera vez para Colombia. Este es el primer registro del género Eunotioforma Kociolek & Burliga y por primera vez se describe e ilustra el género Chamaepinnularia Lange-Bertalot para el país. Además, analizamos la ultraestructura de Nitzschia dissipata(Kützing) Grunow, ya mencionada para el país pero solo analizada con MO. A pesar de ser esta especie considerada cosmopolita citada en las floras de diferentes regiones del mundo, ha sido frecuentemente mal identificada, por lo que este análisis nos permitió confirmar la identidad de los materiales colombianos. Abstract in english This work was carried under the project for developing a biological water quality index for rivers of lowland waters of Colombia based on aquatic biological communities. A total of 165 sites were sampled considering the hidrogeomorphological variability among the studied rivers. In all sites, periph [...] yton samples were collected by brushing rocks and then fixed with formalin 8%. The following information was also recorded: water temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Biological samples were analyzed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Here we discussed the following 11 taxa recorded for the first time to Colombia: Achnanthidium macrocephalum(Hustedt) Round & Bukhtiyarova, Cymbopleura zimmermannii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Chamaepinnularia brasiliana Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Ch. brasilianopsis Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Planothidium lagerheimii (Cleve) Wetzel & Ector, Eunotioforma curvula (Hustedt) Kociolek & Burliga, Gomphonema archaevibrio fo. cuneatum Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg, Nitzschia clausii Hantzsch and N. filiformis var. conferta (Richter) Lange-Bertalot. The genera Eunotioforma Kociolek & Burliga and Chamaepinnularia Lange-Bertalot are newly recorded for the country. We also analyzed the ultrastructure of Nitzschia dissipata (Kützing) Grunow already reported for the country but only studied with LM. Despite of being a species of cosmopolitan distribution, frequently cited in floras of different regions of the world, it is frequently misidentified so this analysis allowed us to confirm the identity of Colombian specimens.

  17. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

  19. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  20. Taxonomy of Bacteria Nodulating Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Rivas; Paula García-Fraile; Encarna Velázquez

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, the term “rhizobia” has come to be used for all the bacteria that are capable of nodulation and nitrogen fixation in association with legumes but the taxonomy of rhizobia has changed considerably over the last 30 year. Recently, several non- rhizobial species belonging to alpha and beta subgroup of Proteobacteria have been identified as nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts. Here we provide an overview of the history of the rhizobia and the widespread phylogenetic diversity of nitr...

  1. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1. PMID:22506608

  2. LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORAL TAXONOMIES IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Ahmed Mangi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended to recognize and replicate the Yukl’s (1989-2004 behavioral taxonomies in the university settings in Sindh. A comprehensive questionnaire based on the items in taxonomies was developed, face validity of the questionnaire was test and found suitable. A total of 90 university Deans and head of Departments were randomly selected from public and private universities of Sindh. Categorical reliability of the data was checked and found highly reliable. The majority of the respondents were male, post graduate, above 50 years of age, married and had more than 15 years of experience. The statistical analysis describes the typical Sindhi culture among the respondents. A large number of university leadership focused on the relation as compared to task and change at the universities. This research also supports partial replication of three dimensions i.e., Relation, Task and Change as Yukl’s behavioral taxonomies with first order factor analysis. Relation factor was replicated completely, while other two were replicated in two different facets each i.e., Change was replicated in two facets – Improvement and Process and Task was also replicated in two facets – Improvement and Process. Making a second order factor analysis assured these two factors were replicated completely.

  3. Target-driven merging of Taxonomies

    CERN Document Server

    Raunich, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation of ontologies and taxonomies in many domains increasingly demands the integration of multiple such ontologies. The goal of ontology integration is to merge two or more given ontologies in order to provide a unified view on the input ontologies while maintaining all information coming from them. We propose a new taxonomy merging algorithm that, given as input two taxonomies and an equivalence matching between them, can generate an integrated taxonomy in a fully automatic manner. The approach is target-driven, i.e. we merge a source taxonomy into the target taxonomy and preserve the structure of the target ontology as much as possible. We also discuss how to extend the merge algorithm providing auxiliary information, like additional relationships between source and target concepts, in order to semantically improve the final result. The algorithm was implemented in a working prototype and evaluated using synthetic and real-world scenarios.

  4. Description of a new species of the genus Leporinus Spix (Characiformes: Anostomidae from the rio Araguaia, Brazil, with comments on the taxonomy and distribution of L. parae and L. lacustris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo A. Britski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Leporinus is described from the rio Araguaia, in Mato Grosso and Goiás states, Brazil. The new species has the dental formula 4/3, a unique feature within the genus; all other species of Leporinus have dental formulae 3/3, 3/4 or 4/4. In addition, the new species can also be distinguished by the following combination of characters: 36 to 37 scales in the lateral line, 4/4.5 or 4/5 series of scales in the transversal line, 16 circumpeduncular scale series, anal fin surpassing base of lower caudal-fin rays and three blotches along the lateral line. The new species shares with L. parae and L. lacustris a rather deep body, terminal mouth, long anal fin, three small dark blotches on the lateral line, the latter two, particularly the last one, usually fading, and preference for lentic habitats. Comments on the taxonomy and distribution of the species L. parae and L. lacustris are provided.Uma nova espécie do gênero Leporinus é descrita do rio Araguaia, nos estados do Mato Grosso e Goiás, Brasil. A característica mais notável da nova espécie é sua fórmula dental 4/3, única entre as espécies do gênero que possuem fórmula dental 3/3, 3/4 ou 4/4. A nova espécie também pode ser reconhecida pela combinação das seguintes características: 36 a 37 escamas na linha lateral, 4/4,5 ou 4/5 séries de escamas na linha transversal, 16 series de escamas circumpedunculares, nadadeira anal ultrapassando a base dos raios inferiores da nadadeira caudal e presença de três manchas escuras ao longo da linha lateral. A nova espécie compartilha com L. parae e L. lacustris corpo alto, boca terminal, nadadeira anal longa e escura, três manchas escuras na linha lateral pequenas, sendo as duas últimas, em especial a última, geralmente apagadas, e preferência por habitats lênticos. Além disso, são feitos comentários sobre a taxonomia e a distribuição de L. parae e L. lacustris.

  5. ASPECTOS ECOLÓGICOS Y DISTRIBUCION GEOGRÁFICA DE CARRANGENOPHYTAS / CARRAGENOPHYTAS ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARGARITA DEL R., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ; RAÚL A., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies carragenófitas están definidas como macroalgas miembro del Phylum Rodophyta, Clase Rodophyceae, Subclase Florideophycidae, Orden Gigartinales. Las especies de mayor importancia comercial a nivel internacional son de los géneros Betaphycus, Eucheuma y Kappaphycus; y a nivel nacional espe [...] cies de los géneros Gigartina, Mazzaella y Sarcothalia. Debido a su importancia comercial, el género Gigartina, ha sido objeto de investigaciones como: Ecología de las poblaciones de las costas estuarinas y abiertas de la especie del noreste del Atlántico; ha sido investigado por Mathieson y Tveter (1976) con relación a las cantidades y calidad de su carragenina. Estudios de las respuestas a fotoperíodos (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) han identificado "ventanas" reproductivas, sugiriendo que las explicaciones de multiplicación vegetativa son cada vez más exclusivas, a diferencia de la producción y gametangial o tetrasporangial, en las poblaciones de las altas latitudes de una especie europea generalizada. La determinación genética de los patrones de ramificación y límites de tolerancia a la temperatura se han establecido para varias especies de (Guiry et al., 1987.; Buschmann, 2001). La viabilidad del cultivo de especies en sustratos artificiales ha sido evaluada por Mumford y Waaland (1980), y demostró tener potencial comercial. Este género tiene distribución en todo el mundo en mares templados a fríos, sin embargo, muy pocas especies ocurren en las regiones subtropicales. Los centros de diversidad de especies particularmente rica son California, Japón, Nueva Zelanda, Chile y Sudáfrica (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011). Abstract in english The carragenophytas species are defined as macro-algae, members of the Phylum Rodophyta, Rodophyceae Class, Florideophycidae Subclass, Gigartinales Order. The most important commercial species at the international level are the Betaphycus, Eucheuma and Kappaphycus genera and at the national level th [...] e species belonging to the Gigartina, Mazzaella and Sarcothalia genera. Because of its commercial importance, the Gigartina genus has been the object of investigations such as: Ecology of populations in estuaries and open coast in the North-East Atlantic species; it has been studied by Mathieson and Tveter (1976) in relation with its carragenine quantity and quality. Studies about the response to photoperiods (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) have identified reproductive "windows" suggesting that the explanations for vegetative multiplication are more exclusive each time, different from gametangial or tetra-sporangial production in populations of high latitudes from a generalized European species. Genetic determination of ramification patterns and tolerance limits to temperature has been established for several species (Guiry et al., 1987; Buschmann, 2001). Species cultivation viability in artificial substrates has been evaluated by Mumford y Waaland (1980), and it showed commercial potential. This genus has distribution worldwide in warm and cold seas. However, very few species happen in subtropical regions. The particularly rich species biodiversity centers are California, Japan, New Zealand, Chile y South Africa (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011).

  6. The microbial diversity, distribution, and ecology of permafrost in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Tian; Cheng, Guodong; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2015-07-01

    Permafrost in China mainly located in high-altitude areas. It represents a unique and suitable ecological niche that can be colonized by abundant microbes. Permafrost microbial community varies across geographically separated locations in China, and some lineages are novel and possible endemic. Besides, Chinese permafrost is a reservoir of functional microbial groups involved in key biogeochemical cycling processes. In future, more work is necessary to determine if these phylogenetic groups detected by DNA-based methods are part of the viable microbial community, and their functional roles and how they potentially respond to climate change. This review summaries recent studies describing microbial biodiversity found in permafrost and associated environments in China, and provides a framework for better understanding the microbial ecology of permafrost. PMID:25925876

  7. Evaluating a Bayesian approach to improve accuracy of individual photographic identification methods using ecological distribution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stafford

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Photographic identification of individual organisms can be possible from natural body markings. Data from photo-ID can be used to estimate important ecological and conservation metrics such as population sizes, home ranges or territories. However, poor quality photographs or less well-studied individuals can result in a non-unique ID, potentially confounding several similar looking individuals. Here we present a Bayesian approach that uses known data about previous sightings of individuals at specific sites as priors to help assess the problems of obtaining a non-unique ID. Using a simulation of individuals with different confidence of correct ID we evaluate the accuracy of Bayesian modified (posterior probabilities. However, in most cases, the accuracy of identification decreases. Although this technique is unsuccessful, it does demonstrate the importance of computer simulations in testing such hypotheses in ecology.

  8. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó, Matias P. J.; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2013-01-01

    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the ...

  9. The distribution of Wolbachia in fig wasps: correlations with host phylogeny, ecology and population structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, D. DeWayne; Machado, Carlos A; Molbo, Drude; Werren, John H.; Windsor, Donald M.; Herre, Edward Allen

    2002-01-01

    We surveyed for the presence and identity of Wolbachia in 44 species of chalcid wasps associated with 18 species of Panamanian figs. We used existing detailed knowledge of the population structures of the host wasps, as well as the ecological and evolutionary relationships among them, to explore the relevance of each of these factors to Wolbachia prevalence and mode of transmission. Fifty-nine per cent of these wasp species have Wolbachia infections, the highest proportion reported for any gr...

  10. Ecology and Distribution of Thaumarchaea in the Deep Hypolimnion of Lake Maggiore

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Coci; Nina Odermatt; Salcher, Michaela M.; Jakob Pernthaler; Gianluca Corno

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) play an important role in the oxidation of ammonia in terrestrial, marine, and geothermal habitats, as confirmed by a number of studies specifically focused on those environments. Much less is known about the ecological role of AOA in freshwaters. In order to reach a high resolution at the Thaumarchaea community level, the probe MGI-535 was specifically designed for this study and applied to fluorescence in situ hybridization and catalyzed reporter deposition (...

  11. Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Kooch; H. Jalilvand M.A. Bahmanyar; M.R. Pormajidian

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran). Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way ind...

  12. Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JARLE W BJERKE

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile, Islas Juan Fernández y en regiones costeras al sur de los 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica y M. tenuis son más frecuentes en las zonas más australes de Chile; también se han encontrado en hábitats de altura y bajas latitudes. Se incluyen, además, M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens y M. wandae. Varias especies sorediosas crecen como pioneras en sustratos jóvenes. Los patrones de distribución a lo largo de gradientes de humedad y de luz son variables. Se presentan mapas de distribución y clave de las especies.

  13. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdallah M., Samy; Lindsay P., Campbell; A. Townsend, Peterson.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinati [...] onal military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity) can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major), suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major) were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

  14. An appraisal of ecological distribution of herbaceous flora at changa manga park lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest ground flora plays a vital role in cycling of nutrients, habitat preservation and rejuvenation of shrubs. The vegetation consociated with the forest plays a vital role in the protection, function of the forest ecosystem. Effective management of forest vegetation serves the forest ecosystem in assaying the balance of harmful effects of vying vegetation. Relationship of ecology between environment and vegetation and their ordination techniques and classification methods has become vital means in the research field vegetation ecology. Classification depends on the abundances of ground vegetation species. Multivariate technique is an important technique in ecology and biology for the group prediction. Classification of different plant communities had been accomplished by carrying out TWINSPAN analysis using PC-ORD. The results were shown in a two-way cluster dendrogram. A dendrogram is a hierarchical representation of species in graphical form. The encompassing survey has been conducted in the Changa Manga Forest (CMF) which resulted in the identification of the 45 species belonging to 24 families from all over the forest area. The TWINSPAN results of CMF ascertained the following dominant species in all of the four zones, Cynadon dactylon, Malvestrum cormendalianum, Oxalis corniculata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Desmostachya bipinnata. (author)

  15. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M. Samy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinational military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major, suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

  16. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. Final report, 1 September 1988--30 June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

  17. Investigations of some elements distribution in dental tissues by INAA as a function of ecological and some other parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of some elements (Hg, Zn, Sb, Co and Sc) in dental tissues (enamel, dentine, pulp) has been investiaated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Teeth samples were taken from patients living in different regions (mine and mineralized areas, plain), taking into account the following parameters: ecological conditions, age of patients, stomatological operations and use of local cosmetic preparations containig mercury. Samples of vegetation (beech, moss, pine) from two locations belonging to regions of mineralized areas also were analyzed. Results of our investigations are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Ecological Distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl). A. Gray-A New Exotic Weed in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Chukwuka; S. Ogunyemi; I. Fawole

    2007-01-01

    Ecological distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl). A. Gray was studied in six states of the southwestern Nigeria using three locations in each of the States. The presence of T. diversifolia was recorded in all the States and locations surveyed in varying numbers with associated weeds. Survey data were analysed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). The first two ordination axes of the DCA accounted for 67.2% (Axis 1, 40.6%; Axis 2, 26.6%) of variance on the site and species com...

  19. Development and validation of a taxonomy of adverse handover events in hospital settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Boje; Siemsen, Inger Margrete D.; Petersen, Lene Funck; Nielsen, Jacob; Østergaard, Doris

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a taxonomy to classify and support the analysis of adverse events related to patient handovers in hospital settings. A taxonomy was established using descriptions of handover events extracted from incident reports, interviews and root cause analysis reports. The inter......-rater reliability and distribution of types of handover failures and causal factors. The taxonomy contains five types of failures and seven types of main causal factors. The taxonomy was validated against 432 adverse handover event descriptions contained in incident reports (stratified random sample from the Danish...... Patient Safety Database, 200 events) and 47 interviews with staff conducted at a large hospital in the Capital Region (232 events). The most prevalent causes of adverse events are inadequate competence (30 %), inadequate infrastructure (22 %) and busy ward (18 %). Inter-rater reliability (kappa) was 0...

  20. The ecology and distribution of alcyonaceans at Mandapam (Palk Bay, Gulf of Mannar), South India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    New distribution records for 27 species of Alcyonaceans are given. These include major genera Sinularia (12 spp.), Lobophytum (7 spp.), Sarcophyton (6 spp.), Dampia (1 sp.) and Nephthya (1 sp.). The factors that influence the distribution of corals...

  1. Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Eshnan (seidlitzia Rosmarinus) Shrubs to Exploring Their Ecological Interactions in Drylands of Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Khosravi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the interactions of woody plants has been a major research topic of ecological investigations in arid ecosystems. Plant-plant interactions can shift from positive (facilitation) to negative (competition) depending on levels of environmental stress and determine the spatial pattern of plants. The spatial distribution analysis of plants via different summary statistics can reveal the interactions of plants and how they influence one another. An aggregated distribution indicates facilitative interactions among plants, while dispersion of species reflects their competition for scarce resources. This study was aimed to explore the intraspecific interactions of eshnan (Seidlitzia rosmarinus) shrubs in arid lands, central Iran, using different summary statistics (i.e., pair correlation function g(r), O-ring function O(r), nearest neighbour distribution function D(r), spherical contact distribution function Hs(r)). The observed pattern of shrubs showed significant spatial heterogeneity as compared to inhomogeneous Poisson process (?=0.05). The results of g(r) and O(r) revealed the significant aggregation of eshnan shrubs up to scale of 3 m (?=0.05). The results of D(r) and Hs(r) also showed that maximum distance to nearest shrub was 6 m and the distribution of the sizes of gaps was significantly different from random distribution up to this spatial scale. In general, it was concluded that there were positive interactions between eshnan shrubs at small scales and they were aggregated due to their intraspecific facilitation effects in the study area.

  2. Taxonomy of Bacteria Nodulating Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Rivas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the term “rhizobia” has come to be used for all the bacteria that are capable of nodulation and nitrogen fixation in association with legumes but the taxonomy of rhizobia has changed considerably over the last 30 year. Recently, several non- rhizobial species belonging to alpha and beta subgroup of Proteobacteria have been identified as nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts. Here we provide an overview of the history of the rhizobia and the widespread phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts.

  3. Taxonomy of difficulties in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, M. D.; Leclère, H; Bordage, G

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire combining qualitative and quantitative methods was used to compile a taxonomy of the difficulties experienced by general practitioners in their practices. Difficulties are grouped in 11 categories, ranging from clinical diagnosis to physicians' personal feelings. The taxonomy can be used as a guide for planning medical education or as a starting point for further research in general practice.

  4. 04101 Discussion -- A Taxonomy of Model Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Mens, Tom; CZARNECKI, Krzysztof; Gorp, Pieter Van

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of the discussions of a working group on model transformation of the Dagstuhl Seminar on Language Engineering for Model-Driven Software Development. The main contribution is a taxonomy of model transformation. This taxonomy can be used to help developers in deciding which model transformation approach is best suited to deal with a particular problem.

  5. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Matias P J; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-01-01

    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city-forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

  6. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Matias P. J.; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2013-01-01

    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city–forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

  7. Atherinella blackburni (Schultz, 1949) at Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, SP: ecological characterization and distribution on the Brazilian coast (Teleostei: Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, G M T; Gondolo, G F; Cunningham, P T M

    2008-05-01

    Atherinella blackburni is a silverside species whose occurrence on the Brazilian coast was not properly registered until recently. So far, records of its distribution along the Brazilian shore were limited to Itaparica Island, Bahia State, and Porto Inhaúma, Rio de Janeiro State. In a recent survey of the ichthyofauna of Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo State, 100 specimens of this species were collected, yielding a considerable source of information regarding its ecology and a new southern limit of its distribution. A detailed survey of an ichthyological collection revealed lots of this species from regions of the Brazilian Northeast, resulting in a northward expansion of the occurrence of A. blackburni in Brazilian waters. Besides the populations found on the Brazilian coast, the species also occurs discontinuously in the Atlantic coasts of Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela. Meristic and morphometric analysis showed overlapped values between Brazilian populations and the ones closer to the Caribbean. An ecological study of A. blackburni at Itamambuca Beach revealed that it is a predominantly diurnal species with preference for warm and salty waters, often occurring in sandy-bottom environments. It was more abundant in Summer and Winter, when individuals with smaller values of length and weight also occurred. PMID:18660958

  8. Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: An example for plants exposed to nickel in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenzin, Elena [Consorzio Venezia Ricerche, c/o VEGApark, Via della Liberta 5-12, 30175 Marghera-Venice (Italy)]. E-mail: semenzin.cvr@vegapark.ve.it; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M. [Wageningen University, Department of Environmental Science, Subdepartment of Soil Quality, PO Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: erwin.temminghoff@wur.nl; Marcomini, Antonio [Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Santa Marta - Dorsoduro 2137, 30121 Venice (Italy)]. E-mail: marcom@unive.it

    2007-07-15

    The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the 'free' nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account. - The use of bioavailability toxicity data can improve species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA)

  9. Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Horsfield, 1821 (Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae in the dry lowlands of Sri Lanka: distribution, ecology, and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilina N. de Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus is a globally threatened species of stork; in Sri Lanka, it is a scarce resident breeder, and the largest bird in the country, yet the population status and ecology of the species is poorly understood.  This study tracks the stork’s spatial distribution and habitat use within the island, along with aspects of its ecology.  Data was collected via field sampling and questionnaire surveys, over a period of five years across the lowlands of the country.  The bird was observed 184 times, with numbers per sighting ranging from 1–17 individuals.  The species’ distribution was restricted to dry lowlands (rainfall <2200mm, elevation <300m.  The bird showed preference for savannah/woody savannahs, dry mixed evergreen forests, permanent wetlands, and croplands, and was prominently found within protected areas.  Lesser Adjutants were generally solitary, except in the driest months of the year (i.e., August–September and March–April, which are probably the two breeding periods of the bird in Sri Lanka.  Except for an abandoned nest, no active nest was found.  Habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, agricultural intensification, and development projects were identified as potential threats faced by the species, which varied in magnitude across the country. 

  10. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  11. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Chirima

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. Conservation implications: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

  12. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Chirima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. Conservation implications: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

  13. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    George J., Chirima; Norman, Owen-Smith; Barend F.N., Erasmus.

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (á-LoCoH) method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate sp [...] ecies within the Kruger National Park (KNP) based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980-1993). We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

  14. Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, J J; Jiang, Jay J.; Conrath, David W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is a combined approach that inherits the edge-based approach of the edge counting scheme, which is then enhanced by the node-based approach of the information content calculation. When tested on a common data set of word pair similarity ratings, the proposed approach outperforms other computational models. It gives the highest correlation value (r = 0.828) with a benchmark based on human similarity judgements, whereas an upper bound (r = 0.885) is observed when human subjects replicate the same task.

  15. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests...

  16. taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Cei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaciones morfológicas previas sobre un gran número de especies permiten establecer una correspondencia entre la peculiaridad de los patrones sistemáticos de las escamas supraoculares de Squamata y la posición evolutiva de cada taxón considerado en los cladogramas propuestos por Estes et al. (1988. Aparte del significado biológico general de estos hallazgos, incluso para discutidas orientaciones taxonómicas, la lepidosis supraocular llega a refrendar una decisión sistemática con su evidencia. Así, en Iguania, la familia Leiosauridae, propuesta por Frost et al. (2001, aparece sostenida hasta en el detalle de su división en las subfamilias Leiosaurinae y Enyaliinae. Siempre en Iguania Pleurodonta se evidencian ejemplos como los inconfundibles patrones de escamas supraoculares de Opluridae, Leucocephalidae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae. A nivel específico la interdependencia en Iguanidae de los géneros Iguana, Cercosaura, Brachylophus, Conolophus, puede llevar a postular pretéritos acontecimientos paleogeográficos. También amerita énfasis la llamativa separación, según este criterio morfológico, entre Iguania y Scleroglossa, la uniforme lepidosis de centenares de Gekkota, o la excepcional fisonomía de Autarchoglossa, en sus ramas tan individualizadas de Scincomorpha (Lacertoidea; Teiioidea; Scincoidea o Anguimorpha.

  17. A Distributed Architecture for Sharing Ecological Data Sets with Access and Usage Control Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier; Granados, Joel Andres

    2014-01-01

    new insights, there are signicant barriers to the realization of this vision. One of the key challenge is to allow scientists to share their data widely while retaining some form of control over who accesses this data (access control) and more importantly how it is used (usage control). Access and...... usage control is necessary to enforce existing open data policies. We have proposed the vision of trusted cells: A decentralized infrastructure, based on secure hardware running on devices equipped with trusted execution environments at the edges of the Internet. We originally described the utilization...... ecological data sets with access and usage control guarantees. We rely on examples from terrestrial research and monitoring in the arctic in the context of the INTERACT project....

  18. Biological, ecological, conservation and legal information for all species and subspecies of Australian bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Duursma, Daisy E.; Ehmke, Glenn; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Stewart, Alistair; Szabo, Judit K.; Weston, Michael A.; Bennett, Simon; Crowley, Gabriel M.; Drynan, David; Dutson, Guy; Fitzherbert, Kate; Franklin, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a dataset of biological, ecological, conservation and legal information for every species and subspecies of Australian bird, 2056 taxa or populations in total. Version 1 contains 230 fields grouped under the following headings: Taxonomy & nomenclature, Phylogeny, Australian population status, Conservation status, Legal status, Distribution, Morphology, Habitat, Food, Behaviour, Breeding, Mobility and Climate metrics. It is envisaged that the dataset will be updated periodically with new data for existing fields and the addition of new fields. The dataset has already had, and will continue to have applications in Australian and international ornithology, especially those that require standard information for a large number of taxa.

  19. Ecological Land Units as Predictors of Forest Type and Bird Species Distributions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — When dealing with the factors that impact the distribution of organisms on the landscape, it is important to describe the scale of effects that influence their...

  20. Distribution and ecology of Biatoridium monasteriense J. Lahm ex Körb in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ?ubek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new site of Biatoridium monasteriense was discovered during a lichenological investigation in Bia?owie?a National Park. The paper presents information on the distribution of this species in Poland.

  1. Marten Ecology and Distribution on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Marten Martes americana were studied on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge from June 1986 through July 1988 to determine factors limiting their current distribution...

  2. Assessing spatial distribution, sources, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Nansi Lake, Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is conducted to investigate the spatial distribution, sources and ecological risk of seven heavy metals in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, Eastern China. A total of 29 samples were collected in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, and were analyzed for three nutrients (TN, TOC and TP), two major metals (Al and Fe), as well as seven trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Fe and Al were 14.41, 0.22, 71.10, 30.1, 0.048, 29.14, 90.2, 30,816 and 70,653 mg kg-1, respectively, and the mean contents of these metals were higher than the background values with the exception of Cu and Fe. The spatial distribution indicated that the contents of all seven heavy metals were characterized by relatively higher contents in the upper lake than the lower lake. The hotspots with high values of As, Cd and Hg were associated with the river mouths, and the hotspots of Pb were mainly located around the dam in the central part, while no significant associations were displayed between spatial distribution of Cr, Cu, Zn and the river mouths. The mean enrichment factor (EF) values of As, Cd, Hg and Pb were 2.03, 2.93, 3.21 and 2.18, respectively, showing their moderate enrichment, while Cr, Cu and Zn with mean EF values of 1.19, 0.89 and 1.01 were deficiency to minimal enrichment. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses suggested that PC1 controlled by Cr, Cu and Zn was a lithogenic component, and come from parent rocks leaching. PC2 including Cd and partially Hg represented the factor from industrial wastewater discharge. PC3 showed elevated loadings of As and partially Cd, and could be attributed to the agricultural practices. While PC4 including Pb and partially Hg, was dominated by coal combustion. The results of potential ecological risk suggested that sediment environment of Nansi Lake suffered from high ecological risk. (author)

  3. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Lambe, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  4. Peruvian Children's Folk Taxonomy of Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pizarro-Neyra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free listing was used to obtain names of marine animals from 234 Peruvian children with families involved in fishing activities. They live in the fishing towns of Vila-vila, Morro Sama and Ilo, located in Southern Peru. Fishes, birds and the category “other marine animal” were used for the classification of marine fauna by children. The group of 6-8 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 19.7 names per child, while the group of 9-11 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 25.7 names per child. Folk species of fish is the most frequently recorded category with a predominance of coastal species and with a mean frequency of 7.56 and 11.51 names per child for the groups of 6-8 year-olds and 9-11 year-olds, respectively. In contrast, bird names are less frequently recorded in the lists. Some bird and mollusc names have lexical under-differentiation at a generic level and apparently have lower cultural significance than fish. Children’s classification in different levels of organization is evidence of a folk biology. The folk taxonomy of marine animals could be influenced by the lesser cognitive development of younger children and the ecological salience of some species. Some species with coastal habitat exhibit a high dominance index of folk names. Cultural transmission of knowledge about birds could be failing due to the recent occupancy of the study sites by migratory people and the sexual division of work in the children’s families.

  5. Ecology and distribution of an invasive species Aster­lanceolatus willd. on wet habitats in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Aster lanceolatus occupies a significant position in the world and European lists of invasive species. Its spreading potential is a hazardous factor to the biodiversity in many countries. There are no relevant data on the wider proportion of this species in the area of Belgrade. The sites of Aster lanceolatus are annual or pioneer communities along the water courses, abandoned and neglected areas, forest margins, moist meadows. The study areas are located near a choice of water courses in Belgrade. The aim of the study was to assess the species ecology and population density, synecological interrelationships among the coenobionts of the communities in which it occurs, and also to map its the habitats. The study of population density was performed on the supplemented and partially modified 'CPS SKEW' form, applied in West European countries, by the principle of squares. The species was determined by standard floristic method, and the species location by GPS system. It was concluded that Aster lanceolatus was dominant and wild at all study sites. The individuals and populations are especially numerous on the river islands Ada Ciganlija and Veliko Ratno Ostrvo, along the stream Kumodršaki Potok and the Danube left bank, where the number of individuals per squares is above 1300 and the degree of coverage is 100%. Its spreading potential is conditioned by the species biology, and the expansiveness by climate changes, anthropogenic impacts and the competitive interrelationships.

  6. A Distributed Architecture for Sharing Ecological Data Sets with Access and Usage Control Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In our information-age, the necessary scientic exploration is mainly driven by mining new insights from many diverse data sets. While there is a consensus that a collaborative data infrastructure is needed to allow researchers in dierent domains to collaborate on the same data sets in order to get new insights, there are signicant barriers to the realization of this vision. One of the key challenge is to allow scientists to share their data widely while retaining some form of control over who accesses this data (access control) and more importantly how it is used (usage control). Access and usage control is necessary to enforce existing open data policies. We have proposed the vision of trusted cells: A decentralized infrastructure, based on secure hardware running on devices equipped with trusted execution environments at the edges of the Internet. We originally described the utilization of trusted cells for the management of personal data. We describe our vision and report on our progress towards the implementation of trusted cells on off-the-shelf hardware components. We show how trusted cells deployed in the field and throughout the community could make it possible to share ecological data sets with access and usage control guarantees. We rely on examples from terrestrial research and monitoring in the arctic in the context of the INTERACT project.

  7. Dynamic creation and distribution of flexible climate indices for ecological modeling and climate change impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terando, A. J.; Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.; Suftin, I.; Sibley, D.; Lewein, S.

    2011-12-01

    Assessing the potential impacts of climate change on human-environment systems increasingly requires unique and non-standard derivative climate model products that are specific to the research or adaptation question being addressed. In addition, the analysis often requires data at a finer-scale than what is available from raw climate model output; necessitating some form of downscaling to address the information needs of the scientist or decision-maker. Finally, the use of climate model ensembles is becoming a standard practice in order to better quantify projection uncertainty and to take advantage of the proliferation of multi-model climate experiments. However, obtaining these data is a time-consuming and potentially difficult process if the user is unfamiliar with the data standards or lacks the computing resources to store or retrieve large amounts of raw climate model output. In response the U.S. Geological Survey has developed a data portal to provide pre-calculated and dynamically-derived indices of temperature and precipitation projections. The initial dataset consists of threshold summaries and temporal statistics for an ensemble of statistically downscaled climate models. This web visualization and data access portal is based on the Geo Data Portal Data Integration Framework leveraging numerous open standards and software implementations. As a result of standards adherence, very little to no customization is required to incorporate additional datasets into the portal; thus allowing for the inclusion of a wide variety of climatological or ecological data for assessment and planning purposes.

  8. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  9. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from the Luan River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daolai; Liu, Jinqing; Jiang, Xuejun; Cao, Ke; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xunhua

    2016-01-15

    The distribution, sources and risk assessment of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of surface sediments in the Luan River Estuary, China, have been investigated in the research. The results indicated that the total concentrations of 16 PAHs in surface sediments of the Luan River Estuary ranged from 5.1 to 545.1ngg(-1)dw with a mean value of 120.8ngg(-1)dw, which is relatively low in comparison with other estuaries around the world. The PAHs in the study area were mainly originated from pyrogenic sources. Besides, PAHs may be contaminated by petrogenic PAHs as indicated by the selected ratios of PAHs, the 2-tailed Pearson correlation analysis and principal components analysis at different sites. The result of the ecological risk assessment shows little negative effect for most individual PAHs in surface sediments of the Luan River Estuary, China. PMID:26616744

  10. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha-1). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha-1). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

  11. Distribution and ecology of deep-water benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poag, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Bathyal and abyssal foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico are distributed among thirteen generic predominance facies. Five predominance facies nearly encircle the Gulf basin along the slope and rise; a sixth predominance facies blankets the Sigsbee Plain, and a seventh is restricted to the Mississippi Fan. The remaining eight predominance facies have more restricted distributions. The areal patterns of these predominance facies can be related chiefly to water mass and substrate characteristics; modifications are brought about by calcite dissolution, upwelling, and sill depth. Analysis of ancient generic predominance facies is useful in predicting relative paleobathymetry and other paleoenvironmental properties. ?? 1984.

  12. Ecological impacts of Al-Jalamid phosphate mining, Saudi Arabia: Soil elemental characterization and spatial distribution with INAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; García-Tenorio, R; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (P) industries will be one of the main industrial sectors in Saudi Arabia within the next few years. Al-Jalamid phosphate mine, which started operation a few years ago, is one of the biggest mining locations in the Middle East region. It is planned to mine 12 million tons run of mine ore per year (Mty) and produce about 4.5 Mty of phosphate concentrate for the next 20 years. Long term ecological impacts of phosphate mining activities on soil and groundwater should be investigated. The contaminated soil acts as a long term source of environmental contamination. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil areas located in the vicinity of the phosphate mining activities. A total of sixty eight surface and subsurface soil samples from 34 locations around Al-Jalamid phosphate mine have been collected. The elemental characterization of soil samples was achieved using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Pollution indices, geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution load (PLI) indices were calculated from some elements to evaluate the soil pollution. Until now, there is no existing pre-operational elemental characterization in soil to evaluate the foreseen ecological impacts of phosphate mining. Our results are the first to evaluate the present situation that will be the base for the future evaluations. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil and their relation to phosphate mining activities, and to better understand the behavior of different elements in soil in an arid environment. PMID:26629683

  13. Using Regional Distribution of Estuarine and Coastal Benthic Invertebrates to Calibrate Benthic Indices of Ecological Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biogeography of marine benthic macroinvertebrates of the U.S. Atlantic coast from Delaware Bay north to Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine, was studied to define physical-chemical factors affecting broad taxa distributions and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of ...

  14. New ecological mechanism of formation of spatial distribution of radionuclides in river ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioecological expeditions on the Yenissei river revealed 'spotty' distribution of radioisotopes in bottom sediments and along the coastline of the river. This work presents results of theoretical analysis of the formation mechanism of stable spatial non-uniformities of river ecosystem components by population interactions of 'predator-prey' type between the phytoplukton and zooplankton. 'Patchiness contrast' (i.e. the amplitude of the radionuclide spatial propagation wave in the water) for the large oscillations control by increasing or decreasing current velocity depends both on the boundary concentrations of phytoplankton and zooplankton and on the established nature of their interpopulation interactions (or coefficients of interactions). Variation of the below given interaction parameters within the 'phytoplanbon-zooplankton' system makes increase the amplitude of spatial distribution wave: decrease of algal growth rate; increase of algal death rate; decrease of zooplankton death rate; increase of interaction coefficients. It was shown for small oscillations that the period of component distribution waves is in proportion to the current velocity and the amplitude of 'small' waves does not depend on the water current velocity. Theoretically it has been also found that with deep limitation of phytoplankton growth by biogenous elements the 'standing wave' is observed to deteriorate and monotonous distribution of radionuclide concentration fields is found to form. (author)

  15. A psychologically-based taxonomy of misdirection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gustav; Caffaratti, Hugo A; Teszka, Robert; Rensink, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Magicians use misdirection to prevent you from realizing the methods used to create a magical effect, thereby allowing you to experience an apparently impossible event. Magicians have acquired much knowledge about misdirection, and have suggested several taxonomies of misdirection. These describe many of the fundamental principles in misdirection, focusing on how misdirection is achieved by magicians. In this article we review the strengths and weaknesses of past taxonomies, and argue that a more natural way of making sense of misdirection is to focus on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms involved. Our psychologically-based taxonomy has three basic categories, corresponding to the types of psychological mechanisms affected: perception, memory, and reasoning. Each of these categories is then divided into subcategories based on the mechanisms that control these effects. This new taxonomy can help organize magicians' knowledge of misdirection in a meaningful way, and facilitate the dialog between magicians and scientists. PMID:25538648

  16. Morphology and Taxonomy of Gypseous Soils In San Luis Potosí State, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Vera, Víctor M.; Martínez-Montoya, Juan F.; Herrero Isern, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The gypseous soils of Mexico have been studied only from an ecological perspective; thus, the information regarding their physical, chemical, micromorphological, and mineralogical characteristics is insufficient. There are missing data on the classification, which is of questionable quality and can be considered only as tentative. The few data regarding the taxonomy of these soils are obsolete because of the significant progress of this subject occurred on recent years. Thus, we g...

  17. Using viral taxonomy as an encryption technique

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Samreen

    2015-01-01

    Several taxonomy schemes for viruses have been presented from 1961to date by ICTV (International Committee on Taxonomy of Virus) . The basic considerations in defining distinguished virus order, families and genera are genome, replication strategy and structure. Usually the advance biotechnology is been applied for health sciences and agricultural developments. In the communication science and technology the term biotechnology is found to be very rare or may be not at all. Since nature is ver...

  18. A Taxonomy of Hyperlink Hiding Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Guang-Gang; Yang, Xiu-Tao; Wang, Wei; Meng, Chi-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hidden links are designed solely for search engines rather than visitors. To get high search engine rankings, link hiding techniques are usually used for the profitability of black industries, such as illicit game servers, false medical services, illegal gambling, and less attractive high-profit industry, etc. This paper investigates hyperlink hiding techniques on the Web, and gives a detailed taxonomy. We believe the taxonomy can help develop appropriate countermeasures. St...

  19. A psychologically-based taxonomy of misdirection

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Gustav; Caffaratti, Hugo A.; Teszka, Robert; Rensink, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Magicians use misdirection to prevent you from realizing the methods used to create a magical effect, thereby allowing you to experience an apparently impossible event. Magicians have acquired much knowledge about misdirection, and have suggested several taxonomies of misdirection. These describe many of the fundamental principles in misdirection, focusing on how misdirection is achieved by magicians. In this article we review the strengths and weaknesses of past taxonomies, and argue that a ...

  20. A Taxonomy for Radio Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Location Fingerprinting (LF) is a promising location technique for many awareness applications in pervasive computing. However, as research on LF systems goes beyond basic methods there is an increasing need for better comparison of proposed LF systems. Developers of LF systems are also lacking good frameworks for understanding different options when building LF systems. This paper proposes a taxonomy to address both of these problems. The proposed taxonomy has been constructed from a literature...

  1. Allopatric distribution, ecology and conservation status of the Pilosella alpicola group (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Šingliarová, Barbora; Šuvada, Róbert; MráZ, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The Pilosella alpicola group comprises four morphologically distinct and geographically vicariant alpine taxa. We performed a thorough herbarium revision and literature survey to infer their distributional pattern(s). Pilosella alpicola s.s. occurs in the Alps in two disjunct areas: the Swiss Valais Alps and the Italian Dolomites. Historical records come also from the Austrian Alps (Gurktaler Alps and Hohe Tauern) and from one site from the Alpes Maritimes (Col de Larche), but the localities ...

  2. Ecological and technological factors influencing the distribution of toxin producing micromycetes on oats and their products

    OpenAIRE

    Lugauskas, Albinas; Levinskait?, Loreta; Ma?kinait?, Rimut?; Vita RAUDONIEN?; Railien?, Marija; Raila, Algirdas

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with investigation of micromycetes detected on oats grown for food and fodder under climatic conditions of Lithuania. Attention is focused on the oat varieties that are popular in Lithuania and whose grain is used for producing oat flakes and other products. The distribution of micromycetes spread on oats grown in various regions of Lithuania was investigated in 2003–2005. During the study period, fungi of Alternaria, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Drechslera, Penicillium, Aspergil...

  3. Floristic analyses of the Corsican flora: distribution in ecological compartments (vegetation belts, habitats and substrates)

    OpenAIRE

    Schlüssel, André; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Gamisans, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes partial data published in the “Flora Corsica” in order to characterize the Corsican vascular flora. These analyses focus on different aspects of the flora such as species richness, taxonomic distribution, abundance and life-forms at different vegetation belts, habitats and substrates. The results are compared with other geographic regions, particularly from the European Mediterranean and adjacent areas. The decrease of species richness with an increase of altitude as wel...

  4. Seed ecology of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi, two invasive species with different distributions in Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Perglová, Irena; Gudžinskas, Z.

    Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 157-169 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0323 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Seed Bank * germination * distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Chile / Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado) en Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JARLE W, BJERKE; ARVE, ELVEBAKK; WANDA, QUILHOT.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten [...] los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina). Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile), Islas Juan Fernández y en regiones costeras al sur de los 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica y M. tenuis son más frecuentes en las zonas más australes de Chile; también se han encontrado en hábitats de altura y bajas latitudes. Se incluyen, además, M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens y M. wandae. Varias especies sorediosas crecen como pioneras en sustratos jóvenes. Los patrones de distribución a lo largo de gradientes de humedad y de luz son variables. Se presentan mapas de distribución y clave de las especies. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ec [...] ology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina). Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile) and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.

  6. Distribution and ecology of meningeal worm, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (Nematoda), in northcentral North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasel, Shawn M; Samuel, W M; Crichton, Vince

    2003-04-01

    Meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), a common nematode parasite in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pathogenic for several species of ungulates in eastern North America, is not known to occur in the west. Heads of 1,902 white-tailed deer were examined for adult meningeal worm to determine geographic distribution of the parasite in Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Canada) and North Dakota (USA). Finding the parasite in a deer in eastern Saskatchewan near the Manitoba border established the current northern and western limits in Canada. Prevalence of infection was deer occurred throughout southern Manitoba and eastern North Dakota. Distribution appears to have changed little since the last published survey for P. tenuis in the region in 1972. We examined precipitation, temperature, deer density, and forest cover as likely correlates to prevalence and distribution of P. tenuis. Deer management units used for hunting purposes were the scale of analysis in the three jurisdictions. Presence of P. tenuis was positively correlated with precipitation during frost-free periods and deer density, and it was negatively correlated with winter and spring temperatures. Landscapes with > 25 and deer. Low rainfall and low density of white-tailed deer likely influence the westernmost limit of P. tenuis. PMID:12910761

  7. Taxonomy and fossils: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forey, Peter L; Fortey, Richard A; Kenrick, Paul; Smith, Andrew B

    2004-04-29

    Many compendia at the species, genus and family levels document the fossil record, but these are not standardized, nor usually critical in content, and few are available on the World Wide Web. The sampling of the available record is good for organisms with fossilizable parts, but preservational constraints on the entire morphology, life history and geographical distribution lead to difficulties in recognizing and naming species. We recommend abandoning some of the palaeontological species concepts such as chronospecies and stratospecies, and we advocate species recognition based on unique combinations of characters. The compilation of species lists is extremely time consuming, and given the inherent problems we suggest that compilation of generic lists is a more achievable goal because genera are recognized by definitive morphological characters. In calculating taxon duration, care must be taken to distinguish between mono-, para- and polyphyletic groups, the first being the only reliable unit for use in calculating diversity curves. We support the inclusion of fossils into classifications based on Recent organisms, but we recognize some of the problems this may pose for standard Linnaean classifications. Web-based taxonomy is the way forward, having the advantages of speed and currency of information dissemination, universal access with links to primary literature and increasingly sophisticated imagery. These advantages over conventional outlets will only be realized with careful Web design and a commitment to maintenance. PMID:15253350

  8. Tephritid taxonomy into the 21st century - Research opportunities and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We write with the firm conviction that taxonomic research forms the essential foundation for all other areas of investigation within the field of biology. This has been well demonstrated in the Tephritidae and is a position at which we have arrived through many years' experience in fruit fly systematic research covering taxonomy, behaviour, biology, ecology and pest control. The importance of sound taxonomic research is highlighted at this time by the known presence of many sibling species complexes across the family. Within the Dacinae, for example, major pest species often occur within groups of closely related species, most of which are not pests. The dorsalis complex of Southeast Asia and the musae complex of Papua New Guinea are examples. Tephritid taxonomy has a long history (over two centuries) and rich heritage with some 4,500 species having been described since the mid-1700s. This research has been carried out in major research centres around the world and particularly in Australia, Europe, Hawaii, mainland USA and South Africa. In Mexico in February 1998, a significant meeting was held on the biology/behaviour and taxonomy of Tephritidae. Specialist researchers in this area presented valuable and interesting data on 'Phylogeny and Evolution of Behaviour' in fruit flies. In summarising current knowledge on the taxonomy and biology of the Tephritidae, the meeting highlighted the outstanding achievements of taxonomy in its contributions to both basic research and pest management programmes over many decades of tephritid studies world-wide. This presentation provides a link between the meetings in Mexico and Penang and enables us to present a summary of our current knowledge and genuine valuable applications of tephritid taxonomy to the overall fruit fly research and pest management effort. In doing this, this presentation also fits into the theme of this conference in Penang, 'Fruit Flies- current global scenario'

  9. Taxonomy and origin of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer and caribou was probably the key species for the human immigration and colonization in the Arctic and sub-Arctic by the retreat of the ice in the last glacial period. The close connection between human and reindeer has contributed to great interest and variation in reindeer taxonomy and origin. Through the history several both species, subspecies and types of reindeer and caribou have been described. The early taxonomy of the species is marked by comparisons of individual specimen using traits as body size, skin colour or antler formations - characteristics known to be highly variable and subjected to environmental and nutritional level. During the mid 1900s the taxonomy was more based on variation of morphological traits among populations by analysing a large series of specimens representative of the various geographic populations and a consensus of classification of several subspecies, all belonging to the same species, evolved. During late 1900 the development of modern molecular techniques procured tools for revealing genetic structure of populations reflecting different origin and isolation rather than environmental influences. The genetic structure revealed a major genetic dichotomy between American woodland caribou on the one hand and all other types of reindeer and caribou on the other which gave evidence that the ancestors of present woodland caribou had survived and evolved in ice free refugium south to the glacier in North America and the ancestors of all other types of reindeer and caribou had evolved separated from these in refugium in Eurasia and Beringia. The ancestors of present reindeer in Scandinavia appear furthermore to have evolved from different populations separated during the last glaciation period and the colonization and origin of present wild and domestic reindeer will be discussed in this perspective.Taksonomi og opprinnelse til reinAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Rein og caribou har hatt stor betydning for det moderne menneskets utvikling og kolonisering av nordlige Eurasia og Amerika etter siste istid. Den nære sammenhengen mellom mennesker og rein har bidratt til stor interesse og variasjon i oppfatningen av reinens taksonomi og opprinnelse. Et utall av både arter, underarter og raser av rein er beskrevet opp gjennom historien. Tidlig taksonomi av rein bar preg av å være basert på enkeltobservasjoner og på morfologiske karakterer som kroppsstørrelse, pelsfarge og størrelse og form på gevir, karakterer som i stor grad påvirkes av miljø og næringsforhold. Først på midten av 1900 tallet ble taksonomien i større grad basert på ulike morfologiske trekk som viste variasjon mellom bestander av rein, og en fikk bl.a. en forståelse av at alle underarter og former av rein og caribou tilhørte samme art. Med utviklingen av den moderne molekylærbiologien på slutten av 1900-tallet fikk en tilgang til verktøy som avdekket genetiske strukturer som reflekterer ulik opprinnelse og utvikling mer enn miljømessig påvirkning. Den genetiske strukturen som ble avdekket, viste liten overensstemmelse med oppdelingen i underarter som var basert på morfologiske trekk. Molekylærgenetiske struktur viser et hovedskille mellom amerikansk woodland caribou på den ene siden og all annen rein og caribou på den andre siden, noe som reflekterer at forfedrene til woodland caribou levde og utviklet seg i isfrie områder sør for iskanten i Nord-Amerika, mens forfedrene til andre typer rein levde atskilt fra disse i isfrie områder i Eurasia og Beringia. Forfedrene til dagens rein i Fennoskandia syntes også å ha utviklet seg fra atskilte bestander av rein som kan føres tilbake til slutten av siste istid. Innvandring og opprinnelse til dagens vill- og tamrein i Fennoskandia vil bli belyst i dette perspektiv.

  10. Ecological Niche Modelling using satellite data for assessing distribution of threatened species Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Kulloli, R. N.; Tewari, J. C.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, A.

    2014-11-01

    Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. is a narrow endemic, tuberous twiner of Asclepiadaceae family. It is medicinally important: tubers are nutritive and edible, leaves are digestive and a cure for dysentery and diarrhea. Exploitation for its tubers and poor regeneration of this species has shrunk its distribution. In order to know its present status, we report here the results of its appraisal in Rajasthan, using remote sensing and ground truthing in the past five years (2009-14). A base map of C. bulbosa was prepared using Geographical Information System (GIS), open source software Quantum GIS, SAGA. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) +Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Satellite Data were used in this study. ASTER and GDEM Data was clipped with district boundary and provided color range to get elevation information. A digital elevation model of Rajasthan physiography was developed from ASTER GDEM of 30-m resolution. GIS layers of Area of occurrences for C. bulbosa plant and elevation were created. This map along with topographic sheets of 1:50000 were used for field traversing and ground truthing as per GPS location inferred from map. Its geographic distribution was assessed using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm that employed 12 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, and elevation data. Results of this modelling predicted occurrence of C. bulbosa in the districts of Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Pali, Ajmer, Jhalawar, Dungarpur, Banswara, Baran, Kota, Bundi and Chittorgarh. Ground validation in these districts revealed its presence only at four places in three districts confirming its rarity. Analysis of dominance at their sites of occurrence revealed their poor populations and sub dominant status (RIV = 20-32) and very low density (2-12 plants per tenth ha).

  11. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in R...

  12. Ecological studies in the bay of Paranaguá: I. horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico P. Brandini

    1985-01-01

    Five stations were sampled monthly in the Bay of Paranaguá during one year cycle (1983-1984) to measure basic environmental parameters, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis with the purpose of understanding the principal factors that regulate the phytoplankton growth and distribution throughout the year. Surface temperature varied from 17 to 30ºC. The yearly average values for salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH ranged from 9.38 to 32.00‰, 5.17 to 5.53 ml/l and 7.46 to 8.18, respectively. A...

  13. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

  14. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  15. Notas adicionais sobre a taxonomia e a distribuição geográfica dos gêneros Alchorneopsis Muell. Arg., Cleidion Blume e Polyandra Leal (Euphorbiaceae- Acalyphoideae) / Additional notes on taxonomy and geographic distribution of the genera Alchorneopsis Muell. Arg., Cleidion Blume and Polyandra Leal (Euphorbiaceae - Acalyphoideae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo de S., Secco.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta dados taxonômicos e de distribuição geográfica sobre os gêneros Alchorneopsis, Cleidion e Polyandra. Alchorneopsis é um gênero monotípico da América Central, Colômbia, Guianas, Peru e Brasil. Cleidion, com a maioria de suas espécies distribuídas na região paleotropical, apres [...] enta apenas três espécies na América Tropical. Polyandra, um gênero monotípico, é provavelmente endêmico da Amazônia brasileira. As relações taxonômicas dos gêneros estudados são discutidas e as espécies amazônicas ilustradas e comentadas. Abstract in english Complementary data are presented and discussed with regard to the taxonomy and geographic distribution of the genera Alchorneopsis, Cleidion and Polyandra. Alchorneopsis is a probably monotypic genus from Central América, Colômbia, Guiana, Peru and Brazil. Cleidion, with the majority of their 25 spe [...] cies in the paleotropics, has only three species in Tropical America. Polyandra, a monotypic genus, is probably endemic from Brazilian Amazonia. The taxonomic relations of the genera and species are discussed and the Amazonian species are illustrated.

  16. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (paborted during advanced gestation, enforcement of hygiene practices and mass vaccination. PMID:26100405

  17. Distribution, ecology and inhibition of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in relation to acid drainage from Witwatersrand gold mine dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in gold mine dumps and possible means for its inhibition were investigated. A literature survey of the micro-ecology of mine waste dumps in various parts of the world was undertaken. A linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), NANSA 80/S, and a cetyl pyridinium chloride, Ceepryn, were tested as possible inhibitors for mine dump application. The LAS was rejected because it is poorly soluble in water and required higher concentrations than SLS for the inhibition of T.ferrooxidans. Ceepryn was an efficient inhibitor, but its efficiency was dramatically impeded in the presence of mine dump sand making it unsuitable for application on dumps. The SLS and LAS were tested against a mixed population of T.ferrooxidans from gold mine dumps and these bacteria were shown to be marginally more resistant to the inhibitors than the pure T.ferrooxidans culture. Sampling from mine dumps on the Witwatersrand suggested that the major T.ferrooxidans populations occurred in the moist sand of the drainage areas at the base of dumps, with few viable iron-oxidising bacteria located on the surfaces or in the centre of dumps. Sites of low moisture in dumps contained few or no viable bacteria. In the laboratory the bacterial viability decreased rapidly with loss of moisture from the sand. Moisture was shown to be important to bacterial activity and should be considered with respect to acid drainage control. Experimental sand columns showed that iron was leached with water from mine dump sand in the absence and presence of bacteria. In this study substrates, moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide availability, ph, temperature, microorganisms and metal pollutants of uranium waste dumps are also covered

  18. Ecological factors related to the widespread distribution of sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador

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    Grijalva Mario J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chagas disease transmission risk is a function of the presence of triatomines in domestic habitats. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is one of the main vectors implicated in transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Ecuador. This triatomine species is present in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats in the country. To determine the distribution of sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis and the factors related to this distribution, triatomine searches were conducted between 2005 and 2009 in southern Ecuador. Methods Manual triatomine searches were conducted by skilled bug collectors in 23 communities. Sylvatic searched sites were selected by a directed sampling, where microhabitats were selected by the searchers and b random sampling, where sampling points where randomly generated. Domiciliary triatomine searches were conducted using the one man-hour method. Natural trypanosome infection was determined by microscopic examination and PCR. Generalized linear models were used to test the effect of environmental factors on the presence of sylvatic triatomines. Results In total, 1,923 sylvatic individuals were collected representing a sampling effort of 751 man-hours. Collected sylvatic triatomines were associated with mammal and bird nests. The 1,219 sampled nests presented an infestation index of 11.9%, a crowding of 13 bugs per infested nest, and a colonization of 80% of the nests. Triatomine abundance was significantly higher in squirrel (Sciurus stramineus nests located above five meters from ground level and close to the houses. In addition, 8.5% of the 820 examined houses in the same localities were infested with triatomines. There was a significant correlation between R. ecuadoriensis infestation rates found in sylvatic and synanthropic environments within communities (p = 0.012. Parasitological analysis revealed that 64.7% and 15.7% of the sylvatic bugs examined (n = 300 were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli respectively, and 8% of the bugs presented mixed infections. Conclusions The wide distribution of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations may jeopardize the effectiveness of control campaigns conducted to eliminate domestic populations of this species. Also, the high T. cruzi infection rates found in sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador could constitute a risk for house re-infestation and persistent long-term Chagas disease transmission in the region.

  19. The Distribution and Ecology of the Arctic Plant Iceland Purslane (Koenigia islandica in Scotland

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    Qasair Rashid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Koenigia islandica has a disjunct Arctic-sub Arctic circumpolar distribution extending southwards to several isolated mountain ranges of northern Europe, Asia and North America. The population of this plant on the Isle of Skye (at altitude 461-726 m and Isle of Mull at (385-523 m was the most Southerly in Europe and therefore the most vulnerable likely to exhibit the impact of climatic fluctuations on numbers and survivorship. Koenigia was also an annual, which made it particularly vulnerable to adverse conditions and exhibited large fluctuations in number and survivorship between years. Mapping the precise position of colonies of Koenigia on island of Mull and Skye was done by geographical positioning systems (GPS.

  20. Ecology of temperate salt-marsh fucoids. I. Occurrence and distribution of Ascophyllum nodosum ecads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkhuis, B.H.

    1976-03-15

    The distribution of several free-living Ascophyllum nodosum ecads, including scorpioides and mackii, in a temperate salt marsh is described. Morphological characterization of these ecads by the presence or absence of air bladders and reproductive receptacles, and size and shape of fronds, indicated that several free-living forms occur throughout the marsh. Plants resembling the ecad mackaii were more closely associated with exposed areas along the low-tide regions, while scorpioides-type ecads prevailed on the Spartina alterniflora-dominated marsh banks and flats in the middle and upper intertidal regions of the marsh. Maximum biomass of ecads occurred during the spring months in the absence of S. alterniflora, whereas minimum ecad biomass was associated with maximum S. alterniflora densities in the late summer and fall months. Morphological differentiation of dwarf-type ecads was related to environmental components other than exposure to low and/or fluctuating salinites.

  1. Ecological Features of Oyster Beds Distribution in Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf

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    J.A. Al-Khayat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present investigation were to study the feature of biotic environment of oyster beds and to study quantitatively the biodiversity of fauna and flora living within these habitats. Eighteen selected oyster beds, within the Exclusive Economic Zone of Qatar were investigated by scuba diving. Most of the oyster beds were found in the area with sandy-rocky and Coral blocks bottom forms. Pearl oysters abundance varied widely between the different beds and within the same beds due to the variations in the bottom substrates. The associated biota was composed mainly of Algae (4%, Porifera (3%, Cnidaria (8%, Polychaeta (4%, Echinodermata (13%, Mollusca (55%, Chordate (2% and Crustacean (11%. The comparison of our findings on the occurrence and distribution of marine biota to previous studies has shown similarities between Qatar and other Gulf States particularly Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

  2. [Resource and ecological distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi under pine forests of Huangshan Mountain district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Lixia; Liu, Birong

    2005-03-01

    Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis are the most common and important tree species in the Huangshan Mountain district, and ectomycorrhizae plays an important role in their forestation. Our investigations in 1998-2003 showed that under the pine forests of this district, there were 43 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 10 families and 17 genera, of which, 43 were under Pinus massoniana forest, and 12 under Pinus taiwanensis forest. Only a few species were found under young Pinus massoniana forest, with the dominant of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coken and Rhizopogon spp., but under mature Pinus massoniana forest, there were plentiful species, with the dominant of Russulaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae and Canthurellaceae. The relationships between woody species and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and between fungi distribution and temperature, moisture and soil condition were discussed in this paper, which would benefit to the further studies on the effects of different ectomyrrhizal fungi to Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis forests. PMID:15943356

  3. Distribution and ecology of marine turtles in waters off the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, T.H.; Hoffman, W.; McGehee, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine waters up to 222 km from shore in the Gulf of Mexico and nearby Atlantic Ocean suggest that marine turtles are largely distributed in waters less than 100 m in depth. The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) was observed nearly 50 times as often in waters off eastern and western Florida as in the western Gulf of Mexico. Loggerheads were present year round but the frequency of sightings in the winter months was lower than at other seasons. Green turtles (Chelonia rnydas) were infrequently observed but were most conspicuous in waters off eastern Florida. Kemp's ridleys (Lepidochelys kempi) were most frequently sighted off southwestern Florida and rarely observed in the western Gulf of Mexico. Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) were more conspicuous on the continental shelf than in adjacent deeper waters. A concentration of leatherback and loggerhead turtles occurred west of the Gulf Stream Current in August 1980, near Brevard County, Florida.

  4. Ecology of the fishes of the Norwegian Deep: Distribution and species assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstad, Odd Aksel

    An account based on hydroacoustic data and trawl surveys of the distributional patterns and species assemblages of the fishes inhabiting the Norwegian Deep and adjacent slopes is presented. The Norwegian Deep is the moderately deep (275 to 700 m) shelf channel extending from the Norwegian Sea into the North Sea and Skagerrak. The Norwegian Deep has a pelagic and demersal fish fauna which is rather different from the fauna in adjacent shallow areas. Blue whiting ( Micromesistius poutassou) and Maurolicu muelleri form a widely distributed and normally two-layered pelagic association. There appears to exist a rather sharp boundary at about the 200 m isobath between species assemblages of the Norwegian Deep and those of the shallow plateaus of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The fish fauna of deeper zones of the Skagerrak differs from the areas off western and southwestern Norway. The more conspicuous feature in the Skagerrak is the rather high abundance of greater argentine ( Argentina silus) and roundnose grenadier ( Coryphaenoides rupestris) at depths greater than 300 m. The species assemblages of the Norwegian Deep resemble those found in the areas along the outer shelf of the Northeast Atlantic and the deep fjords of Norway. The western and southern slopes appear to be feeding and overwintering areas for some fish species from adjacent shallow areas, particularly populations of saithe ( Pollachius virens) and Norway pout ( Trisopterus esmarki). It is suggested that the Norwegian Deep, due to its characteristic bathymetry and the strong influence of Atlantic inflow, is colonized by mesopelagic and benthic species from the other shelf areas of the Northeast Atlantic. The shelf channel appears to be deep enough to allow outer shelf species temporary or permanent access to the inner shelf environment.

  5. Elevational distribution and ecology of small mammals on Africa's highest mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, William T; Rogers, Mary Anne; Kihaule, Philip M; Munissi, Maiko J

    2014-01-01

    Mt Kilimanjaro is Africa's highest mountain, and an icon for a country famous for its mammalian fauna. The distribution and abundance of small mammals on the mountain are poorly known. Here we document the distribution of shrews and rodents along an elevational gradient on the southeastern versant of Kilimanjaro. Five sites were sampled with elevational center points of 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500 and 4000 m, using a systematic methodology of standard traps and pitfall lines, to inventory the shrews and rodents of the slope. Sixteen species of mammal were recorded, including 6 shrew and 10 rodent species, and the greatest diversity of both was found at 3000 m, the elevational midpoint of the transect. No species previously unrecorded on Kilimanjaro were observed. Two genera of rodents that occur in nearby mountains (Hylomyscus and Beamys) were not recorded. Myosorex zinki, the only mammal endemic to Mt. Kilimanjaro, which previously was known by only a few specimens collected in the ericaceous or moorland habitat, was found in all but one (the lowest) of the sites sampled, and was one of the most widespread species of small mammal along the gradient. Two shrews (Crocidura allex and Sylvisorex granti) and one rodent (Dendromus insignis) were found throughout the entire transect, with Dendromus being observed at our highest trap point (4240 m). As in similar faunal surveys on other mountains of Tanzania, rainfall influenced the sample success of shrews, but not rodents. Trap success for rodents at 3500 m was notably low. This study contributes further justification for the conservation of the forest habitat of Mt. Kilimanjaro. PMID:25372387

  6. Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs...

  7. The taxobook principles and practices of building taxonomies

    CERN Document Server

    Hlava, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    This book outlines the basic principles of creation and maintenance of taxonomies and thesauri. It also provides step by step instructions for building a taxonomy or thesaurus and discusses the various ways to get started on a taxonomy construction project.Often, the first step is to get management and budgetary approval, so I start this book with a discussion of reasons to embark on the taxonomy journey. From there I move on to a discussion of metadata and how taxonomies and metadata are related, and then consider how, where, and why taxonomies are used.Information architecture has its corner

  8. The Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Tina Menor estuary (Cantabria, southern Bay of Biscay): Distribution and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Blanca; Pascual, Ana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, Julio; Martín-Rubio, Maite; Rofes, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Recent ostracods from the Tina Menor estuary (northern Spain, southern Bay of Biscay) have been analysed. Twenty-five species have been identified for the first time, 20 with living individuals during the sampling period. The most abundant species are Leptocythere castanea, Leptocythere porcellanea, Loxoconcha elliptica, Cytherois fischeri, and Hemicytherura hoskini, Leptocythere psammophila and Semicytherura aff. angulata. These species are grouped into four assemblages defining different environments: muddy inner estuary with euryhaline species (L. elliptica); middle estuary with silty sand flats and low marsh environments (L. castanea, L. porcellanea and C. fischeri); sandy outer estuary with marine characteristics (H. hoskini, S. aff. angulata, Leptocythere baltica and L. psammophila); and littoral to inner shelf environment (Caudites calceolatus, H. hoskini and Callistocythere murrayi). In the middle estuary, L. castanea also delimits sandy-silty low marshes, and L. porcellanea and C. fischeri the vegetated ecosystems. Multivariate analyses with the samples and species (cluster Q-type and detrended and canonical correspondence analysis) confirm that ostracod distribution in the Tina Menor estuary is controlled by sediment grain size and by the distance to the mouth of the estuary (associated to salinity). The geographical height in relation with mean tide levels (and therefore with emersion periods) also plays an important role in distribution. The results of this study confirm ostracod validity as tide-level markers due to the presence of C. fischeri below the MHWNT (mean high water neap tide), whereas L. castanea and L. porcellanea are present between the MHWNT and MHW (mean high water) levels. Ostracods can also indicate environmental changes due to human-influenced processes. Abundant individuals of L. elliptica in some areas of the middle estuary evidence discharges of lower-salinity water from a nearby fish farm. Ostracods from the marine shelf reach the inner estuary, but continental species are not provided by the rivers. The low river influence may be due to Nansa River flow regulation upstream, which hampers the transport of fluvial sediments, resulting in an increase in sand in the mudflat and low marshes, the latter fact confirmed by the numbers of L. castanea and L. porcellanea, much higher than in other estuaries in the southern Bay of Biscay.

  9. Semisupervised Learning Taxonomy-Aware Catalog Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Umavathi M.Sc1 , R.Tamil selvi M.Sc., M.Phil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Data integration is the major important task for online commercial portals and commerce search engine based applications. The data integration task faced by online commercial portals and e-commerce search engines are the integration of products coming from multiple providers to their product catalogs. Categorization of products from the data provides into the master taxonomy and whereas make use of the data provider taxonomy information becomes major problem. Overcome this problem we classify the products based on their textual based classifier and taxonomy-aware step that adjusts the results of a textual based classifier to ensure that products that are close together in the provider taxonomy remain close in the master taxonomy. In taxonomy aware calibration step the base classifier derives the parameters value by tuning the values. Existing base classifier step, still it becomes major problem identify candidate products for labeling the products, to overcome these problem we proposed a Semi supervised learning techniques to incrementally retrain the base classifier with elements chosen during the taxonomy-aware calibration step. Proposed system it categorizes the product based on their parameters choosen from calibration. Semi supervised learning algorithm involves a large amount of unlabeled product data with only a small number of labeled product data. Semisupervised based active learning method identifies the candidate products for labeling. Proposed system finds the each candidate parameter ࢏ࣂ and then find the optimal parameter ࢽ such that the improve the accuracy on the validation set is maximized. An experimental result shows that the Semi supervised learning algorithm that are efficient and thus applicable to the large data sets that are typical on the web.

  10. Distribution and ecology of pest fruit fly species in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies belong to the very diverse family Tephritidae, which consists of over 4,500 species distributed in most temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries. In Asia and the Pacific regions, most of the major pest species belong to two genera. Bactrocera and Dacus. Representatives of Ceratitis occur in southwest Western Australia and the Indian Ocean islands and Carpomya occur in the Indian sub-continent and in Mauritius and Reunion. In the Asian region, 180 species of Bactrocera and 30 species of Dacus have been recorded and in the Australasian and Oceanic region, there are 270 species of Bactrocera and 27 species of Dacus. The diversity of species progressively decreases as the plant/host diversity decreases from west in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea to east in the Polynesian Island countries. The major pest species in the Asian region belong to the dorsalis complex (B. carambolae, B. dorsalis, B. occipitalis, B. philippinensis, B. papayae and B. pyrifoliae) and include other species such as B. cucurbitae, B. zonata, B. latifrons, and others. In the Pacific region, Australia has 100 species of fruit flies. Many Pacific Island countries each have endemic species, several of which are major pests. The factors that impact on populations of fruit flies include host ranges, life cycles, mating and oviposition behavior, dispersal capacity, nutritional, moisture, temperature and light requirements, and competition within and between species. (author)

  11. Redox gradients in distribution systems influence water quality, corrosion, and microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Sheldon; Wang, Hong; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Simulated distribution systems (SDSs) defined the interplay between disinfectant type (free chlorine and chloramines), water age (1-10.2 days), and pipe material (PVC, iron and cement surfaces) on water chemistry, redox zones and infrastructure degradation. Redox gradients developed as a function of water age and pipe material affected the quality of water consumers would receive. Free chlorine was most stable in the presence of PVC while chloramine was most stable in the presence of cement. At a 3.6 day water age the residual in the chlorinated PVC SDS was more than 3.5 times higher than in the chlorinated iron or cement systems. In contrast, the residual in the chloraminated cement SDS was more than 10 times greater than in the chloraminated iron or PVC systems. Near the point of entry to the SDSs where disinfectant residuals were present, free chlorine tended to cause as much as 4 times more iron corrosion when compared to chloramines. Facultative denitrifying bacteria were ubiquitous, and caused complete loss of nitrogen at distal points in systems with iron, and these bacteria co-occurred with very severe pitting attack (1.6-1.9 mm/year) at high water age. PMID:25462724

  12. Progress of soil radionuclide distribution studies for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples from NS-201 were separated into fractions greater than or less than 10 mesh (2-mm dia.) for ease of analysis. Most of the 241Am was concentrated in the smaller fraction. Based on that observation, the larger material can be removed from the samples without seriously biasing resultant inventory estimates. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in NS-201 soils indicated that in many cases substantial amounts of radioactivity were located below the 0-5 cm depth. Inventory calculations should take this observation into account for more precise estimates. Comparison of analytical results from four laboratories and calibration of 241Am to /sup 239-240/Pu ratios revealed a strong bias of one laboratory. Using data from that laboratory could have biased inventory calculations and could have introduced an error of as much as a factor of 1.7. In anticipation of studies of cleanup and decontamination techniques, a proposal for evaluation of an old decontamination site at area 13 was made. The long-term effectiveness of the decontamination and the degree of environmental healing are factors that must be evaluated before large scale cleanup operations. 11 references, 14 figures, 13 tables

  13. Distribution and ecology of non-marine ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda from Friuli Venezia Giulia (NE Italy

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    Koen MARTENS

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available From August 1981 to July 2007, 200 inland water bodies were sampled to gather information on the Recent ostracod fauna of Friuli Venezia Giulia (NE Italy. A total of 320 samples were collected from surface, interstitial and ground waters. Whenever possible, ostracod identification was performed at species level based on the morphology of both valves and limbs. Seventy-four taxa in 30 genera belonging to 9 different families (Darwinulidae, Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Notodromadidae, Cyprididae, Limnocytheridae, Cytheridae, Leptocytheridae and Xestoleberididae were identified. The maximum number of taxa per site was seven. The most common species was Cypria ophthalmica (133 records, followed by Cyclocypris ovum (86 records, C. laevis (49 records, Cypridopsis vidua (40 records and Notodromas persica (28 records. Of particular relevance is the occurrence of six species new to Italy: Microdarwinula zimmeri, Penthesilenula brasiliensis, Fabaeformiscandona wegelini, Pseudocandona semicognita, Candonopsis scourfieldi, and C. mediosetosa. Scanning electron microscopy images of valves are provided for most of the described taxa. Geographical distribution of ostracods and their occurrence in relation to environmental variables were examined. The results of this study indicate that Friuli Venezia Giulia hosts a very diverse ostracod fauna, representing a significant proportion of all ostracod taxa known thus far from Italy.

  14. Ecological niche and geographic distribution of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Reduviidae: Triatominae): Evidence for niche differentiation among cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Arboleda, Sair; Dumonteil, Eric; Townsend Peterson, A

    2015-12-01

    The principal vector of Chagas disease in Central America, Triatoma dimidiata, shows considerable diversity of habitat, phenotype, and genotype across its geographic range (central Mexico to southern Ecuador), suggesting that it constitutes a complex of cryptic species. However, no consistent picture of the magnitude of ecological differentiation among populations of this complex has yet been developed. To assess ecological variation across the complex, we broadened the geographic coverage of phylogeographic data and analyses for the complex into Colombia and Mexico, with additional nuclear (ITS-2) and mitochondrial (ND4) DNA sequences. This information allowed us to describe distributions of previously documented clades in greater detail: Group I, from central Guatemala south to Ecuador; Group II, across Mexico south through the Yucatán Peninsula to Belize and northern Guatemala; and Group III, in northern Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatán Peninsula. Using ecological niche modeling, we assessed ecological niche differentiation among the groups using four hypotheses of accessible areas (M) across the distribution of the complex. Results indicated clear niche divergence of Group I from Group II: the speciation process thus appears to have involved genetic and ecological changes, suggesting divergence in populations in response to environmental conditions. PMID:26321302

  15. Regionalizing Aquatic Ecosystems Based on the River Subbasin Taxonomy Concept and Spatial Clustering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahu Zhao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed.

  16. Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the viewpoint of green space function and a great part of the role of urban green space is undertaken by private green spaces. “What effect do private greeneries located in residential areas have on the quality of citizens’ life or what kind of reality is asserted by their development and distribution pattern in the urban life of today’s modern society” were issues of less attention. Thus, considering the interconnection of green space production and distribution pattern (public and private with the rest of natural, social, economic and fabric conditions, the present research benefits from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a dependent variable which has been influenced by ecological, social, fabric and economic variables and has analyzed them to identify effective factors in Tehran inequality urban green space. The present article theoretically makes use of urban political ecology approach and is considered a correlational research. The required data have been prepared and analyzed by some types of software such as ArcGIS, ArcView, IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine, and SPSS. In conducting this research some techniques have been used such as; “Average Distance to Nearest Neighbor”, “Square Analysis”, “Correlational Analysis and Factor Analysis”. 2-Theoretical basis The present study is theoretically based on an urban political ecology approach. Urban components including green space from urban political ecological perspective are considered a kind of social production whose imagination and change are influenced by political economy, dominant pattern of public and private ownership in society (Heynen, Perkins and Roy, 2006: 3. The aforementioned perspective clearly states that urban material conditions which includes urban environment too are controlled and manipulated by the elite and city experts to serve their interests. This issue is conducive to make some of the urban social groups marginalized and deprived from natural riches and urban environmental artifacts. As a result, the quality of urban environment (physically and socially increases in some neighborhoods and decreases in others (Heynen, Kaika and Swyngedouw, 2006: 1-15. Since unequal greenery distribution with creating imbalanced ecological conditions often plays its role in a feedback cycle on environment quality and intensification of inequalities within urban life environment, the present study uses pattern of canopy distribution located in areas of residential uses (private and public to reveal social, economic and spatial inequalities in Tehran. 3- DiscussionThe results of this research in relation to Tehran city confirm the determining position of urban political ecology in forming distribution pattern and density of trees canopy located in areas of Tehran. This is a subject which is confirmed by studies conducted on urban green space (including public and private in the cities such as San Diego, Toronto (by Perkins, Heynen and Wilson 2004, Scobedo and colleagues 2005, Heynen, Perkins and Roy 2006 and Conway, Shakeel and Atallah 2011. Also, so far many researchers on the urban issues of Tehran city (such as Madanipoor 2005, Horkad 2009 have emphasized the conformity of natural topography over social topography in Tehran. The result f this attempt, while confirming aforementioned perspectives, indicated that the distribution pattern of canopy density in residential areas(private urban green space has a greater capability to portray social classifications and environmental quality and as a result spatial inequalities in Tehran city due to the fact that their production, distribution and density are performed in relation to different natural, social, economic and fabric-spatial factors.4- Conclusion The attained results from the analysis of canopy density dispersion in Tehran residential areas indicated that areas with thick and very thick tree-coverage density possess quite clustered patterns and geographically are almost conformed to the northern urban regions which have a more desirable environmental quality. Also, the areas with average density have an almost scattered pattern and geographically show more development in the northern half of Tehran. Areas with low density or without tree coverage at all have also scattered patterns. Nevertheless, with respect to the concentration of residential blocks without tree coverage, their spatial dispersion pattern have changed to quite scattered patterns which are geographically conformed to the areas with thick density population, problematic, old and low environmental quality tissues. According to the results obtained from Rotated Component Matrix of factor analysis, five main components which indicate spatial inequality in Tehran are: economical – ecological factors, settlement pattern of social classes and residential quality factors, structure quality and city texture, family density in residential units and density and centralization of population and contaminant uses.5- SuggestionsIn a society like Iran, whose almost 70 percent population are urban, it is vital to schedule justly to decrease social and economic inequalities and their bad functional outcomes in cities. This subject is of particular importance in relation to Tehran and its urban collection which accommodates 19 percent of the total country’s population and which plays an important role in political stability of Iran. After the victory of Islamic revolution the economic powers had fewer facilities to show luxurious and lavish styles and this was because they had a cultural and fair approach. As a result, the dimensions of social inequality are not much visible in the society. Therefore, with respect to difficulties of access to sources of documented information (such as families’ income and their financial and non- financial facilities, it is suggested to seriously pay attention to technology development in using variables and spatial indicators such as the use of Normalized Vegetarian Index (NDVI in the present article which has an interactive relationship with social and economic conditions to measure spatial inequality in cities and metropolises.Key words: Urban green space, urban political ecology, Spatial Inequality, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index.ReferencesBerg, Bruce F. (2007, New York City Politics: Governing Gotham, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey and London.Bernard H. (2009: Tehran – Alborze, Translated by Cyrus Sahami, Mohaghagh – Taraneh publication, Tehran, Iran. C. P. LO. (1997, Application of LandSat TM data for quality of life assessment in an urban environment, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems,Volume 21, Issues 3-4, May-July 1997, Pages 259-276, Available in: Chalabi, M. (2007, The Order Sociology, Naie publication, Tehran, Iran. Conway Tenley M, Tooba Shakeel, and Joanna Atallah (2011, Community groups and urban forestry activity: Drivers of uneven canopy cover? Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 101, Issue 4, 30 June 2011, Pages 321-329, Available in:Deghan h. (2007, Opportunities and challenges of education in the face of spatial disparities in information and communication technology, Journal of Education No 91: 125-163.Escobedo Francisco J.and etc. (2005, The socioeconomics and management of Santiago de Chile's public urban forests, Greening, Volume, 3 April 2006, Pages 105-114, Available in: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1618866705000543.pdf.Esri. (2004, ArcGIS 9: Geoprocessing Commands Quick Reference Guide, Printed in the United States of America.Farrid y. (2000, Epistemology and The foundation of Human Geography, publication by Islamic Azad University; Ahar unite, Ahar, IranFaryadi, Sh. and Taheri, Sh. (2009, Interconnections of Urban Green Spaces and Environmental Quality of Tehran, Int. J. Environ. Res., 3(2, Pages: 199-208, Spring 2009, ISSN: 1735-6865, Available in:www.sid.ir/en/VEWSSID/J_pdf/108220090205.pdfHataminejad H. (2001, City and Social Justice (Spatial Disparities in the neighborhoods city of Mashhad, A Thesis for the Degree of Phd in Geography and urban planning, Supervisor; Momeni Mostafa, Shahid Beheshti Univeristy, Tehran, Iran.Heynen Nik, Harold A. Perkins and Parama Roy. (2006, The Political Ecology of Uneven Urban Green Space, The Impact of Political Economy on Race and Ethnicity in Producing Environmental Inequality in Milwaukee, Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 42 N. 1: 3-25, September. 2006.Heynen, Nik, Maria Kaika and Erik Swyngedouw. (2006, In the Nature of Cities: Urban political ecology and the politics of urban metabolism first published by Routledge and Taylor & Francis Group, London and New York.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425797000886.pdf.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204611001034.pdf.Jalili, A, Khosravi E. (2009, A research in strategies for green space Development in Tehran master plan, Journal of Natural resource No 81, Winter : 176-185Jehadabkhizdari Company (Watershed Company. (2005, Environmental studies in Tehran Master Plan Volume 4, Tehran, Iran. Jensen Ryan, Jay Gatrell, Jim Boulton and Bruce Harper. (2004, Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems to Study Urban Quality of Life and Urban Forest Amenities, Ecology and Society, Vol. 9, No.5, Available in: http//www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss5/art5/ Kalantari k. (2008, Data Processing and Analysis in Socio-Economic Research using with SPSS Software, publication of Farhang Saba, Tehran, Iran.Kamali A. (2006, An Introduction to Sociology of Social Inequalities, Samat publication, Tehran, Iran.Lee J and David W. S. Wong. (2002, Statistical Analysis with ArcView GIS Translated by Mohamdreza Hosinnejad and Fereydoun ghadimi aroosmahaleh, publication of Iran University of Science & Technology.matakan A.A and etc. (2009, Measuring The quality of life places by using Multicriteria Metod in GIS (Case study: Tehran city, first year, No.4, winter: 1-20 Mousakazemi S.M and Akbari S. (2010, Aanalaysis of socio-environmental sustainability in Ilam city with emphasis on green spaces land uses, Journal of Iranian Geographical Association: eighth year, No.26: 135-149.Parivar P, Yavari A.R., Sotoude. (2008, A Landscape-based analysis of spatial distribution and dynamics of Tehran urban green spaces, Journal of environmental studies may 2008; 34(45:73-84.Piran Parviz. (2008, analysis of Sociological of Urban Housing in Iran in Proceedings of Social problems in Iran edited by Iranian Sociological Association, Agah publication, Tehran, Iran.Soltani, M. (2007, The urban Parks contemporary , with a focus on Tehran experience in transition of garden to park, Journal of Baqe Nazar, forth year, No8: 48-58Soltanzadeh H. (2003, From gardens to park, Iranian Journal of anthropology leter, Winter 2003; 1(4:91-113.Stevenson, D. (2009, Cities and urban Cultures, Rajab Panahi, Ahmad Pourahmad, publication by Architecture and Urban Development Research Center, Tehran.The Ministry of of Housing and Urban Development and Institution Urban Development plans of Tehran. (2007, The basic document of Strategic – structural plan of Tehran development, Tehran, Iran.United Nations Center Settlements. (2009, Cities in globalizing: global report on the human settlements, translated by Reza pourkharad and etc, publication by Research Planning center of Tehran. Zangiabadi A, Rakhshaninasab H.R. (2009, The statistical- spatial analysis of urban green spaces development indices (case study: Isfhan urban zones, Journal of Environmental Studies, April 2009; 35(49:105-116

  17. Distribution and ecology of Dormice (Myoxidae in Sicily: a preliminary account

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    Maurizio Sarà

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three dormouse species are recorded in Sicily: Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius and Eliomys quercinus. Their distribution is mapped according to the 10 x 10 km squares of the UTM grid. Data were collected until May 1993, mostly coming from pellet analysis, and direct records (vocalization listening, museum specimens, field observations, literature, etc.. The Fat dormouse (5.3% of 10 x 10 km squares and the Hazel dormouse (2.1% are mainly localized within deciduous wooded areas like the beech forests and the hazel groves mixed with oaks and chestnuts of Nebrodi and Madonie. The Fat dormouse is also present in south-eastern Sicily (Monti Iblei and on in Eolian island (Salina. The Garden dormouse shows the widest distribution (21.2%, ranging from sea level to the beech forests (1600 m a.s.1.. Dormice are rarely preyed upon by Owls in Sicily, generally forming less than 1.5% of the total prey, with the exception the Fat dormouse (5.3%. Other occasional predators, so far recorded, are the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes and the Lanner (Falco biarmicus. Hibernation regularly occurs at high altitudes, but seems to be absent or curtailed in the warm habitats below 500 m a.s.1. Riassunto Distribuzione ed ecologia dei Mioxidi in Sicilia: dati preliminari - Tre specie di Mioxidi vivono in Sicilia (Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus. Storicamente (1850 essi erano presenti nelle principali aree boscate (Nebrodi, Madonie, Etna, solo nella metà di questo secolo, il Ghiro ed il Quercino furono scoperti alle isole Eolie (Salina e Lipari. Si riporta la carta di distribuzione di ogni specie (griglia UTM, 100 kmq ricavata dall'analisi della dieta di predatori, osservazioni dirette, trappolamenti ed esemplari citati in bibliografia o conservati nei musei. Il Ghiro (5,3% ed il Moscardino (2,1% sono localizzati nei boschi decidui di querce e faggio e, più in basso di noccioli, querce e castagni dei Nebrodi, Peloritani e Madonie. Il Ghiro è presente anche sull'Etna ed in un'area meridionale della Sicilia (Iblei. Il Quercino mostra la distribuzione più ampia (21,2% ed è presente in una gran varietà di habitat dal livello del mare fino alle faggete delle Madonie. I Mioxidi in Sicilia risultano predati finora occasionalmente dalla Volpe e dal Lanario e raramente dal Barbagianni e dall'Allocco. Solo il Ghiro risulta predato regolarmente (5% dall'Allocco e risulta la preda più importante in termini di biomassa (47% nei boschi dell'Etna e dei Nebrodi. Il periodo di letargo, desunto da osservazioni dirette e dalle borre, sembrerebbe normale (autunno inoltrato-primavera alle alte quote e assente o molto ridotto e discontinuo sotto i 400 m.

  18. Incorporating color into integrative taxonomy: analysis of the varied tit (Sittiparus varius) complex in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Bailey D; Mays, Herman L; Yao, Cheng-Te; Wan, Dongmei; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Nishiumi, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Species designations are critically important scientific hypotheses that serve as the foundational units in a wide range of biological subdisciplines. A growing realization that some classes of data fail to delimit species under certain conditions has led to increasingly more integrative taxonomies, whereby species discovery and hypothesis testing are based on multiple kinds of data (e.g., morphological, molecular, behavioral, ecological, etc.). However, although most taxonomic descriptions have been based on morphology, some key morphological features, such as color, are rarely quantified and incorporated into integrative taxonomic studies. In this article, we applied a new method of ultraviolet digital photography to measure plumage variation in a color-variable avian species complex, the varied tit (Sittiparus varius). Plumage measurements corroborated species limits defined by morphometric, mitochondrial DNA, and nuclear DNA disjunctions and provided the only evidence for distinguishing two recently evolved species. Importantly, color quantification also provided a justification for lumping putative taxa with no evidence of evolutionary independence. Our revised taxonomy thus refines conservation units for listing and management and clarifies the primary units for evolutionary studies. Species tree analyses, which applied the newly delimited species as operational taxonomic units, revealed a robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the group that establishes a foundation for future biogeographic analyses. This study demonstrates how digital photography can be used to incorporate color character variation into integrative taxonomies, which should lead to more informed, more rigorous, and more accurate assessments of biodiversity. [Color, digital photography, integrative taxonomy, Sittiparus varius, species delimitation, varied tit.]. PMID:24603127

  19. Taxonomies of networks from community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Fenn, Daniel J.; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

    2012-09-01

    The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: They can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi.

  20. Development and validation of a taxonomy of adverse handover events in hospital settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Boje; Siemsen, Inger Margrete D.

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a taxonomy to classify and support the analysis of adverse events related to patient handovers in hospital settings. A taxonomy was established using descriptions of handover events extracted from incident reports, interviews and root cause analysis reports. The inter-rater reliability and distribution of types of handover failures and causal factors. The taxonomy contains five types of failures and seven types of main causal factors. The taxonomy was validated against 432 adverse handover event descriptions contained in incident reports (stratified random sample from the Danish Patient Safety Database, 200 events) and 47 interviews with staff conducted at a large hospital in the Capital Region (232 events). The most prevalent causes of adverse events are inadequate competence (30 %), inadequate infrastructure (22 %) and busy ward (18 %). Inter-rater reliability (kappa) was 0.76 and 0.87 for reports and interviews, respectively. Communication in clinical contexts has been widely recognized as giving rise to potentially hazardous events, and handover situations are particularly prone to failures of communication or unclear allocation of responsibility. The taxonomy provides a tool for analyzing adverse handover events to identify frequent causes among reported handover failures. In turn, this provides a basis for selecting safety measures including handover protocols and training programmes.

  1. Ecological studies in the bay of Paranaguá: I. horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton

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    Frederico P Brandini

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Five stations were sampled monthly in the Bay of Paranaguá during one year cycle (1983-1984 to measure basic environmental parameters, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis with the purpose of understanding the principal factors that regulate the phytoplankton growth and distribution throughout the year. Surface temperature varied from 17 to 30ºC. The yearly average values for salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH ranged from 9.38 to 32.00‰, 5.17 to 5.53 ml/l and 7.46 to 8.18, respectively. Average concentrations of total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate and silicate varied from 3.31 to 8.48, 0.38 to 0.97 and 27.68 to 98.36 µg-at/l, respectively, with increasing concentrations toward the inner bay. Chlorophyll-a at the surface varied between 2.86 and 13.99 mg/m³ with high concentrations in the inner bay associated with high nutrient contents and lower salinities. Low photosynthetic rates were measured at the surface, varying from 0.01 to 7.36 mgC/m³/h. Phytoflagellates and Skeletonema costatum dominated the phytoplankton population during the study period. The temporal fluctuations in the inner bay are associated with the rainfall regime. High amounts of precipitation increase the concentrations of nutrients and consequently improve the phytoplankton growth. This is however limited by nitrogen deficiency (as indicated by the low N to P ratios observed and turbidity.Foram feitas coletas mensais na Baia de Paranaguá (Paraná em 5 estações fixas durante um ano (1983-1984 para se medir parâmetros ambientais básicos, biomassa e fotossíntese do fitoplâncton durante um período sazonal. A temperatura na superfície variou de 17 a 30ºC. As médias anuais de salinidade, oxigênio dissolvido e pH variaram de 9,38-32,00‰, 5,17-5,53 ml/l e 7,468,18, respectivamente. As concentrações médias do nitrogênio inorgânico total, fosfato e silicato variaram de 3,31-8,48, 0,38-0,97 e 27,68-98,36 µg-at/l, respectivamente, com os máximos obtidos na parte mais interna da baia. A clorofila-a na superfície variou entre 2,86 e 13,99 mg/m³ com máximos na parte mais interna da baía associadas às altas concentrações de nutrientes e salinidades mais baixas. As taxas de fotossíntese obtidas na superfície variaram entre 0,01 e 7,36 mgC/m³/h, com máximos na região mais interna da baía. Fitoflagelados e Skeletonema costatum dominaram a populaçao fitoplanctonica durante o período estudado. As variações temporais no interior da baía foram associadas ao regime de chuvas. A alta pluviosidade aumenta a concentração de nutrientes e conseqüentemente, estimula o desenvolvimento do fitoplâncton que é, no entanto, limitado pela deficiência em nitrogênio e pela turbidez da água.

  2. Ecological studies in the Bay of Paranaguá: I. horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico P, Brandini.

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas mensais na Baia de Paranaguá (Paraná) em 5 estações fixas durante um ano (1983-1984) para se medir parâmetros ambientais básicos, biomassa e fotossíntese do fitoplâncton durante um período sazonal. A temperatura na superfície variou de 17 a 30ºC. As médias anuais de salinidade, [...] oxigênio dissolvido e pH variaram de 9,38-32,00‰, 5,17-5,53 ml/l e 7,468,18, respectivamente. As concentrações médias do nitrogênio inorgânico total, fosfato e silicato variaram de 3,31-8,48, 0,38-0,97 e 27,68-98,36 µg-at/l, respectivamente, com os máximos obtidos na parte mais interna da baia. A clorofila-a na superfície variou entre 2,86 e 13,99 mg/m³ com máximos na parte mais interna da baía associadas às altas concentrações de nutrientes e salinidades mais baixas. As taxas de fotossíntese obtidas na superfície variaram entre 0,01 e 7,36 mgC/m³/h, com máximos na região mais interna da baía. Fitoflagelados e Skeletonema costatum dominaram a populaçao fitoplanctonica durante o período estudado. As variações temporais no interior da baía foram associadas ao regime de chuvas. A alta pluviosidade aumenta a concentração de nutrientes e conseqüentemente, estimula o desenvolvimento do fitoplâncton que é, no entanto, limitado pela deficiência em nitrogênio e pela turbidez da água. Abstract in english Five stations were sampled monthly in the Bay of Paranaguá during one year cycle (1983-1984) to measure basic environmental parameters, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis with the purpose of understanding the principal factors that regulate the phytoplankton growth and distribution throughout [...] the year. Surface temperature varied from 17 to 30ºC. The yearly average values for salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH ranged from 9.38 to 32.00‰, 5.17 to 5.53 ml/l and 7.46 to 8.18, respectively. Average concentrations of total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate and silicate varied from 3.31 to 8.48, 0.38 to 0.97 and 27.68 to 98.36 µg-at/l, respectively, with increasing concentrations toward the inner bay. Chlorophyll-a at the surface varied between 2.86 and 13.99 mg/m³ with high concentrations in the inner bay associated with high nutrient contents and lower salinities. Low photosynthetic rates were measured at the surface, varying from 0.01 to 7.36 mgC/m³/h. Phytoflagellates and Skeletonema costatum dominated the phytoplankton population during the study period. The temporal fluctuations in the inner bay are associated with the rainfall regime. High amounts of precipitation increase the concentrations of nutrients and consequently improve the phytoplankton growth. This is however limited by nitrogen deficiency (as indicated by the low N to P ratios observed) and turbidity.

  3. Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in the microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, E.; Cohan, F.

    2011-01-01

    Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-µm vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to O2, pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O2 concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes.

  4. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domene, Xavier [Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF) and Unit of Ecology, Department of Animal and Plant Biology and Ecology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: x.domene@creaf.uab.es; Ramirez, Wilson; Mattana, Stefania; Alcaniz, Josep Maria; Andres, Pilar [Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF) and Unit of Ecology, Department of Animal and Plant Biology and Ecology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha{sup -1}). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha{sup -1}). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments.

  5. Comment - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image S earch Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... Comment Description of data contents Comments and images ... posted on icon entries through the Taxonomy Icon o ...

  6. DIVERSITY RESOURCES, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF HERMINIUM R. Br. A LESS KNOWN TERRESTRIAL ORCHID SPECIES OF DARJEELING HIMALAYA OF INDIA

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    Rajendra Yonzone1* D. Lama1, R. B. Bhujel2, Khyanjeet Gogoi3 and Samuel Rai4

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals botanical description with five Herminium viz., Herminium jaffreyanum, H. lanceum, H. mackinnonii, H. macrophyllum and H. quinquelobum terrestrial Orchid species diversity resources and distribution in Darjeeling Himalaya of India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with ecological status, voucher specimen numbers, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Herminium species in the regions. For the assessment of present ecological status, plot of 5mx5m quadrates was laid down diagonally in the field for terrestrial orchid species. Of them, three are sparse and the rest two are rare status in the region. June to October is the main flowering seasons of these species. It is found that the diversity and distribution frequency of Herminium species is rich and widespread throughout the Darjeeling Himalaya.

  7. Waiting for integrative taxonomy: Morphospecies as an operational proxy for the radiative and reticulate genus Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae?

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    Errol Véla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently published botanical floras provided an opportunity to develop operational systems for identifying in the field in France of species of the difficult genus Ophrys. Its specific and infra-specific taxonomy is extremely complex because of conflicting points of view and/or insufficient knowledge about specific biological features. In order to produce an identification key based on observable morphological criteria we developed a pragmatic taxonomy suitable for non-expert botanists, which includes “morphospecies” that are unambiguously identifiable based on a number of unique or a combination of diagnostic criteria and “subspecies” that are sets of populations sharing the same geographical and ecological adaptations but not distinctly differing morphologically. The taxonomic scheme reviewed here for the section Pseudophrys is well correlated with the floral chemical signatures of all the French taxa. This intermediate position, between splitters (mainly orchidologists and lumpers (mainly geneticists, will hopefully enable us to revise the taxonomy of this genus at the Euro- Mediterranean level.

  8. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy: implications and continuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Dijkers, Marcel; Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; M Zanca, Jeanne; Packel, Andrew; Tsaousides, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    In relation to the conceptual framework for a rehabilitation treatment taxonomy (RTT), which has been proposed in other articles in this supplement, this article discusses a number of issues relevant to its further development, including creating distinctions within the major target classes; the nature and quantity of allowable targets of treatment; and bracketing as a way of specifying (1) the skill or knowledge taught; (2) the nature of compensation afforded by changes in the environment, assistive technology, and orthotics/prosthetics; and (3) the ingredients in homework a clinician assigns. Clarification is provided regarding the role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, focusing a taxonomy on ingredients versus other observable aspects of treatment, and regarding our lack of knowledge and its impact on taxonomy development. Finally, this article discusses the immediate implications of the work to date and presents the need for rehabilitation stakeholders of all disciplines to be involved in further RTT development. PMID:24370324

  9. A task taxonomy for network evolution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-wook; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Visualization has proven to be a useful tool for understanding network structures. Yet the dynamic nature of social media networks requires powerful visualization techniques that go beyond static network diagrams. To provide strong temporal network visualization tools, designers need to understand what tasks the users have to accomplish. This paper describes a taxonomy of temporal network visualization tasks. We identify the 1) entities, 2) properties, and 3) temporal features, which were extracted by surveying 53 existing temporal network visualization systems. By building and examining the task taxonomy, we report which tasks are well covered by existing systems and make suggestions for designing future visualization tools. The feedback from 12 network analysts helped refine the taxonomy. PMID:24434218

  10. Taxonomy for Modeling Demand Response Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel; Kiliccote, Sila; Sohn, Michael; Dunn, Laura; Piette, Mary, A

    2014-08-01

    Demand response resources are an important component of modern grid management strategies. Accurate characterizations of DR resources are needed to develop systems of optimally managed grid operations and to plan future investments in generation, transmission, and distribution. The DOE Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study (DRESIS) project researched the degree to which demand response (DR) and energy storage can provide grid flexibility and stability in the Western Interconnection. In this work, DR resources were integrated with traditional generators in grid forecasting tools, specifically a production cost model of the Western Interconnection. As part of this study, LBNL developed a modeling framework for characterizing resource availability and response attributes of DR resources consistent with the governing architecture of the simulation modeling platform. In this report, we identify and describe the following response attributes required to accurately characterize DR resources: allowable response frequency, maximum response duration, minimum time needed to achieve load changes, necessary pre- or re-charging of integrated energy storage, costs of enablement, magnitude of controlled resources, and alignment of availability. We describe a framework for modeling these response attributes, and apply this framework to characterize 13 DR resources including residential, commercial, and industrial end-uses. We group these end-uses into three broad categories based on their response capabilities, and define a taxonomy for classifying DR resources within these categories. The three categories of resources exhibit different capabilities and differ in value to the grid. Results from the production cost model of the Western Interconnection illustrate that minor differences in resource attributes can have significant impact on grid utilization of DR resources. The implications of these findings will be explored in future DR valuation studies.

  11. Taxonomies of Educational Technology Uses: Dewey, Chip and Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Chip Bruce created a taxonomy of education technology uses, which the author of the article helped to expand and evaluate. This taxonomy is based on John Dewey's "four impulses of the child": inquiry, construction, communication, and expression. This taxonomy has helped people interested in the uses of…

  12. Taxonomies of Educational Technology Uses: Dewey, Chip and Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Chip Bruce created a taxonomy of education technology uses, which the author of the article helped to expand and evaluate. This taxonomy is based on John Dewey's "four impulses of the child": inquiry, construction, communication, and expression. This taxonomy has helped people interested in the uses of…

  13. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based on...... the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... cons) are created based on picture books and other materials . Data analysis method - Number of data entries 220 ...

  15. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  16. Teaching Gibb's Taxonomy of Defensiveness through Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    The topic of defensiveness resonates with students, who are generally eager to learn how to prevent it. Gibb's taxonomy of defensive/supportive behaviors is widely published and used today. According to Gibb, defensiveness occurs when a communicator puts substantial effort into defending him/herself from a perceived communicative threat. This…

  17. Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Hasman, Henrik; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Ussery, David; Lund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    ; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species...

  18. Capacity building in taxonomy and systematics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G F; Figueiredo, Estrela

    2009-01-01

    Needs-driven capacity building is required as a matter of urgency to overcome the present lack of taxonomists and systematists who are skilled in natural history and collections. This must necessarily include the training of the next generation of taxonomists, appropriate leadership for natural history collections and the involvement of practicing taxonomists to change the perception of taxonomy by decision-makers.

  19. Numerical ecology validates a biogeographical distribution and gender-based effect on mucosa-associated bacteria along the human colon

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; Cuív, Páraic Ó; Wang, Tingtin; Kang, Seungha; Worthley, Daniel; Whitehall, Vicki L.J.; Gordon, Iain; McSweeney, Christopher; Leggett, Barbara A.; Morrison, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We applied constrained ordination numerical ecology methods to data produced with a human intestinal tract-specific phylogenetic microarray (the Aus-HIT Chip) to examine the microbial diversity associated with matched biopsy tissue samples taken from the caecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 10 healthy patients. Consistent with previous studies, the profiles revealed a marked intersubject variability; however, the numerical ecology methods of analysis allowed the subtrac...

  20. Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in the microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, E.; Cohan, F.; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila Ingemann; Ward, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-µm vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of...

  1. Ecological and Geographical Analysis of the Distribution of the Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: Importance of Protected Areas in Future Scenarios of Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A.; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J.

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, th...

  2. Taxonomy of an endemic Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae from the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of an Iberian endemic Aristolochia is treated, based on morphological and cytological characters. A brief description of its main diagnostic characters, distribution and habitat is included, as well as a distribution map and a few comments on its possible phylogenetic relationships. A new combination is proposed, raising this taxon from subspecies to a species proper: A. castellana (Nardi Costa. A revised dichotomous key for the Iberian taxa of the genus is proposed.El presente trabajo trata la taxonomía de una Aristolochia endémica de la Península Ibérica, basándose en caracteres morfológicos y citológicos. Se incluye una breve descripción de los caracteres diagnósticos principales, de su distribución y hábitat, así como un mapa de su distribución y algunos comentarios sobre sus posibles relaciones filogenéticas. Se propone una nueva combinación, ascendiendo el taxon de subespecie a especie: A. castellana (Nardi Costa. Se propone una nueva clave dicotómica para los táxones del género presentes en la Península Ibérica.

  3. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  4. Ecological distribution and population structure of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthoidea) on the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vivian, Fransozo; Thiago Elias da, Silva; Patrícia Bianca, Fumis; Giovana, Bertini; Paloma Aparecida de, Lima.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram analisar a distribuição ecológica e a estrutura populacional de A. schmitti no litoral sudeste brasileiro. Os caranguejos foram coletados, mensalmente, de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999 nas enseadas: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) e Mar Virado (MV), onde também f [...] oram obtidas amostras de água e sedimento para análise dos fatores ambientais. A maior abundância de A. schmitti foi verificada em UBM (224), seguida por UBA (154) e MV (23) e não apresentou associação com os fatores ambientais analisados. O motivo da baixa abundância desses caranguejos em MV pode ser a alta ação de ondas que movimenta o material biodetrítico acumulado no fundo e, frequentemente, remove pequenos caranguejos de seus abrigos entre fragmentos de conchas. Os indivíduos foram 269 machos e 132 fêmeas, das quais apenas 4 eram ovígeras. O recrutamento juvenil ocorreu o ano todo, sendo menos intenso na primavera. A maior abundância de indivíduos, bem como as fêmeas ovígeras, ocorreu em 1999, quando a entrada da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS) foi mais intensa do que no ano anterior. Esta influência ambiental pode ser o principal fator modulador para esta população. Abstract in english This investigation analyzed the ecological distribution and population structure of A. schmitti on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Crabs were sampled monthly from January 1998 to December 1999 at the following bays: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) and Mar Virado (MV). Water and sediment samples we [...] re also collected from all sampling sites for an analysis of environmental factors. Acantholobus schmitti was most abundant at UBM (224), followed by UBA (154) and MV (23) but its abundance showed no association with the environmental factors analyzed. The low abundance of these crabs in MV may be due to the high wave action that moved biodetritic material accumulated on the bottom and frequently removed small crabs from their sheltered positions among the shell fragments. The individuals captured included 269 males and 132 females, of which only 4 specimens were brooding females. Juvenile recruitment occurred throughout the year, but was less intense in the spring. The major abundance of individuals as well as of ovigerous females occurred during 1999, when the entrance of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) was stronger than in previous year. This environmental influence could be the main factor modulating this population.

  5. Occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk assessment of DDTs and heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Awassa--Ethiopian Rift Valley Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Watanabe, Kensuke P; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-12-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and heavy metals are ubiquitous contaminants with high bioaccumulation and persistence in the environment, which can have adverse effects on humans and animals. Although applications of DDTs have been banned in many countries, developing countries like Ethiopia are still using these for agricultural and medicinal purposes. In addition, heavy metals are naturally present in the aquatic environment and distributed globally. In this study, the occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk of DDTs and heavy metals in surface sediments from one of the Ethiopian rift valley lakes were studied. Twenty-five surface sediment samples from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia were collected and analyzed for DDTs and heavy metals. Results showed that concentrations of total DDTs ranged from 3.64 to 40.2 ng/g dry weight. High levels of DDTs were observed in the vicinity of inflow river side and coastal areas with agricultural activities. The heavy metals content were followed the order Zn>Ni>Pb>Cu>Cr>Co>As>Cd>Hg. Correlation analysis and principal components analysis demonstrated that heavy metals were originated from both natural and anthropogenic inputs. The levels of DDE and DDD in surface sediments exceeded the sediment quality guideline values, indicating that adverse effects may occur to the lake. A method based on toxic-response factor for heavy metals revealed that the calculated potential ecological risk indices showed low ecological risk for the water body. PMID:23709296

  6. Fractionation distribution and preliminary ecological risk assessment of As, Hg and Cd in ornithogenic sediments from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chuangneng; Liu, Xiaodong; Nie, Yaguang; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate mobility of toxic elements and their potential ecological risk caused by seabird biovectors, the fractionation distributions of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated in three ornithogenic sediment profiles from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica. The results show residual As holds a dominant position, and Hg mainly derives from residual, organic matter-bound and humic acid-bound fractions, indicating weak mobility of As and Hg. However, exchangeable Cd occupies a considerable proportion in studied samples, suggesting Cd has strong mobility. The preliminary evaluation of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SGQs) shows adverse biological effects may occur occasionally for As and Cd, and rarely for Hg. Using Risk Assessment Code (RAC), the ecological risk is assessed at moderate, low and very high for As, Hg and Cd pollution, respectively. Organic matter derived from guano is the main factor controlling the mobility of Hg and Cd through adsorption and complexation. PMID:26322729

  7. Hierarchical Taxonomy in Multi-Party System

    CERN Document Server

    Situngkir, H

    2004-01-01

    We propose the use of hierarchical taxonomy to analyze the legislative election results as a model of multi-party system to show the robustness in political system. As an example we use the result of Indonesian legislative election 2004 is analyzed with certain comparative with the previous one (1999). We construct the graph theoretical analysis by finding the Euclidean distances among political parties. The distances are then treated in ultrametric spaces by using the minimum spanning tree algorithm. By having the Indonesian hierarchical taxonomy model of political parties we show some patterns emerging the pattern agrees with the classical anthropological analysis of socio-political system in Indonesia. This fact accentuates a character of robustness in Indonesian political society as a self-organized system evolves to critical state. Some small perturbations i.e.: different voting process resulting the same pattern and occasions statistically, emerges from the social structure based upon political streams:...

  8. Ecological distribution and fate of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 21/2 yr a study was conducted on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a radioactive waste pond which has been receiving low-level Pu processing waste for about 30 yr. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization and studies of the ecological behavior of Pu and Am in an ultra-eutrophic aquatic environment. The purpose of this work is to explain Pu and Am concentrations at specific ecological sites, rates of accumulation at these sites, important export routes out of the pond, and potential pathways to man. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrator of transuranics in the pond system. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments that are the major sink for Pu and Am in this system, is also a major concentrator of transuranics. Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Thus, transuranics appear to be relatively immobile in this aquatic ecosystem

  9. Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (?6PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953 ?g L?1, with the average value of 4.042 ± 3.929 ?g L?1. The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the ?6PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of ?6PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens. - Highlights: • Monthly variation in PAEs was first investigated in a large Chinese shallow lake. • Ecological and health risks with uncertainty were determined. • PAEs with low and high level of carbon would be from different sources. • DnBP predominated within PAE congeners and posed a much greater ecological risks. • The studied PAE congeners posed little health risks to the nearby citizens

  10. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are...

  11. An Empirical Taxonomy of Crowdfunding Intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Haas; Ivo Blohm; Jan Marco Leimeister

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent popularity of crowdfunding, a broad magnitude of crowdfunding intermediaries has emerged, while research on crowdfunding intermediaries has been largely neglected. As a consequence, existing classifications of crowdfunding intermediaries are conceptual, lack theoretical grounding, and are not empirically validated. Thus, we develop an empirical taxonomy of crowdfunding intermediaries, which is grounded in the theories of two-sided markets and financial intermediation. Integr...

  12. Algal taxonomy: a road to nowhere?

    OpenAIRE

    De Clerck, O.; Guiry, M.D.; Leliaert, F.; Samyn, Y.; Verbruggen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread view of taxonomy as an essentially retrogressive and outmoded science unable to cope with the current biodiversity crisis stimulated us to analyze the current status of cataloguing global algal diversity. Contrary to this largely pessimistic belief, species description rates of algae through time and trends in the number of active taxonomists, as revealed by the web resource AlgaeBase, show a much more positive picture. More species than ever before are being described by a lar...

  13. Overview of the taxonomy of zooxanthellate Scleractinia

    OpenAIRE

    Veron, John

    2013-01-01

    Coral taxonomy has entered a historical phase where nomenclatorial uncertainty is rapidly increasing. The fundamental cause is mandatory adherence to historical monographs that lack essential information of all sorts, and also to type specimens, if they exist at all, that are commonly unrecognizable fragments or are uncharacteristic of the species they are believed to represent. Historical problems, including incorrect subsequent type species designations, also create uncertainty for many wel...

  14. Modernizando a taxonomia / Modernising the taxonomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandro, Rapini.

    Full Text Available A taxonomia é a disciplina responsável pela classificação dos organismos, permitindo o intercâmbio de informações entre as áreas da biologia. Entretanto, essa atividade tem perdido prestígio frente a outras disciplinas. Isso tem gerado iniciativas para tentar modernizar a taxonomia, tornando-a mais [...] precisa e acessível ao público em geral. Algumas propostas implicam modificações de normas arraigadas à prática taxonômica há décadas, como o princípio de prioridade, a associação do tipo ao nome e a utilização de ranques taxonômicos. Se aceitas, essas mudanças influenciarão significativamente o desenvolvimento de estudos relacionados a biodiversidade. É necessário, portanto, que pesquisadores que trabalham em regiões com alta diversidade biológica como o Brasil estejam cientes e possam se posicionar com propriedade frente a essas propostas. Abstract in english Taxonomy is the discipline responsible for classifying organisms, allowing fields of biology to interchange information. Nevertheless, this activity has lost prestige compared to other disciplines. This has encouraged initiatives to modernise the taxonomy, making it more precise and accessible to th [...] e general public. Some proposals imply changes in deep-rooted rules of taxonomy, such as the principle of priority, the linking of names to types and the use of taxonomic ranks. If adopted, these modifications will drastically change the development of studies dealing with biodiversity. Therefore, researchers that work in regions with high diversity like Brazil need to be aware and to be able to take a conscious position concern these proposals.

  15. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  16. Taxonomy and biogeography of Stephanoxis Simon, 1897 (Aves: Trochilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the description in the 19th century of two hummingbird species currently allocated to the genus Stephanoxis, Peters (1945 merged both taxa into a single species without providing any rationale. Here we re-evaluate the taxonomy and species limits of the representatives of this genus based on an extensive number of specimens. We demonstrate these taxa are better treated as full species under both the Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts due to their well-defined range and plumage patterns and reciprocally diagnosability. They have distinct, allopatric distributions segregated by a 160 km gap between the Serra do Mar, to the east, and Serra de Paranapiacaba, to the west, in the state of São Paulo. Stephanoxis species have ranges which are congruent with other montane bird species’ suggesting shared vicariance events during preterit interglacial periods.

  17. Modeling ecological niches and predicting geographic distributions: a test of six presence-only methods Modelado de nichos ecológicos y predicción de distribuciones geográficas: comparación de seis métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Ortega-Huerta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling ecological niches of species as a means to predict geographic distributions is a growing field that has been applied to numerous challenges of importance in ecology, systematics, and human well-being. The increasing availability and variety of such predictive algorithms requires testing their performance. In this study, we compare 6 such algorithms (Maxent, BioMapper, DOMAIN, FloraMap, the genetic algorithm GARP, and weights of evidence as regards their ability to predict the geographic distributions of 10 species of Mexican birds for which ample distributional data are available. The results of this study nevertheless led to reflections on how model quality should be evaluated.La predicción de las distribuciones geográficas de las especies obtenida mediante el modelado de sus nichos ecológicos, representa una línea de investigación en expansión, la cual ha sido aplicada en múltiples áreas de conocimiento tales como ecología, sistemática y salud pública. La creciente disponibilidad y variedad de tales métodos y algoritmos de predicción determina su evaluación como necesaria. En este estudio, comparamos 6 algoritmos (Maxent, BioMapper, Domain, FloraMap, GARP, Weights of Evidence con respecto a su habilidad para predecir las distribuciones geográficas de 10 especies de aves de México, para las cuales se cuenta con suficientes datos distribucionales. No obstante, los resultados de nuestro estudio sugieren la necesidad de elaborar nuevos criterios para la evaluación de modelos.

  18. Download - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image S earch Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... Download Please note that the data "Commment" and "Images ... on Comment", shown in the bottom half of this page ... 4.1 KB) Simple search and download 3 Taxonomy Icon Images ... (PNG format) taxonomy_icon_png.zip (7.9 MB) - Plea ... different terms of use. Terms of use for the data "Images ... on Comment" are described in the data "Comment". # ... mment_en.zip (5.7 KB) Simple search and download 5 Images ... on Comment taxonomy_icon_comment_png_en.zip (15.8 ...

  19. A coupled ecological-hydrodynamic model for the spatial distribution of sessile aquatic species in thermally forced basins

    OpenAIRE

    Mari, Lorenzo; Biotto, Cristian; Decoene, Astrid; Bonaventura, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The life cycle of several sessile or highly sedentary aquatic species is characterized by a pelagic stage, during which propagules are dispersed by the water flow. As a consequence, hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in redistributing offspring. In this work, we describe an integrated modeling framework that couples a minimal – yet biologically well founded – ecological model for the population dynamics at the local scale to an efficient numerical model of three dimensional free surface flows...

  20. Update History of This Database - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... base Date Update contents 2013/06/19 Taxonomy Icon English ... archive site is opened. 2008/11 Taxonomy Icon (htt ...

  1. Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs) was 14.46 ± 6.84 ng/L. PFOA was the predominant contaminant (8.62 ± 4.40 ng/L), followed by PFBA (2.04 ± 1.16 ng/L) and PFHxA (1.23 ± 1.50 ng/L). The TPFAAs concentrations peaked in August 2012 in ea...

  2. Records of the endemic and threatened catfish, Hemibagrus punctuates from the southern Western Ghats with notes on its distribution, ecology and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nilgiri Mystus, Hemibagrus punctatus, a rare bagrid catfish endemic to the Western Ghats, has been currently listed in the IUCN Red List, as Critically Endangered with a possibility that it could be extinct. The last validated record of H. punctatus was known to be in 1998, and several surveys since then have not been able to collect the species from its native range. In this paper, we provide information on new records of this rare catfish from the Western Ghats after a period of 14 years, and discuss its distribution, ecology and conservation. An updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List Criteria is also provided.

  3. Distribution of trace elements in certain ecological components and animal products in a dairy farm at Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, V

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical characteristics of the cattle are dealt based on the observations made in Ayurveda in the light of modern scientific developments in applied environmental geochemistry. The biogeochemical characteristics of certain important ecological components and animal products of the stall-fed animals were studied. For this purpose, a dairy farm of Tirumala-Tirupati Devasthanams, a religious organization in Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh was selected. This study is intended to trace out the trace element interactions in the ecological components (soil, water, fodder, feed) of the stall-fed animals and their output components viz. dung, urine and milk. Physical, physico-chemical properties and certain trace elements were determined for composite samples of ecological components and dung, urine, and milk of stall-fed animals. The variations in the distribution of pH and EC of urine and milk reflect the variations in their physico-chemical or hydro-chemical properties. As mentioned in Ayurveda, not only the properties of milk but also the properties of dung and urine reflect their diet and conditions of their habitat. Even though the diet is the same, the cows of different breeds yield milk of variable physical, physico-chemical properties and trace element composition which can be attributed to their body colour, substantiating Ayurveda. PMID:23892716

  4. The genus Machaerium (Fabaceae): taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Yhiya M; Marzouk, Amani M; Zaghloul, Mona G; Afifi, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Machaerium, in the family Fabaceae, predominantly is a genus of a Neotropical distribution of trees, shrubs, and lianas occurring from southern Mexico to Brazil and northern Argentina and as far as South America. Several Machaerium species are widely used in traditional medicine and are considered to have multiple medicinal properties. This review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities of plants in the genus Machaerium. PMID:25601210

  5. Integrative taxonomy of calcareous sponges (subclass Calcinea) from the Peruvian coast: morphology, molecules, and biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, F.; Cóndor-Luján, B.; Willenz, P; Hajdu, E.; Hooker, Y.; Klautau, M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of evolution and systematics of Calcarea (Porifera) have not yet met a corresponding increase in the knowledge of diversity and distribution of these sponges in several parts of the world. Peru is an emblematic example of this lack of taxonomic knowledge, as only three shallow-water species of sponges have hitherto been reported from its 3000 km coast. With the aim of studying sponges of Peru, an integrative taxonomy approach (morphology, molecules, and biogeography) was used in...

  6. Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Athar

    2005-01-01

    The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae) were the ...

  7. A taxonomy and discussion of software attack technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2005-03-01

    Software is a complex thing. It is not an engineering artifact that springs forth from a design by simply following software coding rules; creativity and the human element are at the heart of the process. Software development is part science, part art, and part craft. Design, architecture, and coding are equally important activities and in each of these activities, errors may be introduced that lead to security vulnerabilities. Therefore, inevitably, errors enter into the code. Some of these errors are discovered during testing; however, some are not. The best way to find security errors, whether they are introduced as part of the architecture development effort or coding effort, is to automate the security testing process to the maximum extent possible and add this class of tools to the tools available, which aids in the compilation process, testing, test analysis, and software distribution. Recent technological advances, improvements in computer-generated forces (CGFs), and results in research in information assurance and software protection indicate that we can build a semi-intelligent software security testing tool. However, before we can undertake the security testing automation effort, we must understand the scope of the required testing, the security failures that need to be uncovered during testing, and the characteristics of the failures. Therefore, we undertook the research reported in the paper, which is the development of a taxonomy and a discussion of software attacks generated from the point of view of the security tester with the goal of using the taxonomy to guide the development of the knowledge base for the automated security testing tool. The representation for attacks and threat cases yielded by this research captures the strategies, tactics, and other considerations that come into play during the planning and execution of attacks upon application software. The paper is organized as follows. Section one contains an introduction to our research and a discussion of the motivation for our work. Section two contains a presents our taxonomy of software attacks and a discussion of the strategies employed and general weaknesses exploited for each attack. Section three contains a summary and suggestions for further research.

  8. Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS) and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 ?m long) and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 ?m diam). Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C) than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C). Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus.

  9. Ecologically oriented distribution of drainage water in the surrounding areas of opencast mines in Lower Lusatia; Oekologisch orientierte Verteilung von Suempfungswasser im Umfeld von Tagebauen in der Niederlausitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, A.; Bergholz, U.; Kuhlmann, K. [LAUBAG/HV, Senftenberg (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Taking Welzow-South opencast mine as an example, the authors explain the possible means of achieving an ecologically oriented water distribution in Lower Lusatia. The location of the Welzow coal field on the surface-watershed between the rivers Spree and Schwarze Elster, the hydrological effects of the abandoned workings and the development of Welzow-South opencast mine have resulted in a differential water distribution. Ecological investigations confirm the great importance of marshes fed by drainage water in marginal areas of mines and in recultivation areas. Aspects of the legal licensing procedure are explained and discussed. When planning the areas to be recultivated after cessation of mining operations, re-connection to existing run-off systems is taken into account in an early stage and a main outfall is thus created accordingly. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel des Tagebaues Welzow-Sued werden Moeglichkeiten einer oekologisch orientierten Wasserverteilung in der Niederlausitz aufgezeigt. Die Lage auf der oberirdischen Wasserscheide zwischen der Spree und der Schwarzen Elster, die hydrologischen Auswirkungen des Altbergbaues und die Entwicklung von Welzow-Sued haben zu einer differenzierten Wasserverteilung gefuehrt. Oekologische Untersuchungen belegen die hohe Bedeutung von mit Suempfungswasser gestuetzten Feuchtgebieten in Randbereichen und auf den Rekultivierungsflaechen. Genehmigungsrechtliche Aspekte werden beschrieben und diskutiert. Bei der Planung der Bergbaufolgelandschaft wird rechtzeitig die Wiederanbindung an bestehende Abflusssysteme beruecksichtigt und somit eine entsprechende Vorflut gestaltet. (orig.)

  10. On the taxonomy of Latonigena auricomis (Araneae, Gnaphosidae), with notes of geographical distribution and natural history / Sobre a taxonomia de Latonigena auricomis (Araneae, Gnaphosidae), com notas da distribuição geográfica e história natural

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Jorge; Nicolás, López Carrión; Cristian, Grismado; Miguel, Simó.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O macho de Latonigena auricomis Simon, 1893 é descrito pela primeira vez e a fêmea é redescrita. Novos registros são fornecidos pra Argentina, Brasil e Uruguai. São apresentadas notas sobre a história natural e um modelo de distribuição potencial da espécie na Região Neotropical. [...] Abstract in english The male of Latonigena auricomis Simon, 1893 is described for the first time and the female is redescribed. New records are provided for Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Notes on the natural history and a potential distribution model of the species are presented in the Neotropical Region. [...

  11. A Contribution to IS General Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Brumec, Josip

    1997-01-01

    The term "Information System" has been used for a great number of different products of human mind designed to enable man to understand and control the events in his surroundings. Numerous classifications of ISs have been designed so far. They are based on various forms and characteristics of the existing systems, but they do not explain their origin and growth. In this study, preceded by a brief survey of the existing classifications, a new genetic taxonomy of IS is presented. It is based on...

  12. Towards a Taxonomy of Sexy Analogue Play

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, AML

    2015-01-01

    I endeavor here to develop a taxonomy for describing and discussing forms of analog play which involve sexy content. Whilst I think there is some use in keeping the umbrella term “sexy analog play” to cover all forms of non-digital play with a flirty or sexy connotation, it is better to investigate other, more specific words for use in describing precisely the types of play to be discussed. Whilst undoubtedly personally useful, the existence of such terminology has other applications as well....

  13. The relationship between complexity (taxonomy) and difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yih Tyng; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2013-04-01

    Difficulty and complexity are important factors that occur in every test questions. These two factors will also affect the reliability of the test. Hence, difficulty and complexity must be considered by educators during preparation of the test questions. The relationship between difficulty and complexity is studied. Complexity is defined as the level in Bloom's Taxonomy. Difficulty is represented by the proportion of students scoring between specific score intervals. A chi-square test of independence between difficulty and complexity was conducted on the results of a continuous assessment of a third year undergraduate course, Probability Theory. The independence test showed that the difficulty and complexity are related. However, this relationship is small.

  14. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

  15. Benchmarking of Methods for Genomic Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mette V. Larsen; Cosentino, Salvatore; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Hasman, Henrik; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Ussery, David W.; Lund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is—that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identificati...

  16. Taxonomy of Mechanitis (f.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from the west Colombian Andes: an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, C E; Uribe, S I

    2012-12-01

    Species identification in the butterfly genus Mechanitis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) becomes difficult when it is based only on wing color patterns, a common practice in butterfly taxonomy. Difficulties in Mechanitis taxonomy are related to the widespread mimicry and polymorphism among species belonging to this genus. Species recognition and inventories of Mechanitis genus in geographic areas as the Andean region of Colombia are of particular interest and the use of more than one character for taxonomic identification is desirable. In this study, we included morphological, ecological, and mitochondrial DNA data to identify the occurring species in this region. Species of Mechanitis were studied from ecological, morphological, and molecular perspectives considering host plant identification, oviposition behavior, and life cycles under laboratory conditions. Immature morphology, patterns of wing color, and genital structures of adults were also studied. The genetic barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene was sequenced and used to verify the limits between species previously defined by the other characters and to validate its usefulness for species delimitation in this particular genus. The integrative approach combining independent datasets successfully allowed species identification as compared to the approach based on a single dataset. Three well-differentiated species were found in the studied region, Mechanitis menapis (Hewitson), Mechanitis polymnia (Linnaeus), and Mechanitis lysimnia (Fabricius). New valuable characters that could improve taxonomic identification in this genus are considered. PMID:23949672

  17. Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest. PMID:26800267

  18. Antibiotics in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ocean is an important sink of land-based pollutants. Previous studies showed that serious antibiotic pollution occurred in the coastal waters, but limited studies focused on their presence in offshore waters. In this study, eleven antibiotics in three different categories were investigated in offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China. The results indicated that three antibiotics dehydration erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim occurred throughout the offshore waters at concentrations of 0.10–16.6 ng L−1 and they decreased exponentially from the rivers to the coastal and offshore waters. The other antibiotics all presented very low detection rates (−1). Although the concentrations were very low, risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that sulfamethoxazole, dehydration erythromycin and clarithromycin at most of sampling sites posed medium or low ecological risks (0.01 −1. ► Their concentrations decreased exponentially from the rivers to the offshore waters. ► Some antibiotics in the offshore water posed medium or low risks to some organisms. -- Some antibiotics were ubiquitous in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China and posed medium or low ecological risks to some sensitive organisms

  19. Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest. PMID:26800267

  20. 76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... analysis, space planning, et cetera). DATES: Written comments and information are requested on or before... building information and applications (i.e., non-energy applications such as structural analysis, space... comment. The taxonomy was developed with several goals in mind. The taxonomy is intended to be general...

  1. Attack surfaces : A taxonomy for attacks on cloud services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants. © 2010 IEEE.

  2. Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) taxonomy: Current challenges and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Harrup, L.E.; Bellis, G.A.; Balenghien, T.; Garros, C.

    2015-01-01

    •We review tools for Culicoides species identification using both morphological and genetic characterisation.•We review progress in integrative taxonomy in Culicoides.•We present the current global status of Culicoides taxonomic knowledge.•Present conclusions on the current status in Culicoides taxonomy and systematics and prospects for the future.

  3. The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

  4. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  5. The value of species distribution models as a tool for conservation and ecology in Egypt and Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about the distribution of species is limited, with extensive gaps in our knowledge, particularly in tropical areas and in arid environments. Species distribution models offer a potentially very powerful tool for filling these gaps in our knowledge. They relate a set of recorded occurrences of a species to environmental variables thought to be important in determining the distributions of species, in order to predict where species will be found throughout an area of interest. In this...

  6. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F; Schiffman, E L; Alstergren, P; Anderson, G C; de Leeuw, R; Jensen, Rigmor Højland; Michelotti, A; Ohrbach, R; Petersson, A; List, T

    2014-01-01

    to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. The expanded TMDs taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalise and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria....... criteria and the ability to operationalise and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMDs taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the...... expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related...

  7. A Taxonomy of Future Higher Thinking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David PASSIG

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Our future society will be different from that we have known in the last fifty years. Futurists foresee that in the near couple decades the world's community will traverse through a period of rapid technological innovations that will change the foundations of society as we used to know it (Tapscott, 1997; Wallace, 1999; Borgmann; 1999. Changes will engulf all aspects of life (Gleick, 1999. These changes will have great impact on society, work, culture and art. People will have to innovate or evaporate (Higgins, 1995. They will have to adapt continuously to never-ending permutations and engage in a never-ending adaptation. It makes sense, therefore, to assume that the graduates of today's schooling will need a different set of cognitive and learning skills reflecting the profound change that they will encounter. This paper traces the basic nature of future society and proposes a relevant taxonomy of future cognitive skills that will provide our students with appropriate tools to succeed in the future. We have used Bloom's taxonomy as a working ground and expanded his categories to reflect the needs of the future. This paper suggests an additional cognitive category to add to our teaching procedures named melioration, which we believe, is not addressed in today's curriculum.

  8. A revised taxonomy of assistance animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Parenti, MA, BCBA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of animals in various assistive, therapeutic, and emotional support roles has contributed to the uncoordinated expansion of labels used to distinguish these animals. To address the inconsistent vocabulary and confusion, this article proposes a concise taxonomy for classifying assistance animals. Several factors were identified to differentiate categories, including (1 whether the animal performs work or tasks related to an individual’s disability; (2 the typical level of skill required by the animal performing the work or task; (3 whether the animal is used by public service, military, or healthcare professionals; (4 whether training certifications or standards are available; and (5 the existence of legal public access protections for the animal and handler. Acknowledging that some category labels have already been widely accepted or codified, six functional categories were identified: (1 service animal; (2 public service animal; (3 therapy animal; (4 visitation ­animal; (5 sporting, recreational, or agricultural animal; and (6 support animal. This taxonomy provides a clear vocabulary for use by consumers, professionals working in the field, researchers, policy makers, and regulatory agencies.

  9. Entropy-based disciplinarity indicator: role taxonomy of journals in scientific communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Manana-Rodriguez, J

    2013-01-01

    In this research, a new indicator of disciplinarity-multidisciplinarity is developed, discussed and applied. EBDI is based on the combination of the frequency distribution of subject categories of journals citing or cited by the analysis unit and the spread and diversity of the citations among subject categories measured with Shannon-Wiener entropy. Its reproducibility, robustness and consistence are discussed. Four of the combinations of its values when applied to the cited and citing dimensions lead to a suggested taxonomy of the role that the studied unit might have in terms of the transformation of knowledge from different disciplines in the scientific communication system and its position respect a hypothetical thematic core of the discipline in which it has been classified. The indicator is applied to the journals belonging to the first quartile of JCR-SSCI 2011 Library and Information Science and an indicator-based taxonomy is applied and discussed, pointing to differential thematic roles of the journa...

  10. Taxonomía y distribución de los anofelinos en el estado de Veracruz, México (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae) / Taxonomy and distribution of the anopheline mosquitoes in the state of Veracruz, Mexico (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Beltrán-Aguilar; Sergio, Ibáñez-Bernal; Fredy, Mendoza-Palmero; César A., Sandoval-Ruiz; Ruth A., Hernández-Xoliot.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad humana causada por protozoarios del género Plasmodium y es transmitida por hembras de mosquito de ciertas especies de Anopheles. Se estima que en México el 33.1% de la población vive en áreas donde puede ocurrir la transmisión de la malaria. Veracruz es un es [...] tado donde la enfermedad es endémica debido a diversos factores que lo hacen una zona de riesgo para la transmisión, entre ellos las condiciones climáticas y la migración humana. Por lo anterior, en este trabajo se presentan las bases para la reactivación de la vigilancia entomológica del paludismo en el estado de Veracruz, para lo cual se provee la diagnosis ilustrada de la larva, la pupa y los adultos de ambos sexos de las especies de anofelinos del estado, así como las claves taxonómicas que permiten su reconocimiento, con base en el examen de ejemplares recolectados o depositados en colecciones entomológicas de referencia. También se obtuvieron mapas de distribución conocida y potencial de las especies por medio de GARP. Se mencionan además algunos datos bionómicos y la importancia médica de cada especie. Se conocen en Veracruz 18 especies de anofelinos, agrupadas en dos géneros, Chagasia con una especie y Anopheles con 17 pertenecientes a los subgéneros An. (Anopheles), An. (Kerteszia) y An. (Nyssorhynchus). Se reconocen cuatro grupos de especies de acuerdo a su capacidad de transmisión de plasmodios y por su amplitud de distribución: el grupo de alto riesgo constituido por 2 especies; el grupo de riesgo moderado o regional, con 8 especies; el de escaso riesgo, con 3 especies y el de riesgo nulo con 5 especies. Prácticamente todo el estado posee vectores potenciales por lo que debe reestablecerse la vigilancia permanente de sus poblaciones. Este trabajo aporta elementos de juicio para que el estado pueda ser, en un futuro cercano, certificado como área libre de paludismo. Abstract in english Malaria is a human disease caused by four species of the protozoon genus Plasmodium which are transmitted by Anophelinae female mosquitoes of some species of the genus Anopheles. It has been estimated that in Mexico 33.1% of the human population lives in areas where the transmission of malaria is po [...] ssible. The risk area includes the State of Veracruz that has been a traditional endemic zone in the past. Factors as weather, human density and human migration elevate the potential transmission risk. In this study, basic information needed for the reactivation of the entomological surveillance in the Veracruz State is provided, presenting the check-list with the illustrated diagnosis of larva, pupa, adult male and female, and taxonomic keys for the identification of species based in all postembryonic developmental stages. The known and potential distribution maps were obtained using GARP. Some bionomic data and the medical importance of the species are also mentioned. There are 18 Anophelinae species in Veracruz, grouped in two genera, Chagasia with one species and Anopheles with 17, pertaining to three subgenera An. (Anopheles), An (Kerteszia) and An. (Nyssorhynchus). According to the plasmodium transmission capability and distribution range, four groups of species are recognized: the high risk group, with 2 species; the median risk or regional risk group, with 8 species; the low risk group, with 3 species and the no risk group with 5 species. Potential malaria vectors are present throughout almost the entire state, so permanent surveillance of the anopheline populations must be reestablished. This study contributes strong elements for the future certification of the Veracruz State as an area free from malaria.

  11. Distribution, abundance, and feeding ecology of baleen whales in Icelandic waters: have recent environmental changes had an effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Víkingsson, Gísli A.; Pike, Daniel G; Valdimarsson, Héðinn; Schleimer, Anna; Gunnlaugsson, Thorvaldur; Silva, Teresa; Elvarsson, Bjarki Þ; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Øien, Nils; Desportes, Geneviève; Bogason, Valur; Hammond, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    The location of Iceland at the junction of submarine ridges in the North-East Atlantic where warm and cold water masses meet south of the Arctic Circle contributes to high productivity of the waters around the island. During the last two decades, substantial increases in sea temperature and salinity have been reported. Concurrently, pronounced changes have occurred in the distribution of several fish species and euphausiids. The distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the Central and Easte...

  12. The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological factors (e.g. the plant growth) or the economical factors as a simple monetary calculation, but also their mutual influences. Finally, the ecological-economic model enables us to make a risk assessment or evaluate adaptation strategies.

  13. Taxonomy, distribution and population structure of invasive Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) in the Suquía River basin, Córdoba, Argentina / Taxonomía, distribución y estructura poblacional de Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) invasores en la cuenca del Río Suquía, Córdoba, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola B., Reyna; Ariana G., Morán; Marcos, Tatián.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las especies invasoras son una de las causas más importantes de la pérdida de biodiversidad y de las alteraciones que se producen en los servicios ecosistémicos; en ello reside la importancia de la detección de estas especies y su estudio. Las almejas asiáticas (Corbiculidae) son organismos invasore [...] s que ingresaron accidentalmente en el Río de La Plata, Argentina, presuntamente en la década de los 1960'. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron identificar las especies de corbicúlidos y determinar su distribución en distintas localidades a lo largo de la cuenca del Río Suquía, un área extensa localizada en el centro de Argentina. Asimismo, la estructura poblacional fue evaluada mensualmente durante el periodo de un año, en un sitio de la ciudad de Córdoba caracterizado por una alta influencia humana. Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) y Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844) en la cuenca del Rio Suquía. La primera sólo se encontró en un ambiente léntico (embalse San Roque), mientras que la segunda especie también se encontró a lo largo de los afluentes y arroyos de la cuenca. Corbicula largillierti mostró una variación en la densidad media, considerando los diferentes sitios; asimismo en la biomasa y las clases de tamaño en un mismo sitio, durante el período de estudio. La composición relativa de los sedimentos, la fluctuación del caudal y la contaminación humana podrían ser las responsables de las diferencias observadas. Abstract in english Invasive species are one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services, which underlines the importance of their detection and their study. The Asian clams (Corbiculidae) are invasive organisms that accidentally entered the La Plata River, Argentina, presumabl [...] y in the 1960s. The objectives of the present study were to identify the corbiculid species and to determine their distribution at several locations along the Suquía River basin, an extended area in central Argentina. In addition, population structure was evaluated monthly during one year, at a site in the city of Córdoba that is characterized by high human influence. The presence of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) and Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844) in the Suquía River basin is reported for the first time. The former species was found only in a lentic environment (San Roque reservoir), while the latter was also found along the tributary rivers and brooks of the basin. Corbicula largillierti showed variations in average density between the different sites and also in biomass and size classes throughout the study period at the site at Córdoba city. The relative composition of the sediments, flow fluctuation and human pollution may be responsible for the observed differences.

  14. On the presence of the Mediterranean endemic Microdeutopus sporadhi Myers, 1969 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae in the Gulf of Naples (Italy with a review on its distribution and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. SCIPIONE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The species Microdeutopus sporadhi (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae, endemic of the Mediterranean Sea, was described by Myers in 1969 on material collected from the Aegean Sea in a sheltered environment with high sedimentation rates. A check on the distribution and ecology of M. sporadhi showed that: — although not mentioned in the checklist of amphipods of the Italian seas, it was already found in the central Tyrrhenian Sea in 1983-84 and in the northern Adriatic Sea in 2002-03; — it was rarely found in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most studied basins as concerns amphipod fauna; but notwithstanding the few records available, the wide ecological spectrum of this species was pointed out. The present study, conducted off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy, showed the presence of rich and well established populations through time, but only in a peculiar substratum (artificial collectors and environment (low pH values. The species seems to be able to withstand harsh environmental conditions and probably to conceal itself through a cryptic behaviour, escaping traditional sampling methods. The role of rare or hidden species in bio-assessment should be re-evaluated.

  15. Artificial dam lakes as suitable habitats for exotic invertebrates: Ostracoda ecology and distribution in reservoirs of the Eastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escrivà A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs are the most common deep lakes in Spain, as a consequence of water needs and dry climate. Although these aquatic systems can play an important ecological role in such an area with few large natural lakes, they can also provide new habitats for exotic species, which can colonize ecosystems that native species have not explored yet. Here we present our results for a biannual survey of the ostracod fauna from 24 reservoirs in Xúquer River basin. We check which variables affect ostracod presence, test for differences between winter and summer assemblages, and compare our data with previous available ostracod records from the same river drainage network. Our results reveal that ostracod presence is positively related to high diversity of the invertebrate community and reservoir volume, and negatively with phosphorus concentration. Among the 22 species found, it is noteworthy the first Iberian record of Ilyocypris getica and the second European record of Candonocypris novaezelandiae. Ostracod assemblages significantly vary between summer and winter, and strong differences are found between ostracod communities of reservoirs and those from their connected rivers. Remarkably higher frequency of exotic species in the reservoirs confirms previous findings about the facilitation that artificial ecosystems confer to aquatic invasions.

  16. Ecological aspects of the plains Cayman (Crocodylus Graves intermedius, 1819) in a sub areal distribution in the Arauca Department (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some behavioral and ecological aspects were observed in a remaining population of Crocodylus intermedius found in a Colombian region called Arauca, in the rivers Cravo Norte, Ele, Lipa, Casanare and Cano Matepalma. The behaviors during the daily activity were different among the adult animals studied. These surveys were carried out during the dry season in 1994 and 1995. Behaviors of nesting and parental care were observed. The nesting period took place from late December in 1994 to mid January in 1995. The crocodilian eggs hatched from mid march to the beginning of April. According to the data collected, the clutch size for this region is 20 to 34 eggs. Seven zones of clutching were found. Big holes, observed after the hatching, suggest that maybe the female crocodiles open the nest when the young are emerging from the eggs. The group of animals found is placed in a zone, which has optimal biotic and a biotic aspects. However the inhabitants of this region are an enormous pressure factor upon Crocodylus intermedius

  17. Correlative and dynamic species distribution modelling for ecological predictions in the Antarctic: a cross-disciplinary concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Saucède

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Developments of future scenarios of Antarctic ecosystems are still in their infancy, whilst predictions of the physical environment are recognized as being of global relevance and corresponding models are under continuous development. However, in the context of environmental change simulations of the future of the Antarctic biosphere are increasingly demanded by decision makers and the public, and are of fundamental scientific interest. This paper briefly reviews existing predictive models applied to Antarctic ecosystems before providing a conceptual framework for the further development of spatially and temporally explicit ecosystem models. The concept suggests how to improve approaches to relating species’ habitat description to the physical environment, for which a case study on sea urchins is presented. In addition, the concept integrates existing and new ideas to consider dynamic components, particularly information on the natural history of key species, from physiological experiments and biomolecular analyses. Thereby, we identify and critically discuss gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. These refer to process understanding of biological complexity, the need for high spatial resolution oceanographic data from the entire water column, and the use of data from biomolecular analyses in support of such ecological approaches. Our goal is to motivate the research community to contribute data and knowledge to a holistic, Antarctic-specific, macroecological framework. Such a framework will facilitate the integration of theoretical and empirical work in Antarctica, improving our mechanistic understanding of this globally influential ecoregion, and supporting actions to secure this biodiversity hotspot and its ecosystem services.

  18. Potential of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Mapping Distribution and Evaluating Ecological Characteristics of Tree Species at the Angkor Monument, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita Mizuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large trees play several vital roles in the Angkor monuments landscape. They protect biodiversity, enhance the tourism experience, and provide various ecosystem services to local residents. A clear understanding of forest composition and distribution of individual species, as well as timely monitoring of changes, is necessary for conservation of these trees. using traditional field work, obtaining this sort of data is time-consuming and labour-intensive. This research investigates classification of very high resolution remote sensing data as a tool for efficient analyses. QuickBird satellite imagery was used to clarify the tree species community in and around Preah Khan temple, to elucidate differences in ecological traits among the three dominant species (Dipterocarpus alatus, Lagerstroemia calyculata and Tetrameles nudiflora, and to identify crowns of the dominant species.

  19. Market Ecology, Pareto Wealth Distribution and Leptokurtic Returns in Microscopic Simulation of the LLS Stock Market Model

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, S; Solomon, Sorin; Levy, Moshe

    2000-01-01

    The LLS stock market model is a model of heterogeneous quasi-rational investors operating in a complex environment about which they have incomplete information. We review the main features of this model and several of its extensions. We study the effects of investor heterogeneity and show that predation, competition, or symbiosis may occur between different investor populations. The dynamics of the LLS model lead to the empirically observed Pareto wealth distribution. Many properties observed in actual markets appear as natural consequences of the LLS dynamics: truncated Levy distribution of short-term returns, excess volatility, a return autocorrelation "U-shape" pattern, and a positive correlation between volume and absolute returns.

  20. Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new 'Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms' was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1) each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2) each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3) each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4) the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document. The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates 'The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms,' and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and assigns each tumor to a single class within the tumor hierarchy. The entire classification and taxonomy are available as open access files (in XML and flat-file formats) with this article

  1. Ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri in systems science and systematics

    CERN Document Server

    Currás, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The originality of this book, which deals with such a new subject matter, lies in the application of methods and concepts never used before - such as ontologies and taxonomies, as well as thesauri - to the ordering of knowledge based on primary information. Chapters in the book also examine the study of ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri from the perspective of systematics and general systems theory. Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in Systems Science and Systematics will be extremely useful to those operating within the network of related fields, which includes documentation and informati

  2. Phishing Detection Taxonomy for Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cik Feresa Mohd Foozy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the social engineering attacks and currently hit on mobile devices. Based on security report by Lookout, 30% of Lookout users clicking on an unsafe link per year by using mobile device. Few phishing detection techniques have been applied on mobile device. However, review on phishing detection technique on the detection technique redundant is still need. This paper addresses the current trend phishing detection for mobile device and identifies significant criterion to improve phishing detection techniques on mobile device. Thus, existing research on phishing detection technique for computer and mobile device will be compared and analysed. Hence, outcome of the analysis becomes a guideline in proposing generic phishing detection taxonomy for mobile device

  3. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically......, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural...... language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%....

  4. A Taxonomy of Metrics for Hosted Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Shropshire

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The past three years has seen exponential growth in the number of organizations who have elected to entrust core information technology functions to application service providers. Of particular interest is the outsourcing of critical systems such as corporate databases. Major banks and financial service firms are contracting with third party organizations, sometimes overseas, for their database needs. These sophisticated contracts require careful supervision by both parties. Due to the complexities of web- based applications and the complicated nature of databases, an entire class of software suites has been developed to measure the quality of service the database is providing. This article investigates the performance metrics which have evolved to satisfy this need and describes a taxonomy of performance metrics for hosted databases.

  5. Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is--that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identification on a common data set of complete genomes: (i) SpeciesFinder, which is based on the complete 16S rRNA gene; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species-specific functional protein domain profiles; and finally (v) KmerFinder, which examines the number of cooccurring k-mers (substrings of k nucleotides in DNA sequence data). The performances of the methods were subsequently evaluated on three data sets of short sequence reads or draft genomes from public databases. In total, the evaluation sets constituted sequence data from more than 11,000 isolates covering 159 genera and 243 species. Our results indicate that methods that sample only chromosomal, core genes have difficulties in distinguishing closely related species which only recently diverged. The KmerFinder method had the overall highest accuracy and correctly identified from 93% to 97% of the isolates in the evaluations sets.

  6. Backyard Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

  7. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    OpenAIRE

    Domene, X; Alcañiz, Josep M.; Andrés Pastor, Pilar; Ramírez Hernández, Wilson Ariel; Mattana, Stefania

    2008-01-01

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM h...

  8. The geographic distribution and ecological preferences of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A M; Burdett, C; McCool, M J; Fox, A; Riggs, P

    2015-06-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP), caused by two parasitic organisms, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, is a tick-borne disease of recent concern in horses in the U.S.A. Outbreaks of EP have been detected in Florida, Missouri, Kansas and Texas. In 2009, EP transmission in Texas occurred through the adults of two tick species, Amblyomma mixtum [formerly known as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787)] Koch (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), the American dog tick (ADT). In this study, we developed a continent-scale map for the distribution of the EP vector species D.?variabilis, using a presence-only modelling approach to assess the habitat preferences of this tick. We used identification records from our tick geodatabase of locations in which the presence of the ADT had been noted. The potential distribution of the ADT in the U.S.A. was estimated from environmental factors using the maximum entropy approach based on localities in which there is a high probability of occurrence according to habitat suitability. Elevation and temperature were found to be biologically significant environmental variables influencing the presence of this tick species. Properly designed and constructed probability surfaces using maximum entropy offer one useful approach to the mapping of distribution ranges of tick species based on suitable habitat in the U.S.A. PMID:25684582

  9. Distribution of limnoterrestrial Tardigrada in Georgia and the Gulf Coast states of the United States of America with ecological remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A. MEYER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This report is an effort to improve understanding of the distribution of limnoterrestrial tardigrades in Georgia and the states along the Gulf Coast of the United States of America. We collected 14 species of tardigrades from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts and leaf litter in a statewide survey of Louisiana and reviewed all publications and theses reporting tardigrade distributions in the Gulf Coast states. Statewide surveys have been also conducted in Alabama, Florida, and Texas, while sampling in Mississippi and Georgia has been more localized. Currently 51 species have been identified in the region: 19 in Texas, 16 in Louisiana, 10 in Mississippi, 33 in Alabama, 3 in Georgia, and 15 in Florida. These tardigrades have been collected from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts on trees and rocks, from soil and leaf litter, and from freshwater. Twenty species are widely distributed in the region (i.e., found in ? 2 non-contiguous states, while 27 have been found in only one state. Eighteen species are probably cosmopolitan. Seven species, widespread in the Gulf Coast states but unknown elsewhere in the Nearctic Region – Echiniscus kofordi, Echiniscus cavagnaroi, Parexapodibius pilatoi, Hexapodibius christenberryae, Biserovus bindae, Minibiotus fallax and a new Macrobiotus cf. hufelandi – may represent a distinctive regional fauna in cryptogams.

  10. Ecology of the tawny mole cricket, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae): population estimation, spatial distribution, movement, and host relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    Scapteriscus vicinus is the most important pest of turf and pasture grasses in Florida. This study develops a method of correlating sample results with true population density and provides the first quantitative information on spatial distribution and movement patterns of mole crickets. Three basic techniques for sampling mole crickets were compared: soil flushes, soil corer, and pitfall trapping. No statistical difference was found between the soil corer and soil flushing. Soil flushing was shown to be more sensitive to changes in population density than pitfall trapping. No technique was effective for sampling adults. Regression analysis provided a means of adjusting for the effects of soil moisture and showed soil temperature to be unimportant in predicting efficiency of flush sampling. Cesium-137 was used to label females for subsequent location underground. Comparison of mean distance to nearest neighbor with the distance predicted by a random distribution model showed that the observed distance in the spring was significantly greater than hypothesized (Student's T-test, p < 0.05). Fall adult nearest neighbor distance was not different than predicted by the random distribution hypothesis.

  11. SSU rDNA divergence in planktonic foraminifera: molecular taxonomy and biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Aurore; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Morard, Raphaël; Ujiié, Yurika; Escarguel, Gilles; de Vargas, Colomban; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault; Douady, Christophe J

    2014-01-01

    The use of planktonic foraminifera in paleoceanography requires taxonomic consistency and precise assessment of the species biogeography. Yet, ribosomal small subunit (SSUr) DNA analyses have revealed that most of the modern morpho-species of planktonic foraminifera are composed of a complex of several distinct genetic types that may correspond to cryptic or pseudo-cryptic species. These genetic types are usually delimitated using partial sequences located at the 3'end of the SSUrDNA, but typically based on empirical delimitation. Here, we first use patristic genetic distances calculated within and among genetic types of the most common morpho-species to show that intra-type and inter-type genetic distances within morpho-species may significantly overlap, suggesting that genetic types have been sometimes inconsistently defined. We further apply two quantitative and independent methods, ABGD (Automatic Barcode Gap Detection) and GMYC (General Mixed Yule Coalescent) to a dataset of published and newly obtained partial SSU rDNA for a more objective assessment of the species status of these genetic types. Results of these complementary approaches are highly congruent and lead to a molecular taxonomy that ranks 49 genetic types of planktonic foraminifera as genuine (pseudo)cryptic species. Our results advocate for a standardized sequencing procedure allowing homogenous delimitations of (pseudo)cryptic species. On the ground of this revised taxonomic framework, we finally provide an integrative taxonomy synthesizing geographic, ecological and morphological differentiations that can occur among the genuine (pseudo)cryptic species. Due to molecular, environmental or morphological data scarcities, many aspects of our proposed integrative taxonomy are not yet fully resolved. On the other hand, our study opens up the potential for a correct interpretation of environmental sequence datasets. PMID:25119900

  12. The genus Scolymus Tourn. ex L. (Asteraceae: taxonomy and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, Francisco M.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the genus Scolymus Tourn. ex L. is presented. Seven taxa are recognised, two of them new to science: Scolymus hispanicus subsp. occidentalis F.M. Vázquez, subsp. nov., and S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] i. decoloratus Fiori ex F.M. Vázquez,/ nov.; a new combination, S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] var. aggregatus (Ruch. F.M. Vázquez, comb. & stat. nov., is proposed. The type and full synonymy for each taxon are given. A selection of the specimens studied is presented in Appendix I. Some of the taxa are illustrated in figures.Se presenta una revisión taxonómica del género Scolymus Tourn. ex L., en la que se reconocen siete táxones, dos de ellos nuevos para la ciencia: Scolymus hispanicus subsp. occidentalis F.M. Vázquez, subspnov. ., y S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] f. decoloratus Fiori ex F.M. Vázquez,/ nov.; se propone una combinación a nivel de variedad: S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] var. aggregatus (Ruch. F.M. Vázquez, comb. & stat. nov. Se han revisado todos los sinónimos nomenclaturales y taxonómicos, y se incluye en el Apéndice I un listado de parte del material estudiado. Finalmente, se ilustra mediante figuras una parte de los táxones recogidos en el trabajo.

  13. The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciulioniene, D.; Jefanova, O.; Mazeika, J. [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lietuva (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

  14. The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 137Cs, 60Co, 54Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

  15. The HCBS Taxonomy- A New Language for Classifying Home...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The home- and community-based services (HCBS) taxonomy provides a common language for describing and categorizing HCBS across Medicaid programs. Prior to the...

  16. Integrative taxonomy: a multisource approach to exploring biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M; Seifert, Bernhard; Stauffer, Christian; Christian, Erhard; Crozier, Ross H

    2010-01-01

    Good alpha taxonomy is central to biology. On the basis of a survey of arthropod studies that used multiple disciplines for species delimitation, we evaluated the performance of single disciplines. All included disciplines had a considerable failure rate. Rigor in species delimitation can thus be increased when several disciplines chosen for complementarity are used. We present a flexible procedure and stopping rule for integrative taxonomy that uses the information from different disciplines separately. Disagreement among disciplines over the number and demarcation of species is resolved by elucidating and invoking evolutionary explanations for disagreement. With the identification of further promising study organisms and of new questions for in-depth analysis, evolutionary biology should profit from integrative taxonomy. An important rationale is clarity in researcher bias in the decision-making process. The success of integrative taxonomy will further increase through methodological progress, taxonomic training of evolutionary biologists, and balanced resource allocation. PMID:19737081

  17. License - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... ional Bioscience Database Center Japan Science and Technology ... Agency 5-3, Yonbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0081, ...

  18. Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; De Falco, G. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Como, S. [International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Casu, D. [Dip. di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Floris, A. [Dip. di Zoologia e Genetica evoluzionistica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Petrov, A.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, 99011 Sevastopol (Ukraine); Castelli, A. [Dip. di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Perilli, A. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments ({<=}8 {mu}m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at {<=}8 {mu}m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system.

  19. Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments (?8 ?m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at ?8 ?m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system

  20. Deep-sea distribution, biological and ecological aspects of Aristeus antennatus ( Risso, 1816) in the western and central Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sardà, Francisco; Maiorano, Porzia; Company, Joan B.; D´Onghia, Gianfranco; Politou, Chrissi-yianna

    2004-01-01

    [EN] The object of the DESEAS Project, funded by the EC, was to gather preliminary data on the abundance and maximum depth distribution of the rose shrimp Aristeusantennatus in the Mediterranean Sea. An exploratory survey was therefore designed with that goal in mind and conducted on the R/V García del Cid, sampling the maximum depths in three specific areas in the central and western Mediterranean, one off Ibiza (Balearic Islands), one off Calabria (western Ionian Sea), and one off the south...

  1. Evaluating the Species Boundaries of Green Microalgae (Coccomyxa, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) Using Integrative Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding with Further Implications for the Species Identification in Environmental Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Darienko, Tatyana; Gustavs, Lydia; Eggert, Anja; Wolf, Wiebke; Pröschold, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy is an approach for defining species and genera by taking phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, and ecological data into account. This approach is appropriate for microalgae, where morphological convergence and high levels of morphological plasticity complicate the application of the traditional classification. Although DNA barcode markers are well-established for animals, fungi, and higher plants, there is an ongoing discussion about suitable markers for microalgae ...

  2. New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues, Olivier; Fuchs, Philippe; Nannipieri, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We divide these environme...

  3. Evaluating a Taxonomy for Mobility Requirements by a Controlled Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar Gopalakrishnan; Peter Karpati; Guttorm Sindre

    2012-01-01

    Requirements taxonomies have been found useful in software requirements elicitation and specification, both for educational purposes and in practical usage, for instance, as checklists to ensure that important categories of requirements are not forgotten, and for guidance on how to write various types of requirements. While mobile information systems are becoming increasingly important, traditional requirements taxonomies do not have any category for mobility requirements. This paper reports ...

  4. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia – IV: Seventeen new endemic species, a new combination, and three lectotypifications; with comments on distribution, ecological and evolutionary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Snow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen new endemic species of the genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae are proposed from Madagascar, including: E. andapae N. Snow, E. barriei N. Snow, E. bemangidiensis N. Snow, E. calciscopulorum N. Snow, E. delicatissima N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson, E. echinulata N. Snow, E. gandhii N. Snow, E. hazonjia N. Snow, E. iantarensis N. Snow, E. malcomberi N. Snow, E. manomboensis N. Snow, E. obovatifolia N. Snow, E. ranomafana N. Snow & D. Turk, E. ravelonarivoi N. Snow & Callm., E. razakamalalae N. Snow & Callm., E. tiampoka N. Snow & Callm., and E. wilsoniana N. Snow, and one new combination, Eugenia richardii (Blume N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson is provided. Detailed descriptions, information on distribution and ecology, distribution maps, vernacular names (where known, digital images of types, comparisons to morphologically similar species. Preliminary assessment of IUCN risk of extinction and conservation recommendations are provided, including Vulnerable (4 species, Endangered (2 species, and Critically Endangered (4 species. Lectotpyes are designated for Eugenia hovarum H. Perrier, Eugenia nompa H. Perrier, and E. scottii H. Perrier respectively.

  5. Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs) was 14.46 ± 6.84 ng/L. PFOA was the predominant contaminant (8.62 ± 4.40 ng/L), followed by PFBA (2.04 ± 1.16 ng/L) and PFHxA (1.23 ± 1.50 ng/L). The TPFAAs concentrations peaked in August 2012 in each area, except for the western river. The opposite spatial trends were found for PFOA and PFOS in both the lake and river areas. Except for PFOS and PFUdA, the levels of TPFAAs and PFAAs were significantly related to the composition of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) but not related to total DOM expressed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The risk of PFOS determined by a species sensitivity distribution model was notably above that of PFOA.

  6. Detection and spatial distribution of multiple-contaminants in agro-ecological Mediterranean wetlands (Marjal de Pego-Oliva, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda; Masia, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Socio economic activities are more and more producing amounts (in quantity and quality) of non desirable chemical substances (contaminants) that can be found in open air environments. As many of these products persist and may also circulate among environmental compartments, the cumulative incidence of such multiple contaminants combination may be a cause of treat that should not exists taking only in consideration concentrations of each contaminant individually because the number and the type of compounds are not known, as well as their cumulative and interaction effects. Thus prior to any further work analyzing the environmental risk of multiple contaminants their identification and level of concentration is required. In this work the potential presence of multiple contaminants of anthropogenic origin in a protected agro-ecological Mediterranean wetland is studied: the Pego-Oliva Marsh Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain), which is characterized by a long history of human pressures, such as marsh transformation for agricultural uses. Two major groups of relevant pollutants have been targeted according o two distinct environmental matrices: seven heavy metals in soils (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and fourteen emerging contaminants /drugs of abuse in surface waters of the natural lagoon, rivers and artificial irrigation networks (6-ACMOR, AMP, BECG, COC, ECGME, HER, KET, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, MET, MOR, THC, THC-COOH). The wetland was divided in nine representative zones with different types of land cover and land use. For soils, 24 samples were collected and for waters 33 taking in consideration the spatial representativeness of the above mention nine environments. Spatial analysis applying Geographical Information Systems to determine areas with greater incidence of both types of contaminants were also performed. With regard to heavy metals, Zn showed values under the detection limits in all samples, the remainder metals appeared in concentrations surpassing the WHO and EU limits for drinking waters, and all except Pb exceed the limits established for irrigation waters. For drugs of abuse 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphe-tamine, ketamine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine,methadone, 6-acetylmorphine and nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydro-cannabinol were detected. The mean concentrations were 0.62, 21.33, 1.30, 1.92, 2.25, 0.32, 0.04 and 0.07 ng l, respectively. Almost all samples had at least one substance. In the natural park a spatial trend in the number of contaminants and concentrations can be identified. Such pattern is more evident when analyzing heavy metals in soils. The presence of multiple contaminants is greater in agriculture fields devoted to citrus farming with decreasing intensities for rice fields and natural areas. Connectivity between urban, agriculture and natural lands produced by water flows may be part of the processes that introduce contaminants in the marsh land. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through the project CONSOLIDER-INGENIO 2010 (CSD2009) and by the Ministry and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (projects CGL2011-29703-C02-00, CGL2011-29703-C02-01, CGL2011-29703-C02-02).

  7. Dynamics of market correlations Taxonomy and portfolio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Onnela, J P; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Kanto, A

    2003-01-01

    The time dependence of the recently introduced minimum spanning tree description of correlations between stocks, called the ``asset tree'' have been studied to reflect the economic taxonomy. The nodes of the tree are identified with stocks and the distance between them is a unique function of the corresponding element of the correlation matrix. By using the concept of a central vertex, chosen as the most strongly connected node of the tree, an important characteristic is defined by the mean occupation layer (MOL). During crashes the strong global correlation in the market manifests itself by a low value of MOL. The tree seems to have a scale free structure where the scaling exponent of the degree distribution is different for `business as usual' and `crash' periods. The basic structure of the tree topology is very robust with respect to time. We also point out that the diversification aspect of portfolio optimization results in the fact that the assets of the classic Markowitz portfolio are always located on ...

  8. Marine Nematode Taxonomy in Africa: Promising Prospects Against Scarcity of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufahja, Fehmi; Semprucci, Federica; Beyrem, Hamouda; Bhadury, Punyasloke

    2015-09-01

    From the late 19th century, Africa has faced heavy exploitation of its natural resources with increasing land/water pollution, and several described species have already become extinct or close to extinction. This could also be the case for marine nematodes, which are the most abundant and diverse benthic group in marine sediments, and play major roles in ecosystem functioning. Compared to Europe and North America, only a handful of investigations on marine nematodes have been conducted to date in Africa. This is due to the scarcity of experienced taxonomists, absence of identification guides, as well as local appropriate infrastructures. A pivotal project has started recently between nematologists from Africa (Tunisia), India, and Europe (Italy) to promote taxonomic study and biodiversity estimation of marine nematodes in the African continent. To do this, as a first step, collection of permanent slides of marine nematodes (235 nominal species and 14 new to science but not yet described) was recently established at the Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte (Tunisia). Capacity building of next generation of African taxonomists have been carried out at level of both traditional and molecular taxonomy (DNA barcoding and next-generation sequencing [NGS]), but they need to be implemented. Indeed, the integration of these two approaches appears crucial to overcome lack of information on the taxonomy, ecology, and biodiversity of marine nematodes from African coastal waters. PMID:26527841

  9. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  10. When everything converges: integrative taxonomy with shell, DNA and venomic data reveals Conus conco, a new species of cone snails (Gastropoda: Conoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puillandre, Nicolas; Stöcklin, Reto; Favreau, Philippe; Bianchi, Estelle; Perret, Frédéric; Rivasseau, Audrey; Limpalaër, Loïc; Monnier, Eric; Bouchet, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Cone snails have long been studied both by taxonomists for the diversity of their shells and by biochemists for the potential therapeutic applications of their toxins. Phylogenetic approaches have revealed that different lineages of Conus evolved divergent venoms, a property that is exploited to enhance the discovery of new conotoxins, but is rarely used in taxonomy. Specimens belonging to the Indo-West Pacific Conus lividus species complex were analyzed using phenetic and phylogenetic methods based on shell morphology, COI and 28S rRNA gene sequences and venom mRNA expression and protein composition. All methods converged to reveal a new species, C. conco n. sp. (described in Supplementary data), restricted to the Marquesas Islands, where it diverged recently (?3mya) from C. lividus. The geographical distribution of C. conco and C. lividus and their phylogenetic relationships suggest that the two species diverged in allopatry. Furthermore, the diversity of the transcript sequences and toxin molecular masses suggest that C. conco evolved unique toxins, presumably in response to new selective pressure, such as the availability of new preys and ecological niches. Furthermore, this new species evolved new transcripts giving rise to original toxin structures, probably each carrying specific biological activity. PMID:25132129

  11. Diversité floristique, ethnobotanique et taxonomie locale des mauvaises herbes de l'oignon au Nord-est du Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic Diversity, Ethno-botanic and Local Taxonomy of Onion's Weeds in the North East of Benin. A study has been conducted in order to document scientific names, local names and their significations, and also to apprehend onion's weed species nomenclature adopted by farmers in the North East of Benin. Thirty onion's households have been surveyed through semi-structured interviews and a floristic inventory was carried out in each of them. Weeds'species and their botanic families and also the criteria of their local names have been identified and have served to elaborate a local taxonomy typology. 71 species which belong to 26 botanic families and 17 species belonging to six families constitute respectively the general flora and the flora associated to onion in vegetation.Poaceae,Cyperaceae, Commelinaceae, Malvaceae, Fabaceae and Portulacaceae are the most important families according to their number of species. Ecology, morphology, resistance to hoe weeding and socio-cultural usages are the criteria that were used to develop the local denomination of 39 among 71 identified species, and have served to elaborate the typology of local taxonomy. The other 32 species without local names do not have any major agroecological, nor socio-cultural interest for farmers. The evaluation of the agronomic importance of the flora associated to onion's vegetation can contribute to a better control of the weeds of this crop.

  12. Ecological and geographical analysis of the distribution of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: importance of protected areas in future scenarios of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17%) occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque's potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48%) of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador. PMID:25798851

  13. A new heterotrophic dinoflagellate from the North-eastern Pacific, Protoperidinium fukuyoi: cyst-theca relationship, phylogeny, distribution and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Kenneth N; Yamaguchi, Aika; Takano, Yoshihito; Pospelova, Vera; Head, Martin J; Radi, Taoufik; Pie?kowski, Anna J; de Vernal, Anne; Kawami, Hisae; Matsuoka, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    The cyst-theca relationship of Protoperidinium fukuyoi n. sp. (Dinoflagellata, Protoperidiniaceae) is established by incubating resting cysts from estuarine sediments off southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and San Pedro Harbor, California, USA. The cysts have a brown-coloured wall, and are characterized by a saphopylic archeopyle comprising three apical plates, the apical pore plate and canal plate; and acuminate processes typically arranged in linear clusters. We elucidate the phylogenetic relationship of P. fukuyoi through large and small subunit (LSU and SSU) rDNA sequences, and also report the SSU of the cyst-defined species Islandinium minutum (Harland & Reid) Head et al. 2001. Molecular phylogenetic analysis by SSU rDNA shows that both species are closely related to Protoperidinium americanum (Gran & Braarud 1935) Balech 1974. Large subunit rDNA phylogeny also supports a close relationship between P. fukuyoi and P. americanum. Three subgroups in total are further characterized within the Monovela group. The cyst of P. fukuyoi shows a wide geographical range along the coastal tropical to temperate areas of the North-east Pacific, its distribution reflecting optimal summer sea-surface temperatures of ~14-18 °C and salinities of 22-34 psu. PMID:23869920

  14. Rhipicephalus rossicus, a neglected tick at the margin of Europe: a review of its distribution, ecology and medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, A D; Kalmár, Z; Dumitrache, M O

    2015-09-01

    Rhipicephalus rossicus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host tick with a broad host spectrum that includes wild animals, pets, livestock and humans. Despite its local abundance in certain areas, most of the available information on R.?rossicus was published decades ago, mainly by former soviet authors. Its distribution largely overlaps the Eurasian steppe. However, its range may be more extensive than is currently known because this species may have been misidentified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, principally in areas where the latter species is present. Although R.?rossicus has been occasionally reported to feed on people, little attention has been given to its medical importance. It has been shown to have a vectorial role in the transmission of Francisella tularensis, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and West Nile virus. However, the vectorial importance of R.?rossicus may be significantly greater, mainly as the closely related species R.?sanguineus s.l. is known to transmit a very wide spectrum of pathogens. The probably underestimated vectorial role of R.?rossicus may represent a hidden public health threat. PMID:25761411

  15. Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk assessment of multiple classes of UV filters in surface waters from different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Wai, Tak-Cheung; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Liu, Wenhua; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-12-15

    Organic UV filters are common ingredients of personal care products (PCPs), but little is known about their distribution in and potential impacts to the marine environment. This study reports the occurrence and risk assessment of twelve widely used organic UV filters in surface water collected in eight cities in four countries (China, the United States, Japan, and Thailand) and the North American Arctic. The number of compounds detected, Hong Kong (12), Tokyo (9), Bangkok (9), New York (8), Los Angeles (8), Arctic (6), Shantou (5) and Chaozhou (5), generally increased with population density. Median concentrations of all detectable UV filters were Arctic is likely due to a combination of inadequate wastewater treatment and long-range oceanic transport. Principal component analysis (PCA) and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to explore spatiotemporal patterns and difference in organic UV filter levels in Hong Kong. In general, spatial patterns varied with sampling month and all compounds showed higher concentrations in the wet season except benzophenone-4 (BP-4). Probabilistic risk assessment showed that 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) posed greater risk to algae, while benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) were more likely to pose a risk to fishes and also posed high risk of bleaching in hard corals in aquatic recreational areas in Hong Kong. This study is the first to report the occurrence of organic UV filters in the Arctic and provides a wider assessment of their potential negative impacts in the marine environment. PMID:25261628

  16. Distribution and abundance of sea urchins in Singapore reefs and their potential ecological impacts on macroalgae and coral communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Beverly P. L.; Lim, Dawn Y. F.

    2015-06-01

    The sea urchin Diadema setosum is often encountered in the coral reefs in the Southern Islands of Singapore. While sea urchins have been known to play a role in regulating algal communities and influencing coral recruitment in other parts of the world, their role in Singapore reefs has not been determined. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of sea urchins in Singapore reefs, to examine algal cover, algal biomass, algal species and live coral cover, and to determine any interactions between urchin density and algal communities that may impact coral cover. Several reefs in Singapore were surveyed using belt transects measuring 20 m by 2 m, laid down on the reef crest. Abundance of urchins, algal species, biomass, and live coral cover were determined by the use of quadrats within each belt transect. This study revealed an increasing abundance of the sea urchin Diadema setosum in reefs progressing southwards away from mainland Singapore with low density of urchins occurring in Sisters' Island, St John's Island, Pulau Tekukor, and Kusu Island, and the highest density observed at Raffles Lighthouse. A significant negative linear relationship between algal cover and live coral cover (P urchins may not be an important component of the herbivore guild in Singapore.

  17. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

  18. Ecology of the ciguatera causing dinoflagellates from the Northern Great Barrier Reef: changes in community distribution and coastal eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark P; Lewis, Richard J; Morton, Steve

    2013-12-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is known to be caused by the ciguatoxins from the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus, however, there is the potential for other toxins such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins from the genus Prorocentrum, and palytoxin from the genus Ostreopsis, to contaminate seafood. These genera may also be indicators of ecosystem health and potentially impact on coral reef ecosystems and the role they may play in the succession of coral to macroalgae dominated reefs has not been researched. Sixteen GBR field sites spanning inshore, mid-lagoon and outer lagoon (offshore) regions were studied. Samples were collected from September 2006 to December 2007 and abundance of benthic dinoflagellates on different host macroalgae and concentration of nutrients present in the water column were determined. The maximum abundance of Prorocentrum, Ostreopsis and Gambierdiscus found was 112, 793 and 50 cells per gram wet weight of host macroalgae, respectively. The average level of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) in the water column across all sites (0.03 mg/L) was found to be more than double the threshold critical value (0.013 mg/L) for healthy coral reefs. Compared to a previous study 1984, there is evidence of a major shift in the distribution and abundance of these dinoflagellates. Inshore reefs have either of Prorocentrum (as at Green Island) or Ostreopsis (as at Magnetic Island) dominating the macroalgal surface niche which was once dominated by Gambierdiscus, whilst at offshore regions Gambierdiscus is still dominant. This succession may be linked to the ongoing eutrophication of the GBR lagoon and have consequences for the sources of toxins for ongoing cases of ciguatera. PMID:24210944

  19. Integrative taxonomy reveals an unexpected diversity in Geastrum section Geastrum (Geastrales, Basidiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, J C; Calonge, F D; Martín, M P

    2015-06-01

    A revision of the classification of Geastrum sect. Geastrum is presented on the basis of an integrative taxonomic approach, which involves the study of morphological, molecular, ecological, and chorological data. Four DNA regions are analysed: the ITS and LSU nrDNA, rpb1, and atp6. Phylogenetic reconstructions include 95 ingroup samples and show five main clades, which are considered as five subsections, one of them proposed as new (G. subsect. Hungarica), and a total of 27 lineages recognizable at species level. Discriminant function analyses, ANOVAs and Tukey's HSD tests on more than 500 basidiomata reveal the utility of several quantitative morphological characters for species delimitation. As a result of the combination of the different sources of taxonomic information, a revised taxonomy is presented and seven new species, viz., G. austrominimum, G. benitoi, G. britannicum, G. kuharii, G. meridionale, G. papinuttii, and G. thanatophilum, are proposed. PMID:26240450

  20. Distribución geográfica y ecológica de 13 especies de hongos silvestres comestibles en Oaxaca / Geographic and ecological distribution of 13 species of wild edible mushrooms in Oaxaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marisela Cristina, Zamora-Martínez; Antonio, González Hernández; Fabián, Islas Gutiérrez; Eunice Nayeli, Cortés Barrera; Luz Iris, López Valdez.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oaxaca es uno de los estados más ricos de México, tanto por su diversidad cultural como biológica, por lo que es importante el estudio e inventario de su biota. Sus habitantes poseen una vasta tradición en la recolección y consumo de hongos silvestres; sin embargo, para incluirlos en los programas d [...] e manejo integral de los bosques es necesario conocer sus requerimientos ecológicos y sus características biológicas, así como sus áreas de distribución, lo que implica el mapeo y monitoreo de sus poblaciones silvestres. En este contexto, se planteó sistematizar el conocimiento sobre el hábitat y distribución geográfica de 13 especies de macromicetos comestibles de importancia biológica y socioeconómica asociados a los bosques templados de Oaxaca, mediante el uso de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG), con el fin de generar un mapa de la distribución espacial conocida para dichos taxa, elaborado a partir de información bibliográfica y de herbarios. Las especies recolectadas en una mayor diversidad de ambientes fueron Cantharellus cibarius y Lycoperdon perlatum. A pesar del sesgo generado por la distribución espacial de las recolectas consideradas, ya que estas se concentran en regiones específicas, los SIG son una herramienta útil para determinar la distribución actual de los recursos fúngicos. Abstract in english Oaxaca is one of the riches states in Mexico, both culturally and for its biodiversity, so it is important to study and make an inventory of its biota. Its people have a rich tradition in the collection and/or consumption of various wild mushrooms, but in order to include them in forest management p [...] lans, it is necessary to know their ecological requirements and their biological characteristics as well as its distribution areas, which implies mapping and monitoring their wild populations. Therefore, it is was planned to systematize the knowledge about their habitat, phenology and distribution of 13 species of edible macrofungi of biological and socio-economic importance associated to the temperate forests of Oaxaca, by using GIS to generate a map of known spatial distribution of these species, starting from the information in literature and that that belong to several herbaria. The taxa collected in a wider range of environments were Cantharellus cibarius and Lycoperdon perlatum. Despite the bias generated by the spatial distribution of the analyzed collections, since they are gathered at specific regions, SIGs are a useful tool to determine the present distribution of fungic resources.

  1. Amphibians in Southern Apennine: distribution, ecology and conservation notes in the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.

  2. BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF NERETVAN RUDD, Scardinius plotizza (HECKEL AND KNER, 1858 (PISCES, CYPRINIDAE IN THE HUTOVO BLATO WETLAND, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Dul?i?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on the biological and ecological characteristics, distribution and habitat, vulnerability and the need for protection of Neretvan rudd Scardinius plotizza (Heckel and Kner, 1858 (Pisces, Cyprinidae, an endemic species of the lower River Neretva in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the area of Hutovo Blato wetland in Bosnia and Herzegovina, this species are numerously represented. It is a resident species and generally prevalent in the colder water areas of the Gornje Blato, such as Lake Deran where it inhabits the deeper central area covered with underwater vegetation. In the choice of habitat, less difference between juvenile and adult populations was observed. Although the current population status of this species in the Hutovo Blato may be assessed as stable, it is likely to be considered endangered in the future if the trends of various negative impacts that threaten its existence prolong. The wetland area of the Hutovo Blato, which is characterized by a large number of endemic species of narrow distribution range, is threatened by significant negative changes in habitat, hence urgent evaluation and protection measures are needed. In order to improve the conservation status of this species, as well as high ichthyological diversity of this area, of particular importance are the following: effective protection of habitat, improved water management measures and prevention of further introduction and spreading of exotic species. Also, it is necessary to accurately determine its taxonomic position. It is proposed that IUCN classifies this species as Near Threatened (NT in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the basis of its current status, as well as projections for future development and the IUCN criteria.

  3. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Liping; Lei, Kun; Nan, Bingxu

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination was investigated in concurrently sampled surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment of Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China. The total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 71.12 to 4255.43 ng/L in water, from 1969.95 to 11612.21 ng/L in SPM, and from 374.84 to 11588.85 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediment. Although the 2-3 ring PAHs were main PAH congeners in water and SPM, the 4-6 ring PAHs were also detected and their distribution was site-specific, indicating a very recent PAHs input around the area since they were hydrophobic. The PAHs pollution was identified as mixed combustion and petroleum sources. Based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD), the ecological risk in SPM from 82% stations was found to be higher obviously than that in water. The risk in water was basically ranked as medium, while the risk in SPM was ranked as high. Analysis with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that negative eco-risk occasionally occurred in about 50% stations, while negative eco-risk frequently occurred in about 3% stations only caused by Phenanthrene(Phe) and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene(DBA). Here freshwater acute effects data together with saltwater data were used for SSD model. And this method could quickly give the rational risk information, and achieved our objective that compared the spatial difference of risk levels among three compartments. The results confirmed that the use of freshwater acute effects data from the ECOTOX database together with saltwater effects data is acceptable for risk assessment purposes in estuary. PMID:26855211

  4. Plant taxonomy: a historical perspective, current challenges, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhan, Germinal; Gaudeul, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is the science that explores, describes, names, and classifies all organisms. In this introductory chapter, we highlight the major historical steps in the elaboration of this science that provides baseline data for all fields of biology and plays a vital role for society but is also an independent, complex, and sound hypothesis-driven scientific discipline.In a first part, we underline that plant taxonomy is one of the earliest scientific disciplines that emerged thousands of years ago, even before the important contributions of Greeks and Romans (e.g., Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides). In the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, plant taxonomy benefited from the Great Navigations, the invention of the printing press, the creation of botanic gardens, and the use of the drying technique to preserve plant specimens. In parallel with the growing body of morpho-anatomical data, subsequent major steps in the history of plant taxonomy include the emergence of the concept of natural classification, the adoption of the binomial naming system (with the major role of Linnaeus) and other universal rules for the naming of plants, the formulation of the principle of subordination of characters, and the advent of the evolutionary thought. More recently, the cladistic theory (initiated by Hennig) and the rapid advances in DNA technologies allowed to infer phylogenies and to propose true natural, genealogy-based classifications.In a second part, we put the emphasis on the challenges that plant taxonomy faces nowadays. The still very incomplete taxonomic knowledge of the worldwide flora (the so-called taxonomic impediment) is seriously hampering conservation efforts that are especially crucial as biodiversity enters its sixth extinction crisis. It appears mainly due to insufficient funding, lack of taxonomic expertise, and lack of communication and coordination. We then review recent initiatives to overcome these limitations and to anticipate how taxonomy should and could evolve. In particular, the use of molecular data has been era-splitting for taxonomy and may allow an accelerated pace of species discovery. We examine both strengths and limitations of such techniques in comparison to morphology-based investigations, we give broad recommendations on the use of molecular tools for plant taxonomy, and we highlight the need for an integrative taxonomy based on evidence from multiple sources. PMID:24415467

  5. Isoprenoid emission in hygrophyte and xerophyte European woody flora: ecological and evolutionary implications.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loreto, F.; Bagnoli, F.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Cafasso, D.; De Lillis, M.; Filibeck, G.; Finsechi, S.; Guidolotti, G.; Sramko, G.; Tökölyi, J.; Ricotta, C.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 23, ?. 3 (2014), s. 334-345. ISSN 1466-822X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Adaptation * chemo-taxonomy * hygrophytes * isoprene * monoterpenes * phylogenies * salicaceae * xerophytes * water stress Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.531, year: 2014

  6. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria and the ability to operationalise and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMDs taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. The expanded TMDs taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalise and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria.

  7. Historical development and some emendations of dinoflagellate taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of dinoflagellate taxonomy in China and the world are reviewed, and the taxonomic status of some dinoflagellate groups in Chinese coastal seas are emended. It has been more than 200 years since the discovery of dinoflagellates, but following intensive study, increasing confusion and controversy in dinofalgellate taxonomy has become apparent. In this paper, a broad overview of the history of dinoflagellate taxonomy is presented, highlighting some major developments. Differences exist between the international and Chinese taxonomy system. When comparing the internationally accepted system (based on the information provided by the website algaeBASE with that used in China (based on the monograph Checklist of Marine Biota of China Seas, we found that they were very similar at the order level, but some differences existed at the family and genus levels. According to morphological and some physiological characteristics, a more reasonable taxonomy is presented. The main emendations are: (1 the three genera named Karenia, Karlodinium and Takayama, are separated from the family Gymnodiniaceae and classified as a new family Kareniaceae; (2 most species in the genus Ceratium are placed in Neoceratium; (3 the genus Alexandrium is separated from family Goniodomataceae, and placed in the family Gonyaulacaceae; (4 the family Heteraulacaceae is replaced by the family Goniodomataceae; and (5 two new orders, Oxyrrhinales and Pyrocystales, are established.

  8. Integrative taxonomy for continental-scale terrestrial insect observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cara M; Kao, Rebecca H; Blevins, Kali K; Travers, Patrick D

    2012-01-01

    Although 21(st) century ecology uses unprecedented technology at the largest spatio-temporal scales in history, the data remain reliant on sound taxonomic practices that derive from 18(th) century science. The importance of accurate species identifications has been assessed repeatedly and in instances where inappropriate assignments have been made there have been costly consequences. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will use a standardized system based upon an integrative taxonomic foundation to conduct observations of the focal terrestrial insect taxa, ground beetles and mosquitoes, at the continental scale for a 30 year monitoring program. The use of molecular data for continental-scale, multi-decadal research conducted by a geographically widely distributed set of researchers has not been evaluated until this point. The current paper addresses the development of a reference library for verifying species identifications at NEON and the key ways in which this resource will enhance a variety of user communities. PMID:22666362

  9. TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Pasaron casi 100 años entre la designación por Linneo de la entonces única especie de Arachis (A. hypogaea L. conocida por los europeos, y el primer tratamiento taxonómico del
    género por Bentham en 1841. Durante los siguientes 100 años, aparecieron cinco a diez
    descripciones de especies adicionales, que asignaban diferentes especies a los mismos
    nombres, y diferentes nombres a las mismas especies. A mediados del Siglo XX, era imposible
    examinar un ejemplar de herbario de Arachis y asignar con alguna certeza algún epíteto a algún
    espécimen (que no fuera un ejemplar tipo excepto a A. hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa y
    A. villosulicarpa.
    En nuestro tratamiento, la literatura de este caos botánico en Arachis esta revisada en detalle y
    se hace un análisis de los fundamentos de su ocurrencia. Se demuestra que las bases de la
    confusión moran en la combinación de la naturaleza esotérica de los caracteres morfológicos
    diferenciados de Arachis, de los especímenes fragmentarios de antaño, y de la representación
    de especies por plántulas.
    Además, se relata cómo, en 1959, decidimos reexplorar la localidad tipo de cada especie hasta
    entonces conocida, y recolectar allí especímenes de las plantas enteras y así resolver el
    problema. Después de treinta y cinco años, dos generaciones de coleccionistas de plantas, y
    alrededor de 2000 colecciones, presentamos aquí las descripciones de 69 especies de Arachis,
    especies distribuidas en Sudamérica al este de los Andes, al sud del Amazonas, al norte de La
    Plata y desde el noroeste argentino hasta el nordeste de Brasil.
    Descubrimos muy pronto que los caracteres más significativos de Arachis residen en sus
    estructuras subterráneas, incluyendo sus frutos, tallos rizomatosos, sistemas radicales e
    hipocótilos.
    Demostramos que estos caracteres determinantes tienden a aglomerar las colecciones en
    grupos que se asocian con áreas geográficas y formaciones ecológicas generalmente diferentes.
    Hicimos un muestreo de 100 materiales representativos de aquellos grupos, áreas, y formaciones
    y los arreglamos en un experimento dialélico de cruzamientos y mostramos, en cruzamientos
    entre materiales de los diferentes grupos, un número notable de fracasos completos en la
    fertilización cruzada y, en aquellos híbridos que se lograron, se observó una alta tasa de
    infertilidad en la F1. Cuando se combinaron estas incompatibilidades e infertilidades de polen
    híbrido con los datos de agrupamiento de caracteres morfológicos, se cristalizaron entonces las
    nueve distintas secciones del género aquí presentadas. Las figuras impuestas sobre mapas de
    Sudamérica ilustran las distribuciones geográficas de estas secciones.
    Las colecciones, entonces, fueron asignadas a las diferentes secciones sobre la base de las
    incompatibilidades de cruzamiento y de los agrupamientos de caracteres exo-morfológicos.
    Al hacer estos grupos, las caracteristicas esotéricas a las cuales se hace referencia arriba, tan
    confusas cuando se aplican a través de los límites seccionales, se volvieron altamente pertinentes
    al ser aplicadas al problema de la diferenciación específica entre materiales dentro de las
    secciones. Estas características, aplicadas en conjunto con la citología cromosómica, las reacciones
    cromatográficas y antigénicas, las variaciones en la fertilidad híbrida intra-seccional y las
    adaptaciones de forma de planta, y de hábito anual o perenne, nos permitió definir los siguientes
    taxa del género Arachis:
    Sección I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa. Sección II. ERECTOIDES
    nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A. Hatschbachii nov., 7. A.
    cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana nov., 11. A. gracilis nov.,
    12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a. A. paraguariensis subsp.
    paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov. Sección III. EXTRANERVOSAE
    nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A. marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A.
    lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A. Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa.
    Sección IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov. Sección V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26.
    A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Sección VI.
    CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Sección VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32.
    A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A.
    matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Sección VIII.
    RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Serie PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Serie
    RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A.
    glabrata var. Hagenbeckii. Sección IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A.
    monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A.
    Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox
    12 nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A.
    Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov.
    comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi,
    68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea, var. 2. hirsuta, 69b.
    A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3. aequatoriana nov.,
    var. 4. vulgaris.
    Se demuestra cómo los sistemas reproductivos autógamos, la reproducción agamética, el hábito
    de fructificación subterránea y el mecanismo limitado de dispersión de semillas están lógicamente
    ligados con la deriva de organización cromosómica que da origen a incrementos notables de
    infertilidad en cruzamientos entre diferentes accesiones de la misma especie, a una infertilidad
    variablemente más alta en cruzamientos entre especies dentro de las secciones, hasta una casi
    total infertilidad entre especies de diferentes secciones.
    Las relaciones evolutivas y filogenéticas entre las diferentes secciones están discutidas y
    también demostradas en una secuencia de diagramas ilustrando las ideas presentadas. Es
    evidente que las distancias genéticas que separan las secciones están lejos de ser todas de la
    misma magnitud. Las secciones presumiblemente más antiguas (Triseminatae, Trierectoides,
    Erectoides, Extranervosae y Heteranthae, excepto por la sección Erectoides, están mucho más
    aisladas de las secciones restantes y entre sí que aquellas secciones que se consideran de
    origen más reciente (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae y Arachis.
    La sección Arachis es por mucho la más grande, pues contiene cerca de 40% de las especies
    descritas. Parece que las especies de esta sección se están expandiendo hacia nuevos territorios
    e invadiendo áreas ocupadas por especies de otras secciones. Crecen entremezcladas con
    poblaciones de Extranervosae en la cuenca alta del río Paraguay y ocupan terrenos comunes
    con la sección Procumbentes en el Gran Pantanal. Han llegado hasta las orillas de La Plata y a la
    costa sureste de Brasil, y crecen desde Yala en el noroeste de la Argentina hasta el río Tocantins
    en el nordeste de Brasil. Incluyen el cultígeno de importancia mundial, A. hypogaea.
    Esencialmente cada trabajo publicado sobre la historia botánica y la taxonomía de Arachis está
    presentado aquí en las referencias a especímenes individuales y en la bibliografía general. La
    historia de A. hypogaea desde principios del Siglo XVI hasta tiempos más recientes, junto con los
    nombres comunes en varios idiomas autóctonos americanos, nos dan una perspectiva sobre la
    antigüedad de este cultivo y el nivel de civilización requerido para su creación.
    Seis apéndices proporcionan datos de apoyo e información de archivo. Claves diagnósticas a las
    secciones y a las especies dentro de cada sección seleccionan los rasgos más distintivos de las
    secciones y especies. Diecinueve dibujos de línea capturan las estructuras claves para distinguir
    las secciones y especies, incluyendo plantas enteras, sistemas radicales, orientaciones de
    frutos, reproducción agamética a partir de estructuras fructíferas, formas de carpelos, y la
    fisionomía superficial de hojas y tallos.
    Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus’ naming the then lone species of Arachis (A.
    hypogaea L. known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham in
    1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared, assigning
    different species to the same names, and different names to the same species. By mid-20th
    Century, it was impossible to examine any herbarium collection of Arachis and assign any epithet
    with any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A. hypogaea, A.
    guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa.
    In our treatment, the literature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and an
    assessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for the
    confusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphological
    features of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections, and the representation of species by
    seedling specimens.
    Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species then
    known, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty-five
    years, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later, we present here 69
    species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south of
    the Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil.
    We soon discovered that the most significant characters of Arachis lay in their underground
    structures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls.
    We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups which
    were associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features.
    We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these clusters, areas and features, and
    arranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between collections representing
    different clusters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures to
    cross-fertilize and, in those hybrids that were recovered, a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility.
    When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data on
    character clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized.
    Figures imposed upon maps of South America illustrate the geographic distributions of these
    sections.
    The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of cross-incompatibility
    and exo-morphologic character clustering. When these groups were made, the esoteric
    characteristics referred to above, so confounding when applied across sectional lines, became
    highly pertinent when applied to the problem of species differentiation between collections within
    sections. These characteristics, applied in conjunction with chromosome cytology,
    chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional hybrid fertility and
    adaptations of plant form, and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to assemble the following
    taxa of the genus Arachis: Section I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa.
    Section II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A.
    Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana
    nov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a.
    A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov.
    Section III. EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A.
    marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A.
    Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov.
    Section V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A.
    Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII.
    PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A.
    chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A.
    subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A.
    Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var.
    glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var. Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A.
    cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A.
    Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma
    nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A.
    decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A.
    correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi
    nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea,
    var. 2. hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3.
    aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris.
    The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit and
    the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal
    organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different
    collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within
    sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections.
    The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed and
    are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating the ideas presented. It is evident that the
    genetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude. The
    presumably older sections (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae and
    Heteranthae, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sections
    and from each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae,
    Rhizomatosae and Arachis.
    Section Arachis is by far the largest, containing about 40% of the species described. Species of
    this section appear to be spreading into new territory and to be invading areas occupied by
    species of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the upper
    Paraguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran Pantanal.
    They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and grow from
    Yala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They include the worldwide cultivar, A.
    hypogaea.
    Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is presented
    here in the individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A.
    hypogaea from the early 16th Century to more recent times, along with the common names in
    several native American languages, provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and the
    level of civilization required for its creation.
    Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the sections
    and to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing characteristics of the
    sections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures of
    whole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures,
    carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  10. Molecular Taxonomy and Tumourigenesis of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S; Holyoake, D; Maughan, T S

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 5 years there has been a surge in interest in the molecular classification of colorectal cancer. The effect of molecular subtyping on current treatment decisions is limited to avoidance of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in stage II microsatellite unstable-high disease and avoidance of epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted antibodies in extended RAS mutant tumours. The emergence of specific novel combination therapy for the BRAF-mutant cohort and of the microsatellite unstable-high cohort as a responsive group to immune checkpoint inhibition shows the growing importance of a clinically relevant molecular taxonomy. Clinical trials such as the Medical Research Council FOCUS4 trial using biomarkers to select patients for specific therapies are currently open and testing such approaches. The integration of mutation, gene expression and pathological analyses is refining our understanding of the biological subtypes within colorectal cancer. Sharing of data sets of parallel sequencing and gene expression of thousands of cancers among independent groups has allowed the description of disease subsets and the need for a validated consensus classification has become apparent. This biological understanding of the disease is a key step forward in developing a stratified approach to patient management. The discovery of stratifiers that predict a response to existing and emerging therapies will enable better use of these treatments. Improved scientific understanding of the biological characteristics of poorly responsive subgroups will facilitate the design of novel biologically rational combinations. Novel treatment regimens, including the combination of new drugs with radiation, and the discovery and validation of their associated predictive biomarkers will gradually lead to improved outcomes from therapy. PMID:26631427

  11. A taxonomy of control in intensified processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process Intensification (PI) is a revolutionary approach to design, development and implementation of process and plant. PI technology offers improved environment in a chemical process in terms of better products, and processes which are safer, cleaner, smaller - and cheaper. PI is a strategy of making dramatic reductions in the size of unit operations within chemical plants, in order to achieve given production objectives. However, PI technology would be handicapped if such system is not properly controlled. There are some foreseeable problems in order to control such processes for instance, dynamic interaction between components that make up a control loop, response time of the instrumentations, availability of proper sensor and etc. In some cases, in order to control these systems, advanced control solutions have been applied i.e. model predictive controllers (MPC) and its different algorithms such as quadratic generalized predictive control (QGPC) and self tuning quadratic generalized predictive control (STQGPC). Nevertheless in some cases simpler solutions could be applied to control such system for example proportional integral controller in the control of reactive distillation systems. As mentioned, conventional control systems like proportional-integral, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and their different structures can be used in PI systems but due to inherent nonlinearity and fast responsiveness of PI systems, digital controllers-regarding to their robustness-are mostly applied in order to control PI systems. Regarding to the fact that choosing the appropriate control strategy is the most essential part of making PI systems possible to be handle easily, taxonomy of the usage of various control structure in controlling PI systems is proposed. This paper offers an overview and discussion on identifying potential problems of instrumentation in PI technology and available control strategies

  12. ExploitingWeb Service Semantics Taxonomies vs. Ontologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dogac, A; Kabak, Y; Cingil, I; Dogac, Asuman; Laleci, Gokce; Kabak, Yildiray; Cingil, Ibrahim

    2002-01-01

    Comprehensive semantic descriptions of Web services are essential to exploit them in their full potential, that is, discovering them dynamically, and enabling automated service negotiation, composition and monitoring. The semantic mechanisms currently available in service registries which are based on taxonomies fail to provide the means to achieve this. Although the terms taxonomy and ontology are sometimes used interchangably there is a critical difference. A taxonomy indicates only class/subclass relationship whereas an ontology describes a domain completely. The essential mechanisms that ontology languages provide include their formal specification (which allows them to be queried) and their ability to define properties of classes. Through properties very accurate descriptions of services can be defined and services can be related to other services or resources. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of describing service semantics through ontology languages and describe how to relate the semantics defi...

  13. Taxonomy and biogeography of Stephanoxis Simon, 1897 (Aves: Trochilidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vagner, Cavarzere; Luís Fábio, Silveira; Marcelo Ferreira de, Vasconcelos; Rolf, Grantsau; Fernando Costa, Straube.

    Full Text Available Após a descrição no século XIX de duas espécies de beija-flores atualmente alocados no gênero Stephanoxis, ambos os táxons foram considerados subespécies por Peters (1945), sem que o autor fornecesse qualquer justificativa para tal decisão taxonômica. Com base em um expressivo número de exemplares n [...] ós reavaliamos a taxonomia e o limite de espécies dos representantes deste gênero, e demonstramos que ambos são mais bem tratados como espécies plenas sob os Conceitos Biológico e Filogenético de Espécie devido aos bem definidos padrões de plumagem e de distribuição geográfica, assim como pela distinta reciprocidade monofilética. Ambos os táxons são separados por cerca de 160 quilômetros entre a Serra do Mar, a leste, e a Serra de Paranapiacaba, a oeste, dentro do Estado de São Paulo. A distribuição das duas espécies de Stephanoxis é congruente com as de outras espécies de aves montanas, o que sugere eventos vicariantes compartilhados durante períodos interglaciais pretéritos. Abstract in english After the description in the 19th century of two hummingbird species currently allocated to the genus Stephanoxis, Peters (1945) merged both taxa into a single species without providing any rationale. Here we re-evaluate the taxonomy and species limits of the representatives of this genus based on a [...] n extensive number of specimens. We demonstrate these taxa are better treated as full species under both the Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts due to their well-defined range and plumage patterns and reciprocally diagnosability. They have distinct, allopatric distributions segregated by a 160 km gap between the Serra do Mar, to the east, and Serra de Paranapiacaba, to the west, in the state of São Paulo. Stephanoxis species have ranges which are congruent with other montane bird species’ suggesting shared vicariance events during preterit interglacial periods.

  14. New data on morphometrics, distribution and ecology of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1849 (Orthoptera, Acrididae in Spain: is maghrebi a well defined subespecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, J. M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied different populations of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1859 in Spain assigned to subspecies maghrebi by Fernandes (1968 and obtained some new records for the species. To see if maghrebi is a consistent taxon for the Iberian populations, we performed a morphometric analysis involving 53 individuals from different origins considering body size (front of the head to tip of the abdomen; the shape of pronotum and presence of a second anterior notch or sulcus; length of the antennae and epiphallum, according to the characters used to define subspecies maghrebi. If maghrebi is consistent, we would expect intermediate sizes between wagneri and rogenhoferi, the other two well separated subspecies considered for M.w. However, in our measurements we obtained that body size is not intermediate between M. w. wagneri and M. w. rogenhoferi contrary to expectations if assuming the existence of maghrebi. Body size is similar to wagneri and further, we recorded some of the smallest individuals described so far. Also, the pronotum varied widely across and within populations showing different phenotypes that formerly were used to separate maghrebi and wagneri. Taking into account body size, pronotum, length of antenna and epiphallum, we think that differences between the studied Spanish populations and wagneri form are not enough to assign the studied populations to maghrebi. In the studied area, M.w. shows a narrow ecological niche inhabiting shores or proximities of hipersaline lagoons wherever Suaeda vera (Forsskål 1791, Chenopodiacea is present, M.w. uses this plant as refuge and food. The species also inhabits bare saline low grounds with scattered S vera. It presents a markedly discontinuous and patchy distribution in Spain, showing up punctually, where the microhabitat is appropriate. We obtained a morphometric variability with a significant association between body size and locality, and between body size and the colour of posterior wings in males. Because of its wide range disjunction, its discontinuous regional distribution and morphological variability, we believe that M.w. is an interesting species to investigate possible substructuring of populations in which we probably may recognize ecological forms or varieties that deserve deeper and further study.Estudiamos distintas poblaciones de Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1859, considerado como M. w. maghrebi por Fernandes (1968 en España, con algunas nuevas citas para la especie. Para dilucidar si el taxón maghrebi es consistente en nuestras poblaciones, realizamos un análisis morfométrico de 53 ejemplares considerando los mismos caracteres utilizados para establecer dicha subespecie, a citar: tamaño del cuerpo, relieve y forma del pronoto, longitud de la antena y forma del epifalo. El tamaño de los individuos de nuestras poblaciones no es intermedio entre las formas conocidas de M. w. wagneri y M. w. rogenhoferi Saussuare, 1888, como cabría esperar asumiendo la existencia de maghrebi. Nuestras poblaciones no se apartan del tamaño de wagneri e incluso encontramos las menores tallas descritas para este taxón. El relieve del pronoto, y en particular la presencia de un segundo surco, el anterior, es muy variable abarcando en una misma población fenotipos dispares utilizados anteriormente para separar las formas maghrebi y wagneri. Las diferencias entre el tamaño del cuerpo, el pronoto, la longitud de la antena y la forma del epifalo no nos parecen suficientes para asignar como maghrebi al conjunto de las poblaciones estudiadas y separarlas de la subespecie nominada wagneri. M.w. es una especie de requerimientos ecológicos muy restringidos. La hemos encontrado a orillas de lagunas hipersalinas y siempre dependiendo de Suaeda vera (Forsskål, 1791 Chenopodiacea que utiliza como refugio y alimento, en particular en suelos desnudos y salitrosos donde predominan manchas de esa planta. Su distribución regional es marcadamente discontinua y muy puntual, presentándose allí donde el hábitat le es propicio. Aunque el análisis es preliminar, encontra

  15. Taxonomy, Ontology and Semantics at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah Ann

    2011-01-01

    At NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Chief Knowledge Officer has been developing the JSC Taxonomy to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information environment of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seemless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

  16. A Taxonomy of Vision Systems for Ground Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Martínez-Gómez; Antonio Fernández-Caballero; Ismael García-Varea; Luis Rodri?guez; Cristina Romero-Gonza?lez

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a taxonomy of vision systems for ground mobile robots. In the last five years, a significant number of relevant papers have contributed to this subject. Firstly, a thorough review of the papers is proposed to discuss and classify both past and the most current approaches in the field. As a result, a global picture of the state of the art of the last five years is obtained. Moreover, the study of the articles is used to put forward a comprehensive taxonomy based on the mo...

  17. A Practitioner's Perspective on Taxonomy, Ontology and Findability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the presenters perspective on developing a taxonomy for JSC to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday, while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seamless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

  18. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  19. Current and pending taxonomy of the Pasteurellaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein Technical University of Denmark,

    Since the family Pasteurellaceae was established in 1981 the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant changes. 16S DNA sequencing showed in the early 1990-ties, that the three original genera were genetically heterogeneous. Presently, the family consists of 13 genetically coherent genera with 38 properly classified species. In addition, there are 24 misclassified species that have been excluded from the genera Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Heamophilus and which probably will be allocated to new genera in the future. At the moment 92 different taxa (named species and provisional taxa) have been described within the family. In the presentation different methods for species delineation will be presented and potential problems discussed in relation to selected examples. It is currently recommended that a new species should be separated from other species by at lest two phenotypic tests. Within genus Mannheimia the separation between M. haemolytica and M. glucosida was based on a polyphasic taxonomic investigation, but there is only one phenotypic character to separate the species and presently no genotypic test. A group of Mannheimia sp. is genetically distinct but lack common phenotypic characters and can consequently not be formally named. Such problems could be solved by establishing genomospecies. Histophilus somni represent a genotypically well defined species but show great phenotypic variability. Here a PCR test based on the rrn-operon was included in the formal species description. [Haemophilus] parasuis show marked variability in the rnn-operons and illustrates that analysis of 16S rDNA sequences can lead to incorrect conclusions in a non-clonal population. The separation between Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and A. lignieresii is not possible based on the rrn-operons alone but the existence of two separate species is evident based on AFLP-genotyping. Although 16S sequencing is a versatile tool for taxonomic investigations, its discriminative power for species delineation is in a number of cases limited. DNA-DNA hybridization is still regarded as a golden standard for separating species but the sequencing of housekeeping genes represents a promising alternative. Whole genome sequencing will probably accelerate as less labour intensive methods are developed and prices go down. Data from these genome sequencing projects will make a more detailed study of the genetic affiliation between strains and species feasible. At the same time the genotypic variation within a species and the description of the “pan-genomes” and “core-genomes” will represent a challenge to our conception of what a species is.

  20. Biology and ecology of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Richardson, Anthony J; Winkel, Kenneth D; Fenner, Peter J; Lippmann, John; Hore, Russell; Avila-Soria, Griselda; Brewer, David; Kloser, Rudy J; Steven, Andy; Condie, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Irukandji stings are a leading occupational health and safety issue for marine industries in tropical Australia and an emerging problem elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Their mild initial sting frequently results in debilitating illness, involving signs of sympathetic excess including excruciating pain, sweating, nausea and vomiting, hypertension and a feeling of impending doom; some cases also experience acute heart failure and pulmonary oedema. These jellyfish are typically small and nearly invisible, and their infestations are generally mysterious, making them scary to the general public, irresistible to the media, and disastrous for tourism. Research into these fascinating species has been largely driven by the medical profession and focused on treatment. Biological and ecological information is surprisingly sparse, and is scattered through grey literature or buried in dispersed publications, hampering understanding. Given that long-term climate forecasts tend toward conditions favourable to jellyfish ecology, that long-term legal forecasts tend toward increasing duty-of-care obligations, and that bioprospecting opportunities exist in the powerful Irukandji toxins, there is a clear need for information to help inform global research and robust management solutions. We synthesise and contextualise available information on Irukandji taxonomy, phylogeny, reproduction, vision, behaviour, feeding, distribution, seasonality, toxins, and safety. Despite Australia dominating the research in this area, there are probably well over 25 species worldwide that cause the syndrome and it is an understudied problem in the developing world. Major gaps in knowledge are identified for future research: our lack of clarity on the socio-economic impacts, and our need for time series and spatial surveys of the species, make this field particularly enticing. PMID:24182899

  1. The taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of the myrmecophilous Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Terblanche

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance and integration of scientific knowledge to conservation management of the locally popular and highly endemic butterfly genus Chrysoritis are investigated within the research fields of taxonomy and biogeography. The butterfly genus Chrysoritis contains at least 41 species endemic to South Africa. The taxonomy of Chrysoritis has reached a state where revisions could easily result in a plethora of names between “lumping and splitting”. In practice, the state of the taxonomy of these butterflies on species level may alter their conservation priority. The two most species rich species groups in Chrysoritis have different centres of endemism, however, a butterfly atlas becomes a necessity to reveal more about their biogeography. There is an absence of butterfly species lists in many of our National Parks and Nature Reserves. Legislation should facilitate rather than limit the valuable role of the amateur lepidopterist to add distribution records. In turn, the amateur lepidopterists should adapt and make an effort to explore unknown localities, apart from monitoring butterflies at their well-known localities. The red listing of localised butterflies in South Africa, including a number of Chrysoritis species, is in need of an urgent review in the light of the most recent IUCN categories. A species such as Chrysoritis dicksoni should be protected by law - but at its known localities. The scenario that real conservation action is only needed if the last known locality of a butterfly is threatened, should be abolished. A paradigm shift to conserve the metapopulations of the highly endemic Chrysoritis genus and not merely a few of its species as items that appear on lists, seems necessary.

  2. A taxonomy of endogenous and exogenous uncertainty in high-risk, high-impact contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison, Laurence; Power, Nicola; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Waring, Sara

    2015-07-01

    By reference to a live hostage negotiation exercise, this study presents a taxonomy of uncertainty that can be usefully applied to assist in the categorization and application of findings from decision-making research conducted in naturalistic (specifically critical incident) settings. Uncertainty was measured via observational methods (during the exercise and by reference to video footage), decision logs, and postincident simulated recall interviews with trainee police officers. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically. Uncertainty was dichotomized as deriving from either endogenous sources (about the problem situation itself) or exogenous sources (about the operating system that is dealing with the incident). Overall, exogenous uncertainty (75%) was more prevalent than endogenous uncertainty (25%), specifically during discussions on plan formulation and execution. It was also qualitatively associated with poor role understanding and trust. Endogenous uncertainty was more prevalent during discussions on situation assessment and plan formulation. The taxonomy provides a useful way for organizational researchers to categorize uncertainty during the naturalistic observations of workplace interactions and decision making. It reduces the complexity associated with observational research to allow organizational psychologists to better tailor their recommendations for reducing uncertainty. Dealing with endogenous uncertainties would entail targeting decision making specific to the problem incident (e.g., introduce training or policy to reduce redundant fixation on rote-repetitive superordinate goals and focus on more short-term actionable goals during situation assessments). Dealing with exogenous uncertainties would entail improving decision making relating to management and team processes across critical incidents (e.g., training to clarify distributed roles in critical incident teams to aid plan formulation and execution). Organizational researchers interested in uncertainty management in the workplace should utilize this taxonomy as a guide to (a) categorize uncertainty and (b) generate applicable recommendations from their findings. PMID:25546264

  3. Atherinella blackburni (Schultz, 1949) at Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, SP: ecological characterization and distribution on the Brazilian coast (Teleostei: Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae) Atherinella blackburni (Schultz, 1949) na praia de Itamambuca, Ubatuba, SP: caracterização ecológica e distribuição na costa brasileira (Teleostei: Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae)

    OpenAIRE

    GMT. Mattox; GF. Gondolo; PTM. Cunningham

    2008-01-01

    Atherinella blackburni is a silverside species whose occurrence on the Brazilian coast was not properly registered until recently. So far, records of its distribution along the Brazilian shore were limited to Itaparica Island, Bahia State, and Porto Inhaúma, Rio de Janeiro State. In a recent survey of the ichthyofauna of Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo State, 100 specimens of this species were collected, yielding a considerable source of information regarding its ecology and a new southe...

  4. A Note on Extending Taylor's Power Law for Characterizing Human Microbial Communities: Inspiration from Comparative Studies on the Distribution Patterns of Insects and Galaxies, and as a Case Study for Medical Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2012-01-01

    Many natural patterns, such as the distributions of blood particles in a blood sample, proteins on cell surfaces, biological populations in their habitat, galaxies in the universe, the sequence of human genes, and the fitness in evolutionary computing, have been found to follow power law. Taylor's power law (Taylor 1961: Nature, 189:732-) is well recognized as one of the fundamental models in population ecology. A fundamental property of biological populations, which Taylor's power law reveal...

  5. Study of endophytic Xylariaceae in Thailand: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses with saprobes forming fruit bodies in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okane, Izumi; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Toyama, Kyoko; Læssøe, Thomas; Sivichai, Somsak; Hywell-Jones, Nigel; Nakagiri, Akira; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2008-01-01

    A study of the diversity, taxonomy, and ecology of endophytic Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) was carried out. In this study, we obtained isolates of Xylariaceae from healthy, attached leaves and teleomorphic stromata on decayed plant materials in a permanent plot at Khao Yai National Park (Thailand). In...... addition, strains deposited beforehand were selected in which both endophytic strains isolated from living plant tissues and saprobic strains from fruit bodies were included. Consequently, 405 strains of Xylariaceae (273 endophytic and 132 saprobic strains, including identified strains) were studied to...... reveal the diversity and taxonomy of endophytes and the relationships between those endophytes and saprobic Xylariaceae in Thailand that have been recorded according to fruit-body formation on decayed plant materials. Analysis of 28S rDNA D1/D2 sequences revealed 21 xylariaceous species inhabiting...

  6. Application of Modern Experimental Technique to Solve Morphological Complexity in Plants Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURANTO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern taxonomy has two approaches, i.e. classical and experimental taxonomy. Classical taxonomy uses morphological characters, while experimental taxonomy uses broader methods including chemistry, physics and mathematics, in the form of laboratory data that are revealed together with the progress of optical technique (microscope, chemistry methods (chromatography, electrophoresis, etc. Modern taxonomy tends to use series of interrelated data. More data used would result in more validity and give better clarification of taxonomic status. A lot of modern taxonomic data such as palynology, cytotaxonomy (cytology, chemical constituent (chemotaxonomy, isozyme and DNA sequencing were used recently.

  7. Evaluating the Species Boundaries of Green Microalgae (Coccomyxa, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) Using Integrative Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding with Further Implications for the Species Identification in Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darienko, Tatyana; Gustavs, Lydia; Eggert, Anja; Wolf, Wiebke; Pröschold, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy is an approach for defining species and genera by taking phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, and ecological data into account. This approach is appropriate for microalgae, where morphological convergence and high levels of morphological plasticity complicate the application of the traditional classification. Although DNA barcode markers are well-established for animals, fungi, and higher plants, there is an ongoing discussion about suitable markers for microalgae and protists because these organisms are genetically more diverse compared to the former groups. To solve these problems, we assess the usage of a polyphasic approach combining phenotypic and genetic parameters for species and generic characterization. The application of barcode markers for database queries further allows conclusions about the 'coverage' of culture-based approaches in biodiversity studies and integrates additional aspects into modern taxonomic concepts. Although the culture-dependent approach revealed three new lineages, which are described as new species in this paper, the culture-independent analyses discovered additional putative new species. We evaluated three barcode markers (V4, V9 and ITS-2 regions, nuclear ribosomal operon) and studied the morphological and physiological plasticity of Coccomyxa, which became a model organism because its whole genome sequence has been published. In addition, several biotechnological patents have been registered for Coccomyxa. Coccomyxa representatives are distributed worldwide, are free-living or in symbioses, and colonize terrestrial and aquatic habitats. We investigated more than 40 strains and reviewed the biodiversity and biogeographical distribution of Coccomyxa species using DNA barcoding. The genus Coccomyxa formed a monophyletic group within the Trebouxiophyceae separated into seven independent phylogenetic lineages representing species. Summarizing, the combination of different characteristics in an integrative approach helps to evaluate environmental data and clearly identifies microalgae at generic and species levels. PMID:26080086

  8. Take up the challenge! Opportunities for evolution research from resolving conflict in integrative taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Steiner, Florian M

    2014-09-01

    What's in a species? The multiple connotations of the question tend to lack simple answers, and not surprisingly so. For example, speciation is a gradual process. Can we say when exactly a child has become an adult? We have precocious youngsters and late bloomers, and often, adults are in some ways childish. There are many triggers for and routes to adolescence. All this holds for speciation, and delimiting species can therefore be a tricky task. Recently, the field of integrative taxonomy has emerged-species delimitation based on multiple sources of evidence. Given that we expect species to exhibit peculiarities in at least one or a few aspects, might it be their alleles of a gene, their morphology, chemistry, behaviour, ecology, reproductive compatibility, or whatever, investigating not just one but several of these aspects makes it more likely that we capture such peculiarities. If the same pattern is found multiply, we talk about agreement among disciplines, and species delimitation is easy. But what if different disciplines tell different stories? Such disagreement makes species delimitation more difficult but is also an opportunity for evolutionary biology (Schlick-Steiner et al. 2010). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Andújar et al. (2014) present a comprehensive integrative-taxonomic case study of Mesocarabus ground beetles including nomenclatural consequences. They resolve extensive disagreement among disciplines by invoking evolutionary explanations, and the process of conflict resolution thus advances knowledge on species boundaries and evolutionary processes simultaneously. PMID:25155716

  9. Applying a Knowledge Management Taxonomy to Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambi, Melinda; O'Toole, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of a corporate-based taxonomy of knowledge management to secondary schooling. Do the principles of knowledge management from the corporate world translate to the world of education; specifically, secondary schooling? This article examines categories of knowledge management articulated in…

  10. A Taxonomy of Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Alan R.

    1977-01-01

    Government and business have become more concerned with measuring market performance in terms of consumer satisfactions and dissatisfactions (CS/D). This research is concerned with the question of how one ought to measure CS/D. Offers a taxonomy of alternative CS/D measures and presents data from a national urban study of consumer complaints to…

  11. Physics Assessment and the Development of a Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Buick, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Aspects of assessment in physics are considered with the aim of designing assessments that will encourage a deep approach to student learning and will ultimately lead to higher levels of achievement. A range of physics questions are considered and categorized by the level of knowledge and understanding which is require for a successful answer. Taxonomy is then proposed to aid classification.

  12. Nanda’s taxonomy employment in brazil: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Soares dos Santos, Simone Roque Mazoni, Emilia Campos de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to identify and to classify the studies developed in Brazil that had used in the practical assistencial the Taxonomy of the NANDA. Method: Integrative reveiw of the literature, carried through in the databases LILACS and MEDLINE, using itself the word-key Taxonomy and NANDA, being selected studies with summary, published in Brazil and that presented the practical application of the taxonomy. Results: of the 46 selected studies, 80.4% had been developed in the clinical area and excessively in the surgical area. It had predominance of prospectives studies in the hospital scene; the used theoretical referencial more had been of Horta and Orem. The studies had presented the descriptive delineations and study of case, having been classified as evidence level 4. Conclusion: the evidences point with respect to the use of the Taxonomy of the NANDA as bases for the development of the nursing assistance considering the universality of the language used in the practical area, the individuality of the necessities presented for the customers in the diverse scenes, the aiding of the education of the customer/family, to the results reached with specific interventions.

  13. Integrative taxonomy in two free-living nematode species complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, G.; Derycke, S.; Moens, T.

    2008-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy considers species boundaries from multiple, complementary perspectives, with the main objective being to compare the observed data against the predictions of the methodologies used. In the present study we used three methods for delineating species boundaries within the cosmopolitan nematode species Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina and Halomonhystera disjuncta. First, phylogenetic relationships among molecular sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 ...

  14. Taxonomies in Biology, Phonetice, Phonetics, and Speech Motor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkins, John W.; Bleile, Ken M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper uses biological taxonomies as an analogy to emphasize distinctions among the units of phonetic transcription systems, competence phonologies, and performance phonologies. It points out limitations of the coarticulatory approach and suggests an integrative approach that attempts to avoid tying motor control processes to specific…

  15. Taxonomy Development and Knowledge Representation of Nurses’ Personal Cognitive Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    McLane, Sharon; Turley, James P

    2009-01-01

    Nurses prepare knowledge representations, or summaries of patient clinical data, each shift. These knowledge representations serve multiple purposes, including support of working memory, workload organization and prioritization, critical thinking, and reflection. This summary is integral to internal knowledge representations, working memory, and decision-making. Study of this nurse knowledge representation resulted in development of a taxonomy of knowledge representations necessary to nursing...

  16. A Taxonomy of Virtual Worlds Usage in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ishbel; Miller, Alan; Jiang, Shangyi

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are an important tool in modern education practices as well as providing socialisation, entertainment and a laboratory for collaborative work. This paper focuses on the uses of virtual worlds for education and synthesises over 100 published academic papers, reports and educational websites from around the world. A taxonomy is then…

  17. A taxonomy of myopic stability concepts for hedonic games

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Dinko; Sung, Shao Chin

    2005-01-01

    We present a taxonomy of myopic stability concepts for hedonic games in terms of deviations, and discuss the status of the existence problems of stable coalition structures. In particular, we show that contractual strictly core stable coalition structures always exist, and provide sufficient conditions for the existence of contractually Nash stable and weak individually stable coalition structures on the class of separable games.

  18. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker in the...... 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  19. Mitonuclear Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Geoffrey E

    2015-08-01

    Eukaryotes were born of a chimeric union between two prokaryotes--the progenitors of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Early in eukaryote evolution, most mitochondrial genes were lost or transferred to the nucleus, but a core set of genes that code exclusively for products associated with the electron transport system remained in the mitochondrion. The products of these mitochondrial genes work in intimate association with the products of nuclear genes to enable oxidative phosphorylation and core energy production. The need for coadaptation, the challenge of cotransmission, and the possibility of genomic conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear genes have profound consequences for the ecology and evolution of eukaryotic life. An emerging interdisciplinary field that I call "mitonuclear ecology" is reassessing core concepts in evolutionary ecology including sexual reproduction, two sexes, sexual selection, adaptation, and speciation in light of the interactions of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25931514

  20. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

  1. Application of species sensitivity distribution in aquatic probabilistic ecological risk assessment of cypermethrin: a case study in an urban stream in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2015-03-01

    A tiered ecological risk assessment was applied to quantitatively refine the overall probabilistic risk of cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, to aquatic organisms. These results were then validated through the bioassays using field water from an urban stream, Chebei Creek in Guangzhou, South China. Seventeen water samples were collected along Chebei Creek for evaluation. In total, 71% of the field waters were acutely toxic to Hyallela azteca and 24% of the waters caused 100% mortality. Toxic unit evaluation suggested that cypermethrin was one of the main contributors to toxicity. The tiered ecological risk assessment approach (deterministic quotient method and probabilistic methods, including joint probability curve and Monte Carlo Simulation) suggested that cypermethrin posed significant threats to aquatic ecology in this stream. The overall probabilistic risk of cypermethrin to aquatic species in Chebei Creek reached 66% when acute-to-chronic ratios were set at 125. An exceedance probability of cypermethrin in Chebei Creek that affected H. azteca as modeled using the joint probability curve method was 88%, suggesting that most sites were at risk due to cypermethrin exposure. This value was similar to the results obtained from acute toxicity tests (71% of field water samples were acutely toxic to H. azteca), indicating the effectiveness of the tiered approach to assess risk of cypermethrin in urban waterways. To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first to provide a focused probabilistic evaluation of ecological risk for cypermethrin in a complex urban waterway environment. Despite uncertainties existing in the ecological risk assessment procedure, this approach provides a comprehensive assessment of ecological risk of cypermethrin, and subsequently, a foundation for further risk diagnosis and management in urban waterways. PMID:25545801

  2. Ecological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on the ecological consequences of geothermal energy, oils, plutonium, uranium, radioactive effluents, and trace elements from coal utilization. Studies included vegetative stabilization, measurement of radiation exposures in rodents, measurement of radon-222 flux from inactive uranium mill tailings piles, chemical quality of effluents, and others

  3. Fish pathogens near the Arctic Circle: molecular, morphological and ecological evidence for unexpected diversity of Diplostomum (Digenea: diplostomidae) in Iceland.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Skirnisson, K.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 44, ?. 10 (2014), s. 703-715. ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP505/10/1562; GA ?R GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Integrative taxonomy * Fish pathogens * Diplostomum * coxl * ITS * Sub-Arctic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.872, year: 2014

  4. Failure Modes Taxonomy for Reliability Assessment of Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems for Probabilistic Risk Analysis - Failure modes taxonomy for reliability assessment of digital I and C systems for PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital protection and control systems appear as upgrades in older nuclear power plants (NPP), and are commonplace in new NPPs. To assess the risk of NPP operation and to determine the risk impact of digital systems, there is a need to quantitatively assess the reliability of the digital systems in a justifiable manner. Due to the many unique attributes of digital systems (e.g., functions are implemented by software, units of the system interact in a communication network, faults can be identified and handled online), a number of modelling and data collection challenges exist, and international consensus on the reliability modelling has not yet been reached. The objective of the task group called DIGREL has been to develop a taxonomy of failure modes of digital components for the purposes of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). An activity focused on the development of a common taxonomy of failure modes is seen as an important step towards standardised digital instrumentation and control (I and C) reliability assessment techniques for PRA. Needs from PRA has guided the work, meaning, e.g., that the I and C system and its failures are studied from the point of view of their functional significance point of view. The taxonomy will be the basis of future modelling and quantification efforts. It will also help to define a structure for data collection and to review PRA studies. The proposed failure modes taxonomy has been developed by first collecting examples of taxonomies provided by the task group organisations. This material showed some variety in the handling of I and C hardware failure modes, depending on the context where the failure modes have been defined. Regarding the software part of I and C, failure modes defined in NPP PRAs have been simple - typically a software CCF failing identical processing units. The DIGREL task group has defined a new failure modes taxonomy based on a hierarchical definition of five levels of abstraction: 1. system level (complete reactor protection system), 2. division level, 3. I and C unit level, 4. I and C unit modules level, 5. basic components level. This structure corresponds to a typical reactor protection system architecture, which is the scope of the DIGREL work. The taxonomy that was developed provides a framework to classify digital system failure modes. Failure propagation, which is essential for analysing failure modes and their effects, is described using a failure model. Four important elements of the failure model on which the taxonomy focuses stand out: 1. fault location, 2. failure mode, 3. uncovering situation, 4. failure effect and the end effect. These concepts are applied in particular at the I and C unit and module levels of abstraction. I and C unit level failure modes are associated with the end effects at the I and C unit module level, depending on the fault location and uncovering situation. The purpose of the taxonomy is to support PRAs and therefore focus is placed on high level functional aspects rather than low level structural aspects. This focus allows handling of the variability of failure modes and mechanisms of I and C components. It reduces the difficulties associated with the complex structural aspects of software in redundant distributed systems. At the level of system, division and I and C units, no significant distinction is made between hardware or software aspects. At the module and basic component levels, the taxonomy differentiates between hardware and software related failure modes. This report can be seen as a step towards more harmonised approach to analyse and model digital I and C in PRA. There is a number of areas where further studies are needed, and many of the recommendations given in the previous digital I and C expert report NEA/CSNI/R(2009)18 are still valid. For instance, the following actions could be considered: - Testing of the applicability of the taxonomy in modelling, including test with different I and C designs and modelling approaches. - Testing of the applicability of the taxonomy in data collection. After the termination of the COMPSIS project, OECD/NEA International Common-cause Failure Data Exchange (ICDE) project has expressed a willingness to integrate computer failures as a new component type for data collection. - Development of methods for software reliability quantification for nuclear PRAs. There are several past and ongoing R and D projects in this area. Benchmarking studies may be considered. - Complementation of the failure modes taxonomy with issues that were left out of the scope, e.g., control systems, networks, programmable logic device (PLD) technology, field-programmable gate array (FPGA), application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). - Development of methods to architecture level assessment, including defence-in-depth and diversity assessments. It is essential to account for the needs of both deterministic and probabilistic safety assessments. - Development of methods for the evaluation of fault tolerance features in the hardware and software of the safety important I and C systems. (authors)

  5. Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in the microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, E.; Cohan, F.; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila Ingemann; Ward, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to on...

  6. Composition, distribution and ecological aspects of the fish fauna inventory of the Trombetas river, in the region of the Cachoeira Porteira Dam, Para state, Brazil; Composicao, distribuicao e aspectos ecologicos da ictiofauna de um trecho do Rio Trombetas, na area de influencia da futura UHE Cachoeira Porteira, Estado do Para, BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Efrem Jorge Gondim [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Biologia Aquatica

    1993-12-31

    This work presents the results of a study on the fish fauna (inventory, distribution, ecological aspects) of the Trombetas river basin, in the region where a future hydroelectric dam will be constructed. (author). 7 figs., 35 tabs., 44 refs.

  7. Ecology and atomic energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological aspects of atomic energetics development are discussed. The forms of influence on environment and means of utilization of heated up waters dumped through the NPP cooling systems are considered. The necessity of studying the processes of migration, accumulation and biological effect of radionuclides in the components of natural ecosystems in the industrial NPP distribution zones as well as the influence on the ecosystems of superhigh-voltage power transmission lines is stressed

  8. A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Moor Bart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has allowed to molecularly characterize many different cancer sites. This technology has the potential to individualize therapy and to discover new drug targets. However, due to technological differences and issues in standardized sample collection no study has evaluated the molecular profile of epithelial human cancer in a large number of samples and tissues. Additionally, it has not yet been extensively investigated whether metastases resemble their tissue of origin or tissue of destination. Methods We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The clustering profile was subsequently investigated and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Statistical enrichment of clinico-pathological annotations of groups of samples was investigated using Fisher exact test. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and DAVID functional enrichment analysis were used to investigate the molecular pathways. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were used to investigate prognostic significance of gene signatures. Results Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma clustered together with follicular differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which supports recent morphological descriptions of thyroid follicular carcinoma-like tumors in the kidney and suggests that they represent a subtype of chromophobe carcinoma. We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues. Next, a subset of ovarian tumors enriched with endometrioid histology clustered together with endometrium tumors, confirming that they share their etiopathogenesis, which strongly differs from serous ovarian tumors. In addition, the clustering of colon and breast tumors correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics. Moreover, a signature was developed based on our unsupervised clustering of breast tumors and this was predictive for disease-specific survival in three independent studies. Next, the metastases from ovarian, breast, lung and vulva cluster with their tissue of origin while metastases from colon showed a bimodal distribution. A significant part clusters with tissue of origin while the remaining tumors cluster with the tissue of destination. Conclusion Our molecular taxonomy of epithelial human cancer indicates surprising correlations over tissues. This may have a significant impact on the classification of many cancer sites and may guide pathologists, both in research and daily practice. Moreover, these results based on unsupervised analysis yielded a signature predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. Additionally, we hypothesize that metastases from gastrointestinal origin either remember their tissue of origin or adapt to the tissue of destination. More specifically, colon metastases in the liver show strong evidence for such a bimodal tissue specific profile.

  9. Computational Ecology: an emerging ecological science

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Computational ecology is an emerging science to integrate and synthesize computation intensive areas in ecology. It was clearly defined and described in an earlier study. Aims and scope of computational ecology are further refined in present discussion.

  10. A Note on Extending Taylor's Power Law for Characterizing Human Microbial Communities: Inspiration from Comparative Studies on the Distribution Patterns of Insects and Galaxies, and as a Case Study for Medical Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2012-01-01

    Many natural patterns, such as the distributions of blood particles in a blood sample, proteins on cell surfaces, biological populations in their habitat, galaxies in the universe, the sequence of human genes, and the fitness in evolutionary computing, have been found to follow power law. Taylor's power law (Taylor 1961: Nature, 189:732-) is well recognized as one of the fundamental models in population ecology. A fundamental property of biological populations, which Taylor's power law reveals, is the near universal heterogeneity of population abundance distribution in habitat. Obviously, the heterogeneity also exists at the community level, where not only the distributions of population abundances but also the proportions of the species composition in the community are often heterogeneous. Nevertheless, existing community diversity indexes such as Shannon index and Simpson index can only measure "local" or "static" diversity in the sense that they are computed for each habitat at a specific time point, and t...

  11. Taxonomy of Clathria (Thalysias) (Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida: Microcionidae) from the Colombian Caribbean, with description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Sven; Rodríguez, Angélica; Martínez, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Thinly encrusting sponges are diverse and ecologically important, but their taxonomy is challenging. In the Greater Caribbean, the recognition of species of Clathria (Thalysias), most of which are encrusting, is still problematic. Here we describe and clarify the taxonomy of eight species, three new to science, from material collected mostly in Colombia. These are C. (T.) virgultosa, C. (T.) curacaoensis, C. (T.) venosa, C. (T.) minuta, C. (T.) oxeota, C. (T.) sulfocleistochela n. sp., C. (T.) chelosigmoidea n. sp., and C. (T.) opalina n. sp. Underwater color photographs are provided, together with drawings of spicules and skeleton, and SEM images of spicules. Two other well-established Caribbean species of the subgenus, vis. C. (T.) isodictyoides and C. (T.) collosclera (both from Curaçao) were not found in the studied material. A key for their identification is provided. Three more records, C. (T.) fascicularis Topsent, 1889, C. (T.) procera (Ridley, 1884) and C. (T.) basiarenacea (Boury-Esnault, 1973) are outlined for further study.  PMID:25081464

  12. Compilation of morphological and molecular data, a necessity for taxonomy: The case of Hormogaster abbatissae sp. n. (Annelida, Clitellata, Hormogastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Novo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Conflict among data sources can be frequent in evolutionary biology, especially in cases where one character set poses limitations to resolution. Earthworm taxonomy, for example, remains a challenge because of the limited number of morphological characters taxonomically valuable. An explanation to this may be morphological convergence due to adaptation to a homogeneous habitat, resulting in high degrees of homoplasy. This sometimes impedes clear morphological diagnosis of species. Combination of morphology with molecular techniques has recently aided taxonomy in many groups difficult to delimit morphologically. Here we apply an integrative approach by combining morphological and molecular data, including also some ecological features, to describe a new earthworm species in the family Hormogastridae, Hormogaster abbatissae sp. n., collected in Sant Joan de les Abadesses (Girona, Spain. Its anatomical and morphological characters are discussed in relation to the most similar Hormogastridae species, which are not the closest species in a phylogenetic analysis of molecular data. Species delimitation using the GMYC method and genetic divergences with the closest species are also considered. The information supplied by the morphological and molecular sources is contradictory, and thus we discuss issues with species delimitation in other similar situations. Decisions should be based on a profound knowledge of the morphology of the studied group but results from molecular analyses should also be considered.

  13. In Search of a Taxonomy for Classifying Qualitative Spreadsheet Errors

    CERN Document Server

    Przasnyski, Zbigniew; Seal, Kala Chand

    2011-01-01

    Most organizations use large and complex spreadsheets that are embedded in their mission-critical processes and are used for decision-making purposes. Identification of the various types of errors that can be present in these spreadsheets is, therefore, an important control that organizations can use to govern their spreadsheets. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy for categorizing qualitative errors in spreadsheet models that offers a framework for evaluating the readiness of a spreadsheet model before it is released for use by others in the organization. The classification was developed based on types of qualitative errors identified in the literature and errors committed by end-users in developing a spreadsheet model for Panko's (1996) "Wall problem". Closer inspection of the errors reveals four logical groupings of the errors creating four categories of qualitative errors. The usability and limitations of the proposed taxonomy and areas for future extension are discussed.

  14. Coalescent-based species delimitation in an integrative taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Matthew K; Leaché, Adam D; Burbrink, Frank T; McGuire, Jimmy A; Moritz, Craig

    2012-09-01

    The statistical rigor of species delimitation has increased dramatically over the past decade. Coalescent theory provides powerful models for population genetic inference, and is now increasingly important in phylogenetics and speciation research. By applying probabilistic models, coalescent-based species delimitation provides clear and objective testing of alternative hypotheses of evolutionary independence. As acquisition of multilocus data becomes increasingly automated, coalescent-based species delimitation will improve the discovery, resolution, consistency, and stability of the taxonomy of species. Along with other tools and data types, coalescent-based species delimitation will play an important role in an integrative taxonomy that emphasizes the identification of species limits and the processes that have promoted lineage diversification. PMID:22633974

  15. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JenniferMahony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

  16. Evaluating the bases of supplier segmentation : A review and taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Marc; Magnan, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    A taxonomy of segmentation bases is presented which builds a multi-disciplinary approach to the categorization of suppliers. Supplier segmentation, from a purchasing perspective, still appears to be in the early stages of providing a coherent strategic intent behind supplier assessment. Whilst fragmentary in nature, current portfolio models are grouped into two principal taxonomic constructs of power and dependence and relational factors. In particular, the prevalent use of transaction cost economics (TCE) in portfolio modelling provides a foundation for purchasers to appraise risks from supplier opportunism. We augment existing approaches with reference to inter-organisational theory and the resource-based view to show different modes of inter-firm value creation that act as constituents of a strategic intent for segmentation. Our resulting taxonomy draws together a holistic view of supplier segmentation covering supply market conditions, product/service characteristics, supplier characteristics, buyer characteristics, and buyer-supplier relational factors.

  17. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  18. NASA Taxonomies for Searching Problem Reports and FMEAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Many types of hazard and risk analyses are used during the life cycle of complex systems, including Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis, Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Reliability Analysis and analysis of Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) databases. The success of these methods depends on the availability of input data and the analysts knowledge. Standard nomenclature can increase the reusability of hazard, risk and problem data. When nomenclature in the source texts is not standard, taxonomies with mapping words (sets of rough synonyms) can be combined with semantic search to identify items and tag them with metadata based on a rich standard nomenclature. Semantic search uses word meanings in the context of parsed phrases to find matches. The NASA taxonomies provide the word meanings. Spacecraft taxonomies and ontologies (generalization hierarchies with attributes and relationships, based on terms meanings) are being developed for types of subsystems, functions, entities, hazards and failures. The ontologies are broad and general, covering hardware, software and human systems. Semantic search of Space Station texts was used to validate and extend the taxonomies. The taxonomies have also been used to extract system connectivity (interaction) models and functions from requirements text. Now the Reconciler semantic search tool and the taxonomies are being applied to improve search in the Space Shuttle PRACA database, to discover recurring patterns of failure. Usual methods of string search and keyword search fall short because the entries are terse and have numerous shortcuts (irregular abbreviations, nonstandard acronyms, cryptic codes) and modifier words cannot be used in sentence context to refine the search. The limited and fixed FMEA categories associated with the entries do not make the fine distinctions needed in the search. The approach assigns PRACA report titles to problem classes in the taxonomy. Each ontology class includes mapping words - near-synonyms naming different manifestations of that problem class. The mapping words for Problems, Entities and Functions are converted to a canonical form plus any of a small set of modifier words (e.g. non-uniformity NOT + UNIFORM.) The report titles are parsed as sentences if possible, or treated as a flat sequence of word tokens if parsing fails. When canonical forms in the title match mapping words, the PRACA entry is associated with the corresponding Problem, Entity or Function in the ontology. The user can search for types of failures associated with types of equipment, clustering by type of problem (e.g., all bearings found with problems of being uneven: rough, irregular, gritty ). The results could also be used for tagging PRACA report entries with rich metadata. This approach could also be applied to searching and tagging failure modes, failure effects and mitigations in FMEAs. In the pilot work, parsing 52K+ truncated titles (the test cases that were available), has resulted in identification of both a type of equipment and type of problem in about 75% of the cases. The results are displayed in a manner analogous to Google search results. The effort has also led to the enrichment of the taxonomy, adding some new categories and many new mapping words. Further work would make enhancements that have been identified for improving the clustering and further reducing the false alarm rate. (In searching for recurring problems, good clustering is more important than reducing false alarms). Searching complete PRACA reports should lead to immediate improvement.

  19. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    of the economy could go hand in hand with increased employment. These ideas were not reflected much in actual policies, and – despite some green elements – the subsequent economic upturn was driven first of all by consumption, and in several affluent countries, fueled by credit expansion. The current...... contributed to discussions on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by...... highlighting the need to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  20. Predicting the distribution of a parasite using the ecological niche model, GARP Predicción de la distribución de un parásito usando el modelo de nicho ecológico, GARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry R. Haverkost

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological niche of a parasite exists only at the nexus of certain abiotic and biotic conditions suitable for both the definitive and intermediate hosts. However, the life cycles of most parasites are not known, or are poorly known, and using known ranges of hosts to find endemic parasitic infections has been difficult. However, with ecological niche modeling, we can create potential range maps using known localities of infection. Testing the validity of such maps requires knowledge of the localities of other parasites with common history. Here, we find that the ecological niche of a tapeworm parasite of voles, Paranoplocephala macrocephala (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae, allows prediction of the presence (in ecological and geographic space of 19 related parasite species from 3 genera in 23 different hosts throughout the Nearctic. These results give credence to the idea that this group shares similar life cycle requirements despite phylogenetic distance. This work further validates ecological niche modeling as a means by which to predict occurrence of parasites when not all facets of the life cycle are confirmed. Such inductive methods create the opportunity for deducing potential reservoir or intermediate hosts, and complementing studies of parasite biodiversity and community ecology.El nicho ecológico de un parásito existe sólo cuando coinciden condiciones abióticas y bióticas necesarias para los hospederos definitivos e intermediarios. No obstante, los ciclos de vida de la mayoría de los parásitos son poco conocidos; el usar áreas de distribución de hospederos para encontrar áreas endémicas de parasitismo ha resultado difícil. Con el modelado de nicho, se pueden producir mapas del área de distribución potencial con base en sitios conocidos de presencia. Para probar la validez de estos mapas, se requiere el conocimiento de sitios de presencia de otros parásitos relacionados. En este estudio, encontramos que el nicho ecológico de un gusano parásito de ratones, Paranoplocephala macrocephala (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae permite predecir la presencia de 19 especies relacionadas de parásitos de 3 géneros en 23 diferentes hospederos a través del Neártico. Estos resultados apoyan la idea de que este grupo comparte una historia filogenética común que se refleja en nichos compartidos y que el modelado de nichos ofrece una manera de predecir la presencia de parásitos aunque no se conozcan todos los detalles de su ciclo de vida. Estos métodos permiten deducir reservorios u hospederos para estos parásitos.