WorldWideScience

Sample records for taxonomy distribution ecology

  1. New distribution records for four mammal species, with notes on their taxonomy and ecology

    G.N. Bronner

    1990-01-01

    New distribution records for four small mammal species (Georychus capensis, Galerella pulverulenta, Rhinolophus swinnyi and Amblysomus julianae) are presented, along with relevant notes on the taxonomy, karyology and ecology of these species.

  2. THE DISTRIBUTION OF BATS OF GENUS LASIURUS (VESPERTILIONIDAE IN COLOMBIA, WITH NOTES ON TAXONOMY, MORPHOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    DARWIN M. MORALES-MARTÍNEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the distribution of bats of the genus Lasiurus in Colombia, we performed a morphological study of 49 specimens from four Colombian collections. Our review confirms the presence of three species in Colombia (L. blossevillii, L. cinereus, and L. ega with distribution in all natural regions that include six of the nine biogeographic provinces. These species can be easily differentiated based on external and cranial characters. Lasiurus cinereus is the largest species (forearm length > 52 mm and L. blossevillii is the smallest (forearm < 42 mm; L. ega has a distinctive skull shape with a developed sagittal crest. While previous literature make claims that L. egregius and L. castaneus occur in Colombia, our analysis found no support for this and even contradicts the evidence cited for their presence in the country. We demonstrate that one specimen attributed to L. egregius in literature corresponds to a misidentified L. blossevillii. Furthermore, we found that there are not any specimens of L. castaneus from the Department of Cundinamarca despite several reports in the literature. The status of subspecies in Colombia remains controversial and more specimens are needed to determine whether there are clear distinctions between forms in any geographical region. Most of the specimens examined were males and in some cases, were collected opportunistically from dead individuals found in cities in the Andean region.

  3. Marine ecology service reuse through taxonomy-oriented SPL development

    Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Pol`la, Matias; Arias, Maximiliano; del Socorro Doldan, Maria; Morsan, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, reusing software applications encourages researchers and industrials to collaborate in order to increase software quality and to reduce software development costs. However, effective reuse is not easy and only a limited portion of reusable models actually offers effective evidence regarding their appropriateness, usability and/or effectiveness. Focusing reuse on a particular domain, such as marine ecology, allows us to narrow the scope; and along with a systematic approach such as software product line development, helps us to potentially improving reuse. From our experiences developing a subdomain-oriented software product line (SPL for the marine ecology subdomain), in this paper we describe semantic resources created for assisting this development and thus promoting systematic software reuse. The main contributions of our work are focused on the definition of a standard conceptual model for marine ecology applications together with a set of services and guides which assist the process of product derivation. The services are structured in a service taxonomy (as a specialization of the ISO 19119 std) in which we create a new set of categories and services built over a conceptual model for marine ecology applications. We also define and exemplify a set of guides for composing the services of the taxonomy in order to fulfill different functionalities of particular systems in the subdomain.

  4. Query processing in distributed, taxonomy-based information sources

    Meghini, Carlo; Tzitzikas, Yannis; Coltella, Veronica; Analyti, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of answering queries over a distributed information system, storing objects indexed by terms organized in a taxonomy. The taxonomy consists of subsumption relationships between negation-free DNF formulas on terms and negation-free conjunctions of terms. In the first part of the paper, we consider the centralized case, deriving a hypergraph-based algorithm that is efficient in data complexity. In the second part of the paper, we consider the distributed case, presenting ...

  5. New distribution records of tortoises (Chelonia: Testudinidae) from Barak Valley, Assam, northeastern india with notes on ecology and vernacular traditional taxonomy

    Kulendra Chandra Das; Abhik Gupta

    2015-01-01

    India is home to five species of tortoises of which the two endangered species are found in northeastern India. We report for first time new distributional records of Indotestudo elongata and additional site records of Manouria emys phayrei from 17 different locations in the Barak Valley region of Assam. 

  6. Query processing in distributed, taxonomy-based information sources

    Meghini, Carlo; Coltella, Veronica; Analyti, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of answering queries over a distributed information system, storing objects indexed by terms organized in a taxonomy. The taxonomy consists of subsumption relationships between negation-free DNF formulas on terms and negation-free conjunctions of terms. In the first part of the paper, we consider the centralized case, deriving a hypergraph-based algorithm that is efficient in data complexity. In the second part of the paper, we consider the distributed case, presenting alternative ways implementing the centralized algorithm. These ways descend from two basic criteria: direct vs. query re-writing evaluation, and centralized vs. distributed data or taxonomy allocation. Combinations of these criteria allow to cover a wide spectrum of architectures, ranging from client-server to peer-to-peer. We evaluate the performance of the various architectures by simulation on a network with O(10^4) nodes, and derive final results. An extensive review of the relevant literature is finally included.

  7. Studies on taxonomy and distribution of Acridoidea (Orthoptera of Bihar, India

    M.K. Usmani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven species of locusts and grasshoppers representing 26 genera, four tribes and 12 subfamilies belonging to the families Pyrgomorphidae, Catantopidae and Acrididae are reported from different localities of Bihar. Their distinguishing characters and bio-ecological data are provided along with keys to tribes and subfamilies. This paper comprising of distribution and field observation along with taxonomy of Acridoid fauna is the first of its kind from the state.

  8. The genus Bolboschoenus in Iran: taxonomy and distribution

    Amini Rad, M.; Hroudová, Zdenka; Marhold, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 5 (2010), s. 588-602. ISSN 0107-055X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Bolboschoenus * taxonomy, distribution, polyploidy * inflorescence structure Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.761, year: 2010

  9. Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and hosts

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current distribution of Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as the results of my field studies. The majority of localities are in south and south-eastern Poland: Małopolska Upland, Lublin Upland, Roztocze, Przemyśl Foothills, Pieniny Mts, rarely in the valleys of the Lower Vistula and Oder rivers or Wolin island. The distribution map in Poland is included. The taxonomy, biology and ecology of the species are discussed.

  10. The relationships between the isoelectric point and: length of proteins, taxonomy and ecology of organisms

    Smolarczyk Kamila

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of isoelectric point (pI of proteins in a proteome is universal for all organisms. It is bimodal dividing the proteome into two sets of acidic and basic proteins. Different species however have different abundance of acidic and basic proteins that may be correlated with taxonomy, subcellular localization, ecological niche of organisms and proteome size. Results We have analysed 1784 proteomes encoded by chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, and also mitochondria, plastids, prokaryotic plasmids, phages and viruses. We have found significant correlation in more than 95% of proteomes between the protein length and pI in proteomes – positive for acidic proteins and negative for the basic ones. Plastids, viruses and plasmids encode more basic proteomes while chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, mitochondria and phages more acidic ones. Mitochondrial proteomes of Viridiplantae, Protista and Fungi are more basic than Metazoa. It results from the presence of basic proteins in the former proteomes and their absence from the latter ones and is related with reduction of metazoan genomes. Significant correlation was found between the pI bias of proteomes encoded by prokaryotic chromosomes and proteomes encoded by plasmids but there is no correlation between eukaryotic nuclear-coded proteomes and proteomes encoded by organelles. Detailed analyses of prokaryotic proteomes showed significant relationships between pI distribution and habitat, relation to the host cell and salinity of the environment, but no significant correlation with oxygen and temperature requirements. The salinity is positively correlated with acidicity of proteomes. Host-associated organisms and especially intracellular species have more basic proteomes than free-living ones. The higher rate of mutations accumulation in the intracellular parasites and endosymbionts is responsible for the basicity of their tiny proteomes that explains the observed positive correlation between the decrease of genome size and the increase of basicity of proteomes. The results indicate that even conserved proteins subjected to strong selectional constraints follow the global trend in the pI distribution. Conclusion The distribution of pI of proteins in proteomes shows clear relationships with length of proteins, subcellular localization, taxonomy and ecology of organisms. The distribution is also strongly affected by mutational pressure especially in intracellular organisms.

  11. Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: revised distribution, taxonomy, phytocoenological and host relations

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Małopolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited for calamine mining (rich in zinc, lead and silver. This resulted in the formation of large areas of gangue containing toxic heavy metals. Since limestone, dolomite, marl and postglacial calcareous clay and sands occur there in most places, the soil is often strongly calcareous. Populations of O. lutea contain here many thousands of shoots. The distribution of the species in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, ecology and threats are also discussed.

  12. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in So Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuio geogrfica das espcies do gnero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de So Paulo, com a descrio de uma espcie nova

    W.M. Silva; T. Matsumura-Tundisi

    2005-01-01

    The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of So Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraba do Sul b...

  13. Decapod crustacean larvae inhabiting offshore Balearic Sea waters (western Mediterranean): taxonomy and ecology

    Torres, A.P. (Asvin Prez)

    2015-01-01

    Summary Comprehending evolution, distribution and ecology of marine animals require information on reproductive biology and developmental patterns, as early life stages (larvae) constitute, for several taxa, critical periods within the life cycle in which abundance and distribution of populations are largely determined. Considering the importance of the decapod crustaceans on Mediterranean marine ecosystems and fisheries and the lack of information regarding their ecology, especially t...

  14. Taxonomy, Ecology, and Management of Native and Exotic Fruit Fly Species in Africa.

    Ekesi, Sunday; De Meyer, Marc; Mohamed, Samira A; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Borgemeister, Christian

    2016-03-11

    Horticulture is one of the most important agricultural subsectors in Africa, providing income, creating employment opportunities, and enhancing food and nutritional security. However, tephritid fruit flies are responsible for both direct and indirect losses, with alien invasive species often having the most severe ecological and economic impact. In the past 20 years, systematic analysis of tephritids has provided comparative information on taxonomy, synonymy, and character-state differentiation. New molecular techniques are now available for identifying species, reconstructing phylogenies, and studying population genetic structures. Research on biology, host range and shifts, thermotolerance, and demography has provided useful information for developing predictive and ecological niche models to guide management methods. In recent years, the responses of various species to attractants have been documented. Several suppression methods, including the release of coevolved parasitoid species targeting invasives, have been promoted within the context of integrated pest management, leading to improvement in the quality and quantity of fruits and vegetables produced. However, there is still the need for wide-scale availability of these technologies to smallholder growers across Africa. PMID:26735644

  15. Orobanche elatior and O. kochii (Orobanchaceae in Poland: distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and seed micromorphology

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Orobanche (Orobanchaceae, parasitic on Centaurea in Central Europe, were previously considered to belong to the O. elatior group. At present, the taxon is differentiated into two species, O. elatior Sutton and O. kochii F.W. Schultz. The paper presents for the first time the distribution of O. elatior and O. kochii in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and the literature data, as well as the results of field studies conducted between 1999 and 2014. The majority of the species localities are in south Poland: Silesia-Cracow, Ma?opolska and the Lublin Uplands. The distribution of both species in Poland is mapped and chronologically organized, and is thus the most recent in Europe. The taxonomy, host preferences, and ecology are also discussed. Seeds of both species were also investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy, which resulted in the designation of diagnostic features. The new color form of O. kochii f. citrina is described and illustrated. An account of all revised herbarium specimens collected from Poland, deposited in Poland and neighboring countries, is presented.

  16. DNA-Based Taxonomy in Ecologically Versatile Microalgae: A Re-Evaluation of the Species Concept within the Coccoid Green Algal Genus Coccomyxa (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Malavasi, Veronica; Škaloud, Pavel; Rindi, Fabio; Tempesta, Sabrina; Paoletti, Michela; Pasqualetti, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Coccomyxa is a genus of unicellular green algae of the class Trebouxiophyceae, well known for its cosmopolitan distribution and great ecological amplitude. The taxonomy of this genus has long been problematic, due to reliance on badly-defined and environmentally variable morphological characters. In this study, based on the discovery of a new species from an extreme habitat, we reassess species circumscription in Coccomyxa, a unicellular genus of the class Trebouxiophyceae, using a combination of ecological and DNA sequence data (analyzed with three different methods of algorithmic species delineation). Our results are compared with those of a recent integrative study of Darienko and colleagues that reassessed the taxonomy of Coccomyxa, recognizing 7 species in the genus. Expanding the dataset from 43 to 61 sequences (SSU + ITS rDNA) resulted in a different delimitation, supporting the recognition of a higher number of species (24 to 27 depending on the analysis used, with the 27-species scenario receiving the strongest support). Among these, C. melkonianii sp. nov. is described from material isolated from a river highly polluted by heavy metals (Rio Irvi, Sardinia, Italy). Analyses performed on ecological characters detected a significant phylogenetic signal in six different characters. We conclude that the 27-species scenario is presently the most realistic for Coccomyxa and we suggest that well-supported lineages distinguishable by ecological preferences should be recognized as different species in this genus. We also recommend that for microbial lineages in which the overall diversity is unknown and taxon sampling is sparse, as is often the case for green microalgae, the results of analyses for algorithmic DNA-based species delimitation should be interpreted with extreme caution. PMID:27028195

  17. A Taxonomy and Survey of Distributed Computing Systems

    Mohammadfazel Anjomshoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology is the combination of knowledge and working hard. When users want to accomplish something using special technology, they do not want to know how it works. Technologies are coming to solve and ease our complex problems. It means that users only want to employ technology without any expert skills. Distributed computing is one of the technologies that is used to solve large and complex computational problems. It is based on distributed systems to address computational problems. In this study we are going to highlight the most well-known distributed computing paradigms and explain their technology building blocks. We provide a comprehensive explanation of cloud computing, volunteer computing and also volunteer cloud computing paradigm along with their advantages and also their open issues.

  18. Taxonomy and distribution pattern of the African rain forest butterfly genus Euphaedra Hübner sensu stricto with the description of three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and one of E. sarcoptera (Butler (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae, Adoliadini

    Tomasz Pyrcz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Updated data on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and Euphaedra sarcoptera (Butler are presented. Three new subspecies of E. cyparissa and one of E. sarcoptera are described and their geographic distribution is presented. The monophyly of the genus Euphaedra sensu Hecq is assessed based on morphological, in particular male and female genitalia, and behavioural traits. Possible evolutionary reasons for the convergence of colour pattern between the sympatric subspecies of E. cyparissa and E. sarcoptera are discussed.

  19. Introduced Pheidole of the world: taxonomy, biology and distribution.

    Sarnat, Eli M; Fischer, Georg; Guénard, Benoit; Economo, Evan P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a detailed taxonomic resource for identifying and studying ants in the genus Pheidole that have established beyond their native ranges. There is an increasing need for systematists to study taxa of specific concern to 21(st) century environmental, food security and public health challenges. Systematics has an important role to play in both the theoretical and applied disciplines of invasion biology. Few invaders impact terrestrial ecosystems more than ants. Among the world's 100 worst invasive species is the cosmopolitan and highly destructive Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius). Accurate identification of Pheidole megacephala is imperative for the success of screening, management and eradication programs designed to protect native ecosystems from the impacts of this destructive species. However, accurate identification of Pheidole species is difficult because of their taxonomic diversity, dimorphic worker caste and lack of taxonomic resources. Illustrated keys are included, along with the taxonomic history, taxonomic diagnoses, biological notes and risk statements for the 14 most invasive members of the genus. Global distribution maps based on over 14,000 specimen and literature records are presented for each species. These results of this work will facilitate identification of pest species, determination of climatic and habitat requirements, discovery of pest origins, horizon scanning and assessment of invasion pathways. The following new synonym is proposed, with the senior synonym listed first and the junior synonyms in parentheses: Pheidole indica Mayr (= Pheidole teneriffana Forel, and its synonyms Pheidole taina Aguayo and Pheidole voeltzkowii Forel). Pheidole navigans Forel, stat. rev., stat. n. is removed from synonymy and elevated to species rank. It is proposed that records of Pheidole moerens Forel outside of the Mesoamerica and the Caribbean refer instead to Pheidole navigans or other heterospecific taxa in the Pheidole flavens species complex. We propose that the names Pheidole anastasii Emery and Pheidole floridana Emery have been widely misapplied to North American outdoor records of Pheidole bilimeki Mayr. It is suggested that the synonymy of Pheidole lauta Wheeler be transferred from Pheidole floridana Emery to Pheidole bilimeki Mayr. PMID:26798286

  20. Taxonomy, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus multilocularis: From fundamental knowledge to health ecology.

    Knapp, Jenny; Gottstein, Bruno; Saarma, Urmas; Millon, Laurence

    2015-10-30

    Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most severe parasitic diseases in humans and represents one of the 17 neglected diseases prioritised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2012. Considering the major medical and veterinary importance of this parasite, the phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus is of considerable importance; yet, despite numerous efforts with both mitochondrial and nuclear data, it has remained unresolved. The genus is clearly complex, and this is one of the reasons for the incomplete understanding of its taxonomy. Although taxonomic studies have recognised E. multilocularis as a separate entity from the Echinococcus granulosus complex and other members of the genus, it would be premature to draw firm conclusions about the taxonomy of the genus before the phylogeny of the whole genus is fully resolved. The recent sequencing of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus genomes opens new possibilities for performing in-depth phylogenetic analyses. In addition, whole genome data provide the possibility of inferring phylogenies based on a large number of functional genes, i.e. genes that trace the evolutionary history of adaptation in E. multilocularis and other members of the genus. Moreover, genomic data open new avenues for studying the molecular epidemiology of E. multilocularis: genotyping studies with larger panels of genetic markers allow the genetic diversity and spatial dynamics of parasites to be evaluated with greater precision. There is an urgent need for international coordination of genotyping of E. multilocularis isolates from animals and human patients. This could be fundamental for a better understanding of the transmission of alveolar echinococcosis and for designing efficient healthcare strategies. PMID:26260408

  1. A survey and taxonomy of distributed certificate authorities in mobile ad hoc networks

    Jabbehdari Sam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Certificate authorities (CAs are the main components of PKI that enable us for providing basic security services in wired networks and Internet. But, we cannot use centralized CAs, in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. So, many efforts have been made to adapt CA to the special characteristics of MANETs and new concepts such as distributed CAs (DCAs have been proposed that distribute the functionality of CA between MANET nodes. In this article, we study various proposed DCA schemes for MANET and then classify these schemes according to their internal structures and techniques. Finally, we propose the characteristics of an ideal DCA system that can be used to verify the completeness of any DCA scheme. This classification and taxonomy identify the weakness and constraints of each scheme, and are very important for designing more secure, scalable, and high performance DCA systems for MANETs and other networks.

  2. Morphology, taxonomy and ecology of Thraustochytrids and Labyrinthulids, the marine counterparts of zoosporic fungi

    RaghuKumar, S.

    ecology and the fact that mycologists have traditionally studied these unique organisms, their inclusion in the discipline of mycology is well justified. In this, followed are the arguments put forth by Barr (1992) for including the Chytridiomycota...

  3. Contribution to the taxonomy and ecology of green cryosestic algae in the summer season 1995-96 at King George Island, S. Shetland Islands

    Komárek, O.; Komárek, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 123, - (2001), s. 121-140. ISSN 1438-9134. [International conference: Algae and extreme environments. Třeboň, 11.09.2000-16.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA AV ČR IAA6005002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cryoseston * green algae * cyanobacteria * ecology * seasonality * taxonomy * Antarctica Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2000

  4. Enzymatic systems involved in decomposition reflects the ecology and taxonomy of saprotrophic fungi

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Žifčáková, Lucia; Lisá, Ludmila; Dobiášová, Petra; Baldrian, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2015), s. 10-22. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0709; GA ČR GA13-06763S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Basidiomyceta * Decomposition * Ecology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.929, year: 2014

  5. Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay

    Sergio D. Ríos Díaz; Dias, Fernando M S; Mirna M Casagrande; Mielke, Olaf H. H.; Gerardo Lamas

    2014-01-01

    Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay. This paper provides comments on the subspecific taxonomy and geographic distribution of Sais rosalia (Cramer, 1779) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), as well as an up-to-date distributional map, complemented with unpublished distributional data based on specimens deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus S. Moure, Cur...

  6. Taxonomy, ecology and antibiotic resistance of enterococci from food and the gastro-intestinal tract.

    Klein, Günter

    2003-12-01

    Apart from genotypic identification methods, there is a need for reliable conventional phenotypic identification schemes for simple and rapid determination of enterococcal species in food or in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). Only a limited number of enterococcal species is of importance for the ecology of the GIT or the food microflora, including E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. durans/hirae, E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. After genus identification the differentiation within these species can include, e.g. mannitol and arabinose fermentation and growth at 50 degrees C. Widely used commercial identification systems may fail to precisely identify rare species. Ecological aspects should also be taken into account. In the human GIT E. faecium is the most common species whereas in most animal species E. faecalis is at least present in the same amount. Especially in foods of animal origin (cheese, pork meat, beef, poultry meat) also E. faecalis is very frequent. This is of special interest as glycopeptide resistance is most often found in human clinical E. faecium strains as well as in E. faecium from the environment or animal samples and less frequent in E. faecalis strains. EU experts propose as safety criteria for probiotics in feed additives the exclusion of resistances or the lack of transferability. This proposal can also be applied to enterococci in foods. Specific resistances must be excluded, but transferability or acquisition of resistance (e.g. vancomycin) cannot be excluded per se. However, technologically used strains should differ from clinical strains concerning their resistance patterns and transfer rates. PMID:14596985

  7. Taxonomy, phylogeny, historical biogeography, and historical ecology of the genus Pontonia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae)

    Fransen, C.H.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Species of the genus Pontonia Latreille, 1829, are distributed in tropical and subtropical waters around the world, living in association with either molluscan or ascidian hosts. In the present taxonomic revision, Pontonia sensu lato is divided into six genera: Pontonia sensu stricto; Ascidonia gen. nov., Rostronia gen. nov., Dactylonia gen. nov., Odontonia gen. nov., and Bruceonia gen. nov. A total of 29 species is described and figured, four of which are new to science: Pontonia pilosa spec...

  8. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  9. Advances in Taxonomy, Ecology, and Biogeography of Dirivultidae (Copepoda) Associated with Chemosynthetic Environments in the Deep Sea

    Gollner, Sabine; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Arbizu, Pedro Martínez; Bright, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Background Copepoda is one of the most prominent higher taxa with almost 80 described species at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The unique copepod family Dirivultidae with currently 50 described species is the most species rich invertebrate family at hydrothermal vents. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed the literature of Dirivultidae and provide a complete key to species, and map geographical and habitat specific distribution. In addition we discuss the ecology and origin of this famil...

  10. The Geomyces fungi: ecology and distribution

    Hayes, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating disease affecting hibernating bats, first documented in winter 2006 in eastern North America. Over 5.5 million bats of several species may have died as a result of this disease. The fungus Geomyces destructans is now considered the causal agent of WNS, and this species may have been recently introduced into North American bat hibernation habitats. This overview summarizes the ecology and distribution of Geomyces fungi. Species in this genus are common in the soils of temperate and high-latitude ecosystems and are capable of withstanding and thriving in cold, low-nutrient polar environments. These species are dispersed by wind, groundwater, arthropods, birds, and mammals and are carried by humans, their clothing, and their equipment. These characteristics present significant challenges to biologists, managers, and others charged with controlling the spread of WNS and G. destructans in other parts of North America and the biosphere.

  11. Asteroid taxonomy

    Tholen, David J.; Barucci, M. Antonietta

    1989-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of asteroid surfaces over the wavelength range of 0.3 to 1.1 micron can be used to classify these objects into several broad groups with similar spectral characteristics. The three most recently developed taxonomies group the asteroids into 9, 11, or 14 different clases, depending on the technique used to perform the analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic classes shows that darker and redder objects become more dominant at larger heliocentric distances, while the rare asteroid types are found more frequently among the small objects of the planet-crossing population.

  12. On the Widespread Occurrence of the Inverse Square Distribution in Social Sciences and Taxonomy

    Caldarelli, G; De Rios, P L; Servedio, V D P; Caldarelli, Guido; Cartozo, Cecile Caretta; Rios, Paolo De Los; Servedio, Vito D.P.

    2003-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of an inverse square relation in the hierarchical distribution of sub-communities within communities (or sub-species within species) has been recently invoked as a signature of hierarchical self-organization within social and ecological systems. Here we show that, whether such systems are self-organized or not, this behavior is the consequence of the tree-like classification method. Different tree-like classifications (both of real and truly random systems) display a similar statistical behaviour when considering the sizes of their sub-branches.

  13. Numerical taxonomy

    Inger, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    For some strange reason the attitudes of taxonomists and systematists towards the phrase "numerical taxonomy" fall into two extreme positions. On the one hand are those who think numerical taxonomy provides the only means of reaching objective conclusions, that any other approach to taxonomy is sterile, subjective, and really not quite scientific. At the other extreme are those taxonomists who think numerical taxonomy has no place in their science, that it is unclean or is likely to be the de...

  14. Unitary or unified taxonomy?

    Scoble, Malcolm J

    2004-01-01

    Taxonomic data form a substantial, but scattered, resource. The alternative to such a fragmented system is a 'unitary' one of preferred, consensual classifications. For effective access and distribution the (Web) revision for a given taxon would be established at a single Internet site. Although all the international codes of nomenclature currently preclude the Internet as a valid medium of publication, elements of unitary taxonomy (UT) still exist in the paper system. Much taxonomy, unitary ...

  15. Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species

    Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Our data set includes 38 008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Amborella trichopoda Amborella_trichopoda_L.png Amborella_trichopoda_NL.png Amborella_trichopoda ... mborella_trichopoda_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=L http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NL http://b ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Hydra magnipapillata Cnidaria Hydra_magnipapillata_L.png Hydra_magnipapillata_NL.png Hydra_magni ... ydra_magnipapillata_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Hydra+magnipapillata&t=L http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Hydra+magnipapillata&t=NL http://b ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Trichoplax adhaerens Placozoa Trichoplax_adhaerens_L.png Trichoplax_adhaerens_NL.png Trichoplax_ ... richoplax_adhaerens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Trichoplax+adhaerens&t=L http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Trichoplax+adhaerens&t=NL http://b ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Phaeodactylum tricornutum Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_L.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_NL.png Phaeo ... actylum_tricornutum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=L http ... ://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=NL htt ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_mansoni_L.png Schistosoma_mansoni_NL.png Schisto ... Schistosoma_mansoni_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+mansoni&t=L http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+mansoni&t=NL http://bi ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans Nematoda Caenorhabditis_elegans_L.png Caenorhabditis_elegans_NL.png Caeno ... norhabditis_elegans_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans&t=L http:// ... biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans&t=NL http:/ ...

  2. Social Media Ecology in Distributed Workplaces

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    In this position paper, we discuss about methods currently adopted for research- ing the use of social media in distributed workplace. We have extensively reviewed previ- ous empirical studies through an ongoing Systematic Mapping Study focused on the use of social media in distributed teams; fro...... physical workplace, there- fore ethnographic methods can be adopted to investigate this area. We aim to motivate a debate providing some research questions, which might be addressed by researchers.......In this position paper, we discuss about methods currently adopted for research- ing the use of social media in distributed workplace. We have extensively reviewed previ- ous empirical studies through an ongoing Systematic Mapping Study focused on the use of social media in distributed teams; from...

  3. Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, including the first records in Paraguay

    Sergio D. Ríos Díaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, including the first records in Paraguay. This paper provides comments on the subspecific taxonomy and geographic distribution of Sais rosalia (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, as well as an up-to-date distributional map, complemented with unpublished distributional data based on specimens deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus S. Moure, Curitiba, Brazil and the Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Peru. The following synonyms are proposed: Sais rosalia camariensis Haensch, 1905 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Papilio rosalia Cramer, 1779 and Sais rosalia brasiliensis Talbot, 1928 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Sais rosalia rosalinde Weymer, 1890. Additionally, the first country records of Sais rosalia in Paraguay, including the southernmost record of the species, are documented.

  4. An overview of the taxonomy of Attalea (Arecaceae)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2008-01-01

    The genus Attalea (Arecaceae) is distributed in continental habitats of the Neotropical region and in some Caribbean islands. Life forms of Attalea species vary from small acaulescent palms to tall and massive palms, always solitary. The ecological range of the genus encompasses most of the Neotropical ecosystems, from coastal sand dunes to sub-Andean forests up to 1600 m in elevation, lowland wet to dry forests, savannas, swamps, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been poorly understood due ...

  5. First detection of African Swine Fever Virus in Ornithodoros porcinus in Madagascar and new insights into tick distribution and taxonomy

    Albina Emmanuel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Swine Fever Virus has devastated more than the half of the domestic pig population in Madagascar since its introduction, probably in 1997-1998. One of the hypotheses to explain its persistence on the island is its establishment in local Ornithodoros soft ticks, whose presence has been reported in the past from the north-western coast to the Central Highlands. The aim of the present study was to verify such hypothesis by conducting tick examinations in three distinct zones of pig production in Madagascar where African Swine Fever outbreaks have been regularly reported over the past decade and then to improve our knowledge on the tick distribution and taxonomy. Results Ornithodoros ticks were only found in one pig farm in the village of Mahitsy, north-west of Antananarivo in the Central Highlands, whereas the tick seemed to be absent from the two other study zones near Ambatondrazaka and Marovoay. Using 16SrDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, it was confirmed that the collected ticks belonged to the O. porcinus species and is closely related to the O. p. domesticus sub-species Walton, 1962. ASFV was detected in 7.14% (13/182 of the field ticks through the amplification of part of the viral VP72 gene, and their ability to maintain long-term infections was confirmed since all the ticks came from a pig building where no pigs or any other potential vertebrate hosts had been introduced for at least four years. Conclusions Considering these results, O. porcinus is a reservoir for ASFV and most likely acts as vector for ASFV in Madagascar, but its apparent restricted distribution may limit its role in the epidemiology of the disease in domestic pigs.

  6. The distribution and taxonomy of Lissotriton newts in Turkey (Amphibia, Salamandridae

    Ben Wielstra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two and perhaps three taxa of Lissotriton newt occur in Turkey. Their species status is controversial. The distribution of these taxa and the taxonomic status of each are reviewed and discussed. A database of 128 Turkish Lissotriton localities was compiled and species distribution models were constructed. We reiterate that the presence of L. (v. lantzi in Turkey is disputed and needs confirmation. The range of L. (v. kosswigi is restricted to north-western Anatolia given the small global range of this Turkey endemic, a closer look at its conservation status is warranted. The distribution of L. v. schmidtleri covers western Asiatic and European Turkey. The findings support an allopatric distribution of the Turkish Lissotriton species. We reflect on the biological significance of previously reported morphological intermediates between L. (v. kosswigi and L. v. schmidtleri in the light of the recent proposal to recognize kosswigi at the species level. The available data are in line with species status for L. (v. lantzi and L. (v. kosswigi. Although L. v. schmidtleri is a genetically diverged taxon as well, the extent of gene flow with parapatric European Lissotriton taxa is as yet unknown.

  7. Taxonomy, Identification, Genetic Relationships and Distribution of Large Heracleum Species in Europe

    Jahodová, Šárka; Fröberg, L.; Pyšek, Petr; Geltman, D.; Trybush, S.; Karp, A.

    Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 1-19 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Heracleum * genetic relationship * distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. Sample Course of Study for Distributive Education. Warehousing (Taxonomy 04.3100).

    McKnight, Molly G.

    Presented as an example of how a course of study can be prepared for a distributive education program, this booklet describes the content and development of a course in warehousing at Southwestern City Schools (Galloway, Ohio). The course of study is based on the students' present jobs and occupational expectations using the IDECC System…

  9. Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Orobanchaceae) in Poland: revised distribution, taxonomy, phytocoenological and host relations

    Piwowarczyk Renata; Krajewski ?ukasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Ma?opolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited f...

  10. Typha laxmannii Lepech. the new, expansive kenophyte in Poland: Distribution and taxonomy

    Agnieszka Nikel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides data on a new antropophyte species - Typha laxmannii Lepech. which spreads throughout Poland as a hemiagriophyte. Its present distribution in Poland is given on a cartogramme map in a 1010 km square grid and its geographic element, population numbers and notes on habitats are provided. An identification key to 5 species of the Typha genus, two native, one new which is the topic of this paper, and two which can be expected to be discovered in Poland.

  11. The scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha of Tunisia: taxonomy, distribution and habitats

    Nesrine Akkari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides a review of the composition, distribution and habitat preferences of the scolopendromorph centipedes of Tunisia. Five (sub-genera and 8 (sub-species have hitherto been reported from the country, of which two are of uncertain status. After a study of significant amount of new material collected in the period 2003-2008, 6 species, namely Scolopendra canidens Newport, 1844, S. morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Cormocephalus gervaisianus (C.L. Koch, 1841, Otostigmus spinicaudus (Newport, 1844, Cryptops punicus Silvestri, 1896 and C. trisulcatus Brölemann, 1902, were found in the country. New illustrations and, where appropriate, brief descriptions of the species are given, along with an identification key for the Tunisian scolopendromorphs. Cryptops anomalans Newport 1844, Scolopendra oraniensis Lucas, 1846 and S. cingulata Latreille, 1829 are excluded from the country’s list since all previous records are most likely based on misidentifications. Cryptops trisulcatus and C. punicus are recorded for the first time from Tunisia and Libya, respectively. The taxonomic position of C. punicus is discussed and the species is transferred from the subgenus Trigonocryptops to Cryptops. Scolopendra morsitans scopoliana is synonymised under S. morsitans. S. canidens, O. spinicaudus and C. punicus are well adapted to arid and semidesert biotopes and have much wider ranges compared to the other three species which are restricted to the northern, more humid parts of the country. S. canidens is the only myriapod in Tunisia found in a pure sandy desert.

  12. Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta in Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil: Taxonomy and distribution

    Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the morphogical features of the centric diatom Skeletonema potamos (Weber Hasle from Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the abundance and dis- tribution of the species along the salinity gradient in the lagoon. Samples from the water surface were taken monthly at eight stations along the longitudinal axis of the lagoon, from December 1987 to December 1988. The species were counted by the Utermhl method, and the density (cells.mL-1 was estimated based on live cells. The morphology of the specimens agrees with the type, from the Little Miami River, Ohio, U.S.A., except for the convexity and the pattern of granules on the valve face. Skeletonema potamos was found in the winter and spring, and was distributed in the limnetic, oligohaline and mesohaline zones of the lagoon. The cell con- centration appeared to be controlled by the salinity, with a significant negative correlation observed. Light and competition probably also influence the development of S. potamos populations in the Patos Lagoon.

  13. Ecology and Taxonomy of Water Canyon, Canadian County, Oklahoma, Master's Thesis, University of Oklahoma 1961 [Revised 2013

    Constance E. Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous canyons have been cut into the Rush Springs Sandstone of Permian age in West Central Oklahoma and subsequently refilled. Some of these canyons have been partly exposed by erosion of the sediment fill. Fossils collected indicate the canyon fill is sub-Pleistocene to geologically recent. The microclimate of these canyons is more mesic compared to the dryer prairie uplands. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum persists there, far west of its other locations in very eastern Oklahoma. Beginning in 1932 several of these sediment-filled canyons began a process of rapid erosion, exposing the rock walls of the canyons. This study is a comparison of Water Canyon and two of its branches: Water Branch Canyon, a stable canyon wooded with mature vegetation including sugar maple and Activity Branch Canyon, a newly excavated canyon branch that began eroding after excessive rainfall in 1932. This study was completed in 1960. Six transects are used to show the distribution of the 233 plant species found in the Water Canyon complex. Herbaceous species generally were unique to each canyon type.

  14. Taxonomy, distribution and nomenclature of three confused broad-leaved Potamogeton species occurring in Africa and on surrounding islands

    Kaplan, Zdeněk; Symoens, J.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 148, - (2005), s. 329-357. ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0773 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Potamogeton * taxonomy * Africa Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2005

  15. Packaging and distributing ecological data from multisite studies

    Olson, R. J.; Voorhees, L. D.; Field, J. M.; Gentry, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of global change and other regional issues depend on ecological data collected at multiple study areas or sites. An information system model is proposed for compiling diverse data from dispersed sources so that the data are consistent, complete, and readily available. The model includes investigators who collect and analyze field measurements, science teams that synthesize data, a project information system that collates data, a data archive center that distributes data to secondary users, and a master data directory that provides broader searching opportunities. Special attention to format consistency is required, such as units of measure, spatial coordinates, dates, and notation for missing values. Often data may need to be enhanced by estimating missing values, aggregating to common temporal units, or adding other related data such as climatic and soils data. Full documentation, an efficient data distribution mechanism, and an equitable way to acknowledge the original source of data are also required.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: onion [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available onion Allium ... cepa Allium _cepa_L.png Allium _cepa_NL.png Allium _cepa_S.png Allium _cepa_NS.png http ... ://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium +cepa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico ... n.cgi?i=Allium +cepa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum ... annuum Capsicum _annuum_L.png Capsicum _annuum_NL.png Capsicum _annuum_S.png ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum +annuum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ... con.cgi?i=Capsicum +annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

  18. A PRELIMINARY ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE PAPILIONIDAE OF LAOS WITH NOTES ON TAXONOMY, PHENOLOGY, DISTRIBUTION AND VARIATION (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea

    A.M. Cotton

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available 63 Papilionid taxa of Laos are reported representing 60 biological species. Of these, the occurrence of Papilio elephenor is unproven, and that of Papilio krishna is refuted, leaving 58 species confirmed for Laos. Notes on their taxonomy, distribution, phenology and variation are given. The following synonymies or changes of status are herewith listed:Graphium antiphates itamputi is regarded as a separate subspecies from pompilius stat. rev.Papilio tamerlanus timur Ney, 1911 is a synonym of Papilio alebion mullah Alphéraky, 1897, syn. nov. The following combinations are therefore proposed for the collective species: Graphium mullah mullah (Alphéraky, 1897 comb. nov. applies to the Sichuan population; Graphium mullah chungianus (Murayama, 1961 comb. nov., for the Taiwanese subspecies; and Graphium mullah kooichii (Morita, 1996 comb. nov. for the Lao subspecies.The true type of Papilio arycles sphinx Fruhstorfer, 1899 is identified, and arycleoides Fruhstorfer, 1902 placed in synonymy, syn. nov.Teinopalpus imperialis bhumipoli Nakano & Sukkit, 1985, T. i. gerritesi Nakano, 1995, T. i. gillesi Turlin, 1991, and T. i. hakkaorum Schäffler 2004 are shown to be synonyms of Teinopalpus imperialis imperatrix de Nicéville, 1899, syn. nov.Atrophaneura varuna liziensis Zhao, 1997 is synonymized with A. varuna astorion (Westwood, 1842 syn. nov.The names elegans Chou et al., 2000, pulcher Chou et al., 2000 and longimacula Wang & Niu, 2002 are sunk as synonyms of Papilio bianor bianor syn. nov.Papilio bianor significans Fruhstorfer, 1902 is regarded as a valid subspecies (stat. rev. and the ranges of Papilio bianor gladiator Fruhstorfer, [1902] and ganesa Doubleday, 1842 are clarified.Papilio noblei de Nicéville, [1889] is shown to be monotypic, and haynei Tytler, 1926 is sunk as a synonym syn. nov.Papilio hipponous siamensis Godfrey, 1916 is synonymized with pitmani Elwes & de Nicéville, [1887] syn. nov.The taxon imitata Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2003 is considered conspecific with Papilio epycides and therefore the combination is Papilio epycides imitata stat. nov., comb. nov.

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: koji mold [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available koji mold Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus_oryzae_L.png Aspergillus_oryzae_NL.png Aspergillus_oryzae_S.png Asp...ergillus_oryzae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus...+oryzae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergil...lus+oryzae&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=63 ...

  20. Soil radioactivity distribution studies for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group

    Since the inception of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group in 1970, personnel from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) have contributed to the determination and evaluation of radionuclide inventory and distribution in soils at selected study sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) complex and surrounding areas. A brief historical survey of those activities is presented. During the period March 1977 to March 1978, LASL participated in workshops and information meetings, in preparation of nuclear site study protocols for estimation of inventory and distribution of various radionuclides, in evaluation of instrumental data that was collected in order to aid in defining specific nuclear site studies, and in referee activities for analysis of samples for radionuclide content. In that same period, several data sets were evaluated and are presented in this report. They include data relative to the vertical movement of plutonium and americium in desert soil profiles, and data relative to distribution of various isotopes of uranium in the blow-sand mounds at two study sites, one located on NTS and the other at the Tonopah Test Range. A series of recommendations for further studies are made relative to the redistribution of radionuclides in the desert environment of NTS

  1. An annotated catalogue and bibliography of the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the Recent Vetigastropoda of South Africa (Mollusca).

    Herbert, David G

    2015-01-01

    A complete inventory of the known Recent vetigastropod fauna of South Africa is provided. Bibliographic citations to works discussing the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the species in a southern African or south-western Indian Ocean context are provided. Additional explanatory notes are given where pertinent. New genus records for South Africa: Acremodontina B.A. Marshall, 1995; Choristella Bush, 1879; Cocculinella Thiele, 1909; Conjectura Finlay, 1926; Crosseola Iredale, 1924; Falsimargarita Powell, 1951; Lepetella Verrill, 1880; Profundisepta McLean & Geiger, 1998; Stomatella Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina Iredale, 1937; Synaptocochlea Pilsbry, 1890; Tibatrochus Nomura, 1940; Visayaseguenzia Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Zetela Finlay, 1926. New species records for South Africa: Acremodontina aff. carinata Powell, 1940; Anatoma finlayi (Powell, 1937); Anatoma munieri (P. Fischer, 1862); Calliotropis acherontis B.A. Marshall, 1979; Calliotropis bucina Vilvens, 2006; Cocculinella minutissima (E.A. Smith, 1904); Diodora ruppellii (G.B. Sowerby (I), 1835); Emarginula costulata Deshayes, 1863; Emarginula decorata Deshayes, 1863; Jujubinus hubrechti Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Lepetella sp.; Seguenzia orientalis Thiele, 1925; Stomatella auricula Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia phymotis Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina angulata (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina cf. calliostoma (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina aff. danblumi Singer & Mienis, 1999; Stomatolina cf. rubra (Lamarck, 1822); Stomatolina sp.; Synaptocochlea concinna (Gould, 1845); Tectus mauritianus (Gmelin, 1791); Tibatrochus cf. incertus (Schepman, 1908); Turbo imperialis Gmelin, 1791; Turbo tursicus Reeve, 1848; Visayaseguenzia compsa (Melvill, 1904).New species: Spectamen martensi, replacement name for Spectamen semisculptum sensu Herbert (1987) (non Martens, 1904). New name: Oxystele antoni is proposed as a new name for Trochus (Turbo) variegatus (non Gmelin, 1791 =Heliacus) Anton, 1838. Revised taxonomy: Cyclostrema semisculptum Martens, 1904 is an earlier name for Solariella intermissa Thiele, 1925, and is referable to the genus Zetela Finlay, 1926; Margarita bicarinata A. Adams & Reeve, 1850 is considered to be a senior synonym of Solariella undata G.B. Sowerby (II), 1870, and is referable to the genus Ilanga Herbert, 1987. Validation of the name Trochus tigrinus Chemnitz, 1781 is credited to Dillwyn (1817) rather than Anton (1838). New synonyms: Clanculus exquisita Turton, 1932 =Calliostoma africanum Bartsch, 1915; Cyclostrema alfredensis Bartsch, 1915 =Parviturbo alfredensis (Bartsch, 1915); Cynisca gloriosa Bartsch, 1915 =Cinysca spuria (Gould, 1861); Herbertina hayesi Herbert, 1995 =Bruceina chenoderma (Barnard, 1963); Ilanga millardi Herbert, 1987 =Ilanga humillima (Thiele, 1925); Leptothyra africana Bartsch, 1915 =Cinysca spuria (Gould, 1861); Leptothyra albocincta Turton, 1932 =Tricolia striolata (Turton, 1932); Solariella undata G.B. Sowerby (II), 1870, S. gratiosa Thiele, 1925 and S. valdiviae Thiele, 1925 =Ilanga bicarinata bicarinata (A. Adams & Reeve, 1850); Solariella chuni Thiele, 1925, S. intermissa Thiele, 1925, S. gilchristi Barnard, 1963 and S. macleari Barnard, 1963 =Zetela semisculpta (Martens, 1904); Turbo (Collonia) armillatus G.B. Sowerby (III), 1886 =Cinysca spuria (Gould, 1861). New combinations: Basilissa (Ancistrobasis) compsa Melvill, 1904 is transferred to Visayaseguenzia; Calcar rhysopoma Barnard, 1964 is transferred to Bothropoma; Calliostoma glaucophaos Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Falsimargarita; Calliotropis chenoderma Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Bruceina; Collonia bicarinata Martens, 1902 is transferred to Cinysca; Crossea agulhasensis Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Conjectura; Cyclostrema semisculptum Martens, 1904 is transferred to Zetela; Cyclostremella farica Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Dikoleps; Cynisca africana Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Homalopoma; Leptogyra africana: Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Cirsonella; Leptothyra agulhasensis Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Homalopoma; Leptothyra alfredensis Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Parviturbo; Leptothyra sola Barnard, 1963 is transferred to a Parviturbo; Liotia (Cynisca) semiclausa Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Cinysca; Monilea spuria Gould, 1861 is transferred to Cinysca; Monodonta gibbula Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Cantrainea; Puncturella voraginosa Herbert & Kilburn, 1986 is transferred to Profundisepta; Solariella fuscomaculata G.B. Sowerby (III), 1892 is transferred to Skenea; Solariella turbynei Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Zetela; Turbo boswellae Barnard, 1969 is transferred to Cantrainea; Turbo foveolatus Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Crosseola; Turbo ponsonbyi G.B. Sowerby (III), 1897 is transferred to Bothropoma; Vitrinella agulhasensis Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Parviturbo; Vitrinella (Docomphala) arifca Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Lodderena; Vitrinella inclinans Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Skenea. PMID:26624772

  2. Recent changes (2008) in cyanobacterial taxonomy based on a combination of molecular background with phenotype and ecological consequences (genus and species concept)

    Komárek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 639, č. 1 (2010), s. 245-259. ISSN 0018-8158. [Workshop of the International Association of Phytoplankton Taxonomy /15./. Ramot, 23.11.2008-30.11.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacteria * taxonomic classification * molecular evaluation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2010

  3. Comparison between bioecological traits and taxonomy of benthic macroinvertebrates as tools for ecological risk assessment (ERA): The case of the St. Lawrence River

    M. Desrosiers; Methot, G.; Pinel Alloul, B.; Archaimbault, V.; Usseglio Polatera, P.; Masson, S.; Martel, L.

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of a large research project aiming at developing an ERA tiered framework for sediment management, in the context of integrated management of contaminated sediment, site restoration and sustainable navigation. The purpose of this study is to assess sediment quality by exploring the relationships between chemical contamination and benthic community structure using classical taxonomy and functional traits approaches. During falls 2004-2005, macroinvertebrates were collected ...

  4. Projecting date palm distribution in Iran under climate change using topography, physicochemical soil properties, soil taxonomy, land use, and climate data

    Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit; Taylor, Subhashni

    2014-11-01

    This study set out to model potential date palm distribution under current and future climate scenarios using an emission scenario, in conjunction with two different global climate models (GCMs): CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS), and MIROC-H (MR), and to refine results based on suitability under four nonclimatic parameters. Areas containing suitable physicochemical soil properties and suitable soil taxonomy, together with land slopes of less than 10° and suitable land uses for date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera) were selected as appropriate refining tools to ensure the CLIMEX results were accurate and robust. Results showed that large regions of Iran are projected as likely to become climatically suitable for date palm cultivation based on the projected scenarios for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2100. The study also showed CLIMEX outputs merit refinement by nonclimatic parameters and that the incremental introduction of each additional parameter decreased the disagreement between GCMs. Furthermore, the study indicated that the least amount of disagreement in terms of areas conducive to date palm cultivation resulted from CS and MR GCMs when the locations of suitable physicochemical soil properties and soil taxonomy were used as refinement tools.

  5. Uses and Requirements of Ecological Niche Models and Related Distributional Models

    A. Townsend Peterson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.—Modeling approaches that relate known occurrences of species to landscape features to discover ecological properties and predict geographic occurrences have seen extensive recent application in ecology, systematics, and conservation. A key component in this process is estimation or characterization of species’ distributions in ecological space, which can then be useful in understanding their potential distributions in geographic space. Hence, this process is often termed ecological niche modeling or (less boldly species distribution modeling. Applications of this approach vary widely in their aims, products, and requirements; this variety is reviewed herein, examples are provided, and differences in data needs and possible interpretations are discussed.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: mandrill [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available mandrill Mandrillus sphinx ... Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Mandrillus_sphinx ... x_L.png Mandrillus_sphinx _NL.png Mandrillus_sphinx _S.png Mandrillus_sphinx _N ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Mandrillus+sphinx &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Mandrillus+sphinx &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese macaque Macaca fuscata Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Macaca_fusca...ta_L.png Macaca_fuscata_NL.png Macaca_fuscata_S.png Macaca_fuscata_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fusca...ta&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aardvark [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Aardvark Orycteropus afer Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Orycteropus_afe...r_L.png Orycteropus_afer_NL.png Orycteropus_afer_S.png Orycteropus_afer_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afe...r&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Escherichia coli [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli ... Escherichia coli ... Escherichia_coli _L.png Escherichia_coli _NL.png Escherichia_coli ... i_S.png Escherichia_coli _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon. ... cgi?i=Escherichia+coli &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Escherichia+coli &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Escherichia+coli &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

  10. Pectinaria chilensis NILSSON, 1928 (POLYCHAETA: PECTINARIIDAE): taxonomic characterization, new distributional records and ecological notes from the chilean coast

    Rodrigo A., Moreno,; Nicols, Rozbaczylo; Roger D, Seplveda; Franklin D., Carrasco; Ral, Soto.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Revisa-se Pectinaria chilensis da costa do Chile a partir de exemplares recolhidos em fundos brandos sub-litorais, entre 45 e 93m de profundidade, em quatro localidades ao norte do Chile. Estes espcimes foram comparados com exemplares recolhidos a 17m de profundidade em Coronel, Golfo de Arauco, Ch [...] ile, localidade padro da espcie. Se inclui uma caracterizao taxonmica, ilustraes, e novas localidades na distribuio geogrfica da espcie. Se fornece informao do hbitat (batimetria, tipo de sedimento, contedo de matria orgnica total e O2 dissolvido de fundo) e se inclui uma clave para diferenciar as duas espcies de Pectinariidae registradas no Chile. Abstract in spanish Se revisa Pectinaria chilensis de la costa de Chile a partir de ejemplares recolectados en fondos blandos sublitorales, entre 45 y 93m de profundidad, en cuatro localidades del norte de Chile. Estos especmenes fueron comparados con ejemplares recolectados a 17m de profundidad en Coronel, Golfo de A [...] rauco, Chile, localidad tipo de la especie. Se incluye una caracterizacin taxonmica, ilustraciones, y nuevas localidades en la distribucin geogrfica de la especie. Se provee informacin del hbitat (batimetra, tipo de sedimento, contenido de materia orgnica total y O2 disuelto de fondo) y se incluye una clave para diferenciar las dos especies de Pectinariidae registradas en Chile. Abstract in english The taxonomy, geographical distribution, and ecological aspects of Pectinaria chilensis are reviewed. Specimens were collected in sublittoral soft bottoms, between 45 and 93m depth, at four localities in northern Chile. These specimens are compared with individuals collected from 17m depth at Corone [...] l, Gulf of Arauco, Chile, the type locality of the species. A taxonomic characterization, illustrations and a list of new localities in the geographical distribution of this species are presented. Ecological information (bathymetry, sediment type, total organic matter content and dissolved O2 concentration of sea water above the bottom) is included, as well as a key for differentiating the two Pectinariidae species registered in Chile to date.

  11. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  12. The Genus Cladophora Kützing (Ulvophyceae) as a Globally Distributed Ecological Engineer.

    Zulkifly, Shahrizim B; Graham, James M; Young, Erica B; Mayer, Robert J; Piotrowski, Michael J; Smith, Izak; Graham, Linda E

    2013-02-01

    The green algal genus Cladophora forms conspicuous nearshore populations in marine and freshwaters worldwide, commonly dominating peri-phyton communities. As the result of human activities, including the nutrient pollution of nearshore waters, Cladophora-dominated periphyton can form nuisance blooms. On the other hand, Cladophora has ecological functions that are beneficial, but less well appreciated. For example, Cladophora has previously been characterized as an ecological engineer because its complex structure fosters functional and taxonomic diversity of benthic microfauna. Here, we review classic and recent literature concerning taxonomy, cell biology, morphology, reproductive biology, and ecology of the genus Cladophora, to examine how this alga functions to modify habitats and influence littoral biogeochemistry. We review the evidence that Cladophora supports large, diverse populations of microalgal and bacterial epiphytes that influence the cycling of carbon and other key elements, and that the high production of cellulose and hydrocarbons by Cladophora-dominated periphyton has the potential for diverse technological applications, including wastewater remediation coupled to renewable biofuel production. We postulate that well-known aspects of Cladophora morphology, hydrodynamically stable and perennial holdfasts, distinctively branched architecture, unusually large cell and sporangial size and robust cell wall construction, are major factors contributing to the multiple roles of this organism as an ecological engineer. PMID:27008383

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

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  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: barrel medic [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available barrel medic Medicago ... truncatula Medicago _truncatula_L.png Medicago _truncatula_NL.png Medicago _t ... runcatula_S.png Medicago _truncatula_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ... _icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago +truncatula&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chinchilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Chinchilla ... Chinchilla ... lanigera Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Chinchilla _lani ... gera_L.png Chinchilla _lanigera_NL.png Chinchilla _lanigera_S.png Chinchil ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchilla +lanigera&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Budding yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Budding yeast Saccharomyces ... cerevisiae Saccharomyces _cerevisiae_L.png Saccharomyces _cerevisiae_N ... L.png Saccharomyces _cerevisiae_S.png Saccharomyces _cerevisiae_NS.png h ... ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces +cerevisiae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: valencia orange [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available valencia orange Citrus ... sinensis Citrus _sinensis_L.png Citrus _sinensis_NL.png Citrus _sinensis_S.p ... ng Citrus _sinensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i ... con/icon.cgi?i=Citrus +sinensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Clementine [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Clementine Citrus ... clementina Citrus _clementina_L.png Citrus _clementina_NL.png Citrus _clementina_ ... S.png Citrus _clementina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ... _icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus +clementina&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: slipper animalcule [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available slipper animalcule Paramecium ... tetraurelia Paramecium _tetraurelia_L.png Paramecium _tetraurelia_NL ... .png Paramecium _tetraurelia_S.png Paramecium _tetraurelia_NS.png ht ... tp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paramecium +tetraurelia&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma ... gondii Toxoplasma ... gondii Toxoplasma _gondii_L.png Toxoplasma _gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma _ ... gondii_S.png Toxoplasma _gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ... n/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma +gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Common mormon [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Common mormon Papilio polytes Arthropoda Papilio_polytes_L.png Papilio_polytes_NL.png Papilio_po ... png Papilio_polytes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=L http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=NL http://biosci ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Acytostelium subglobosum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Acytostelium subglobosum Acytostelium subglobosum Acytostelium_subglobosum_L.png Acytostelium_su ... stelium_subglobosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Acytostelium+subglobosum&t=L http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Acytostelium+subglobosum&t=NL http ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guillardia theta [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Guillardia theta Guillardia theta Guillardia_theta_L.png Guillardia_theta_NL.png Guillardia_thet ... ng Guillardia_theta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=NL http://biosc ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Haliclona permollis [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Haliclona permollis Haliclona permollis Porifera Haliclona_permollis_L.png Haliclona_permollis_N ... Haliclona_permollis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=L http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=NL http://bi ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Grey heron [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Grey heron Ardea cinerea Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Ardea_cinerea_L.png Ardea_cinerea_NL.png Ardea ... S.png Ardea_cinerea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=L http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NL http://bioscien ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Polysphondylium pallidum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium_pallidum_L.png Polysphondylium ... phondylium_pallidum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Polysphondylium+pallidum&t=L http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Polysphondylium+pallidum&t=NL http ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: fission yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_L.png Schizosaccharomyces_pomb ... saccharomyces_pombe_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=L http ... ://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=NL htt ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Cryptococcus neoformans [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans Filobasidiella neoformans Filobasidiella_neoformans_L.png Filobasidiella ... sidiella_neoformans_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=L http ... ://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=NL htt ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: water bears [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available water bears Echiniscus Tardigrada Echiniscus_L.png Echiniscus_NL.png Echiniscus_S.png Echiniscus ... _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=L http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=NL http://bioscienced ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Trypanosoma brucei [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma_brucei_L.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NL.png Trypano ... Trypanosoma_brucei_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=L http://bios ... ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=NL http://bio ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asian Swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Asian Swallowtail Papilio xuthus Arthropoda Papilio_xuthus_L.png Papilio_xuthus_NL.png Papilio_x ... .png Papilio_xuthus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=NL http://bioscie ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Comb jelly [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Comb jelly Beroe cucumis Ctenophora Beroe_cucumis_L.png Beroe_cucumis_NL.png Beroe_cucumis_S.png ... Beroe_cucumis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=L http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=NL http://bioscien ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Peanut [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Peanut Arachis hypogaea Arachis_hypogaea_L.png Arachis_hypogaea_NL.png Arachis_hypogaea_S.png Ar ... achis_hypogaea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=NL http://biosc ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Planaria [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Planaria Dugesia japonica Platyhelminthes Dugesia_japonica_L.png Dugesia_japonica_NL.png Dugesia ... ng Dugesia_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NL http://biosc ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Oryzias javanicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Oryzias javanicus Oryzias javanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_javanicus_L.png Oryz ... g Oryzias_javanicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=L http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=NL http://bios ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_stephensi ... Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=L http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=NL http://bi ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: mallard [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available mallard Anas platyrhynchos Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Anas_platyrhynchos_L.png Anas_platyrhynchos_ ... Anas_platyrhynchos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Anas+platyrhynchos&t=L http://bios ... ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Anas+platyrhynchos&t=NL http://bio ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Danio rerio [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Danio rerio Danio rerio Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Danio_rerio_L.png Danio_rerio_NL.png Dan ... o_S.png Danio_rerio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Danio+rerio&t=L http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Danio+rerio&t=NL http://bioscience ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ramazzottius [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Ramazzottius Ramazzottius Tardigrada Ramazzottius_L.png Ramazzottius_NL.png Ramazzottius_S.png R ... amazzottius_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ramazzottius&t=L http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ramazzottius&t=NL http://bioscienc ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis Bacillus_subtilis_L.png Bacillus_subtilis_NL.png Bacillus_su ... g Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=L http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://bios ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Dictyostelium discoideum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium_discoideum_L.png Dictyostelium_d ... ostelium_discoideum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Dictyostelium+discoideum&t=L http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Dictyostelium+discoideum&t=NL http ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Beetles [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Beetles Prosopocoilus inclinatus Arthropoda Prosopocoilus_inclinatus_L.png Prosopocoilus_inclina ... pocoilus_inclinatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Prosopocoilus+inclinatus&t=L http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Prosopocoilus+inclinatus&t=NL http ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese medaka [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_latipes_L.png Oryzias_la ... png Oryzias_latipes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+latipes&t=L http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+latipes&t=NL http://biosci ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: choanoflagellate [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis Monosiga_brevicollis_L.png Monosiga_brevicollis_NL.png Mon ... onosiga_brevicollis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=L http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=NL http://b ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Diplazium hachijoense [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Diplazium hachijoense Diplazium hachijoense Diplazium_hachijoense_L.png Diplazium_hachijoense_NL ... plazium_hachijoense_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&t=L http://b ... iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&t=NL http:// ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum Schistosoma japonicum Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_japonicum_L.png Schistos ... histosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://b ... iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NL http:// ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Magellanic penguin [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Spheniscus_magellanicus_L.pn ... niscus_magellanicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Spheniscus+magellanicus&t=L http:/ ... /biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Spheniscus+magellanicus&t=NL http: ...

  8. Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy

    M. Corrie SCHOEMAN, F. P. D. (Woody COTTERILL, Peter J. TAYLOR, Ara MONADJEM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales, variables associated with climate, energy, and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity. Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens. The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS, simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR, conditional autoregressive models (CAR, spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. To test the assumption of stationarity, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used. Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa, particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique. We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/ energy hypotheses, and as we expected, support varied among bat families and model selection. Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families. Altitude range was the only independent variable that was sig­nificant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness. Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models, while those of SEVM models differed. Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationa­rity was violated, the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models. Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges, and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3: 279–293, 2013].

  9. Plant Distribution and Habitat, Non-Agriculture - Targeted Ecological Areas

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a MD iMAP hosted service. Find more information at http://imap.maryland.gov. The purpose of the Targeted Ecological Areas is to: (1) systematically identify...

  10. Plant Distribution and Habitat, Non-Agriculture - Targeted Ecological Areas

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) This is a MD iMAP hosted service. Find more information at http://imap.maryland.gov. The purpose of the Targeted Ecological Areas is to: (1) systematically identify...

  11. Interpretation of Models of Fundamental Ecological Niches and Species’ Distributional Areas

    Jorge Soberon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling—that is, estimation of the dimensions of fundamental ecological niches of species—to predict their geographic distributions is increasingly being employed in systematics, ecology, conservation, public health, etc. This technique is often (of necessity based on data comprising records of presences only. In recent years, many modeling approaches have been devised to estimate these interrelated expressions of a species’ ecology, distributional biology, and evolutionary history—nevertheless, in many cases, a formal basis in ecological and evolutionary theory has been lacking. In this paper, we outline such a formal basis for the suite of techniques that can be termed ‘ecological niche modeling,’ analyze example situations that can be modeled using these techniques, and clarify the interpretation of results.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese skink [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese skink Eumeces latiscutatus Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Eumeces_latiscutatus_L.png Eumeces_lati...scutatus_NL.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_S.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutat...us&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutat...us&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutatus&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands.

    Buden, Donald W; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis "Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842" (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies - Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies. PMID:24194666

  14. Distribution and Ecology of Aster amellus aggregates in the Czech Republic

    Mandáková, T.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 98, - (2006), s. 845-856. ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Distribution * Ecology * Aster amellus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.448, year: 2006

  15. Fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert: taxonomy, distribution, diversity, ecology and bioprospection for bioactive compounds.

    Gonalves, Vvian N; Cantrell, Charles L; Wedge, David E; Ferreira, Mariana C; Soares, Marco Aurlio; Jacob, Melissa R; Oliveira, Fabio S; Galante, Douglas; Rodrigues, Fabio; Alves, Tnia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Junior, Policarpo A S; Murta, Silvane; Romanha, Alvaro J; Barbosa, Emerson C; Kroon, Erna G; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Gomez-Silva, Benito; Galetovic, Alexandra; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity of cultivable rock-associated fungi from Atacama Desert. A total of 81 fungal isolates obtained were identified as 29 Ascomycota taxa by sequencing different regions of DNA. Cladosporium halotolerans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium cf. citrinum were the most frequent species, which occur at least in four different altitudes. The diversity and similarity indices ranged in the fungal communities across the latitudinal gradient. The Fisher-? index displayed the higher values for the fungal communities obtained from the siltstone and fine matrix of pyroclastic rocks with finer grain size, which are more degraded. A total of 23 fungal extracts displayed activity against the different targets screened. The extract of P.?chrysogenum afforded the compounds ?-linolenic acid and ergosterol endoperoxide, which were active against Cryptococcus neoformans and methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Our study represents the first report of a new habitat of fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert and indicated the presence of interesting fungal community, including species related with saprobes, parasite/pathogen and mycotoxigenic taxa. The geological characteristics of the rocks, associated with the presence of rich resident/resilient fungal communities suggests that the rocks may provide a favourable microenvironment fungal colonization, survival and dispersal in extreme conditions. PMID:26235221

  16. Fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert: Taxonomy, distribution, diversity, ecology and bioprospection for bioactive compounds

    This study assessed the diversity of fungi living in rocks from different altitudes in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Eighty-one fungal isolates obtained were identified as 21 species of 12 genera from Ascomycota using molecular techniques. Cladosporium halotolerans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicill...

  17. Ecology Drives the Worldwide Distribution of Human Diseases

    Guernier Vanina; Hochberg Michael E; Guégan Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    Identifying the factors underlying the origin and maintenance of the latitudinal diversity gradient is a central problem in ecology, but no consensus has emerged on which processes might generate this broad pattern. Interestingly, the vast majority of studies exploring the gradient have focused on free-living organisms, ignoring parasitic and infectious disease (PID) species. Here, we address the influence of environmental factors on the biological diversity of human pathogens and their globa...

  18. Distribution of Lutra maculicollis in Rwanda : ecological constraints

    Lejeune A.

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of 10 rwandese lakes, where there are still quite important populations of Lutra maculicollis, has pointed out a few characteristics of the habitat favorable to the survival of these populations. The ecological constraints for the survival of these populations are: the abundance of small fishes, the continuity of the lake side vegetation, the absence of crocodiles and pollution by pesticides, and the low level of predation by man.

  19. Ecological drivers of shark distributions along a tropical coastline.

    Yates, Peter M; Heupel, Michelle R; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2015-01-01

    As coastal species experience increasing anthropogenic pressures there is a growing need to characterise the ecological drivers of their abundance and habitat use, and understand how they may respond to changes in their environment. Accordingly, fishery-independent surveys were undertaken to investigate shark abundance along approximately 400 km of the tropical east coast of Australia. Generalised linear models were used to identify ecological drivers of the abundance of immature blacktip Carcharhinus tilstoni/Carcharhinus limbatus, pigeye Carcharhinus amboinensis, and scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini sharks. Results indicated general and species-specific patterns in abundance that were characterised by a range of abiotic and biotic variables. Relationships with turbidity and salinity were similar across multiple species, highlighting the importance of these variables in the functioning of communal shark nurseries. In particular, turbid environments were especially important for all species at typical oceanic salinities. Mangrove proximity, depth, and water temperature were also important; however, their influence varied between species. Ecological drivers may promote spatial diversity in habitat use along environmentally heterogeneous coastlines and may therefore have important implications for population resilience. PMID:25853657

  20. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

    Don Buden

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842 (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspeciesP. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 9251,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 510 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females with young (April, July and pregnant females (July suggest an extended breeding season. Pteropus p. pelagicus appears most threatened by the prospect of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies.

  1. Ecological gradients driving the distribution of four Ericaceae in boreal Quebec, Canada.

    Thiffault, Nelson; Grondin, Pierre; Noël, Jean; Poirier, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    Understory species play a significant role in forest ecosystem dynamics. As such, species of the Ericaceae family have a major effect on the regeneration of tree species in boreal ecosystems. It is thus imperative to understand the ecological gradients controlling their distribution and abundance, so that their impacts can be taken into account in sustainable forest management. Using innovative analytical techniques from landscape ecology, we aimed to position, along ecological gradients, four Ericaceae found in the boreal forest of Quebec (Canada) (Rhododendron groenlandicum, Kalmia angustifolia, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Vaccinium spp), to regionalize these species into landscape units relevant to forest management, and to estimate the relative importance of several ecological drivers (climate, disturbances, stand attributes, and physical environment) that control the species distribution and abundance. We conducted our study in boreal Quebec, over a study area covering 535,355 km(2). We used data from 15,339 ecological survey plots and forest maps to characterize 1422 ecological districts covering the study region. We evaluated the relative proportion of each ericaceous species and explanatory variables at the district level. Vegetation and explanatory variables matrices were used to conduct redundancy, cluster, and variation partitioning analyses. We observed that ericaceous species are mainly distributed in the western part of the study area and each species has a distinct latitudinal and longitudinal gradient distribution. On the basis of these gradients, we delimited 10 homogeneous landscape units distinct in terms of ericaceous species abundance and environmental drivers. The distribution of the ericaceous species along ecological gradients is closely related to the overlaps between the four sets of explanatory variables considered. We conclude that the studied Ericaceae occupy specific positions along ecological gradients and possess a specific abundance and distribution controlled by the integration of multiple explanatory variables. PMID:26140200

  2. Ecology

    Khumayni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecology is the study of interaction of living organisms in the environment. However the modern meaning of the concept of ecology has a wider meaning than in the early decades of the development of this science. Currently, most often under the mistaken environmental issues are understood, above all, the protection of the environment. In many ways, this shift is due to sense more tangible consequences of human impact on the environment. When you are citing the document, use the following lin...

  3. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  4. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests......Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of...... plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We...

  5. Deep coral and associated species taxonomy and ecology: (DeepCAST) II Expedition Report, Roatan, Honduras, May 21-28, 2011

    Etnoyer, Peter J.; Shirley, Thomas C.; Lavelle, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    NOAA has a mandate to explore and understand deep-sea coral ecology under Magnuson-Stevens Sustainable Fisheries Conservation Act Reauthorization of 2009. Deep-sea corals are increasingly considered a proxy for marine biodiversity in the deep-sea because corals create complex structure, and this structure forms important habitat for associated species of shrimp, crabs, sea stars, brittle stars, and fishes. Yet, our understanding of the nature of the relationships between deep-corals and...

  6. Review: Ecological distribution of Dipterocarpaceae species in Indonesia

    PURWANINGSIH

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Dipterocarpaceae is one of the biggest family with >500 species in the world, and most of dipterocarps population are grown in Indonesia which have high economical value of wood. One of the most important value from dipterocarps species is high on endemicities; there are up to 128 species (53.78% from 238 dipterocarps species in Indonesia. Distribution of dipterocarps species would be affected by some factors especially edaphic, climate, and altitude. In Indonesia the dipterocarps species distribution could be shown from islands groups, number of species and forest types. Based on the observation of herbarium collection in Herbarium Bogoriense the distribution of the most dipterocarps species was in the altitude of 0-500 m and 500-1000 m on the dipterocarps forest type. Kalimantan and Sumatra were the two bigger islands with have the dipterocarps species distributed relatively high on population and species.

  7. Nonlinear ecological processes driving the distribution of marine decapod larvae

    Peña, M.; Carbonell, A.; Tor, A.; Alvarez-Berastegui, D.; Balbín, R.; dos Santos, A.; Alemany, F.

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of the natural processes lead to many nonlinear interacting factors that influence the distribution and survival of marine pelagic species, particularly in their larval phase. The management of these ecosystems requires techniques that unveil those interactions by studying the system globally, including all relevant variables and combining both community and environmental data in a single step. Specifically, we apply an unsupervised neural network, the Self-Organising Map (SOM), to a combined dataset of environmental and decapod larvae community data from the Balearic sea, obtained in two years with contrasting environmental scenarios, as an Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) technique that provides a global and more detailed view of both the environmental processes and their influence on the distribution of such planktonic community. We examine the parental influence on the initial larval distribution by aggregating data by adult habitat, which also increments the signal to noise ratio (mean data patterns over noise due to outliers or measurement errors), and consider the distribution of larvae by development stage (as a proxy of age and hence of potential dispersion). The joined study of parental effect, drifting or concentration events determined by dynamical processes in the whole water column, and lifespan, draws the possible paths followed by larvae, and highlights the more influencing variables in their distribution. Investigation of the different aspects of dynamic height (absolute values, gradients or edges and correlations) clarified the effect of the oceanographic processes on decapods' larvae.

  8. Octaviania asterosperma (hypogeous Basidiomycota. Recent data to ecology and distribution

    Piotr Mleczko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses place Octaviania asterosperma in the Boletales, with Leccinum being the closest relative. Results of the structural investigation of O. asterosperma ectomycorrhiza with Fagus sylvatica confirm this systematic position. In Europe the species is an ectomycorrhizal partner of broad-leaved trees, such as Carpinus, Corylus, Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. This paper aims at presenting the new data to the distribution of O. asterosperma in Central Europe. The description of the basidiocarps discovered in Poland in the recent years is also given, together with evidence for the parasitic relationship of Sepedonium laevigatum with O. asterosperma. We also present the information concerning all known localities of the species in Poland and its distribution map. Data on the ecologz, distribution and status O. asterosperma in Europe, and some structural aspects of basidiocarps and spores, are also summarized.

  9. Natural history of the Chinchilla genus (Bennett 1829): Considerations of their ecology, taxonomy and conservation status / Historia natural del gnero Chinchilla (Bennett 1829): Consideraciones de su ecologa, taxonoma y estado de conservacin

    PABLO, VALLADARES FANDEZ; NGEL, SPOTORNO OYARZN; CARLOS, ZULETA RAMOS.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En los ltimos aos se ha generado nueva y valiosa informacin de las dos especies silvestres de chinchillas; sin embargo sta sigue siendo insuficiente para una proteccin efectiva. En este trabajo hacemos una revisin de algunos aspectos fundamentales de su historia natural, sintetizando y entrega [...] ndo nuevos antecedentes de su ecologa, taxonoma y estado de conservacin, en base a la revisin de la literatura disponible, y toma de datos en el campo. En relacin a su ecologa, hemos identificado nuevas colonias de ambas especies, tanto por investigacin cientfica como por reportes tcnicos ambientales. Para la mayora de esas colonias se ha identificado la vegetacin a la que estn asociadas, depredadores y otras especies de roedores simptridos. La taxonoma de ambas especies ha sido controversial. Una propuesta fue sometida a la ICZN en el 2003 y las recomendaciones fueron describir un neotipo para el gnero y ambas especies; sin embargo, los especmenes originales descritos por Bennett (1829), Lichtenstein (1830) y Waterhouse (1844) existen en museos de Europa y deben ser considerados como los respectivos sintipos. Finalmente, el estado de conservacin de estas especies ha sido catalogado como crticamente en peligro tanto por instituciones nacionales como internacionales, esto debido a que la mayora de las colonias son pequeas, fragmentadas y aisladas, sin embargo, ahora la mayor amenaza es la relacin geogrfica de las nuevas colonias con reas de explotacin minera. Se argumenta con esta informacin la necesidad de desarrollar un programa de conservacin de ambas especies, que considere mbitos fundamentales de la biologa de la especie, tales como la ecologa, gentica y reproduccin. Abstract in english Over the last years there has been new and valuable information in both wild chinchillas, however this is still insufficient for effective protection. In this paper we review some fundamental aspects of its natural history, synthesizing and delivering new information about their ecology, taxonomy an [...] d conservation status, based on the review of available literature, and field data collection. In relation to their ecology we have been identified new colonies of both species, for scientific research as well as environmental technical reports. For most of these colonies we identified vegetation to which they are associated, predators and other sympatric rodent species. The taxonomy of these species is controversial. A proposal was submitted to ICZN in 2003, and the recommendations were to describe a neotype for genus and species, but the original specimens described by Bennett (1829), Lichtenstein (1830) and Waterhouse (1844) are in museums from Europe and should be considered as syntypes. Conservation status of both species is critically endangered because most colonies are threatened by mining exploitation. Therefore, it is essential to explore new regions to identify new colonies and compare them with modern methods such as molecular markers. Finally, with this information we argue the need to develop a conservation programs for both species; it should consider critical areas of their biology, such as ecology, genetics and reproduction.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: tomato [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available tomato Solanum ... lycopersicum Solanum _lycopersicum_L.png Solanum _lycopersicum_NL.png Solanum _lycop ... ersicum_S.png Solanum _lycopersicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono ... my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum +lycopersicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available dog Canis lupus ... familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus _fa ... miliaris_L.png Canis_lupus _familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus _familiaris_S.png Can ... is_lupus _familiaris_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ...

  12. Taxonomy, common names and distribution of fish in the eastern arm of the Rift Valley drainage, Kenya.

    Okeyo, D.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to update information on scientific and recommended English common names and the distribution of fish species of Kenya occurring in the Eastern Arm of the Rift Valley drainage system. At least 20 fish families from 35 genera and 66 species occur in the drainage system, with Lake Turkana catchment having the richest species diversity at 50 (76%). Five (8 %) fish species have been introduced into the drainage, mostly for commercial purposes and sports, viz: in Lake Naivasha,...

  13. Octaviania asterosperma (hypogeous Basidiomycota). Recent data to ecology and distribution

    Piotr Mleczko; Maciej Kozak; Maria Ławrynowicz; Grzegorz Dubiel

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses place Octaviania asterosperma in the Boletales, with Leccinum being the closest relative. Results of the structural investigation of O. asterosperma ectomycorrhiza with Fagus sylvatica confirm this systematic position. In Europe the species is an ectomycorrhizal partner of broad-leaved trees, such as Carpinus, Corylus, Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. This paper aims at presenting the new data to the distribution of O. asterosperma in Central Europe. The description of the basi...

  14. The reminiscence bump for public events: A review of its prevalence and taxonomy of alternative age distributions

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examines the extant literature on the reminiscence bump for public events (the finding that public events are generally remembered best by those in adolescence or early adulthood at the time of their occurrence), with the aim of identifying (i) whether this bump in fact represents...... a legitimate effect, and (ii) the alternative age distributions that are otherwise seen in recall for public events. I conclude that, though the bump is frequently found, the legitimacy of the effect is contingent upon the strictness of the standard one employs. I also find significant exceptions to...

  15. UPDATING THE TAXONOMY AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE EUROPEAN OSMODERMA, AND STRATEGIES FOR THEIR CONSERVATION (COLEOPTERA, SCARABAEIDAE, CETONIINAE

    Paolo Audisio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of a molecular analysis on the European hermit beetles (the Osmoderma eremita species-complex, recently published in a companion paper, are shortly dis- cussed and commented. These results indicate a clear-cut distinction between two clades. The first one includes the W-European O. eremita Scopoli, 1763, and the two Italian endemic taxa O. italicum Sparacio, 2000 and O. cristinae Sparacio, 1994, from southern peninsular Italy and Sicily, respectively. The second one includes the widespread E-European O. barnabita Motschulsky, 1845 (nom. resurr., and the southern Balcanic O. lassallei Baraud & Tauzin, 1991 from Greece and European Turkey. Within the two clades, molecular data well support a specific rank for O. lassallei and O. barn­abita on one side, and of O. eremita and O. cristinae on the other side, while the taxonomic position of O. italicum, more closely related with O. eremita, is still uncertain, waiting for analysis of additional specimens of this very rare taxon. Current geographical distribution, interspecific genetic diversification, and relatively low levels of intraspecific genetic divergence in O. eremita sensu stricto, are hypothesized to be the result of multiple speciation events (mainly occurred in refugial forest areas of the Italian and Balkan peninsulas and Sicily before and during the Pleistocene glacial peaks, followed by fast post-glacial northward and westward expansion of some species. The need of further genetic data on the rare and threatened hermit beetle species and the importance of more detailed information on their distribution ranges are emphasized and discussed, in order to plan conservation strategies in the near future. An updated worldwide checklist of the species of the genus Osmoderma is finally presented.

  16. EPA Web Taxonomy

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  17. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2011-01-01

    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the standpoint of inductive and hypothetico-deductive argumentation schemes and such fundamental criteria of classifications naturalness as their prognostic capabilities; foundation of a theory of "general taxonomy" as a "general logic", including elements of the axiomatic method. The latter concept constitutes a core of the program of general classiology; it is inconsistent due to absence of anything like "general logic". It is asserted that elaboration of a theory of taxonomy as a biological discipline based on the formal principles of epistemological rationality is not feasible. Instead, it is to be elaborated as ontologically rational one based on biologically sound metatheories about biological diversity causes. PMID:21469346

  18. Company Taxonomy development

    Lund, Haakon; Ørnager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore theoretically and empirically the understanding and implementation of an information taxonomy in the UN organization World Food Programme (WFP) by analysing users’ information behaviour and by establishing a minimum set of cross-silo metadata (tax...... research carried out on current taxonomy projects in corporate environments and international emergency response organizations and few has touched on how knowledge organization systems can enhance or constrain staff’s ability to access online content....

  19. Larval description of Drusus bosnicus Klaplek 1899 (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae), with distributional, molecular and ecological features

    KU?INI?, MLADEN; PREVII?, ANA; GRAF, WOLFRAM; MIHOCI, IVA; OUFEK, MARIN; STANI?-KOTROMAN, SVJETLANA; LELO, SUVAD; VITECEK, SIMON; WARINGER, JOHANN

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present morphological, molecular and ecological features of the last instar larvae of Drusus bosnicus with data about distribution of this species in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We also included are the most important diagnostic features enabling separation of larvae of D. bosnicus from larvae of the other European Drusinae and Trichoptera species. PMID:26249056

  20. Characteristics of plants distribution in botanical gardens outside the ecological optimum

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of the botanical gardens activity in the introduction and acclimatization of plants appearing: in the distribution of species beyond their natural ecological optimum, in the creation of collections of closely related species capable to spontaneous hybridization, in the formation of sources of invasive species. The role of botanic gardens as anthropogenic centers of evolution and distribution of plants is emphasized.

  1. Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran

    Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

    2013-11-01

    Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids. Populations of A. sieberi were sampled widely in Iran and soil characteristics, climate and anatomical and phytochemical plant attributes were measured. Also, in parallel, an independent genetic assessment of populations was carried out using genetic fingerprinting. Two ploidy levels were identified: 75% of the 34 populations of A. sieberi populations sampled were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) with the remainder diploid (2n = 2x = 18). Plants of differing ploidy also differed anatomically, genetically and chemically. Tetraploid populations had larger cells and lower stomatal densities and a different essential oil composition. They also appear ecologically distinct, occupying more fertile, mesic habitats than diploids. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the existence of two genetically differentiated subgroups independent of ploidy but with some geographic and ecological pattern. We conclude that diploids and tetraploids have a different ecological distribution and that the absence of mixed diploid-tetraploid populations is a reflection of differing fitness in different habitats. We suspect that a key ecological difference between diploids and tetraploids is the increased stomatal size of tetraploids, possibly resulting from the increased genome and hence cell size following polyploidisation. Polyploid-formation may be constrained in arid habitats by problems of water-use efficiency associated with the larger stomata originally produced.

  2. Reconstructing ecological niches and geographic distributions of caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus) during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Colombeau, Guillaume

    2008-12-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to reconstruct glacial distributions of species, identify their environmental characteristics, and understand their influence on subsequent population expansions. Traditional methods, however, provide only rough estimates of past distributions, and are often unable to identify the ecological and geographic processes that shaped them. Recently, ecological niche modeling (ENM) methodologies have been applied to these questions in an effort to overcome such limitations. We apply ENM to the European faunal record of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to reconstruct ecological niches and potential ranges for caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus), and evaluate whether their LGM distributions resulted from tracking the geographic footprint of their ecological niches (niche conservatism) or if ecological niche shifts between the LGM and present might be implicated. Results indicate that the LGM geographic ranges of both species represent distributions characterized by niche conservatism, expressed through geographic contraction of the geographic footprints of their respective ecological niches.

  3. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martn, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    Sarah Faulwetter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schrder, 1979 and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martn, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided.

  4. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    Gulinck Hubert; Peterson Andrew T; Neerinckx Simon B; Deckers Jozef; Leirs Herwig

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework t...

  5. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    Gulinck Hubert

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

  6. Ecological and methodological drivers of species' distribution and phenology responses to climate change.

    Brown, Christopher J; O'Connor, Mary I; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Schoeman, David S; Buckley, Lauren B; Burrows, Michael T; Duarte, Carlos M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Pandolfi, John M; Parmesan, Camille; Richardson, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is shifting species' distribution and phenology. Ecological traits, such as mobility or reproductive mode, explain variation in observed rates of shift for some taxa. However, estimates of relationships between traits and climate responses could be influenced by how responses are measured. We compiled a global data set of 651 published marine species' responses to climate change, from 47 papers on distribution shifts and 32 papers on phenology change. We assessed the relative importance of two classes of predictors of the rate of change, ecological traits of the responding taxa and methodological approaches for quantifying biological responses. Methodological differences explained 22% of the variation in range shifts, more than the 7.8% of the variation explained by ecological traits. For phenology change, methodological approaches accounted for 4% of the variation in measurements, whereas 8% of the variation was explained by ecological traits. Our ability to predict responses from traits was hindered by poor representation of species from the tropics, where temperature isotherms are moving most rapidly. Thus, the mean rate of distribution change may be underestimated by this and other global syntheses. Our analyses indicate that methodological approaches should be explicitly considered when designing, analysing and comparing results among studies. To improve climate impact studies, we recommend that (1) reanalyses of existing time series state how the existing data sets may limit the inferences about possible climate responses; (2) qualitative comparisons of species' responses across different studies be limited to studies with similar methodological approaches; (3) meta-analyses of climate responses include methodological attributes as covariates; and (4) that new time series be designed to include the detection of early warnings of change or ecologically relevant change. Greater consideration of methodological attributes will improve the accuracy of analyses that seek to quantify the role of climate change in species' distribution and phenology changes. PMID:26661135

  7. Ecological and methodological drivers of species’ distribution and phenology responses to climate change

    Brown, Christopher J.

    2015-12-10

    Climate change is shifting species’ distribution and phenology. Ecological traits, such as mobility or reproductive mode, explain variation in observed rates of shift for some taxa. However, estimates of relationships between traits and climate responses could be influenced by how responses are measured. We compiled a global dataset of 651 published marine species’ responses to climate change, from 47 papers on distribution shifts and 32 papers on phenology change. We assessed the relative importance of two classes of predictors of the rate of change, ecological traits of the responding taxa and methodological approaches for quantifying biological responses. Methodological differences explained 22% of the variation in range shifts, more than the 7.8% of the variation explained by ecological traits. For phenology change, methodological approaches accounted for 4% of the variation in measurements, whereas 8% of the variation was explained by ecological traits. Our ability to predict responses from traits was hindered by poor representation of species from the tropics, where temperature isotherms are moving most rapidly. Thus, the mean rate of distribution change may be underestimated by this and other global syntheses. Our analyses indicate that methodological approaches should be explicitly considered when designing, analysing and comparing results among studies. To improve climate impact studies, we recommend that: (1) re-analyses of existing time-series state how the existing datasets may limit the inferences about possible climate responses; (2) qualitative comparisons of species’ responses across different studies be limited to studies with similar methodological approaches; (3) meta-analyses of climate responses include methodological attributes as covariates and; (4) that new time series be designed to include detection of early warnings of change or ecologically relevant change. Greater consideration of methodological attributes will improve the accuracy of analyses that seek to quantify the role of climate change in species’ distribution and phenology changes.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png Glandiceps_hack...si_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  9. Puebla: Distribution, taxonomy, and conservation

    José Ramírez-Pulido

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 96 museum specimens belonging to 14 species of Carnivora from the Mexican State of Puebla. In addition, four species were documented based on literature records and by indirect evidence. The carnivorous mammals of Puebla belong to 5 families, 18 genera, 18 species and 23 subspecies. Eight of these 23 taxa are reported herein for the first time from the state of Puebla. Of the 18 species, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Lontra longicaudis, Taxidea taxus, and Galictis vittata are considered by Norma Oficial Mexicana as threatened species, Leopardus wiedii and Eira barbara in danger of extinction, and Potos flavus is under special protection. We found Lynx rufus, Canis latrans, Taxidea taxus, and Bassariscus astutus were found only in the Nearctic region of the State, whereas Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii, Lontra longicaudis, Galictis vittata, Eira barbara, Potos flavus, and Nasua narica were found only in the Neotropical region of the State. The remaining seven species (Puma concolor, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, Mustela frenata, Mephitis macroura, Spilogale putorius, Conepatus leuconotus, and Procyon lotor have been taken in both the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Localities in the Sierra Norte de Puebla had the greatest species richness and abundance of individuals. The carnivores confront serious conservation problems in the state because they are hunted indiscriminately as trophies and by the local residents as harmful species. Moreover they are hunted for economic benefit by the sale of theirs skins or as living pets. The carnivores in some areas are used as food items and for therapeutic proprieties of their fat, skin, or bones. Unfortunately at this time we can’t assess the full impact of these activities on the local populations.

  10. Teaching Taxonomy: How Many Kingdoms?

    Case, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Taxonomy, the identification, naming, and classification of living things, is an indispensable unit in any biology curriculum and indeed, an integral part of biological science. Taxonomy catalogues life's diversity and is an essential tool for communication. Textbook discussions of taxonomy range anywhere from three to eight domains of kingdoms.…

  11. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution ofPhlebotomus papatasiand zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused byLeishmania majorin Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution ofP. papatasiand cutaneous leishmaniasis caused byL. major Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused byL. major Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model theP. papatasigeographical distribution and five variables were used to model theL. majorpotential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution ofP. papatasiwith the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk. PMID:26856914

  12. Distribution and Conservation of Davilla (Dilleniaceae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    Martins Pereira, Ismael; Gomes-Klein, Vera Lcia; Groppo,Milton

    2014-01-01

    We have modeled the ecological niche for 12 plant species belonging to the genus Davilla (Dilleniaceae) which occur in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. This group includes endemic species lianas threatened by extinction and is therefore a useful indicator for forest areas requiring conservation. The aims are to compare the distribution and richness of species within the protected areas, assessing the degree of protection and gap analysis of reserves for this group. We used the Maxent algorithm ...

  13. Ecology and distribution ofof Euseius finlandicus (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae) in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region

    K. V. Shtymak

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the ecology and distribution of the species Eu. finlandicus Oudemans, 1915 (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae) in the garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. In Ukraine, such studies were conducted for the Forest-Steppe zone. The mites were collected during the period of 2012–2014. In total, nine settlements of Transcarpathian region were studied. On the researched territory Eu. finlandicus inhabits at least 26 species of plants. For the first time, the status of the s...

  14. Distribution ecology and the impact of human activities on some gracilaria species of the Kenya coast.

    Oyieke, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    The genus Gracilaria belongs lo the group of seaweeds that are of commercial value and are being harvested worldwide for their active ingredient agar: A pre-requisite for the harvesting of these plants, which has often been ignored, is a study on their ecological requirements within an ecosystem which leads to better understanding of the plants and hence good management practices and conservation in cases where wild stocks are harvested. With this aim in mind a study on the distribution ecolo...

  15. Improving ecological niche model transferability to predict the potential distribution of invasive exotic species

    Gengping Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling (ENM seeks to characterize the ecological requirements of species using their occurrence in association with environmental variables. The classic applications of ENM to biological invasions involve the calibration of niche modeling in the native range and the subsequent transfer of the calibrated models to other regions to predict areas of potential invasion. However, low niche model transferability has been reported in certain cases, resulting in artifactual conclusions in some studies (e.g., niche shift during a species’ invasion. Improving niche model transferability would allow precise predictions of the invasion potential of species, providing valuable information for invasion risk assessment. In this review, we address model input data (i.e., occurrence records and environmental variables, using the invasive Halyomorpha halys and Spartina alterniflora, to explore protocols for improving niche model transferability. We conclude that the knowledge of the biology, population equilibrium state, geographic distribution, and biogeographic history of the invasive species is crucial prior to niche modeling. In niche model calibration, the sufficient records should not only cover the geographic extent and the ecological dimension of the species’ distribution but also reduce the sample bias and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Selecting environmental variables should involve considerations of their biological importance in restricting the species’ distribution, the differences in occupied ecological space among geographic populations, and the dimensionality of the environmental space. Delimiting the geographic background for niche modeling should involve considerations of the species’ distributional range and population equilibrium state. We believe that, based on niche conservatism, niche model transferability can be guaranteed if niche models are built based on a reasonable approach. Caution is warranted in the case of interpretations of low niche model transferability in association with niche differentiation.

  16. Geographic Distribution and Ecology of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Colombia.

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Osorio, Lisardo; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata Latreille is the second most important vector of Chagas' disease in Colombia and is found in urban and periurban areas. From January 2007 to June 2008, we performed field work in 8 departments, 18 municipalities, and 44 rural villages, covering most of its known distribution and all of its ecological zones in the country. The goal was to determine the geographical distribution, the ecology, and house infestation indices of T. dimidiata over its range and hence the Chagas' disease transmission risk. In Colombia, T. dimidiata occupies a wide variety of ecosystems, from transformed ecosystems in the Andean biome with shrub and xerofitic vegetation to very dense forests in the humid tropical forests in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. According to genetic and ecological criteria, at least two T. dimidiata forms of this species are present: populations from the northwest of the country (Caribbean plains) are restricted to palm tree habitats, and domestic involvement is limited to sporadic visits because of attraction by light; and populations of the east region (Andean mountains) presenting a complex distributional pattern including sylvatic, peridomestic, and domiciliated ecotopes, and occupying a great variety of life zones. The latter population is of epidemiological importance due to the demonstrated migration and genetical flow of individuals among the different habitats. Control, therefore, must take into account its diversity of habitats. PMID:26487247

  17. [Distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Zhalong Wetland].

    Ye, Hua-Xiang; Zang, Shu-Ying; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Hong

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments of the Zhalong Wetland using ICP-MS, analyzed their spatial distributions, evaluated the potential ecological risk, and explored the pollution sources and environmental influencing factors. The results can be summarized as the followings: (1) The concentrations of Hg, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr were 0.065, 0.155, 10.26, 18.20, 21.35, 52.08 and 46.47 mg x kg(-1), respectively, which were all above the soil background values of the Songnen Plain. Their spatial distributions were distinctly different. The concentration of heavy metals in the north was higher than that in the south, and the east was higher than the west. Particularly in the eastern region, the concentrations of Hg and Cd were 20.8 and 32.4 times the minimum values of the whole area. And in the core zone, the concentration was relatively low. (2) The sequence of the potential ecological risk posed by the metals was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. The average potential ecological risk index (RI) of the Zhalong Wetland was 171.9 (ranged from 76.9-473.5), suggesting a moderate ecological risk. However, the potential ecological risk was extremely high in the east which should be treated as the major heavy metal pollution prevention site in the future. (3) Except for Hg and Pb, the concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly correlated to each other, indicating that those heavy metals had homology. (4) Organic matter was the major environmental influencing factor. However, the trend of land salinization in the Zhalong Wetland has been intensified, indicating a higher risk of heavy metal releasing from the sediments, to which the local authorities should pay enough attention. PMID:23798110

  18. Society's nature: Ecological economics and the combined challenge of environment and distribution

    Rpke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the emerging field of ecological economics and evaluates its potential for addressing some of the concerns within development studies. It takes as its point of departure the study of the relationship between nature and society that emerged in the wake of the environmental dis......, in particular the combination of the environmental and distributional issues and the challenges therein. Finally, the paper reflects on the persuasive potential of ecological economics in relation to politics.......The paper introduces the emerging field of ecological economics and evaluates its potential for addressing some of the concerns within development studies. It takes as its point of departure the study of the relationship between nature and society that emerged in the wake of the environmental...... discourse in the 1960s. In the first section, a new perspective in the study of the interaction between society and nature is briefly outlined. Thereafter, the field of ecological economics is discussed as a specific example of this new perspective, followed by its potential link to the development debate...

  19. Comment: 7 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 7.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ... 人アイコンの別候補(小)です。 ttamura 2008/11/06 ...

  20. Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japan ese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 219.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center ... for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ... アイコン:メダカ HNI-Ⅱ系統バージョン bando 2010/02/ ...

  1. Comment: 13 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 13.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science ... licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ... ヒトアイコンの別候補を作成してみました。 ttamura 2 ...

  2. Comment: 8 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 8.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Scien ... ce licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ... 差し替えようのティラノアイコン(小)をアップしまし ...

  3. Comment: 6 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 6.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ... 人アイコンの別候補です。 ttamura 2008/11/06 16:10: ...

  4. Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Florida lanc elet (amphioxus) Branc hiostoma floridae Branc hiostoma_floridae_L.png 61.png Taxonomy ... ic on (c ) Database C enter for Life Sc ienc e lic ensed un ... der CC ... Attribution2.1 Japan イメージを差し替えました(添付 ...

  5. Comment: 2 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available bottlenosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus Tursiops_truncatus_L.png 2 .png Taxonomy icon (c) Database ... nter for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2 .1 Japan サンプルの投稿です ttamura 2 008/10/2 9 11:4 ...

  6. An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics

    Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    We are pleased to see the letter by Schimel and Chadwick (Front Ecol Environ 2013; 11[8]: 405–06), highlighting the importance of soil characterization in ecological and biogeochemical research and explaining the value of soil taxonomy, and we agree with the authors that reporting soil

  7. Distribution, habitat use and ecology of deepwater Anemones (Actiniaria) in the Gulf of Mexico

    Ammons, Archie W.; Daly, Marymegan

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of deepwater Actiniaria is poorly known. Rarely are these organisms identified to family, as this requires both well-preserved specimens and taxonomic expertise. Ecological information is similarly lacking. From the results of a comprehensive surveying program in the deep Gulf of Mexico, we report the occurrence of nine species of Actiniaria. For the most abundant four of these, we plot distributions and discuss habitat use, morphological variation, and feeding strategies. Actiniaria in the Gulf appear to have broad, basin-wide distributions with little depth preference. Faunal biomass is highest in the NE Gulf within submarine canyons or at the base of slope escarpments. Attachment mode is mostly opportunistic on various types of hard substrata, including trash. Sediment-dwelling forms are very abundant at an organically rich site within a large submarine canyon.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus_L.png Andrias..._japonicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NL http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=S http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  9. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms

    Spotila, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

  10. Ocean distribution, feeding ecology, and return of Pacific salmon in the 1997 El Nino event year

    Kaeriyama, M. [Hokkaido Tokai Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Urawa, S.; Fukuwaka, M. [National Salmon Resources Centre, Nakanoshima, Sapporo (Japan); Myers, K.W.; Davis, N.D. [Washington Univ., Fisheries Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Takagi, S.; Ueda, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Faculty of Fisheries, Hakodate, Hokkaido (Japan); Nagasawa, K.; Ishida, Y. [National Research Inst. of Far Seas Fisheries, Shimizu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The impact of the 1997 El Nino event on the offshore distribution, migration and feeding ecology of Pacific salmon in the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea, and on the return pattern of Japanese chum salmon, was studied. The run pattern of adult chum salmon showed extreme fluctuation by area and run timing. The 1997 abundance and return rate of early runs was significantly increased in the Okhotsk and Nemuro regions compared to the previous five-year means but the abundance and return rate of Japan Sea populations and some of the late runs was decreased. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  12. The integrative future of taxonomy

    Vences Miguel; De la Riva Ignacio; Miralles Aurlien; Padial Jos M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an...

  13. Ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of phytoplankton in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit. Mexico

    Humberto Macias-Cuellar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton species are an important basis of the food web for various systems such as pelagic, coastal and lake. Due to their photosynthetic capacity, this community is sensitive to changes in light availability, temperature, nutrient concentrations, herbivores consumption, parasitism and competition. Therefore, they show a high spatial and temporal variability related to environmental changes both natural and anthropogenic. However, as any taxonomic group, phytoplankton species have environmental thresholds, ecological niches that define their distribution. This study was located in Aguamilpa Dam, an artificial aquatic reservoir which started operations in 1994 for electric energy production. In this system the potential distribution of the phytoplankton was evaluated, where the highest species richness and restricted distribution areas were identified. Potential distribution models based on ecological niche definition were generated using ArcMap 9.2® with Maxent (Maximun Entropy Method. The development of distribution maps was carried out using Digital Elevation Models in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha, based on nine physico-chemical and biological water parameters monitored in the reservoir. The highest species richness areas were found in the Huaynamota river tributary and at the station called La Confluencia, while the less abundance areas were found in the Santiago river tributary during warm and cold dry seasons with a great abundance of cyanophyta. During the rainfall season, the Huaynamota river tributary diversity areas were extended and the presence of some dominant species of cyanophyta were indentified. These species can be associated with trophic processes related to anthropogenic pollutants in the reservoir. This study illustrates the potential application of niche modeling approach in aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Spatial correlations of population and ecological factors with distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in southwestern Iran

    Mohammad Amin Ghatee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis as a dynamic disease may be markedly influenced by demographic and ecological factors. A geospatial information system study was developed to determine the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases in relation to population, climatic and environmental factors in Fars province, southwest of Iran. Methods: The dwelling addresses of 217 VL patients were obtained from hospital files. A hazard map produced by unifying buffers (5 km around nomads travel routes (NTR was developed to survey the effect of close proximity to NTR on the distribution of VL. Mean annual rainfall (MAR, mean annual temperature (MAT, four months temperature mean (T4, elevation, slope and landcover were climatic and environmental factors that have been analysed. Finally, data of dwelling foci were extracted from maps and analysed using logistic regression models. Results: Close proximity to NTR was the most important factor influenced on the disease distribution. Climatic factors were in second rank. Among them, temperature especially T4 is the most effective variable and rainfall was also shown to be another effective climatic agent. Most cases of VL were reported from temperate and semiarid areas in western and central regions while arid condition was a confined factor. The environmental factor of landcovers including urban, dry farm and thin forest regions was revealed as the third rank effective factor. Altitude importance was only shown when its effect was studied independently from other factors. Interpretation & conclusion: These findings present the distribution of VL in Fars province is influenced by combination of ecological and nomads demographical variables although closeness to NTR and nomads role in distribution and continuance of kala-azar are the most important factors.

  15. A framework to evaluate defect taxonomies

    Vallespir, Diego; Grazioli, Fernanda; Herbert, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluate and compare different defect taxonomies. Six well-known taxonomies are evaluated with it and the results are showed. We found deficiencies in every taxonomy once they are evaluated with the framework.

  16. Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family crassulaceae in Pakistan and Kashmir

    Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family Crassul aceae have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 31 taxa, 15 are Irano-Turanian elements, 16 are Sino-Japanese elements and only one is Mediterranean element. Twenty nine taxa are classified as uniregional, while one is biregional element. Only one taxon is considered as pluriregional element. Rhodiola saxifragoides, Rosularia adenotricha subsp. chitralica and Hylotelephium pakistanicum are endemic taxa. While Rhodiola pachyclados and Rosularia sedoides are partim endemic. The former species is confined to (Kurrum valley) Pakistan and Afghanistan whereas the latter species distributed in Kashmir and N India. Rhodiola coccinea subsp. scabrida is subendemic to the peripheral belt of Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions. (author)

  17. Geographical ecology of the palms (Arecaceae): determinants of diversity and distributions across spatial scales

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    and local scales, and dispersal again at all scales. For species richness, climate and dispersal appear to be important at continental to global scales, soil at landscape and broader scales, and topography at landscape and finer scales. Some scale–predictor combinations have not been studied or......Background The palm family occurs in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Palms are of high ecological and economical importance, and display complex spatial patterns of species distributions and diversity. Scope This review summarizes empirical evidence for factors that determine...... palm species distributions, community composition and species richness such as the abiotic environment (climate, soil chemistry, hydrology and topography), the biotic environment (vegetation structure and species interactions) and dispersal. The importance of contemporary vs. historical impacts of...

  18. Problems of the radiocaesium distribution in several components of forest ecological systems and bog ecological systems as well as in deer

    In Germany the south-western part of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg was most heavily affected by the Chernobyl fallout of radiocaesium. The contamination of agricultural food was decreasing in a short time to a harmless level; on the other hand, in special regions there is high contamination of deer, of some species of fungi, of berries and of the browsing of deer up to now. Restrictions in shooting should be taken into account in the time interval of highest contamination. Increasing the supply with minerals, e. g. by mineral fertilizers, is a possible way to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium in natural ecological systems. To develop an efficient measuring management for agricultural foodstuff or for deer, mushrooms and other food from natural ecological systems or forest ecological systems it is necessary to distribute the measuring stations in the areas of the highest contamination and to evaluate the data by computer programs

  19. An update on the ecological distribution of the Ixodidae ticks in Zimbabwe.

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Madder, Maxime; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji

    2015-06-01

    In total 7657 ticks were collected from 121 dip tanks in 12 districts representative of Zimbabwe's five ecological regions between September 2013 and May 2014. Based on morphological traits four genera and 13 species of ticks were identified. Amblyomma hebraeum (60.3%), Rhipicephalus microplus (58.7%), Rhipicephalus decoloratus (47.1%), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (56.2%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (67.8%), Rhipicephalus (near) punctatus (13.2%), Hyalomma truncatum (38%) and Hyalomma rufipes (46.3%) were found in all the ecological regions of the country. Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus compositus (0.8%) were only found in the north central part of the country while Rhipicephalus simus (5%) had a sparse distribution. The Haemaphysalis leachi group (1.7%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (1.7%) were found whenever dogs were sampled suggesting these could be widespread throughout the country. The study confirmed the continued limited distribution of A. variegatum (3.3%) in the north central parts of the country, whereas A. hebraeum was found to have a wide distribution also encroaching areas of high rainfall and lower temperatures where it was not previously recorded. A parapatric relationship existed between these two Amblyomma species. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was also widely distributed although its presence was dominant in the cooler and wetter parts of the country. The traditionally held view that Hyalomma species and R. evertsi evertsi can survive well under diverse conditions is upheld in this study. Rhipicephalus microplus was also present in dry regions but its adaptability to these regions requires further investigation. PMID:25721256

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: yellow fever mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available yellow fever mosquito Aedes ... aegypti Arthropoda Aedes _aegypti_L.png Aedes _aegypti_NL.png Aedes _ae ... gypti_S.png Aedes _aegypti_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ... on/icon.cgi?i=Aedes +aegypti&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: malaria parasite P. falciparum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available malaria parasite P. falciparum Plasmodium ... falciparum Plasmodium _falciparum_L.png Plasmodium _falc ... iparum_NL.png Plasmodium _falciparum_S.png Plasmodium _falciparum_NS.png http ... ://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium +falciparum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Kuroda's sea hare Aplysia kurodai Mollusca Aplysia_kurodai_L.png Aplysia_kurodai_NL.png Aplysia_ ... png Aplysia_kurodai_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=L http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NL http://biosci ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphon ... .png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png P ... ng Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NL http://biosc ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Western clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_tropicalis_L.png Xen ... Xenopus_tropicalis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=L http://bios ... ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=NL http://bio ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: common brandling worm [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available common brandling worm Eisenia fetida Annelida Eisenia_fetida_L.png Eisenia_fetida_NL.png Eisenia ... .png Eisenia_fetida_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=NL http://bioscie ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: African clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available African clawed frog Xenopus laevis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_laevis_L.png Xenopus_lae ... .png Xenopus_laevis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NL http://bioscie ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Old world swallowtail Papilio machaon Arthropoda Papilio_machaon_L.png Papilio_machaon_NL.png Pa ... png Papilio_machaon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=L http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NL http://biosci ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_japonica_ ... S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=L http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://bioscien ...

  10. Towards a taxonomy of spatial scale-dependence

    Sandel, Brody Steven

    2015-01-01

    why? I argue that this is likely to be a productive way forward for ecology, but that progress in this direction is currently hindered by the conflation of a set of distinct concepts under the category of ‘scale-dependence’. Here, I propose a taxonomy of spatial scale-dependence that categorizes its......-dependence (the class). I illustrate the need for these distinctions with a set of examples demonstrating causes of different types of scale-dependence. I then describe how this taxonomy relates to an array of scale-related concepts from other fields. Finally, I discuss the generalization that biotic interactions...... are most important at small scales in light of this taxonomy....

  11. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem

    Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling; Christensen, Per

    2011-01-01

    is the biggest wetland in Northeast China. We apply three methodologies. The first is literature analysis comparing total concentrations of heavy metals with other water bodies around world. The second is Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (EQSS), National Environmental Protection...... tolerable levels throughout Baiyangdian. The centre of Cu and Cr contamination was also near the village. As is the most polluting heavy metals with a major occurrence in the middle of the wetland. There were no heavy metals creating severe disturbance to the benthic communities. Based on the assessment......Although there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of sediments, attention has seldom been paid to the problem in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to find the distribution and ecological risk of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in surface sediment of Baiyangdian which...

  12. Ecological Distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray-A New Exotic Weed in Nigeria

    K.S. Chukwuka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray was studied in six states of the southwestern Nigeria using three locations in each of the States. The presence of T. diversifolia was recorded in all the States and locations surveyed in varying numbers with associated weeds. Survey data were analysed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA. The first two ordination axes of the DCA accounted for 67.2% (Axis 1, 40.6%; Axis 2, 26.6% of variance on the site and species components. The DCA separated Ogun State locations from others. T. diversifolia was found to be closely associated with Boerhavia coccinea, Fleurya ovaliflora, Indigofera subulata, Merremia dissecta, Mimosa pudica, Momordica foetida, Phyllanthus mimosoides, other species of Phyllanthus, Physalis angulata, Schrankia leptocarpa and Sesbania parchycarpa in Ekiti, Lagos, Ondo, Osun and Oyo States while these species were absent in Ogun State.

  13. Distribution, morphological variability, ecology and the present state of Nitella from Lake Ohrid and its surroundings

    Trajanovska Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research into 52 profiles of the littoral zone of the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid and numerous samples taken from its surroundings has resulted in a detailed picture of the composition of the Charophyta vegetation in the lake. The results of the research also include data regarding the species composition and present state of Nitella. The dominant species of Nitella is Nitella opaca, which is characterized by a specific distribution, morphological variability and ecology. The present state of Nitella is not steady, especially in the watershed of the lake, since in this area there are some permanent changes in the hydrology of the terrain. Therefore, there is a need to establish long-term and complex monitoring which will result in the prompt detection of risk factors and influences, thereby enabling a rapid reaction to a possible newly emerged negative state.

  14. Macrophyte distribution and ecological status of the Turiec River (Slovakia: Changes after seven years

    Hrivnk R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of diversity, abundance, distribution, and ecological status of aquatic macrophytes were observed in 2000 and 2007 on a circa 4.5 km long section of the Turiec River using Kohler's method. In comparison to 2000, the total number of macrophytes in 2007 increased markedly (from 25 to 35, although only the numbers of amphiphytes and helophytes were changed substantially. The number of hydrophytes increased from 11 to 12; an invasive, Elodea canadenis, was the only new species. The relative plant mass of hydrophytes represents the bulk of all recorded species (95 and 80% in 2000 and 2007, respectively, and it was changed for most hydrophytes. The most significant changes were detected for Myriophyllum spicatum (decrease, filamentous algae (decrease, and Potamogeton crispus (increase. In 2007, the mean mass total (MMT sum of hydrophytes decreased from 16.46 to 14.5. On the other hand, the MMTsum of amphiphytes and helophytes doubled in value (7.4 and 14.1 in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Within hydrophytes, Batrachium species (including B. aquatile and B. trichophyllum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous (distribution ratio d > 0.5 in 2000, whereas in 2007 only Batrachium species and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous. At all times, Batrachium species were the most frequent species in the study area, and their abundance was relatively high (MMT> 2.5. A poor ecological status (MMP = 0.378 and MMP = 0.333 in 2000 and 2007, respectively of the surveyed river section was found in both years, but a slight decline of quality as determined on the basis of aquatic plants was observed after 7 years.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: crab-eating macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available crab-eating macaque Macaca fascicularis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Macaca..._fascicularis_L.png Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png Macaca_fascicularis_S.png Macaca_fascicularis..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca...+fascicularis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Reeve's pond turtle [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Reeve's ... pond turtle Chinemys ... reeves ii Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Chinemys _reeves ii_L.png C ... hinemys _reeves ii_NL.png Chinemys _reeves ii_S .png Chinemys _r ... eeves ii_NS .png http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico ... n.cgi?i=Chinemys +reeves ii&t=L http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Chinemys +reeves ii&t=NL http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

  17. A topographic feature taxonomy for a U.S. national topographic mapping ontology

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2013-01-01

    Using legacy feature lists from the U.S. National Topographic Mapping Program of the twentieth century, a taxonomy of features is presented for purposes of developing a national topographic feature ontology for geographic mapping and analysis. After reviewing published taxonomic classifications, six basic classes are suggested; terrain, surface water, ecological regimes, built-up areas, divisions, and events. Aspects of ontology development are suggested as the taxonomy is described.

  18. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

  19. Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    Anna Flora de Novaes Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in the study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species and Polypodiaceae (22 species. The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species and Thelypteris (9 species. Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

  20. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet

    Plávalová, E.

    2011-01-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extra-solar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extra-solar planets. I propose the following the extra-solar planet taxonomy scale w...

  1. NEWT, a new taxonomy portal

    Phan, Isabelle; Pilbout, Sandrine; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Bairoch, Amos Marc

    2003-01-01

    NEWT is a new taxonomy portal to the SWISS-PROT protein sequence knowledgebase. It contains taxonomy data, which is updated daily, for the complete set of species represented in SWISS-PROT, as well as those stored at the NCBI. Users can navigate through the taxonomy tree and access corresponding SWISS-PROT protein entries. In addition, a manually curated selection of external links allows access to specific information on selected species. NEWT is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/newt/.

  2. NEWT, a new taxonomy portal.

    Phan, I Q H; Pilbout, S F; Fleischmann, W; Bairoch, A

    2003-07-01

    NEWT is a new taxonomy portal to the SWISS-PROT protein sequence knowledgebase. It contains taxonomy data, which is updated daily, for the complete set of species represented in SWISS-PROT, as well as those stored at the NCBI. Users can navigate through the taxonomy tree and access corresponding SWISS-PROT protein entries. In addition, a manually curated selection of external links allows access to specific information on selected species. NEWT is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/newt/. PMID:12824428

  3. TAXONOMY CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES – ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    Sujatha R; Bandaru Rama krishna Rao

    2011-01-01

    For any information to be organized, taxonomy is essential. Taxonomy plays a very important role for information and content management. Also it helps in searching of content. The most common method forconstructing taxonomy was the manual construction. As the information available today is huge, constructing taxonomy for such information manually was time consuming and maintenance was difficult. This paperpresents an overview of various taxonomy construction techniques available for easier co...

  4. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Alves, Nelson Jr; Ussery, David; Iida, Tetsuya; Thompson, FL

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of...... tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios....... RESULTS: We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a...

  5. Revision of the world Monoctonia Starý, parasitoids of gall aphids: taxonomy, distribution, host range and phylogeny (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Rakhshani, E.; Starý, Petr; Pérez Hidalgo, N.; Čkrkić, J.; Ghafouri Moghaddam, M.; Tomanović, S.; Petrović, A.; Tomanović, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3905, č. 4 (2015), s. 474-488. ISSN 1175-5326 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001; Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) ON173006; University of Zabol(IR) 89-9198 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Monoctonia japonica * Eriosomatinae * COI Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  6. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    María E Zaldívar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata, capuchins (Cebus capucinus, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii. Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi, congo (Alouatta palliata, cara blanca (Cebus capucinus, y tití (Saimiri oerstedii. La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliográfica. Se estudió su diversidad genética utilizando electroforesis de isoenzimas. El riesgo de extinción se evaluó usando información bibliográfica. Se encontró que las cuatro especies presentaban variación en todos estos rasgos. Con estos datos, se realizó una correlación de Pearson entre el riesgo de extinción y las variables indicadoras de la distribución geográfica, los rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida y la diversidad genética, para aquellas especies con una amplia distribución geográfica. Se encontró una asociación entre el riesgo de extinción y la natalidad y la tasa de crecimiento poblacional; las especies con menor natalidad y menor tasa de crecimiento poblacional tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción; las especies con mayor diversidad genética tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se discute la importancia de estos rasgos para la conservación de estas especies.

  7. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    A. P. Palacz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom–coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  8. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

    2013-11-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  9. A taxonomy of innovation networks

    Schön, Benjamin; Pyka, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In this discussion paper we develop a theory-based typology of innovation networks with a special focus on public-private collaboration. This taxonomy is theoretically based on the concept of life cycles which is transferred to the context of innovation networks as well as on the mode of network formation which can occur either spontaneous or planned. The taxonomy distinguishes six different types of networks and incorporates two plausible alternative developments that eventually lead to a si...

  10. Taxonomy of Stock Market Indices

    Giovanni Bonanno; Nicolas Vandewalle; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate sets of financial non-redundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By properly selecting the time horizon of returns and by using a reference currency we find a meaningful taxonomy. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in a set of nonsynchronously recorded time series.

  11. Taxonomy Working Group Final Report

    Parsons, Vickie S.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Barth, Timothy S.; Panontin, Tina L.; Wales, Roxana; Rackley, Michael W.; Milne, James S.; McPherson, John W.; Dutra, Jayne E.; Shaw, Larry C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Taxonomy Working Group was to develop a proposal for a common taxonomy to be used by all NASA projects in the classifying of nonconformances, anomalies, and problems. Specifically, the group developed a recommended list of data elements along with general suggestions for the development of a problem reporting system to better serve NASA's need for managing, reporting, and trending project aberrant events. The Group's recommendations are reported in this document.

  12. Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran

    T Karami; Soleimani, M.; H. Afrakhteh; H. Hataminejad

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the view...

  13. An overview of the taxonomy of Attalea (Arecaceae

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Attalea (Arecaceae is distributed in continental habitats of the Neotropical region and in some Caribbean islands. Life forms of Attalea species vary from small acaulescent palms to tall and massive palms, always solitary. The ecological range of the genus encompasses most of the Neotropical ecosystems, from coastal sand dunes to sub-Andean forests up to 1600 m in elevation, lowland wet to dry forests, savannas, swamps, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been poorly understood due to conflicting genus and species concepts that exist since the last decades. Taxonomical problems have been caused by the lack of adequate material, especially species of large size, loss of many types and difficulties in interpreting hybrids. In this article, I review the most recent taxonomic literature on Attalea. The number of species in Attalea varies from 29 to 67 depending on different authors, with a maximum estimate of 73 species when combining the revised publications. There is a consensus for the validity of 20 species among modern palm taxonomists. The most conflicting species or group of species are discussed in detail as well as the taxonomic significance of some characters such as the pattern of insertion of staminate flowers on rachillae, insertion of pinnae on rachis, and arrangement of fibrous strands in the endocarp.

  14. Phase distribution of ecologically controlled chemical elements in production of extraction phosphoric acid

    Content of 16 ecologically controlled chemical element (among them Cd, Sr, Th, U, V, Y) in solid and liquid phases of extraction phosphorus acid (EPA) production is determined. These elements are recommended to control by Scientific research institute of human ecology and environment to establish their extraction coefficients to phosphogypsum and EPA and optimal variant of production of ecologically sate phosphorus fertilizers. X-ray fluorescent, atomic-absorption and polarographic methods are used for analysis these elements

  15. Historical freshwater fish ecology: a long-term view of distribution changes and biological invasions

    Miguel Clavero

    2015-01-01

    Past processes and events may have an important influence on contemporaneous ecological patterns, including current human impacts on landscapes and organisms. In spite of that, most of the ecological knowledge has been built upon short-term studies, which very rarely exceed one decade. Ecology and Conservation Biology have an important lack of historical approaches, a deficiency that may become a hindrance for the management of natural systems. In this talk I will present examples of how hist...

  16. The Striated Parachute Spider Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 (Araneae: Theraphosidae): a note on taxonomy, distribution and conservation status

    M. Siliwal; Gupta, N; Molur, S.

    2013-01-01

    The known distribution range of Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 in India is from Mysuru in the north to Thiruvananthapuram in the south. During the recent surveys in northern Karnataka, P. striata was recorded from six locations in Dandeli and nearby areas in the Uttara Kannada District. With the new records from Uttara Kannada, the distribution range of this species extends to the northern part of the Western Ghats by ca. 400km from Mysuru. Additional records on distribution of P. stri...

  17. Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Horsfield, 1821 (Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae) in the dry lowlands of Sri Lanka: distribution, ecology, and threats

    Thilina N. de Silva; Sumudu Fernando; Haritha B. de Silva; Parami Tennakoon

    2015-01-01

    The Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus is a globally threatened species of stork; in Sri Lanka, it is a scarce resident breeder, and the largest bird in the country, yet the population status and ecology of the species is poorly understood.  This study tracks the stork’s spatial distribution and habitat use within the island, along with aspects of its ecology.  Data was collected via field sampling and questionnaire surveys, over a period of five years across the lowlands of the country.  ...

  18. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  19. Ecology and distribution ofof Euseius finlandicus (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region

    K. V. Shtymak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the ecology and distribution of the species Eu. finlandicus Oudemans, 1915 (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae in the garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. In Ukraine, such studies were conducted for the Forest-Steppe zone. The mites were collected during the period of 2012–2014. In total, nine settlements of Transcarpathian region were studied. On the researched territory Eu. finlandicus inhabits at least 26 species of plants. For the first time, the status of the species Eu. finlandicus is determined in acaro-complexes of the family Phytoseiidae in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. The indices of occurrence and dominance for this species are calculated. Species of plants on which Eu. finlandicus is present in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region are described. Results of the study suggest that Eu. finlandicus is a common species in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. The results can become the theoretical basis for development of schemes aimed at enhancing the protective function of useful mites in phytocenoses of the Uzhgorod district.

  20. Hydropower developments in Canada: number, size and jurisdictional and ecological distribution

    Lee, Peter G.; Hanneman, Matt; Cheng, Ryan [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    For over 200 years, energy production and consumption, along with all human activities, have been contributing to global warming. This report is part of a project that examines 10 major energy sectors to provide information on Canada's energy options in the face of climate change; this present study gives information on hydropower reservoirs and associated dams in Canada. The mapping, jurisdictional and ecological distribution of reservoirs and dams across Canada is provided herein. Canada's hydropower installations are composed of 271 large hydropower facilities covering 58,015 km2 with a capacity of 71,857 MW, accounting for 44% of Canada's total technical hydroelectric capacity. Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia are the provinces with the most large hydropower dams; 19% of the watersheds are occupied in part by hydropower reservoirs and the taiga shield, boreal shield and montane cordillera ecozones contain most of the reservoir areas. The majority of future developments are expected to be built within 5km of intact forest landscapes.

  1. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  2. Biology, ecology and distribution of the tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) in New Zealand.

    Heath, Acg

    2016-01-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis is the only tick in New Zealand that infests livestock. Throughout its range H. longicornis is exposed to and exhibits tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, although it flourishes more in moist, warm-temperate environments. This review examines aspects of the biology, physiology and ecology of H. longicornis that determine its distribution and seasonal activity in New Zealand, based on laboratory and field studies. Examples are also drawn from studies outside New Zealand for comparative purposes, especially in the context of seasonal activity as seen in less temperate latitudes. The tick is able to withstand a wide range of temperature, from its developmental threshold of ?12C to nearly 40C at its lethal limit, but its tolerance of dehydration is less wide, especially in the larva and adult, the former especially being the stage that largely determines suitable biotopes for the tick and its present distributional limits. The importance of H. longicornis to the New Zealand livestock industry has recently increased through the establishment and spread of Theileria orientalis Ikeda among dairy and beef cattle, although the tick has always posed production-limiting problems for cattle, deer and to a lesser extent, sheep. The tick's role as a vector of theileriosis and how aspects of the tick's biology affect the spread and maintenance of this disease are discussed. It is proposed that, of available wildlife hosts, the brown hare with its wide-ranging habits, is an important disseminator of ticks. Currently control of ticks is difficult partly because of their wide host range, overlapping activity periods of stadia, and also because the greater part of their annual cycle is spent on pasture. This means that acaricides alone do not satisfactorily reduce tick populations or provide comprehensive protection to stock, so integrated management combining pasture management with good husbandry and chemical prophylaxis is advocated. PMID:25849758

  3. A Distributed Model of Oilseed Biorefining, via Integrated Industrial Ecology Exchanges

    Ferrell, Jeremy C.

    As the demand for direct petroleum substitutes increases, biorefineries are poised to become centers for conversion of biomass into fuels, energy, and biomaterials. A distributed model offers reduced transportation, tailored process technology to available feedstock, and increased local resilience. Oilseeds are capable of producing a wide variety of useful products additive to food, feed, and fuel needs. Biodiesel manufacturing technology lends itself to smaller-scale distributed facilities able to process diverse feedstocks and meet demand of critical diesel fuel for basic municipal services, safety, sanitation, infrastructure repair, and food production. Integrating biodiesel refining facilities as tenants of eco-industrial parks presents a novel approach for synergistic energy and material exchanges whereby environmental and economic metrics can be significantly improved upon compared to stand alone models. This research is based on the Catawba County NC EcoComplex and the oilseed crushing and biodiesel processing facilities (capacity-433 tons biodiesel per year) located within. Technical and environmental analyses of the biorefinery components as well as agronomic and economic models are presented. The life cycle assessment for the two optimal biodiesel feedstocks, soybeans and used cooking oil, resulted in fossil energy ratios of 7.19 and 12.1 with carbon intensity values of 12.51 gCO2-eq/MJ and 7.93 gCO2-eq/MJ, respectively within the industrial ecology system. Economic modeling resulted in a biodiesel conversion cost of 1.43 per liter of fuel produced with used cooking oil, requiring a subsidy of 0.58 per liter to reach the break-even point. As subsidies continue significant fluctuation, metrics other than operating costs are required to justify small-scale biofuel projects.

  4. Utility of Classical ?-Taxonomy for Biodiversity of Aquatic Nematodes.

    Decraemer, Wilfrida; Backeljau, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    "Classical ?-taxonomy" has different interpretations. Therefore, within the framework of an integrated taxonomic approach it is not relevant to divide taxonomy in different components, each being allocated a different weight of importance. Preferably, taxonomy should be seen in a holistic way, including the act of delimiting and describing taxa, based on different features and available methods, and taxonomy can not be interpreted without looking at evolutionary relationships. The concept of diversity itself is quite diverse as is the measure of diversity. Taxonomic descriptions of free-living aquatic nematodes are very valuable as they provide basic phenotypic information that is necessary for the functional ecological, behavioral, and evolutionary interpretation of data gathered from molecular analyses and of the organism as a whole. In general, molecular taxonomic analyses have the advantage of being much faster and of being able to deal with a larger number of specimens but also possess the important advantage of dealing with a huge amount of features compared to the morphology-based approach. However, just as morphological studies, molecular analyses deal only with partial of an organism. PMID:25861112

  5. The integrative future of taxonomy

    Vences Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an integrative taxonomy that directly bear on what species are, how they can be discovered, and how much diversity is on Earth. Conclusions We conclude that taxonomy needs to be pluralistic to improve species discovery and description, and to develop novel protocols to produce the much-needed inventory of life in a reasonable time. To cope with the large number of candidate species revealed by molecular studies of eukaryotes, we propose a classification scheme for those units that will facilitate the subsequent assembly of data sets for the formal description of new species under the Linnaean system, and will ultimately integrate the activities of taxonomists and molecular biologists.

  6. Constructing a Business Model Taxonomy

    Groth, Pernille; Nielsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The paper proposes a research design recipe capable of leading to future business model taxonomies and discusses the potential benefits and implications of achieving this goal. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper provides a review of relevant scholarly literature about business...... models to clarify the subject as well as highlighting the importance of past studies of business model classifications. In addition it reviews the scholarly literature on relevant methodological approaches, such as cluster analysis and latent class analysis, for constructing a business model taxonomy....... The two literature streams combined to form the basis for the suggested recipe. Findings: The paper highlights the need for further large-scale empirical studies leading to a potential business model taxonomy, a topic that is currently under-exposed even though its merits are highlighted continuously...

  7. Den ecology, distribution, and productivity of foxes at Kokechik Bay, Alaska: Annual report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In May 1985 fieldwork was initiated at Kokechik Bay, Alaska to collect information on the ecology of foxes inhabiting the nesting grounds of geese on the...

  8. Distribution, Ecology and Population Structure of Euphorbia monchiquensis, an Endemism in Southern Portugal

    Xenia Fox

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia monchiquensis is, within the widespread and euryoecious E. paniculata-complex, an acidophilous subspecies, endemic in Southern Portugal. To evaluate the vulnerability of this taxon vis-a-vis disturbance and landuse changes, we studied the actual distribution, the population size, the ecological requirements and the coenological value of this taxon in the Serra de Monchique, a mountainous region in the Algarve Hinterland. Data sampling was between April and July 2001. The quite constant branching system of this half shrubby spurge allows to determine the age of the indivuduals from the plant architecture and therefore to study the demographic structure in a non-destructive way. 1618 individuals, clustered in 46 populations, have been registered in the Serra. 88% were in flower. Euphorbia monchiquensis is rare relative to its overall distribution. It shows a bimodal altitudinal and coenological pattern. The majority of the populations are concentrated in the most humid mid altitudes and on the luv-ward northwestern side of the Serra. A few populations occur in the dry lowlands, linked to riverine shrublets. The plant depends on a good water supply but does not need shadowing. Within its limited bioclimatic niche, the spurge has a certain capacity of recolonisation and is not extremely sensitive to disturbance. Humid forests of the Euphorbio monchiquensis-Quercetum canariensis are just one of the preferred sociological situations. The coenological spectrum includes pure cork oak forests, Castanea sativa coppices, Eucalyptus-afforestations, mantle communities (Lonicero-Rubetum, Rubo-Nerietum, Origanion virentis fringes, abandoned meadows and roadside verges. It was in this kind of secondary habitats with intermittent disturbance, that most of the juvenile plants could be stated. Only very few plantlings were found. Most of the recorded populations are well balanced in their medium age classes, others are overaged. A correlation between habitat qualities, the reproductive effort and the regeneration efficiency could not be found. Four inflorescence-morphotypes can be distinguished. The inflorescence architecture becomes more complex with increasing age. Euphorbia monchiquensis is not an extremely endangered, but a vulnerable species. It can be threatened by the process of Eucalyptus afforestation and by the spontaneous spread of Acacia dealbata. To give a reliable answer to the extinction risk, further aspects of its life cycle, seed bank characteristics, and reproductive behaviour have to be studied.

  9. Ecological diversity and taxonomic organization of animal communities

    O. V. Zhukov

    2005-01-01

    The species and taxonomy diversity are the impotant components of ecological diversity of living organisms complexes. The article analyses the modern approaches of quantitative estimation of the ecosystem diversity. In hypothetical experiment the indexes have been tested to study the properties dealing with taxonomy complexity reflection. Diversity indexes have been used to analyze some real soil invertebrates complexes.

  10. Multiscale impacts of the fragmentation and spatial structure of habitats on freshwater fish distribution: integrating riverscape and landscape ecology

    Le Pichon, C.; Belliard, J.; TALES E.; Gorges, G.; Clément, F.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the rivers of the Ile de France region, intimately linked with the megalopolis of Paris, are severely altered and freshwater fishes are exposed to habitat alteration, reduced connectivity and pollution. Several species thus present fragmented distributions and decreasing densities. In this context, the European Water Framework Directive (2000) has goals of hydrosystems rehabilitation and no further damage. In particular, the preservation and restoration of ecological connectivity of r...

  11. Contributions to Distribution, Reproduction Biology and Ecology of Vormela peregusna (G?ldenstadt, 1770 (Mammalia: Carnivora in Turkey

    Co kun Tez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both captured and uncaptured Vormela peregusna were investigated for their distribution, reproduction biology, some ecological observations and morphological characteristics in our laboratory, and campus area at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey. It was observed that there is a cannibalism within population in Vormela peregusna. The morphological evaluations indicated that Turkish V. peregusna is the same to V. peregusna from Israel.

  12. What we know about .i.Pantelozetes cavaticus./i. (Acari, Oribatida), notes on distribution, ecology, food preference and morphology

    Luptáčik, P.; Šustr, Vladimír

    Postojna : Inštitut za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU, 2010. s. 121-122. ISBN 978-961-269-286-5. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /20./. 29.08.2010-03.09.2010, Postojna] Grant ostatní: SAV(SK) VEGA 1/0139/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Pantelozetes cavaticus * distribution * food preference Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE) IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA

    Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² and Rajendra Yonzone³

    2012-01-01

    Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T. angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and l...

  14. A Ricardian Analysis of the Distribution of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Agro-ecological Zones in Africa

    Seo, S. Niggol; Mendelsohn, Robert; Dinar, Ariel; Hassan, Rashid; Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of climate change impacts across the sixteen Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs) of Africa. We combine net revenue from livestock and crops and regress total net revenue on a set of climate, soil, and socio-economic variables with and without country fixed effects. Although African crop net revenue is very sensitive to climate change, combined livestock and crop net revenue is more climate resilient. With the hot and dry CCC climate scenario, average damage estim...

  15. A Taxonomy for Radio Location Fingerprinting

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    good frameworks for understanding different options when building LF systems. This paper proposes a taxonomy to address both of these problems. The proposed taxonomy has been constructed from a literature study of 51 papers and articles about LF. For researchers the taxonomy can also be used as an aid...

  16. Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge

    Arleth, Mette

    project is to investigate how and how well non-professional users actually understand GI. For that purpose a taxonomy of GI knowledge is built, drawing on Bloom`s taxonomy. The elements of this taxonomy are described after a presentation of the main research question of the study, the applications chosen...

  17. Ecology and distribution of Myriosclerotinia caricis-ampullaceae (Sclerotiniaceae, Ascomycota) in Central Europe with remarks on its world distribution

    Holec, J.; Kučera, Tomáš; Balner, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2007), s. 57-74. ISSN 0082-0598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : mycogeography * raised-bogs * mountain vegetation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2007

  18. On the taxonomy and distribution of Crocidura cossyrensis and Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Soricidae) in Maghreb

    Longino Contoli; Gaetano Aloise

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The paper examines the taxonomic status of North African Crocidura russula Auctorum. On the basis of morphological data, the taxon needs to be divided into at least two species: C. russula (Hermann, 1780) from western Europe, coastal Morocco and middle-western Algeria, up to about the Algiers area, and possibly even Sardinia and Ibiza, and another species, distributed in coastal middle-eastern Algeria, Tunisia, P...

  19. ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA

    Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² and Rajendra Yonzone³

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T. angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Tainia species in the regions.

  20. On the taxonomy and distribution of Crocidura cossyrensis and Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Soricidae in Maghreb

    Longino Contoli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper examines the taxonomic status of North African Crocidura russula Auctorum. On the basis of morphological data, the taxon needs to be divided into at least two species: C. russula (Hermann, 1780 from western Europe, coastal Morocco and middle-western Algeria, up to about the Algiers area, and possibly even Sardinia and Ibiza, and another species, distributed in coastal middle-eastern Algeria, Tunisia, Pantelleria and, possibly, La Galite archipelago. The first and only available name for the above, eastern taxon is Crocidura cossyrensis Contoli, 1989.

  1. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

  2. Taxonomy for Information Privacy Metrics

    Rasika Dayarathna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive privacy framework is essential for the progress of the information privacy field. Some practical implications of a comprehensive framework are laying foundation for building information privacy metrics and having fruitful discussions. Taxonomy is an essential step in building a framework. This research study attempts to build taxonomy for the information privacy domain based on empirical data. The classical grounded theory approach introduced by Glaser was applied and incidents reported by the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP are used for building the taxonomy. These incidents include privacy related current research works, data breaches, personal views, interviews, and technological innovations. TAMZAnalyzer, an open source qualitative data analysis tool, was used in coding, keeping memos, sorting, and creating categories. The taxonomy is presented in seven themes and several categories including legal, technical, and ethical aspects. The findings of this study helps practitioners understand and discuss the subjects and academia work toward building a comprehensive framework and metrics for the information privacy domain

  3. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet

    Plávalová, E

    2011-01-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun.We know its approximate mass, temperature, age and size. In our work with extrasolar planets database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification), for example, like the Harvard classification for stars. This new taxonomy has to be comprehensible and present the important information about extrasolar planets. The important information of extrasolar planets are their mass, radius, period, density, eccentricity, temperature, and their distance from the parent star. There are too many parameters, that is, taxonomy with six parameters would be complicated and difficult to apply. We propose following the extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with only four parameters. The first parameter is the information about the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of the units of the mass of other known planets, where M - Mercury, E - Earth, N - Neptune, and J - Jupiter. The second parameter is the distance from its pa...

  4. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    D. Vaněček; J. Jirsa

    2011-01-01

    The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT). This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  5. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    D. Vaněček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT. This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  6. Taxonomy of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    Taxonomy is the process of the classification, the application of names (nomenclature), and the practice of identification. Classification is an iterative process that follows the scientific method. Knowledge of relationships from previous findings is refined using the most powerful methods availabl...

  7. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae

    UDHI EKO HERNAWAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hernawan E. 2012. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae. Biodiversitas 13: 118-123. A taxonomic study was conducted on the giant clams specimens deposited in Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB, Cibinong Indonesia. Taxonomic overviews of the examined specimens are given with diagnostic characters, remarks, habitat and distribution. Discussion is focused on specific characters distinguishing each species. From seven species known to distribute in Indonesian waters, there are six species, Tridacna squamosa Lamarck, 1819; T. gigas Linnaeus, 1758; T. derasa Roding, 1798; T. crocea Lamarck, 1819; T. maxima Roding,1798; and Hippopus hippopus Linnaeus, 1758. This study suggests the need for collecting specimen of H. porcellanus Rosewater, 1982. Important characters to distinguish species among Tridacninae are interlocking teeth on byssal orifice, life habits, presence of scales and inhalant siphon tentacles.

  8. Taxonomy, distribution and population structure of invasive Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia in the Suquía River basin, Córdoba, Argentina

    Paola B. Reyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services, which underlines the importance of their detection and their study. The Asian clams (Corbiculidae are invasive organisms that accidentally entered the La Plata River, Argentina, presumably in the 1960s. The objectives of the present study were to identify the corbiculid species and to determine their distribution at several locations along the Suquía River basin, an extended area in central Argentina. In addition, population structure was evaluated monthly during one year, at a site in the city of Córdoba that is characterized by high human influence. The presence of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 and Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844 in the Suquía River basin is reported for the first time. The former species was found only in a lentic environment (San Roque reservoir, while the latter was also found along the tributary rivers and brooks of the basin. Corbicula largillierti showed variations in average density between the different sites and also in biomass and size classes throughout the study period at the site at Córdoba city. The relative composition of the sediments, flow fluctuation and human pollution may be responsible for the observed differences.

  9. Planetary Taxonomy: Label Round Bodies "Worlds"

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Levison, H. F.

    2009-05-01

    The classification of planetary bodies is as important to Astronomy as taxonomy is to other sciences. The etymological, historical, and IAU definitions of planet rely on a dynamical criterion, but some authors prefer a geophysical criterion based on "roundness". Although the former criterion is superior when it comes to classifying newly discovered objects, the conflict need not exist if we agree to identify the subset of "round" planetary objects as "worlds". This addition to the taxonomy would conveniently recognize that "round" objects such as Earth, Europa, Titan, Triton, and Pluto share some common planetary-type processes regardless of their distance from the host star. Some of these worlds are planets, others are not. Defining how round is round and handling the inevitable transition objects are non-trivial tasks. Because images at sufficient resolution are not available for the overwhelming majority of newly discovered objects, the degree of roundness is not a directly observable property and is inherently problematic as a basis for classification. We can tolerate some uncertainty in establishing the "world" status of a newly discovered object, and still establish its planet or satellite status with existing dynamical criteria. Because orbital parameters are directly observable, and because mass can often be measured either from orbital perturbations or from the presence of companions, the dynamics provide a robust and practical planet classification scheme. It may also be possible to determine which bodies are dynamically dominant from observations of the population magnitude/size distribution.

  10. Capacity for DNA-barcode based taxonomy in support of Great Lakes biological monitoring

    Enumerating organisms collected via nets and sediment grabs is a mainstay of aquatic ecology. Since morphological taxonomy can require considerable resources and expertise, DNA barcode-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers a valuable tool in support of biological...

  11. TAXONOMA Y DISTRIBUCIN DE DIATOMEAS EPILTICAS REGISTRADAS POR PRIMERA VEZ EN COLOMBIA. I / Taxonomy and distribution of epilithic diatoms reported for the first time in Colombia. I

    SILVIA ESTELA, SALA; AMELIA ALEJANDRA, VOUILLOUD; YASMIN, PLATA-DAZ; EDNA, PEDRAZA; ASTRID, PIMIENTA.

    2015-06-30

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se llev a cabo en el marco del proyecto para elaborar un ndice de calidad biolgica para ros de zonas bajas y de piedemonte del pas basado en comunidades biolgicas acuticas, desarrollado en el Laboratorio de Biotecnologa del Instituto Colombiano del Petrleo, cuyo objetivo [...] es evaluar la calidad ecolgica de los ros de tierras bajas y de piedemonte dentro del rea de influencia de Ecopetrol, a travs de la implementacin de un ndice de calidad biolgica utilizando diatomeas. Las 165 muestras analizadas hasta el momento provienen de muestras de perifiton de 83 sistemas lticos de distintas regiones del pas, de donde tambin se obtuvo informacin sobre temperatura del agua, pH, conductividad y oxgeno disuelto. El material fue estudiado con microscopio ptico y microscopio electrnico de barrido. Aqu reunimos 11 taxones de los cuales Achnanthidium macrocephalum(Hustedt) Round & Bukhtiyarova, Cymbopleura zimmermannii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Chamaepinnularia brasiliana Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Ch. brasilianopsis Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Planothidium lagerheimii (Cleve) Wetzel & Ector, Eunotioforma curvula (Hustedt) Kociolek & Burliga, Gomphonema archaevibrio fo. cuneatum Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg, Nitzschia clausii Hantzsch y N. filiformis var. conferta (Richter) Lange-Bertalot se mencionan por primera vez para Colombia. Este es el primer registro del gnero Eunotioforma Kociolek & Burliga y por primera vez se describe e ilustra el gnero Chamaepinnularia Lange-Bertalot para el pas. Adems, analizamos la ultraestructura de Nitzschia dissipata(Ktzing) Grunow, ya mencionada para el pas pero solo analizada con MO. A pesar de ser esta especie considerada cosmopolita citada en las floras de diferentes regiones del mundo, ha sido frecuentemente mal identificada, por lo que este anlisis nos permiti confirmar la identidad de los materiales colombianos. Abstract in english This work was carried under the project for developing a biological water quality index for rivers of lowland waters of Colombia based on aquatic biological communities. A total of 165 sites were sampled considering the hidrogeomorphological variability among the studied rivers. In all sites, periph [...] yton samples were collected by brushing rocks and then fixed with formalin 8%. The following information was also recorded: water temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Biological samples were analyzed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Here we discussed the following 11 taxa recorded for the first time to Colombia: Achnanthidium macrocephalum(Hustedt) Round & Bukhtiyarova, Cymbopleura zimmermannii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Chamaepinnularia brasiliana Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Ch. brasilianopsis Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Planothidium lagerheimii (Cleve) Wetzel & Ector, Eunotioforma curvula (Hustedt) Kociolek & Burliga, Gomphonema archaevibrio fo. cuneatum Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg, Nitzschia clausii Hantzsch and N. filiformis var. conferta (Richter) Lange-Bertalot. The genera Eunotioforma Kociolek & Burliga and Chamaepinnularia Lange-Bertalot are newly recorded for the country. We also analyzed the ultrastructure of Nitzschia dissipata (Ktzing) Grunow already reported for the country but only studied with LM. Despite of being a species of cosmopolitan distribution, frequently cited in floras of different regions of the world, it is frequently misidentified so this analysis allowed us to confirm the identity of Colombian specimens.

  12. Evaluating a Bayesian approach to improve accuracy of individual photographic identification methods using ecological distribution data

    Richard Stafford

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Photographic identification of individual organisms can be possible from natural body markings. Data from photo-ID can be used to estimate important ecological and conservation metrics such as population sizes, home ranges or territories. However, poor quality photographs or less well-studied individuals can result in a non-unique ID, potentially confounding several similar looking individuals. Here we present a Bayesian approach that uses known data about previous sightings of individuals at specific sites as priors to help assess the problems of obtaining a non-unique ID. Using a simulation of individuals with different confidence of correct ID we evaluate the accuracy of Bayesian modified (posterior probabilities. However, in most cases, the accuracy of identification decreases. Although this technique is unsuccessful, it does demonstrate the importance of computer simulations in testing such hypotheses in ecology.

  13. The microbial diversity, distribution, and ecology of permafrost in China: a review.

    Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Tian; Cheng, Guodong; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2015-07-01

    Permafrost in China mainly located in high-altitude areas. It represents a unique and suitable ecological niche that can be colonized by abundant microbes. Permafrost microbial community varies across geographically separated locations in China, and some lineages are novel and possible endemic. Besides, Chinese permafrost is a reservoir of functional microbial groups involved in key biogeochemical cycling processes. In future, more work is necessary to determine if these phylogenetic groups detected by DNA-based methods are part of the viable microbial community, and their functional roles and how they potentially respond to climate change. This review summaries recent studies describing microbial biodiversity found in permafrost and associated environments in China, and provides a framework for better understanding the microbial ecology of permafrost. PMID:25925876

  14. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil

    Szabó, Matias P. J.; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2013-01-01

    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the ...

  15. Ecology and Distribution of Thaumarchaea in the Deep Hypolimnion of Lake Maggiore

    Manuela Coci; Nina Odermatt; Salcher, Michaela M.; Jakob Pernthaler; Gianluca Corno

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) play an important role in the oxidation of ammonia in terrestrial, marine, and geothermal habitats, as confirmed by a number of studies specifically focused on those environments. Much less is known about the ecological role of AOA in freshwaters. In order to reach a high resolution at the Thaumarchaea community level, the probe MGI-535 was specifically designed for this study and applied to fluorescence in situ hybridization and catalyzed reporter deposition (...

  16. An appraisal of ecological distribution of herbaceous flora at changa manga park lahore, pakistan

    The forest ground flora plays a vital role in cycling of nutrients, habitat preservation and rejuvenation of shrubs. The vegetation consociated with the forest plays a vital role in the protection, function of the forest ecosystem. Effective management of forest vegetation serves the forest ecosystem in assaying the balance of harmful effects of vying vegetation. Relationship of ecology between environment and vegetation and their ordination techniques and classification methods has become vital means in the research field vegetation ecology. Classification depends on the abundances of ground vegetation species. Multivariate technique is an important technique in ecology and biology for the group prediction. Classification of different plant communities had been accomplished by carrying out TWINSPAN analysis using PC-ORD. The results were shown in a two-way cluster dendrogram. A dendrogram is a hierarchical representation of species in graphical form. The encompassing survey has been conducted in the Changa Manga Forest (CMF) which resulted in the identification of the 45 species belonging to 24 families from all over the forest area. The TWINSPAN results of CMF ascertained the following dominant species in all of the four zones, Cynadon dactylon, Malvestrum cormendalianum, Oxalis corniculata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Desmostachya bipinnata. (author)

  17. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

    Abdallah M., Samy; Lindsay P., Campbell; A. Townsend, Peterson.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinati [...] onal military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity) can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major), suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major) were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

  18. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

    Abdallah M. Samy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinational military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major, suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

  19. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. Final report, 1 September 1988--30 June 1990

    Spotila, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

  20. Investigations of some elements distribution in dental tissues by INAA as a function of ecological and some other parameters

    Distribution of some elements (Hg, Zn, Sb, Co and Sc) in dental tissues (enamel, dentine, pulp) has been investiaated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Teeth samples were taken from patients living in different regions (mine and mineralized areas, plain), taking into account the following parameters: ecological conditions, age of patients, stomatological operations and use of local cosmetic preparations containig mercury. Samples of vegetation (beech, moss, pine) from two locations belonging to regions of mineralized areas also were analyzed. Results of our investigations are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... em Description Name English common name of species Scientific ... Name Scientific ... name of species Taxonomy ID NCBI T ...

  3. The ecology and distribution of alcyonaceans at Mandapam (Palk Bay, Gulf of Mannar), South India

    Jayasree, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    New distribution records for 27 species of Alcyonaceans are given. These include major genera Sinularia (12 spp.), Lobophytum (7 spp.), Sarcophyton (6 spp.), Dampia (1 sp.) and Nephthya (1 sp.). The factors that influence the distribution of corals...

  4. Taxonomy of Bacteria Nodulating Legumes

    Ral Rivas; Paula Garca-Fraile; Encarna Velzquez

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, the term rhizobia has come to be used for all the bacteria that are capable of nodulation and nitrogen fixation in association with legumes but the taxonomy of rhizobia has changed considerably over the last 30 year. Recently, several non- rhizobial species belonging to alpha and beta subgroup of Proteobacteria have been identified as nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts. Here we provide an overview of the history of the rhizobia and the widespread phylogenetic diversity of nitr...

  5. Taxonomy and nomenclature of viruses.

    Murant, A F

    1985-07-01

    In his article The species concept in plant virology Milne1 describes the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses2 as providing the 'creeping barrage' (for the 'anti-species' views of many plant virologists and others) in the seemingly unending trench warfare over virus taxonomy and nomenclature. As an editor since 1970 (with BD Harrison) of this continuing series, I am moved to fire a few additional shots in support of Milne's thesis. PMID:3940013

  6. Geometric Representations of Language Taxonomies

    Blanchard, Ph.; Petroni, F.; Serva, M.; Volchenkov, D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A Markov chain analysis of a network generated by the matrix of lexical distances allows for representing complex relationships between different languages in a language family geometrically, in terms of distances and angles. The fully automated method for construction of language taxonomy is tested on a sample of fifty languages of the IndoEuropean language group and applied to a sample of fifty languages of the Austronesian language group. The Anatolian and Kurgan hypoth...

  7. Solar and Extrasolar Planet Taxonomy

    Russell, David

    2013-01-01

    A mass-based definition for planets is proposed with dynamical circumstances and compositional characteristics used to define types of planets. Dynamical planet classes include Principal planets, Belt planets, Moons, and Rogue planets. Compositional classes include rock, ice, and gas planets with refined classes when sufficient data is available. The dynamical and compositional definitions are combined with a six class planetary mass scale into a taxonomy that can be used to classify both Sol...

  8. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1. PMID:22506608

  9. Inventorying of the tree fern Genus Cibotium of Sumatra: Ecology, population size and distribution in North Sumatra

    TITIEN NGATINEM PRAPTOSUWIRYO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Praptosuwiryo TNg, Pribadi DO, Puspitaningtyas DM, Hartini S (2011 Inventorying the tree fern Genus Cibotium of Sumatra: Ecology, population size and distribution in North Sumatra. Biodiversitas 12: 204-211. Cibotium is one tree fern belongs to the family Cibotiaceae which is easily differentiated from the other genus by the long slender golden yellowish-brown smooth hairs covered its rhizome and basal stipe with marginal sori at the ends of veins protected by two indusia forming a small cup round the receptacle of the sorus. It has been recognized as material for both traditional and modern medicines in China, Europe, Japan and Southeast Asia. Population of Cibotium species in several countries have decreased rapidly because of over exploitation and there is no artificial cultivation until now. The aims of this study were: (i To re-inventory the species of Cibotiun in North Sumatra, (ii to record the ecology and distribution of each species, and (iii to assess the population size of each species. Field study was carried out by using random search with belt transect. Two species were recorded, namely C. arachnoideum dan C. barometz. The geographical distribution of the two species in North Sumatra are presented. Cibotium is commonly growing terrestrially on opened or rather opened areas in secondary forets and primary forest at hills or lower mountains with a relatively high humidity at 30-90º slopes. C. arachnoideum has a strict distribution and only found at 1740-1770 m a.s.l. in primary forest, whereas C. barometz has a broad distribution in secondary forest at elevation range from 650-1200 m.

  10. MODELING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ESHNAN (SEIDLITZIA ROSMARINUS SHRUBS TO EXPLORING THEIR ECOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS IN DRYLANDS OF CENTRAL IRAN

    Y. Erfanifard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the interactions of woody plants has been a major research topic of ecological investigations in arid ecosystems. Plant-plant interactions can shift from positive (facilitation to negative (competition depending on levels of environmental stress and determine the spatial pattern of plants. The spatial distribution analysis of plants via different summary statistics can reveal the interactions of plants and how they influence one another. An aggregated distribution indicates facilitative interactions among plants, while dispersion of species reflects their competition for scarce resources. This study was aimed to explore the intraspecific interactions of eshnan (Seidlitzia rosmarinus shrubs in arid lands, central Iran, using different summary statistics (i.e., pair correlation function g(r, O-ring function O(r, nearest neighbour distribution function D(r, spherical contact distribution function Hs(r. The observed pattern of shrubs showed significant spatial heterogeneity as compared to inhomogeneous Poisson process (α=0.05. The results of g(r and O(r revealed the significant aggregation of eshnan shrubs up to scale of 3 m (α=0.05. The results of D(r and Hs(r also showed that maximum distance to nearest shrub was 6 m and the distribution of the sizes of gaps was significantly different from random distribution up to this spatial scale. In general, it was concluded that there were positive interactions between eshnan shrubs at small scales and they were aggregated due to their intraspecific facilitation effects in the study area.

  11. Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Eshnan (seidlitzia Rosmarinus) Shrubs to Exploring Their Ecological Interactions in Drylands of Central Iran

    Erfanifard, Y.; Khosravi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the interactions of woody plants has been a major research topic of ecological investigations in arid ecosystems. Plant-plant interactions can shift from positive (facilitation) to negative (competition) depending on levels of environmental stress and determine the spatial pattern of plants. The spatial distribution analysis of plants via different summary statistics can reveal the interactions of plants and how they influence one another. An aggregated distribution indicates facilitative interactions among plants, while dispersion of species reflects their competition for scarce resources. This study was aimed to explore the intraspecific interactions of eshnan (Seidlitzia rosmarinus) shrubs in arid lands, central Iran, using different summary statistics (i.e., pair correlation function g(r), O-ring function O(r), nearest neighbour distribution function D(r), spherical contact distribution function Hs(r)). The observed pattern of shrubs showed significant spatial heterogeneity as compared to inhomogeneous Poisson process (α=0.05). The results of g(r) and O(r) revealed the significant aggregation of eshnan shrubs up to scale of 3 m (α=0.05). The results of D(r) and Hs(r) also showed that maximum distance to nearest shrub was 6 m and the distribution of the sizes of gaps was significantly different from random distribution up to this spatial scale. In general, it was concluded that there were positive interactions between eshnan shrubs at small scales and they were aggregated due to their intraspecific facilitation effects in the study area.

  12. Target-driven merging of Taxonomies

    Raunich, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation of ontologies and taxonomies in many domains increasingly demands the integration of multiple such ontologies. The goal of ontology integration is to merge two or more given ontologies in order to provide a unified view on the input ontologies while maintaining all information coming from them. We propose a new taxonomy merging algorithm that, given as input two taxonomies and an equivalence matching between them, can generate an integrated taxonomy in a fully automatic manner. The approach is target-driven, i.e. we merge a source taxonomy into the target taxonomy and preserve the structure of the target ontology as much as possible. We also discuss how to extend the merge algorithm providing auxiliary information, like additional relationships between source and target concepts, in order to semantically improve the final result. The algorithm was implemented in a working prototype and evaluated using synthetic and real-world scenarios.

  13. Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta do curso inferior do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil: taxonomia e distribuição temporal Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta from the lower course of Negro river (Amazon, Brazil: taxonomy and temporal distribution

    Andreia Cavalcante Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relata a taxonomia e distribuição temporal do gênero Pinnularia ocorrente no curso inferior do rio Negro (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W ao longo de um ciclo anual. O trabalho foi conduzido a partir da análise de amostras coletadas na coluna d'água, em escala mensal, entre os meses de outubro de 2002 a setembro de 2003. As espécies foram descritas e comentadas com base na sua morfologia e morfometria. Onze espécies e quatro variedades foram identificadas, ilustradas e incluídas em chave taxonômica. Dois táxons registrados neste estudo, P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot e P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer, constituem primeira citação de ocorrência para o rio Negro. Temporalmente, a maior riqueza de espécies ocorreu entre os meses de outubro a dezembro de 2002, período de águas baixas, quando houve provavelmente maior interação entre água e sedimento possibilitando aporte de indivíduos da região bentônica. Considerando a ocorrência dos táxons ao longo do estudo, somente P. confirma foi considerada frequente, estando presente em mais de 50% das amostras analisadas.This study reports the taxonomy and temporal distribution of the Pinnularia genus occurring in the lower course Negro river (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W along an annual cycle. Samples were collected in the water column monthly, from October 2002 to September 2003. The species were described and commented based on their morphology and morphometry. Eleven species and four varieties are registered, illustrated and incorporated in a taxonomic key. P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot and P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer are the first references to Negro river. Temporally, the highest species richness occurred from October and December 2002, low water period, when happened more interaction between water and sediment, and the contribution of the benthos individuals. On base in taxa occurrence during this study, only P. confirma was frequently, with occurrence in more than 50% of sample analyzed.

  14. Description of a new species of the genus Leporinus Spix (Characiformes: Anostomidae from the rio Araguaia, Brazil, with comments on the taxonomy and distribution of L. parae and L. lacustris

    Heraldo A. Britski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Leporinus is described from the rio Araguaia, in Mato Grosso and Goiás states, Brazil. The new species has the dental formula 4/3, a unique feature within the genus; all other species of Leporinus have dental formulae 3/3, 3/4 or 4/4. In addition, the new species can also be distinguished by the following combination of characters: 36 to 37 scales in the lateral line, 4/4.5 or 4/5 series of scales in the transversal line, 16 circumpeduncular scale series, anal fin surpassing base of lower caudal-fin rays and three blotches along the lateral line. The new species shares with L. parae and L. lacustris a rather deep body, terminal mouth, long anal fin, three small dark blotches on the lateral line, the latter two, particularly the last one, usually fading, and preference for lentic habitats. Comments on the taxonomy and distribution of the species L. parae and L. lacustris are provided.Uma nova espécie do gênero Leporinus é descrita do rio Araguaia, nos estados do Mato Grosso e Goiás, Brasil. A característica mais notável da nova espécie é sua fórmula dental 4/3, única entre as espécies do gênero que possuem fórmula dental 3/3, 3/4 ou 4/4. A nova espécie também pode ser reconhecida pela combinação das seguintes características: 36 a 37 escamas na linha lateral, 4/4,5 ou 4/5 séries de escamas na linha transversal, 16 series de escamas circumpedunculares, nadadeira anal ultrapassando a base dos raios inferiores da nadadeira caudal e presença de três manchas escuras ao longo da linha lateral. A nova espécie compartilha com L. parae e L. lacustris corpo alto, boca terminal, nadadeira anal longa e escura, três manchas escuras na linha lateral pequenas, sendo as duas últimas, em especial a última, geralmente apagadas, e preferência por habitats lênticos. Além disso, são feitos comentários sobre a taxonomia e a distribuição de L. parae e L. lacustris.

  15. A taxonomy fuzzy filtering approach

    Vrettos S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work proposes the use of topic taxonomies as part of a filtering language. Given a taxonomy, a classifier is trained for each one of its topics. The user is able to formulate logical rules combining the available topics, e.g. (Topic1 AND Topic2 OR Topic3, in order to filter related documents in a stream. Using the trained classifiers, every document in the stream is assigned a belief value of belonging to the topics of the filter. These belief values are then aggregated using logical operators to yield the belief to the filter. In our study, Support Vector Machines and Naïve Bayes classifiers were used to provide topic probabilities. Aggregation of topic probabilities based on fuzzy logic operators was found to improve filtering performance on the Renters text corpus, as compared to the use of their Boolean counterparts. Finally, we deployed a filtering system on the web using a sample taxonomy of the Open Directory Project.

  16. LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORAL TAXONOMIES IN UNIVERSITIES

    Riaz Ahmed Mangi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended to recognize and replicate the Yukl’s (1989-2004 behavioral taxonomies in the university settings in Sindh. A comprehensive questionnaire based on the items in taxonomies was developed, face validity of the questionnaire was test and found suitable. A total of 90 university Deans and head of Departments were randomly selected from public and private universities of Sindh. Categorical reliability of the data was checked and found highly reliable. The majority of the respondents were male, post graduate, above 50 years of age, married and had more than 15 years of experience. The statistical analysis describes the typical Sindhi culture among the respondents. A large number of university leadership focused on the relation as compared to task and change at the universities. This research also supports partial replication of three dimensions i.e., Relation, Task and Change as Yukl’s behavioral taxonomies with first order factor analysis. Relation factor was replicated completely, while other two were replicated in two different facets each i.e., Change was replicated in two facets – Improvement and Process and Task was also replicated in two facets – Improvement and Process. Making a second order factor analysis assured these two factors were replicated completely.

  17. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil.

    Szabó, Matias P J; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-01-01

    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city-forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

  18. Distributed Self-regulation Induced by Negative Feedbacks in Ecological and Economic Systems

    Gafiychuk, V V; Ulanowicz, R E; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    We consider an ecological system governed by Lotka-Volterra dynamics and an example of an economic system as a mesomarket with perfect competition. We propose a mechanism for cooperative self-regulation that enables the system under consideration to respond properly to changes in the environment. This mechanism is based on (1) active individual behavior of the system elements at each hierarchical level and (2) self-processing of information caused by the hierarchical organization. It is shown how the proposed mechanism suppresses nonlocal interaction of elements belonging to a particular level as mediated by higher levels.

  19. Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Horsfield, 1821 (Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae in the dry lowlands of Sri Lanka: distribution, ecology, and threats

    Thilina N. de Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus is a globally threatened species of stork; in Sri Lanka, it is a scarce resident breeder, and the largest bird in the country, yet the population status and ecology of the species is poorly understood. This study tracks the storks spatial distribution and habitat use within the island, along with aspects of its ecology. Data was collected via field sampling and questionnaire surveys, over a period of five years across the lowlands of the country. The bird was observed 184 times, with numbers per sighting ranging from 117 individuals. The species distribution was restricted to dry lowlands (rainfall <2200mm, elevation <300m. The bird showed preference for savannah/woody savannahs, dry mixed evergreen forests, permanent wetlands, and croplands, and was prominently found within protected areas. Lesser Adjutants were generally solitary, except in the driest months of the year (i.e., AugustSeptember and MarchApril, which are probably the two breeding periods of the bird in Sri Lanka. Except for an abandoned nest, no active nest was found. Habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, agricultural intensification, and development projects were identified as potential threats faced by the species, which varied in magnitude across the country.

  20. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    George J. Chirima

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (19801993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. Conservation implications: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

  1. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    George J., Chirima; Norman, Owen-Smith; Barend F.N., Erasmus.

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (-LoCoH) method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate sp [...] ecies within the Kruger National Park (KNP) based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980-1993). We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

  2. Trends in Taxonomy today: an overview about the main topics in Taxonomy

    Guerra García, José Manuel; Espinosa Torre, Free; García Gómez, José Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Taxonomy is the science of the description and classification of organisms, essential in theoretical and applied biology. About 1.7 million species have been named since Linnaeus and it is estimated that only around 5-10% of the world’s biota has been described so far, and, obviously, taxonomy plays the major role in this sense. However, taxonomy is in crisis: funding for taxonomy is inadequate, there is a lack of taxonomists, the recruitment of young scientists into taxonomy and system...

  3. Ecological composition and distribution of the diatoms from the Laguna Superior, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Moreno-Ruiz, José Luis; Tapia-Garcia, Margarito; Licea, Sergio; Figueroa-Torres, María Guadalupe; Esquivel, Alfonso; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo; González-Fernández, José Manuel; González-Macias, Maria Del Carmen

    2011-07-01

    A taxonomic study of diatoms was carried out in a tropical coastal lagoon. Material for this study consists of water samples obtained from February-March 1992 to November-December 2000. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed the presence of 373 taxa of which the families Bacillariaceae (67 species) and Chaetocerotaceae (37 species) were the most abundant groups. The species Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Coscinodiscus radiatus var. radiatus, Ditylum brightwellii, Thalassiosira eccentrica and Entomoneis alata were found associated with moderate water quality and forming blooms. In addition, a regional comparison between Mexico and South America of the identified species is given. For practical handling, indicative values obtained from their ecological composition are incorporated as well as a code of the floristic list. Achecklist of the species and their occurrence are given. PMID:22315822

  4. A Distributed Architecture for Sharing Ecological Data Sets with Access and Usage Control Guarantees

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier; Granados, Joel Andres

    2014-01-01

    new insights, there are signicant barriers to the realization of this vision. One of the key challenge is to allow scientists to share their data widely while retaining some form of control over who accesses this data (access control) and more importantly how it is used (usage control). Access and...... usage control is necessary to enforce existing open data policies. We have proposed the vision of trusted cells: A decentralized infrastructure, based on secure hardware running on devices equipped with trusted execution environments at the edges of the Internet. We originally described the utilization...... ecological data sets with access and usage control guarantees. We rely on examples from terrestrial research and monitoring in the arctic in the context of the INTERACT project....

  5. Concentrations, distribution, sources, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural topsoil of the Three Gorges Dam region, China.

    Liu, Minxia; Yang, Yuyi; Yun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Concentrations, distribution, sources, and ecological risk of seven heavy metals including chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) in agricultural topsoil samples of the Three Gorges Dam region, China were investigated in this study. Among seven heavy metals, Zn had the highest mean concentration (149 mg kg(-1)) in the agricultural topsoil, followed by Cr (66 mg kg(-1)), Cu (52.2 mg kg(-1)), Pb (13.0 mg kg(-1)), Ni (8.5 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.29 mg kg(-1)), and Hg (0.08 mg kg(-1)). Enrichment factor (EF) values of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Hg were higher than 1.5, indicating that Zn, Cu, Cd, and Hg were the major pollutants in this study area. The average potential ecological risk index (RI) value was 147, suggesting that heavy metals in the agricultural topsoil in the study area had a low ecological risk. The result of factor analysis (FA) and correlation analysis showed that long-term use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides, natural rock weathering, and atmospheric deposition were the several main sources of seven heavy metals in agricultural topsoil of the Three Gorges Dam region. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) results indicated that the most important source in this area was long-term use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides, which contributed 70 % for Cu and Zn, 62 % for Cd, and 72 % for Hg. More attention must be paid to the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides containing heavy metals which have been accumulated in the agricultural soil. PMID:25716527

  6. Marten Ecology and Distribution on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Marten Martes americana were studied on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge from June 1986 through July 1988 to determine factors limiting their current distribution...

  7. Integrating evolution into geographical ecology: a phylogenetic perspective on palm distributions and community composition across scales

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Balslev, Henrik

    Species distributions, assemblage composition, and species richness depend on both current environment and the diversification of lineages in past environments. On broad scales, processes that constrain diversifying lineages to certain regions or environments are particularly important. Through...

  8. Ecological Land Units as Predictors of Forest Type and Bird Species Distributions

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — When dealing with the factors that impact the distribution of organisms on the landscape, it is important to describe the scale of effects that influence their...

  9. Distribution, ecology and polymorphic behaviour of the genus Oxycephalus (Hyperiidea, Oxycephalidae) in the Indian Ocean

    Nair, K.K.C.

    There have been many controversies on the number of valid, species under Oxycephalus including the studies made from Indian waters. This is the first comprehensive account on the distribution of this genus covering the entire Indian Ocean through...

  10. Distribution and ecology of Biatoridium monasteriense J. Lahm ex Körb in Poland

    Anna Łubek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new site of Biatoridium monasteriense was discovered during a lichenological investigation in Białowieża National Park. The paper presents information on the distribution of this species in Poland.

  11. Assessing spatial distribution, sources, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Nansi Lake, Eastern China

    The study is conducted to investigate the spatial distribution, sources and ecological risk of seven heavy metals in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, Eastern China. A total of 29 samples were collected in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, and were analyzed for three nutrients (TN, TOC and TP), two major metals (Al and Fe), as well as seven trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Fe and Al were 14.41, 0.22, 71.10, 30.1, 0.048, 29.14, 90.2, 30,816 and 70,653 mg kg-1, respectively, and the mean contents of these metals were higher than the background values with the exception of Cu and Fe. The spatial distribution indicated that the contents of all seven heavy metals were characterized by relatively higher contents in the upper lake than the lower lake. The hotspots with high values of As, Cd and Hg were associated with the river mouths, and the hotspots of Pb were mainly located around the dam in the central part, while no significant associations were displayed between spatial distribution of Cr, Cu, Zn and the river mouths. The mean enrichment factor (EF) values of As, Cd, Hg and Pb were 2.03, 2.93, 3.21 and 2.18, respectively, showing their moderate enrichment, while Cr, Cu and Zn with mean EF values of 1.19, 0.89 and 1.01 were deficiency to minimal enrichment. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses suggested that PC1 controlled by Cr, Cu and Zn was a lithogenic component, and come from parent rocks leaching. PC2 including Cd and partially Hg represented the factor from industrial wastewater discharge. PC3 showed elevated loadings of As and partially Cd, and could be attributed to the agricultural practices. While PC4 including Pb and partially Hg, was dominated by coal combustion. The results of potential ecological risk suggested that sediment environment of Nansi Lake suffered from high ecological risk. (author)

  12. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  13. An Evaluation Taxonomy For Congestion Pricing

    Lo, H.; Hickman, M; Walstad, M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the authors formulate an evaluation taxonomy to identify a broad range of factors that would be important for a comprehensive assessment of congestion pricing. The evaluation taxonomy consists of three dimensions: road pricing strategies, impacted groups and impacts. The paper also includes a literature review of previous research in road pricing, especially regarding modeling tools and methods for conducting evaluation.

  14. Taxonomy of Bacteria Nodulating Legumes

    Ral Rivas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the term rhizobia has come to be used for all the bacteria that are capable of nodulation and nitrogen fixation in association with legumes but the taxonomy of rhizobia has changed considerably over the last 30 year. Recently, several non- rhizobial species belonging to alpha and beta subgroup of Proteobacteria have been identified as nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts. Here we provide an overview of the history of the rhizobia and the widespread phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts.

  15. Diversity, ecological distribution and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria inhabiting seamounts and non-seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea

    Ettoumi, Besma

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the ecological distribution of marine Actinobacteria isolated from seamount and non-seamount stations in the Tyrrhenian Sea was investigated. A collection of 110 isolates was analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representatives for each ARISA haplotype (n = 49). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed a wide diversity of marine isolates and clustered the strains into 11 different genera, Janibacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Dietzia, Curtobacterium, Micrococcus, Citricoccus, Brevibacterium, Brachybacterium and Nocardioides. Interestingly, Janibacter limosus was the most encountered species particularly in seamounts stations, suggesting that it represents an endemic species of this particular ecosystem. The application of BOX-PCR fingerprinting on J. limosus sub-collection (n = 22), allowed their separation into seven distinct BOX-genotypes suggesting a high intraspecific microdiversity among the collection. Furthermore, by screening the biotechnological potential of selected actinobacterial strains, J. limosus was shown to exhibit the most important biosurfactant activity. Our overall data indicates that Janibacter is a major and active component of seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea adapted to low nutrient ecological niche.

  16. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  17. Ecology and distribution of an invasive species Asterlanceolatus willd. on wet habitats in Belgrade

    Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Aster lanceolatus occupies a significant position in the world and European lists of invasive species. Its spreading potential is a hazardous factor to the biodiversity in many countries. There are no relevant data on the wider proportion of this species in the area of Belgrade. The sites of Aster lanceolatus are annual or pioneer communities along the water courses, abandoned and neglected areas, forest margins, moist meadows. The study areas are located near a choice of water courses in Belgrade. The aim of the study was to assess the species ecology and population density, synecological interrelationships among the coenobionts of the communities in which it occurs, and also to map its the habitats. The study of population density was performed on the supplemented and partially modified 'CPS SKEW' form, applied in West European countries, by the principle of squares. The species was determined by standard floristic method, and the species location by GPS system. It was concluded that Aster lanceolatus was dominant and wild at all study sites. The individuals and populations are especially numerous on the river islands Ada Ciganlija and Veliko Ratno Ostrvo, along the stream Kumodraki Potok and the Danube left bank, where the number of individuals per squares is above 1300 and the degree of coverage is 100%. Its spreading potential is conditioned by the species biology, and the expansiveness by climate changes, anthropogenic impacts and the competitive interrelationships.

  18. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  19. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms: Progress report, 1 January 1988-31 December 1988

    Spotila, J.R.

    1988-08-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During 1988, we conducted studies: (1) to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, (2) to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field, (3) to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and (4) to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also continued our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles. In addition, we completed editing the symposium volume from our symposium on Constraints of Bioenergetics on Animal Population Dynamics that was held at the last meeting of the American Society of Zoologists. 43 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms: Progress report, 1 January 1988-31 August 1988

    Spotila, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    We quantified the constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. During the first eight months of 1988 we conducted studies to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field, to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures, and water flux rates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also organized and chaired a national symposium on Constraints of Bioenergetics on Animal Population Dynamics at the 1987 meeting of the American Society of Zoologists. 18 refs.

  1. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha-1). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha-1). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

  2. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from the Luan River Estuary, China.

    Zhang, Daolai; Liu, Jinqing; Jiang, Xuejun; Cao, Ke; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xunhua

    2016-01-15

    The distribution, sources and risk assessment of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of surface sediments in the Luan River Estuary, China, have been investigated in the research. The results indicated that the total concentrations of 16 PAHs in surface sediments of the Luan River Estuary ranged from 5.1 to 545.1ngg(-1)dw with a mean value of 120.8ngg(-1)dw, which is relatively low in comparison with other estuaries around the world. The PAHs in the study area were mainly originated from pyrogenic sources. Besides, PAHs may be contaminated by petrogenic PAHs as indicated by the selected ratios of PAHs, the 2-tailed Pearson correlation analysis and principal components analysis at different sites. The result of the ecological risk assessment shows little negative effect for most individual PAHs in surface sediments of the Luan River Estuary, China. PMID:26616744

  3. Distribution and ecology of deep-water benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico

    Poag, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Bathyal and abyssal foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico are distributed among thirteen generic predominance facies. Five predominance facies nearly encircle the Gulf basin along the slope and rise; a sixth predominance facies blankets the Sigsbee Plain, and a seventh is restricted to the Mississippi Fan. The remaining eight predominance facies have more restricted distributions. The areal patterns of these predominance facies can be related chiefly to water mass and substrate characteristics; modifications are brought about by calcite dissolution, upwelling, and sill depth. Analysis of ancient generic predominance facies is useful in predicting relative paleobathymetry and other paleoenvironmental properties. ?? 1984.

  4. Ecological impacts of Al-Jalamid phosphate mining, Saudi Arabia: Soil elemental characterization and spatial distribution with INAA.

    El-Taher, A; Garca-Tenorio, R; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (P) industries will be one of the main industrial sectors in Saudi Arabia within the next few years. Al-Jalamid phosphate mine, which started operation a few years ago, is one of the biggest mining locations in the Middle East region. It is planned to mine 12 million tons run of mine ore per year (Mty) and produce about 4.5 Mty of phosphate concentrate for the next 20 years. Long term ecological impacts of phosphate mining activities on soil and groundwater should be investigated. The contaminated soil acts as a long term source of environmental contamination. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil areas located in the vicinity of the phosphate mining activities. A total of sixty eight surface and subsurface soil samples from 34 locations around Al-Jalamid phosphate mine have been collected. The elemental characterization of soil samples was achieved using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Pollution indices, geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution load (PLI) indices were calculated from some elements to evaluate the soil pollution. Until now, there is no existing pre-operational elemental characterization in soil to evaluate the foreseen ecological impacts of phosphate mining. Our results are the first to evaluate the present situation that will be the base for the future evaluations. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil and their relation to phosphate mining activities, and to better understand the behavior of different elements in soil in an arid environment. PMID:26629683

  5. Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing

    Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0–3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120–200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system

  6. New ecological mechanism of formation of spatial distribution of radionuclides in river ecosystem

    Radioecological expeditions on the Yenissei river revealed 'spotty' distribution of radioisotopes in bottom sediments and along the coastline of the river. This work presents results of theoretical analysis of the formation mechanism of stable spatial non-uniformities of river ecosystem components by population interactions of 'predator-prey' type between the phytoplukton and zooplankton. 'Patchiness contrast' (i.e. the amplitude of the radionuclide spatial propagation wave in the water) for the large oscillations control by increasing or decreasing current velocity depends both on the boundary concentrations of phytoplankton and zooplankton and on the established nature of their interpopulation interactions (or coefficients of interactions). Variation of the below given interaction parameters within the 'phytoplanbon-zooplankton' system makes increase the amplitude of spatial distribution wave: decrease of algal growth rate; increase of algal death rate; decrease of zooplankton death rate; increase of interaction coefficients. It was shown for small oscillations that the period of component distribution waves is in proportion to the current velocity and the amplitude of 'small' waves does not depend on the water current velocity. Theoretically it has been also found that with deep limitation of phytoplankton growth by biogenous elements the 'standing wave' is observed to deteriorate and monotonous distribution of radionuclide concentration fields is found to form. (author)

  7. Ten challenges to transform Taxonomy

    Wheeler, Q. D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy is at a crossroads. Although taxonomy has an impressive past, having documented and organized knowledge of nearly two million species, most of the basic work required to describe Earth’s biodiversity remains undone. Factors that guide the choices of research topics in science are considered. Ten challenges are presented to the taxonomic community that we believe will accelerate its revitalization.

    La Taxonomía se encuentra en una encrucijada. Con un admirable pasado que ha permitido documentar y organizar un inmenso conocimiento sobre casi dos millones de especies, sin embargo, la tarea básica de describir la Biodiversidad sobre la Tierra está por hacer. Se examinan los factores que guían la elección de líneas de investigación en la ciencia y se propone a la comunidad taxonómica, diez retos que consideramos acelerarán su revitalización.

  8. POLYCHAETES SPECIES DIVERSITY APPLYING MONITORING DATA FOR SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY UPDATE, ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    La Porta, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Since research on soft-seabed macrozoobenthic community, including polychaetes, of Mediterranean and in particular Italian Saes still display a lack of data concerning taxonomic aspects and species distribution patterns, and the pre-existing information are frequently outdated, further studies and revisions of data are a primary necessity. These habitats are widely common in coastal areas all over the world and host most of sensitive and protected benthic habitats, species and typical biocoen...

  9. Seed ecology of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi, two invasive species with different distributions in Europe

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Perglová, Irena; Gudžinskas, Z.

    Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 157-169 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0323 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Seed Bank * germination * distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  10. Download - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search ... Image Search ... Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... descriptions of the data. # Data name File Simple search ... and download 1 README README_e.html - 2 Taxonomy I ... con Data taxonomy_icon_en.zip (14.1 KB) Simple search ... and download 3 Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) t ...

  11. taxonomy

    José M. Cei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaciones morfológicas previas sobre un gran número de especies permiten establecer una correspondencia entre la peculiaridad de los patrones sistemáticos de las escamas supraoculares de Squamata y la posición evolutiva de cada taxón considerado en los cladogramas propuestos por Estes et al. (1988. Aparte del significado biológico general de estos hallazgos, incluso para discutidas orientaciones taxonómicas, la lepidosis supraocular llega a refrendar una decisión sistemática con su evidencia. Así, en Iguania, la familia Leiosauridae, propuesta por Frost et al. (2001, aparece sostenida hasta en el detalle de su división en las subfamilias Leiosaurinae y Enyaliinae. Siempre en Iguania Pleurodonta se evidencian ejemplos como los inconfundibles patrones de escamas supraoculares de Opluridae, Leucocephalidae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae. A nivel específico la interdependencia en Iguanidae de los géneros Iguana, Cercosaura, Brachylophus, Conolophus, puede llevar a postular pretéritos acontecimientos paleogeográficos. También amerita énfasis la llamativa separación, según este criterio morfológico, entre Iguania y Scleroglossa, la uniforme lepidosis de centenares de Gekkota, o la excepcional fisonomía de Autarchoglossa, en sus ramas tan individualizadas de Scincomorpha (Lacertoidea; Teiioidea; Scincoidea o Anguimorpha.

  12. Ecological Niche Modelling using satellite data for assessing distribution of threatened species Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.

    Kumar, S.; Kulloli, R. N.; Tewari, J. C.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, A.

    2014-11-01

    Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. is a narrow endemic, tuberous twiner of Asclepiadaceae family. It is medicinally important: tubers are nutritive and edible, leaves are digestive and a cure for dysentery and diarrhea. Exploitation for its tubers and poor regeneration of this species has shrunk its distribution. In order to know its present status, we report here the results of its appraisal in Rajasthan, using remote sensing and ground truthing in the past five years (2009-14). A base map of C. bulbosa was prepared using Geographical Information System (GIS), open source software Quantum GIS, SAGA. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) +Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Satellite Data were used in this study. ASTER and GDEM Data was clipped with district boundary and provided color range to get elevation information. A digital elevation model of Rajasthan physiography was developed from ASTER GDEM of 30-m resolution. GIS layers of Area of occurrences for C. bulbosa plant and elevation were created. This map along with topographic sheets of 1:50000 were used for field traversing and ground truthing as per GPS location inferred from map. Its geographic distribution was assessed using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm that employed 12 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, and elevation data. Results of this modelling predicted occurrence of C. bulbosa in the districts of Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Pali, Ajmer, Jhalawar, Dungarpur, Banswara, Baran, Kota, Bundi and Chittorgarh. Ground validation in these districts revealed its presence only at four places in three districts confirming its rarity. Analysis of dominance at their sites of occurrence revealed their poor populations and sub dominant status (RIV = 20-32) and very low density (2-12 plants per tenth ha).

  13. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  14. Organic UV Filters in the Surface Water of Nanjing, China: Occurrence, Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment.

    Ma, Binni; Lu, Guanghua; Liu, Fuli; Nie, Yang; Zhang, Zhenghua; Li, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Organic UV filters (OUV-Fs) are increasingly used for protection against UV irradiation. The widespread occurrence of OUV-Fs residues in aquatic systems has been reported, but little is known regarding their distribution and potential impact to the surface water in China. This study reports the occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of eight widely used OUV-Fs in the surface water of Nanjing. The results indicated butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane, octyl-dimethyl-PABA and benzophenone-types (BP3, BP4 and BP1) were the most frequently detected compounds at concentrations of 3.63-104 ng/L. In general, the concentrations of OUV-Fs were decreased along the rivers; however, due to a substantial pollution load from the tributaries, higher concentrations of OUV-Fs were observed near the tributary inlet, compared to the other study areas. The risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) demonstrated that all OUV-Fs posed at least low risks to certain sensitive aquatic organisms, and BP3 posed high risk with RQ values of 1.64. It should be noted that the exclusion of adsorbed OUV-Fs might have contributed to an underestimation of the risk, therefore, it's necessary to assess both adsorbed and dissolved OUV-Fs in further studies. PMID:26747437

  15. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    Lambe, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  16. A taxonomy of automatic differentiation tools

    Juedes, D.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    Many of the current automatic differentiation (AD) tools have similar characteristics. Unfortunately, the similarities between these various AD tools often cannot be easily ascertained by reading the corresponding documentation. To clarify this situation, a taxonomy of AD tools is presented. The taxonomy places AD tools into the Elemental, Extensional, Integral, Operational, and Symbolic classes. This taxonomy is used to classify twenty-nine AD tools. Each tool is examined individually with respect to the mode of differentiation used and the degree of derivatives computed. A list detailing the availability of the surveyed AD tools is provided in the Appendix. 54 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Distribution, ecology and inhibition of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in relation to acid drainage from Witwatersrand gold mine dumps

    The distribution and ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in gold mine dumps and possible means for its inhibition were investigated. A literature survey of the micro-ecology of mine waste dumps in various parts of the world was undertaken. A linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), NANSA 80/S, and a cetyl pyridinium chloride, Ceepryn, were tested as possible inhibitors for mine dump application. The LAS was rejected because it is poorly soluble in water and required higher concentrations than SLS for the inhibition of T.ferrooxidans. Ceepryn was an efficient inhibitor, but its efficiency was dramatically impeded in the presence of mine dump sand making it unsuitable for application on dumps. The SLS and LAS were tested against a mixed population of T.ferrooxidans from gold mine dumps and these bacteria were shown to be marginally more resistant to the inhibitors than the pure T.ferrooxidans culture. Sampling from mine dumps on the Witwatersrand suggested that the major T.ferrooxidans populations occurred in the moist sand of the drainage areas at the base of dumps, with few viable iron-oxidising bacteria located on the surfaces or in the centre of dumps. Sites of low moisture in dumps contained few or no viable bacteria. In the laboratory the bacterial viability decreased rapidly with loss of moisture from the sand. Moisture was shown to be important to bacterial activity and should be considered with respect to acid drainage control. Experimental sand columns showed that iron was leached with water from mine dump sand in the absence and presence of bacteria. In this study substrates, moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide availability, ph, temperature, microorganisms and metal pollutants of uranium waste dumps are also covered

  18. Peruvian Children's Folk Taxonomy of Marine Animals

    José Pizarro-Neyra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free listing was used to obtain names of marine animals from 234 Peruvian children with families involved in fishing activities. They live in the fishing towns of Vila-vila, Morro Sama and Ilo, located in Southern Peru. Fishes, birds and the category “other marine animal” were used for the classification of marine fauna by children. The group of 6-8 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 19.7 names per child, while the group of 9-11 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 25.7 names per child. Folk species of fish is the most frequently recorded category with a predominance of coastal species and with a mean frequency of 7.56 and 11.51 names per child for the groups of 6-8 year-olds and 9-11 year-olds, respectively. In contrast, bird names are less frequently recorded in the lists. Some bird and mollusc names have lexical under-differentiation at a generic level and apparently have lower cultural significance than fish. Children’s classification in different levels of organization is evidence of a folk biology. The folk taxonomy of marine animals could be influenced by the lesser cognitive development of younger children and the ecological salience of some species. Some species with coastal habitat exhibit a high dominance index of folk names. Cultural transmission of knowledge about birds could be failing due to the recent occupancy of the study sites by migratory people and the sexual division of work in the children’s families.

  19. Ecological factors related to the widespread distribution of sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador

    Grijalva Mario J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chagas disease transmission risk is a function of the presence of triatomines in domestic habitats. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is one of the main vectors implicated in transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Ecuador. This triatomine species is present in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats in the country. To determine the distribution of sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis and the factors related to this distribution, triatomine searches were conducted between 2005 and 2009 in southern Ecuador. Methods Manual triatomine searches were conducted by skilled bug collectors in 23 communities. Sylvatic searched sites were selected by a directed sampling, where microhabitats were selected by the searchers and b random sampling, where sampling points where randomly generated. Domiciliary triatomine searches were conducted using the one man-hour method. Natural trypanosome infection was determined by microscopic examination and PCR. Generalized linear models were used to test the effect of environmental factors on the presence of sylvatic triatomines. Results In total, 1,923 sylvatic individuals were collected representing a sampling effort of 751 man-hours. Collected sylvatic triatomines were associated with mammal and bird nests. The 1,219 sampled nests presented an infestation index of 11.9%, a crowding of 13 bugs per infested nest, and a colonization of 80% of the nests. Triatomine abundance was significantly higher in squirrel (Sciurus stramineus nests located above five meters from ground level and close to the houses. In addition, 8.5% of the 820 examined houses in the same localities were infested with triatomines. There was a significant correlation between R. ecuadoriensis infestation rates found in sylvatic and synanthropic environments within communities (p = 0.012. Parasitological analysis revealed that 64.7% and 15.7% of the sylvatic bugs examined (n = 300 were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli respectively, and 8% of the bugs presented mixed infections. Conclusions The wide distribution of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations may jeopardize the effectiveness of control campaigns conducted to eliminate domestic populations of this species. Also, the high T. cruzi infection rates found in sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador could constitute a risk for house re-infestation and persistent long-term Chagas disease transmission in the region.

  20. TAXONOMY DEVELOPMENT IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS: DEVELOPING A TAXONOMY OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    Nickerson, Robert; Muntermann, Jan; Varshney, Upkar; Isaac, Henri

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of the information systems field often lends itself to classification schemes, or taxonomies, which provide ways to understand the similarities and differences among objects under study. Developing a taxonomy, however, is a complex process that is often done in an ad hoc way. This research-in-progress paper uses the design science paradigm to develop a systematic method for taxonomy development in information systems. The method we propose uses an indicator or operational level...

  1. Ecology of temperate salt-marsh fucoids. I. Occurrence and distribution of Ascophyllum nodosum ecads

    Brinkhuis, B.H.

    1976-03-15

    The distribution of several free-living Ascophyllum nodosum ecads, including scorpioides and mackii, in a temperate salt marsh is described. Morphological characterization of these ecads by the presence or absence of air bladders and reproductive receptacles, and size and shape of fronds, indicated that several free-living forms occur throughout the marsh. Plants resembling the ecad mackaii were more closely associated with exposed areas along the low-tide regions, while scorpioides-type ecads prevailed on the Spartina alterniflora-dominated marsh banks and flats in the middle and upper intertidal regions of the marsh. Maximum biomass of ecads occurred during the spring months in the absence of S. alterniflora, whereas minimum ecad biomass was associated with maximum S. alterniflora densities in the late summer and fall months. Morphological differentiation of dwarf-type ecads was related to environmental components other than exposure to low and/or fluctuating salinites.

  2. Distribution and ecology of marine turtles in waters off the southeastern United States

    Fritts, T.H.; Hoffman, W.; McGehee, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine waters up to 222 km from shore in the Gulf of Mexico and nearby Atlantic Ocean suggest that marine turtles are largely distributed in waters less than 100 m in depth. The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) was observed nearly 50 times as often in waters off eastern and western Florida as in the western Gulf of Mexico. Loggerheads were present year round but the frequency of sightings in the winter months was lower than at other seasons. Green turtles (Chelonia rnydas) were infrequently observed but were most conspicuous in waters off eastern Florida. Kemp's ridleys (Lepidochelys kempi) were most frequently sighted off southwestern Florida and rarely observed in the western Gulf of Mexico. Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) were more conspicuous on the continental shelf than in adjacent deeper waters. A concentration of leatherback and loggerhead turtles occurred west of the Gulf Stream Current in August 1980, near Brevard County, Florida.

  3. Ecological Features of Oyster Beds Distribution in Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf

    J.A. Al-Khayat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present investigation were to study the feature of biotic environment of oyster beds and to study quantitatively the biodiversity of fauna and flora living within these habitats. Eighteen selected oyster beds, within the Exclusive Economic Zone of Qatar were investigated by scuba diving. Most of the oyster beds were found in the area with sandy-rocky and Coral blocks bottom forms. Pearl oysters abundance varied widely between the different beds and within the same beds due to the variations in the bottom substrates. The associated biota was composed mainly of Algae (4%, Porifera (3%, Cnidaria (8%, Polychaeta (4%, Echinodermata (13%, Mollusca (55%, Chordate (2% and Crustacean (11%. The comparison of our findings on the occurrence and distribution of marine biota to previous studies has shown similarities between Qatar and other Gulf States particularly Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

  4. Ecology of the fishes of the Norwegian Deep: Distribution and species assemblages

    Bergstad, Odd Aksel

    An account based on hydroacoustic data and trawl surveys of the distributional patterns and species assemblages of the fishes inhabiting the Norwegian Deep and adjacent slopes is presented. The Norwegian Deep is the moderately deep (275 to 700 m) shelf channel extending from the Norwegian Sea into the North Sea and Skagerrak. The Norwegian Deep has a pelagic and demersal fish fauna which is rather different from the fauna in adjacent shallow areas. Blue whiting ( Micromesistius poutassou) and Maurolicu muelleri form a widely distributed and normally two-layered pelagic association. There appears to exist a rather sharp boundary at about the 200 m isobath between species assemblages of the Norwegian Deep and those of the shallow plateaus of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The fish fauna of deeper zones of the Skagerrak differs from the areas off western and southwestern Norway. The more conspicuous feature in the Skagerrak is the rather high abundance of greater argentine ( Argentina silus) and roundnose grenadier ( Coryphaenoides rupestris) at depths greater than 300 m. The species assemblages of the Norwegian Deep resemble those found in the areas along the outer shelf of the Northeast Atlantic and the deep fjords of Norway. The western and southern slopes appear to be feeding and overwintering areas for some fish species from adjacent shallow areas, particularly populations of saithe ( Pollachius virens) and Norway pout ( Trisopterus esmarki). It is suggested that the Norwegian Deep, due to its characteristic bathymetry and the strong influence of Atlantic inflow, is colonized by mesopelagic and benthic species from the other shelf areas of the Northeast Atlantic. The shelf channel appears to be deep enough to allow outer shelf species temporary or permanent access to the inner shelf environment.

  5. Elevational distribution and ecology of small mammals on Africa's highest mountain.

    Stanley, William T; Rogers, Mary Anne; Kihaule, Philip M; Munissi, Maiko J

    2014-01-01

    Mt Kilimanjaro is Africa's highest mountain, and an icon for a country famous for its mammalian fauna. The distribution and abundance of small mammals on the mountain are poorly known. Here we document the distribution of shrews and rodents along an elevational gradient on the southeastern versant of Kilimanjaro. Five sites were sampled with elevational center points of 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500 and 4000 m, using a systematic methodology of standard traps and pitfall lines, to inventory the shrews and rodents of the slope. Sixteen species of mammal were recorded, including 6 shrew and 10 rodent species, and the greatest diversity of both was found at 3000 m, the elevational midpoint of the transect. No species previously unrecorded on Kilimanjaro were observed. Two genera of rodents that occur in nearby mountains (Hylomyscus and Beamys) were not recorded. Myosorex zinki, the only mammal endemic to Mt. Kilimanjaro, which previously was known by only a few specimens collected in the ericaceous or moorland habitat, was found in all but one (the lowest) of the sites sampled, and was one of the most widespread species of small mammal along the gradient. Two shrews (Crocidura allex and Sylvisorex granti) and one rodent (Dendromus insignis) were found throughout the entire transect, with Dendromus being observed at our highest trap point (4240 m). As in similar faunal surveys on other mountains of Tanzania, rainfall influenced the sample success of shrews, but not rodents. Trap success for rodents at 3500 m was notably low. This study contributes further justification for the conservation of the forest habitat of Mt. Kilimanjaro. PMID:25372387

  6. Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs...

  7. The Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Tina Menor estuary (Cantabria, southern Bay of Biscay): Distribution and ecology

    Martnez-Garca, Blanca; Pascual, Ana; Rodrguez-Lzaro, Julio; Martn-Rubio, Maite; Rofes, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Recent ostracods from the Tina Menor estuary (northern Spain, southern Bay of Biscay) have been analysed. Twenty-five species have been identified for the first time, 20 with living individuals during the sampling period. The most abundant species are Leptocythere castanea, Leptocythere porcellanea, Loxoconcha elliptica, Cytherois fischeri, and Hemicytherura hoskini, Leptocythere psammophila and Semicytherura aff. angulata. These species are grouped into four assemblages defining different environments: muddy inner estuary with euryhaline species (L. elliptica); middle estuary with silty sand flats and low marsh environments (L. castanea, L. porcellanea and C. fischeri); sandy outer estuary with marine characteristics (H. hoskini, S. aff. angulata, Leptocythere baltica and L. psammophila); and littoral to inner shelf environment (Caudites calceolatus, H. hoskini and Callistocythere murrayi). In the middle estuary, L. castanea also delimits sandy-silty low marshes, and L. porcellanea and C. fischeri the vegetated ecosystems. Multivariate analyses with the samples and species (cluster Q-type and detrended and canonical correspondence analysis) confirm that ostracod distribution in the Tina Menor estuary is controlled by sediment grain size and by the distance to the mouth of the estuary (associated to salinity). The geographical height in relation with mean tide levels (and therefore with emersion periods) also plays an important role in distribution. The results of this study confirm ostracod validity as tide-level markers due to the presence of C. fischeri below the MHWNT (mean high water neap tide), whereas L. castanea and L. porcellanea are present between the MHWNT and MHW (mean high water) levels. Ostracods can also indicate environmental changes due to human-influenced processes. Abundant individuals of L. elliptica in some areas of the middle estuary evidence discharges of lower-salinity water from a nearby fish farm. Ostracods from the marine shelf reach the inner estuary, but continental species are not provided by the rivers. The low river influence may be due to Nansa River flow regulation upstream, which hampers the transport of fluvial sediments, resulting in an increase in sand in the mudflat and low marshes, the latter fact confirmed by the numbers of L. castanea and L. porcellanea, much higher than in other estuaries in the southern Bay of Biscay.

  8. The genus Weissella: taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potential

    Fusco, Vincenzina; Grazia M. Quero; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Meske, Diana; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria assigned to the genus Weissella are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-endospore forming cells with coccoid or rod-shaped morphology (Collins et al., 1993; Björkroth et al., 2009, 2014) and belong to the group of bacteria generally known as lactic acid bacteria. Phylogenetically, the Weissella belong to the Firmicutes, class Bacilli, order Lactobacillales and family Leuconostocaceae (Collins et al., 1993). They are obligately heterofermentative, producing CO2 from carbohydrate met...

  9. The genus Weissella: taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potential.

    Fusco, Vincenzina; Quero, Grazia M; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Meske, Diana; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Franz, Charles M A P

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria assigned to the genus Weissella are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-endospore forming cells with coccoid or rod-shaped morphology (Collins et al., 1993; Björkroth et al., 2009, 2014) and belong to the group of bacteria generally known as lactic acid bacteria. Phylogenetically, the Weissella belong to the Firmicutes, class Bacilli, order Lactobacillales and family Leuconostocaceae (Collins et al., 1993). They are obligately heterofermentative, producing CO2 from carbohydrate metabolism with either d(-)-, or a mixture of d(-)- and l(+)- lactic acid and acetic acid as major end products from sugar metabolism. To date, there are 19 validly described Weissella species known. Weissella spp. have been isolated from and occur in a wide range of habitats, e.g., on the skin and in the milk and feces of animals, from saliva, breast milk, feces and vagina of humans, from plants and vegetables, as well as from a variety of fermented foods such as European sourdoughs and Asian and African traditional fermented foods. Thus, apart from a perceived technical role of certain Weissella species involved in such traditional fermentations, specific Weissella strains are also receiving attention as potential probiotics, and strain development of particularly W. cibaria strains is receiving attention because of their high probiotic potential for controlling periodontal disease. Moreover, W. confusa and W. cibaria strains are known to produce copius amounts of novel, non-digestible oligosaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides, mainly dextran. These polymers are receiving increased attention for their potential application as prebiotics and for a wide range of industrial applications, predominantly for bakeries and for the production of cereal-based fermented functional beverages. On the detrimental side, strains of certain Weissella species, e.g., of W. viridescens, W. cibaria and W. confusa, are known as opportunistic pathogens involved in human infections while strains of W. ceti have been recently recongnized as etiological agent of "weissellosis," which is a disease affecting farmed rainbow trouts. Bacteria belonging to this species thus are important both from a technological, as well as from a medical point of view, and both aspects should be taken into account in any envisaged biotechnological applications. PMID:25852652

  10. A three year study on distribution and ecology of Anophelines in Thenzawl, Mizoram, India.

    Zomuanpuii, Rita; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A systematic survey on Anopheline species abundance, bionomics and habitat preference was conducted for three years in Thenzawl, Mizoram. A scoop-net method was employed for larval collection and a local made killing-jar for adults. A total of 10 species Anopheles campestris (25.8%), An. nivipes (24.0%), An. vagus (20.6%), An. jamesii (15.1%), An. jeyporiensis (11.4%), An. maculatus (1.7%), An. philippinensis (0.7%), An. annularis (0.26%), An. sinensis (0.23%) and An. peditaeniatus (0.22%) were collected. The survey site having thick tall grasses, numerous rural-huts as residents, small to relatively larger ponds and very slow running water bodies well shaded from sunlight with floating aquatic plants provided the largest area for Anopheles larvae breeding and accounted for 40% of all Anopheles larva and 25.4% total Anopheles spp. collected. An. campestris (NSK01), maculatus (NSK04), philippinensis (NSK06), nivipes (NSK10) and jeyporiensis (NSK09) were strongly anthropogenic and endophagic while vagus (NSK18) and jamesii (NSK03) were found to be highly zoophilic and exophilic and An. peditaeniatus (NSK02), annularis (NSK07) and sinensis (NSK15) were found to be highly zoophilic. Because of its abundance and bionomics, An. campestris, jeyporiensis and nivipes may have played a role in malarial transmission throughout the year. This is the first study reported on Anopheline distribution and abundance in Thenzawl, Mizoram. PMID:24665764

  11. Distribution and ecology of non-marine ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda from Friuli Venezia Giulia (NE Italy

    Koen MARTENS

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available From August 1981 to July 2007, 200 inland water bodies were sampled to gather information on the Recent ostracod fauna of Friuli Venezia Giulia (NE Italy. A total of 320 samples were collected from surface, interstitial and ground waters. Whenever possible, ostracod identification was performed at species level based on the morphology of both valves and limbs. Seventy-four taxa in 30 genera belonging to 9 different families (Darwinulidae, Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Notodromadidae, Cyprididae, Limnocytheridae, Cytheridae, Leptocytheridae and Xestoleberididae were identified. The maximum number of taxa per site was seven. The most common species was Cypria ophthalmica (133 records, followed by Cyclocypris ovum (86 records, C. laevis (49 records, Cypridopsis vidua (40 records and Notodromas persica (28 records. Of particular relevance is the occurrence of six species new to Italy: Microdarwinula zimmeri, Penthesilenula brasiliensis, Fabaeformiscandona wegelini, Pseudocandona semicognita, Candonopsis scourfieldi, and C. mediosetosa. Scanning electron microscopy images of valves are provided for most of the described taxa. Geographical distribution of ostracods and their occurrence in relation to environmental variables were examined. The results of this study indicate that Friuli Venezia Giulia hosts a very diverse ostracod fauna, representing a significant proportion of all ostracod taxa known thus far from Italy.

  12. Redox gradients in distribution systems influence water quality, corrosion, and microbial ecology.

    Masters, Sheldon; Wang, Hong; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Simulated distribution systems (SDSs) defined the interplay between disinfectant type (free chlorine and chloramines), water age (1-10.2 days), and pipe material (PVC, iron and cement surfaces) on water chemistry, redox zones and infrastructure degradation. Redox gradients developed as a function of water age and pipe material affected the quality of water consumers would receive. Free chlorine was most stable in the presence of PVC while chloramine was most stable in the presence of cement. At a 3.6 day water age the residual in the chlorinated PVC SDS was more than 3.5 times higher than in the chlorinated iron or cement systems. In contrast, the residual in the chloraminated cement SDS was more than 10 times greater than in the chloraminated iron or PVC systems. Near the point of entry to the SDSs where disinfectant residuals were present, free chlorine tended to cause as much as 4 times more iron corrosion when compared to chloramines. Facultative denitrifying bacteria were ubiquitous, and caused complete loss of nitrogen at distal points in systems with iron, and these bacteria co-occurred with very severe pitting attack (1.6-1.9 mm/year) at high water age. PMID:25462724

  13. Ecological niche and geographic distribution of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Reduviidae: Triatominae): Evidence for niche differentiation among cryptic species.

    Gmez-Palacio, Andrs; Arboleda, Sair; Dumonteil, Eric; Townsend Peterson, A

    2015-12-01

    The principal vector of Chagas disease in Central America, Triatoma dimidiata, shows considerable diversity of habitat, phenotype, and genotype across its geographic range (central Mexico to southern Ecuador), suggesting that it constitutes a complex of cryptic species. However, no consistent picture of the magnitude of ecological differentiation among populations of this complex has yet been developed. To assess ecological variation across the complex, we broadened the geographic coverage of phylogeographic data and analyses for the complex into Colombia and Mexico, with additional nuclear (ITS-2) and mitochondrial (ND4) DNA sequences. This information allowed us to describe distributions of previously documented clades in greater detail: Group I, from central Guatemala south to Ecuador; Group II, across Mexico south through the Yucatn Peninsula to Belize and northern Guatemala; and Group III, in northern Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatn Peninsula. Using ecological niche modeling, we assessed ecological niche differentiation among the groups using four hypotheses of accessible areas (M) across the distribution of the complex. Results indicated clear niche divergence of Group I from Group II: the speciation process thus appears to have involved genetic and ecological changes, suggesting divergence in populations in response to environmental conditions. PMID:26321302

  14. Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran

    T. Karami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the viewpoint of green space function and a great part of the role of urban green space is undertaken by private green spaces. “What effect do private greeneries located in residential areas have on the quality of citizens’ life or what kind of reality is asserted by their development and distribution pattern in the urban life of today’s modern society” were issues of less attention. Thus, considering the interconnection of green space production and distribution pattern (public and private with the rest of natural, social, economic and fabric conditions, the present research benefits from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a dependent variable which has been influenced by ecological, social, fabric and economic variables and has analyzed them to identify effective factors in Tehran inequality urban green space. The present article theoretically makes use of urban political ecology approach and is considered a correlational research. The required data have been prepared and analyzed by some types of software such as ArcGIS, ArcView, IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine, and SPSS. In conducting this research some techniques have been used such as; “Average Distance to Nearest Neighbor”, “Square Analysis”, “Correlational Analysis and Factor Analysis”. 2-Theoretical basis The present study is theoretically based on an urban political ecology approach. Urban components including green space from urban political ecological perspective are considered a kind of social production whose imagination and change are influenced by political economy, dominant pattern of public and private ownership in society (Heynen, Perkins and Roy, 2006: 3. The aforementioned perspective clearly states that urban material conditions which includes urban environment too are controlled and manipulated by the elite and city experts to serve their interests. This issue is conducive to make some of the urban social groups marginalized and deprived from natural riches and urban environmental artifacts. As a result, the quality of urban environment (physically and socially increases in some neighborhoods and decreases in others (Heynen, Kaika and Swyngedouw, 2006: 1-15. Since unequal greenery distribution with creating imbalanced ecological conditions often plays its role in a feedback cycle on environment quality and intensification of inequalities within urban life environment, the present study uses pattern of canopy distribution located in areas of residential uses (private and public to reveal social, economic and spatial inequalities in Tehran. 3- DiscussionThe results of this research in relation to Tehran city confirm the determining position of urban political ecology in forming distribution pattern and density of trees canopy located in areas of Tehran. This is a subject which is confirmed by studies conducted on urban green space (including public and private in the cities such as San Diego, Toronto (by Perkins, Heynen and Wilson 2004, Scobedo and colleagues 2005, Heynen, Perkins and Roy 2006 and Conway, Shakeel and Atallah 2011. Also, so far many researchers on the urban issues of Tehran city (such as Madanipoor 2005, Horkad 2009 have emphasized the conformity of natural topography over social topography in Tehran. The result f this attempt, while confirming aforementioned perspectives, indicated that the distribution pattern of canopy density in residential areas(private urban green space has a greater capability to portray social classifications and environmental quality and as a result spatial inequalities in Tehran city due to the fact that their production, distribution and density are performed in relation to different natural, social, economic and fabric-spatial factors.4- Conclusion The attained results from the analysis of canopy density dispersion in Tehran residential areas indicated that areas with thick and very thick tree-coverage density possess quite clustered patterns and geographically are almost conformed to the northern urban regions which have a more desirable environmental quality. Also, the areas with average density have an almost scattered pattern and geographically show more development in the northern half of Tehran. Areas with low density or without tree coverage at all have also scattered patterns. Nevertheless, with respect to the concentration of residential blocks without tree coverage, their spatial dispersion pattern have changed to quite scattered patterns which are geographically conformed to the areas with thick density population, problematic, old and low environmental quality tissues. According to the results obtained from Rotated Component Matrix of factor analysis, five main components which indicate spatial inequality in Tehran are: economical – ecological factors, settlement pattern of social classes and residential quality factors, structure quality and city texture, family density in residential units and density and centralization of population and contaminant uses.5- SuggestionsIn a society like Iran, whose almost 70 percent population are urban, it is vital to schedule justly to decrease social and economic inequalities and their bad functional outcomes in cities. This subject is of particular importance in relation to Tehran and its urban collection which accommodates 19 percent of the total country’s population and which plays an important role in political stability of Iran. After the victory of Islamic revolution the economic powers had fewer facilities to show luxurious and lavish styles and this was because they had a cultural and fair approach. As a result, the dimensions of social inequality are not much visible in the society. Therefore, with respect to difficulties of access to sources of documented information (such as families’ income and their financial and non- financial facilities, it is suggested to seriously pay attention to technology development in using variables and spatial indicators such as the use of Normalized Vegetarian Index (NDVI in the present article which has an interactive relationship with social and economic conditions to measure spatial inequality in cities and metropolises.Key words: Urban green space, urban political ecology, Spatial Inequality, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index.ReferencesBerg, Bruce F. (2007, New York City Politics: Governing Gotham, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey and London.Bernard H. (2009: Tehran – Alborze, Translated by Cyrus Sahami, Mohaghagh – Taraneh publication, Tehran, Iran. C. P. LO. (1997, Application of LandSat TM data for quality of life assessment in an urban environment, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems,Volume 21, Issues 3-4, May-July 1997, Pages 259-276, Available in: Chalabi, M. (2007, The Order Sociology, Naie publication, Tehran, Iran. Conway Tenley M, Tooba Shakeel, and Joanna Atallah (2011, Community groups and urban forestry activity: Drivers of uneven canopy cover? Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 101, Issue 4, 30 June 2011, Pages 321-329, Available in:Deghan h. (2007, Opportunities and challenges of education in the face of spatial disparities in information and communication technology, Journal of Education No 91: 125-163.Escobedo Francisco J.and etc. (2005, The socioeconomics and management of Santiago de Chile's public urban forests, Greening, Volume, 3 April 2006, Pages 105-114, Available in: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1618866705000543.pdf.Esri. (2004, ArcGIS 9: Geoprocessing Commands Quick Reference Guide, Printed in the United States of America.Farrid y. (2000, Epistemology and The foundation of Human Geography, publication by Islamic Azad University; Ahar unite, Ahar, IranFaryadi, Sh. and Taheri, Sh. (2009, Interconnections of Urban Green Spaces and Environmental Quality of Tehran, Int. J. Environ. Res., 3(2, Pages: 199-208, Spring 2009, ISSN: 1735-6865, Available in:www.sid.ir/en/VEWSSID/J_pdf/108220090205.pdfHataminejad H. (2001, City and Social Justice (Spatial Disparities in the neighborhoods city of Mashhad, A Thesis for the Degree of Phd in Geography and urban planning, Supervisor; Momeni Mostafa, Shahid Beheshti Univeristy, Tehran, Iran.Heynen Nik, Harold A. Perkins and Parama Roy. (2006, The Political Ecology of Uneven Urban Green Space, The Impact of Political Economy on Race and Ethnicity in Producing Environmental Inequality in Milwaukee, Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 42 N. 1: 3-25, September. 2006.Heynen, Nik, Maria Kaika and Erik Swyngedouw. (2006, In the Nature of Cities: Urban political ecology and the politics of urban metabolism first published by Routledge and Taylor & Francis Group, London and New York.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425797000886.pdf.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204611001034.pdf.Jalili, A, Khosravi E. (2009, A research in strategies for green space Development in Tehran master plan, Journal of Natural resource No 81, Winter : 176-185Jehadabkhizdari Company (Watershed Company. (2005, Environmental studies in Tehran Master Plan Volume 4, Tehran, Iran. Jensen Ryan, Jay Gatrell, Jim Boulton and Bruce Harper. (2004, Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems to Study Urban Quality of Life and Urban Forest Amenities, Ecology and Society, Vol. 9, No.5, Available in: http//www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss5/art5/ Kalantari k. (2008, Data Processing and Analysis in Socio-Economic Research using with SPSS Software, publication of Farhang Saba, Tehran, Iran.Kamali A. (2006, An Introduction to Sociology of Social Inequalities, Samat publication, Tehran, Iran.Lee J and David W. S. Wong. (2002, Statistical Analysis with ArcView GIS Translated by Mohamdreza Hosinnejad and Fereydoun ghadimi aroosmahaleh, publication of Iran University of Science & Technology.matakan A.A and etc. (2009, Measuring The quality of life places by using Multicriteria Metod in GIS (Case study: Tehran city, first year, No.4, winter: 1-20 Mousakazemi S.M and Akbari S. (2010, Aanalaysis of socio-environmental sustainability in Ilam city with emphasis on green spaces land uses, Journal of Iranian Geographical Association: eighth year, No.26: 135-149.Parivar P, Yavari A.R., Sotoude. (2008, A Landscape-based analysis of spatial distribution and dynamics of Tehran urban green spaces, Journal of environmental studies may 2008; 34(45:73-84.Piran Parviz. (2008, analysis of Sociological of Urban Housing in Iran in Proceedings of Social problems in Iran edited by Iranian Sociological Association, Agah publication, Tehran, Iran.Soltani, M. (2007, The urban Parks contemporary , with a focus on Tehran experience in transition of garden to park, Journal of Baqe Nazar, forth year, No8: 48-58Soltanzadeh H. (2003, From gardens to park, Iranian Journal of anthropology leter, Winter 2003; 1(4:91-113.Stevenson, D. (2009, Cities and urban Cultures, Rajab Panahi, Ahmad Pourahmad, publication by Architecture and Urban Development Research Center, Tehran.The Ministry of of Housing and Urban Development and Institution Urban Development plans of Tehran. (2007, The basic document of Strategic – structural plan of Tehran development, Tehran, Iran.United Nations Center Settlements. (2009, Cities in globalizing: global report on the human settlements, translated by Reza pourkharad and etc, publication by Research Planning center of Tehran. Zangiabadi A, Rakhshaninasab H.R. (2009, The statistical- spatial analysis of urban green spaces development indices (case study: Isfhan urban zones, Journal of Environmental Studies, April 2009; 35(49:105-116

  15. Distribution and ecology of Dormice (Myoxidae in Sicily: a preliminary account

    Maurizio Sar

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three dormouse species are recorded in Sicily: Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius and Eliomys quercinus. Their distribution is mapped according to the 10 x 10 km squares of the UTM grid. Data were collected until May 1993, mostly coming from pellet analysis, and direct records (vocalization listening, museum specimens, field observations, literature, etc.. The Fat dormouse (5.3% of 10 x 10 km squares and the Hazel dormouse (2.1% are mainly localized within deciduous wooded areas like the beech forests and the hazel groves mixed with oaks and chestnuts of Nebrodi and Madonie. The Fat dormouse is also present in south-eastern Sicily (Monti Iblei and on in Eolian island (Salina. The Garden dormouse shows the widest distribution (21.2%, ranging from sea level to the beech forests (1600 m a.s.1.. Dormice are rarely preyed upon by Owls in Sicily, generally forming less than 1.5% of the total prey, with the exception the Fat dormouse (5.3%. Other occasional predators, so far recorded, are the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes and the Lanner (Falco biarmicus. Hibernation regularly occurs at high altitudes, but seems to be absent or curtailed in the warm habitats below 500 m a.s.1. Riassunto Distribuzione ed ecologia dei Mioxidi in Sicilia: dati preliminari - Tre specie di Mioxidi vivono in Sicilia (Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus. Storicamente (1850 essi erano presenti nelle principali aree boscate (Nebrodi, Madonie, Etna, solo nella met di questo secolo, il Ghiro ed il Quercino furono scoperti alle isole Eolie (Salina e Lipari. Si riporta la carta di distribuzione di ogni specie (griglia UTM, 100 kmq ricavata dall'analisi della dieta di predatori, osservazioni dirette, trappolamenti ed esemplari citati in bibliografia o conservati nei musei. Il Ghiro (5,3% ed il Moscardino (2,1% sono localizzati nei boschi decidui di querce e faggio e, pi in basso di noccioli, querce e castagni dei Nebrodi, Peloritani e Madonie. Il Ghiro presente anche sull'Etna ed in un'area meridionale della Sicilia (Iblei. Il Quercino mostra la distribuzione pi ampia (21,2% ed presente in una gran variet di habitat dal livello del mare fino alle faggete delle Madonie. I Mioxidi in Sicilia risultano predati finora occasionalmente dalla Volpe e dal Lanario e raramente dal Barbagianni e dall'Allocco. Solo il Ghiro risulta predato regolarmente (5% dall'Allocco e risulta la preda pi importante in termini di biomassa (47% nei boschi dell'Etna e dei Nebrodi. Il periodo di letargo, desunto da osservazioni dirette e dalle borre, sembrerebbe normale (autunno inoltrato-primavera alle alte quote e assente o molto ridotto e discontinuo sotto i 400 m.

  16. Taxonomical and ecological characteristics of the desmids placoderms in reservoir: analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution

    Sirlene Aparecida Felisberto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of river-dam axis and abiotic factors on the composition of Closteriaceae, Gonatozygaceae, Mesotaeniaceae and Peniaceae in a tropical reservoir METHODS: Water samples for physical, chemical and periphyton analysis were collected in April and August 2002 in different regions along the axis of the river-dam of Rosana Reservoir, River Basin Paranapanema. The substrates collected, always in the litoranea region, were petioles of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth. To examine the relationship of abiotic variables with reservoir zones and between the floristic composition of desmids, we used principal component analysis (PCA and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA RESULTS: The results of the PCA explained 81.3% of the total variability in the first two axes. In the first axis, the variables of conductivity, water temperature and the pH were related to the sampling regions of April with higher values, while for the month of August, nitrate, total phosphorus and dissolved oxygen showed higher values. We identified 20 taxa, distributed in the genera Closterium (14, Gonatozygon (4, Netrium (1 and Penium (1. Spatially, the higher taxa were recorded in the lacustrine region for both collection periods. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA summarized 62.2% of total data variability of taxa in the first two axes, and in August, Closterium incurvum Brébisson, C. cornu Ehrenberg ex Ralfs and Gonatozygon monotaenium De Bary, were related to higher values of turbidity and nitrate to the lacustrine and intermediate regions CONCLUSION: Thus, the formation of groups was due to the regions along the longitudinal axis, then the seasonal period, which must be related to the low current velocity, the higher values of temperature and the water transparency, especially in late summer

  17. Tephritid taxonomy into the 21st century - Research opportunities and applications

    We write with the firm conviction that taxonomic research forms the essential foundation for all other areas of investigation within the field of biology. This has been well demonstrated in the Tephritidae and is a position at which we have arrived through many years' experience in fruit fly systematic research covering taxonomy, behaviour, biology, ecology and pest control. The importance of sound taxonomic research is highlighted at this time by the known presence of many sibling species complexes across the family. Within the Dacinae, for example, major pest species often occur within groups of closely related species, most of which are not pests. The dorsalis complex of Southeast Asia and the musae complex of Papua New Guinea are examples. Tephritid taxonomy has a long history (over two centuries) and rich heritage with some 4,500 species having been described since the mid-1700s. This research has been carried out in major research centres around the world and particularly in Australia, Europe, Hawaii, mainland USA and South Africa. In Mexico in February 1998, a significant meeting was held on the biology/behaviour and taxonomy of Tephritidae. Specialist researchers in this area presented valuable and interesting data on 'Phylogeny and Evolution of Behaviour' in fruit flies. In summarising current knowledge on the taxonomy and biology of the Tephritidae, the meeting highlighted the outstanding achievements of taxonomy in its contributions to both basic research and pest management programmes over many decades of tephritid studies world-wide. This presentation provides a link between the meetings in Mexico and Penang and enables us to present a summary of our current knowledge and genuine valuable applications of tephritid taxonomy to the overall fruit fly research and pest management effort. In doing this, this presentation also fits into the theme of this conference in Penang, 'Fruit Flies- current global scenario'

  18. A Taxonomy of Hyperlink Hiding Techniques

    Geng, Guang-Gang; Yang, Xiu-Tao; Wang, Wei; Meng, Chi-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hidden links are designed solely for search engines rather than visitors. To get high search engine rankings, link hiding techniques are usually used for the profitability of black industries, such as illicit game servers, false medical services, illegal gambling, and less attractive high-profit industry, etc. This paper investigates hyperlink hiding techniques on the Web, and gives a detailed taxonomy. We believe the taxonomy can help develop appropriate countermeasures. Study on 5,583,451 C...

  19. Mobile learning: a meta-ethical taxonomy

    Farrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some of the ethical issues relating to the use of mobile technologies in education. I argue that the frames of reference used by educators and technologists fail to capture the nature, scope and impact of ethical issues in mobile learning. A taxonomy of ethical issues based on dominant positions in meta-ethical moral theory is proposed. Using categories from the Mobile Technologies in Lifelong Learning (MOTILL) project, I show how this taxonomy can be applied in suc...

  20. A taxonomy of software security requirements

    CALDERÓN C., MARTA E.

    2009-01-01

    Software security is a major concern of software engineer s. Security requirements must be taken in account early in the software development process. The goal of this paper is to present a taxonomy of software security requirements. Such a taxonomy is useful because it servers as an educational tool, can be used as a check list and as a guide to eliciting software security requirements, can help to creating a software security policy, and can guide to taking early preventive decisions. It is...

  1. A taxonomy for interactive educational multimedia

    Pahl, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Learning is more than knowledge acquisition; it often involves the active participation of the learner in a variety of knowledge- and skills-based learning and training activities. Interactive multimedia technology can support the variety of interaction channels and languages required to facilitate interactive learning and teaching. We will present a taxonomy for interactive educational multimedia that supports the classification, description and development of such systems. Such a taxonomy n...

  2. Using viral taxonomy as an encryption technique

    Amir, Samreen

    2015-01-01

    Several taxonomy schemes for viruses have been presented from 1961to date by ICTV (International Committee on Taxonomy of Virus) . The basic considerations in defining distinguished virus order, families and genera are genome, replication strategy and structure. Usually the advance biotechnology is been applied for health sciences and agricultural developments. In the communication science and technology the term biotechnology is found to be very rare or may be not at all. Since nature is ver...

  3. Taxonomie cloud služeb

    Staňková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis called "Taxonomy of cloud services" deals with description and categorization of services in the field of cloud computing. It aims to theoretically describe and approach this whole provisioning of ICT services model, to analyze the two leading providers of cloud services, and bring a new perspective on its taxonomy. The theoretical part defines the term cloud computing, its definition and a brief description of the history. Attention is paid to individual components, characteristi...

  4. Taxonomy and fossils: a critical appraisal.

    Forey, Peter L; Fortey, Richard A; Kenrick, Paul; Smith, Andrew B

    2004-04-29

    Many compendia at the species, genus and family levels document the fossil record, but these are not standardized, nor usually critical in content, and few are available on the World Wide Web. The sampling of the available record is good for organisms with fossilizable parts, but preservational constraints on the entire morphology, life history and geographical distribution lead to difficulties in recognizing and naming species. We recommend abandoning some of the palaeontological species concepts such as chronospecies and stratospecies, and we advocate species recognition based on unique combinations of characters. The compilation of species lists is extremely time consuming, and given the inherent problems we suggest that compilation of generic lists is a more achievable goal because genera are recognized by definitive morphological characters. In calculating taxon duration, care must be taken to distinguish between mono-, para- and polyphyletic groups, the first being the only reliable unit for use in calculating diversity curves. We support the inclusion of fossils into classifications based on Recent organisms, but we recognize some of the problems this may pose for standard Linnaean classifications. Web-based taxonomy is the way forward, having the advantages of speed and currency of information dissemination, universal access with links to primary literature and increasingly sophisticated imagery. These advantages over conventional outlets will only be realized with careful Web design and a commitment to maintenance. PMID:15253350

  5. Use of ecological niche modeling as a tool for predicting the potential distribution of Microcystis sp (cyanobacteria in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit, Mexico

    Enrique Martinez-Meyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling is an important tool to evaluate the spatial distribution of terrestrial species, however, its applicability has been little explored in the aquatic environment. Microcystis sp., a species of cyanobacteria, is widely recognized for its ability to produce a group of toxins known as microcystins, which can cause death of animals as fish, birds and mammals depending on the amount of toxin absorbed. Like any taxonomic group, cyanobacteria has environmental thresholds, therefore, a suitable ecological niche will define their distribution. This study was conducted in Aguamilpa Hydroelectric Reservoir, an artificial ecosystem that started operations in 1994. In this system we evaluated the potential distribution of Microcystis sp., by generating a prediction model based on the concept of ecological niche MAXENT, using a Digital Elevation Model in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha spatial resolution and monitoring eleven physicochemical and biological variables and nutrients in water. The distribution maps were developed using ArcMap 9.2®. The results indicated that Microcystis sp., is distributed mainly in the upper tributary basin (Huaynamota basin during the dry season. There was less chance to find cyanobacteria in the entire system during the cold dry season, while during the warm dry season cyanobacteria was recognized at the confluence of two rivers. During the rainfall season there were no reports of cyanobacteria presence. This species is often associated with arising trophic processes of anthropogenic origin; therefore, attention is required in specific areas that have been identified in this work to improve Aguamilpa’s watershed management and restoration. It was also recognized the importance of phosphorus and nitrogen interaction, which determines the distribution of Microcystis sp., in the Aguamilpa Reservoir. The results of this study demonstrated that ecological niche modeling was a suitable tool to assess the spatial distribution of microalgae in freshwater environments.

  6. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    Domene, Xavier [Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF) and Unit of Ecology, Department of Animal and Plant Biology and Ecology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: x.domene@creaf.uab.es; Ramirez, Wilson; Mattana, Stefania; Alcaniz, Josep Maria; Andres, Pilar [Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF) and Unit of Ecology, Department of Animal and Plant Biology and Ecology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha{sup -1}). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha{sup -1}). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments.

  7. ECOLOGIA Y DISTRIBUCION DE HYDROCOTYLE CRYPTOCARPA SPEG. EN SUDAMERICA ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROCOTYLE CRYPTOCARPA SPEG. IN SOUTH AMERICA

    Miguel Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocotyle cryptocarpa ha sido descubierto recientemente en diferentes localidades de Chile. Se expone brevemente el actual conocimiento sobre su distribución geográfica, ciclo de vida y autoecología. H. cryptocarpa posee inflorescencias unifloras y frutos monospermos y geocarpos, dichas características la ubican en una posición aislada dentro del género Hydrocotyle. Esta especie es anual y crece en ambientes acuáticos temporales. Adaptaciones especiales a este tipo de habitat son una forma de vida tenagófita (germinación bajo el agua, floración y fructificación durante la ecofase terrestre y representativa de un "amphibious fluctuation responder" (hojas largamente pecioladas durante la ecofase acuática, hojas de pecíolos breves en la ecofase terrestre. Su distribución es disyunta, con poblaciones halladas en Chile central (desde la Región de Coquimbo a la de La Araucanía y otras halladas en torno al límite entre Uruguay y Argentina.Hydrocotyle cryptocarpa has recently been discovered from different localities in Chile. Our current knowledge about its total distribution, life cycle and ecology are summarized. H. cryptocarpa is monanthous, monospermous and geocarpous. With these characters, it has an isolated position within the genus Hydrocotyle. The species is annual and occurs in seasonal wetlands. Special adaptations to this habitat are the life cycle as a tenagophyte (germination under water, flowering and fruiting after desiccation of the pool and as an amphibious fluctuation responder (long-stalked leaves in the aquatic ecophase, short-stalked leaves in the terrestrial ecophase. The distribution is highly disjunct, with populations recorded from central Chile (Region of Coquimbo to de La Araucanía, Uruguay and eastern Argentina.

  8. DIVERSITY RESOURCES, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF HERMINIUM R. Br. A LESS KNOWN TERRESTRIAL ORCHID SPECIES OF DARJEELING HIMALAYA OF INDIA

    Rajendra Yonzone1* D. Lama1, R. B. Bhujel2, Khyanjeet Gogoi3 and Samuel Rai4

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals botanical description with five Herminium viz., Herminium jaffreyanum, H. lanceum, H. mackinnonii, H. macrophyllum and H. quinquelobum terrestrial Orchid species diversity resources and distribution in Darjeeling Himalaya of India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with ecological status, voucher specimen numbers, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Herminium species in the regions. For the assessment of present ecological status, plot of 5mx5m quadrates was laid down diagonally in the field for terrestrial orchid species. Of them, three are sparse and the rest two are rare status in the region. June to October is the main flowering seasons of these species. It is found that the diversity and distribution frequency of Herminium species is rich and widespread throughout the Darjeeling Himalaya.

  9. Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in the microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    Becraft, E.; Cohan, F.; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila Ingemann; Ward, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of...... putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype......Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only...

  10. The taxobook principles and practices of building taxonomies

    Hlava, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    This book outlines the basic principles of creation and maintenance of taxonomies and thesauri. It also provides step by step instructions for building a taxonomy or thesaurus and discusses the various ways to get started on a taxonomy construction project.Often, the first step is to get management and budgetary approval, so I start this book with a discussion of reasons to embark on the taxonomy journey. From there I move on to a discussion of metadata and how taxonomies and metadata are related, and then consider how, where, and why taxonomies are used.Information architecture has its corner

  11. Regionalizing Aquatic Ecosystems Based on the River Subbasin Taxonomy Concept and Spatial Clustering Techniques

    Jiahu Zhao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed.

  12. Semisupervised Learning Taxonomy-Aware Catalog Integration

    D.Umavathi M.Sc1 , R.Tamil selvi M.Sc., M.Phil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Data integration is the major important task for online commercial portals and commerce search engine based applications. The data integration task faced by online commercial portals and e-commerce search engines are the integration of products coming from multiple providers to their product catalogs. Categorization of products from the data provides into the master taxonomy and whereas make use of the data provider taxonomy information becomes major problem. Overcome this problem we classify the products based on their textual based classifier and taxonomy-aware step that adjusts the results of a textual based classifier to ensure that products that are close together in the provider taxonomy remain close in the master taxonomy. In taxonomy aware calibration step the base classifier derives the parameters value by tuning the values. Existing base classifier step, still it becomes major problem identify candidate products for labeling the products, to overcome these problem we proposed a Semi supervised learning techniques to incrementally retrain the base classifier with elements chosen during the taxonomy-aware calibration step. Proposed system it categorizes the product based on their parameters choosen from calibration. Semi supervised learning algorithm involves a large amount of unlabeled product data with only a small number of labeled product data. Semisupervised based active learning method identifies the candidate products for labeling. Proposed system finds the each candidate parameter ࢏ࣂ and then find the optimal parameter ࢽ such that the improve the accuracy on the validation set is maximized. An experimental result shows that the Semi supervised learning algorithm that are efficient and thus applicable to the large data sets that are typical on the web.

  13. Incorporating color into integrative taxonomy: analysis of the varied tit (Sittiparus varius) complex in East Asia.

    McKay, Bailey D; Mays, Herman L; Yao, Cheng-Te; Wan, Dongmei; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Nishiumi, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Species designations are critically important scientific hypotheses that serve as the foundational units in a wide range of biological subdisciplines. A growing realization that some classes of data fail to delimit species under certain conditions has led to increasingly more integrative taxonomies, whereby species discovery and hypothesis testing are based on multiple kinds of data (e.g., morphological, molecular, behavioral, ecological, etc.). However, although most taxonomic descriptions have been based on morphology, some key morphological features, such as color, are rarely quantified and incorporated into integrative taxonomic studies. In this article, we applied a new method of ultraviolet digital photography to measure plumage variation in a color-variable avian species complex, the varied tit (Sittiparus varius). Plumage measurements corroborated species limits defined by morphometric, mitochondrial DNA, and nuclear DNA disjunctions and provided the only evidence for distinguishing two recently evolved species. Importantly, color quantification also provided a justification for lumping putative taxa with no evidence of evolutionary independence. Our revised taxonomy thus refines conservation units for listing and management and clarifies the primary units for evolutionary studies. Species tree analyses, which applied the newly delimited species as operational taxonomic units, revealed a robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the group that establishes a foundation for future biogeographic analyses. This study demonstrates how digital photography can be used to incorporate color character variation into integrative taxonomies, which should lead to more informed, more rigorous, and more accurate assessments of biodiversity. [Color, digital photography, integrative taxonomy, Sittiparus varius, species delimitation, varied tit.]. PMID:24603127

  14. Taxonomy of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects and immediate concerns

    On, Stephen L.W.

    The taxonomy of the genus Campylobacter has changed dramatically since its inception in 1963. At that time the genus comprised just two species. At present, taxa that were once assigned to Campylobacter may belong to one of over 50 species distributed among six genera. Most of these taxa belong to...

  15. Ecological factors responsible for the geographic distribution of Rhabdias joaquinensis: where do lungworms infect anurans in nature?

    Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John

    2016-03-01

    The lungworm Rhabdias joaquinensis (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) is a common parasite of anurans in eastern Nebraska, yet absent from the same hosts in western Nebraska. This study investigated the ecology of the lungworm's free-living stages that reside in host feces and surrounding soils to establish the worm's free-living niche in eastern Nebraska. Using a comparative method, this study also investigated the absence of lungworms in western Nebraska's Sandhills. Soil composition, moisture, and temperature were experimentally varied in the laboratory to assess their effects on juvenile development and survival. Field mesocosm and host defecation experiments were used to determine where in nature lungworms survive and eventually infect frogs and toads and to discover if vegetation facilitates lungworm transmission to hosts. The results found loam soils were amenable to lungworm development, whereas soils with high clay or sand content produced few infective lungworms. Soil moisture <50 % did not support lungworm development. Infective juveniles successfully developed between 5 and 35 °C, albeit at different rates, whereas only a limited number of non-infective worms developed at 40 °C. Field studies found that shoreline environments supported lungworm development, and the majority of lungworm infections appear to occur within a zone of infection adjacent to shorelines in eastern Nebraska. The prevalence in vegetation mesocosms was 100 %, and a significantly higher mean abundance was found in toads from containers with vegetation than without. Overall, these experiments suggest that the spatial distribution of R. joaquinensis in Nebraska is constrained by the worm's ability to survive and reproduce in a soil matrix. PMID:26666887

  16. Numerical ecology validates a biogeographical distribution and gender-based effect on mucosa-associated bacteria along the human colon

    Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; Cuív, Páraic Ó; Wang, Tingtin; Kang, Seungha; Worthley, Daniel; Whitehall, Vicki L.J.; Gordon, Iain; McSweeney, Christopher; Leggett, Barbara A.; Morrison, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We applied constrained ordination numerical ecology methods to data produced with a human intestinal tract-specific phylogenetic microarray (the Aus-HIT Chip) to examine the microbial diversity associated with matched biopsy tissue samples taken from the caecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 10 healthy patients. Consistent with previous studies, the profiles revealed a marked intersubject variability; however, the numerical ecology methods of analysis allowed the subtrac...

  17. Distribution and Occurrence of Mango Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz and Sacc) in Humid Agro-ecology of Southwest Ethiopia

    Ayantu Tucho; Fikre Lemessa; Gezahegn Berecha

    2014-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is grown in different agro-ecologies of Ethiopia and its production and productivity is limited by several biotic and abiotic factors. Mango anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is considered as the most important mango disease in the country that contribute significantly to pre and post harvest fruit losses. However, the distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose both in the field and at market in mango pr...

  18. Distribution, Enrichment and Ecological Risk Assessment of Six Elements in Bed Sediments of a Tropical River, Chottanagpur Plateau: A Spatial and Temporal Appraisal

    Kumar Manoj; Pratap Kumar Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Distribution and enrichment of six elements (iron, zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and manganese) in surface bed sediments, collected from seventeen selected locations during pre-monsoon and postmonsoon periods, of the tropical Chottanagpur plateau river Subarnarekha along with the ecological risks involved were investigated. Owing to the rich occurrence of mineral resources, the Subarnarekha river basin has a large scale presence of industrial and mining units especially in ...

  19. Ecological and Geographical Analysis of the Distribution of the Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: Importance of Protected Areas in Future Scenarios of Global Warming

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A.; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J.

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, th...

  20. Use of ecological niche modeling as a tool for predicting the potential distribution of Microcystis sp (cyanobacteria) in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit, Mexico

    Enrique Martinez-Meyer; Humberto Macias-Cuellar; José De Anda; Fernando A. González-Farias; Gabriel Rangel-Peraza; José Luis Ibarra-Montoya

    2012-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling is an important tool to evaluate the spatial distribution of terrestrial species, however, its applicability has been little explored in the aquatic environment. Microcystis sp., a species of cyanobacteria, is widely recognized for its ability to produce a group of toxins known as microcystins, which can cause death of animals as fish, birds and mammals depending on the amount of toxin absorbed. Like any taxonomic group, cyanobacteria has environmental thresholds, th...

  1. Taxonomy and origin of reindeer

    Knut H. Røed

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer and caribou was probably the key species for the human immigration and colonization in the Arctic and sub-Arctic by the retreat of the ice in the last glacial period. The close connection between human and reindeer has contributed to great interest and variation in reindeer taxonomy and origin. Through the history several both species, subspecies and types of reindeer and caribou have been described. The early taxonomy of the species is marked by comparisons of individual specimen using traits as body size, skin colour or antler formations - characteristics known to be highly variable and subjected to environmental and nutritional level. During the mid 1900s the taxonomy was more based on variation of morphological traits among populations by analysing a large series of specimens representative of the various geographic populations and a consensus of classification of several subspecies, all belonging to the same species, evolved. During late 1900 the development of modern molecular techniques procured tools for revealing genetic structure of populations reflecting different origin and isolation rather than environmental influences. The genetic structure revealed a major genetic dichotomy between American woodland caribou on the one hand and all other types of reindeer and caribou on the other which gave evidence that the ancestors of present woodland caribou had survived and evolved in ice free refugium south to the glacier in North America and the ancestors of all other types of reindeer and caribou had evolved separated from these in refugium in Eurasia and Beringia. The ancestors of present reindeer in Scandinavia appear furthermore to have evolved from different populations separated during the last glaciation period and the colonization and origin of present wild and domestic reindeer will be discussed in this perspective.Taksonomi og opprinnelse til reinAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Rein og caribou har hatt stor betydning for det moderne menneskets utvikling og kolonisering av nordlige Eurasia og Amerika etter siste istid. Den nære sammenhengen mellom mennesker og rein har bidratt til stor interesse og variasjon i oppfatningen av reinens taksonomi og opprinnelse. Et utall av både arter, underarter og raser av rein er beskrevet opp gjennom historien. Tidlig taksonomi av rein bar preg av å være basert på enkeltobservasjoner og på morfologiske karakterer som kroppsstørrelse, pelsfarge og størrelse og form på gevir, karakterer som i stor grad påvirkes av miljø og næringsforhold. Først på midten av 1900 tallet ble taksonomien i større grad basert på ulike morfologiske trekk som viste variasjon mellom bestander av rein, og en fikk bl.a. en forståelse av at alle underarter og former av rein og caribou tilhørte samme art. Med utviklingen av den moderne molekylærbiologien på slutten av 1900-tallet fikk en tilgang til verktøy som avdekket genetiske strukturer som reflekterer ulik opprinnelse og utvikling mer enn miljømessig påvirkning. Den genetiske strukturen som ble avdekket, viste liten overensstemmelse med oppdelingen i underarter som var basert på morfologiske trekk. Molekylærgenetiske struktur viser et hovedskille mellom amerikansk woodland caribou på den ene siden og all annen rein og caribou på den andre siden, noe som reflekterer at forfedrene til woodland caribou levde og utviklet seg i isfrie områder sør for iskanten i Nord-Amerika, mens forfedrene til andre typer rein levde atskilt fra disse i isfrie områder i Eurasia og Beringia. Forfedrene til dagens rein i Fennoskandia syntes også å ha utviklet seg fra atskilte bestander av rein som kan føres tilbake til slutten av siste istid. Innvandring og opprinnelse til dagens vill- og tamrein i Fennoskandia vil bli belyst i dette perspektiv.

  2. Revisiting the Panko-Halverson Taxonomy of Spreadsheet Errors

    Panko, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to revisit the Panko-Halverson taxonomy of spreadsheet errors and suggest revisions. There are several reasons for doing so: First, the taxonomy has been widely used. Therefore, it should have scrutiny; Second, the taxonomy has not been widely available in its original form and most users refer to secondary sources. Consequently, they often equate the taxonomy with the simplified extracts used in particular experiments or field studies; Third, perhaps as a consequ...

  3. Taxonomy grounded aggregation of classifiers with different label sets

    Saha, Amrita; Indurthi, Sathish; Godbole, Shantanu; Rongali, Subendhu; Raykar, Vikas C.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the problem of aggregating the label predictions of diverse classifiers using a class taxonomy. Such a taxonomy may not have been available or referenced when the individual classifiers were designed and trained, yet mapping the output labels into the taxonomy is desirable to integrate the effort spent in training the constituent classifiers. A hierarchical taxonomy representing some domain knowledge may be different from, but partially mappable to, the label sets of the individua...

  4. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy: implications and continuations.

    P Dijkers, Marcel; Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; M Zanca, Jeanne; Packel, Andrew; Tsaousides, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    In relation to the conceptual framework for a rehabilitation treatment taxonomy (RTT), which has been proposed in other articles in this supplement, this article discusses a number of issues relevant to its further development, including creating distinctions within the major target classes; the nature and quantity of allowable targets of treatment; and bracketing as a way of specifying (1) the skill or knowledge taught; (2) the nature of compensation afforded by changes in the environment, assistive technology, and orthotics/prosthetics; and (3) the ingredients in homework a clinician assigns. Clarification is provided regarding the role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, focusing a taxonomy on ingredients versus other observable aspects of treatment, and regarding our lack of knowledge and its impact on taxonomy development. Finally, this article discusses the immediate implications of the work to date and presents the need for rehabilitation stakeholders of all disciplines to be involved in further RTT development. PMID:24370324

  5. Taxonomies of Educational Technology Uses: Dewey, Chip and Me

    Levin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Chip Bruce created a taxonomy of education technology uses, which the author of the article helped to expand and evaluate. This taxonomy is based on John Dewey's "four impulses of the child": inquiry, construction, communication, and expression. This taxonomy has helped people interested in the uses of

  6. Taxonomies of Educational Technology Uses: Dewey, Chip and Me

    Levin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Chip Bruce created a taxonomy of education technology uses, which the author of the article helped to expand and evaluate. This taxonomy is based on John Dewey's "four impulses of the child": inquiry, construction, communication, and expression. This taxonomy has helped people interested in the uses of…

  7. Binary Keys for Classification and Taxonomy of Behaviour

    Nieminen, Timo A.; Choi, Serene Hyun-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative behaviour analysis requires the classification of behaviour to produce the basic data. This can be challenging when the theoretical taxonomy does not match observational limitations, or if a theoretical taxonomy is unavailable. Binary keys allow qualitative observation to be used to modify a theoretical taxonomy to produce a practical…

  8. Taxonomy for Modeling Demand Response Resources

    Olsen, Daniel; Kiliccote, Sila; Sohn, Michael; Dunn, Laura; Piette, Mary, A

    2014-08-01

    Demand response resources are an important component of modern grid management strategies. Accurate characterizations of DR resources are needed to develop systems of optimally managed grid operations and to plan future investments in generation, transmission, and distribution. The DOE Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study (DRESIS) project researched the degree to which demand response (DR) and energy storage can provide grid flexibility and stability in the Western Interconnection. In this work, DR resources were integrated with traditional generators in grid forecasting tools, specifically a production cost model of the Western Interconnection. As part of this study, LBNL developed a modeling framework for characterizing resource availability and response attributes of DR resources consistent with the governing architecture of the simulation modeling platform. In this report, we identify and describe the following response attributes required to accurately characterize DR resources: allowable response frequency, maximum response duration, minimum time needed to achieve load changes, necessary pre- or re-charging of integrated energy storage, costs of enablement, magnitude of controlled resources, and alignment of availability. We describe a framework for modeling these response attributes, and apply this framework to characterize 13 DR resources including residential, commercial, and industrial end-uses. We group these end-uses into three broad categories based on their response capabilities, and define a taxonomy for classifying DR resources within these categories. The three categories of resources exhibit different capabilities and differ in value to the grid. Results from the production cost model of the Western Interconnection illustrate that minor differences in resource attributes can have significant impact on grid utilization of DR resources. The implications of these findings will be explored in future DR valuation studies.

  9. A taxonomy of motives to cite.

    Erikson, Martin G; Erlandson, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we explicate citing behavior in the writing of scientific papers by presenting a taxonomy of motives to cite. The suggested taxonomy consists of four main categories, which are purely descriptive: Argumentation, Social Alignment, Mercantile Alignment, and Data. These categories are divided into a suggested set of subcategories. We argue that the complexities of citing practice show how little can be assumed about actual citing behavior when studying a finished paper. The discussion supports the claim that it might be misleading to treat all citations as equal in quantitative citation analysis. PMID:25272615

  10. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  11. Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History ... Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... abase Database Description Download License Update History ... of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us ...

  12. Combining taxonomy and function in the study of stream macroinvertebrates

    Kenneth W. Cummins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifty years, research on freshwater macroinvertebrates has been driven largely by the state of the taxonomy of these animals. In the great majority of studies conducted during the 2000s macroinvertebrates have been operationally defined by investigators as invertebrates retained by a 250 μ mesh in field sampling devices. Significant advances have been and continue to be made in developing ever more refined keys to macroinvertebrate groups. The analysis by function is a viable alternative when advances in macroinvertebrate ecological research is restricted by the level of detail in identifications. Focus on function, namely adaptations of macroinvertebrates to habitats and the utilization of food resources, has facilitated ecological evaluation of freshwater ecosystems (Functional feeding groups; FFG. As the great stream ecologist Noel Hynes observed, aquatic insects around the world exhibit similar morphologies and behaviors, even though they are in very different taxonomic groups. This is the basis for the FFG analysis that was initially developed in the early 1970s. FFG analysis applies taxonomy only to the level of detail that allows assignment to one of six FFG categories: scrapers adapted to feed on periphyton, detrital shredders adapted to feed on coarse (CPOM riparian-derived plant litter that has been colonized by microbes, herbivore shredders that feed on live, rooted aquatic vascular plants, filtering collectors adapted to remove fine particle detritus (FPOM from the water column, gathering collectors adapted to feed on FPOM where it is deposited on surfaces or in crevices in the sediments, and predators that capture live prey. The interacting roles of these FFGs in stream ecosystems were originally depicted in a conceptual model. Thus, there are a limited number of adaptations exhibited by stream macroinvertebrates that exploit these habitats and food resources. This accounts for the wide range of macroinvertebrate taxa in freshwater ecosystems found in different geographical settings that are represented by a much smaller number of FFGs. An example of the generality of the functional group concept is the presence of detrital shredders that are dependent upon riparian plant litter inputs being found in essentially all forested streams world-wide (e.g., across the USA and Canada, Chile, Brazil, West Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Thailand; Cummins, unpublished. Freshwater macroinvertebrate taxonomic determinations, especially at the species level, may be the best basis for developing specific indices of pollution (tolerance values in ecological tables. However, the FFG method appears to provide better indicators of overall freshwater ecosystem condition.

  13. Situation of classical swine fever and the epidemiologic and ecologic aspects affecting its distribution in the American continent.

    Vargas Terán, Moisés; Calcagno Ferrat, Nelson; Lubroth, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral transboundary animal disease that is highly contagious among domestic and wild pigs, such as boars and peccaries. Today, far from being what was classically described historically, the disease is characterized as having a varied clinical picture, and its diagnosis depends on resorting to proper sample collection and prompt dispatch to a laboratory that can employ several techniques to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Laboratory findings should be complemented with a field analysis of the occurrence of disease to have a better understanding of its epidemiology. The disease is still present in various regions and countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, thus hindering production, trade, and the livestock economy in the region. Consequently, it is among the diseases included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Currently, there are epidemiologic and ecologic aspects that characterize its geographical distribution in the region such as: continued trends in the demand for pork and pork products; an increase in swine investment with low production costs which are able to compete advantageously in international markets; the convention of associating CSF in the syndrome of "swine hemorrhagic diseases" owing to the historical description of its acute presentation and not to the new and more frequent subacute presentations or the diseases with which it may be confused (notably, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and porcine dermopathic nephropathy syndrome, among others); dissemination of the virus through asymptomatic hosts such as piglets infected in utero; frequent lack of quality control and registration of vaccines and vaccinations; feeding of swine with contaminated food waste (swill); the common practice of smuggling animals and by-products across borders; the backyard family production system or extensive open field methods of swine rearing with minimal input in care and feeding; poor understanding of the epidemiologic role that boars and peccaries could have in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the Americas; and new procedures in animal welfare that some countries are adopting for the production, transport, and slaughter of domestic animals. Consequently, many countries (i.e., Canada, USA, Chile, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, and Mexico, where 13 of 32 States are disease free) have given priority to the control and progressive eradication of CSF. In other parts of the Americas, the disease appears under control, as is the case of the five countries of the Andean Region and the 12 northern States of Brazil. In South America, Chile, Uruguay and 13 States in Brazil are disease free. Argentina has mounted a national campaign and is in the process of eradicating the disease. No recent information on its presence or distribution in Paraguay is available. With no master strategy to harmoniously progress in the control and eradication of the disease, 17 countries of the region, jointly led by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, developed the Continental Plan for the Eradication of CSF whose objective is expected to be reached by 2020. PMID:15604470

  14. Teaching Gibb's Taxonomy of Defensiveness through Performance

    Thomson, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    The topic of defensiveness resonates with students, who are generally eager to learn how to prevent it. Gibb's taxonomy of defensive/supportive behaviors is widely published and used today. According to Gibb, defensiveness occurs when a communicator puts substantial effort into defending him/herself from a perceived communicative threat. This…

  15. Toward a Psychological Taxonomy of Work

    Dawis, Rene V.; Lofquist, Lloyd H.

    1975-01-01

    A new approach to the construction of a psychological taxonomy of work is presented. Based on the Theory of Work Adjustment, occupational aptitude patterns and occupational reinforcer-pattern clusters are cross-classified to develop psychologically homogeneous groups of occupations (Taxons). (Author)

  16. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifical...

  17. Enabling knowledge discovery: taxonomy development for NASA

    Dutra, J.; Busch, J.

    2003-01-01

    This white paper provides the background for why it is important to take the next steps with the NASA taxonomy including test and validation, XML schema development, integration with the FirstGov federal search engine, the OneNASA portal and its supporting web content management system.

  18. Classification and Taxonomy of Vegetable Macergens

    Aremu, Bukola R.; Babalola, Olubukola O.

    2015-01-01

    Macergens are bacteria capable of releasing pectic enzymes (pectolytic bacteria). These enzymatic actions result in the separation of plant tissues leading to total plant destruction. This can be attributed to soft rot diseases in vegetables. These macergens primarily belong to the genus Erwinia and to a range of opportunistic pathogens namely: the Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., Cytophaga spp., and Bacillus spp. They consist of taxa that displayed considerable heterogeneity and intermingled with members of other genera belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. They have been classified based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic which obviously not necessary in the taxonomy of all bacterial genera for defining bacterial species and describing new ones These taxonomic markers have been used traditionally as a simple technique for identification of bacterial isolates. The most important fields of taxonomy are supposed to be based on clear, reliable and worldwide applicable criteria. Hence, this review clarifies the taxonomy of the macergens to the species level and revealed that their taxonomy is beyond complete. For discovery of additional species, further research with the use modern molecular methods like phylogenomics need to be done. This can precisely define classification of macergens resulting in occasional, but significant changes in previous taxonomic schemes of these macergens. PMID:26640465

  19. Taxonomy of Scientifically Oriented Educational Websites.

    Nachmias, Rafi; Tuvi, Inbal

    2001-01-01

    Discusses science educators' interest in Web-based learning (WBL). Provides a classification scheme by which scientifically-oriented educational websites can be evaluated for content level. Presents an example of site evaluation in the field of atomic structure and discusses the potential embedded in this taxonomy to assist the web site developer,…

  20. Classification and Taxonomy of Vegetable Macergens.

    Aremu, Bukola R; Babalola, Olubukola O

    2015-01-01

    Macergens are bacteria capable of releasing pectic enzymes (pectolytic bacteria). These enzymatic actions result in the separation of plant tissues leading to total plant destruction. This can be attributed to soft rot diseases in vegetables. These macergens primarily belong to the genus Erwinia and to a range of opportunistic pathogens namely: the Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., Cytophaga spp., and Bacillus spp. They consist of taxa that displayed considerable heterogeneity and intermingled with members of other genera belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. They have been classified based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic which obviously not necessary in the taxonomy of all bacterial genera for defining bacterial species and describing new ones These taxonomic markers have been used traditionally as a simple technique for identification of bacterial isolates. The most important fields of taxonomy are supposed to be based on clear, reliable and worldwide applicable criteria. Hence, this review clarifies the taxonomy of the macergens to the species level and revealed that their taxonomy is beyond complete. For discovery of additional species, further research with the use modern molecular methods like phylogenomics need to be done. This can precisely define classification of macergens resulting in occasional, but significant changes in previous taxonomic schemes of these macergens. PMID:26640465

  1. Visualizing a Taxonomy for Virtual Worlds

    Downey, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, however, the popularity, diversity, and application of virtual worlds have spread rapidly. As a result, existing taxonomies and topologies increasingly are becoming less effective at being able to classify and organize the growing diversification of content available in today's virtual worlds. This article presents the…

  2. Fractionation distribution and preliminary ecological risk assessment of As, Hg and Cd in ornithogenic sediments from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica.

    Lou, Chuangneng; Liu, Xiaodong; Nie, Yaguang; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate mobility of toxic elements and their potential ecological risk caused by seabird biovectors, the fractionation distributions of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated in three ornithogenic sediment profiles from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica. The results show residual As holds a dominant position, and Hg mainly derives from residual, organic matter-bound and humic acid-bound fractions, indicating weak mobility of As and Hg. However, exchangeable Cd occupies a considerable proportion in studied samples, suggesting Cd has strong mobility. The preliminary evaluation of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SGQs) shows adverse biological effects may occur occasionally for As and Cd, and rarely for Hg. Using Risk Assessment Code (RAC), the ecological risk is assessed at moderate, low and very high for As, Hg and Cd pollution, respectively. Organic matter derived from guano is the main factor controlling the mobility of Hg and Cd through adsorption and complexation. PMID:26322729

  3. Ecological distribution and fate of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation

    During the past 21/2 yr a study was conducted on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a radioactive waste pond which has been receiving low-level Pu processing waste for about 30 yr. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization and studies of the ecological behavior of Pu and Am in an ultra-eutrophic aquatic environment. The purpose of this work is to explain Pu and Am concentrations at specific ecological sites, rates of accumulation at these sites, important export routes out of the pond, and potential pathways to man. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrator of transuranics in the pond system. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments that are the major sink for Pu and Am in this system, is also a major concentrator of transuranics. Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Thus, transuranics appear to be relatively immobile in this aquatic ecosystem

  4. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael; Brevin, R.J.W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ...

  5. Taxonomy of an endemic Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae from the Iberian Peninsula

    Costa, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of an Iberian endemic Aristolochia is treated, based on morphological and cytological characters. A brief description of its main diagnostic characters, distribution and habitat is included, as well as a distribution map and a few comments on its possible phylogenetic relationships. A new combination is proposed, raising this taxon from subspecies to a species proper: A. castellana (Nardi Costa. A revised dichotomous key for the Iberian taxa of the genus is proposed.El presente trabajo trata la taxonoma de una Aristolochia endmica de la Pennsula Ibrica, basndose en caracteres morfolgicos y citolgicos. Se incluye una breve descripcin de los caracteres diagnsticos principales, de su distribucin y hbitat, as como un mapa de su distribucin y algunos comentarios sobre sus posibles relaciones filogenticas. Se propone una nueva combinacin, ascendiendo el taxon de subespecie a especie: A. castellana (Nardi Costa. Se propone una nueva clave dicotmica para los txones del gnero presentes en la Pennsula Ibrica.

  6. Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake

    He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiangzhen; Liu, Wenxiu; He, Qishuang; Ouyang, Huiling; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yujiao; Wang, Qingmei; Yang, Bin; Xu, Fuliu, E-mail: xufl@urban.pku.edu.cn

    2013-09-01

    The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (Σ{sub 6}PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953 μg L{sup −1}, with the average value of 4.042 ± 3.929 μg L{sup −1}. The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the Σ{sub 6}PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of Σ{sub 6}PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens. - Highlights: • Monthly variation in PAEs was first investigated in a large Chinese shallow lake. • Ecological and health risks with uncertainty were determined. • PAEs with low and high level of carbon would be from different sources. • DnBP predominated within PAE congeners and posed a much greater ecological risks. • The studied PAE congeners posed little health risks to the nearby citizens.

  7. Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake

    The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (Σ6PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953 μg L−1, with the average value of 4.042 ± 3.929 μg L−1. The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the Σ6PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of Σ6PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens. - Highlights: • Monthly variation in PAEs was first investigated in a large Chinese shallow lake. • Ecological and health risks with uncertainty were determined. • PAEs with low and high level of carbon would be from different sources. • DnBP predominated within PAE congeners and posed a much greater ecological risks. • The studied PAE congeners posed little health risks to the nearby citizens

  8. Taxonomy of the Dictyota ciliolata-crenulata complex (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae)

    Tronholm, A.; Afonso-Carrillo, J.; Sanson, M; Leliaert, F; Fernandez-Garcia, C.; O. De Clerck

    2013-01-01

    We reassessed the taxonomy of dentate Dictyota species formerly attributed to D. ciliolata and D. crenulata. Both taxa have long been assumed to be broadly distributed in tropical to warm-temperate seas. Recent molecular data, however, provided evidence that D. crenulata constituted a complex of at least four species with restricted geographical distributions. Based on those results and careful morphological examination, we split D. crenulata sensu lato into D. crenulata sensu stricto restric...

  9. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  10. Administrative Ecology

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of

  11. Administrative Ecology

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  12. Field studies of harp seal (Phoca Groenlandica) distribution and feeding ecology in the Barents Sea in september 1990

    Nilssen, Kjell Tormod; Haug, Tore; Potelov, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    The harp seal Phoca groenlandica is the most abundant seal species in the Barents Sea, and it may be a significant predator on other marine resources in this area. In order to evaluate the ecological role of harp seals, field studies, including both analysis of harp seal stomach contents and concurrent estimates of prey abundance, were carried out in the Barents Sea during August/September 1990. It appeared that, at this time of the year, the harp seals were confined to t...

  13. Records of the endemic and threatened catfish, Hemibagrus punctuates from the southern Western Ghats with notes on its distribution, ecology and conservation status

    A. Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nilgiri Mystus, Hemibagrus punctatus, a rare bagrid catfish endemic to the Western Ghats, has been currently listed in the IUCN Red List, as Critically Endangered with a possibility that it could be extinct. The last validated record of H. punctatus was known to be in 1998, and several surveys since then have not been able to collect the species from its native range. In this paper, we provide information on new records of this rare catfish from the Western Ghats after a period of 14 years, and discuss its distribution, ecology and conservation. An updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List Criteria is also provided.

  14. Distribution of trace elements in certain ecological components and animal products in a dairy farm at Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Raghu, V

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical characteristics of the cattle are dealt based on the observations made in Ayurveda in the light of modern scientific developments in applied environmental geochemistry. The biogeochemical characteristics of certain important ecological components and animal products of the stall-fed animals were studied. For this purpose, a dairy farm of Tirumala-Tirupati Devasthanams, a religious organization in Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh was selected. This study is intended to trace out the trace element interactions in the ecological components (soil, water, fodder, feed) of the stall-fed animals and their output components viz. dung, urine and milk. Physical, physico-chemical properties and certain trace elements were determined for composite samples of ecological components and dung, urine, and milk of stall-fed animals. The variations in the distribution of pH and EC of urine and milk reflect the variations in their physico-chemical or hydro-chemical properties. As mentioned in Ayurveda, not only the properties of milk but also the properties of dung and urine reflect their diet and conditions of their habitat. Even though the diet is the same, the cows of different breeds yield milk of variable physical, physico-chemical properties and trace element composition which can be attributed to their body colour, substantiating Ayurveda. PMID:23892716

  15. Audubon Ecology Study Program.

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    The materials in the set include a student reader "The Story of Ecology," a leaders' guide, and a large, pictorial wall chart. The student reader is divided into 10 units relating to a definition of ecology, the sun and life, air and the water cycle, major divisions of the earth, plants and food chains, distribution of plants and animals,…

  16. Evolution, Diversity, and Taxonomy of the Peronosporaceae, with Focus on the Genus Peronospora.

    Thines, Marco; Choi, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildews are a notorious group of oomycete plant pathogens, causing high economic losses in various crops and ornamentals. The most species-rich genus of oomycetes is the genus Peronospora. This review provides a wide overview of these pathogens, ranging from macro- and micro-evolutionary patterns, their biodiversity and ecology to short overviews for the currently economically most important pathogens and potential emerging diseases. In this overview, the taxonomy of economically relevant species is also discussed, as the application of the correct names and species concepts is a prerequisite for effective quarantine regulations and phytosanitary measures. PMID:26649784

  17. Integrative Taxonomy Recognizes Evolutionary Units Despite Widespread Mitonuclear Discordance: Evidence from a Rotifer Cryptic Species Complex.

    Papakostas, Spiros; Michaloudi, Evangelia; Proios, Konstantinos; Brehm, Michaela; Verhage, Laurens; Rota, Jadranka; Peña, Carlos; Stamou, Georgia; Pritchard, Victoria L; Fontaneto, Diego; Declerck, Steven A J

    2016-05-01

    Mitonuclear discordance across taxa is increasingly recognized as posing a major challenge to species delimitation based on DNA sequence data. Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a promising framework to help address this problem. However, we still lack compelling empirical evidence scrutinizing the efficacy of integrative taxonomy in relation to, for instance, complex introgression scenarios involving many species. Here, we report remarkably widespread mitonuclear discordance between about 15 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear Brachionus calyciflorus groups identified using different species delimitation approaches. Using coalescent-, Bayesian admixture-, and allele sharing-based methods with DNA sequence or microsatellite data, we provide strong evidence in support of hybridization as a driver of the observed discordance. We then describe our combined molecular, morphological, and ecological approaches to resolving phylogenetic conflict and inferring species boundaries. Species delimitations based on the ITS1 and 28S nuclear DNA markers proved a more reliable predictor of morphological variation than delimitations using the mitochondrial COI gene. A short-term competition experiment further revealed systematic differences in the competitive ability between two of the nuclear-delimited species under six different growth conditions, independent of COI delimitations; hybrids were also observed. In light of these findings, we discuss the failure of the COI marker to estimate morphological stasis and morphological plasticity in the B. calyciflorus complex. By using B. calyciflorus as a representative case, we demonstrate the potential of integrative taxonomy to guide species delimitation in the presence of mitonuclear phylogenetic conflicts. PMID:26880148

  18. Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5...

  19. Hierarchical Taxonomy in Multi-Party System

    Situngkir, H

    2004-01-01

    We propose the use of hierarchical taxonomy to analyze the legislative election results as a model of multi-party system to show the robustness in political system. As an example we use the result of Indonesian legislative election 2004 is analyzed with certain comparative with the previous one (1999). We construct the graph theoretical analysis by finding the Euclidean distances among political parties. The distances are then treated in ultrametric spaces by using the minimum spanning tree algorithm. By having the Indonesian hierarchical taxonomy model of political parties we show some patterns emerging the pattern agrees with the classical anthropological analysis of socio-political system in Indonesia. This fact accentuates a character of robustness in Indonesian political society as a self-organized system evolves to critical state. Some small perturbations i.e.: different voting process resulting the same pattern and occasions statistically, emerges from the social structure based upon political streams:...

  20. Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Hasman, Henrik; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Ussery, David; Lund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is--that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology......; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species...

  1. Algal taxonomy: a road to nowhere?

    De Clerck, O.; Guiry, M.D.; Leliaert, F.; Samyn, Y.; Verbruggen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread view of taxonomy as an essentially retrogressive and outmoded science unable to cope with the current biodiversity crisis stimulated us to analyze the current status of cataloguing global algal diversity. Contrary to this largely pessimistic belief, species description rates of algae through time and trends in the number of active taxonomists, as revealed by the web resource AlgaeBase, show a much more positive picture. More species than ever before are being described by a lar...

  2. Towards a Taxonomy of Mobile Applications

    Nickerson, Robert; Varshney, Upkar; Muntermann, Jan; Isaac, Henri

    2007-01-01

    Both the number and types of mobile applications have been seeing a significant increase in the last few years. Such an increase can lead to an overwhelming situation for researchers, users, and developers who are trying to understand them from many different viewpoints. One way to create a more tractable treatment of both the current as well as the emerging mobile applications is to develop a taxonomy of mobile applications. This paper describes an on-going work towards developing such a tax...

  3. An Empirical Taxonomy of Crowdfunding Intermediaries

    Philipp Haas; Ivo Blohm; Jan Marco Leimeister

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent popularity of crowdfunding, a broad magnitude of crowdfunding intermediaries has emerged, while research on crowdfunding intermediaries has been largely neglected. As a consequence, existing classifications of crowdfunding intermediaries are conceptual, lack theoretical grounding, and are not empirically validated. Thus, we develop an empirical taxonomy of crowdfunding intermediaries, which is grounded in the theories of two-sided markets and financial intermediation. Integr...

  4. Ecologically oriented distribution of drainage water in the surrounding areas of opencast mines in Lower Lusatia; Oekologisch orientierte Verteilung von Suempfungswasser im Umfeld von Tagebauen in der Niederlausitz

    Jahn, A.; Bergholz, U.; Kuhlmann, K. [LAUBAG/HV, Senftenberg (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Taking Welzow-South opencast mine as an example, the authors explain the possible means of achieving an ecologically oriented water distribution in Lower Lusatia. The location of the Welzow coal field on the surface-watershed between the rivers Spree and Schwarze Elster, the hydrological effects of the abandoned workings and the development of Welzow-South opencast mine have resulted in a differential water distribution. Ecological investigations confirm the great importance of marshes fed by drainage water in marginal areas of mines and in recultivation areas. Aspects of the legal licensing procedure are explained and discussed. When planning the areas to be recultivated after cessation of mining operations, re-connection to existing run-off systems is taken into account in an early stage and a main outfall is thus created accordingly. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel des Tagebaues Welzow-Sued werden Moeglichkeiten einer oekologisch orientierten Wasserverteilung in der Niederlausitz aufgezeigt. Die Lage auf der oberirdischen Wasserscheide zwischen der Spree und der Schwarzen Elster, die hydrologischen Auswirkungen des Altbergbaues und die Entwicklung von Welzow-Sued haben zu einer differenzierten Wasserverteilung gefuehrt. Oekologische Untersuchungen belegen die hohe Bedeutung von mit Suempfungswasser gestuetzten Feuchtgebieten in Randbereichen und auf den Rekultivierungsflaechen. Genehmigungsrechtliche Aspekte werden beschrieben und diskutiert. Bei der Planung der Bergbaufolgelandschaft wird rechtzeitig die Wiederanbindung an bestehende Abflusssysteme beruecksichtigt und somit eine entsprechende Vorflut gestaltet. (orig.)

  5. Taxonomies of educational technology uses: Dewey, chip and me

    Levin, JA

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Chip Bruce created a taxonomy of education technology uses, which the author of the article helped to expand and evaluate. This taxonomy is based on John Dewey's 'four impulses of the child': inquiry, construction, communication, and expression. This taxonomy has helped people interested in the uses of technologies for education to better understand the range of uses and it has also helped spur the development of new uses.

  6. Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest. PMID:26800267

  7. Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k0-standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

  8. Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Palmieri, Helena E.L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: help@cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio A. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br; Friese, Kurt [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research- UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany). Dept. of Lake Research], E-mail: kurt.friese@ufz.de

    2007-07-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k{sub 0}-standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

  9. Antibiotics in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risks

    The ocean is an important sink of land-based pollutants. Previous studies showed that serious antibiotic pollution occurred in the coastal waters, but limited studies focused on their presence in offshore waters. In this study, eleven antibiotics in three different categories were investigated in offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China. The results indicated that three antibiotics dehydration erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim occurred throughout the offshore waters at concentrations of 0.10–16.6 ng L−1 and they decreased exponentially from the rivers to the coastal and offshore waters. The other antibiotics all presented very low detection rates (−1). Although the concentrations were very low, risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that sulfamethoxazole, dehydration erythromycin and clarithromycin at most of sampling sites posed medium or low ecological risks (0.01 −1. ► Their concentrations decreased exponentially from the rivers to the offshore waters. ► Some antibiotics in the offshore water posed medium or low risks to some organisms. -- Some antibiotics were ubiquitous in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China and posed medium or low ecological risks to some sensitive organisms

  10. Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea.

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest. PMID:26800267

  11. Update History of This Database - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... base Date Update contents 2013/06/19 Taxonomy Icon English ... archive site is opened. 2008/11 Taxonomy Icon (htt ...

  12. The genus Machaerium (Fabaceae): taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

    Amen, Yhiya M; Marzouk, Amani M; Zaghloul, Mona G; Afifi, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Machaerium, in the family Fabaceae, predominantly is a genus of a Neotropical distribution of trees, shrubs, and lianas occurring from southern Mexico to Brazil and northern Argentina and as far as South America. Several Machaerium species are widely used in traditional medicine and are considered to have multiple medicinal properties. This review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities of plants in the genus Machaerium. PMID:25601210

  13. Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees

    Mohammad Athar

    2005-01-01

    The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae) were the ...

  14. Integrative taxonomy of calcareous sponges (subclass Calcinea) from the Peruvian coast: morphology, molecules, and biogeography

    Azevedo, F.; Cóndor-Luján, B.; Willenz, P.; Hajdu, E.; Hooker, Y.; Klautau, M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of evolution and systematics of Calcarea (Porifera) have not yet met a corresponding increase in the knowledge of diversity and distribution of these sponges in several parts of the world. Peru is an emblematic example of this lack of taxonomic knowledge, as only three shallow-water species of sponges have hitherto been reported from its 3000 km coast. With the aim of studying sponges of Peru, an integrative taxonomy approach (morphology, molecules, and biogeography) was used in...

  15. Distribution, abundance, and feeding ecology of baleen whales in Icelandic waters: have recent environmental changes had an effect?

    Vkingsson, Gsli A.; Pike, Daniel G; Valdimarsson, Hinn; Schleimer, Anna; Gunnlaugsson, Thorvaldur; Silva, Teresa; Elvarsson, Bjarki ; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; ien, Nils; Desportes, Genevive; Bogason, Valur; Hammond, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    The location of Iceland at the junction of submarine ridges in the North-East Atlantic where warm and cold water masses meet south of the Arctic Circle contributes to high productivity of the waters around the island. During the last two decades, substantial increases in sea temperature and salinity have been reported. Concurrently, pronounced changes have occurred in the distribution of several fish species and euphausiids. The distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the Central and Easte...

  16. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, Brian; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hatun, H.; Jansen, Teunis; Jacobsen, Jan Arge; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, Patrizio; Melvin, G.D.; Neilson, J.D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G.J.; Payne, Mark R.; Richardson, D.E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D.C.

    scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna...... (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many...

  17. The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture

    Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological factors (e.g. the plant growth) or the economical factors as a simple monetary calculation, but also their mutual influences. Finally, the ecological-economic model enables us to make a risk assessment or evaluate adaptation strategies.

  18. Taxonomy of Mechanitis (f.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from the west Colombian Andes: an integrative approach.

    Giraldo, C E; Uribe, S I

    2012-12-01

    Species identification in the butterfly genus Mechanitis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) becomes difficult when it is based only on wing color patterns, a common practice in butterfly taxonomy. Difficulties in Mechanitis taxonomy are related to the widespread mimicry and polymorphism among species belonging to this genus. Species recognition and inventories of Mechanitis genus in geographic areas as the Andean region of Colombia are of particular interest and the use of more than one character for taxonomic identification is desirable. In this study, we included morphological, ecological, and mitochondrial DNA data to identify the occurring species in this region. Species of Mechanitis were studied from ecological, morphological, and molecular perspectives considering host plant identification, oviposition behavior, and life cycles under laboratory conditions. Immature morphology, patterns of wing color, and genital structures of adults were also studied. The genetic barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene was sequenced and used to verify the limits between species previously defined by the other characters and to validate its usefulness for species delimitation in this particular genus. The integrative approach combining independent datasets successfully allowed species identification as compared to the approach based on a single dataset. Three well-differentiated species were found in the studied region, Mechanitis menapis (Hewitson), Mechanitis polymnia (Linnaeus), and Mechanitis lysimnia (Fabricius). New valuable characters that could improve taxonomic identification in this genus are considered. PMID:23949672

  19. On the presence of the Mediterranean endemic Microdeutopus sporadhi Myers, 1969 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae in the Gulf of Naples (Italy with a review on its distribution and ecology

    M. B. SCIPIONE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The species Microdeutopus sporadhi (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae, endemic of the Mediterranean Sea, was described by Myers in 1969 on material collected from the Aegean Sea in a sheltered environment with high sedimentation rates. A check on the distribution and ecology of M. sporadhi showed that: — although not mentioned in the checklist of amphipods of the Italian seas, it was already found in the central Tyrrhenian Sea in 1983-84 and in the northern Adriatic Sea in 2002-03; — it was rarely found in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most studied basins as concerns amphipod fauna; but notwithstanding the few records available, the wide ecological spectrum of this species was pointed out. The present study, conducted off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy, showed the presence of rich and well established populations through time, but only in a peculiar substratum (artificial collectors and environment (low pH values. The species seems to be able to withstand harsh environmental conditions and probably to conceal itself through a cryptic behaviour, escaping traditional sampling methods. The role of rare or hidden species in bio-assessment should be re-evaluated.

  20. Taxonomy for spatial domain LSB steganography techniques

    Collins, James C.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2014-05-01

    The Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding technique is a well-known and broadly employed method in multimedia steganography, used mainly in applications involving single bit-plane manipulations in the spatial domain [1]. The key advantages of LSB procedures are they are simple to understand, easy to implement, have high embedding capacity, and can be resistant to steganalysis attacks. Additionally, the LSB approach has spawned numerous applications and can be used as the basis of more complex techniques for multimedia data embedding. In the last several decades, hundreds of new LSB or LSB variant methods have been developed in an effort to optimize capacity while minimizing detectability, taking advantage of the overall simplicity of this method. LSB-steganalysis research has also intensified in an effort to find new or improved ways to evaluate the performance of this widely used steganographic system. This paper reviews and categorizes some of these major techniques of LSB embedding, focusing specifically on the spatial domain. Some justification for establishing and identifying promising uses of a proposed SD-LSB centric taxonomy are discussed. Specifically, we define a new taxonomy for SD-LSB embedding techniques with the goal of aiding researchers in tool classification methodologies that can lead to advances in the state-of-the-art in steganography. With a common framework to work with, researchers can begin to more concretely identify core tools and common techniques to establish common standards of practice for steganography in general. Finally, we provide a summary on some of the most common LSB embedding techniques followed by a proposed taxonomy standard for steganalysis.

  1. Rethinking Bloom's Taxonomy: Implications for Testing and Assessment.

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    This paper describes a work in progress on a second edition of "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain," also known as "Bloom's Taxonomy" (B. Bloom and others, Eds., 1956). The new edition will be grounded in the collective wisdom of the original "Handbook," but will incorporate…

  2. Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) taxonomy: Current challenges and future directions

    Harrup, L.E.; Bellis, G.A.; Balenghien, T.; Garros, C.

    2015-01-01

    We review tools for Culicoides species identification using both morphological and genetic characterisation.We review progress in integrative taxonomy in Culicoides.We present the current global status of Culicoides taxonomic knowledge.Present conclusions on the current status in Culicoides taxonomy and systematics and prospects for the future.

  3. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s

  4. License - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... follows: "Taxonomy Icon © Database Center for Life Science ... licensed under CC Attribution 2.1 Japan" . The sum ... hereof not licensed under the license. National Bioscience ... Database Center Japan Science ... and Technology Agenc ...

  5. The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.

    Adams, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

  6. The Evolution of Educational Objectives: Bloom's Taxonomy and beyond

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; LaMonaca, Frank H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial for teachers to communicate effectively about educational objectives to students, colleagues, and others in education. In 1956, Bloom developed a cognitive learning taxonomy to enhance communication between college examiners. The Bloom taxonomy consists of 6 hierarchical levels of learning (knowledge, comprehension, application,…

  7. Manifest Variable Granger Causality Models for Developmental Research: A Taxonomy

    von Eye, Alexander; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Granger models are popular when it comes to testing hypotheses that relate series of measures causally to each other. In this article, we propose a taxonomy of Granger causality models. The taxonomy results from crossing the four variables Order of Lag, Type of (Contemporaneous) Effect, Direction of Effect, and Segment of Dependent Series…

  8. Exploring and Upgrading the Educational Business-Game Taxonomy

    Jerman Blažic, Andrej; Džonova Jerman Blažic, Borka

    2015-01-01

    This article explores existing attempts to design a comprehensive and complex taxonomy framework for an educational business game intended to categorize and evaluate various properties. The identified missing elements in the current proposed taxonomies were used as a starting point for the design of a new category that addresses the game's…

  9. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

  10. Towards a Taxonomy of Sexy Analogue Play

    Brown, AML

    2015-01-01

    I endeavor here to develop a taxonomy for describing and discussing forms of analog play which involve sexy content. Whilst I think there is some use in keeping the umbrella term sexy analog play to cover all forms of non-digital play with a flirty or sexy connotation, it is better to investigate other, more specific words for use in describing precisely the types of play to be discussed. Whilst undoubtedly personally useful, the existence of such terminology has other applications as well....

  11. A Contribution to IS General Taxonomy

    Brumec, Josip

    1997-01-01

    The term "Information System" has been used for a great number of different products of human mind designed to enable man to understand and control the events in his surroundings. Numerous classifications of ISs have been designed so far. They are based on various forms and characteristics of the existing systems, but they do not explain their origin and growth. In this study, preceded by a brief survey of the existing classifications, a new genetic taxonomy of IS is presented. It is based on...

  12. Benchmarking of Methods for Genomic Taxonomy

    Mette V. Larsen; Cosentino, Salvatore; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Hasman, Henrik; Sicheritz-Pontn, Thomas; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Ussery, David W.; Lund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it isthat is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identificati...

  13. NASA Taxonomy 2.0 Project Overview

    Dutra, Jayne; Busch, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the project to develop a Taxonomy for NASA. The benefits of this project are: Make it easy for various audiences to find relevant information from NASA programs quickly, specifically (1) Provide easy access for NASA Web resources (2) Information integration for unified queries and management reporting ve search results targeted to user interests the ability to move content through the enterprise to where it is needed most (3) Facilitate Records Management and Retention Requirements. In addition the project will assist NASA in complying with E-Government Act of 2002 and prepare NASA to participate in federal projects.

  14. Ecological niche modeling of coastal dune plants and future potential distribution in response to climate change and sea level rise.

    Mendoza-González, Gabriela; Martínez, M Luisa; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Vázquez, Gabriela; Gallego-Fernández, Juan B

    2013-08-01

    Climate change (CC) and sea level rise (SLR) are phenomena that could have severe impacts on the distribution of coastal dune vegetation. To explore this we modeled the climatic niches of six coastal dunes plant species that grow along the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula, and projected climatic niches to future potential distributions based on two CC scenarios and SLR projections. Our analyses suggest that distribution of coastal plants will be severely limited, and more so in the case of local endemics (Chamaecrista chamaecristoides, Palafoxia lindenii, Cakile edentula). The possibilities of inland migration to the potential 'new shoreline' will be limited by human infrastructure and ecosystem alteration that will lead to a 'coastal squeeze' of the coastal habitats. Finally, we identified areas as future potential refuges for the six species in central Gulf of Mexico, and northern Yucatán Peninsula especially under CC and SLR scenarios. PMID:23625760

  15. Artificial dam lakes as suitable habitats for exotic invertebrates: Ostracoda ecology and distribution in reservoirs of the Eastern Iberian Peninsula

    Escrivà A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs are the most common deep lakes in Spain, as a consequence of water needs and dry climate. Although these aquatic systems can play an important ecological role in such an area with few large natural lakes, they can also provide new habitats for exotic species, which can colonize ecosystems that native species have not explored yet. Here we present our results for a biannual survey of the ostracod fauna from 24 reservoirs in Xúquer River basin. We check which variables affect ostracod presence, test for differences between winter and summer assemblages, and compare our data with previous available ostracod records from the same river drainage network. Our results reveal that ostracod presence is positively related to high diversity of the invertebrate community and reservoir volume, and negatively with phosphorus concentration. Among the 22 species found, it is noteworthy the first Iberian record of Ilyocypris getica and the second European record of Candonocypris novaezelandiae. Ostracod assemblages significantly vary between summer and winter, and strong differences are found between ostracod communities of reservoirs and those from their connected rivers. Remarkably higher frequency of exotic species in the reservoirs confirms previous findings about the facilitation that artificial ecosystems confer to aquatic invasions.

  16. Ecological aspects of the plains Cayman (Crocodylus Graves intermedius, 1819) in a sub areal distribution in the Arauca Department (Colombia)

    Some behavioral and ecological aspects were observed in a remaining population of Crocodylus intermedius found in a Colombian region called Arauca, in the rivers Cravo Norte, Ele, Lipa, Casanare and Cano Matepalma. The behaviors during the daily activity were different among the adult animals studied. These surveys were carried out during the dry season in 1994 and 1995. Behaviors of nesting and parental care were observed. The nesting period took place from late December in 1994 to mid January in 1995. The crocodilian eggs hatched from mid march to the beginning of April. According to the data collected, the clutch size for this region is 20 to 34 eggs. Seven zones of clutching were found. Big holes, observed after the hatching, suggest that maybe the female crocodiles open the nest when the young are emerging from the eggs. The group of animals found is placed in a zone, which has optimal biotic and a biotic aspects. However the inhabitants of this region are an enormous pressure factor upon Crocodylus intermedius

  17. Correlative and dynamic species distribution modelling for ecological predictions in the Antarctic: a cross-disciplinary concept

    Thomas Saucède

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Developments of future scenarios of Antarctic ecosystems are still in their infancy, whilst predictions of the physical environment are recognized as being of global relevance and corresponding models are under continuous development. However, in the context of environmental change simulations of the future of the Antarctic biosphere are increasingly demanded by decision makers and the public, and are of fundamental scientific interest. This paper briefly reviews existing predictive models applied to Antarctic ecosystems before providing a conceptual framework for the further development of spatially and temporally explicit ecosystem models. The concept suggests how to improve approaches to relating species’ habitat description to the physical environment, for which a case study on sea urchins is presented. In addition, the concept integrates existing and new ideas to consider dynamic components, particularly information on the natural history of key species, from physiological experiments and biomolecular analyses. Thereby, we identify and critically discuss gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. These refer to process understanding of biological complexity, the need for high spatial resolution oceanographic data from the entire water column, and the use of data from biomolecular analyses in support of such ecological approaches. Our goal is to motivate the research community to contribute data and knowledge to a holistic, Antarctic-specific, macroecological framework. Such a framework will facilitate the integration of theoretical and empirical work in Antarctica, improving our mechanistic understanding of this globally influential ecoregion, and supporting actions to secure this biodiversity hotspot and its ecosystem services.

  18. Potential of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Mapping Distribution and Evaluating Ecological Characteristics of Tree Species at the Angkor Monument, Cambodia

    Tomita Mizuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large trees play several vital roles in the Angkor monuments landscape. They protect biodiversity, enhance the tourism experience, and provide various ecosystem services to local residents. A clear understanding of forest composition and distribution of individual species, as well as timely monitoring of changes, is necessary for conservation of these trees. using traditional field work, obtaining this sort of data is time-consuming and labour-intensive. This research investigates classification of very high resolution remote sensing data as a tool for efficient analyses. QuickBird satellite imagery was used to clarify the tree species community in and around Preah Khan temple, to elucidate differences in ecological traits among the three dominant species (Dipterocarpus alatus, Lagerstroemia calyculata and Tetrameles nudiflora, and to identify crowns of the dominant species.

  19. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms: Progress report for period 1 January 1987 to 31 December 1987

    Spotila, J.R.; Standora, E.A.

    1987-09-01

    We quantified the constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. We completed studies on the thermoregulation of largemouth bass, on the bioenergetics of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, and on the role of temperature dependent sex determination in the extinction of dinosaurs. We also began research to develop the three dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles, to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field, to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and water flux rates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. 60 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Market Ecology, Pareto Wealth Distribution and Leptokurtic Returns in Microscopic Simulation of the LLS Stock Market Model

    Solomon, S; Solomon, Sorin; Levy, Moshe

    2000-01-01

    The LLS stock market model is a model of heterogeneous quasi-rational investors operating in a complex environment about which they have incomplete information. We review the main features of this model and several of its extensions. We study the effects of investor heterogeneity and show that predation, competition, or symbiosis may occur between different investor populations. The dynamics of the LLS model lead to the empirically observed Pareto wealth distribution. Many properties observed in actual markets appear as natural consequences of the LLS dynamics: truncated Levy distribution of short-term returns, excess volatility, a return autocorrelation "U-shape" pattern, and a positive correlation between volume and absolute returns.

  1. Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn. ssp. laricio (Poiret Maire distribution in the Sila mountain range

    Nicolaci A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The most well-known and vast Calabrian pine forests are in the Sila mountain range, southern Italy. In this paper, present-day distribution of Calabrian pine in the Sila district was analyzed and compared with forest maps dating back to 1935 in order to assess the changes in land use. Main ecological and anthropogenic factors affecting Calabrian pine forest distribution were investigated by logistic regression models to identify the most important predictors of Ca­labrian pine persistence, expansion, and transition over the period 1935-2006. In 2006, the area covered by Calabrian pine forests and mixed Calabrian pine-beech forests was 36 100 ha and 20 221 ha, respectively. Overall, pine forest area increased by 38% between 1935 and 2006. Logistic regression revealed that Calabrian pine distribution in the Sila district was affected by both ecolo­gical (bioclimate, soil, and elevation and anthropogenic factors (management, fire. Based on our results, four different potential dynamics of Calabrian pine stands are discussed in the perspective of the sustainable management and conservation of this important mountain forest habitat.

  2. Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu)

    To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs) was 14.46 ± 6.84 ng/L. PFOA was the predominant contaminant (8.62 ± 4.40 ng/L), followed by PFBA (2.04 ± 1.16 ng/L) and PFHxA (1.23 ± 1.50 ng/L). The TPFAAs concentrations peaked in August 2012 in each area, except for the western river. The opposite spatial trends were found for PFOA and PFOS in both the lake and river areas. Except for PFOS and PFUdA, the levels of TPFAAs and PFAAs were significantly related to the composition of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) but not related to total DOM expressed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The risk of PFOS determined by a species sensitivity distribution model was notably above that of PFOA. - The PFAAs' distributions were significantly related to the DOM composition, and the PFAAs' eco-risks were primarily determined by their toxicity to aquatic organisms

  3. Ecology and distribution of bacteria in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station (Kalpakkam) thermal out fall

    Heterotrophic microorganisms especially mesophilic eubacteria, utilize a variety of organic substances as sole carbon and energy substances for their growth in pelagic waters. In the present investigation, distribution of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (CAHB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB) in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) was studied

  4. GENETIC DIVERSITY RESOURCES, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF FIFTEEN NEW RECORDS OF ORCHID SPECIES TO ASSAM OF EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, R. L. Borah², G. C. Sharma³ and Rajendra Yonzone4

    2012-01-01

    Present paper deals 15 Orchid species with 12 genera viz., Bryobium pudicum, Bulbophyllum apodum, Chrysoglossum ornatum, Cleisostoma linearilobatum, C. simondii, Collabium chinense, Diploprora championii, Eria connate, E. ferruginea, Taeniophyllum crepidiforme, Tainia wrayana, Thelasis pygmaea, Thrixspermum acuminatissimum, T. pygmaeum, and Z. glandulosa were recorded from Dibrugarh district of Assam of Eastern Himalaya for the first time and reported as new distributional records to the stat...

  5. The ecological distributions of N, P utilizing bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria in the moderate hypoxia zone of the Changjiang Estuary

    Liu, Jingjing; Du, Ping; Zeng, Jiangning; Chen, Quanzhen; Shou, Lu; Liao, Yibo; Jiang, Zhibing

    2013-12-01

    The distributions of N utilizing bacteria (denitrifying bacteria and ammonifying bacteria), P utilizing bacteria (organic phosphobacteria and inorganic phosphobacteria) and heterotrophic bacteria in the Changjiang Estuary, and the roles of main environmental factors in distributing bacteria, are explored with observations from two cruises in June and August 2006. Comparisons between the two important periods of initial hypoxia phase (June) and developed hypoxia phase (August) show differences in both bacterial distributions and the associated main environmental factors. First, the primary group of ammonifying bacteria has larger magnitude with spatial maximum value in the hypoxic stations related to sediment in August. The phosphobacterial abundance and detection rates in August are much lower than those in June, but the denitrifying bacterial abundance becomes greater in August. However, the difference of heterotrophic bacterial abundance between June and August is not obvious. Second, main environmental factors influencing bacteria vary from initial hypoxia phase to developed hypoxia phase. Two parameters (salinity and NO3 -) in surface water and five environmental parameters (pH, salinity, PO4 3-, NO3 - and temperature) in bottom water and surface sediment play major roles in the bacterial abundance in June, while different parameter combinations (salinity and PO4 -) in surface water and different parameter combinations (DO, DOC, NO3 -, PO4 3- and pH) in bottom water and surface sediment play major roles in August. Moreover, the bottom bacteria distributions in area south of 31°N are related to the position of the Taiwan Warm Current in June. The bacterial abundance and distribution may respond to the environmental change in the hypoxia processes of initial phase and developed phase. During the hypoxia processes, the whole structure of bacterial functional groups probably turns to different states, causing the recycling of nutrient regeneration and aggravating hypoxia regionally.

  6. Geographic distribution of need and access to health care in rural population: an ecological study in Iran

    Najafi Behzad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equity in access to and utilization of health services is a common goal of policy-makers in most countries. The current study aimed to evaluate the distribution of need and access to health care services among Iran's rural population between 2006 and 2009. Methods Census data on population's characteristics in each province were obtained from the Statistical Centre of Iran and National Organization for civil registration. Data about the Rural Health Houses (RHHs were obtained from the Ministry of Health. The Health Houses-to-rural population ratio (RHP, crude birth rate (CBR and crude mortality rate (CMR in rural population were calculated in order to compare their distribution among the provinces. Lorenz curves of RHHs, CMR and CBR were plotted and their decile ratio, Gini Index and Index of Dissimilarity were calculated. Moreover, Spearman rank-order correlation was used to examine the relation between RHHs and CMR and CBR. Results There were substantial differences in RHHs, CMR and CBR across the provinces. CMR and CBR experienced changes toward more equal distributions between 2006 and 2009, while inverse trend was seen for RHHs. Excluding three provinces with markedly changes in data between 2006 and 2009 as outliers, did not change observed trends. Moreover; there was a significant positive relationship between CMR and RHP in 2009 and a significant negative association between CBR and RHP in 2006 and 2009. When three provinces with outliers were excluded, these significant associations were disappeared. Conclusion Results showed that there were significant variations in the distribution of RHHs, CMR and CBR across the country. Moreover, the distribution of RHHs did not reflect the needs for health care in terms of CMR and CBR in the study period.

  7. Entropy-based disciplinarity indicator: role taxonomy of journals in scientific communication systems

    Manana-Rodriguez, J

    2013-01-01

    In this research, a new indicator of disciplinarity-multidisciplinarity is developed, discussed and applied. EBDI is based on the combination of the frequency distribution of subject categories of journals citing or cited by the analysis unit and the spread and diversity of the citations among subject categories measured with Shannon-Wiener entropy. Its reproducibility, robustness and consistence are discussed. Four of the combinations of its values when applied to the cited and citing dimensions lead to a suggested taxonomy of the role that the studied unit might have in terms of the transformation of knowledge from different disciplines in the scientific communication system and its position respect a hypothetical thematic core of the discipline in which it has been classified. The indicator is applied to the journals belonging to the first quartile of JCR-SSCI 2011 Library and Information Science and an indicator-based taxonomy is applied and discussed, pointing to differential thematic roles of the journa...

  8. Prevalence, Distribution, and Development of an Ecological Niche Model of Dermacentor variabilis Ticks Positive for Rickettsia montanensis.

    St John, Heidi K; Adams, Melissa L; Masuoka, Penny M; Flyer-Adams, Johanna G; Jiang, Ju; Rozmajzl, Patrick J; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Richards, Allen L

    2016-04-01

    Rickettsia montanensis has long been considered a nonpathogenic member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae. However, the infection potential of R. montanensis is being revisited in light of its recent association with a case of human infection in the United States and the possibility that additional cases may have been misdiagnosed as Rocky Mountain spotted fever. To this end, DNA was extracted from American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) removed from Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and their dependents at DoD medical treatment facilities (MTFs) during 2002-2012 (n = 4792). These 4792 samples were analyzed for the presence of R. montanensis (n = 136; 2.84%) and all vector DNA was confirmed to be of D. variabilis origin using a novel Dermacentor genus-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure, Derm, and a novel Dermacentor species multilocus sequence typing assay. To assess the risk of R. montanensis infection, the positive and negative samples were geographically mapped utilizing MTF site locations. Tick localities were imported into a geographical information systems (GIS) program, ArcGIS, for mapping and analysis. The ecological niche modeling (ENM) program, Maxent, was used to estimate the probability of tick presence in eastern United States using locations of both R. montanensis-positive and -negative ticks, climate, and elevation data. The ENM for R. montanensis-positive D. variabilis estimated high probabilities of the positive ticks occurring in two main areas, including the northern Midwest and mid-Atlantic portions of the northeastern regions of United States, whereas the R. montanensis-negative D. variabilis tick model showed a wider estimated range. The results suggest that R. montanensis-positive and -negative D. variabilis have different ranges where humans may be at risk and are influenced by similar and different factors. PMID:26900673

  9. Summer distribution and ecological role of seabirds and marine mammals in the Norwegian and Greenland seas (June 1988)

    Joiris, Claude R.

    1992-03-01

    During the ARK V /2 expedition of RV Polarstern in the Norwegian and Greenland seas in June 1988, 380 half hour counts for marine vertebrates (seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans) were carried out. Results are presented as total numbers encountered and then converted into density and food intake. Mean food intake was 2.2 kg fresh weight per km 2 per day for seabirds, with a higher value in Atlantic water (2.5) lower values in polar water and the pack ice (1.7 and 1.9), and an intermediate value at the ice edge. The main species were the alcids (1.5, primarily Little Auk, Alle alle and Brünnich's Guillemot, Urea Iomvia) ,the Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis (0.5), and the Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (0.2). The ecological role of cetaceans was clearly lower, with a mean value of 0.2 and a maximum of 0.7 in Atlantic water (rough evaluation, due to the low number of contacts). The food intake by pinnipeds was 0.55 kg/km 2 day at the ice edge and 0.4 in the pack ice; they were mainly harp, Phoca groenlandica and hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, in one main concentration each and ringed seals, Phoca hispida, scattered on the pack. Data for July 1988 show a great similarity with these results, except for a lower density of alcids, which probably reflects that Little Auk, Brünnich's Guillemot and Common Guillemot, Uria aalge already had started to leave the region.

  10. Backyard Ecology.

    Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems

  11. A revised taxonomy of assistance animals

    Lindsay Parenti, MA, BCBA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of animals in various assistive, therapeutic, and emotional support roles has contributed to the uncoordinated expansion of labels used to distinguish these animals. To address the inconsistent vocabulary and confusion, this article proposes a concise taxonomy for classifying assistance animals. Several factors were identified to differentiate categories, including (1 whether the animal performs work or tasks related to an individuals disability; (2 the typical level of skill required by the animal performing the work or task; (3 whether the animal is used by public service, military, or healthcare professionals; (4 whether training certifications or standards are available; and (5 the existence of legal public access protections for the animal and handler. Acknowledging that some category labels have already been widely accepted or codified, six functional categories were identified: (1 service animal; (2 public service animal; (3 therapy animal; (4 visitation animal; (5 sporting, recreational, or agricultural animal; and (6 support animal. This taxonomy provides a clear vocabulary for use by consumers, professionals working in the field, researchers, policy makers, and regulatory agencies.

  12. Market Ecology, Pareto Wealth Distribution and Leptokurtic Returns in Microscopic Simulation of the LLS Stock Market Model

    Solomon, Sorin; Levy, Moshe

    2001-06-01

    The LLS stock market model (see Levy Levy and Solomon Academic Press 2000 "Microscopic Simulation of Financial Markets; From Investor Behavior to Market Phenomena" for a review) is a model of heterogeneous quasi-rational investors operating in a complex environment about which they have incomplete information. We review the main features of this model and several of its extensions. We study the effects of investor heterogeneity and show that predation, competition, or symbiosis may occur between different investor populations. The dynamics of the LLS model lead to the empirically observed Pareto wealth distribution. Many properties observed in actual markets appear as natural consequences of the LLS dynamics: - truncated Levy distribution of short-term returns, - excess volatility, - a return autocorrelation "U-shape" pattern, and - a positive correlation between volume and absolute returns.

  13. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    Domene, X; Alcaiz, Josep M.; Andrs Pastor, Pilar; Ramrez Hernndez, Wilson Ariel; Mattana, Stefania

    2008-01-01

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM h...

  14. The known distribution and ecological preferences of the tick subgenus Boophilus (Acari : Ixodidae) in Africa and Latin America

    2006-01-01

    A compilation of the known distribution of Boophilus ticks in Africa and Latin America is presented, together with details on climate preferences. B. annulatus is recorded mainly in the western part of a strip from the equator to parallel 20 degrees N. It associates with woodlands and forests (lowland rain forest and secondary grassland). This species is also present in the Mediterranean region, associated to woodland and open areas. B. decoloratus extends southern to parallel 20 degrees N, i...

  15. Distribution of limnoterrestrial Tardigrada in Georgia and the Gulf Coast states of the United States of America with ecological remarks

    Harry A. MEYER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This report is an effort to improve understanding of the distribution of limnoterrestrial tardigrades in Georgia and the states along the Gulf Coast of the United States of America. We collected 14 species of tardigrades from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts and leaf litter in a statewide survey of Louisiana and reviewed all publications and theses reporting tardigrade distributions in the Gulf Coast states. Statewide surveys have been also conducted in Alabama, Florida, and Texas, while sampling in Mississippi and Georgia has been more localized. Currently 51 species have been identified in the region: 19 in Texas, 16 in Louisiana, 10 in Mississippi, 33 in Alabama, 3 in Georgia, and 15 in Florida. These tardigrades have been collected from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts on trees and rocks, from soil and leaf litter, and from freshwater. Twenty species are widely distributed in the region (i.e., found in ≥ 2 non-contiguous states, while 27 have been found in only one state. Eighteen species are probably cosmopolitan. Seven species, widespread in the Gulf Coast states but unknown elsewhere in the Nearctic Region – Echiniscus kofordi, Echiniscus cavagnaroi, Parexapodibius pilatoi, Hexapodibius christenberryae, Biserovus bindae, Minibiotus fallax and a new Macrobiotus cf. hufelandi – may represent a distinctive regional fauna in cryptogams.

  16. The geographic distribution and ecological preferences of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), in the U.S.A.

    James, A M; Burdett, C; McCool, M J; Fox, A; Riggs, P

    2015-06-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP), caused by two parasitic organisms, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, is a tick-borne disease of recent concern in horses in the U.S.A. Outbreaks of EP have been detected in Florida, Missouri, Kansas and Texas. In 2009, EP transmission in Texas occurred through the adults of two tick species, Amblyomma mixtum [formerly known as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787)] Koch (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), the American dog tick (ADT). In this study, we developed a continent-scale map for the distribution of the EP vector species D.?variabilis, using a presence-only modelling approach to assess the habitat preferences of this tick. We used identification records from our tick geodatabase of locations in which the presence of the ADT had been noted. The potential distribution of the ADT in the U.S.A. was estimated from environmental factors using the maximum entropy approach based on localities in which there is a high probability of occurrence according to habitat suitability. Elevation and temperature were found to be biologically significant environmental variables influencing the presence of this tick species. Properly designed and constructed probability surfaces using maximum entropy offer one useful approach to the mapping of distribution ranges of tick species based on suitable habitat in the U.S.A. PMID:25684582

  17. The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions

    The distribution of 137Cs, 60Co, 54Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

  18. The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions

    Marciulioniene, D.; Jefanova, O.; Mazeika, J. [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lietuva (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

  19. Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta na costa de Pernambuco e Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta on the coast of Pernambuco State and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil

    Suellen Brayner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho identifica e fornece a distribuição do gênero Caulerpa na costa de Pernambuco (07º30' S e 09º00' W e no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha (03º51' S e 32º25' W. As coletas foram realizadas em 32 praias da costa de Pernambuco no período entre abril/2004 a novembro/2005, na região entre-marés. Em Fernando de Noronha as coletas foram feitas em junho/2006, na região entre marés e no infralitoral (10, 15 e 21 m de profundidade, em oito praias. Foram, também, analisadas as exsicatas de Caulerpa depositadas no Herbário Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho (PEUFR da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Os resultados mostram que o gênero Caulerpa está representado na costa de Pernambuco, por 19 táxons infragenéricos. Algumas espécies apresentaram distribuição restrita como C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh e C. serrulata (Forssk. J. Agardh. Para o Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha foram registrados três táxons infragenéricos.This paper analyzes the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa on the coast of Pernambuco (07º30'S; 09º00'W and in the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (03º51'S; 32º25'W. Sampling was carried out on the coast of Pernambuco from April/2004 to November/2005, in the intertidal zone of 32 beaches. On Fernando de Noronha collections were made in June/2006 in the intertidal and infralittoral (10, 15 and 21m depth regions of eight beaches. Exsiccata of Caulerpa from the Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho Herbarium (PEUFR were also examined. The results showed that the genus Caulerpa is represented on the coast of Pernambuco state by 19 infrageneric taxa. Some species had restricted distributions such as C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh and C. serrulata (Forssk. J. Agardh. Three infrageneric taxa were registered for the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago.

  20. Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)

    In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments (?8 ?m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at ?8 ?m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system

  1. Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)

    Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; De Falco, G. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Como, S. [International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Casu, D. [Dip. di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Floris, A. [Dip. di Zoologia e Genetica evoluzionistica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Petrov, A.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, 99011 Sevastopol (Ukraine); Castelli, A. [Dip. di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Perilli, A. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments ({<=}8 {mu}m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at {<=}8 {mu}m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system.

  2. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes : I. Taxonomy

    High demand and consumption rates of ecological materials and services to satisfy societal needs and for the dissipation of emissions are quickly exceeding the capacity that nature can provide. To avoid a tipping point situation, where ecological services may no longer be availa...

  3. Ecological studies in the bay of Paranaguá: I. horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton

    Frederico P Brandini

    1985-01-01

    Five stations were sampled monthly in the Bay of Paranaguá during one year cycle (1983-1984) to measure basic environmental parameters, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis with the purpose of understanding the principal factors that regulate the phytoplankton growth and distribution throughout the year. Surface temperature varied from 17 to 30ºC. The yearly average values for salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH ranged from 9.38 to 32.00‰, 5.17 to 5.53 ml/l and 7.46 to 8.18, respectively. A...

  4. Deep-sea distribution, biological and ecological aspects of Aristeus antennatus ( Risso, 1816) in the western and central Mediterranean Sea

    Sardà, Francisco; Maiorano, Porzia; Company, Joan B.; D´Onghia, Gianfranco; Politou, Chrissi-yianna

    2004-01-01

    [EN] The object of the DESEAS Project, funded by the EC, was to gather preliminary data on the abundance and maximum depth distribution of the rose shrimp Aristeusantennatus in the Mediterranean Sea. An exploratory survey was therefore designed with that goal in mind and conducted on the R/V García del Cid, sampling the maximum depths in three specific areas in the central and western Mediterranean, one off Ibiza (Balearic Islands), one off Calabria (western Ionian Sea), and one off the south...

  5. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks

    Highlights: • Thirty-eight antibiotics were systematically investigated in marine environment. • The distribution of antibiotics was significantly correlated with COD and NO3–N. • Untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics. • Fluoroquinolones showed a strong sorption capacity onto sediments. • Oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H2O indicated high risks. - Abstract: In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from <0.08 (clarithromycin) to 15,163 ng/L (oxytetracycline), 2.12 (methacycline) to 1318 ng/L (erythromycin–H2O), <1.95 (ciprofloxacin) to 184 ng/g (chlortetracycline) in the seawater, discharged effluent and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H2O posed high risks to aquatic organisms

  6. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia – IV: Seventeen new endemic species, a new combination, and three lectotypifications; with comments on distribution, ecological and evolutionary patterns

    Snow, Neil; Callmander, Martin; Phillipson, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen new endemic species of the genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae) are proposed from Madagascar, including: Eugenia andapae N. Snow, Eugenia barriei N. Snow, Eugenia bemangidiensis N. Snow, Eugenia calciscopulorum N. Snow, Eugenia delicatissima N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson, Eugenia echinulata N. Snow, Eugenia gandhii N. Snow, Eugenia hazonjia N. Snow, Eugenia iantarensis N. Snow, Eugenia malcomberi N. Snow, Eugenia manomboensis N. Snow, Eugenia obovatifolia N. Snow, Eugenia ranomafana N. Snow & D. Turk, Eugenia ravelonarivoi N. Snow & Callm., Eugenia razakamalalae N. Snow & Callm., Eugenia tiampoka N. Snow & Callm., and Eugenia wilsoniana N. Snow, and one new combination, Eugenia richardii (Blume) N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson is provided. Detailed descriptions, information on distribution and ecology, distribution maps, vernacular names (where known), digital images of types, comparisons to morphologically similar species. Preliminary assessment of IUCN risk of extinction and conservation recommendations are provided, including Vulnerable (4 species), Endangered (2 species), and Critically Endangered (4 species). Lectotpyes are designated for Eugenia hovarum H. Perrier, Eugenia nompa H. Perrier, and Eugenia scottii H. Perrier respectively. PMID:25987885

  7. Detection and spatial distribution of multiple-contaminants in agro-ecological Mediterranean wetlands (Marjal de Pego-Oliva, Spain)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda; Masia, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Socio economic activities are more and more producing amounts (in quantity and quality) of non desirable chemical substances (contaminants) that can be found in open air environments. As many of these products persist and may also circulate among environmental compartments, the cumulative incidence of such multiple contaminants combination may be a cause of treat that should not exists taking only in consideration concentrations of each contaminant individually because the number and the type of compounds are not known, as well as their cumulative and interaction effects. Thus prior to any further work analyzing the environmental risk of multiple contaminants their identification and level of concentration is required. In this work the potential presence of multiple contaminants of anthropogenic origin in a protected agro-ecological Mediterranean wetland is studied: the Pego-Oliva Marsh Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain), which is characterized by a long history of human pressures, such as marsh transformation for agricultural uses. Two major groups of relevant pollutants have been targeted according o two distinct environmental matrices: seven heavy metals in soils (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and fourteen emerging contaminants /drugs of abuse in surface waters of the natural lagoon, rivers and artificial irrigation networks (6-ACMOR, AMP, BECG, COC, ECGME, HER, KET, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, MET, MOR, THC, THC-COOH). The wetland was divided in nine representative zones with different types of land cover and land use. For soils, 24 samples were collected and for waters 33 taking in consideration the spatial representativeness of the above mention nine environments. Spatial analysis applying Geographical Information Systems to determine areas with greater incidence of both types of contaminants were also performed. With regard to heavy metals, Zn showed values under the detection limits in all samples, the remainder metals appeared in concentrations surpassing the WHO and EU limits for drinking waters, and all except Pb exceed the limits established for irrigation waters. For drugs of abuse 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphe-tamine, ketamine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine,methadone, 6-acetylmorphine and nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydro-cannabinol were detected. The mean concentrations were 0.62, 21.33, 1.30, 1.92, 2.25, 0.32, 0.04 and 0.07 ng l, respectively. Almost all samples had at least one substance. In the natural park a spatial trend in the number of contaminants and concentrations can be identified. Such pattern is more evident when analyzing heavy metals in soils. The presence of multiple contaminants is greater in agriculture fields devoted to citrus farming with decreasing intensities for rice fields and natural areas. Connectivity between urban, agriculture and natural lands produced by water flows may be part of the processes that introduce contaminants in the marsh land. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through the project CONSOLIDER-INGENIO 2010 (CSD2009) and by the Ministry and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (projects CGL2011-29703-C02-00, CGL2011-29703-C02-01, CGL2011-29703-C02-02).

  8. Seasonal biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and evaluation of ecological factors influencing species distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, Thailand.

    Srisuka, Wichai; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Yasushi; Fukuda, Masako; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Taai, Kritsana; Choochote, Wej; Saeung, Atiporn

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study on the seasonal biodiversity of black flies and evaluation of ecological factors influencing their distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, northern Thailand. Larvae were collected from six fixed-stream sites in relation to altitude gradients from May 2011 to April 2013. The water temperature, water pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salt, water velocity, stream width and depth, streambed particle sizes, riparian vegetation, and canopy cover were recorded from each site. Monthly collections from the six sites yielded 5475 last-instar larvae, belonging to 29 black fly species. The most frequently found species from all sites were Simulium asakoae (100%) followed by Simulium yuphae (83.3%), and Simulium chiangdaoense, Simulium gombakense, Simulium phahompokense, Simulium fruticosum, Simulium maeaiense and Simulium fenestratum (66.6%). Of the 5475 last-instar larvae, S. maeaiense (19.3%), S. chiangdaoense (15.8%) and S. asakoae (14.8%), were the three most abundant species. The Shannon diversity index (H) at the six sites with different altitudes of 2100m, 2000m, 1500m, 1400m, 700m, and 500m above mean sea level, were 2.042, 1.832, 2.158, 2.123, 1.821 and 1.822, respectively. The Shannon index and number of taxa in the cold season were higher than those in the rainy and hot seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that at least three principal components have eigen values >1.0 and accounted for 93.5% of the total variability of ecological factors among sampling sites. The Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that most species had a trend towards altitude, canopy cover, riparian vegetation and water velocity. PMID:26028177

  9. Ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri in systems science and systematics

    Currás, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The originality of this book, which deals with such a new subject matter, lies in the application of methods and concepts never used before - such as ontologies and taxonomies, as well as thesauri - to the ordering of knowledge based on primary information. Chapters in the book also examine the study of ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri from the perspective of systematics and general systems theory. Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in Systems Science and Systematics will be extremely useful to those operating within the network of related fields, which includes documentation and informati

  10. Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms

    The new 'Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms' was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1) each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2) each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3) each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4) the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document. The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates 'The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms,' and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and assigns each tumor to a single class within the tumor hierarchy. The entire classification and taxonomy are available as open access files (in XML and flat-file formats) with this article

  11. An IT Service Taxonomy for Elaborating IT Service Catalog

    Rabbi, Md Forhad

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, I, as the author, have tried to propose a methodology for establishing IT service taxonomy in order to elaborate IT service portfolio and IT service catalog. As a core part of my thesis, IT service taxonomy has been discussed to manage IT services in an efficient way in the small and medium sized enterprises The small and medium sized enterprises can use the categories and sub categories of this taxonomy to define their service catalog and portfolio. In that regards, a list of...

  12. Taxonomy of the genus Leishmania: present and future trends and their implications

    Shaw, Jeffrey J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of different taxonomic methods (Cladistic, Evolutionary Taxonomy and Numerical Taxonomy) to the taxonomy of the Genus Leishmania are reviewed. The major groupings of the most recent classifications obtained using the cladistical approach agree with the major divisions of previous classifications which used traditional taxonomy (Evolutionary Taxonomy). The advantage of the cladistical approach is that it produces cladograms whose branches indicate more accurately levels of rela...

  13. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses.

    Calisher, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored. PMID:26914357

  14. A Taxonomy of Metrics for Hosted Databases

    Jordan Shropshire

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The past three years has seen exponential growth in the number of organizations who have elected to entrust core information technology functions to application service providers. Of particular interest is the outsourcing of critical systems such as corporate databases. Major banks and financial service firms are contracting with third party organizations, sometimes overseas, for their database needs. These sophisticated contracts require careful supervision by both parties. Due to the complexities of web- based applications and the complicated nature of databases, an entire class of software suites has been developed to measure the quality of service the database is providing. This article investigates the performance metrics which have evolved to satisfy this need and describes a taxonomy of performance metrics for hosted databases.

  15. Phishing Detection Taxonomy for Mobile Device

    Cik Feresa Mohd Foozy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the social engineering attacks and currently hit on mobile devices. Based on security report by Lookout, 30% of Lookout users clicking on an unsafe link per year by using mobile device. Few phishing detection techniques have been applied on mobile device. However, review on phishing detection technique on the detection technique redundant is still need. This paper addresses the current trend phishing detection for mobile device and identifies significant criterion to improve phishing detection techniques on mobile device. Thus, existing research on phishing detection technique for computer and mobile device will be compared and analysed. Hence, outcome of the analysis becomes a guideline in proposing generic phishing detection taxonomy for mobile device

  16. A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis

    Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

    2004-12-23

    W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.

  17. [Taxonomy and definition of clinical registries].

    Costa, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess the needs of knowledge about surveillance and registries in Italy and to prepare a proposal for the advancement of monitoring and recording capacity, a working group led by the Italian Association of Epidemiology and composed by the University of Turin, the Institute of Health and Agenas, carried out a survey of definitions and approaches used in public health and consulted the main Italian experts in surveillance and registries. Some of the reflections developed in this project are presented, to assess to which extent they are adaptable to the prospects the program PRIER aims to. Different aspects of the issue are analyzed: from the frame work necessary to identify information needs and how to improve the ability to measure and types of definitions and taxonomies of the registers, to the implications of the choices about what to include in registries on regulation of the instruments and investment priorities for new registries and surveillance. PMID:26418503

  18. Current and pending taxonomy of the Pasteurellaceae

    Angen, Øystein

    Since the family Pasteurellaceae was established in 1981 the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant changes. 16S DNA sequencing showed in the early 1990-ties, that the three original genera were genetically heterogeneous. Presently, the family consists of 13 genetically...... phenotypic tests. Within genus Mannheimia the separation between M. haemolytica and M. glucosida was based on a polyphasic taxonomic investigation, but there is only one phenotypic character to separate the species and presently no genotypic test. A group of Mannheimia sp. is genetically distinct but lack...... common phenotypic characters and can consequently not be formally named. Such problems could be solved by establishing genomospecies. Histophilus somni represent a genotypically well defined species but show great phenotypic variability. Here a PCR test based on the rrn-operon was included in the formal...

  19. Ecological and geographical analysis of the distribution of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: importance of protected areas in future scenarios of global warming.

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17%) occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque's potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48%) of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador. PMID:25798851

  20. Ecological distribution and bioavailability of uranium series radionuclides in terrestrial food chains: Key Lake uranium operations, northern Saskatchewan

    The purpose of this study was to determine radionuclide uptake within the terrestrial ecosystem at uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan. The study site was the Key Lake mine, chosen because it has been an operational mine, mill, and surface tailings area for 15 years and will continue to be an active ore-milling and tailings disposal area for the next 40 years. The focus of the study was on the small mammal food chains in black spruce bogs nearest to the Key Lake facilities, since bog habitats tend to absorb and accumulate radionuclides. Three study sites were chosen on the basis of their proximity to sources of radioactive dust and the presence of bog habitats. Interconnected terrestrial ecosystem components were sampled at the same time at each site. Samples of needles, twigs, ground cover, litter, soils, small mammals, and birds were analyzed for the four radionuclides of greatest concern in the uranium decay series. Radiation doses were calculated to small mammals and birds, food chain transfer parameters were determined to enable future modelling of environmental pathways, and a variety of atmospheric dust collectors were pilot tested to examine the rates of radionuclide deposition from facility emissions to local environments. Four sets of conclusions are discussed regarding: radionuclide distribution within habitats and among sites; the radionuclides responsible for animal doses; the relative bioavailability of radionuclides among sites; and the measurement of atmospheric deposition rates

  1. Depth distribution and ecological preferences of periphytic algae in Kenyir Lake, the largest tropical reservoir of Malaysia

    Rouf, A. J. M. Abdur; Phang, Siew-Moi; Ambak, M. Azmi

    2010-07-01

    We studied the depth distribution of periphyton, growing on inundated dead trees in Kenyir Lake, Malaysia in June 1995. The algal floral composition and structure manifested changes down the depth gradient in terms of species richness, abundance, diversity and cell density. In regression analysis, all these algal attributes were negatively correlated with the depth gradients at Pspecies richness, the bacillariophytes showed dominance over the cyanophytes and chlorophytes; whereas with respect to standing crop, the cyanophytes showed dominance over the bacillariophytes and chlorophytes. The chlorophyll a was higher at the mid and bottom-depths than the surface-depth in both the downstream and upstream sites, which showed that vertical productivity or biomass accumulation was greater in low light irradiance. The product-moment correlation analysis showed that conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, reactive phosphate and ammonium-nitrogen were highly correlated with the algal assemblage data. However, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) showed poor correlation with the community data. These observations have cast some light on the autoecological characteristics, habitat preferences and environmental responses of tropical periphytic communities.

  2. Rhipicephalus rossicus, a neglected tick at the margin of Europe: a review of its distribution, ecology and medical importance.

    Mihalca, A D; Kalmár, Z; Dumitrache, M O

    2015-09-01

    Rhipicephalus rossicus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host tick with a broad host spectrum that includes wild animals, pets, livestock and humans. Despite its local abundance in certain areas, most of the available information on R. rossicus was published decades ago, mainly by former soviet authors. Its distribution largely overlaps the Eurasian steppe. However, its range may be more extensive than is currently known because this species may have been misidentified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, principally in areas where the latter species is present. Although R. rossicus has been occasionally reported to feed on people, little attention has been given to its medical importance. It has been shown to have a vectorial role in the transmission of Francisella tularensis, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and West Nile virus. However, the vectorial importance of R. rossicus may be significantly greater, mainly as the closely related species R. sanguineus s.l. is known to transmit a very wide spectrum of pathogens. The probably underestimated vectorial role of R. rossicus may represent a hidden public health threat. PMID:25761411

  3. Distribution and abundance of sea urchins in Singapore reefs and their potential ecological impacts on macroalgae and coral communities

    Goh, Beverly P. L.; Lim, Dawn Y. F.

    2015-06-01

    The sea urchin Diadema setosum is often encountered in the coral reefs in the Southern Islands of Singapore. While sea urchins have been known to play a role in regulating algal communities and influencing coral recruitment in other parts of the world, their role in Singapore reefs has not been determined. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of sea urchins in Singapore reefs, to examine algal cover, algal biomass, algal species and live coral cover, and to determine any interactions between urchin density and algal communities that may impact coral cover. Several reefs in Singapore were surveyed using belt transects measuring 20 m by 2 m, laid down on the reef crest. Abundance of urchins, algal species, biomass, and live coral cover were determined by the use of quadrats within each belt transect. This study revealed an increasing abundance of the sea urchin Diadema setosum in reefs progressing southwards away from mainland Singapore with low density of urchins occurring in Sisters' Island, St John's Island, Pulau Tekukor, and Kusu Island, and the highest density observed at Raffles Lighthouse. A significant negative linear relationship between algal cover and live coral cover (P urchins may not be an important component of the herbivore guild in Singapore.

  4. Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk assessment of multiple classes of UV filters in surface waters from different countries.

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Wai, Tak-Cheung; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Liu, Wenhua; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-12-15

    Organic UV filters are common ingredients of personal care products (PCPs), but little is known about their distribution in and potential impacts to the marine environment. This study reports the occurrence and risk assessment of twelve widely used organic UV filters in surface water collected in eight cities in four countries (China, the United States, Japan, and Thailand) and the North American Arctic. The number of compounds detected, Hong Kong (12), Tokyo (9), Bangkok (9), New York (8), Los Angeles (8), Arctic (6), Shantou (5) and Chaozhou (5), generally increased with population density. Median concentrations of all detectable UV filters were Arctic is likely due to a combination of inadequate wastewater treatment and long-range oceanic transport. Principal component analysis (PCA) and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to explore spatiotemporal patterns and difference in organic UV filter levels in Hong Kong. In general, spatial patterns varied with sampling month and all compounds showed higher concentrations in the wet season except benzophenone-4 (BP-4). Probabilistic risk assessment showed that 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) posed greater risk to algae, while benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) were more likely to pose a risk to fishes and also posed high risk of bleaching in hard corals in aquatic recreational areas in Hong Kong. This study is the first to report the occurrence of organic UV filters in the Arctic and provides a wider assessment of their potential negative impacts in the marine environment. PMID:25261628

  5. The genus Scolymus Tourn. ex L. (Asteraceae: taxonomy and distribution

    Vzquez, Francisco M.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the genus Scolymus Tourn. ex L. is presented. Seven taxa are recognised, two of them new to science: Scolymus hispanicus subsp. occidentalis F.M. Vzquez, subsp. nov., and S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] i. decoloratus Fiori ex F.M. Vzquez,/ nov.; a new combination, S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] var. aggregatus (Ruch. F.M. Vzquez, comb. & stat. nov., is proposed. The type and full synonymy for each taxon are given. A selection of the specimens studied is presented in Appendix I. Some of the taxa are illustrated in figures.Se presenta una revisin taxonmica del gnero Scolymus Tourn. ex L., en la que se reconocen siete txones, dos de ellos nuevos para la ciencia: Scolymus hispanicus subsp. occidentalis F.M. Vzquez, subspnov. ., y S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] f. decoloratus Fiori ex F.M. Vzquez,/ nov.; se propone una combinacin a nivel de variedad: S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] var. aggregatus (Ruch. F.M. Vzquez, comb. & stat. nov. Se han revisado todos los sinnimos nomenclaturales y taxonmicos, y se incluye en el Apndice I un listado de parte del material estudiado. Finalmente, se ilustra mediante figuras una parte de los txones recogidos en el trabajo.

  6. Taxonomy, distribution and germplasm collection needs of Daucus

    The flowering plant family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) comprises 300–455 genera and some 3000– 3750 species. It is cosmopolitan, and most diverse in the northern hemisphere. Carrot is by far its most economically important member. The obvious distinctive characters of many of these plants, such as herbs...

  7. Ecological Economics

    Martnez Alier, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

  8. Evaluating the Species Boundaries of Green Microalgae (Coccomyxa, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) Using Integrative Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding with Further Implications for the Species Identification in Environmental Samples

    Darienko, Tatyana; Gustavs, Lydia; Eggert, Anja; Wolf, Wiebke; Prschold, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy is an approach for defining species and genera by taking phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, and ecological data into account. This approach is appropriate for microalgae, where morphological convergence and high levels of morphological plasticity complicate the application of the traditional classification. Although DNA barcode markers are well-established for animals, fungi, and higher plants, there is an ongoing discussion about suitable markers for microalgae ...

  9. The HCBS Taxonomy- A New Language for Classifying Home...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The home- and community-based services (HCBS) taxonomy provides a common language for describing and categorizing HCBS across Medicaid programs. Prior to the...

  10. Comment - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... iption Species Name English common name of species Scientific ... Name Scientific ... name of species Icon File name of ...

  11. Integrative taxonomy: a multisource approach to exploring biodiversity.

    Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M; Seifert, Bernhard; Stauffer, Christian; Christian, Erhard; Crozier, Ross H

    2010-01-01

    Good alpha taxonomy is central to biology. On the basis of a survey of arthropod studies that used multiple disciplines for species delimitation, we evaluated the performance of single disciplines. All included disciplines had a considerable failure rate. Rigor in species delimitation can thus be increased when several disciplines chosen for complementarity are used. We present a flexible procedure and stopping rule for integrative taxonomy that uses the information from different disciplines separately. Disagreement among disciplines over the number and demarcation of species is resolved by elucidating and invoking evolutionary explanations for disagreement. With the identification of further promising study organisms and of new questions for in-depth analysis, evolutionary biology should profit from integrative taxonomy. An important rationale is clarity in researcher bias in the decision-making process. The success of integrative taxonomy will further increase through methodological progress, taxonomic training of evolutionary biologists, and balanced resource allocation. PMID:19737081

  12. Ecological studies in the bay of Paranaguá: I. horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton

    Frederico P Brandini

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Five stations were sampled monthly in the Bay of Paranaguá during one year cycle (1983-1984 to measure basic environmental parameters, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis with the purpose of understanding the principal factors that regulate the phytoplankton growth and distribution throughout the year. Surface temperature varied from 17 to 30ºC. The yearly average values for salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH ranged from 9.38 to 32.00‰, 5.17 to 5.53 ml/l and 7.46 to 8.18, respectively. Average concentrations of total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate and silicate varied from 3.31 to 8.48, 0.38 to 0.97 and 27.68 to 98.36 µg-at/l, respectively, with increasing concentrations toward the inner bay. Chlorophyll-a at the surface varied between 2.86 and 13.99 mg/m³ with high concentrations in the inner bay associated with high nutrient contents and lower salinities. Low photosynthetic rates were measured at the surface, varying from 0.01 to 7.36 mgC/m³/h. Phytoflagellates and Skeletonema costatum dominated the phytoplankton population during the study period. The temporal fluctuations in the inner bay are associated with the rainfall regime. High amounts of precipitation increase the concentrations of nutrients and consequently improve the phytoplankton growth. This is however limited by nitrogen deficiency (as indicated by the low N to P ratios observed and turbidity.Foram feitas coletas mensais na Baia de Paranaguá (Paraná em 5 estações fixas durante um ano (1983-1984 para se medir parâmetros ambientais básicos, biomassa e fotossíntese do fitoplâncton durante um período sazonal. A temperatura na superfície variou de 17 a 30ºC. As médias anuais de salinidade, oxigênio dissolvido e pH variaram de 9,38-32,00‰, 5,17-5,53 ml/l e 7,468,18, respectivamente. As concentrações médias do nitrogênio inorgânico total, fosfato e silicato variaram de 3,31-8,48, 0,38-0,97 e 27,68-98,36 µg-at/l, respectivamente, com os máximos obtidos na parte mais interna da baia. A clorofila-a na superfície variou entre 2,86 e 13,99 mg/m³ com máximos na parte mais interna da baía associadas às altas concentrações de nutrientes e salinidades mais baixas. As taxas de fotossíntese obtidas na superfície variaram entre 0,01 e 7,36 mgC/m³/h, com máximos na região mais interna da baía. Fitoflagelados e Skeletonema costatum dominaram a populaçao fitoplanctonica durante o período estudado. As variações temporais no interior da baía foram associadas ao regime de chuvas. A alta pluviosidade aumenta a concentração de nutrientes e conseqüentemente, estimula o desenvolvimento do fitoplâncton que é, no entanto, limitado pela deficiência em nitrogênio e pela turbidez da água.

  13. New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.

    Hugues, Olivier; Fuchs, Philippe; Nannipieri, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We divide these environme...

  14. Towards a taxonomy of parallel branch and bound algorithms

    Trienekens, H.W.J.M.; Bruin, Arie

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we present a classification of parallel branch and bound algorithms, and elaborate on the consequences of particular parameter settings. The taxonomy is based upon how the algorithms handle the knowledge about the problem instance to be solved, generated during execution. The starting point of the taxonomy is the generally accepted description of the sequential branch and bound algorithm, as presented in, for example, [Mitten 1970] and [Ibaraki 1976a, 1976b, 1977a, 1...

  15. GROUP PSYCHOLOGICAL ABUSE: TAXONOMY AND SEVERITY OF ITS COMPONENTS

    Álvaro Rodríguez-Carballeira; Omar Saldaña; Carmen Almendros; Javier Martín-Peña; Jordi Escartín; Clara Porrúa-García

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delimit group psychological abuse through a psychosocial approach. An operational definition of the phenomenon and a taxonomy of group psychological abuse strategies were proposed based on a review of the scientific literature. A panel of 31 experts in the area evaluated the content of the taxonomy and judged the severity of the strategies through a Delphi study. Group psychological abuse was defined by the application of abusive strategies, their continued du...

  16. Evaluating a Taxonomy for Mobility Requirements by a Controlled Experiment

    Sundar Gopalakrishnan; Peter Karpati; Guttorm Sindre

    2012-01-01

    Requirements taxonomies have been found useful in software requirements elicitation and specification, both for educational purposes and in practical usage, for instance, as checklists to ensure that important categories of requirements are not forgotten, and for guidance on how to write various types of requirements. While mobile information systems are becoming increasingly important, traditional requirements taxonomies do not have any category for mobility requirements. This paper reports ...

  17. Toward a Taxonomy and Costing Method for Security Services

    Irvine, Cynthia; Levin, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of security services may be available to applications in a heterogeneous computer network. Resource Management Systems (RMSs) responsible for assigning computing and network resources to tasks need to know the resource-utilization costs associated with the various network security services. In order to understand the range of security services and RMS needs to manage, a preliminary security service taxonomy is defined. The taxonomy is used as framework for a preliminary method...

  18. Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life.

    Hinchliff, Cody E; Smith, Stephen A; Allman, James F; Burleigh, J Gordon; Chaudhary, Ruchi; Coghill, Lyndon M; Crandall, Keith A; Deng, Jiabin; Drew, Bryan T; Gazis, Romina; Gude, Karl; Hibbett, David S; Katz, Laura A; Laughinghouse, H Dail; McTavish, Emily Jane; Midford, Peter E; Owen, Christopher L; Ree, Richard H; Rees, Jonathan A; Soltis, Douglas E; Williams, Tiffani; Cranston, Karen A

    2015-10-13

    Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips-the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly of two additional community resources: (i) a comprehensive global reference taxonomy and (ii) a database of published phylogenetic trees mapped to this taxonomy. Our open source framework facilitates community comment and contribution, enabling the tree to be continuously updated when new phylogenetic and taxonomic data become digitally available. Although data coverage and phylogenetic conflict across the Open Tree of Life illuminate gaps in both the underlying data available for phylogenetic reconstruction and the publication of trees as digital objects, the tree provides a compelling starting point for community contribution. This comprehensive tree will fuel fundamental research on the nature of biological diversity, ultimately providing up-to-date phylogenies for downstream applications in comparative biology, ecology, conservation biology, climate change, agriculture, and genomics. PMID:26385966

  19. Amphibians in Southern Apennine: distribution, ecology and conservation notes in the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (Southern Italy

    Antonio Romano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.

  20. DNA barcoding and the taxonomy of Microgastrinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae): impacts after 8 years and nearly 20 000 sequences.

    Alex Smith, M; Fernández-Triana, J L; Eveleigh, E; Gómez, J; Guclu, C; Hallwachs, W; Hebert, P D N; Hrcek, J; Huber, J T; Janzen, D; Mason, P G; Miller, S; Quicke, D L J; Rodriguez, J J; Rougerie, R; Shaw, M R; Várkonyi, G; Ward, D F; Whitfield, J B; Zaldívar-Riverón, A

    2013-03-01

    Microgastrine wasps are among the most species-rich and numerous parasitoids of caterpillars (Lepidoptera). They are often host-specific and thus are extensively used in biological control efforts and figure prominently in trophic webs. However, their extraordinary diversity coupled with the occurrence of many cryptic species produces a significant taxonomic impediment. We present and release the results of 8 years (2004-2011) of DNA barcoding microgastrine wasps. Currently they are the best represented group of parasitoid Hymenoptera in the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), a massive barcode storage and analysis data management site for the International Barcoding of Life (iBOL) program. There are records from more than 20 000 specimens from 75 countries, including 50 genera (90% of the known total) and more than 1700 species (as indicated by Barcode Index Numbers and 2% MOTU). We briefly discuss the importance of this DNA data set and its collateral information for future research in: (1) discovery of cryptic species and description of new taxa; (2) estimating species numbers in biodiversity inventories; (3) clarification of generic boundaries; (4) biological control programmes; (5) molecular studies of host-parasitoid biology and ecology; (6) evaluation of shifts in species distribution and phenology; and (7) fostering collaboration at national, regional and world levels. The integration of DNA barcoding with traditional morphology-based taxonomy, host records, and other data has substantially improved the accuracy of microgastrine wasp identifications and will significantly accelerate further studies on this group of parasitoids. PMID:23228011