WorldWideScience
1

Taxonomy, biodiversity, and ecology of Apusozoa (Protozoa)  

OpenAIRE

Apusozoa (Protozoa) is a phylum of heterotrophic gliding zooflagellates of unknown taxonomic affiliation, commonly observed in environmental samples. Almost nothing was previously known about the diversity and ecology of apusozoan species though, as bacterivores, they are probably important functional constituents within microbial assemblages.We explored apusozoan morphological and genetic diversity, ecology, and related methodological questions. By culturing environmental material from a ran...

Glu?cksman, Edvard; Cavalier-smith, Thomas

2011-01-01

2

Taxonomy, phylogeny and reproductive ecology of Gentiana lutea L.  

OpenAIRE

This research focuses on taxonomy, phylogeny and reproductive ecology of Gentiana lutea. L.. Taxonomic analysis is a critical step in botanical studies, as it is necessary to recognize taxonomical unit. Herbarium specimens were observed to assess the reliability of several subspecies-diagnostic characters. The analysis of G. lutea genetic variability and the comparison with that of the other species of sect. Gentiana were performed to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among G. lutea sub...

Rossi, Martina

2012-01-01

3

Marine ecology service reuse through taxonomy-oriented SPL development  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, reusing software applications encourages researchers and industrials to collaborate in order to increase software quality and to reduce software development costs. However, effective reuse is not easy and only a limited portion of reusable models actually offers effective evidence regarding their appropriateness, usability and/or effectiveness. Focusing reuse on a particular domain, such as marine ecology, allows us to narrow the scope; and along with a systematic approach such as software product line development, helps us to potentially improving reuse. From our experiences developing a subdomain-oriented software product line (SPL for the marine ecology subdomain), in this paper we describe semantic resources created for assisting this development and thus promoting systematic software reuse. The main contributions of our work are focused on the definition of a standard conceptual model for marine ecology applications together with a set of services and guides which assist the process of product derivation. The services are structured in a service taxonomy (as a specialization of the ISO 19119 std) in which we create a new set of categories and services built over a conceptual model for marine ecology applications. We also define and exemplify a set of guides for composing the services of the taxonomy in order to fulfill different functionalities of particular systems in the subdomain.

Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Pol`la, Matias; Arias, Maximiliano; del Socorro Doldan, Maria; Morsan, Enrique

2014-12-01

4

The genus Bolboschoenus in Iran: taxonomy and distribution.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 28, ?. 5 (2010), s. 588-602. ISSN 0107-055X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Bolboschoenus * taxonomy, distribution, polyploidy * inflorescence structure Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.761, year: 2010

Amini Rad, M.; Hroudová, Zdenka; Marhold, K.

2010-01-01

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Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and hosts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the current distribution of Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as the results of my field studies. The majority of localities are in south and south-eastern Poland: Ma?opolska Upland, Lublin Upland, Roztocze, Przemy?l Foothills, Pieniny Mts, rarely in the valleys of the Lower Vistula and Oder rivers or Wolin island. The distribution map in Poland is included. The taxonomy, biology and ecology of the species are discussed.

Renata Piwowarczyk

2014-09-01

6

The relationships between the isoelectric point and: length of proteins, taxonomy and ecology of organisms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of isoelectric point (pI of proteins in a proteome is universal for all organisms. It is bimodal dividing the proteome into two sets of acidic and basic proteins. Different species however have different abundance of acidic and basic proteins that may be correlated with taxonomy, subcellular localization, ecological niche of organisms and proteome size. Results We have analysed 1784 proteomes encoded by chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, and also mitochondria, plastids, prokaryotic plasmids, phages and viruses. We have found significant correlation in more than 95% of proteomes between the protein length and pI in proteomes – positive for acidic proteins and negative for the basic ones. Plastids, viruses and plasmids encode more basic proteomes while chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, mitochondria and phages more acidic ones. Mitochondrial proteomes of Viridiplantae, Protista and Fungi are more basic than Metazoa. It results from the presence of basic proteins in the former proteomes and their absence from the latter ones and is related with reduction of metazoan genomes. Significant correlation was found between the pI bias of proteomes encoded by prokaryotic chromosomes and proteomes encoded by plasmids but there is no correlation between eukaryotic nuclear-coded proteomes and proteomes encoded by organelles. Detailed analyses of prokaryotic proteomes showed significant relationships between pI distribution and habitat, relation to the host cell and salinity of the environment, but no significant correlation with oxygen and temperature requirements. The salinity is positively correlated with acidicity of proteomes. Host-associated organisms and especially intracellular species have more basic proteomes than free-living ones. The higher rate of mutations accumulation in the intracellular parasites and endosymbionts is responsible for the basicity of their tiny proteomes that explains the observed positive correlation between the decrease of genome size and the increase of basicity of proteomes. The results indicate that even conserved proteins subjected to strong selectional constraints follow the global trend in the pI distribution. Conclusion The distribution of pI of proteins in proteomes shows clear relationships with length of proteins, subcellular localization, taxonomy and ecology of organisms. The distribution is also strongly affected by mutational pressure especially in intracellular organisms.

Smolarczyk Kamila

2007-06-01

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Numerical taxonomy and ecology of petroleum-degrading bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 99 strains of petroleum-degrading bacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment were identified by using numerical taxonomy procedures. The isolates, together with 33 reference cultures, were examined for 48 biochemical, cultural, morphological, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by computer, using both the simple matching and the Jaccard coefficients. Clustering was achieved by the unweighted average linkage method. From the sorted similarity matrix and dendrogram, 14 phenetic groups, comprising 85 of the petroleum-degrading bacteria, were defined at the 80 to 85% similarity level. These groups were identified as actinomycetes (mycelial forms, four clusters), coryneforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella aerogenes, Micrococcus spp. (two clusters), Nocardia species (two clusters), Pseudomonas spp. (two clusters), and Sphaerotilus natans. It is concluded that the degradation of petroleum is accomplished by a diverse range of bacterial taxa, some of which were isolated only at given sampling stations and, more specifically, from sediment collected at a given station. PMID:889329

Austin, B; Calomiris, J J; Walker, J D; Colwell, R R

1977-07-01

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Numerical taxonomy and ecology of petroleum-degrading bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 99 strains of petroleum-degrading bacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment were identified by using numerical taxonomy procedures. The isolates, together with 33 reference cultures, were examined for 48 biochemical, cultural, morphological, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by computer, using both the simple matching and the Jaccard coefficients. Clustering was achieved by the unweighted average linkage method. From the sorted similarity matrix and dendrogram, 14 phenetic groups, comprising 85 of the petroleum-degrading bacteria, were defined at the 80 to 85% similarity level. These groups were identified as actinomycetes (mycelial forms, four clusters), coryneforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella aerogenes, Micrococcus spp. (two clusters), Nocardia species (two clusters), Pseudomonas spp. (two clusters), and Sphaerotilus natans. It is concluded that the degradation of petroleum is accomplished by a diverse range of bacterial taxa, some of which were isolated only at given sampling stations and, more specifically, from sediment collected at a given station.

Austin, B.; Calomiris, J.J.; Walker, J.D.; Colwell, R.R.

1977-07-01

9

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the dog : taxonomy, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology and pathogenicity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the species, including the latest research outcomes, with emphasis on taxonomy, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology and pathogenicity. Despite the important taxonomic changes that have occurred over the past few years, the risk of misidentification in canine specimens is low and does not have serious consequences for clinical practice. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage in the dog is more frequent and genetically heterogeneous compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus in man. It appears that these staphylococcal species have evolved separately through adaptation to their respective natural hosts and differ with regard to various aspects concerning ecology, population structure and evolution of antibiotic resistance.Further understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of S. pseudintermedius is hampered by the lack of a standard method for rapid and discriminatory typing and by the limited data available on longitudinal carriage and population structure of meticillin-susceptible strains. With regard to pathogenicity, it is only now that we are starting to explore the virulence potential of S. pseudintermedius based on genomic and proteomic approaches, and more research is needed to assess the importance of individual virulence factors and the possible existence of hypervirulent strains.

Bannoehr, Jeanette; Guardabassi, Luca

2012-01-01

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Orobanche elatior and O. kochii (Orobanchaceae in Poland: distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and seed micromorphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Species of the genus Orobanche (Orobanchaceae, parasitic on Centaurea in Central Europe, were previously considered to belong to the O. elatior group. At present, the taxon is differentiated into two species, O. elatior Sutton and O. kochii F.W. Schultz. The paper presents for the first time the distribution of O. elatior and O. kochii in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and the literature data, as well as the results of field studies conducted between 1999 and 2014. The majority of the species’ localities are in south Poland: Silesia-Cracow, Ma?opolska and the Lublin Uplands. The distribution of both species in Poland is mapped and chronologically organized, and is thus the most recent in Europe. The taxonomy, host preferences, and ecology are also discussed. Seeds of both species were also investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy, which resulted in the designation of diagnostic features. The new color form of O. kochii f. citrina is described and illustrated. An account of all revised herbarium specimens collected from Poland, deposited in Poland and neighboring countries, is presented.

Renata Piwowarczyk

2015-03-01

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Charophytes (Characeae, Charophyta) in the Czech Republic: taxonomy, autecology and distribution.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 9, ?. 1 (2009), s. 1-43. ISSN 1802-5439 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/09/0697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Charophytes * distribution * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.762, year: 2009

Caisová, Lenka; Gabka, M.

2009-01-01

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Soil Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

From Alfisols to Vertisols, this substantial resource (.pdf format only) from the US Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service provides an in-depth treatment of soil taxonomy around the world. Published in 1999 (Second Edition), this Soil Taxonomy text includes 23 chapters, covering the basics of soil classification through the world distribution of orders and suborders. Soil taxonomy maps are provided separately, highlighting dominant soils in the US, as well as global soil regions. In addition, an Errata sheet lists corrections for the printed text. This magnificent volume will prove useful to researchers, students, and educators, alike.

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The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae) in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presented. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América do ...

Macculloch, Ross D.; Amy Lathrop; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Raffael Ernst; Michelle Kalamandeen

2009-01-01

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Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.Foram realizadas coletas em 207 corpos de água, distribuídos em 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos (UHGRH do estado de São Paulo no período de 1999 a 2002, abrangendo grandes e pequenos reservatórios, lagoas marginais e grandes rios. Nestas coletas foram analisadas as espécies do gênero Thermocyclops quanto à taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e freqüência de ocorrência. O gênero Thermocyclops ocorreu em corpos de água com zona limnética bem desenvolvida e com raras exceções em ambientes estritamente litorâneos. Foram registradas quatro espécies, sendo Thermcyclops iguapensis espécie nova, que ocorreu nos reservatórios das UHGRHs Ribeira do Iguape e Paraíba do Sul. A descrição da espécie nova e a distribuição das quatro espécies são apresentadas, mostrando que Thermocyclops decipiens foi a espécie mais freqüente, ocorrendo em 71% dos corpos de água com região limnética desenvolvida. Esta espécie é característica de ambientes eutróficos, onde ocorre em grande número, e a espécie Thermocyclops minutus é característica de ambientes oligotróficos. Thermocyclops inversus e Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. não são espécies freqüentes, mas podem co-ocorrer com a espécie Thermocyclops decipiens.

W. M. Silva

2005-08-01

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A Taxonomy and Survey of Distributed Computing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Technology is the combination of knowledge and working hard. When users want to accomplish something using special technology, they do not want to know how it works. Technologies are coming to solve and ease our complex problems. It means that users only want to employ technology without any expert skills. Distributed computing is one of the technologies that is used to solve large and complex computational problems. It is based on distributed systems to address computational problems. In this study we are going to highlight the most well-known distributed computing paradigms and explain their technology building blocks. We provide a comprehensive explanation of cloud computing, volunteer computing and also volunteer cloud computing paradigm along with their advantages and also their open issues.

Mohammadfazel Anjomshoa

2015-01-01

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CHANGES IN TAXONOMY, OCCURRENCE OF THE SEXUAL STAGE AND ECOLOGY OF TRICHODERMA SPP.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA sequence analysis has had at least three positive effects on taxonomy of Trichoderma. All of the approximately 60 described species (including unnamed anamorphs of Hypocrea) have been characterized by two or more genes, making identification of species accessible to anybody who can obtain DNA se...

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The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presented. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América do Sul. Os espécimes e registros de Oxyrhopus da Guyana foram examinados. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis e O. petola ocorre na Guyana. Os dados de morfologia e coloração destas espécies são apresentados. As distribuições destas espécies e caracteres para distinguir essas espécies são discutidos.

Ross D. MacCulloch

2009-01-01

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The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae) in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América do Sul. Os espécimes e registros de Oxyrhopus da Guyana foram examinados. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis e O. petola ocorre na Guyana. Os dados de morfologia e coloração destas espécies são apr [...] esentados. As distribuições destas espécies e caracteres para distinguir essas espécies são discutidos. Abstract in english Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presen [...] ted. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.

Ross D., MacCulloch; Amy, Lathrop; Philippe J. R., Kok; Raffael, Ernst; Michelle, Kalamandeen.

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Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets. PMID:24066037

Higginbotham, Sarah J; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Ibañez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

2013-01-01

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Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

21

Taxonomy and distribution of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Insecta) from Cuba.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heteroptera is a worldwide distributed group of insects inhabiting both terrestrial and aquatic habitats and has an important ecological role. A survey of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera from Cuba is provided based on literature reports and field collections. General data on species geographical distribution are given, along with altitude and collection season. Representatives of 86 species and morphospecies of the infraorders Dipsocoromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha are listed, distributed in 35 genera and 16 families were found. Based on distributional data, a preference for habitats of stagnant water or slow current and lower altitudes is inferred. Fifteen species are distributed throughout the entire island. A higher species diversity was found in the Eastern sector, with 53 species (61.63%), 16 of which (18.60%) are confined to this area. The strongest biological similarity was found between Eastern and Western sectors (25%), and the weakest between Western and Central sectors (14%). PMID:20737845

Naranjo, Carlos; Muñoz Riviaux, Senén; Moreira, Felipe F F; Correa Court, Ramón

2010-09-01

22

Characterisation of the ozone sensitivity of Central European plant species: relation to taxonomy, ecology, growth rates and leaf density; Charakterisierung der Ozonsensitivitaet mitteleuropaeischer Pflanzenarten: Beziehung zu Taxonomie, Oekologie, Wachstumsraten und Blattdichte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fumigation experiments with wild plant species performed in recent years are not necessarily representative for the Central European flora, especially when it comes down to the use of species from red data books in these studies. Moreover, ozone experiments are not representative with respect to plant life forms, taxonomy and ecology. However, first tendencies can be derived: Legumes and Compositae are families comprising many sensitive species with regard to acute injury and growth reductions due to ozone. In contrast to this, the family of Sweet Grasses contains some species with growth stimulations due to ozone. Fastgrowing ruderal strategists and competitive species tend to respond more pronounced than slow-growing species. On the average, plant species with acute injury have thinner leaves than those showing no symptoms. (orig.) [German] Die bislang in Begasungsversuchen untersuchten Wildpflanzenarten repraesentieren nur einen kleinen Teil der mitteleuropaeischen Flora, besonders die Arten der Roten Liste sind noch unterrepraesentiert. Auch hinsichtlich Lebensformen, Taxonomie und Oekologie ist die Ozonwirkungsforschung an Wildpflanzen nur bedingt repraesentativ. Aus den bislang durchgefuehrten Experimenten lassen sich jedoch erste Tendenzen erkennen: Die Familien der Schmetterlings- und Korbblueter enthalten viele ozonsensitive Taxa, was akute Schaeden und Wuchsminderungen anbelangt. In der Familie der Suessgraeser gibt es andererseits Arten, die auf Ozon mit einer Wachstumsstimulierung reagieren. Schnellwuechsige Ruderalstrategen und konkurrenzstarke Arten erweisen sich insgesamt ozonsensitiver als die langsamwuechsigen Arten. Pflanzenarten mit akuter Blattschaedigung haben im Mittel duennere Blaetter als Arten ohne sichtbare Schaeden. (orig.)

Franzaring, J.

2000-07-01

23

Early Carboniferous Chinese and Australian „Siphonodendron” (Anthozoa, Rugosa): ecological and geographical influence on taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

Normal marine salinity is the main limiting factor for the Subclass Rugosa. Water depth and temperature are less critical. Individual characteristics of specimens and some characteristics of species are, however, excellent environmental indicators. Being distributed exclusively by larvae, Rugosa required free distribution by means of marine currents, as well as midway areas suitable for settlement and metamorphosis of the larvae. Not distance but rather geography and midway environments are t...

Fedorowski, Jerzy

2008-01-01

24

On the Widespread Occurrence of the Inverse Square Distribution in Social Sciences and Taxonomy  

CERN Document Server

The widespread occurrence of an inverse square relation in the hierarchical distribution of sub-communities within communities (or sub-species within species) has been recently invoked as a signature of hierarchical self-organization within social and ecological systems. Here we show that, whether such systems are self-organized or not, this behavior is the consequence of the tree-like classification method. Different tree-like classifications (both of real and truly random systems) display a similar statistical behaviour when considering the sizes of their sub-branches.

Caldarelli, G; De Rios, P L; Servedio, V D P; Caldarelli, Guido; Cartozo, Cecile Caretta; Rios, Paolo De Los; Servedio, Vito D.P.

2003-01-01

25

Social Media Ecology in Distributed Workplaces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this position paper, we discuss about methods currently adopted for research- ing the use of social media in distributed workplace. We have extensively reviewed previ- ous empirical studies through an ongoing Systematic Mapping Study focused on the use of social media in distributed teams; from the review, we realized that research is mainly per- formed through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods and that each study usually fo- cuses on one specific kind social media at a time. We believe that the social media ecology should be researched as a whole and in relationship with the physical workplace, there- fore ethnographic methods can be adopted to investigate this area. We aim to motivate a debate providing some research questions, which might be addressed by researchers.

Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

2011-01-01

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Taxonomy and distribution of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Insecta from Cuba  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heteroptera is a worldwide distributed group of insects inhabiting both terrestrial and aquatic habitats and has an important ecological role. A survey of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera from Cuba is provided based on literature reports and field collections. General data on species geographical distribution are given, along with altitude and collection season. Representatives of 86 species and morphospecies of the infraorders Dipsocoromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha are listed, distributed in 35 genera and 16 families were found. Based on distributional data, a preference for habitats of stagnant water or slow current and lower altitudes is inferred. Fifteen species are distributed throughout the entire island. A higher species diversity was found in the Eastern sector, with 53 species (61.63%, 16 of which (18.60% are confined to this area. The strongest biological similarity was found between Eastern and Western sectors (25%, and the weakest between Western and Central sectors (14%. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 897-907. Epub 2010 September 01.Heteroptera es un grupo de insectos que se distribuyen en todo el mundo, viven en ambientes terrestres y acuáticos, en los que tienen un papel ecológico muy importante. Mediante la literatura y colecciones en el campo se estudiaron los Heterópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos de Cuba, junto con datos sobre la distribución geográfica de las especies, altitud y estaciones de colecta. Se enumeran representantes de 86 especies y morfospecies de los infraórdenes Dipsocoromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha, con un total de 35 géneros y 16 familias. Los datos de distribución muestran una preferencia por los ambientes de aguas lentas o estancadas y áreas de baja altitud. Quince especies se distribuyen en toda la isla; el sector Oriental es el mejor representado, con 53 especies (61.63%, 16 de ellas (18.60% confinadas a este sector. La similitud biológica más fuerte se encontró entre los sectores oriental y occidental (25% y la más débil entre los sectores occidental y central (14%.

Carlos Naranjo

2010-09-01

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The reminiscence bump for public events: A review of its prevalence and taxonomy of alternative age distributions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present paper examines the extant literature on the reminiscence bump for public events (the finding that public events are generally remembered best by those in adolescence or early adulthood at the time of their occurrence), with the aim of identifying (i) whether this bump in fact represents a legitimate effect, and (ii) the alternative age distributions that are otherwise seen in recall for public events. I conclude that, though the bump is frequently found, the legitimacy of the effect is contingent upon the strictness of the standard one employs. I also find significant exceptions to the bump, with a number of alternative age distributions seen in the literature. Therefore, I present a taxonomy of these alternative age distributions. Lastly, I discuss the implications of the existing literature regarding the mechanisms underlying the bump and offer suggestions for future research.

Koppel, Jonathan Mark

2013-01-01

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Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans ... Nematoda Caenorhabditis_elegans _L.png Caenorhabditis_elegans _NL.png Caeno ... rhabditis_elegans _S.png Caenorhabditis_elegans _NS.png http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

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Taxonomy and distribution of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Insecta) from Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Heteroptera es un grupo de insectos que se distribuyen en todo el mundo, viven en ambientes terrestres y acuáticos, en los que tienen un papel ecológico muy importante. Mediante la literatura y colecciones en el campo se estudiaron los Heterópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos de Cuba, junto con datos [...] sobre la distribución geográfica de las especies, altitud y estaciones de colecta. Se enumeran representantes de 86 especies y morfospecies de los infraórdenes Dipsocoromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha, con un total de 35 géneros y 16 familias. Los datos de distribución muestran una preferencia por los ambientes de aguas lentas o estancadas y áreas de baja altitud. Quince especies se distribuyen en toda la isla; el sector Oriental es el mejor representado, con 53 especies (61.63%), 16 de ellas (18.60%) confinadas a este sector. La similitud biológica más fuerte se encontró entre los sectores oriental y occidental (25%) y la más débil entre los sectores occidental y central (14%). Abstract in english Heteroptera is a worldwide distributed group of insects inhabiting both terrestrial and aquatic habitats and has an important ecological role. A survey of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera from Cuba is provided based on literature reports and field collections. General data on species geographical [...] distribution are given, along with altitude and collection season. Representatives of 86 species and morphospecies of the infraorders Dipsocoromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha are listed, distributed in 35 genera and 16 families were found. Based on distributional data, a preference for habitats of stagnant water or slow current and lower altitudes is inferred. Fifteen species are distributed throughout the entire island. A higher species diversity was found in the Eastern sector, with 53 species (61.63%), 16 of which (18.60%) are confined to this area. The strongest biological similarity was found between Eastern and Western sectors (25%), and the weakest between Western and Central sectors (14%). Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 897-907. Epub 2010 September 01.

Carlos, Naranjo; Senén, Muñoz Riviaux; Felipe F.F, Moreira; Ramón, Correa Court.

2010-09-01

30

Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series  

OpenAIRE

Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome coun...

Saxena, R. B.

2010-01-01

31

Revision of the world Monoctonia Starý, parasitoids of gall aphids: taxonomy, distribution, host range, and phylogeny (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: Aphidiinae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper represents a contribution to the knowledge of the taxonomy of Monoctonia Starý aphid parasitoids obtained using the barcoding region of the mitochondrial COI gene. We discuss the phylogenetic position of the genus within the subtribe Monoctonina, redescribe known species, and describe Monoctonia japonica sp. n. from Japan in the association Pemphigus matsumurai Monzen/Populus maximowiczii. A key for species identification is provided. Also, we review and discuss the host records, origin, and geographical distribution of Monoctonia species. It is hypothesized that the genus Monoctonia evolved in Paleogene forests of the temperate (and subtropical) belt, most probably in the European part of the Mediterranean region, which is also the center of origin of their host plants.  PMID:25661225

Rakhshani, Ehsan; Starý, Petr; Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; ?krki?, Jelisaveta; Moghaddam, Mostafa Ghafouri; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Petrovi?, Andjeljko; Tomanovi?, Željko

2015-01-01

32

Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay. This paper provides comments on the subspecific taxonomy and geographic distribution of Sais rosalia (Cramer, 1779) (Lepidoptera, Nym [...] phalidae, Ithomiini), as well as an up-to-date distributional map, complemented with unpublished distributional data based on specimens deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus S. Moure, Curitiba, Brazil and the Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Peru. The following synonyms are proposed: Sais rosalia camariensis Haensch, 1905 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Papilio rosalia Cramer, 1779 and Sais rosalia brasiliensis Talbot, 1928 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Sais rosalia rosalinde Weymer, 1890. Additionally, the first country records of Sais rosalia in Paraguay, including the southernmost record of the species, are documented.

Sergio D., Ríos Díaz; Fernando M. S., Dias; Mirna M., Casagrande; Olaf H. H., Mielke; Gerardo, Lamas.

2014-03-01

33

The Necessity of DNA Taxonomy to Reveal Cryptic Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Meiofauna, with a Focus on Nemertea  

OpenAIRE

Meiofauna represent one of the most abundant and diverse communities in marine benthic ecosystems. However, an accurate assessment of diversity at the level of species has been and remains challenging for these microscopic organisms. Therefore, for many taxa, especially the soft body forms such as nemerteans, which often lack clear diagnostic morphological traits, DNA taxonomy is an effective means to assess species diversity. Morphological taxonomy of Nemertea is well documented as complicat...

Leasi, Francesca; Norenburg, Jon L.

2014-01-01

34

Ecological distribution of stream macroalgae in different spatial scales using taxonomic and morphological groups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types) with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two dr [...] ainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State , Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins), shading regime (open and shaded stream segments), mesohabitats (riffles and pools), and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05m2). A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups) were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments), while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments) were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments.

Rogério Antonio, Krupek; Ciro Cesar Zanini, Branco.

35

First detection of African Swine Fever Virus in Ornithodoros porcinus in Madagascar and new insights into tick distribution and taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background African Swine Fever Virus has devastated more than the half of the domestic pig population in Madagascar since its introduction, probably in 1997-1998. One of the hypotheses to explain its persistence on the island is its establishment in local Ornithodoros soft ticks, whose presence has been reported in the past from the north-western coast to the Central Highlands. The aim of the present study was to verify such hypothesis by conducting tick examinations in three distinct zones of pig production in Madagascar where African Swine Fever outbreaks have been regularly reported over the past decade and then to improve our knowledge on the tick distribution and taxonomy. Results Ornithodoros ticks were only found in one pig farm in the village of Mahitsy, north-west of Antananarivo in the Central Highlands, whereas the tick seemed to be absent from the two other study zones near Ambatondrazaka and Marovoay. Using 16SrDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, it was confirmed that the collected ticks belonged to the O. porcinus species and is closely related to the O. p. domesticus sub-species Walton, 1962. ASFV was detected in 7.14% (13/182 of the field ticks through the amplification of part of the viral VP72 gene, and their ability to maintain long-term infections was confirmed since all the ticks came from a pig building where no pigs or any other potential vertebrate hosts had been introduced for at least four years. Conclusions Considering these results, O. porcinus is a reservoir for ASFV and most likely acts as vector for ASFV in Madagascar, but its apparent restricted distribution may limit its role in the epidemiology of the disease in domestic pigs.

Albina Emmanuel

2010-11-01

36

Taxonomy, Identification, Genetic Relationships and Distribution of Large Heracleum Species in Europe.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 1-19 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Heracleum * genetic relationship * distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

Jahodová, Šárka; Fröberg, L.; Pyšek, Petr; Geltman, D.; Trybush, S.; Karp, A.

37

The scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha) of Tunisia: taxonomy, distribution and habitats  

OpenAIRE

The present paper provides a review of the composition, distribution and habitat preferences of the scolopendromorph centipedes of Tunisia. Five (sub-)genera and 8 (sub-)species have hitherto been reported from the country, of which two are of uncertain status. After a study of significant amount of new material collected in the period 2003-2008, 6 species, namely Scolopendra canidens Newport, 1844, S. morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Cormocephalus gervaisianus (C.L. Koch, 1841), Otostigmus spinicau...

Nesrine Akkari; Pavel Stoev; John Lewis

2008-01-01

38

Typha laxmannii Lepech. the new, expansive kenophyte in Poland: Distribution and taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

The paper provides data on a new antropophyte species - Typha laxmannii Lepech. which spreads throughout Poland as a hemiagriophyte. Its present distribution in Poland is given on a cartogramme map in a 10×10 km square grid and its geographic element, population numbers and notes on habitats are provided. An identification key to 5 species of the Typha genus, two native, one new which is the topic of this paper, and two which can be expected to be discovered in Poland.

Agnieszka Nikel; Edward Bró?; Andrzej Czylok; Agnieszka Michalewska; Janusz Bary?a; Marcin Nobis; Renata Piwowarczyk; Agnieszka Poloczek

2005-01-01

39

Taxonomy Icon Data: chimpanzee [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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Typha laxmannii Lepech. the new, expansive kenophyte in Poland: Distribution and taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper provides data on a new antropophyte species - Typha laxmannii Lepech. which spreads throughout Poland as a hemiagriophyte. Its present distribution in Poland is given on a cartogramme map in a 10×10 km square grid and its geographic element, population numbers and notes on habitats are provided. An identification key to 5 species of the Typha genus, two native, one new which is the topic of this paper, and two which can be expected to be discovered in Poland.

Agnieszka Nikel

2005-03-01

41

Taxonomy Icon Data: soybean [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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[Helminths of birds and mammals from Israel. VI. The taxonomy and ecology of Trichostrongylid Nematodes (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen species of trichostronglyloid nematodes have so far been recorded from wild birds and mammals in Israel and surrounding territories. Three species were found in birds: Amidostomum fulicae (Rudolphi, 1819) in Fulica atra L., 1758, A. acutum (Lundahl, 1848) in Anas crecca L., 1758 AND Amidostomum sp. in Ceryle rudis L., 1758. Ten species, 3 of which are new, were found in small mammals: Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Giles, 1892) in Hystrix indica Kerr, 1792; Tenorastrongylus josephi n. sp. in Mus musculus L., 1758; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Travassos, 1914) in Rattus norvegicus Berk, 1796 and Rattus rattus L., 1758; Nippostrongylus witenbergi Greenberg, 1972, in Nesokia indica Gray et Hardw., 1832; Heligmonina nevoi n. sp. in Spalax ehrenbergi, Nehring, 1898; Boreostrongylus seurati (Travassos et Darriba, 1929) in Gerbillus allenbyi Thomas, 1918, G. pyramidum Geoffrey, 1825, G. (Dipodillus) dasyurus, Meriones sacramenti Thomas, 1922 and M. tristrami Thomas, 1892; Boreostrongylus minutus (Dujardin, 1845) in Microtus guentheri Danford et Alsen, 1880; Heligmosomoides polygyrus polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) in Apodemus mystacinus Danf. et Alst., 1877 and A. sylvaticus L., 1758; Suncinema witenbergi n. sp. in Crocidura russula Herm., 1780. Ecologic and zoogeographic relationships are discussed. PMID:776059

Wertheim, G; Durette-Desset, M

1975-01-01

43

Taxonomy, distribution and nomenclature of three confused broad-leaved Potamogeton species occurring in Africa and on surrounding islands.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 148, - (2005), s. 329-357. ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/02/0773 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Potamogeton * taxonomy * Africa Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2005

Kaplan, Zden?k; Symoens, J.-J.

2005-01-01

44

Brazilian species of Onychophora with notes on their taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A revision of the currently known distribution of Onychophora (velvet worms) in Brazil is presented. Twenty-four morphospecies (half of them undescribed) belonging to four genera of the Peripatidae (Peripatus Guilding, 1826, Epiperipatus Clark, 1913, Macroperipatus Clark, 1913 and Oroperipatus Cocke [...] rell, 1908) are recorded. This high number of "unidentified" morphospecies is due to three major reasons: the poor quality of the characters used in species-level identification, the inadequate specimen conservation in ethanol, and, in most cases, the lack of additional specimens for analysis of intra- and inter-specific variation. The morphological characters currently used to separate Peripatidae species present a large degree of variation and may not be sufficient to allow accurate identification. There are records of these animals from 16 states, located in four political regions of the country (North, Center-West, Northeast and Southeast). Oroperipatus balzani is recorded for the first time from Brazil. The southernmost record for Onychophora is Itacuruçá island, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State (E. edwardsii) and the northernmost is Vila Tepequém, Amajari, Roraima State (Epiperipatus sp. 4). Considering the large territorial area of Brazil and the paucity of localities where Onychophora have been collected, we may expect a total diversity of these animals much larger than the currently known one.

Cristiano, Sampaio-Costa; Amazonas, Chagas-Junior; Renner L. C., Baptista.

2009-09-01

45

The scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha of Tunisia: taxonomy, distribution and habitats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper provides a review of the composition, distribution and habitat preferences of the scolopendromorph centipedes of Tunisia. Five (sub-genera and 8 (sub-species have hitherto been reported from the country, of which two are of uncertain status. After a study of significant amount of new material collected in the period 2003-2008, 6 species, namely Scolopendra canidens Newport, 1844, S. morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Cormocephalus gervaisianus (C.L. Koch, 1841, Otostigmus spinicaudus (Newport, 1844, Cryptops punicus Silvestri, 1896 and C. trisulcatus Brölemann, 1902, were found in the country. New illustrations and, where appropriate, brief descriptions of the species are given, along with an identification key for the Tunisian scolopendromorphs. Cryptops anomalans Newport 1844, Scolopendra oraniensis Lucas, 1846 and S. cingulata Latreille, 1829 are excluded from the country’s list since all previous records are most likely based on misidentifications. Cryptops trisulcatus and C. punicus are recorded for the first time from Tunisia and Libya, respectively. The taxonomic position of C. punicus is discussed and the species is transferred from the subgenus Trigonocryptops to Cryptops. Scolopendra morsitans scopoliana is synonymised under S. morsitans. S. canidens, O. spinicaudus and C. punicus are well adapted to arid and semidesert biotopes and have much wider ranges compared to the other three species which are restricted to the northern, more humid parts of the country. S. canidens is the only myriapod in Tunisia found in a pure sandy desert.

Nesrine Akkari

2008-09-01

46

The Dusky Large Blue – Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) in the Transylvanian basin: New data on taxonomy and ecology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maculinea nausithous (Bergsträsser, 1779) was recently discovered in two parts of the Transylvanian basin. External characters of these populations completely agree with the original description of Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) and show some small but constant differences against the Central European nominotypic populations. Since the habitats and host ant selection of these populations are also different from the Central European populations, we consider M. nausithous kijevensis stat. rev. as valid subspeciÀ c taxon. Specimens with the same external characters were also collected in northeastern Romania, in Kazakhstan and in the western part of the Altai Mts. Therefore we believe that this subspecies has a wider Euro-Siberian distribution.

Rákosy, Laszló; Tartally, András

2010-01-01

47

Ecology and Taxonomy of Water Canyon, Canadian County, Oklahoma, Master's Thesis, University of Oklahoma 1961 [Revised 2013  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous canyons have been cut into the Rush Springs Sandstone of Permian age in West Central Oklahoma and subsequently refilled. Some of these canyons have been partly exposed by erosion of the sediment fill. Fossils collected indicate the canyon fill is sub-Pleistocene to geologically recent. The microclimate of these canyons is more mesic compared to the dryer prairie uplands. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum persists there, far west of its other locations in very eastern Oklahoma. Beginning in 1932 several of these sediment-filled canyons began a process of rapid erosion, exposing the rock walls of the canyons. This study is a comparison of Water Canyon and two of its branches: Water Branch Canyon, a stable canyon wooded with mature vegetation including sugar maple and Activity Branch Canyon, a newly excavated canyon branch that began eroding after excessive rainfall in 1932. This study was completed in 1960. Six transects are used to show the distribution of the 233 plant species found in the Water Canyon complex. Herbaceous species generally were unique to each canyon type.

Constance E. Taylor

2014-03-01

48

Taxonomy Icon Data: Escherichia coli [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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Taxonomy Icon Data: tobacco [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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Taxonomy Icon Data: pygmy chimpanzee [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available pygmy chimpan zee Pan ... pan iscus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Pan _pan iscus_ ... L.png Pan _pan iscus_NL.png Pan _pan iscus_S.png Pan _pan iscus_NS ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan +pan iscus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Pan +pan iscus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ... n/icon.cgi?i=Pan +pan iscus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

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Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

Eman Ghanem Nayef

2013-09-01

52

Uses and Requirements of Ecological Niche Models and Related Distributional Models  

OpenAIRE

Abstract.—Modeling approaches that relate known occurrences of species to landscape features to discover ecological properties and predict geographic occurrences have seen extensive recent application in ecology, systematics, and conservation. A key component in this process is estimation or characterization of species’ distributions in ecological space, which can then be useful in understanding their potential distributions in geographic space. Hence, this process is often termed ecologi...

Townsend Peterson, A.

2006-01-01

53

Interpretation of Models of Fundamental Ecological Niches and Species’ Distributional Areas  

OpenAIRE

Ecological niche modeling?that is, estimation of the dimensions of fundamental ecological niches of species?to predict their geographic distributions is increasingly being employed in systematics, ecology, conservation, public health, etc. This technique is often (of necessity) based on data comprising records of presences only. In recent years, many modeling approaches have been devised to estimate these interrelated expressions of a species’ ecology, distributional biology, and evolutio...

Jorge Soberon; Townsend Peterson, A.

2005-01-01

54

Projecting date palm distribution in Iran under climate change using topography, physicochemical soil properties, soil taxonomy, land use, and climate data  

Science.gov (United States)

This study set out to model potential date palm distribution under current and future climate scenarios using an emission scenario, in conjunction with two different global climate models (GCMs): CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS), and MIROC-H (MR), and to refine results based on suitability under four nonclimatic parameters. Areas containing suitable physicochemical soil properties and suitable soil taxonomy, together with land slopes of less than 10° and suitable land uses for date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera) were selected as appropriate refining tools to ensure the CLIMEX results were accurate and robust. Results showed that large regions of Iran are projected as likely to become climatically suitable for date palm cultivation based on the projected scenarios for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2100. The study also showed CLIMEX outputs merit refinement by nonclimatic parameters and that the incremental introduction of each additional parameter decreased the disagreement between GCMs. Furthermore, the study indicated that the least amount of disagreement in terms of areas conducive to date palm cultivation resulted from CS and MR GCMs when the locations of suitable physicochemical soil properties and soil taxonomy were used as refinement tools.

Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit; Taylor, Subhashni

2014-11-01

55

Taxonomy Icon Data: Comb jelly [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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Taxonomy Icon Data: thale cress [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales, variables associated with climate, energy, and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity. Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens. The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS, simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR, conditional autoregressive models (CAR, spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. To test the assumption of stationarity, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used. Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa, particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique. We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/ energy hypotheses, and as we expected, support varied among bat families and model selection. Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families. Altitude range was the only independent variable that was sig­nificant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness. Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models, while those of SEVM models differed. Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationa­rity was violated, the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models. Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges, and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3: 279–293, 2013].

M. Corrie SCHOEMAN, F. P. D. (Woody COTTERILL, Peter J. TAYLOR, Ara MONADJEM

2013-06-01

61

Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis "Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842" (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies - Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most Pteropus phaeocephalus pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5-10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp.) being a preferred food. Records of females with young (April, July) and pregnant females (July) suggest an extended breeding season. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus appears most threatened by the prospect of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies. PMID:24194666

Buden, Donald W; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J

2013-01-01

62

Ecology Drives the Worldwide Distribution of Human Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Identifying the factors underlying the origin and maintenance of the latitudinal diversity gradient is a central problem in ecology, but no consensus has emerged on which processes might generate this broad pattern. Interestingly, the vast majority of studies exploring the gradient have focused on free-living organisms, ignoring parasitic and infectious disease (PID species. Here, we address the influence of environmental factors on the biological diversity of human pathogens and their global spatial organization. Using generalized linear multivariate models and Monte Carlo simulations, we conducted a series of comparative analyses to test the hypothesis that human PIDs exhibit the same global patterns of distribution as other taxonomic groups. We found a significant negative relationship between latitude and PID species richness, and a nested spatial organization, i.e., the accumulation of PID species with latitude, over large spatial scales. Additionally, our results show that climatic factors are of primary importance in explaining the link between latitude and the spatial pattern of human pathogens. Based on our findings, we propose that the global latitudinal species diversity gradient might be generated in large part by biotic interactions, providing strong support for the idea that current estimates of species diversity are substantially underestimated. When parasites and pathogens are included, estimates of total species diversity may increase by more than an order of magnitude.

Guernier Vanina

2004-01-01

63

Towards a taxonomy of accounting  

OpenAIRE

The homological transfer research method was used to derive a tentative taxonomy of the discipline of Accounting from the Nolan and Wetherbe taxonomy of the related discipline Management Information Systems. First the Nolan and Wetherbe taxonomy was updated to reflect recent developments in MIS. Then its concepts were replaced by equivalent accounting concepts to yield a homologous taxonomy of Accounting. Finally the proposed taxonomy was validated empirically by classifying 151 articles from...

Koornhof, Carolina

1993-01-01

64

Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available dog Canis lupus ... familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus _fa ... miliaris_L.png Canis_lupus _familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus _familiaris_S.png Can ... is_lupus _familiaris_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: tomato [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available tomato Solanum ... lycopersicum Solanum _lycopersicum_L.png Solanum _lycopersicum_NL.png Solanum _lycop ... ersicum_S.png Solanum _lycopersicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono ... my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum +lycopersicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ ...

66

Distribution and Ecology of Aster amellus aggregates in the Czech Republic.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 98, - (2006), s. 845-856. ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Distribution * Ecology * Aster amellus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.448, year: 2006

Mandáková, T.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

2006-01-01

67

INVASIVE SPECIES: PREDICTING GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS USING ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING  

Science.gov (United States)

Present approaches to species invasions are reactive in nature. This scenario results in management that perpetually lags behind the most recent invasion and makes control much more difficult. In contrast, spatially explicit ecological niche modeling provides an effective solut...

68

Ecological distribution of four co-occurring Mediterranean heath species  

OpenAIRE

Erica australis, E. scoparia, E. arborea and Calluna vulgaris are the most abundant heath species on acid, sandstone-derived soils of the Strait of Gibraltar region (southern Spain and northern Morocco). Despite their apparently similar ecological requirements, these four species are somewhat ecologically segregated. Erica australis is abundant only on poor, shallow soils, with a high content in soluble aluminium, generally on mountain ridges and summits. Erica scoparia becomes dominant on de...

Ojeda Copete, Fernando; Arroyo Mari?n, Juan; Maran?o?n, Teodoro

2000-01-01

69

Taxonomies of Organizational Knowledge  

OpenAIRE

The paper systematizes organizational knowledge, starting from the classical dichotomy of tacit and explicit, and outlining the importance of these taxonomies, which may seem reductive, in properly understanding the nature of organizational knowledge and operating with it in business.

Stancov, Vitalie; Dima, Alina Mihaela

2008-01-01

70

Comment: 2 [Taxonomy Icon  

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Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 7.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ??????????????? ttamura 2008/ 11 /06 1 6:11 :43 ...

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Comment: 13 [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Human ... Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 13.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science ... licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ?? ?????????????????? ttamura 2008/11 ...

74

A Taxonomy of Networks  

CERN Document Server

The study of networks has grown into a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor across the natural, social, and information sciences. Yet there have been very few attempts to investigate the interrelatedness of the different classes of networks studied by different disciplines. Here, we introduced a framework to establish a taxonomy of networks from various origins. The provision of this family tree not only helps understand the kinship of networks, but also facilitates the transfer of empirical analysis, theoretical modeling, and conceptual developments across disciplinary boundaries. The framework is based on probing the mesoscopic properties of networks, an important source of heterogeneity for their structure and function. Using our method, we computed a taxonomy for 752 individual networks and a separate taxonomy for 12 network classes. We also computed three within-class taxonomies for political, fungal, and financial networks, and found them to be insightful in each case.

Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J; Fricker, Mark D; Jones, Nick S

2010-01-01

75

Taxonomy of Handover Activities  

OpenAIRE

Handover of software systems is a critical stage in the system lifecycle. Despite this, it is still an under researched area. In this paper, we have developed an initial taxonomy of activities for software handover. Our taxonomy consists of seven process components where each component clusters logically coherent activities. The process components are Management and Administration, Maintenance Environment, Version and Configuration Management, Deployment, Training, Documentation and, Maintai...

Khan, Ahmad Salman; Kajko-mattsson, Mira

2010-01-01

76

Natural history of the Chinchilla genus (Bennett 1829): Considerations of their ecology, taxonomy and conservation status / Historia natural del género Chinchilla (Bennett 1829): Consideraciones de su ecología, taxonomía y estado de conservación  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha generado nueva y valiosa información de las dos especies silvestres de chinchillas; sin embargo ésta sigue siendo insuficiente para una protección efectiva. En este trabajo hacemos una revisión de algunos aspectos fundamentales de su historia natural, sintetizando y entrega [...] ndo nuevos antecedentes de su ecología, taxonomía y estado de conservación, en base a la revisión de la literatura disponible, y toma de datos en el campo. En relación a su ecología, hemos identificado nuevas colonias de ambas especies, tanto por investigación científica como por reportes técnicos ambientales. Para la mayoría de esas colonias se ha identificado la vegetación a la que están asociadas, depredadores y otras especies de roedores simpátridos. La taxonomía de ambas especies ha sido controversial. Una propuesta fue sometida a la ICZN en el 2003 y las recomendaciones fueron describir un neotipo para el género y ambas especies; sin embargo, los especímenes originales descritos por Bennett (1829), Lichtenstein (1830) y Waterhouse (1844) existen en museos de Europa y deben ser considerados como los respectivos sintipos. Finalmente, el estado de conservación de estas especies ha sido catalogado como críticamente en peligro tanto por instituciones nacionales como internacionales, esto debido a que la mayoría de las colonias son pequeñas, fragmentadas y aisladas, sin embargo, ahora la mayor amenaza es la relación geográfica de las nuevas colonias con áreas de explotación minera. Se argumenta con esta información la necesidad de desarrollar un programa de conservación de ambas especies, que considere ámbitos fundamentales de la biología de la especie, tales como la ecología, genética y reproducción. Abstract in english Over the last years there has been new and valuable information in both wild chinchillas, however this is still insufficient for effective protection. In this paper we review some fundamental aspects of its natural history, synthesizing and delivering new information about their ecology, taxonomy an [...] d conservation status, based on the review of available literature, and field data collection. In relation to their ecology we have been identified new colonies of both species, for scientific research as well as environmental technical reports. For most of these colonies we identified vegetation to which they are associated, predators and other sympatric rodent species. The taxonomy of these species is controversial. A proposal was submitted to ICZN in 2003, and the recommendations were to describe a neotype for genus and species, but the original specimens described by Bennett (1829), Lichtenstein (1830) and Waterhouse (1844) are in museums from Europe and should be considered as syntypes. Conservation status of both species is critically endangered because most colonies are threatened by mining exploitation. Therefore, it is essential to explore new regions to identify new colonies and compare them with modern methods such as molecular markers. Finally, with this information we argue the need to develop a conservation programs for both species; it should consider critical areas of their biology, such as ecology, genetics and reproduction.

PABLO, VALLADARES FAÚNDEZ; ÁNGEL, SPOTORNO OYARZÚN; CARLOS, ZULETA RAMOS.

2014-12-01

77

An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979 and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided.

Georgios Chatzigeorgiou

2011-11-01

78

Ecological Niche Model used to examine the distribution of an invasive, non-indigenous coral.  

Science.gov (United States)

All organisms have a set of ecological conditions (or niche) which they depend on to survive and establish in a given habitat. The ecological niche of a species limits its geographical distribution. In the particular case of non-indigenous species (NIS), the ecological requirements of the species impose boundaries on the potential distribution of the organism in the new receptor regions. This is a theoretical assumption implicit when Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) are used to assess the potential distribution of NIS. This assumption has been questioned, given that in some cases niche shift may occur during the process of invasion. We used ENMs to investigate whether the model fit with data from the native range of the coral Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 successfully predicts its invasion in the Atlantic. We also identified which factors best explain the distribution of this NIS. The broad native distributional range of T. coccinea predicted the invaded sites well, especially along the Brazilian coast, the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The occurrence of T. coccinea was positively related to calcite levels and negatively to eutrophy, but was rather unaffected to other variables that often limit other marine organisms, suggesting that this NIS has wide ecological limits, a trait typical of invasive species. PMID:25465286

Carlos-Júnior, L A; Barbosa, N P U; Moulton, T P; Creed, J C

2015-02-01

79

Ecology Drives the Worldwide Distribution of Human Diseases  

OpenAIRE

Identifying the factors underlying the origin and maintenance of the latitudinal diversity gradient is a central problem in ecology, but no consensus has emerged on which processes might generate this broad pattern. Interestingly, the vast majority of studies exploring the gradient have focused on free-living organisms, ignoring parasitic and infectious disease (PID) species. Here, we address the influence of environmental factors on the biological diversity of human pathogens and their globa...

Guernier Vanina; Hochberg Michael E; Guégan Jean-François

2004-01-01

80

Distribution of Lutra maculicollis in Rwanda : ecological constraints  

OpenAIRE

The study of 10 rwandese lakes, where there are still quite important populations of Lutra maculicollis, has pointed out a few characteristics of the habitat favorable to the survival of these populations. The ecological constraints for the survival of these populations are: the abundance of small fishes, the continuity of the lake side vegetation, the absence of crocodiles and pollution by pesticides, and the low level of predation by man.

Lejeune A.; Frank A

1990-01-01

81

When is an ecological network complex? Connectance drives degree distribution and emerging network properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Connectance and degree distributions are important components of the structure of ecological networks. In this contribution, we use a statistical argument and simple network generating models to show that properties of the degree distribution are driven by network connectance. We discuss the consequences of this finding for (1 the generation of random networks in null-model analyses, and (2 the interpretation of network structure and ecosystem properties in relationship with degree distribution.

Timothée Poisot

2014-02-01

82

COMMENT ON: APPLYING SPECIES-SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSUMPTION OF DISTRIBUTION TYPE AND SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF SPECIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Newman et al. (2000) addressed some important issues regarding the characterization of species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) used in ecological risk assessments. A common assumption is that SSDs are log-normal, and this allows data sets to be analyzed by standard parametric me...

83

Taxonomy of oxalotrophic Methylobacterium strains  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the oxalotrophic bacteria are facultative methylotrophs and play important ecological roles in soil fertility and cycling of elements. This study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of these bacteria and provides new information about the taxonomical variability within the genus Methylobacterium. Twelve mesophilic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic oxalate-oxidizing strains were included in this work that had been previously isolated from the soil and some plant tissues by the potassium oxalate enrichment method. The isolates were characterized using biochemical tests, cellular lipid profiles, spectral characteristics of carotenoid pigments, G+C content of the DNA, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The taxonomic similarities among the strains were analyzed using the simple matching ( S SM) and Jaccard ( S J) coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. The phylogenetic position of the strains was inferred by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences. All isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, oxidase and catalase positive, and required no growth factors. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, the strains formed four closely related clusters sharing ?85% similarity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences demonstrated that oxalotrophic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic strains could be identified as members of the genus Methylobacterium. Except for M. variabile and M. aquaticum, all of the Methylobacterium type strains tested had the ability of oxalate utilization. Our results indicate that the capability of oxalate utilization seems to be an uncommon trait and could be used as a valuable taxonomic criterion for differentiation of Methylobacterium species.

Sahin, Nurettin; Kato, Yuko; Yilmaz, Ferah

2008-10-01

84

Puebla: Distribution, taxonomy, and conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined 96 museum specimens belonging to 14 species of Carnivora from the Mexican State of Puebla. In addition, four species were documented based on literature records and by indirect evidence. The carnivorous mammals of Puebla belong to 5 families, 18 genera, 18 species and 23 subspecies. Eight of these 23 taxa are reported herein for the first time from the state of Puebla. Of the 18 species, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Lontra longicaudis, Taxidea taxus, and Galictis vittata are considered by Norma Oficial Mexicana as threatened species, Leopardus wiedii and Eira barbara in danger of extinction, and Potos flavus is under special protection. We found Lynx rufus, Canis latrans, Taxidea taxus, and Bassariscus astutus were found only in the Nearctic region of the State, whereas Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii, Lontra longicaudis, Galictis vittata, Eira barbara, Potos flavus, and Nasua narica were found only in the Neotropical region of the State. The remaining seven species (Puma concolor, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, Mustela frenata, Mephitis macroura, Spilogale putorius, Conepatus leuconotus, and Procyon lotor have been taken in both the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Localities in the Sierra Norte de Puebla had the greatest species richness and abundance of individuals. The carnivores confront serious conservation problems in the state because they are hunted indiscriminately as trophies and by the local residents as harmful species. Moreover they are hunted for economic benefit by the sale of theirs skins or as living pets. The carnivores in some areas are used as food items and for therapeutic proprieties of their fat, skin, or bones. Unfortunately at this time we can?t assess the full impact of these activities on the local populations.

Jos\\u00E9 Ram\\u00EDrez-Pulido

2005-01-01

85

Comment: 6 [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 6.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ???????????? ttamura 2008/11 /06 ... 1 6:1 0:21 ...

86

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Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 237.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci ... ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ?????????????????????? ... ?????????????????? ttamura 2008/11 /11 ... 1 2:11 :40 2011 /09/1 4 21 :1 0:36 ...

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Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 21 9.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center ... for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ????:??? HNI-???????? bando 20 1 0/02/1 5 1 5:31 :07 201 0/02/1 6 09:53:27 ...

88

Reconstructing ecological niches and geographic distributions of caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus) during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of approaches have been used to reconstruct glacial distributions of species, identify their environmental characteristics, and understand their influence on subsequent population expansions. Traditional methods, however, provide only rough estimates of past distributions, and are often unable to identify the ecological and geographic processes that shaped them. Recently, ecological niche modeling (ENM) methodologies have been applied to these questions in an effort to overcome such limitations. We apply ENM to the European faunal record of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to reconstruct ecological niches and potential ranges for caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus), and evaluate whether their LGM distributions resulted from tracking the geographic footprint of their ecological niches (niche conservatism) or if ecological niche shifts between the LGM and present might be implicated. Results indicate that the LGM geographic ranges of both species represent distributions characterized by niche conservatism, expressed through geographic contraction of the geographic footprints of their respective ecological niches.

Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Colombeau, Guillaume

2008-12-01

89

Allium oleraceum in Slovakia: cytotype distribution and ecology.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 83, ?. 4 (2011), s. 513-527. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/09/1126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : distribution * habitat differentiation * vertical distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.521, year: 2011

Šafá?ová, L.; Duchoslav, M.; Jandová, M.; Krahulec, František

2011-01-01

90

Ecology  

OpenAIRE

Ecology is the study of interaction of living organisms in the environment. However the modern meaning of the concept of ecology has a wider meaning than in the early decades of the development of this science. Currently, most often under the mistaken environmental issues are understood, above all, the protection of the environment. In many ways, this shift is due to sense more tangible consequences of human impact on the environment. When you are citing the document, use the following lin...

Khumayni, S.

2013-01-01

91

Ecological Aspects of the Distribution of Different Autotrophic CO2 Fixation Pathways?  

OpenAIRE

Autotrophic CO2 fixation represents the most important biosynthetic process in biology. Besides the well-known Calvin-Benson cycle, five other totally different autotrophic mechanisms are known today. This minireview discusses the factors determining their distribution. As will be made clear, the observed diversity reflects the variety of the organisms and the ecological niches existing in nature.

Berg, Ivan A.

2011-01-01

92

The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities  

OpenAIRE

As human impacts to the environment accelerate, disparities in the distribution of damages between rich and poor nations mount. Globally, environmental change is dramatically affecting the flow of ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecological damages and their driving forces has not been estimated. Here, we conservatively estimate the environmental costs of human activities over 1961–2000 in six major categories (climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, agricultural intensifi...

Srinivasan, U. Thara; Carey, Susan P.; Hallstein, Eric; Higgins, Paul A. T.; Kerr, Amber C.; Koteen, Laura E.; Smith, Adam B.; Watson, Reg; Harte, John; Norgaard, Richard B.

2008-01-01

93

Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids. Populations of A. sieberi were sampled widely in Iran and soil characteristics, climate and anatomical and phytochemical plant attributes were measured. Also, in parallel, an independent genetic assessment of populations was carried out using genetic fingerprinting. Two ploidy levels were identified: 75% of the 34 populations of A. sieberi populations sampled were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) with the remainder diploid (2n = 2x = 18). Plants of differing ploidy also differed anatomically, genetically and chemically. Tetraploid populations had larger cells and lower stomatal densities and a different essential oil composition. They also appear ecologically distinct, occupying more fertile, mesic habitats than diploids. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the existence of two genetically differentiated subgroups independent of ploidy but with some geographic and ecological pattern. We conclude that diploids and tetraploids have a different ecological distribution and that the absence of mixed diploid-tetraploid populations is a reflection of differing fitness in different habitats. We suspect that a key ecological difference between diploids and tetraploids is the increased stomatal size of tetraploids, possibly resulting from the increased genome and hence cell size following polyploidisation. Polyploid-formation may be constrained in arid habitats by problems of water-use efficiency associated with the larger stomata originally produced.

Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

2013-11-01

94

Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

95

Genomic taxonomy of vibrios  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, an...

Iida Tetsuya; Alves Nelson; Ussery David W; Vesth Tammi; de Vasconcelos Ana; Souza Rangel C; Vicente Ana; Thompson Cristiane C; Thompson Fabiano L

2009-01-01

96

Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework...

Gulinck Hubert; Peterson Andrew T; Neerinckx Simon B; Deckers Jozef; Leirs Herwig

2008-01-01

97

Mathematical Ecology Analysis of Geographical Distribution of Soybean-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

We characterized the relationship between the genetic diversity of indigenous soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia from weakly acidic soils in Japan and their geographical distribution in an ecological study of indigenous soybean rhizobia. We isolated bradyrhizobia from three kinds of Rj-genotype soybeans. Their genetic diversity and community structure were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S–23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region with 11 Bradyrhizobium USDA strains as references. We used data from the present study and previous studies to carry out mathematical ecological analyses, multidimensional scaling analysis with the Bray-Curtis index, polar ordination analysis, and multiple regression analyses to characterize the relationship between soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobial community structures and their geographical distribution. The mathematical ecological approaches used in this study demonstrated the presence of ecological niches and suggested the geographical distribution of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia to be a function of latitude and the related climate, with clusters in the order Bj123, Bj110, Bj6, and Be76 from north to south in Japan. PMID:24240318

Saeki, Yuichi; Shiro, Sokichi; Tajima, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Sameshima-Saito, Reiko; Sato, Takashi; Yamakawa, Takeo

2013-01-01

98

Ecology.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Praha : CERGE-EI, 2001 - (Hanousek, J.; Lízal, L.), s. 107-115 ISBN 80-86286-69-X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Czech Republic * ecology Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/books/pdf_01/VI.pdf

Lízal, Lubomír; Tošovská, Eva

99

Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T

2008-01-01

100

Taxonomy Icon Data: malaria parasite P. falciparum [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available malaria parasite P. falciparum Plasmodium ... falciparum Plasmodium _falciparum_L.png Plasmodium _falc ... iparum_NL.png Plasmodium _falciparum_S.png Plasmodium _falciparum_NS.png http ... ://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium +falciparum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ...

101

Taxonomy Icon Data: common water flea [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available common water flea Daphnia ... pulex Arthropoda Daphnia _pulex_L.png Daphnia _pulex_NL.png Daphnia _pule ... x_S.png Daphnia _pulex_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Daphnia +pulex&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic ...

102

A topographic feature taxonomy for a U.S. national topographic mapping ontology  

Science.gov (United States)

Using legacy feature lists from the U.S. National Topographic Mapping Program of the twentieth century, a taxonomy of features is presented for purposes of developing a national topographic feature ontology for geographic mapping and analysis. After reviewing published taxonomic classifications, six basic classes are suggested; terrain, surface water, ecological regimes, built-up areas, divisions, and events. Aspects of ontology development are suggested as the taxonomy is described.

Varanka, Dalia E.

2013-01-01

103

Ecological Factors Affecting the Distribution of Woody Vegetation Near the Arkansas River, Tulsa County  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological factors affecting plant distribution were studied over different rock strata and slope exposures above the Arkansas River, Tulsa County. Here the Wann sandstone caprock is underlain by the Iola limestone formation. The vegetation was analyzed taxonomically by a complete collection throughout one growing season. Belt transects crossing rock strata on all slope exposures permitted computation of parameters summarized by an Importance Percentage for each woody species. Differences in species populations and degree of mesophytism exist on the slope exposures. Sandstone upland dominants are post and blackjack oaks. Smoke-tree, rare in Oklahoma, and chinquapin oak are closely associated in limestone microhabitats, where each occupies a separate niche. The smoke-tree, of disjunct distribution, appears to be a relict of widespread occurrence in past geologic periods. Its survival with limited ecological amplitude is due to the continuance of the microhabitats to which it is so well adapted.

Anne Wanamnaker Long

2004-12-01

104

Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to system administrators, software developers and vulnerability researchers is not yet achieved, this work has resulted in the most exhaustive collection of vulnerability data to date.

Polepeddi, S

2004-12-08

105

Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition  

Science.gov (United States)

Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and?18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (?25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

2014-11-01

106

Macrophyte distribution and ecological status of the Turiec River (Slovakia): Changes after seven years  

OpenAIRE

Characteristics of diversity, abundance, distribution, and ecological status of aquatic macrophytes were observed in 2000 and 2007 on a circa 4.5 km long section of the Turiec River using Kohler's method. In comparison to 2000, the total number of macrophytes in 2007 increased markedly (from 25 to 35), although only the numbers of amphi­phytes and helophytes were changed substantially. The number of hydrophytes increased from 11 to 12; an invasive, Elodea canadenis, was the only new species....

Hrivnák R.; O?ahe?ová Helena; Valachovi? M.

2009-01-01

107

Niche and neutral models predict asymptotically equivalent species abundance distributions in high-diversity ecological communities  

OpenAIRE

A fundamental challenge in ecology is to understand the mechanisms that govern patterns of relative species abundance. Previous numerical simulations have suggested that complex niche-structured models produce species abundance distributions (SADs) that are qualitatively similar to those of very simple neutral models that ignore differences between species. However, in the absence of an analytical treatment of niche models, one cannot tell whether the two classes of model produce the same pat...

Chisholm, Ryan A.; Pacala, Stephen W.

2010-01-01

108

Geographic Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors in Brazil Based on Ecological Niche Modeling  

OpenAIRE

Although Brazil was declared free from Chagas disease transmission by the domestic vector Triatoma infestans, human acute cases are still being registered based on transmission by native triatomine species. For a better understanding of transmission risk, the geographic distribution of Brazilian triatomines was analyzed. Sixteen out of 62 Brazilian species that both occur in >20 municipalities and present synanthropic tendencies were modeled based on their ecological niches. Panstrongylus gen...

Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; Cléber Galvão; Jane Costa; Townsend Peterson, A.

2012-01-01

109

Mathematical Ecology Analysis of Geographical Distribution of Soybean-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia in Japan  

OpenAIRE

We characterized the relationship between the genetic diversity of indigenous soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia from weakly acidic soils in Japan and their geographical distribution in an ecological study of indigenous soybean rhizobia. We isolated bradyrhizobia from three kinds of Rj-genotype soybeans. Their genetic diversity and community structure were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S–23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region with 11 Bradyrhizobium USDA strains as ref...

Saeki, Yuichi; Shiro, Sokichi; Tajima, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Sameshima-saito, Reiko; Sato, Takashi; Yamakawa, Takeo

2013-01-01

110

Distribution, morphological variability, ecology and the present state of Nitella from Lake Ohrid and its surroundings  

OpenAIRE

Our research into 52 profiles of the littoral zone of the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid and numerous samples taken from its surroundings has resulted in a detailed picture of the composition of the Charophyta vegetation in the lake. The results of the research also include data regarding the species composition and present state of Nitella. The dominant species of Nitella is Nitella opaca, which is characterized by a specific distribution, morphological variability and ecology. The pres...

Trajanovska Sonja; Blažen?i? Jelena; Trajanovski S.; Budzakoska-Gjoreska Biljana

2012-01-01

111

The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

As human impacts to the environment accelerate, disparities in the distribution of damages between rich and poor nations mount. Globally, environmental change is dramatically affecting the flow of ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecological damages and their driving forces has not been estimated. Here, we conservatively estimate the environmental costs of human activities over 1961-2000 in six major categories (climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, agricultural intensification and expansion, deforestation, overfishing, and mangrove conversion), quantitatively connecting costs borne by poor, middle-income, and rich nations to specific activities by each of these groups. Adjusting impact valuations for different standards of living across the groups as commonly practiced, we find striking imbalances. Climate change and ozone depletion impacts predicted for low-income nations have been overwhelmingly driven by emissions from the other two groups, a pattern also observed for overfishing damages indirectly driven by the consumption of fishery products. Indeed, through disproportionate emissions of greenhouse gases alone, the rich group may have imposed climate damages on the poor group greater than the latter's current foreign debt. Our analysis provides prima facie evidence for an uneven distribution pattern of damages across income groups. Moreover, our estimates of each group's share in various damaging activities are independent from controversies in environmental valuation methods. In a world increasingly connected ecologically and economically, our analysis is thus an early step toward reframing issues of environmental responsibility, development, and globalization in accordance with ecological costs. PMID:18212119

Srinivasan, U Thara; Carey, Susan P; Hallstein, Eric; Higgins, Paul A T; Kerr, Amber C; Koteen, Laura E; Smith, Adam B; Watson, Reg; Harte, John; Norgaard, Richard B

2008-02-01

112

The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities  

Science.gov (United States)

As human impacts to the environment accelerate, disparities in the distribution of damages between rich and poor nations mount. Globally, environmental change is dramatically affecting the flow of ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecological damages and their driving forces has not been estimated. Here, we conservatively estimate the environmental costs of human activities over 1961–2000 in six major categories (climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, agricultural intensification and expansion, deforestation, overfishing, and mangrove conversion), quantitatively connecting costs borne by poor, middle-income, and rich nations to specific activities by each of these groups. Adjusting impact valuations for different standards of living across the groups as commonly practiced, we find striking imbalances. Climate change and ozone depletion impacts predicted for low-income nations have been overwhelmingly driven by emissions from the other two groups, a pattern also observed for overfishing damages indirectly driven by the consumption of fishery products. Indeed, through disproportionate emissions of greenhouse gases alone, the rich group may have imposed climate damages on the poor group greater than the latter's current foreign debt. Our analysis provides prima facie evidence for an uneven distribution pattern of damages across income groups. Moreover, our estimates of each group's share in various damaging activities are independent from controversies in environmental valuation methods. In a world increasingly connected ecologically and economically, our analysis is thus an early step toward reframing issues of environmental responsibility, development, and globalization in accordance with ecological costs. PMID:18212119

Srinivasan, U. Thara; Carey, Susan P.; Hallstein, Eric; Higgins, Paul A. T.; Kerr, Amber C.; Koteen, Laura E.; Smith, Adam B.; Watson, Reg; Harte, John; Norgaard, Richard B.

2008-01-01

113

[Distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Zhalong Wetland].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments of the Zhalong Wetland using ICP-MS, analyzed their spatial distributions, evaluated the potential ecological risk, and explored the pollution sources and environmental influencing factors. The results can be summarized as the followings: (1) The concentrations of Hg, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr were 0.065, 0.155, 10.26, 18.20, 21.35, 52.08 and 46.47 mg x kg(-1), respectively, which were all above the soil background values of the Songnen Plain. Their spatial distributions were distinctly different. The concentration of heavy metals in the north was higher than that in the south, and the east was higher than the west. Particularly in the eastern region, the concentrations of Hg and Cd were 20.8 and 32.4 times the minimum values of the whole area. And in the core zone, the concentration was relatively low. (2) The sequence of the potential ecological risk posed by the metals was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. The average potential ecological risk index (RI) of the Zhalong Wetland was 171.9 (ranged from 76.9-473.5), suggesting a moderate ecological risk. However, the potential ecological risk was extremely high in the east which should be treated as the major heavy metal pollution prevention site in the future. (3) Except for Hg and Pb, the concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly correlated to each other, indicating that those heavy metals had homology. (4) Organic matter was the major environmental influencing factor. However, the trend of land salinization in the Zhalong Wetland has been intensified, indicating a higher risk of heavy metal releasing from the sediments, to which the local authorities should pay enough attention. PMID:23798110

Ye, Hua-Xiang; Zang, Shu-Ying; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Hong

2013-04-01

114

Distribution of natural uranium in Jiuquan ecological environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of natural uranium in soil, forage grass, ox, sheep and camel at Jiuquan area was determined, and the data were analyzed. Its natural distribution under equilibrium and the transfer from the soil to the forage grass then to the animal body were studied. The results show that the uranium concentration in soil was decreasing from 3.09mg/kg to 2.36 mg/kg (corresponding to the surface to 30 cm), then increasing to 2.82mg/kg (corresponding to 100 cm), so the lowest was at the depth of 30 cm. The descending order of concentration in eight kind of forage grasess is Chenopodium album L., Triticum Sativum Lam, Agropyron cristatum(L.) Gaertu, Hordeum vulgare var nudum (Ard.) Hook, Avenasativa L., Sphaerophysa salsula(Pall.) DC, Medicago sativa L. and Phragmites communis Trin, i.e. from the highest 1.48 x 10-3mg/kg to the lowest 0.051 x 10-3mg/kg. The U concentration in mutton was (0.48 ? 1.86) x 10-6mg/kg and the average was 0.89 x 10-6mg/kg, in sheep bone was (3.60 ? 16.20) x 10-6mg/kg and the average was 9.9 x 10-6mg/kg. The concentration of uranium in the mixed sample of beef and ox bone was 7.54 x 10-6mg/kg, and in the camel meat and bone was 3.35 x 10-6mg/kg. The uptake of uranium from soil by the forage grass varies with the amount of U in the soil, the type of soil and grass species. The transfer coefficients CT1 of uranium from soil surface layer, i. e. O to 30 cm, to forage grass were 2.98 x 10-4 for Chenopodium album L., 2.79 x 10-4 for Triticum sativum Lam and 2.67 x 10-5 for Phragmites communis Trin respectively. The coefficients CT2 of U from the forage grass to ox, sheep and camel body were 7.29 x 10-3 ? 1.44 x 10-1 for sheep bone, 5.10 x 10-3 ? 1.25 x 10-1 for the mixed sample of beef and ox bone, 2.26 x 10-3 ? 5.5 x 10-2 for the mixed sample of camel meat and bone and 2.45 x 10-5 ? 2.41 x 10-4 for mutton respectively. The same results were obtained for eight kind of forage grasses

115

Taxonomy and distribution of the green algal genus Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in Brazil / Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero de algas verdes Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Halimeda é um gênero de algas verdes de talo cenocítico e calcificado que desempenha importante papel ecológico em regiões tropicais. Segmentos calcificados e branqueados de Halimeda podem-se acumular em grandes depósitos com potencial econômico, como ocorre na costa nordeste do Brasil. O levantamen [...] to do gênero no Brasil, baseado em coletas recentes e em abundante material depositado em herbários brasileiros, mostrou a presença de sete espécies: Halimeda cuneata Hering, H. discoidea Decaisne, H. gracilis Harvey ex J. Agardh, H. incrassata (Ellis) Lamouroux, H. opuntia (Linnaeus) Lamouroux, H. simulans Howe e H. tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux, as quais são descritas em detalhe, com ênfase nos caracteres diagnósticos. Nossos estudos mostraram que a forma e tamanho dos utrículos em vista frontal, vistos em microscopia eletrônica de varredura, permite a distinção entre algumas espécies. Exemplares férteis de Halimeda cuneata e H. discoidea são descritos pela primeira vez para a costa brasileira. Para cada espécie é indicada a distribuição vertical e geográfica na costa brasileira, extendendo-se o limite sul de distribuição do gênero no Atlântico ocidental. Abstract in english Halimeda is a genus of calcified coenocytic green algae with a well known ecological importance in some tropical areas. Bleached calcified segments of Halimeda may accumulate in large deposits of economic potential as is the case in the northeastern coast of Brazil. In a survey of the genus in Brazi [...] l based on recent collections and examination of abundant material deposited on Brazilian herbaria we identified seven species: Halimeda cuneata Hering, H. discoidea Decaisne, H. gracilis Harvey ex J. Agardh, H. incrassata (Ellis) Lamouroux, H. opuntia (Linnaeus) Lamouroux, H. simulans Howe and H. tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux. These species are described in detail, with emphasis on diagnostic characters. Our study has shown that the shape and size of the utricula in surface view, under scanning electron microscopy, can be utilized to discriminate some species. Fertile specimens of Halimeda cuneata and H. discoidea are reported for the first time in the region. Data on vertical and geographical distribution are presented for each species and the southern limit of the genus in the western Atlantic was extended.

Maria Elizabeth, Bandeira-Pedrosa; Sonia M.B., Pereira; Eurico C., Oliveira.

2004-06-01

116

Genomic taxonomy of vibrios  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ? 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

Iida Tetsuya

2009-10-01

117

Genomic taxonomy of vibrios  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. RESULTS: We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae andV. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.). A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. CONCLUSION: The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.

2009-01-01

118

Taxonomy Working Group Final Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the Taxonomy Working Group was to develop a proposal for a common taxonomy to be used by all NASA projects in the classifying of nonconformances, anomalies, and problems. Specifically, the group developed a recommended list of data elements along with general suggestions for the development of a problem reporting system to better serve NASA's need for managing, reporting, and trending project aberrant events. The Group's recommendations are reported in this document.

Parsons, Vickie S.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Barth, Timothy S.; Panontin, Tina L.; Wales, Roxana; Rackley, Michael W.; Milne, James S.; McPherson, John W.; Dutra, Jayne E.; Shaw, Larry C.

2009-01-01

119

A taxonomy of innovation networks  

OpenAIRE

In this discussion paper we develop a theory-based typology of innovation networks with a special focus on public-private collaboration. This taxonomy is theoretically based on the concept of life cycles which is transferred to the context of innovation networks as well as on the mode of network formation which can occur either spontaneous or planned. The taxonomy distinguishes six different types of networks and incorporates two plausible alternative developments that eventually lead to a si...

Scho?n, Benjamin; Pyka, Andreas

2012-01-01

120

LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORAL TAXONOMIES IN UNIVERSITIES  

OpenAIRE

The study was intended to recognize and replicate the Yukl’s (1989-2004) behavioral taxonomies in the university settings in Sindh. A comprehensive questionnaire based on the items in taxonomies was developed, face validity of the questionnaire was test and found suitable. A total of 90 university Deans and head of Departments were randomly selected from public and private universities of Sindh. Categorical reliability of the data was checked and found highly reliable. The majority of the...

Riaz Ahmed Mangi; Asad Raza Abidi; Hasan Jawad Soomro; Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro; Amanat Ali Jalbani

2011-01-01

121

Taxonomy and the Five Kingdoms  

Science.gov (United States)

This site begins by defining taxonomy and classification and gives a brief history of the two disciplines. It then shows the modern classification system and the kinds of evidence used in taxonomy. Next the rules and advantages of binomial nomenclature are described. Finally the kingdoms are described and enhanced with photos. This source describes the moneran kingdom as the fifth kingdom, containing the eubacteria and archaea. Other sources claim these two categories are domains in their own right, not kingdoms at all.

Chad Williams

2010-01-01

122

Taxonomy and origin of reindeer  

OpenAIRE

Reindeer and caribou was probably the key species for the human immigration and colonization in the Arctic and sub-Arctic by the retreat of the ice in the last glacial period. The close connection between human and reindeer has contributed to great interest and variation in reindeer taxonomy and origin. Through the history several both species, subspecies and types of reindeer and caribou have been described. The early taxonomy of the species is marked by comparisons of individual specimen us...

Røed, Knut H.

2007-01-01

123

Distribution and ecology of Ostracodes from 34 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Ostracodes (bivalved Crustaceans) inhabit nearly all aquatic environments from the marine realm to continental freshwater bodies and represent important bio-indicators since their calcific shells are readily preserved in the lake sediments in high numbers. Furthermore they record a plentifulness of information about palaeoenvironments. This data can be used for reconstructing climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. We obtained 112 surface sediment samples from 34 lakes on the plateau to investigate distribution and ecology of ostracodes for understanding the implications of aquatic environmental factors on the distribution of ostracodes. There were 12 species identified: Candona candida, Candona xizangensis, Fabaeformiscandona gyirongensis, Potamocypris villosa, Heterocypris sp. , Eucypris gyirongensis, Ilyocypris sp. , Cytherissa lacustris, Leucuocythere dorsotuberosa, Leucocytherella sinensis, and Limnocythere inopinata. Corresponding environmental factors including water depth, specific conductivity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored in various lakes. The range of specific conductivity was between 275 and 202000 ?S/cm. A Principle Component Analysis (PCA) depicted that ostracode diversity gained high relations with specific conductivity (r = -0.43) and dissolved oxygen (r = 0.43). This indicated that specific conductivity could be the main factor driving the distribution of ostracodes on the Tibetan Plateau. Keywords: Ostracodes, Tibetan Plateau, lacustrine sediment, ecology, diversity

Peng, P.; Fürstenberg, S.; Frenzel, P.; Guo, Y.; Zhu, L.; Gifty-Akita, L.

2013-12-01

124

Distribution and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from the East Lake, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous pollutants, and their presence in urban lakes is a concern for human and ecological health. Surface sediments in the East Lake, China, were collected in winter 2012 and summer 2013 to investigate concentrations, distribution patterns, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of OCPs in this area. The total concentrations of 14 OCPs ranged from 6.3 to 400 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) with an average concentration of 79 ng g(-1) dw. The mean values of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT) were 36 and 7.6 ng g(-1) dw, accounting for 45 and 10 % of the total OCPs, respectively. The concentrations of OCPs in sediment samples collected in winter were significantly higher than those in summer, especially the HCHs, of which in winter were two times greater than summer. Composition analyses indicated that DDTs and endosulfan were mainly from historical contribution. Historical use of technical HCH and new input of lindane were probably the source of HCHs in the East Lake. Most sampling sites of HCHs and DDTs were found to have the potential ecological risk based on levels specified in the sediment quality standards. PMID:24756687

Yun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yuyi; Liu, Minxia; Wang, Jun

2014-09-01

125

Utility of Classical ?-Taxonomy for Biodiversity of Aquatic Nematodes  

Science.gov (United States)

“Classical ?-taxonomy” has different interpretations. Therefore, within the framework of an integrated taxonomic approach it is not relevant to divide taxonomy in different components, each being allocated a different weight of importance. Preferably, taxonomy should be seen in a holistic way, including the act of delimiting and describing taxa, based on different features and available methods, and taxonomy can not be interpreted without looking at evolutionary relationships. The concept of diversity itself is quite diverse as is the measure of diversity. Taxonomic descriptions of free-living aquatic nematodes are very valuable as they provide basic phenotypic information that is necessary for the functional ecological, behavioral, and evolutionary interpretation of data gathered from molecular analyses and of the organism as a whole. In general, molecular taxonomic analyses have the advantage of being much faster and of being able to deal with a larger number of specimens but also possess the important advantage of dealing with a huge amount of features compared to the morphology-based approach. However, just as morphological studies, molecular analyses deal only with partial of an organism.

Decraemer, Wilfrida; Backeljau, Thierry

2015-01-01

126

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

Spotila, J.R.

1992-11-01

127

An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean  

OpenAIRE

The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology an...

Georgios Chatzigeorgiou; Galil, Bella S.; Sarah Faulwetter; Christos Arvanitidis

2011-01-01

128

Spatial correlations of population and ecological factors with distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in southwestern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis as a dynamic disease may be markedly influenced by demographic and ecological factors. A geospatial information system study was developed to determine the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases in relation to population, climatic and environmental factors in Fars province, southwest of Iran. Methods: The dwelling addresses of 217 VL patients were obtained from hospital files. A hazard map produced by unifying buffers (5 km around nomads travel routes (NTR was developed to survey the effect of close proximity to NTR on the distribution of VL. Mean annual rainfall (MAR, mean annual temperature (MAT, four months temperature mean (T4, elevation, slope and landcover were climatic and environmental factors that have been analysed. Finally, data of dwelling foci were extracted from maps and analysed using logistic regression models. Results: Close proximity to NTR was the most important factor influenced on the disease distribution. Climatic factors were in second rank. Among them, temperature especially T4 is the most effective variable and rainfall was also shown to be another effective climatic agent. Most cases of VL were reported from temperate and semiarid areas in western and central regions while arid condition was a confined factor. The environmental factor of landcovers including urban, dry farm and thin forest regions was revealed as the third rank effective factor. Altitude importance was only shown when its effect was studied independently from other factors. Interpretation & conclusion: These findings present the distribution of VL in Fars province is influenced by combination of ecological and nomads demographical variables although closeness to NTR and nomads role in distribution and continuance of kala-azar are the most important factors.

Mohammad Amin Ghatee

2013-08-01

129

Distribution of uranium 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the ecological cycle in mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of uranium, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the uncultivated mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia was investigated. Samples of beef (meat and bones), milk, cheese, grass and podsolic soil were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of these radionuclides in this ecologically unpolluted environment was no different from cultivated regions in other parts of the world. (UK)

130

Problems of the radiocaesium distribution in several components of forest ecological systems and bog ecological systems as well as in deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Germany the south-western part of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg was most heavily affected by the Chernobyl fallout of radiocaesium. The contamination of agricultural food was decreasing in a short time to a harmless level; on the other hand, in special regions there is high contamination of deer, of some species of fungi, of berries and of the browsing of deer up to now. Restrictions in shooting should be taken into account in the time interval of highest contamination. Increasing the supply with minerals, e. g. by mineral fertilizers, is a possible way to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium in natural ecological systems. To develop an efficient measuring management for agricultural foodstuff or for deer, mushrooms and other food from natural ecological systems or forest ecological systems it is necessary to distribute the measuring stations in the areas of the highest contamination and to evaluate the data by computer programs

131

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

OpenAIRE

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom–coccolithophore coexistence ...

Palacz, A. P.; St John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

2013-01-01

132

Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution, sources and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu were studied. Results showed that the measured heavy metals had varied spatial distribution patterns, indicating that they had complex origins and controlling factors. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that the total phosphorus and the loss on ignition were positively correlated with the measured metals except Cd. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb might originate from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater, whereas As predominantly originated from natural processes. Potential ecological risk indices indicated that sediment from Wuli Lake, Gonghu Bay and the Northwest Area suffered high pollution, whereas other areas of Lake Taihu were moderately polluted. A comparison of metal levels with the effects range low (ERL) and effects range median (ERM) showed that metals exceeded their corresponding ERL limit at 13.6–72.3% (72.3% for As, 52.4% for Pb, 27.7% for Cu, 22.8% for Cd, 16.0 for Hg and 13.6% for Cr) of the sites investigated. Moreover, 3.90% and 0.50% of the sites sampled exceeded the ERM thresholds for Hg and Pb, respectively.

133

Ecological niche and potential geographic distribution of the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens (Diptera, Tephritidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two correlative approaches to the challenge of ecological niche modeling (genetic algorithm, maximum entropy) were used to estimate the potential global distribution of the invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, based on associations between known occurrence records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The two models yielded similar estimates, largely corresponding to Equatorial climate classes with high levels of precipitation. The maximum entropy approach was somewhat more conservative in its evaluation of suitability, depending on thresholds for presence/absence that are selected, largely excluding areas with distinct dry seasons; the genetic algorithm models, in contrast, indicate that climate class as partly suitable. Predictive tests based on independent distributional data indicate that model predictions are quite robust. Field observations in Benin and Tanzania confirm relationships between seasonal occurrences of this species and humidity and temperature. PMID:19323851

De Meyer, M; Robertson, M P; Mansell, M W; Ekesi, S; Tsuruta, K; Mwaiko, W; Vayssières, J-F; Peterson, A T

2010-02-01

134

The remote experiment position in actual taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

Taxonomy is a classification effort for establishment of learning/teaching operational objectives. There are some famous taxonomies, Bloom's being the most quoted. In spite of the fact that some researchers have tried to explain the position of elearning in already known taxonomies, this subject was not too much in the general attention. In the paper the authors intend to go deeply and to analyze the position of the new methodology-remote experiment-in the actual taxonomies. In addition they ...

Samoila, Cornel; Ursutiu, Doru; Cotfas, Petru; Zamfira, Sorin

2007-01-01

135

A taxonomy fuzzy filtering approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our work proposes the use of topic taxonomies as part of a filtering language. Given a taxonomy, a classifier is trained for each one of its topics. The user is able to formulate logical rules combining the available topics, e.g. (Topic1 AND Topic2 OR Topic3, in order to filter related documents in a stream. Using the trained classifiers, every document in the stream is assigned a belief value of belonging to the topics of the filter. These belief values are then aggregated using logical operators to yield the belief to the filter. In our study, Support Vector Machines and Naïve Bayes classifiers were used to provide topic probabilities. Aggregation of topic probabilities based on fuzzy logic operators was found to improve filtering performance on the Renters text corpus, as compared to the use of their Boolean counterparts. Finally, we deployed a filtering system on the web using a sample taxonomy of the Open Directory Project.

Vrettos S.

2003-01-01

136

Potential distribution of Mexican primates: modeling the ecological niche with the maximum entropy algorithm.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a potential distribution model for the tropical rain forest species of primates of southern Mexico: the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra), the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata), and the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). To do so, we applied the maximum entropy algorithm from the ecological niche modeling program MaxEnt. For each species, we used occurrence records from scientific collections, and published and unpublished sources, and we also used the 19 environmental coverage variables related to precipitation and temperature from WorldClim to develop the models. The predicted distribution of A. pigra was strongly associated with the mean temperature of the warmest quarter (23.6%), whereas the potential distributions of A. palliata and A. geoffroyi were strongly associated with precipitation during the coldest quarter (52.2 and 34.3% respectively). The potential distribution of A. geoffroyi is broader than that of the Alouatta spp. The areas with the greatest probability of presence of A. pigra and A. palliata are strongly associated with riparian vegetation, whereas the presence of A. geoffroyi is more strongly associated with the presence of rain forest. Our most significant contribution is the identification of areas with a high probability of the presence of these primate species, which is information that can be applied to planning future studies and then establishing criteria for the creation of areas to primate conservation in Mexico. PMID:21404094

Vidal-García, Francisca; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

2011-07-01

137

Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi), cong [...] o (Alouatta palliata), cara blanca (Cebus capucinus), y tití (Saimiri oerstedii). La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliográfica. Se estudió su diversidad genética utilizando electroforesis de isoenzimas. El riesgo de extinción se evaluó usando información bibliográfica. Se encontró que las cuatro especies presentaban variación en todos estos rasgos. Con estos datos, se realizó una correlación de Pearson entre el riesgo de extinción y las variables indicadoras de la distribución geográfica, los rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida y la diversidad genética, para aquellas especies con una amplia distribución geográfica. Se encontró una asociación entre el riesgo de extinción y la natalidad y la tasa de crecimiento poblacional; las especies con menor natalidad y menor tasa de crecimiento poblacional tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción; las especies con mayor diversidad genética tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se discute la importancia de estos rasgos para la conservación de estas especies. Abstract in english We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi [...] ), howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata), capuchins (Cebus capucinus), and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii). Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3): 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.

María E, Zaldívar; Oscar, Rocha; Kenneth E, Glander; Gabriel, Aguilar; Ana S, Huertas; Ronald, Sánchez; Grace, Wong.

2004-09-01

138

Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata, capuchins (Cebus capucinus, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii. Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi, congo (Alouatta palliata, cara blanca (Cebus capucinus, y tití (Saimiri oerstedii. La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliográfica. Se estudió su diversidad genética utilizando electroforesis de isoenzimas. El riesgo de extinción se evaluó usando información bibliográfica. Se encontró que las cuatro especies presentaban variación en todos estos rasgos. Con estos datos, se realizó una correlación de Pearson entre el riesgo de extinción y las variables indicadoras de la distribución geográfica, los rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida y la diversidad genética, para aquellas especies con una amplia distribución geográfica. Se encontró una asociación entre el riesgo de extinción y la natalidad y la tasa de crecimiento poblacional; las especies con menor natalidad y menor tasa de crecimiento poblacional tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción; las especies con mayor diversidad genética tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se discute la importancia de estos rasgos para la conservación de estas especies.

María E Zaldívar

2004-09-01

139

Dynamic taxonomies and faceted search  

CERN Document Server

Current access paradigms for the Web, i.e., direct access via search engines or database queries and navigational access via static taxonomies, have recently been criticized because they are too rigid or simplistic to effectively cope with a large number of practical search applications. A third paradigm, dynamic taxonomies and faceted search, focuses on user-centered conceptual exploration, which is far more frequent in search tasks than retrieval using exact specification, and has rapidly become pervasive in modern Web data retrieval, especially in critical applications such as product selec

Sacco, Giovanni Maria

2009-01-01

140

Northern Seasonal Woodland Ponds: Distribution, Biota, and Ecological Linkages with the Surrounding Forest  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal woodland ponds are important landscape features across much of eastern and central North America. Learning more about the ecology of these habitats is a pressing need in the US because federal protections are being reduced. Further, the fates of these habitats are not being monitored because most are too small for inclusion in the National Wetland Inventory. In our northern Minnesota study area, the distribution of seasonal woodland ponds is strongly influenced by glacial landform, with most ponds being associated with ground or end moraines. The habitats support an abundance of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians; these organisms are well adapted for the variable environments existing in ponds and they posses a durability that makes them resistant to most natural variation in conditions. Because of the small size of seasonal woodland ponds, input of plant litter and migration of invertebrates from the surrounding forest into ponds is an important ecological link. However, because ponds support an autochthonous growth of wetland trees, the relationship between ponds and the forest differs from that between streams and forests. Like eastern streams, logging of forests around ponds is a concern, but impacts of peripheral logging on theses wetlands appear less dramatic than for streams.

Batzer, D.; Palik, B.

2005-05-01

141

Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran. Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN. Vegetation was classified into different groups. The topographic conditions were recorded in quadrate locations. Soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. Soil acidity, bulk density, saturation moisture, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchangeable capacity, available phosphorous, soil texture, lime, biomass of earthworms, litter carbon and litter nitrogen were measured. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patters were mainly related to soil characteristics such as pH, bulk density, texture, phosphorous, organic carbon, nitrogen and CEC. Totally, considering the habitat conditions and ecological needs, each plant species has a significant relation with soil properties.

Y. Kooch

2007-01-01

142

Taxonomy Icon Data: California sea lion [Taxonomy Icon  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available California ... sea lion Zalophus california nus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivor ... a Zalophus_california nus_L.png Zalophus_california nus_NL.png Zalophus_ca ... lifornianus_S.png Zalophus_california nus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic ...

143

Distribution, abundance, and seasonal ecology of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on golf courses in Québec, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The weevil Listronotus maculicollis Dietz (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of annual bluegrass, Poa annua L., on golf courses in northeastern North America. To determine the distribution, abundance, and seasonal ecology of L. maculicollis on golf courses in Québec, Canada, we sampled 19 golf courses (GC1-GC19) from different geographic and climatic conditions during 2001, 2002, and 2003. L. maculicollis was found on all golf courses except GC19, which was located in northeastern Québec. In most sites, L. maculicollis completed two generations per year. A linear regression model comparing L. maculicollis larval densities as a function of spatial coordinates revealed that L. maculicollis were more abundant in western Québec than in eastern Québec. Pearson correlations on the probability of both L. maculicollis larval and pupal presence with soil parameters indicated significant positive correlations for fine sand (larvae) and soil pH (pupae) and negative correlations for gravel. PMID:17849888

Simard, Louis; Brodeur, Jacques; Dionne, Julie

2007-08-01

144

Methodological approaches for studying the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has traditionally been based on culturing organisms from bulk water samples. The development and application of molecular methods has supplied new tools for examining the microbial diversity and activity of environmental samples, yielding new insights into the microbial community and its diversity within these engineered ecosystems. In this review, the currently available methods and emerging approaches for characterising microbial communities, including both planktonic and biofilm ways of life, are critically evaluated. The study of biofilms is considered particularly important as it plays a critical role in the processes and interactions occurring at the pipe wall and bulk water interface. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of methods that can be used to detect and assess microbial abundance, community composition and function are discussed in a DWDS context. This review will assist hydraulic engineers and microbial ecologists in choosing the most appropriate tools to assess drinking water microbiology and related aspects. PMID:25105587

Douterelo, Isabel; Boxall, Joby B; Deines, Peter; Sekar, Raju; Fish, Katherine E; Biggs, Catherine A

2014-11-15

145

Distribution, morphological variability, ecology and the present state of Nitella from Lake Ohrid and its surroundings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our research into 52 profiles of the littoral zone of the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid and numerous samples taken from its surroundings has resulted in a detailed picture of the composition of the Charophyta vegetation in the lake. The results of the research also include data regarding the species composition and present state of Nitella. The dominant species of Nitella is Nitella opaca, which is characterized by a specific distribution, morphological variability and ecology. The present state of Nitella is not steady, especially in the watershed of the lake, since in this area there are some permanent changes in the hydrology of the terrain. Therefore, there is a need to establish long-term and complex monitoring which will result in the prompt detection of risk factors and influences, thereby enabling a rapid reaction to a possible newly emerged negative state.

Trajanovska Sonja

2012-01-01

146

Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records [...] of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country.

Juliano Vilaverde, Schmitt; Hélio Amante, Miot.

1013-10-01

147

Macrophyte distribution and ecological status of the Turiec River (Slovakia: Changes after seven years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characteristics of diversity, abundance, distribution, and ecological status of aquatic macrophytes were observed in 2000 and 2007 on a circa 4.5 km long section of the Turiec River using Kohler's method. In comparison to 2000, the total number of macrophytes in 2007 increased markedly (from 25 to 35, although only the numbers of amphi­phytes and helophytes were changed substantially. The number of hydrophytes increased from 11 to 12; an invasive, Elodea canadenis, was the only new species. The relative plant mass of hydrophytes represents the bulk of all recorded species (95 and 80% in 2000 and 2007, respectively, and it was changed for most hydrophytes. The most significant changes were detected for Myriophyllum spicatum (decrease, filamentous algae (decrease, and Potamogeton crispus (increase. In 2007, the mean mass total (MMT sum of hydrophytes decreased from 16.46 to 14.5. On the other hand, the MMTsum of amphiphytes and helophytes doubled in value (7.4 and 14.1 in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Within hydrophytes, Batrachium species (including B. aquatile and B. trichophyllum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous (distribution ratio d > 0.5 in 2000, whereas in 2007 only Batrachium species and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous. At all times, Batrachium species were the most frequent species in the study area, and their abundance was relatively high (MMT> 2.5. A poor ecological status (MMP = 0.378 and MMP = 0.333 in 2000 and 2007, respectively of the surveyed river section was found in both years, but a slight decline of quality as determined on the basis of aquatic plants was observed after 7 years.

Hrivnák R.

2009-01-01

148

Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hernawan E. 2012. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae. Biodiversitas 13: 118-123. A taxonomic study was conducted on the giant clam’s specimens deposited in Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB, Cibinong Indonesia. Taxonomic overviews of the examined specimens are given with diagnostic characters, remarks, habitat and distribution. Discussion is focused on specific characters distinguishing each species. From seven species known to distribute in Indonesian waters, there are six species, Tridacna squamosa Lamarck, 1819; T. gigas Linnaeus, 1758; T. derasa Roding, 1798; T. crocea Lamarck, 1819; T. maxima Roding,1798; and Hippopus hippopus Linnaeus, 1758. This study suggests the need for collecting specimen of H. porcellanus Rosewater, 1982. Important characters to distinguish species among Tridacninae are interlocking teeth on byssal orifice, life habits, presence of scales and inhalant siphon tentacles.

UDHI EKO HERNAWAN

2012-07-01

149

Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet  

CERN Document Server

When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun.We know its approximate mass, temperature, age and size. In our work with extrasolar planets database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification), for example, like the Harvard classification for stars. This new taxonomy has to be comprehensible and present the important information about extrasolar planets. The important information of extrasolar planets are their mass, radius, period, density, eccentricity, temperature, and their distance from the parent star. There are too many parameters, that is, taxonomy with six parameters would be complicated and difficult to apply. We propose following the extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with only four parameters. The first parameter is the information about the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of the units of the mass of other known planets, where M - Mercury, E - Earth, N - Neptune, and J - Jupiter. The second parameter is the distance from its pa...

Plávalová, E

2011-01-01

150

Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest), located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in th [...] e study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species) and Polypodiaceae (22 species). The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species) and Thelypteris (9 species). Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

Anna Flora de Novaes, Pereira; Ivo Abraão Araújo da, Silva; Augusto César Pessôa, Santiago; Iva Carneiro Leão, Barros.

2013-12-01

151

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

Science.gov (United States)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

2013-11-01

152

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources

Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael

2013-01-01

153

Query Evaluation in P2P Systems of Taxonomy-based Sources: Algorithms, Complexity, and Optimizations  

CERN Document Server

In this study, we address the problem of answering queries over a peer-to-peer system of taxonomy-based sources. A taxonomy states subsumption relationships between negation-free DNF formulas on terms and negation-free conjunctions of terms. To the end of laying the foundations of our study, we first consider the centralized case, deriving the complexity of the decision problem and of query evaluation. We conclude by presenting an algorithm that is efficient in data complexity and is based on hypergraphs. More expressive forms of taxonomies are also investigated, which however lead to intractability. We then move to the distributed case, and introduce a logical model of a network of taxonomy-based sources. On such network, a distributed version of the centralized algorithm is then presented, based on a message passing paradigm, and its correctness is proved. We finally discuss optimization issues, and relate our work to the literature.

Meghini, Carlo; Analyti, Anastasia

2007-01-01

154

Predicting the Current and Future Potential Distributions of Lymphatic Filariasis in Africa Using Maximum Entropy Ecological Niche Modelling  

OpenAIRE

Modelling the spatial distributions of human parasite species is crucial to understanding the environmental determinants of infection as well as for guiding the planning of control programmes. Here, we use ecological niche modelling to map the current potential distribution of the macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Africa, and to estimate how future changes in climate and population could affect its spread and burden across the continent. We used 508 community-specific infe...

Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin

2012-01-01

155

Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran  

OpenAIRE

Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the view...

Karami, T.; Soleimani, M.; Afrakhteh, H.; Hataminejad, H.

2012-01-01

156

[Ecological distribution and spatial niche of pheasants in the Karst mountains of southwest Guangxi Province, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Karst mountain area along the Sino-Vietnam border of southwest Guangxi has been designated a "Global Biodiversity Hotspot" since 2003. We conducted a survey of pheasant species in this area, with seven species recorded, namely Chinese Francolin (Francolinus pintadeanus), Bar-backed Partridge (Arborophila brunneopectus), Mountain Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola fytchii), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) and Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Analysis and comparison of the distribution and spatial niche of these seven pheasant species revealed that Red Junglefowl had the widest spatial niche, while Chinese Francolin had the narrowest. The spatial niche overlap index was high between Chinese Francolin and the Common Pheasant, Chinese Bamboo Partridge, and Red Junglefowl. With narrow distribution range, small population, and lower ecological adaptability, it is likely that the Bar-backed Partridge is the most vulnerable pheasant species in this area. The results suggest more research and conservation measures are required for pheasant habitat protection in the Karst areas of southwest Guangxi. PMID:22006809

Yu, Chen-Xing; Yang, Gang; Li, Dong; Zhou, Fang

2011-10-01

157

The distribution, abundance and ecology of the blue coral Heliopora coerulea (Pallas) in the Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Heliopora coerulea (Alcyonaria, Coenothecalia), widespread since the Cretaceous, is today found in the Indo-Western Pacific between 25° N and 25° S but is uncommon throughout most of its range. Studies around its reported southern and eastern limits of distribution (Great Barrier Reef, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Western Samoa, Tuvalu, Gilbert Group) suggest that ocean temperature (a lower marginal isotherm of 22°C), duration of larval life-span, prevailing currents, and the geological and climatic history of isolated archipelagoes determine distribution. Heliopora was found to be far more abundant in the equatorial Central Pacific sites (Tuvalu and Gilbert growps) than in the Western Pacific (Great Barrier Reef, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Ponape, Palau). Heliopora comprised up to 16% of beach sediments in Tuvalu atolls, and was the dominant coral (averaging 40% of substrate between 6 m and 10 m on reef slopes) in coral assemblages on Tarawa Atoll. From ecological studies in Tarawa it is suggested that competition from the more specialized and “aggressive” Scleractinia (particularly Acroporidae and Faviidae) is the major factor limiting abundance in the equatorial Western Pacific.

Zann, Leon P.; Bolton, Lesley

1985-09-01

158

Distribution and feeding ecology of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) in Greenland waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenland sharks are widely distributed and most likely a highly abundant predator in arctic waters. Greenland sharks have previously been considered scavengers, but recent studies suggest that Greenland sharks also predate on live prey. In this study, distribution and feeding ecology in Greenland waters were investigated. Based on data from 25 years of surveys, Greenland sharks were usually caught at 400–700 m but were found at all depths between 100 and 1,200 m. Based on examination of stomachs from 30 Greenland sharks (total length of 258–460 cm), the most important prey items were Atlantic cod (65.6 % IRI), harp seal (9.9 % IRI), skates (5.2 % IRI) and wolffish (4.4 % IRI), but large geographical variations were observed. Prey composition and qualitative observations support the hypothesis of active predation. Consistent with other studies, the results of this work support the notion that the Greenland shark is an apex predator with the potential to influence trophic dynamics in the Arctic.

Nielsen, Julius; Hedeholm, Rasmus Berg

2014-01-01

159

On the taxonomy and distribution of Crocidura cossyrensis and Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Soricidae in Maghreb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The paper examines the taxonomic status of North African Crocidura russula Auctorum. On the basis of morphological data, the taxon needs to be divided into at least two species: C. russula (Hermann, 1780 from western Europe, coastal Morocco and middle-western Algeria, up to about the Algiers area, and possibly even Sardinia and Ibiza, and another species, distributed in coastal middle-eastern Algeria, Tunisia, Pantelleria and, possibly, La Galite archipelago. The first and only available name for the above, eastern taxon is Crocidura cossyrensis Contoli, 1989.

Longino Contoli

2001-09-01

160

Current status of viroid taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids. PMID:25216773

Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

2014-12-01

161

Taxonomia e distribuição de Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta) / Taxonomy and distribution of Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans é uma espécie sul americana, ocorrendo nas Florestas Amazônica e Atlântica. Caracteriza-se, principalmente, pela presença do segundo e primeiro dentes do lóbulo contíguos um ao outro e ausência de inovações. Entre as espécies neotropicais, C. aneogyna é a ún [...] ica que pode apresentar ocelos, porém, a presença destes não é constante. Descrição, ilustração, comentários sobre a morfologia e distribuição geográfica são fornecidos e discutidos. Está sendo referida pela primeira vez para a Bolívia. Abstract in english Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans is a South American species found in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. It is characterized mainly by the presence of the first and second teeth of the lobule that are adjacent to each other and the lack of innovations. Among the neotropical species, C. aneogyn [...] a is the only one that has ocelli; however, their presence is not constant. A description, illustration, and comments on the morphology and geographic distribution are provided. This species is reported for the first time for Bolivia.

Cid José Passos, Bastos.

2012-09-01

162

Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i...

Austin Brian

2011-01-01

163

Emerging Issues in Virus Taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

Viruses occupy a unique position in biology. Although they possess some of the properties of living systems such as having a genome, they are actually nonliving infectious entities and should not be considered microorganisms. A clear distinction should be drawn between the terms virus, virion, and virus species. Species is the most fundamental taxonomic category used in all biological classification. In 1991, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) decided that the category ...

Regenmortel, Marc H. V.; Mahy, Brian W. J.

2004-01-01

164

Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of sediments, attention has seldom been paid to the problem in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to find the distribution and ecological risk of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in surface sediment of Baiyangdian which is the biggest wetland in Northeast China. We apply three methodologies. The first is literature analysis comparing total concentrations of heavy metals with other water bodies around world. The second is Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (EQSS), National Environmental Protection Agency of China 1995, and the third is Soil and Aquatic Sediment Guidelines and Standards issued by New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The results show that compared to other water bodies around the world, the seven heavy metals are low. However, Cd was found in the most polluting level of EQSS near a village and was second grade some distance from it. The village was also the most polluted site of Zn,which was in the second grade. When assessed by NYSDEC, Cu, Cr, and As contaminated the sediment and with moderate impacts on benthic life while Pb, Hg, and Zn were found at tolerable levels throughout Baiyangdian. The centre of Cu and Cr contamination was also near the village. As is the most polluting heavy metals with a major occurrence in the middle of the wetland. There were no heavy metals creating severe disturbance to the benthic communities. Based on the assessment, this article proposes different options for more sustainable management.

Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling

2011-01-01

165

Biomonitors and the assessment of ecological impacts: Distribution of herbivorous epifauna in contaminated macroalgal beds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determined metal contents of co-occurring algae Padina crassa and Sargassum sp. in Port Jackson (Australia), and relationships between metal levels and the abundance of epifaunal amphipods. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations were amongst the highest yet recorded in these algae. Copper, manganese and lead concentrations were far greater in P. crassa than Sargassum sp., possibly due to the low growth of P. crassa in proximity to contaminated sediments. However, in manipulative experiments the proximity of algae to sediments did not explain these differences. The abundance of herbivorous amphipods correlated negatively with the copper content of P. crassa, but not with the lower concentrations in Sargassum sp. The greater contamination of P. crassa led to patchy distributions of metals in algal beds and recolonisation experiments showed Sargassum sp. acts as a refuge from contaminants for epifauna. The contamination of macroalgae may pose threats to epifauna in harbours around the world. - The accumulation of metals by macroalgae may pose ecological threats to herbivorous epifauna in ports and harbours worldwide

166

Description of a new species of the genus Leporinus Spix (Characiformes: Anostomidae from the rio Araguaia, Brazil, with comments on the taxonomy and distribution of L. parae and L. lacustris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new species of the genus Leporinus is described from the rio Araguaia, in Mato Grosso and Goiás states, Brazil. The new species has the dental formula 4/3, a unique feature within the genus; all other species of Leporinus have dental formulae 3/3, 3/4 or 4/4. In addition, the new species can also be distinguished by the following combination of characters: 36 to 37 scales in the lateral line, 4/4.5 or 4/5 series of scales in the transversal line, 16 circumpeduncular scale series, anal fin surpassing base of lower caudal-fin rays and three blotches along the lateral line. The new species shares with L. parae and L. lacustris a rather deep body, terminal mouth, long anal fin, three small dark blotches on the lateral line, the latter two, particularly the last one, usually fading, and preference for lentic habitats. Comments on the taxonomy and distribution of the species L. parae and L. lacustris are provided.Uma nova espécie do gênero Leporinus é descrita do rio Araguaia, nos estados do Mato Grosso e Goiás, Brasil. A característica mais notável da nova espécie é sua fórmula dental 4/3, única entre as espécies do gênero que possuem fórmula dental 3/3, 3/4 ou 4/4. A nova espécie também pode ser reconhecida pela combinação das seguintes características: 36 a 37 escamas na linha lateral, 4/4,5 ou 4/5 séries de escamas na linha transversal, 16 series de escamas circumpedunculares, nadadeira anal ultrapassando a base dos raios inferiores da nadadeira caudal e presença de três manchas escuras ao longo da linha lateral. A nova espécie compartilha com L. parae e L. lacustris corpo alto, boca terminal, nadadeira anal longa e escura, três manchas escuras na linha lateral pequenas, sendo as duas últimas, em especial a última, geralmente apagadas, e preferência por habitats lênticos. Além disso, são feitos comentários sobre a taxonomia e a distribuição de L. parae e L. lacustris.

Heraldo A. Britski

2008-03-01

167

MURCIÉLAGOS DE UN BOSQUE EN LOS ANDES CENTRALES DE COLOMBIA CON NOTAS SOBRE SU TAXONOMÍA Y DISTRIBUCIÓN / Bats from a forest in the Central Andes of Colombia with notes on their taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la diversidad de murciélagos registrados en un inventario rápido en tres estaciones entre los 2500 y los 3500 m de altitud, sobre la vertiente occidental de la cordillera Central de los Andes colombianos, en el departamento de Caldas. El gradiente de distribución de Anoura aequatoris es [...] ampliado hacia el norte y se sugiere su presencia en otras localidades más septentrionales de la cordillera Central y la Cordillera Oriental. Sturnira aratathomasi, S. erythromos y S. ludovici, fueron capturadas en simpatría mientras que Histiotus montanus e H. humboldti se registraron en estaciones diferentes. Myotis keaysi presentó el gradiente altitudinal más amplio, mientras Carollia brevicauda estuvo restringida a la estación de menor altitud. Los géneros Anoura, Sturnira e Histiotus presentan un patrón de sucesión o reemplazo altitudinal de especies. Considerando la confusión en la identificación de las especies registradas, se presentan comentarios sobre la diferenciación entre ellas y recomendaciones para estudios futuros sobre su taxonomía y distribución. La certeza taxonómica es importante para conocer el estado real de las poblaciones colombianas de murciélagos e identificar patrones básicos para interpretar procesos importantes dentro de los ecosistemas y su estado de conservación. Por el contrario, la información errada, puede implicar consecuencias inmensurables cuando es utilizada y los errores replicados. Abstract in english This paper reports the bat diversity found in a rapid assessment inventory in three stations between 2500 and 3500 masl, along the western slopes of the cordillera Central of Colombia (Departmento of Caldas). The distributional range of Anoura aequatoris is expanded northwards and its presence in mo [...] re western localities of the the cordillera Central and the Oriental is suggested. Sturnira aratathomasi, S. erythromos and S. ludovici were captured in sympatry while Histiotus montanus and H. humboldti were recorded in different stations. Myotis keaysi showed the broadest altitudinal range, while Carollia brevicauda was only found in the station at lowest elevation. The genera Anoura, Sturnira and Histiotus have a pattern of altitudinal succession or replacement of species. Considering the difficulty to identify the recorded species, comments on their taxonomy and recommendations for future studies are included. Taxonomic accuracy is important to know the real status of the Colombian populations of bats and to identify basic biological patterns that allow us to interpret processes within ecosystems and their conservation status; using wrong information and repeating mistakes might bring immeasurable consequences.

MIGUEL E., RODRÍGUEZ-POSADA.

2010-06-30

168

Mapping of nematode distribution and assessment of its ecological status using GIS techniques in Plovdiv region, Bulgaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current investigation was carried out in selected vineyards in Plovdiv region, South Bulgaria. The GIS database was created including factors influenced on nematode distribution in the soil. The plant-parasitic nematodes from family Longidoridae associated with grapevine and soil type of the region were described. The impact of longidorids as virus vectors and some ecological aspects of their occurrence in vineyards in South Bulgaria are discussed. PMID:22696946

Bileva, T; Arnaudova, Zh

2011-01-01

169

Contributions to Distribution, Reproduction Biology and Ecology of Vormela peregusna (G?ldenstadt, 1770 (Mammalia: Carnivora in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, both captured and uncaptured Vormela peregusna were investigated for their distribution, reproduction biology, some ecological observations and morphological characteristics in our laboratory, and campus area at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey. It was observed that there is a cannibalism within population in Vormela peregusna. The morphological evaluations indicated that Turkish V. peregusna is the same to V. peregusna from Israel.

Co kun Tez

2001-01-01

170

ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE) IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA  

OpenAIRE

Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T. angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and l...

Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² And Rajendra Yonzone³

2012-01-01

171

Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the viewpoint of green space function and a great part of the role of urban green space is undertaken by private green spaces. “What effect do private greeneries located in residential areas have on the quality of citizens’ life or what kind of reality is asserted by their development and distribution pattern in the urban life of today’s modern society” were issues of less attention. Thus, considering the interconnection of green space production and distribution pattern (public and private with the rest of natural, social, economic and fabric conditions, the present research benefits from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a dependent variable which has been influenced by ecological, social, fabric and economic variables and has analyzed them to identify effective factors in Tehran inequality urban green space. The present article theoretically makes use of urban political ecology approach and is considered a correlational research. The required data have been prepared and analyzed by some types of software such as ArcGIS, ArcView, IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine, and SPSS. In conducting this research some techniques have been used such as; “Average Distance to Nearest Neighbor”, “Square Analysis”, “Correlational Analysis and Factor Analysis”. 2-Theoretical basis The present study is theoretically based on an urban political ecology approach. Urban components including green space from urban political ecological perspective are considered a kind of social production whose imagination and change are influenced by political economy, dominant pattern of public and private ownership in society (Heynen, Perkins and Roy, 2006: 3. The aforementioned perspective clearly states that urban material conditions which includes urban environment too are controlled and manipulated by the elite and city experts to serve their interests. This issue is conducive to make some of the urban social groups marginalized and deprived from natural riches and urban environmental artifacts. As a result, the quality of urban environment (physically and socially increases in some neighborhoods and decreases in others (Heynen, Kaika and Swyngedouw, 2006: 1-15. Since unequal greenery distribution with creating imbalanced ecological conditions often plays its role in a feedback cycle on environment quality and intensification of inequalities within urban life environment, the present study uses pattern of canopy distribution located in areas of residential uses (private and public to reveal social, economic and spatial inequalities in Tehran. 3- DiscussionThe results of this research in relation to Tehran city confirm the determining position of urban political ecology in forming distribution pattern and density of trees canopy located in areas of Tehran. This is a subject which is confirmed by studies conducted on urban green space (including public and private in the cities such as San Diego, Toronto (by Perkins, Heynen and Wilson 2004, Scobedo and colleagues 2005, Heynen, Perkins and Roy 2006 and Conway, Shakeel and Atallah 2011. Also, so far many researchers on the urban issues of Tehran city (such as Madanipoor 2005, Horkad 2009 have emphasized the conformity of natural topography over social topography in Tehran. The result f this attempt, while confirming aforementioned perspectives, indicated that the distribution pattern of canopy density in residential areas(private urban green space has a greater capability to portray social classifications and environmental quality and as a result spatial inequalities in Tehran city du

T. Karami

2012-01-01

172

Particulate organic matter distribution along the lower Amazon River: addressing aquatic ecology concepts using fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the greatest challenges in understanding the Amazon basin functioning is to ascertain the role played by floodplains in the organic matter (OM) cycle, crucial for a large spectrum of ecological mechanisms. Fatty acids (FAs) were combined with environmental descriptors and analyzed through multivariate and spatial tools (asymmetric eigenvector maps, AEM and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM). This challenge allowed investigating the distribution of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), in order to trace its seasonal origin and quality, along a 800 km section of the Amazon river-floodplain system. Statistical analysis confirmed that large amounts of saturated FAs (15:0, 18:0, 24:0, 25:0 and 26:0), an indication of refractory OM, were concomitantly recorded with high pCO(2) in rivers, during the high water season (HW). Contrastingly, FAs marker which may be attributed in this ecosystem to aquatic plants (18:2?6 and 18:3?3) and cyanobacteria (16:1?7), were correlated with higher O(2), chlorophyll a and pheopigments in floodplains, due to a high primary production during low waters (LW). Decreasing concentrations of unsaturated FAs, that characterize labile OM, were recorded during HW, from upstream to downstream. Furthermore, using PCNM and AEM spatial methods, FAs compositions of SPOM displayed an upstream-downstream gradient during HW, which was attributed to OM retention and the extent of flooded forest in floodplains. Discrimination of OM quality between the Amazon River and floodplains corroborate higher autotrophic production in the latter and transfer of OM to rivers at LW season. Together, these gradients demonstrate the validity of FAs as predictors of spatial and temporal changes in OM quality. These spatial and temporal trends are explained by 1) downstream change in landscape morphology as predicted by the River Continuum Concept; 2) enhanced primary production during LW when the water level decreased and its residence time increased as predicted by the Flood Pulse Concept. PMID:23029412

Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Rigal, François; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Bernardes, Marcelo; Abril, Gwenaël; Meziane, Tarik

2012-01-01

173

Comparative ecology of widely-distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address

Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.

2014-01-01

174

Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.

2014-01-01

175

Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

2014-12-01

176

Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado en Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile, Islas Juan Fernández y en regiones costeras al sur de los 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica y M. tenuis son más frecuentes en las zonas más australes de Chile; también se han encontrado en hábitats de altura y bajas latitudes. Se incluyen, además, M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens y M. wandae. Varias especies sorediosas crecen como pioneras en sustratos jóvenes. Los patrones de distribución a lo largo de gradientes de humedad y de luz son variables. Se presentan mapas de distribución y clave de las especies.

JARLE W BJERKE

2003-03-01

177

A taxonomy for artificial embryogeny.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major challenge for evolutionary computation is to evolve phenotypes such as neural networks, sensory systems, or motor controllers at the same level of complexity as found in biological organisms. In order to meet this challenge, many researchers are proposing indirect encodings, that is, evolutionary mechanisms where the same genes are used multiple times in the process of building a phenotype. Such gene reuse allows compact representations of very complex phenotypes. Development is a natural choice for implementing indirect encodings, if only because nature itself uses this very process. Motivated by the development of embryos in nature, we define artificial embryogeny (AE) as the subdiscipline of evolutionary computation (EC) in which phenotypes undergo a developmental phase. An increasing number of AE systems are currently being developed, and a need has arisen for a principled approach to comparing and contrasting, and ultimately building, such systems. Thus, in this paper, we develop a principled taxonomy for AE. This taxonomy provides a unified context for long-term research in AE, so that implementation decisions can be compared and contrasted along known dimensions in the design space of embryogenic systems. It also allows predicting how the settings of various AE parameters affect the capacity to efficiently evolve complex phenotypes. PMID:12906725

Stanley, Kenneth O; Miikkulainen, Risto

2003-01-01

178

Peruvian Children's Folk Taxonomy of Marine Animals  

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Full Text Available Free listing was used to obtain names of marine animals from 234 Peruvian children with families involved in fishing activities. They live in the fishing towns of Vila-vila, Morro Sama and Ilo, located in Southern Peru. Fishes, birds and the category “other marine animal” were used for the classification of marine fauna by children. The group of 6-8 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 19.7 names per child, while the group of 9-11 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 25.7 names per child. Folk species of fish is the most frequently recorded category with a predominance of coastal species and with a mean frequency of 7.56 and 11.51 names per child for the groups of 6-8 year-olds and 9-11 year-olds, respectively. In contrast, bird names are less frequently recorded in the lists. Some bird and mollusc names have lexical under-differentiation at a generic level and apparently have lower cultural significance than fish. Children’s classification in different levels of organization is evidence of a folk biology. The folk taxonomy of marine animals could be influenced by the lesser cognitive development of younger children and the ecological salience of some species. Some species with coastal habitat exhibit a high dominance index of folk names. Cultural transmission of knowledge about birds could be failing due to the recent occupancy of the study sites by migratory people and the sexual division of work in the children’s families.

José Pizarro-Neyra

2011-09-01

179

Tephritid taxonomy into the 21st century - Research opportunities and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We write with the firm conviction that taxonomic research forms the essential foundation for all other areas of investigation within the field of biology. This has been well demonstrated in the Tephritidae and is a position at which we have arrived through many years' experience in fruit fly systematic research covering taxonomy, behaviour, biology, ecology and pest control. The importance of sound taxonomic research is highlighted at this time by the known presence of many sibling species complexes across the family. Within the Dacinae, for example, major pest species often occur within groups of closely related species, most of which are not pests. The dorsalis complex of Southeast Asia and the musae complex of Papua New Guinea are examples. Tephritid taxonomy has a long history (over two centuries) and rich heritage with some 4,500 species having been described since the mid-1700s. This research has been carried out in major research centres around the world and particularly in Australia, Europe, Hawaii, mainland USA and South Africa. In Mexico in February 1998, a significant meeting was held on the biology/behaviour and taxonomy of Tephritidae. Specialist researchers in this area presented valuable and interesting data on 'Phylogeny and Evolution of Behaviour' in fruit flies. In summarising current knowledge on the taxonomy and biology of the Tephritidae, the meeting highlighted the outstanding achievements of taxonomy in its contributions to both basic research aits contributions to both basic research and pest management programmes over many decades of tephritid studies world-wide. This presentation provides a link between the meetings in Mexico and Penang and enables us to present a summary of our current knowledge and genuine valuable applications of tephritid taxonomy to the overall fruit fly research and pest management effort. In doing this, this presentation also fits into the theme of this conference in Penang, 'Fruit Flies- current global scenario'

180

Distribution and Occurrence of Mango Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz and Sacc in Humid Agro-ecology of Southwest Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is grown in different agro-ecologies of Ethiopia and its production and productivity is limited by several biotic and abiotic factors. Mango anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is considered as the most important mango disease in the country that contribute significantly to pre and post harvest fruit losses. However, the distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose both in the field and at market in mango producing areas of southwestern Ethiopia is not yet documented. In this study, distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose in three potential mango producing districts and one urban area in Jimma region, SW Ethiopia were assessed. At the same time knowledge and attitude of farmers against mango anthracnose was also assessed. The results showed that mango anthracnose was 100% prevalent in the study area. Anthracnose incidence and severity varied across farmer’s field and market places. The disease incidence under farmer’s fields ranged from 41-72.1% on leaf and from 36.2-74% on fruit. We found higher (95.3 vs. 82% and lower (70.7 vs. 64% incidence and severity in the market, respectively. The disease was more severe in the market place than in the farmer’s fields. It was confirmed that the identified fungus was C. gloeosporioides. So, for better understanding of the prevalence and distribution of this disease and to design appropriate management options, similar assessments across different mango growing agro-ecologies and along mango value chain is crucial.

Ayantu Tucho

2014-01-01

181

The geographical co-distribution and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal patterns, geographical co-distribution, and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive model was used to quantify the impacts of socio-ecological factors on both childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea at a postal area level. A distinct seasonality of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea was found. Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea were mainly distributed in the northwest of Queensland. Mount Isa city was the high-risk cluster where childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea co-distributed. Emergency department visits (EDVs) for pneumonia increased by 3% per 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall in wet seasons. By comparison, a 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall may cause an increase of 4% in EDVs for diarrhoea. Monthly average temperature was negatively associated with EDVs for childhood diarrhoea in wet seasons. Low socioeconomic index for areas (SEIFA) was associated with high EDVs for childhood pneumonia. Future pneumonia and diarrhoea prevention and control measures in Queensland should focus more on Mount Isa. PMID:25018008

Xu, Z; Hu, W; Tong, S

2015-04-01

182

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. Final report, 1 September 1988--30 June 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

Spotila, J.R.

1992-11-01

183

Emerging issues in virus taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viruses occupy a unique position in biology. Although they possess some of the properties of living systems such as having a genome, they are actually nonliving infectious entities and should not be considered microorganisms. A clear distinction should be drawn between the terms virus, virion, and virus species. Species is the most fundamental taxonomic category used in all biological classification. In 1991, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) decided that the category of virus species should be used in virus classification together with the categories of genus and family. More than 50 ICTV study groups were given the task of demarcating the 1,550 viral species that were recognized in the 7th ICTV report, which was published in 2000. We briefly describe the changes in virus classification that were introduced in that report. We also discuss recent proposals to introduce a nonlatinized binomial nomenclature for virus species. PMID:15078590

van Regenmortel, Marc H V; Mahy, Brian W J

2004-01-01

184

Ecology of sea lice parasitic on farmed and wild fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lice, especially Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus spp., have the greatest economic impact of any parasite in salmonid fish farming and are also a threat to wild salmonids. Here, I review how the biology and ecology of various louse and host species influence their pathogenicity and epidemiology. Recent discoveries of new species and genotypes emphasize the need for more basic research on louse taxonomy and host preferences. Louse development rates are strongly dependent on temperature, and increasing mean sea temperatures are likely to increase infestation pressure on farms and wild fish, as well as affecting the geographical distribution of hosts and parasites. Despite progress in finding L. salmonis larvae in the plankton and in modelling louse production in several countries, more data on larval behaviour and distribution are required to develop dispersal and transmission models for both L. salmonis and Caligus spp. This knowledge could be used to take measures to reduce the risks of lice affecting farmed and wild fish. PMID:16920027

Costello, Mark J

2006-10-01

185

Plant Taxonomy as a Field Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests methods of teaching plant identification and taxonomic theory using keys, statistical analyses, and biometrics. Population variation, genotype- environment interaction and experimental taxonomy are used in laboratory and field. (AL)

Dalby, D. H.

1970-01-01

186

A psychologically-based taxonomy of misdirection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magicians use misdirection to prevent you from realizing the methods used to create a magical effect, thereby allowing you to experience an apparently impossible event. Magicians have acquired much knowledge about misdirection, and have suggested several taxonomies of misdirection. These describe many of the fundamental principles in misdirection, focusing on how misdirection is achieved by magicians. In this article we review the strengths and weaknesses of past taxonomies, and argue that a more natural way of making sense of misdirection is to focus on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms involved. Our psychologically-based taxonomy has three basic categories, corresponding to the types of psychological mechanisms affected: perception, memory, and reasoning. Each of these categories is then divided into subcategories based on the mechanisms that control these effects. This new taxonomy can help organize magicians' knowledge of misdirection in a meaningful way, and facilitate the dialog between magicians and scientists. PMID:25538648

Kuhn, Gustav; Caffaratti, Hugo A; Teszka, Robert; Rensink, Ronald A

2014-01-01

187

Inventorying of the tree fern Genus Cibotium of Sumatra: Ecology, population size and distribution in North Sumatra  

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Full Text Available Praptosuwiryo TNg, Pribadi DO, Puspitaningtyas DM, Hartini S (2011 Inventorying the tree fern Genus Cibotium of Sumatra: Ecology, population size and distribution in North Sumatra. Biodiversitas 12: 204-211. Cibotium is one tree fern belongs to the family Cibotiaceae which is easily differentiated from the other genus by the long slender golden yellowish-brown smooth hairs covered its rhizome and basal stipe with marginal sori at the ends of veins protected by two indusia forming a small cup round the receptacle of the sorus. It has been recognized as material for both traditional and modern medicines in China, Europe, Japan and Southeast Asia. Population of Cibotium species in several countries have decreased rapidly because of over exploitation and there is no artificial cultivation until now. The aims of this study were: (i To re-inventory the species of Cibotiun in North Sumatra, (ii to record the ecology and distribution of each species, and (iii to assess the population size of each species. Field study was carried out by using random search with belt transect. Two species were recorded, namely C. arachnoideum dan C. barometz. The geographical distribution of the two species in North Sumatra are presented. Cibotium is commonly growing terrestrially on opened or rather opened areas in secondary forets and primary forest at hills or lower mountains with a relatively high humidity at 30-90º slopes. C. arachnoideum has a strict distribution and only found at 1740-1770 m a.s.l. in primary forest, whereas C. barometz has a broad distribution in secondary forest at elevation range from 650-1200 m.

TITIEN NGATINEM PRAPTOSUWIRYO

2011-10-01

188

Extrasolar planet taxonomy: a new statistical approach  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we present the guidelines for an extrasolar planet taxonomy. The discovery of an increasing number of extrasolar planets showing a vast variety of planetary parameters, like Keplerian orbital elements and environmental parameters, like stellar masses, spectral types, metallicity etc., prompts the development of a planetary taxonomy. In this work via principal component analysis followed by hierarchical clustering analysis, we report the definition of five robus...

Marchi, Simone

2007-01-01

189

A risk communication taxonomy for environmental health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A classification system for risk communication can serve two major purposes: it provides a practical guide to techniques and establishes a framework for further development. By using traditional models of communication elements and management operations, this taxonomy has the advantage of being more readily adapted to the needs of environmental health professionals. Like all taxonomies, it should be continually revised and expanded by the professionals who use it.

Hatfield, T.H. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States))

1994-04-01

190

A psychologically-based taxonomy of misdirection  

OpenAIRE

Magicians use misdirection to prevent you from realizing the methods used to create a magical effect, thereby allowing you to experience an apparently impossible event. Magicians have acquired much knowledge about misdirection, and have suggested several taxonomies of misdirection. These describe many of the fundamental principles in misdirection, focusing on how misdirection is achieved by magicians. In this article we review the strengths and weaknesses of past taxonomies, and argue that a ...

Kuhn, Gustav; Caffaratti, Hugo A.; Teszka, Robert; Rensink, Ronald A.

2014-01-01

191

ASPECTOS ECOLÓGICOS Y DISTRIBUCION GEOGRÁFICA DE CARRANGENOPHYTAS / CARRAGENOPHYTAS ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Las especies carragenófitas están definidas como macroalgas miembro del Phylum Rodophyta, Clase Rodophyceae, Subclase Florideophycidae, Orden Gigartinales. Las especies de mayor importancia comercial a nivel internacional son de los géneros Betaphycus, Eucheuma y Kappaphycus; y a nivel nacional espe [...] cies de los géneros Gigartina, Mazzaella y Sarcothalia. Debido a su importancia comercial, el género Gigartina, ha sido objeto de investigaciones como: Ecología de las poblaciones de las costas estuarinas y abiertas de la especie del noreste del Atlántico; ha sido investigado por Mathieson y Tveter (1976) con relación a las cantidades y calidad de su carragenina. Estudios de las respuestas a fotoperíodos (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) han identificado "ventanas" reproductivas, sugiriendo que las explicaciones de multiplicación vegetativa son cada vez más exclusivas, a diferencia de la producción y gametangial o tetrasporangial, en las poblaciones de las altas latitudes de una especie europea generalizada. La determinación genética de los patrones de ramificación y límites de tolerancia a la temperatura se han establecido para varias especies de (Guiry et al., 1987.; Buschmann, 2001). La viabilidad del cultivo de especies en sustratos artificiales ha sido evaluada por Mumford y Waaland (1980), y demostró tener potencial comercial. Este género tiene distribución en todo el mundo en mares templados a fríos, sin embargo, muy pocas especies ocurren en las regiones subtropicales. Los centros de diversidad de especies particularmente rica son California, Japón, Nueva Zelanda, Chile y Sudáfrica (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011). Abstract in english The carragenophytas species are defined as macro-algae, members of the Phylum Rodophyta, Rodophyceae Class, Florideophycidae Subclass, Gigartinales Order. The most important commercial species at the international level are the Betaphycus, Eucheuma and Kappaphycus genera and at the national level th [...] e species belonging to the Gigartina, Mazzaella and Sarcothalia genera. Because of its commercial importance, the Gigartina genus has been the object of investigations such as: Ecology of populations in estuaries and open coast in the North-East Atlantic species; it has been studied by Mathieson and Tveter (1976) in relation with its carragenine quantity and quality. Studies about the response to photoperiods (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) have identified reproductive "windows" suggesting that the explanations for vegetative multiplication are more exclusive each time, different from gametangial or tetra-sporangial production in populations of high latitudes from a generalized European species. Genetic determination of ramification patterns and tolerance limits to temperature has been established for several species (Guiry et al., 1987; Buschmann, 2001). Species cultivation viability in artificial substrates has been evaluated by Mumford y Waaland (1980), and it showed commercial potential. This genus has distribution worldwide in warm and cold seas. However, very few species happen in subtropical regions. The particularly rich species biodiversity centers are California, Japan, New Zealand, Chile y South Africa (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011).

MARGARITA DEL R., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ; RAÚL A., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ.

2012-12-01

192

Orphan and gene related CpG Islands follow power-law-like distributions in several genomes: evidence of function-related and taxonomy-related modes of distribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

CpG Islands (CGIs) are compositionally defined short genomic stretches, which have been studied in the human, mouse, chicken and later in several other genomes. Initially, they were assigned the role of transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, especially the house-keeping ones, while more recently there is found evidence that they are involved in several other functions as well, which might include regulation of the expression of RNA genes, DNA replication etc. Here, an investigation of their distributional characteristics in a variety of genomes is undertaken for both whole CGI populations as well as for CGI subsets that lie away from known genes (gene-unrelated or "orphan" CGIs). In both cases power-law-like linearity in double logarithmic scale is found. An evolutionary model, initially put forward for the explanation of a similar pattern found in gene populations is implemented. It includes segmental duplication events and eliminations of most of the duplicated CGIs, while a moderate rate of non-duplicated CGI eliminations is also applied in some cases. Simulations reproduce all the main features of the observed inter-CGI chromosomal size distributions. Our results on power-law-like linearity found in orphan CGI populations suggest that the observed distributional pattern is independent of the analogous pattern that protein coding segments were reported to follow. The power-law-like patterns in the genomic distributions of CGIs described herein are found to be compatible with several other features of the composition, abundance or functional role of CGIs reported in the current literature across several genomes, on the basis of the proposed evolutionary model. PMID:25242375

Tsiagkas, Giannis; Nikolaou, Christoforos; Almirantis, Yannis

2014-12-01

193

Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: An example for plants exposed to nickel in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the 'free' nickel (Ni2+) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account. - The use of bioavailability toxicity data can improve species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA)

194

Incorporating color into integrative taxonomy: analysis of the varied tit (Sittiparus varius) complex in East Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species designations are critically important scientific hypotheses that serve as the foundational units in a wide range of biological subdisciplines. A growing realization that some classes of data fail to delimit species under certain conditions has led to increasingly more integrative taxonomies, whereby species discovery and hypothesis testing are based on multiple kinds of data (e.g., morphological, molecular, behavioral, ecological, etc.). However, although most taxonomic descriptions have been based on morphology, some key morphological features, such as color, are rarely quantified and incorporated into integrative taxonomic studies. In this article, we applied a new method of ultraviolet digital photography to measure plumage variation in a color-variable avian species complex, the varied tit (Sittiparus varius). Plumage measurements corroborated species limits defined by morphometric, mitochondrial DNA, and nuclear DNA disjunctions and provided the only evidence for distinguishing two recently evolved species. Importantly, color quantification also provided a justification for lumping putative taxa with no evidence of evolutionary independence. Our revised taxonomy thus refines conservation units for listing and management and clarifies the primary units for evolutionary studies. Species tree analyses, which applied the newly delimited species as operational taxonomic units, revealed a robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the group that establishes a foundation for future biogeographic analyses. This study demonstrates how digital photography can be used to incorporate color character variation into integrative taxonomies, which should lead to more informed, more rigorous, and more accurate assessments of biodiversity. [Color, digital photography, integrative taxonomy, Sittiparus varius, species delimitation, varied tit.]. PMID:24603127

McKay, Bailey D; Mays, Herman L; Yao, Cheng-Te; Wan, Dongmei; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Nishiumi, Isao

2014-07-01

195

Ecological Ordination and Distribution of Hygrophilous Species Growing on a Mediterranean Riverbank (SW Spain  

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Full Text Available The Guadiamar riverbanks are home to riparian plant communities, such as alder, poplar and ash forests, tamujares, salt marshes,reed beds, etc. characteristic of Mediterranean rivers. A data set of these communities, including floristic relevés and environmentalvariables (physical and chemical soil properties, bioclimate was analysed to correlate their floristic composition/species distributionwith environmental variables. By means of an RDA (redundancy analysis and a complementary cluster analysis four groups of specieswere discriminated according to their ecological requirements. The RDA displayed three major, parallel-running gradients (i.e., textural,bioclimatic and chemical in environmental variables. Other less conspicuous, crossed gradients revealed the impact of man-madealterations, particularly in the middle reaches of the river. The results can be helpful in the planning of future ecologically orientedrestoration programmes of wetlands.

Fernando DEL MORAL TORRES

2012-11-01

196

Evaluating a Bayesian approach to improve accuracy of individual photographic identification methods using ecological distribution data  

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Full Text Available Photographic identification of individual organisms can be possible from natural body markings. Data from photo-ID can be used to estimate important ecological and conservation metrics such as population sizes, home ranges or territories. However, poor quality photographs or less well-studied individuals can result in a non-unique ID, potentially confounding several similar looking individuals. Here we present a Bayesian approach that uses known data about previous sightings of individuals at specific sites as priors to help assess the problems of obtaining a non-unique ID. Using a simulation of individuals with different confidence of correct ID we evaluate the accuracy of Bayesian modified (posterior probabilities. However, in most cases, the accuracy of identification decreases. Although this technique is unsuccessful, it does demonstrate the importance of computer simulations in testing such hypotheses in ecology.

Richard Stafford

2011-04-01

197

The distribution of Wolbachia in fig wasps: correlations with host phylogeny, ecology and population structure.  

OpenAIRE

We surveyed for the presence and identity of Wolbachia in 44 species of chalcid wasps associated with 18 species of Panamanian figs. We used existing detailed knowledge of the population structures of the host wasps, as well as the ecological and evolutionary relationships among them, to explore the relevance of each of these factors to Wolbachia prevalence and mode of transmission. Fifty-nine per cent of these wasp species have Wolbachia infections, the highest proportion reported for any gr...

Shoemaker, D. Dewayne; Machado, Carlos A.; Molbo, Drude; Werren, John H.; Windsor, Donald M.; Herre, Edward Allen

2002-01-01

198

The taxobook principles and practices of building taxonomies  

CERN Document Server

This book outlines the basic principles of creation and maintenance of taxonomies and thesauri. It also provides step by step instructions for building a taxonomy or thesaurus and discusses the various ways to get started on a taxonomy construction project.Often, the first step is to get management and budgetary approval, so I start this book with a discussion of reasons to embark on the taxonomy journey. From there I move on to a discussion of metadata and how taxonomies and metadata are related, and then consider how, where, and why taxonomies are used.Information architecture has its corner

Hlava, Marjorie

2014-01-01

199

Taxonomy and origin of reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reindeer and caribou was probably the key species for the human immigration and colonization in the Arctic and sub-Arctic by the retreat of the ice in the last glacial period. The close connection between human and reindeer has contributed to great interest and variation in reindeer taxonomy and origin. Through the history several both species, subspecies and types of reindeer and caribou have been described. The early taxonomy of the species is marked by comparisons of individual specimen using traits as body size, skin colour or antler formations - characteristics known to be highly variable and subjected to environmental and nutritional level. During the mid 1900s the taxonomy was more based on variation of morphological traits among populations by analysing a large series of specimens representative of the various geographic populations and a consensus of classification of several subspecies, all belonging to the same species, evolved. During late 1900 the development of modern molecular techniques procured tools for revealing genetic structure of populations reflecting different origin and isolation rather than environmental influences. The genetic structure revealed a major genetic dichotomy between American woodland caribou on the one hand and all other types of reindeer and caribou on the other which gave evidence that the ancestors of present woodland caribou had survived and evolved in ice free refugium south to the glacier in North America and the ancestors of all other types of reindeer and caribou had evolved separated from these in refugium in Eurasia and Beringia. The ancestors of present reindeer in Scandinavia appear furthermore to have evolved from different populations separated during the last glaciation period and the colonization and origin of present wild and domestic reindeer will be discussed in this perspective.Taksonomi og opprinnelse til reinAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Rein og caribou har hatt stor betydning for det moderne menneskets utvikling og kolonisering av nordlige Eurasia og Amerika etter siste istid. Den nære sammenhengen mellom mennesker og rein har bidratt til stor interesse og variasjon i oppfatningen av reinens taksonomi og opprinnelse. Et utall av både arter, underarter og raser av rein er beskrevet opp gjennom historien. Tidlig taksonomi av rein bar preg av å være basert på enkeltobservasjoner og på morfologiske karakterer som kroppsstørrelse, pelsfarge og størrelse og form på gevir, karakterer som i stor grad påvirkes av miljø og næringsforhold. Først på midten av 1900 tallet ble taksonomien i større grad basert på ulike morfologiske trekk som viste variasjon mellom bestander av rein, og en fikk bl.a. en forståelse av at alle underarter og former av rein og caribou tilhørte samme art. Med utviklingen av den moderne molekylærbiologien på slutten av 1900-tallet fikk en tilgang til verktøy som avdekket genetiske strukturer som reflekterer ulik opprinnelse og utvikling mer enn miljømessig påvirkning. Den genetiske strukturen som ble avdekket, viste liten overensstemmelse med oppdelingen i underarter som var basert på morfologiske trekk. Molekylærgenetiske struktur viser et hovedskille mellom amerikansk woodland caribou på den ene siden og all annen rein og caribou på den andre siden, noe som reflekterer at forfedrene til woodland caribou levde og utviklet seg i isfrie områder sør for iskanten i Nord-Amerika, mens forfedrene til andre typer rein levde atskilt fra disse i isfrie områder i Eurasia og Beringia. Forfedrene til dagens rein i Fennoskandia syntes også å ha utviklet seg fra atskilte bestander av rein som kan føres tilbake til slutten av siste istid. Innvandring og opprinnelse til dagens vill- og tamrein i Fennoskandia vil bli belyst i dette perspektiv.

Knut H. Røed

2007-04-01

200

Development and validation of a taxonomy of adverse handover events in hospital settings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To develop and validate a taxonomy to classify and support the analysis of adverse events related to patient handovers in hospital settings. A taxonomy was established using descriptions of handover events extracted from incident reports, interviews and root cause analysis reports. The inter-rater reliability and distribution of types of handover failures and causal factors. The taxonomy contains five types of failures and seven types of main causal factors. The taxonomy was validated against 432 adverse handover event descriptions contained in incident reports (stratified random sample from the Danish Patient Safety Database, 200 events) and 47 interviews with staff conducted at a large hospital in the Capital Region (232 events). The most prevalent causes of adverse events are inadequate competence (30 %), inadequate infrastructure (22 %) and busy ward (18 %). Inter-rater reliability (kappa) was 0.76 and 0.87 for reports and interviews, respectively. Communication in clinical contexts has been widely recognized as giving rise to potentially hazardous events, and handover situations are particularly prone to failures of communication or unclear allocation of responsibility. The taxonomy provides a tool for analyzing adverse handover events to identify frequent causes among reported handover failures. In turn, this provides a basis for selecting safety measures including handover protocols and training programmes.

Andersen, Henning Boje; Siemsen, Inger Margrete D.

2015-01-01

201

Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Chile / Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado) en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten [...] los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina). Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile), Islas Juan Fernández y en regiones costeras al sur de los 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica y M. tenuis son más frecuentes en las zonas más australes de Chile; también se han encontrado en hábitats de altura y bajas latitudes. Se incluyen, además, M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens y M. wandae. Varias especies sorediosas crecen como pioneras en sustratos jóvenes. Los patrones de distribución a lo largo de gradientes de humedad y de luz son variables. Se presentan mapas de distribución y clave de las especies. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ec [...] ology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina). Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile) and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.

JARLE W, BJERKE; ARVE, ELVEBAKK; WANDA, QUILHOT.

2003-03-01

202

Semisupervised Learning Taxonomy-Aware Catalog Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data integration is the major important task for online commercial portals and commerce search engine based applications. The data integration task faced by online commercial portals and e-commerce search engines are the integration of products coming from multiple providers to their product catalogs. Categorization of products from the data provides into the master taxonomy and whereas make use of the data provider taxonomy information becomes major problem. Overcome this problem we classify the products based on their textual based classifier and taxonomy-aware step that adjusts the results of a textual based classifier to ensure that products that are close together in the provider taxonomy remain close in the master taxonomy. In taxonomy aware calibration step the base classifier derives the parameters value by tuning the values. Existing base classifier step, still it becomes major problem identify candidate products for labeling the products, to overcome these problem we proposed a Semi supervised learning techniques to incrementally retrain the base classifier with elements chosen during the taxonomy-aware calibration step. Proposed system it categorizes the product based on their parameters choosen from calibration. Semi supervised learning algorithm involves a large amount of unlabeled product data with only a small number of labeled product data. Semisupervised based active learning method identifies the candidate products for labeling. Proposed system finds the each candidate parameter ?? and then find the optimal parameter ? such that the improve the accuracy on the validation set is maximized. An experimental result shows that the Semi supervised learning algorithm that are efficient and thus applicable to the large data sets that are typical on the web.

D.Umavathi M.Sc1 , R.Tamil selvi M.Sc., M.Phil

2013-08-01

203

Unveiling the factors shaping the distribution of widely distributed alpine vertebrates, using multi-scale ecological niche modelling of the bat Plecotus macrobullaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several alpine vertebrates share a distribution pattern that extends across the South-western Palearctic but is limited to the main mountain massifs. Although they are usually regarded as cold-adapted species, the range of many alpine vertebrates also includes relatively warm areas, suggesting that factors beyond climatic conditions may be driving their distribution. In this work we first recognize the species belonging to the mentioned biogeographic group and, based on the environmental niche analysis of Plecotus macrobullaris, we identify and characterize the environmental factors constraining their ranges. Distribution overlap analysis of 504 European vertebrates was done using the Sorensen Similarity Index, and we identified four birds and one mammal that share the distribution with P. macrobullaris. We generated 135 environmental niche models including different variable combinations and regularization values for P. macrobullaris at two different scales and resolutions. After selecting the best models, we observed that topographic variables outperformed climatic predictors, and the abruptness of the landscape showed better predictive ability than elevation. The best explanatory climatic variable was mean summer temperature, which showed that P. macrobullaris is able to cope with mean temperature ranges spanning up to 16°C. The models showed that the distribution of P. macrobullaris is mainly shaped by topographic factors that provide rock-abundant and open-space habitats rather than climatic determinants, and that the species is not a cold-adapted, but rather a cold-tolerant eurithermic organism. P. macrobullaris shares its distribution pattern as well as several ecological features with five other alpine vertebrates, suggesting that the conclusions obtained from this study might be extensible to them. We concluded that rock-dwelling and open-space foraging vertebrates with broad temperature tolerance are the best candidates to show wide alpine distribution in the Western Palearctic. PMID:25389444

Alberdi, Antton; Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Aihartza, Joxerra; Garin, Inazio

2014-01-01

204

Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city-forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

Szabó, Matias P J; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B

2013-01-01

205

Distributed Self-regulation Induced by Negative Feedbacks in Ecological and Economic Systems  

CERN Document Server

We consider an ecological system governed by Lotka-Volterra dynamics and an example of an economic system as a mesomarket with perfect competition. We propose a mechanism for cooperative self-regulation that enables the system under consideration to respond properly to changes in the environment. This mechanism is based on (1) active individual behavior of the system elements at each hierarchical level and (2) self-processing of information caused by the hierarchical organization. It is shown how the proposed mechanism suppresses nonlocal interaction of elements belonging to a particular level as mediated by higher levels.

Gafiychuk, V V; Ulanowicz, R E; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

1998-01-01

206

Campylomorphushomalisinus (Elateridae): a new species for Lombardy (Italy), with notes on its ecology, distribution and biogeography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Campylomorphushomalisinus has been found on Mt. Lesima (Northern Apennines) and it is the first record for the Lombardy region. Campylomorphushomalisinus is a rare orophilous species: it has a discontinuous chorology that may have been caused by glaciers dynamics during the Pleistocene era. Little is known about the ecology of the species. This record and the expert-based investigation we performed determined that Campylomorphushomalisinus inhabits shrublands and grasslands, but may also occur in the forests. This survey includes the only record of Campylomorphushomalisinus foraging on flowers, a behavior that is not rare in the family Elateridae. We hypothesize that adults integrate their diet with flower resources according to a generalist strategy. PMID:24891828

Biella, Paolo; Groppali, Riccardo

2014-01-01

207

Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens  

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Full Text Available Abstract Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics. The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii. Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens.

Austin Brian

2011-02-01

208

Numerical taxonomy of psychrotrophic pseudomonads.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomy of 218 psychrotrophic pseudomonad strains (200 field strains from meat and 18 type and reference strains) was numerically studied by 174 biochemical and physiological tests. All strains were Gram-negative rods, oxidative positive and motile by means of one or more polar flagella. The strains clustered into 15 groups, of which 9 were regarded as major clusters. The major clusters were designated as Pseudomonas fragi (112 strains), P. fluorescens biotype III (7 strains), P. fluorescens biotype I (16 strains). P. aureofaciens/chlororaphis (3 strains), P. fluorescens biotype II (3 strains), P. putida biotype I (4 strains), Alteromonas putrefaciens (10 strains) and Aeromonas hydrophila biotype I (5 strains). One major cluster, containing 21 strains (cluster 2), was left unassigned. The phenotypic data indicate that this cluster might represent a new species. The P. fluorescens/P. putida complex matched closely the descriptions of Stanier et al. (1966), but the two largest clusters (1 and 2) were not in agreement with any species described in the eighth edition of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Cluster 1 included the type strain (ATCC 4973) of the hitherto incompletely described P. fragi. A simplified scheme for the separation between P. fragi, P. fluorescens, P. putida and cluster 2 is presented. PMID:7119735

Molin, G; Ternström, A

1982-06-01

209

Concentrations, distribution, sources, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural topsoil of the Three Gorges Dam region, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations, distribution, sources, and ecological risk of seven heavy metals including chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) in agricultural topsoil samples of the Three Gorges Dam region, China were investigated in this study. Among seven heavy metals, Zn had the highest mean concentration (149 mg kg(-1)) in the agricultural topsoil, followed by Cr (66 mg kg(-1)), Cu (52.2 mg kg(-1)), Pb (13.0 mg kg(-1)), Ni (8.5 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.29 mg kg(-1)), and Hg (0.08 mg kg(-1)). Enrichment factor (EF) values of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Hg were higher than 1.5, indicating that Zn, Cu, Cd, and Hg were the major pollutants in this study area. The average potential ecological risk index (RI) value was 147, suggesting that heavy metals in the agricultural topsoil in the study area had a low ecological risk. The result of factor analysis (FA) and correlation analysis showed that long-term use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides, natural rock weathering, and atmospheric deposition were the several main sources of seven heavy metals in agricultural topsoil of the Three Gorges Dam region. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) results indicated that the most important source in this area was long-term use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides, which contributed 70 % for Cu and Zn, 62 % for Cd, and 72 % for Hg. More attention must be paid to the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides containing heavy metals which have been accumulated in the agricultural soil. PMID:25716527

Liu, Minxia; Yang, Yuyi; Yun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Jun

2015-03-01

210

Assessing spatial distribution, sources, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Nansi Lake, Eastern China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study is conducted to investigate the spatial distribution, sources and ecological risk of seven heavy metals in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, Eastern China. A total of 29 samples were collected in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, and were analyzed for three nutrients (TN, TOC and TP), two major metals (Al and Fe), as well as seven trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Fe and Al were 14.41, 0.22, 71.10, 30.1, 0.048, 29.14, 90.2, 30,816 and 70,653 mg kg-1, respectively, and the mean contents of these metals were higher than the background values with the exception of Cu and Fe. The spatial distribution indicated that the contents of all seven heavy metals were characterized by relatively higher contents in the upper lake than the lower lake. The hotspots with high values of As, Cd and Hg were associated with the river mouths, and the hotspots of Pb were mainly located around the dam in the central part, while no significant associations were displayed between spatial distribution of Cr, Cu, Zn and the river mouths. The mean enrichment factor (EF) values of As, Cd, Hg and Pb were 2.03, 2.93, 3.21 and 2.18, respectively, showing their moderate enrichment, while Cr, Cu and Zn with mean EF values of 1.19, 0.89 and 1.01 were deficiency to minimal enrichment. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses suggested that PC1 controlled by Cr, Cu and Zn was a lithogenic component, and come from parent rocks leaching. PC2 including Cd and partially Hg represented the factor from industrial wastewater discharge. PC3 showed elevated loadings of As and partially Cd, and could be attributed to the agricultural practices. While PC4 including Pb and partially Hg, was dominated by coal combustion. The results of potential ecological risk suggested that sediment environment of Nansi Lake suffered from high ecological risk. (author)

211

Taxonomies of networks from community structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: they can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi. PMID:23030977

Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

2014-01-01

212

SCIRehab Project Series: The Psychology Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: The integration of psychologists as members of the rehabilitation team has occurred in conjunction with the evolution and adoption of interdisciplinary teams as the standard of care in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Although the value of psychological services during rehabilitation is endorsed widely, specific interventions and their association with patient outcomes have not been examined adequately. Objective: To address this shortcoming, psychologists from 6 SCI centers collaborated to develop a psychology intervention taxonomy and documentation framework. Methods: Utilizing an interactive process, the lead psychologists from 6 centers compiled an inclusive list of patient characteristics assessed and interventions delivered in routine psychological practice at the participating rehabilitation facilities. These were systematically grouped, defined, and compared. Results: The resulting taxonomy became the basis of a documentation framework utilized by psychologists for the study. The psychology taxonomy includes 4 major clinical categories (assessment, psychotherapeutic interventions, psychoeducational interventions, and consultation) with 5 to 10 specific activities in each category. Conclusions: Examination of psychological interventions and their potential association with positive outcomes for persons who sustain SCI requires the development of a taxonomy. Results of these efforts illustrate similarities and differences in psychological practice among SCI centers and offer the opportunity to blend research and clinical practice in an innovative approach to evidence-based practice improvement. The established taxonomy provides a basic framework for future studies on the effect of psychological interventions. PMID:19810633

Wilson, Catherine; Huston, Toby; Koval, Jill; Gordon, Samuel A; Schwebel, Andrea; Gassaway, Julie

2009-01-01

213

Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. Conservation implications: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

George J. Chirima

2012-07-01

214

Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data  

OpenAIRE

Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH) method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP) based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993). We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-...

Chirima, George J.; Norman Owen-Smith; Erasmus, Barend F. N.

2012-01-01

215

A Taxonomy of Malicious Programs For An End User  

OpenAIRE

Computer and network attacks have become highly sophisticated and complex with different names and multiple characteristics. In order to understand and find solutions against new and old attacks, different types of computer and network taxonomies are utilized. However, such taxonomies are being actively developed for expert users; research efforts towards making attack taxonomy for basic end users are still isolated. In this work we present taxonomy for the end users that will help in identif...

Muhammad Azhar Mushtaq; Madiha Sarwar

2011-01-01

216

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms: Progress report, 1 January 1988-31 December 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During 1988, we conducted studies: (1) to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, (2) to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field, (3) to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and (4) to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also continued our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles. In addition, we completed editing the symposium volume from our symposium on Constraints of Bioenergetics on Animal Population Dynamics that was held at the last meeting of the American Society of Zoologists. 43 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Spotila, J.R.

1988-08-01

217

Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha-1). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha-1). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

218

Trace elements distribution and ecological risk assessment of seawater and sediments from Dingzi Bay, Shandong Peninsula, North China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected trace elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr and Zn) in seawater and sediments from Dingzi Bay, a semi-enclosed bay suffering from severe degradation located in the Shandong Peninsula, were investigated to evaluate the spatial distribution and potential ecological risk. Results indicated that higher concentrations occurred in the inner bay. Calculation of pollution load index (PLI) showed overall low values while the concentration factor (CF) indicated that Hg, As and Cd were at moderate risk levels in the region. Based on the effects-range classification, As was likely to pose environment risk. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that in addition to background contributions, the trace elements contamination could also be affected by anthropogenic pollution sources. The results of present study provide useful background information for further marine investigation and management in the region. PMID:25455380

Pan, Jingjin; Pan, Jin-Fen; Wang, Min

2014-12-15

219

Species classification problems in virus taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the species is the fundamental unit of taxonomy, virologists only recently have begun to classify virus species in a systematic way under the leadership of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Progress has been slow and uneven for several reasons: (i) Attempts to sort species are hampered even when the distinction between classification and nomenclature is blurred. Classifying is based on observation and involves deductive reasoning, whereas naming can be as arbitrary as desired, even to the point of dispensing with the traditional Latin binomial form. (ii) Some virologists deny the possibility of applying the species concept to asexual organisms, such as viruses. Those persons are influenced by an obsolete definition of biological species which rests on observed or inferred barriers to sexual reproduction. (iii) New taxonomic tools, such as mathematical (numerical) taxonomy, might be applied profitably to virus classification, but are unfamiliar to many virologists. PMID:4055308

Kingsbury, D W

1985-01-01

220

Towards an Artificial Space Object Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Object recognition is the first step in positively identifying a resident space object (RSO), i.e. assigning an RSO to a category such as GPS satellite or space debris. Object identification is the process of deciding that two RSOs are in fact one and the same. Provided we have appropriately defined a satellite taxonomy that allows us to place a given RSO into a particular class of object without any ambiguity, one can assess the probability of assignment to a particular class by determining how well the object satisfies the unique criteria of belonging to that class. Ultimately, tree-based taxonomies delineate unique signatures by defining the minimum amount of information required to positively identify a RSO. Therefore, taxonomic trees can be used to depict hypotheses in a Bayesian object recognition and identification process. This work describes a new RSO taxonomy along with specific reasoning behind the choice of groupings. An alternative taxonomy was recently presented at the Sixth Conference on Space Debris in Darmstadt, Germany. [1] The best example of a taxonomy that enjoys almost universal scientific acceptance is the classical Linnaean biological taxonomy. A strength of Linnaean taxonomy is that it can be used to organize the different kinds of living organisms, simply and practically. Every species can be given a unique name. This uniqueness and stability are a result of the acceptance by biologists specializing in taxonomy, not merely of the binomial names themselves. Fundamentally, the taxonomy is governed by rules for the use of these names, and these are laid down in formal Nomenclature Codes. We seek to provide a similar formal nomenclature system for RSOs through a defined tree-based taxonomy structure. Each categorization, beginning with the most general or inclusive, at any level is called a taxon. Taxon names are defined by a type, which can be a specimen or a taxon of lower rank, and a diagnosis, a statement intended to supply characters that differentiate the taxon from others with which it is likely to be confused. Each taxon will have a set of uniquely distinguishing features that will allow one to place a given object into a specific group without any ambiguity. When a new object does not fall into a specific taxon that is already defined, the entire tree structure will need to be evaluated to determine if a new taxon should be created. Ultimately, an online learning process to facilitate tree growth would be desirable. One can assess the probability of assignment to a particular taxon by determining how well the object satisfies the unique criteria of belonging to that taxon. Therefore, we can use taxonomic trees in a Bayesian process to assign prior probabilities to each of our object recognition and identification hypotheses. We will show that this taxonomy is robust by demonstrating specific stressing classification examples. We will also demonstrate how to implement this taxonomy in Figaro, an open source probabilistic programming language.

Wilkins, M.; Schumacher, P.; Jah, M.; Pfeffer, A.

2013-09-01

221

Ecological composition and distribution of the diatoms from the Laguna Superior, Oaxaca, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

A taxonomic study of diatoms was carried out in a tropical coastal lagoon. Material for this study consists of water samples obtained from February-March 1992 to November-December 2000. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed the presence of 373 taxa of which the families Bacillariaceae (67 species) and Chaetocerotaceae (37 species) were the most abundant groups. The species Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Coscinodiscus radiatus var. radiatus, Ditylum brightwellii, Thalassiosira eccentrica and Entomoneis alata were found associated with moderate water quality and forming blooms. In addition, a regional comparison between Mexico and South America of the identified species is given. For practical handling, indicative values obtained from their ecological composition are incorporated as well as a code of the floristic list. Achecklist of the species and their occurrence are given. PMID:22315822

Moreno-Ruiz, José Luis; Tapia-Garcia, Margarito; Licea, Sergio; Figueroa-Torres, María Guadalupe; Esquivel, Alfonso; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo; González-Fernández, José Manuel; González-Macias, Maria Del Carmen

2011-07-01

222

Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0-3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120-200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system.

Gao, Mengxu; Li, Qun; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Juanle

2014-03-01

223

The genus Weissella: taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potential  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria assigned to the genus Weissella are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-endospore forming cells with coccoid or rod-shaped morphology (Collins et al., 1993; Björkroth et al., 2009, 2014) and belong to the group of bacteria generally known as lactic acid bacteria. Phylogenetically, the Weissella belong to the Firmicutes, class Bacilli, order Lactobacillales and family Leuconostocaceae (Collins et al., 1993). They are obligately heterofermentative, producing CO2 from carbohydrate metabolism with either d(?)-, or a mixture of d(?)- and l(+)- lactic acid and acetic acid as major end products from sugar metabolism. To date, there are 19 validly described Weissella species known. Weissella spp. have been isolated from and occur in a wide range of habitats, e.g., on the skin and in the milk and feces of animals, from saliva, breast milk, feces and vagina of humans, from plants and vegetables, as well as from a variety of fermented foods such as European sourdoughs and Asian and African traditional fermented foods. Thus, apart from a perceived technical role of certain Weissella species involved in such traditional fermentations, specific Weissella strains are also receiving attention as potential probiotics, and strain development of particularly W. cibaria strains is receiving attention because of their high probiotic potential for controlling periodontal disease. Moreover, W. confusa and W. cibaria strains are known to produce copius amounts of novel, non-digestible oligosaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides, mainly dextran. These polymers are receiving increased attention for their potential application as prebiotics and for a wide range of industrial applications, predominantly for bakeries and for the production of cereal-based fermented functional beverages. On the detrimental side, strains of certain Weissella species, e.g., of W. viridescens, W. cibaria and W. confusa, are known as opportunistic pathogens involved in human infections while strains of W. ceti have been recently recongnized as etiological agent of “weissellosis,” which is a disease affecting farmed rainbow trouts. Bacteria belonging to this species thus are important both from a technological, as well as from a medical point of view, and both aspects should be taken into account in any envisaged biotechnological applications.

Fusco, Vincenzina; Quero, Grazia M.; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Meske, Diana; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

2015-01-01

224

Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (á-LoCoH) method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate sp [...] ecies within the Kruger National Park (KNP) based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980-1993). We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

George J., Chirima; Norman, Owen-Smith; Barend F.N., Erasmus.

225

Building Accurate Semantic Taxonomies from Monolingual MRDs  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a method that combines a set of unsupervised algorithms in order to accurately build large taxonomies from any machine-readable dictionary (MRD). Our aim is to profit from conventional MRDs, with no explicit semantic coding. We propose a system that 1) performs fully automatic exraction of taxonomic links from MRD entries and 2) ranks the extracted relations in a way that selective manual refinement is allowed. Tested accuracy can reach around 100% depending on the degree of coverage selected, showing that taxonomy building is not limited to structured dictionaries such as LDOCE.

Rigau, G; Agirre, E; Rigau, German; Rodriguez, Horacio; Agirre, Eneko

1998-01-01

226

A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation.

Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara

2011-01-01

227

Distribution and ecology of Biatoridium monasteriense J. Lahm ex Körb in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new site of Biatoridium monasteriense was discovered during a lichenological investigation in Bia?owie?a National Park. The paper presents information on the distribution of this species in Poland.

Anna ?ubek

2012-03-01

228

Predicted distribution and ecological risk assessment of a "segregated" hydrofluorrother in the Japanese environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of HFE-7500, a 'segregated' hydrofluoroether, was conducted to evaluate the potential for exposure to and subsequent effects on humans and wildlife in Japan. The segregated hydrofluoroethers belong to a class of fluorochemicals currently being proposed as replacements for traditional fluorochemicals (CFCs and PFCs) that are currently being used in several industries, in particular, the semiconductor industry. These traditional compounds have been implicated as ozone-depleting or potent "greenhouse gases". The segregated hydrofluoroethers have useful physical and chemical properties, but do not contribute to ozone depletion and have lower "global warming potential" (GWP) indices. Although the physical properties of these materials (low H2O solubility and high vapor pressure) suggest there would be a very low level of risk to aquatic systems, a thorough analysis had not been previously performed. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of HFE-7500 in Japan were determined with the Higashino model, a Gausian puff and plume model that used an approximation of environmental releases to the atmosphere as input to the model. Allowable concentrations to protect aquatic life, wildlife, and humans from noncancer effects were determined as detailed in USEPA's final Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes Systems. Potential risk to ecological receptors and humans was determined by calculating hazard quotients and margins of safety. The results of the risk assessment indicate that HFE-7500 poses no significant risk to either aquatic or terrestrial wildlife species or humans living in the Japanese environment. The least margin of safety for any ecological receptor was 100,000, and a margin of safety greater than 100,000,000 for most receptors indicated that HFE-7500 poses no threat to human health. Because of a scarcity of toxicity and exposure data, the risk assessment was based on very conservative assumptions. Therefore, the actual margins of safety for both humans and wildlife could have been 100- to 1,000-fold greater if additional data were available such that less stringent uncertainty factors could be applied. These results suggest that the environmental impact of HFE-7500 should be inconsequential based on the marked improvement in its atmospheric properties relative to the traditional compounds currently in use. Given the short atmospheric lifetime and low global warming potential of this material, its replacement of CFCs and PFCs would result in a net improvement of environmental health and safety. PMID:12487297

Newsted, John L; Nakanishi, Junko; Cousins, Ian; Werner, Kurt; Giesy, John P

2002-11-15

229

Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History ... Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... abase Database Description Download License Update History ... of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us ...

230

Taxonomy Icon Data - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... ich were used to refine icons in original database interface . Icon (Large) File name of the large-sized icon (T ...

231

Ecological significance of assimilate distribution in Agropyron repens clones under influence of the copper smelter Legnica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The studies on couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. P. Beauv. populations growing in stress conditions in close vicinity of a copper smelter concern the integrity of clonal structure. The connections of tillers within a clone and the interclonal integrity was investigated by means of assimilate translocation, using 14C. It was found that heavy metal stress affects the phenotypic plasticity of couch grass in regard to clonal growth of the phalanx type. The phalanx type growth is supported by a considerable integration, which allows the redistribution of resources, through internal routes, from places rich in resources to such clone parts, which cover a surface poor in nutritive compounds. In an unpolluted (control couch grass population representing the guerilla type of growth, the translocation of assimilates concerns only the closest (sister ramets. The phalanx type of growth in couch grass subjected to contamination favours also the accumulation of organic matter and macronutrients (N, Ca in zones of occurrence of Agropyron repens clusters, which are in deficit in areas close to the smelter. The irregular accumulation of heavy metals and the deficit of macronutrients in soil, form near the smelter a patchy environment. In this patchy environment couch grass, as one of few plants, finds appropriate conditions for foraging. The whole of factors in the studied polluted area creates a unique dynamic system between couch grass clones and the local ecological conditions.

Teresa Brej

2001-06-01

232

Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

2008-10-01

233

Ecological distribution of Cyanophyceae in lotic ecosystems of São Paulo State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A hundred seventy two stream reaches from six distinct natural regions (parts of biomes or geological areas in São Paulo State (Atlantic Rainforest, Cerrado, Hard Water regions, Northwest region, Subtropical Rainforest, and Tropical Rainforest were searched for the most representative macroscopic Cyanophyceae of phytobenthic communities. Selected ecological parameters were analyzed in each stream segment: conductance, current velocity, oxygen saturation, pH, turbidity, and water temperature. Algal abundance was evaluated as percentage cover. Thirthy four cyanophyte taxa were identified and Phormidium retzii was the most widespread species throughout the State, occurring in all studied regions, except in hard water areas, and was negatively correlated to conductance. The subtropical Rainforest region presented the highest mean species richness per site, whereas the tropical Rainforest region had the highest abundance (percentage cover of blue-green algae. Correlation tests revealed that conductance was significantly and negatively related to variations in abundance and richness of cyanophyte in streams of São Paulo State. This relationship probably reflects the ability of blue-green algae to grow at medium to low ion content and to take advantage under nutrient stress conditions.

BRANCO LUIS HENRIQUE Z.

2001-01-01

234

Distribution and ecological risk of antibiotics in a typical effluent-receiving river (Wangyang River) in north China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the occurrence and distribution of sixteen antibiotics belonging to four groups in surface water, sediment and groundwater samples from the Wangyang River (WYR), a typical river receiving sewage discharges were investigated. Laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the studied area. The aqueous samples were unavoidably contaminated with antibiotics, and the target antibiotics present in high levels were oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 3.6×10(5), 9.7×10(3), 6.9×10(4), 1.2×10(4), 4.8×10(3), and 1.1×10(3) ng L(-1), respectively. Oxytetracycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and roxithromycin were the most frequently detected compounds in sediment samples, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 1.6×10(5), 1.7×10(4), 2.1×10(3) and 2.5×10(3) ng g(-1), respectively. The results also revealed that the high intensity of aquaculture activities could contribute to the increasing levels of antibiotics in the area. According to the ratios of measured environmental concentration (MEC) to predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC), chlortetracycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin-H2O and sulfamethoxazole may present possible environmental risk to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechococcus leopoliensis and M. aeruginosa. Attention should be given to the long-term ecological effects caused by the continuous discharge of antibiotics in the WYR area. PMID:25048915

Jiang, Yonghai; Li, Mingxiao; Guo, Changsheng; An, Da; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Xi, Beidou

2014-10-01

235

Distribution, ecology and inhibition of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in relation to acid drainage from Witwatersrand gold mine dumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution and ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in gold mine dumps and possible means for its inhibition were investigated. A literature survey of the micro-ecology of mine waste dumps in various parts of the world was undertaken. A linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), NANSA 80/S, and a cetyl pyridinium chloride, Ceepryn, were tested as possible inhibitors for mine dump application. The LAS was rejected because it is poorly soluble in water and required higher concentrations than SLS for the inhibition of T.ferrooxidans. Ceepryn was an efficient inhibitor, but its efficiency was dramatically impeded in the presence of mine dump sand making it unsuitable for application on dumps. The SLS and LAS were tested against a mixed population of T.ferrooxidans from gold mine dumps and these bacteria were shown to be marginally more resistant to the inhibitors than the pure T.ferrooxidans culture. Sampling from mine dumps on the Witwatersrand suggested that the major T.ferrooxidans populations occurred in the moist sand of the drainage areas at the base of dumps, with few viable iron-oxidising bacteria located on the surfaces or in the centre of dumps. Sites of low moisture in dumps contained few or no viable bacteria. In the laboratory the bacterial viability decreased rapidly with loss of moisture from the sand. Moisture was shown to be important to bacterial activity and should be considered with respect to acid drainage control. Experimental sand columns showed thntrol. Experimental sand columns showed that iron was leached with water from mine dump sand in the absence and presence of bacteria. In this study substrates, moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide availability, ph, temperature, microorganisms and metal pollutants of uranium waste dumps are also covered

236

Use of ecological niche modeling as a tool for predicting the potential distribution of Microcystis sp (cyanobacteria in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling is an important tool to evaluate the spatial distribution of terrestrial species, however, its applicability has been little explored in the aquatic environment. Microcystis sp., a species of cyanobacteria, is widely recognized for its ability to produce a group of toxins known as microcystins, which can cause death of animals as fish, birds and mammals depending on the amount of toxin absorbed. Like any taxonomic group, cyanobacteria has environmental thresholds, therefore, a suitable ecological niche will define their distribution. This study was conducted in Aguamilpa Hydroelectric Reservoir, an artificial ecosystem that started operations in 1994. In this system we evaluated the potential distribution of Microcystis sp., by generating a prediction model based on the concept of ecological niche MAXENT, using a Digital Elevation Model in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha spatial resolution and monitoring eleven physicochemical and biological variables and nutrients in water. The distribution maps were developed using ArcMap 9.2®. The results indicated that Microcystis sp., is distributed mainly in the upper tributary basin (Huaynamota basin during the dry season. There was less chance to find cyanobacteria in the entire system during the cold dry season, while during the warm dry season cyanobacteria was recognized at the confluence of two rivers. During the rainfall season there were no reports of cyanobacteria presence. This species is often associated with arising trophic processes of anthropogenic origin; therefore, attention is required in specific areas that have been identified in this work to improve Aguamilpa’s watershed management and restoration. It was also recognized the importance of phosphorus and nitrogen interaction, which determines the distribution of Microcystis sp., in the Aguamilpa Reservoir. The results of this study demonstrated that ecological niche modeling was a suitable tool to assess the spatial distribution of microalgae in freshwater environments.

Enrique Martinez-Meyer

2012-04-01

237

Capacity building in taxonomy and systematics  

OpenAIRE

Needs-driven capacity building is required as a matter of urgency to overcome the present lack of taxonomists and systematists who are skilled in natural history and collections. This must necessarily include the training of the next generation of taxonomists, appropriate leadership for natural history collections and the involvement of practicing taxonomists to change the perception of taxonomy by decision-makers.

Smith, G. F.; Figueiredo, Estrela

2009-01-01

238

The web and the structure of taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

An easily accessible taxonomic knowledge base is critically important for all biodiversity-related sciences. At present, taxonomic information is organized and regulated by a system of rules and conventions that date back to the introduction of binomial nomenclature by Linnaeus. The taxonomy of any particular group of organisms comprises the sum information in the taxonomic literature, supported by designated type specimens in major collections. In this article, the way modern means of disseminating information will change the practice of taxonomy, in particular the Internet, is explored. Basic taxonomic information, such as specimen-level data, location of types, and name catalogues are already available, at least for some groups, on the Web. Specialist taxonomic databases, key-construction programs, and other software useful for systematists are also increasingly available. There has also been a move towards Web-publishing of taxonomic hypotheses, though as yet this is not fully permitted by the Codes of Nomenclature. A further and more radical move would be to transfer taxonomy completely to the Web. A possible model of this is discussed, as well as a pilot project, the "CATE" initiative, which seeks to explore the advantages and disadvantages of such a move. It is argued that taxonomy needs to forge better links with its user-communities to maintain its funding base, and that an important part of this is making the products of its research more accessible through the Internet. PMID:18066929

Godfray, H C J; Clark, B R; Kitching, I J; Mayo, S J; Scoble, M J

2007-12-01

239

Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

240

New ecological and taxonomical data on some Ptenoglossa (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda from the Gulf of Catania (Ionian Sea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ptenoglossans, well known as parasites of marine invertebrates, are one of the less common and less studiedgroups of caenogastropods. Most of the ?-taxonomy of their Mediterranean representatives is still source ofdebate and very few data are known on their ecology. A considerable amount of fresh and living material ofseveral ptenoglossan from the Gulf of Catania was available for study. Based on this material we here provideinformation on the distribution and ecology (e.g. habitat and host preference of some relevant ptenoglossanspecies. In particular the distribution of Similiphora similior (Bouchet & Guillemot, 1978, Pogonodonpseudocanarica (Bouchet, 1985, Cerithiopsis ladae Prkic & Buzzurro, 2007, Epitonium pseudonanum Bouchet& Warén, 1986, Melanella lubrica Monterosato, 1890, and Pelseneeria minor Koehler & Vaney, 1908 wereextended to the Ionian Sea and the host is reported for: two triphorids, one cerithiopsid, one epitoniid, threeMelanella Bowdich, 1822 and other two eulimids. The particularly good conditions of the material studied alsoallowed some novel and important observations on the morphology to be made and provided the opportunity todiscuss the taxonomy of some groups. Descriptions of the head-foot colour pattern were provided for onetriphorid, three species of Cerithiopsis Forbes & Hanley, 1851, one epitoniid and three eulimids.

Danilo Scuderi

2011-03-01

241

Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in the microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-µm vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to O2, pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O2 concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes.

Becraft, E.; Cohan, F.

2011-01-01

242

The potential distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Libya based on ecological niche model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectored by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Libya have driven considerable effort to develop a predictive model for the potential geographical distribution of this disease. We collected adult P. papatasi from 17 sites in Musrata and Yefern regions of Libya using four different attraction traps. Our trap results and literature records describing the distribution of P. papatasi were incorporated into a MaxEnt algorithm prediction model that used 22 environmental variables. The model showed a high performance (AUC = 0.992 and 0.990 for training and test data, respectively). High suitability for P. papatasi was predicted to be largely confined to the coast at altitudes fly collections are warranted that should include documentation of such factors as soil texture and humidity, land cover, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to increase the model's predictive power. PMID:22679884

Abdel-Dayem, M S; Annajar, B B; Hanafi, H A; Obenauer, P J

2012-05-01

243

DNA barcoding and the taxonomy of Microgastrinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae): impacts after 8 years and nearly 20 000 sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microgastrine wasps are among the most species-rich and numerous parasitoids of caterpillars (Lepidoptera). They are often host-specific and thus are extensively used in biological control efforts and figure prominently in trophic webs. However, their extraordinary diversity coupled with the occurrence of many cryptic species produces a significant taxonomic impediment. We present and release the results of 8 years (2004-2011) of DNA barcoding microgastrine wasps. Currently they are the best represented group of parasitoid Hymenoptera in the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), a massive barcode storage and analysis data management site for the International Barcoding of Life (iBOL) program. There are records from more than 20 000 specimens from 75 countries, including 50 genera (90% of the known total) and more than 1700 species (as indicated by Barcode Index Numbers and 2% MOTU). We briefly discuss the importance of this DNA data set and its collateral information for future research in: (1) discovery of cryptic species and description of new taxa; (2) estimating species numbers in biodiversity inventories; (3) clarification of generic boundaries; (4) biological control programmes; (5) molecular studies of host-parasitoid biology and ecology; (6) evaluation of shifts in species distribution and phenology; and (7) fostering collaboration at national, regional and world levels. The integration of DNA barcoding with traditional morphology-based taxonomy, host records, and other data has substantially improved the accuracy of microgastrine wasp identifications and will significantly accelerate further studies on this group of parasitoids. PMID:23228011

Alex Smith, M; Fernández-Triana, J L; Eveleigh, E; Gómez, J; Guclu, C; Hallwachs, W; Hebert, P D N; Hrcek, J; Huber, J T; Janzen, D; Mason, P G; Miller, S; Quicke, D L J; Rodriguez, J J; Rougerie, R; Shaw, M R; Várkonyi, G; Ward, D F; Whitfield, J B; Zaldívar-Riverón, A

2013-03-01

244

Seed ecology of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi, two invasive species with different distributions in Europe.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 157-169 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0323 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Seed Bank * germination * distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Perglová, Irena; Gudžinskas, Z.

245

Distribution, Ecology and Conservation of the Common Otter (Lutra lutra in DPRK (North Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Red Data Book of DPRK says that the otter belongs to the category of vulnerable species (VU and suffers from a serious decrease in its numbers recently, although it was widely distributed in the middle and upper parts of rivers all over the country in the past. Therefore, the protection of the otter and its habitat is one of the important issues for species diversity conservation.

Chong Jong Ryol

2011-01-01

246

Distribution, abundance and ecological relevance of pelagic fishes in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean  

OpenAIRE

The distribution and abundance of larval and postlarval fishes was investigated in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean, in March and April 2004. The upper 200 m of the water column were sampled with an 8 m2 rectangular midwater trawl at 93 stations. The larval species community clustered in a diverse coastal community with high densities of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum larvae and a less diverse offshore community dominated by Antarctic jonasfish Notolepis coatsi and the lanternfi...

Flores, H.; Putte, A. P.; Siegel, V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Franeker, J. A.; Meesters, H. W. G.; Colckaert, F. A. M.

2008-01-01

247

Ecological Niche Modelling using satellite data for assessing distribution of threatened species Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. is a narrow endemic, tuberous twiner of Asclepiadaceae family. It is medicinally important: tubers are nutritive and edible, leaves are digestive and a cure for dysentery and diarrhea. Exploitation for its tubers and poor regeneration of this species has shrunk its distribution. In order to know its present status, we report here the results of its appraisal in Rajasthan, using remote sensing and ground truthing in the past five years (2009-14). A base map of C. bulbosa was prepared using Geographical Information System (GIS), open source software Quantum GIS, SAGA. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) +Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Satellite Data were used in this study. ASTER and GDEM Data was clipped with district boundary and provided color range to get elevation information. A digital elevation model of Rajasthan physiography was developed from ASTER GDEM of 30-m resolution. GIS layers of Area of occurrences for C. bulbosa plant and elevation were created. This map along with topographic sheets of 1:50000 were used for field traversing and ground truthing as per GPS location inferred from map. Its geographic distribution was assessed using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm that employed 12 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, and elevation data. Results of this modelling predicted occurrence of C. bulbosa in the districts of Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Pali, Ajmer, Jhalawar, Dungarpur, Banswara, Baran, Kota, Bundi and Chittorgarh. Ground validation in these districts revealed its presence only at four places in three districts confirming its rarity. Analysis of dominance at their sites of occurrence revealed their poor populations and sub dominant status (RIV = 20-32) and very low density (2-12 plants per tenth ha).

Kumar, S.; Kulloli, R. N.; Tewari, J. C.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, A.

2014-11-01

248

Hierarchical and Bayesian Scattered Data Taxonomy in Mobile Ad-hoc Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available MANETS promise an unprecedented opportunity to monitor physical environments via inexpensive wireless embedded devices. Given the sheer amount of sensed data, efficient taxonomy of them becomes a critical task in many sensor network applications. The Bayesian classifier is a fundamental taxonomy technique. We introduce two classifiers: Naive Bayes and a classifier based on class decomposition using K-means clustering. We consider two complementary tasks: model computation and scoring a data set. We study several layouts for tables and several indexing alternatives.In this paper, we propose a novel decision-tree-based hierarchical scattered taxonomy approach, in which local classifiers are built by individual sensors and merged along the routing path forming a spanning tree. The classifiers are iteratively enhanced by combining strategically generated pseudo data and new local data, eventually converging to a global classifier for the whole network. We also introduce some control factors to facilitate the effectiveness of our approach. Through extensive analysis, we study the impact of the introduced control factors, and demonstrate that our approach maintains high taxonomy accuracy with very low storage and communication overhead. The approach also addresses a critical issue of heterogeneous data distribution among the sensors.

Sunar Arif Hussain

2011-07-01

249

Towards a taxonomy for integrated care: a mixed-methods study  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Building integrated services in a primary care setting is considered an essential important strategy for establishing a high-quality and affordable health care system. The theoretical foundations of such integrated service models are described by the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care, which distinguishes six integration dimensions (clinical, professional, organisational, system, functional and normative integration). The aim of the present study is to refine the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care by developing a taxonomy that specifies the underlying key features of the six dimensions. Methods First, a literature review was conducted to identify features for achieving integrated service delivery. Second, a thematic analysis method was used to develop a taxonomy of key features organised into the dimensions of the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care. Finally, the appropriateness of the key features was tested in a Delphi study among Dutch experts. Results The taxonomy consists of 59 key features distributed across the six integration dimensions of the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care. Key features associated with the clinical, professional, organisational and normative dimensions were considered appropriate by the experts. Key features linked to the functional and system dimensions were considered less appropriate. Discussion This study contributes to the ongoing debate of defining the concept and typology of integrated care. This taxonomy provides a development agenda for establishing an accepted scientific framework of integrated care from an end-user, professional, managerial and policy perspective. PMID:25759607

Valentijn, Pim P.; Boesveld, Inge C.; van der Klauw, Denise M.; Ruwaard, Dirk; Struijs, Jeroen N.; Molema, Johanna J.W.; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM.

2015-01-01

250

Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

Tânia Tarabini Castellani

2004-11-01

251

Ecological factors related to the widespread distribution of sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chagas disease transmission risk is a function of the presence of triatomines in domestic habitats. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is one of the main vectors implicated in transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Ecuador. This triatomine species is present in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats in the country. To determine the distribution of sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis and the factors related to this distribution, triatomine searches were conducted between 2005 and 2009 in southern Ecuador. Methods Manual triatomine searches were conducted by skilled bug collectors in 23 communities. Sylvatic searched sites were selected by a directed sampling, where microhabitats were selected by the searchers and b random sampling, where sampling points where randomly generated. Domiciliary triatomine searches were conducted using the one man-hour method. Natural trypanosome infection was determined by microscopic examination and PCR. Generalized linear models were used to test the effect of environmental factors on the presence of sylvatic triatomines. Results In total, 1,923 sylvatic individuals were collected representing a sampling effort of 751 man-hours. Collected sylvatic triatomines were associated with mammal and bird nests. The 1,219 sampled nests presented an infestation index of 11.9%, a crowding of 13 bugs per infested nest, and a colonization of 80% of the nests. Triatomine abundance was significantly higher in squirrel (Sciurus stramineus nests located above five meters from ground level and close to the houses. In addition, 8.5% of the 820 examined houses in the same localities were infested with triatomines. There was a significant correlation between R. ecuadoriensis infestation rates found in sylvatic and synanthropic environments within communities (p = 0.012. Parasitological analysis revealed that 64.7% and 15.7% of the sylvatic bugs examined (n = 300 were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli respectively, and 8% of the bugs presented mixed infections. Conclusions The wide distribution of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations may jeopardize the effectiveness of control campaigns conducted to eliminate domestic populations of this species. Also, the high T. cruzi infection rates found in sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador could constitute a risk for house re-infestation and persistent long-term Chagas disease transmission in the region.

Grijalva Mario J

2012-01-01

252

The Distribution and Ecology of the Arctic Plant Iceland Purslane (Koenigia islandica in Scotland  

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Full Text Available Koenigia islandica has a disjunct Arctic-sub Arctic circumpolar distribution extending southwards to several isolated mountain ranges of northern Europe, Asia and North America. The population of this plant on the Isle of Skye (at altitude 461-726 m and Isle of Mull at (385-523 m was the most Southerly in Europe and therefore the most vulnerable likely to exhibit the impact of climatic fluctuations on numbers and survivorship. Koenigia was also an annual, which made it particularly vulnerable to adverse conditions and exhibited large fluctuations in number and survivorship between years. Mapping the precise position of colonies of Koenigia on island of Mull and Skye was done by geographical positioning systems (GPS.

Qasair Rashid

2003-01-01

253

[Resource and ecological distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi under pine forests of Huangshan Mountain district].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis are the most common and important tree species in the Huangshan Mountain district, and ectomycorrhizae plays an important role in their forestation. Our investigations in 1998-2003 showed that under the pine forests of this district, there were 43 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 10 families and 17 genera, of which, 43 were under Pinus massoniana forest, and 12 under Pinus taiwanensis forest. Only a few species were found under young Pinus massoniana forest, with the dominant of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coken and Rhizopogon spp., but under mature Pinus massoniana forest, there were plentiful species, with the dominant of Russulaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae and Canthurellaceae. The relationships between woody species and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and between fungi distribution and temperature, moisture and soil condition were discussed in this paper, which would benefit to the further studies on the effects of different ectomyrrhizal fungi to Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis forests. PMID:15943356

Ke, Lixia; Liu, Birong

2005-03-01

254

Ecology of temperate salt-marsh fucoids. I. Occurrence and distribution of Ascophyllum nodosum ecads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distribution of several free-living Ascophyllum nodosum ecads, including scorpioides and mackii, in a temperate salt marsh is described. Morphological characterization of these ecads by the presence or absence of air bladders and reproductive receptacles, and size and shape of fronds, indicated that several free-living forms occur throughout the marsh. Plants resembling the ecad mackaii were more closely associated with exposed areas along the low-tide regions, while scorpioides-type ecads prevailed on the Spartina alterniflora-dominated marsh banks and flats in the middle and upper intertidal regions of the marsh. Maximum biomass of ecads occurred during the spring months in the absence of S. alterniflora, whereas minimum ecad biomass was associated with maximum S. alterniflora densities in the late summer and fall months. Morphological differentiation of dwarf-type ecads was related to environmental components other than exposure to low and/or fluctuating salinites.

Brinkhuis, B.H.

1976-03-15

255

Ecological distribution of pelagic copepods and species relationship to acidification, liming and natural recovery in a boreal area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distribution and ecology of pelagic copepods were studied in a boreal area strongly affected by acidification in southern Norway. Differential regional composition of bedrock geology and Quaternary deposits combined with liming have produced aquatic sites with contrasting acidification and recovery histories. The omnivorous species Eudiaptomus gracilis showed a striking ability to tolerate both acidification and chemical recovery. The predominantly carnivorous species Heterocope saliens increased numerically during acidification, both because it is tolerant to acidic environments and because fish predation diminished or disappeared altogether. After chemical recovery, H. saliens, having an endogenous egg-bank, most readily produced viable populations with numerical abundance depending upon fish predation pressure. Thermocyclops oithonoides and Cyclops scutifer were negatively affected by strongly acidic environments, whereas Mesocyclops leuckarti tolerated acidic conditions better. All three cyclopoid species increased in abundance after chemical recovery, most probably from small residual populations. The hypolimnetic C. scutifer faced dispersal problems in re-establishing following liming. Deep lakes (>20 m harboured considerable residual populations of C. scutifer which recovered rapidly to pre-acidic conditions. Cyclops abyssorum inhabited the pelagial during early recovery of formerly chronically acidified lakes as a fugitive species, probably due to rapid dispersal capacities. Littoral cyclopoids, such as Acanthocyclops vernalis and Diacyclops nanus, were commonly distributed in the free waters of the most acidic lakes (pH = 4.5-4.8, but disappeared from the pelagial shortly after chemical recovery. The total community of pelagic copepods forms a promising tool to identify historical acidification and trajectories of recovery in the freshwater environment.

Svein Birger WÆRVÅGEN

2003-02-01

256

The distribution, dominance patterns and ecological niches of plankton functional types in Dynamic Green Ocean Models and satellite estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

We compare the spatial and temporal representation of phytoplankton functional types (pPFTs) in four different Dynamic Green Ocean Models (DGOMs; CCSM-BEC, NEMURO, PISCES and PlankTOM5) to derived phytoplankton distributions from two independent satellite estimates, with a particular focus on diatom distributions. Global annual mean surface biomass estimates for diatoms vary between 0.23 mmol C m-3 and 0.77 mmol C m-3 in the models, and are comparable to a satellite-derived estimate (0.41 mmol C m-3). All models consistently simulate a higher zonal mean diatom biomass contribution in the high latitudes than in the low latitudes, but the relative diatom contribution varies substantially between models with largest differences in the high latitudes (20% to 100% of total biomass). We investigate phytoplankton distribution in terms of annual and monthly mean dominance patterns, i.e. the distribution of locations where a given PFT contributes more than 50% to total biomass. In all models, diatoms tend to dominate large areas of the high latitudes of both hemispheres, and the area of the surface ocean dominated by diatoms is significantly higher in the models than in the satellite estimates. We estimate the realized ecological niches filled by the dominant pPFT at each location as a function of annual mean surface nitrate concentration (NO3), sea surface temperature (SST), and mixed layer depth. A general additive model (GAM) is used to map the probability of dominance of all pPFTs in niche and geographic space. Models tend to simulate diatom dominance over a wider temperature and nutrient range, whereas satellites confine diatom dominance to a narrower niche of low-intermediate annual mean temperatures (annual mean SST niches in different ranges of surface NO3 concentrations. For annual mean diatom dominance, the statistically modelled probability of dominance explains the majority of the variance in the data (65.2-66.6%). For the satellite estimates, the explained deviance is much lower (44.6% and 32.7%). The differences in the representation of diatoms among models and compared to satellite estimates highlights the need to better resolve phytoplankton succession and phenology in the models. This work is part of the marine ecosystem inter-comparison project (MAREMIP).

Vogt, M.; Hashioka, T.; Payne, M. R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Alvain, S.; Aita, M. N.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Hirata, T.; Lima, I.; Sailley, S.; Yamanaka, Y.

2013-11-01

257

The Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Tina Menor estuary (Cantabria, southern Bay of Biscay): Distribution and ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent ostracods from the Tina Menor estuary (northern Spain, southern Bay of Biscay) have been analysed. Twenty-five species have been identified for the first time, 20 with living individuals during the sampling period. The most abundant species are Leptocythere castanea, Leptocythere porcellanea, Loxoconcha elliptica, Cytherois fischeri, and Hemicytherura hoskini, Leptocythere psammophila and Semicytherura aff. angulata. These species are grouped into four assemblages defining different environments: muddy inner estuary with euryhaline species (L. elliptica); middle estuary with silty sand flats and low marsh environments (L. castanea, L. porcellanea and C. fischeri); sandy outer estuary with marine characteristics (H. hoskini, S. aff. angulata, Leptocythere baltica and L. psammophila); and littoral to inner shelf environment (Caudites calceolatus, H. hoskini and Callistocythere murrayi). In the middle estuary, L. castanea also delimits sandy-silty low marshes, and L. porcellanea and C. fischeri the vegetated ecosystems. Multivariate analyses with the samples and species (cluster Q-type and detrended and canonical correspondence analysis) confirm that ostracod distribution in the Tina Menor estuary is controlled by sediment grain size and by the distance to the mouth of the estuary (associated to salinity). The geographical height in relation with mean tide levels (and therefore with emersion periods) also plays an important role in distribution. The results of this study confirm ostracod validity as tide-level markers due to the presence of C. fischeri below the MHWNT (mean high water neap tide), whereas L. castanea and L. porcellanea are present between the MHWNT and MHW (mean high water) levels. Ostracods can also indicate environmental changes due to human-influenced processes. Abundant individuals of L. elliptica in some areas of the middle estuary evidence discharges of lower-salinity water from a nearby fish farm. Ostracods from the marine shelf reach the inner estuary, but continental species are not provided by the rivers. The low river influence may be due to Nansa River flow regulation upstream, which hampers the transport of fluvial sediments, resulting in an increase in sand in the mudflat and low marshes, the latter fact confirmed by the numbers of L. castanea and L. porcellanea, much higher than in other estuaries in the southern Bay of Biscay.

Martínez-García, Blanca; Pascual, Ana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, Julio; Martín-Rubio, Maite; Rofes, Juan

2013-10-01

258

A critical review of the current taxonomy of the genus Daphnia O. F. Müller, 1785 (Anomopoda, Cladocera).  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Daphnia O. F. Müller, 1785 (Anomopoda, Cladocera) has become a model genus for ecological, toxicological, and evolutionary studies. At the same time, Daphnia is a well-known example of a genus with a confused taxonomy. This review aims to identify the main sources of confusion (natural and human-caused) for the current taxonomy of Daphnia. A complete check-list of all species-group names of Daphnia was built using the available literature sources. I graphed the total number of taxa and number of valid taxa described during each year, and estimated a curve of accumulation of formal taxa from year to year. Four main periods in the history of Daphnia taxonomy were recognized, with the latest decades showing an increased rate of valid taxa to more than 50%. Overall, only 24 % of 361 known taxa of species rank are valid. A failure to find real, sometimes fine-scale diagnostic characters, led to a tradition of pseudo-taxonomy based mainly on the body shape and other phenotypically plastic characters, e.g. associated with defensive structures. I recommend revising the suite of taxonomically informative characters by emphasizing the anatomical details of males and thoracic limbs of both males and females. Such a revision of global scale, should be conducted in close coordination with phylogenetic studies. But this revision is impossible without accurate redescriptions of all previously described taxa, and a continuous step-by-step resolving of taxonomic problems in each species group.  PMID:25661605

Kotov, Alexey A

2015-01-01

259

Distribution and ecology of pest fruit fly species in Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fruit flies belong to the very diverse family Tephritidae, which consists of over 4,500 species distributed in most temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries. In Asia and the Pacific regions, most of the major pest species belong to two genera. Bactrocera and Dacus. Representatives of Ceratitis occur in southwest Western Australia and the Indian Ocean islands and Carpomya occur in the Indian sub-continent and in Mauritius and Reunion. In the Asian region, 180 species of Bactrocera and 30 species of Dacus have been recorded and in the Australasian and Oceanic region, there are 270 species of Bactrocera and 27 species of Dacus. The diversity of species progressively decreases as the plant/host diversity decreases from west in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea to east in the Polynesian Island countries. The major pest species in the Asian region belong to the dorsalis complex (B. carambolae, B. dorsalis, B. occipitalis, B. philippinensis, B. papayae and B. pyrifoliae) and include other species such as B. cucurbitae, B. zonata, B. latifrons, and others. In the Pacific region, Australia has 100 species of fruit flies. Many Pacific Island countries each have endemic species, several of which are major pests. The factors that impact on populations of fruit flies include host ranges, life cycles, mating and oviposition behavior, dispersal capacity, nutritional, moisture, temperature and light requirements, and competition within and between species. (author)

260

Possible ecological significance of within-fruit and seed furocoumarin distribution in twoPsoralea species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Furocoumarin distribution patterns in the fruits and seeds ofPsoralea macrostachya andP. onobrychis were investigated. Both species contain the linear furocoumarin psoralen and its angular isomer, angelicin. In the monospermous indehiscent fruit ofP. macrostachya, furocoumarins occur in the pericarp and all seed parts. InP. onobrychis, the pericarp of which is easily detached at ripeness, no furocoumarins were found in the pericarp tissues and only traces occur in the embryo axis; cotyledons are the preferential accumulation site. The within-fruit and -seed furocoumarin variations associated with the developmental stages of fruit were followed inP. onobrychis, in view of changes in the defensive value of the pericarp before and after ripening. Rapid furocoumarin biosynthesis after fertilization was observed in both pericarp and seed; ripening is associated with furocoumarin decrease in the seed and complete disappearance in the pericarp tissues. Such findings are consistent with the chemical defense role of these substances. The cooccurrence of linear and angular isomers seems to be a chemical marker of the genusPsoralea: the biosynthetic pathway leading to the angular isomer as an evolutionary response to selective pressure from herbivore insects is suggested. PMID:24254906

Cappelletti, E M; Innocenti, G; Caporale, G

1992-02-01

261

Integrating evolution into geographical ecology: a phylogenetic perspective on palm distributions and community composition across scales  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Species distributions, assemblage composition, and species richness depend on both current environment and the diversification of lineages in past environments. On broad scales, processes that constrain diversifying lineages to certain regions or environments are particularly important. Through species pool effects, those processes also affect local community composition and richness. In addition, evolution directly affects local communities directly via niche-based assembly. We studied these effects with palms (Arecaceae) as a model group, using a) a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals in 430 transects in the Western Amazon, b) a set of range maps for all American palms (550 spp.), and c) global country-level presence/ absence data of all (>2400) palm species. These data were analysed with novel phylogenetic community structure and turnover methods. Globally, the phylogenetic structure of palm assemblages reflects several biogeographic and evolutionary processes. In the Americas, both dispersal limitation and a phylogenetically conserved temperature niche have constrained the evolution of palm species ranges. Broad-scale processes also influenced the local phylogenetic structure of Amazonian palm communities, which mainly reflects the evolution of habitat preferences.

Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.

262

Redox gradients in distribution systems influence water quality, corrosion, and microbial ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simulated distribution systems (SDSs) defined the interplay between disinfectant type (free chlorine and chloramines), water age (1-10.2 days), and pipe material (PVC, iron and cement surfaces) on water chemistry, redox zones and infrastructure degradation. Redox gradients developed as a function of water age and pipe material affected the quality of water consumers would receive. Free chlorine was most stable in the presence of PVC while chloramine was most stable in the presence of cement. At a 3.6 day water age the residual in the chlorinated PVC SDS was more than 3.5 times higher than in the chlorinated iron or cement systems. In contrast, the residual in the chloraminated cement SDS was more than 10 times greater than in the chloraminated iron or PVC systems. Near the point of entry to the SDSs where disinfectant residuals were present, free chlorine tended to cause as much as 4 times more iron corrosion when compared to chloramines. Facultative denitrifying bacteria were ubiquitous, and caused complete loss of nitrogen at distal points in systems with iron, and these bacteria co-occurred with very severe pitting attack (1.6-1.9 mm/year) at high water age. PMID:25462724

Masters, Sheldon; Wang, Hong; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

2015-01-01

263

Hierarchical Taxonomy in Multi-Party System  

CERN Document Server

We propose the use of hierarchical taxonomy to analyze the legislative election results as a model of multi-party system to show the robustness in political system. As an example we use the result of Indonesian legislative election 2004 is analyzed with certain comparative with the previous one (1999). We construct the graph theoretical analysis by finding the Euclidean distances among political parties. The distances are then treated in ultrametric spaces by using the minimum spanning tree algorithm. By having the Indonesian hierarchical taxonomy model of political parties we show some patterns emerging the pattern agrees with the classical anthropological analysis of socio-political system in Indonesia. This fact accentuates a character of robustness in Indonesian political society as a self-organized system evolves to critical state. Some small perturbations i.e.: different voting process resulting the same pattern and occasions statistically, emerges from the social structure based upon political streams:...

Situngkir, H

2004-01-01

264

The colonial legacy in African plant taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

The conservation of biodiversity is inescapably linked to taxonomy and systematics, the branches of science dealing with the identification, naming and classification of organisms. If there is no reliable and correct name (and therefore no associated description) for a given organism, that organism cannot be identified. Furthermore, it cannot be meaningfully recorded in a biodiversity inventory or assessment, nor can it be protected. And it is estimated that there might be several million liv...

Smith, Gideon F.; Estrela Figueiredo

2010-01-01

265

Stepping stones towards a new prokaryotic taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

Technological developments provide new insights into prokaryotic evolution and diversity and provoke a continuous need to update taxonomy and revise classification schemes. Our present species concept and definition are being challenged by the growing amount of whole genomic information, which should allow improvements in the natural species definition. The continuous quest for an objective and stable method for sorting strains into coherent homogeneous groups is inherent to prokaryotic syste...

Gevers, Dirk; Dawyndt, Peter; Vandamme, Peter; Willems, Anne; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Vos, Paul

2006-01-01

266

ExploitingWeb Service Semantics: Taxonomies vs. Ontologies  

OpenAIRE

Comprehensive semantic descriptions of Web services are essential to exploit them in their full potential, that is, discovering them dynamically, and enabling automated service negotiation, composition and monitoring. The semantic mechanisms currently available in service registries which are based on taxonomies fail to provide the means to achieve this. Although the terms taxonomy and ontology are sometimes used interchangably there is a critical difference. A taxonomy indi...

Dogac, Asuman; Laleci, Gokce; Kabak, Yildiray; Cingil, Ibrahim

2002-01-01

267

A Patient-Centric Taxonomy for Personal Health Records (PHRs)  

OpenAIRE

Today, the nascent field of personal health records (PHRs) lacks a comprehensive taxonomy that encompasses the full range of PHRs currently in existence and what may be possible. The Center for Information Technology Leadership (CITL) has created a taxonomy that broadly defines a PHR as having both an infrastructure component, which allows for data viewing and sharing, and an application component, allowing for selfmanagement and information exchange. The taxonomy also accounts for different ...

Vincent, Adam; Kaelber, David C.; Pan, Eric; Shah, Sapna; Johnston, Douglas; Middleton, Blackford

2008-01-01

268

Towards an Understanding of Driver Inattention: Taxonomy and Theory  

OpenAIRE

There is little agreement in the scientific literature about what the terms “driver distraction” and “driver inattention” mean, and what the relationship is between them. In 2011, Regan, Hallett and Gordon proposed a taxonomy of driver inattention in which driver distraction is conceptualized as just one of several processes that give rise to driver inattention. Since publication of that paper, two other papers have emerged that bear on the taxonomy. In one, the Regan et al taxonomy w...

Regan, Michael A.; Strayer, David L.

2014-01-01

269

Distribution and ecology of Dormice (Myoxidae in Sicily: a preliminary account  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Three dormouse species are recorded in Sicily: Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius and Eliomys quercinus. Their distribution is mapped according to the 10 x 10 km squares of the UTM grid. Data were collected until May 1993, mostly coming from pellet analysis, and direct records (vocalization listening, museum specimens, field observations, literature, etc.. The Fat dormouse (5.3% of 10 x 10 km squares and the Hazel dormouse (2.1% are mainly localized within deciduous wooded areas like the beech forests and the hazel groves mixed with oaks and chestnuts of Nebrodi and Madonie. The Fat dormouse is also present in south-eastern Sicily (Monti Iblei and on in Eolian island (Salina. The Garden dormouse shows the widest distribution (21.2%, ranging from sea level to the beech forests (1600 m a.s.1.. Dormice are rarely preyed upon by Owls in Sicily, generally forming less than 1.5% of the total prey, with the exception the Fat dormouse (5.3%. Other occasional predators, so far recorded, are the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes and the Lanner (Falco biarmicus. Hibernation regularly occurs at high altitudes, but seems to be absent or curtailed in the warm habitats below 500 m a.s.1. Riassunto Distribuzione ed ecologia dei Mioxidi in Sicilia: dati preliminari - Tre specie di Mioxidi vivono in Sicilia (Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus. Storicamente (1850 essi erano presenti nelle principali aree boscate (Nebrodi, Madonie, Etna, solo nella metà di questo secolo, il Ghiro ed il Quercino furono scoperti alle isole Eolie (Salina e Lipari. Si riporta la carta di distribuzione di ogni specie (griglia UTM, 100 kmq ricavata dall'analisi della dieta di predatori, osservazioni dirette, trappolamenti ed esemplari citati in bibliografia o conservati nei musei. Il Ghiro (5,3% ed il Moscardino (2,1% sono localizzati nei boschi decidui di querce e faggio e, più in basso di noccioli, querce e castagni dei Nebrodi, Peloritani e Madonie. Il Ghiro è presente anche sull'Etna ed in un'area meridionale della Sicilia (Iblei. Il Quercino mostra la distribuzione più ampia (21,2% ed è presente in una gran varietà di habitat dal livello del mare fino alle faggete delle Madonie. I Mioxidi in Sicilia risultano predati finora occasionalmente dalla Volpe e dal Lanario e raramente dal Barbagianni e dall'Allocco. Solo il Ghiro risulta predato regolarmente (5% dall'Allocco e risulta la preda più importante in termini di biomassa (47% nei boschi dell'Etna e dei Nebrodi. Il periodo di letargo, desunto da osservazioni dirette e dalle borre, sembrerebbe normale (autunno inoltrato-primavera alle alte quote e assente o molto ridotto e discontinuo sotto i 400 m.

Maurizio Sarà

1995-05-01

270

A taxonomy for human reliability analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A human interaction taxonomy (classification scheme) was developed to facilitate human reliability analysis in a probabilistic safety evaluation of a nuclear power plant, being performed at Ontario Hydro. A human interaction occurs, by definition, when operators or maintainers manipulate, or respond to indication from, a plant component or system. The taxonomy aids the fault tree analyst by acting as a heuristic device. It helps define the range and type of human errors to be identified in the construction of fault trees, while keeping the identification by different analysts consistent. It decreases the workload associated with preliminary quantification of the large number of identified interactions by including a category called 'simple interactions'. Fault tree analysts quantify these according to a procedure developed by a team of human reliability specialists. The interactions which do not fit into this category are called 'complex' and are quantified by the human reliability team. The taxonomy is currently being used in fault tree construction in a probabilistic safety evaluation. As far as can be determined at this early stage, the potential benefits of consistency and completeness in identifying human interactions and streamlining the initial quantification are being realized

271

Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees  

OpenAIRE

The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae) were th...

Mohammad Athar

2005-01-01

272

A Molecular Perspective on Systematics, Taxonomy and Classification Amazonian Discus Fishes of the Genus Symphysodon  

OpenAIRE

With the goal of contributing to the taxonomy and systematics of the Neotropical cichlid fishes of the genus Symphysodon, we analyzed 336 individuals from 24 localities throughout the entire distributional range of the genus. We analyzed variation at 13 nuclear microsatellite markers, and subjected the data to Bayesian analysis of genetic structure. The results indicate that Symphysodon is composed of four genetic groups: group PURPLE—phenotype Heckel and abacaxi; group GREEN—phenotype gr...

Manuella Villar Amado; Farias, Izeni P.; Tomas Hrbek

2011-01-01

273

Infant mortality in South Africa - distribution, associations and policy implications, 2007: an ecological spatial analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many sub-Saharan countries are confronted with persistently high levels of infant mortality because of the impact of a range of biological and social determinants. In particular, infant mortality has increased in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The geographic distribution of health problems and their relationship to potential risk factors can be invaluable for cost effective intervention planning. The objective of this paper is to determine and map the spatial nature of infant mortality in South Africa at a sub district level in order to inform policy intervention. In particular, the paper identifies and maps high risk clusters of infant mortality, as well as examines the impact of a range of determinants on infant mortality. A Bayesian approach is used to quantify the spatial risk of infant mortality, as well as significant associations (given spatial correlation between neighbouring areas between infant mortality and a range of determinants. The most attributable determinants in each sub-district are calculated based on a combination of prevalence and model risk factor coefficient estimates. This integrated small area approach can be adapted and applied in other high burden settings to assist intervention planning and targeting. Results Infant mortality remains high in South Africa with seemingly little reduction since previous estimates in the early 2000's. Results showed marked geographical differences in infant mortality risk between provinces as well as within provinces as well as significantly higher risk in specific sub-districts and provinces. A number of determinants were found to have a significant adverse influence on infant mortality at the sub-district level. Following multivariable adjustment increasing maternal mortality, antenatal HIV prevalence, previous sibling mortality and male infant gender remained significantly associated with increased infant mortality risk. Of these antenatal HIV sero-prevalence, previous sibling mortality and maternal mortality were found to be the most attributable respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of advanced spatial analysis to both quantify excess infant mortality risk at the lowest administrative unit, as well as the use of Bayesian modelling to quantify determinant significance given spatial correlation. The "novel" integration of determinant prevalence at the sub-district and coefficient estimates to estimate attributable fractions further elucidates the "high impact" factors in particular areas and has considerable potential to be applied in other locations. The usefulness of the paper, therefore, not only suggests where to intervene geographically, but also what specific interventions policy makers should prioritize in order to reduce the infant mortality burden in specific administration areas.

Sartorius Benn KD

2011-11-01

274

Marine ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

275

A taxonomy and discussion of software attack technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Software is a complex thing. It is not an engineering artifact that springs forth from a design by simply following software coding rules; creativity and the human element are at the heart of the process. Software development is part science, part art, and part craft. Design, architecture, and coding are equally important activities and in each of these activities, errors may be introduced that lead to security vulnerabilities. Therefore, inevitably, errors enter into the code. Some of these errors are discovered during testing; however, some are not. The best way to find security errors, whether they are introduced as part of the architecture development effort or coding effort, is to automate the security testing process to the maximum extent possible and add this class of tools to the tools available, which aids in the compilation process, testing, test analysis, and software distribution. Recent technological advances, improvements in computer-generated forces (CGFs), and results in research in information assurance and software protection indicate that we can build a semi-intelligent software security testing tool. However, before we can undertake the security testing automation effort, we must understand the scope of the required testing, the security failures that need to be uncovered during testing, and the characteristics of the failures. Therefore, we undertook the research reported in the paper, which is the development of a taxonomy and a discussion of software attacks generated from the point of view of the security tester with the goal of using the taxonomy to guide the development of the knowledge base for the automated security testing tool. The representation for attacks and threat cases yielded by this research captures the strategies, tactics, and other considerations that come into play during the planning and execution of attacks upon application software. The paper is organized as follows. Section one contains an introduction to our research and a discussion of the motivation for our work. Section two contains a presents our taxonomy of software attacks and a discussion of the strategies employed and general weaknesses exploited for each attack. Section three contains a summary and suggestions for further research.

Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

2005-03-01

276

Taxonomy of Mechanitis (f.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from the west Colombian Andes: an integrative approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species identification in the butterfly genus Mechanitis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) becomes difficult when it is based only on wing color patterns, a common practice in butterfly taxonomy. Difficulties in Mechanitis taxonomy are related to the widespread mimicry and polymorphism among species belonging to this genus. Species recognition and inventories of Mechanitis genus in geographic areas as the Andean region of Colombia are of particular interest and the use of more than one character for taxonomic identification is desirable. In this study, we included morphological, ecological, and mitochondrial DNA data to identify the occurring species in this region. Species of Mechanitis were studied from ecological, morphological, and molecular perspectives considering host plant identification, oviposition behavior, and life cycles under laboratory conditions. Immature morphology, patterns of wing color, and genital structures of adults were also studied. The genetic barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene was sequenced and used to verify the limits between species previously defined by the other characters and to validate its usefulness for species delimitation in this particular genus. The integrative approach combining independent datasets successfully allowed species identification as compared to the approach based on a single dataset. Three well-differentiated species were found in the studied region, Mechanitis menapis (Hewitson), Mechanitis polymnia (Linnaeus), and Mechanitis lysimnia (Fabricius). New valuable characters that could improve taxonomic identification in this genus are considered. PMID:23949672

Giraldo, C E; Uribe, S I

2012-12-01

277

Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta) na costa de Pernambuco e Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil / Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta) on the coast of Pernambuco State and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho identifica e fornece a distribuição do gênero Caulerpa na costa de Pernambuco (07º30' S e 09º00' W) e no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha (03º51' S e 32º25' W). As coletas foram realizadas em 32 praias da costa de Pernambuco no período entre abril/2004 a novembro/2005, na região entr [...] e-marés. Em Fernando de Noronha as coletas foram feitas em junho/2006, na região entre marés e no infralitoral (10, 15 e 21 m de profundidade), em oito praias. Foram, também, analisadas as exsicatas de Caulerpa depositadas no Herbário Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho (PEUFR) da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Os resultados mostram que o gênero Caulerpa está representado na costa de Pernambuco, por 19 táxons infragenéricos. Algumas espécies apresentaram distribuição restrita como C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh e C. serrulata (Forssk.) J. Agardh. Para o Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha foram registrados três táxons infragenéricos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa on the coast of Pernambuco (07º30'S; 09º00'W) and in the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (03º51'S; 32º25'W). Sampling was carried out on the coast of Pernambuco from April/2004 to November/2005, in the intertidal zone of 32 beac [...] hes. On Fernando de Noronha collections were made in June/2006 in the intertidal and infralittoral (10, 15 and 21m depth) regions of eight beaches. Exsiccata of Caulerpa from the Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho Herbarium (PEUFR) were also examined. The results showed that the genus Caulerpa is represented on the coast of Pernambuco state by 19 infrageneric taxa. Some species had restricted distributions such as C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh and C. serrulata (Forssk.) J. Agardh. Three infrageneric taxa were registered for the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago.

Suellen, Brayner; Sonia Maria Barreto, Pereira; Maria Elizabeth, Bandeira-Pedrosa.

2008-12-01

278

Numerical ecology validates a biogeographical distribution and gender-based effect on mucosa-associated bacteria along the human colon  

OpenAIRE

We applied constrained ordination numerical ecology methods to data produced with a human intestinal tract-specific phylogenetic microarray (the Aus-HIT Chip) to examine the microbial diversity associated with matched biopsy tissue samples taken from the caecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 10 healthy patients. Consistent with previous studies, the profiles revealed a marked intersubject variability; however, the numerical ecology methods of analysis allowed the subtrac...

Aguirre Ca?rcer, Daniel; Cui?v, Pa?raic O?; Wang, Tingtin; Kang, Seungha; Worthley, Daniel; Whitehall, Vicki L. J.; Gordon, Iain; Mcsweeney, Christopher; Leggett, Barbara A.; Morrison, Mark

2010-01-01

279

THE EFFECT OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES ON THE INCIDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF APHID VECTORS OF PEPPER VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS, ON CULTIVATED PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distribution of aphid vectors of Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV was studied on cultivated pepper between 2003 and 2005 in the major pepper producing areas of the six agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. The aphids were isolated, identified and their transmission ability determined. Population of aphid vectors increased progressively in all the agro-ecological zones from March at the onset of raining season reaching a peak in August and then declining from September at the on set of the dry season. The Humid forest and Derived Savanna agro-ecological zones recorded highest mean population of aphids / leaf and types of aphid’s species compared with other agro-ecological zones. Six species of aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Aphis gossipii (Glover, Aphis craccivora (Koch, Aphis spiraecola (Patch, Aphis fabae (Blanchard, and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, were identified on the pepper fields surveyed in all the agro-ecological zones. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of M. persicae, A. gossipii, A. craccivora, and R. maidis while A. spiraecola and A. fabae that varied in occurrence in all the zones. Ability to transmit PVMV to a healthy pepper plants varied in all the identified aphid species but R. maidis was not able to transmit PVMV from infected to a healthy pepper plant. A more sustainable approach to controlling pepper viruses is by targeting the aphid vectors and preventing the vectors from reaching the crops because the aphid vectors which are virus specific are the major means of transmitting virus to healthy plant.

A.A. FAJINMI

2011-11-01

280

Attack surfaces : A taxonomy for attacks on cloud services  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants. © 2010 IEEE.

Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

2010-01-01

281

Download - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... ages on Comment", shown in the bottom half of this page , are not included in the Taxonomy Icon archive, an ... scriptions are about the downloadable data in this page . They might not correspond to the contents of the ...

282

License - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... follows: "Taxonomy Icon © Database Center for Life Science ... licensed under CC Attribution 2.1 Japan" . The sum ... hereof not licensed under the license. National Bioscience ... Database Center Japan Science ... and Technology Agenc ...

283

The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

Adams, Katherine

2002-01-01

284

Entropy-based disciplinarity indicator: role taxonomy of journals in scientific communication systems  

CERN Document Server

In this research, a new indicator of disciplinarity-multidisciplinarity is developed, discussed and applied. EBDI is based on the combination of the frequency distribution of subject categories of journals citing or cited by the analysis unit and the spread and diversity of the citations among subject categories measured with Shannon-Wiener entropy. Its reproducibility, robustness and consistence are discussed. Four of the combinations of its values when applied to the cited and citing dimensions lead to a suggested taxonomy of the role that the studied unit might have in terms of the transformation of knowledge from different disciplines in the scientific communication system and its position respect a hypothetical thematic core of the discipline in which it has been classified. The indicator is applied to the journals belonging to the first quartile of JCR-SSCI 2011 Library and Information Science and an indicator-based taxonomy is applied and discussed, pointing to differential thematic roles of the journa...

Manana-Rodriguez, J

2013-01-01

285

Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (?6PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953 ?g L?1, with the average value of 4.042 ± 3.929 ?g L?1. The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the ?6PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of ?6PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens. - Highlights: • Monthly variation in PAEs was first investigated in a large Chinese shallow lake. • Ecological and health risks with uncertainty were determined. • PAEs with low and high level of carbon would be from different sources. • DnBP predominated within PAE congeners and posed a much greater ecological risks. • The studied PAE congeners posed little health risks to the nearby citizens

286

Taxonomy for spatial domain LSB steganography techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding technique is a well-known and broadly employed method in multimedia steganography, used mainly in applications involving single bit-plane manipulations in the spatial domain [1]. The key advantages of LSB procedures are they are simple to understand, easy to implement, have high embedding capacity, and can be resistant to steganalysis attacks. Additionally, the LSB approach has spawned numerous applications and can be used as the basis of more complex techniques for multimedia data embedding. In the last several decades, hundreds of new LSB or LSB variant methods have been developed in an effort to optimize capacity while minimizing detectability, taking advantage of the overall simplicity of this method. LSB-steganalysis research has also intensified in an effort to find new or improved ways to evaluate the performance of this widely used steganographic system. This paper reviews and categorizes some of these major techniques of LSB embedding, focusing specifically on the spatial domain. Some justification for establishing and identifying promising uses of a proposed SD-LSB centric taxonomy are discussed. Specifically, we define a new taxonomy for SD-LSB embedding techniques with the goal of aiding researchers in tool classification methodologies that can lead to advances in the state-of-the-art in steganography. With a common framework to work with, researchers can begin to more concretely identify core tools and common techniques to establish common standards of practice for steganography in general. Finally, we provide a summary on some of the most common LSB embedding techniques followed by a proposed taxonomy standard for steganalysis.

Collins, James C.; Agaian, Sos S.

2014-05-01

287

Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

288

TAXONOMY OF STREPTOMYCES SP. STRAIN 3B  

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Full Text Available Strain Streptomyces sp. 3B produces high activity extracellular proteolytic complex, in which serine- and metalloproteases are identified. The general and some other significant properties for the taxonomy of the strain were studied by the methods of the International Streptomycetes Project. The results of the investigation of Streptomyces sp. 3B and the comparative references about Streptomyces species with similar taxonomic characteristics identified it as Streptomyces albovinaceus . The antibiotic activity and sensitivity was also tested. Strain 3B was resistant to the group of the penicillin antibiotics

Stefka Antonova-Nikolova, Nikoleta Tzekova and Ljubomira Yocheva

289

Benchmarking of Methods for Genomic Taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is—that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identifica...

Larsen, Mette V.; Cosentino, Salvatore; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Hasman, Henrik; Sicheritz-ponte?n, Thomas; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Ussery, David W.; Lund, Ole

2014-01-01

290

Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 ?m long and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 ?m diam. Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C. Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus.

R.A. Samson

2011-11-01

291

Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS) and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 ?m long) and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 ?m diam). Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C) than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C). Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus.

Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian

2011-01-01

292

Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn. ssp. laricio (Poiret Maire distribution in the Sila mountain range  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most well-known and vast Calabrian pine forests are in the Sila mountain range, southern Italy. In this paper, present-day distribution of Calabrian pine in the Sila district was analyzed and compared with forest maps dating back to 1935 in order to assess the changes in land use. Main ecological and anthropogenic factors affecting Calabrian pine forest distribution were investigated by logistic regression models to identify the most important predictors of Ca­labrian pine persistence, expansion, and transition over the period 1935-2006. In 2006, the area covered by Calabrian pine forests and mixed Calabrian pine-beech forests was 36 100 ha and 20 221 ha, respectively. Overall, pine forest area increased by 38% between 1935 and 2006. Logistic regression revealed that Calabrian pine distribution in the Sila district was affected by both ecolo­gical (bioclimate, soil, and elevation and anthropogenic factors (management, fire. Based on our results, four different potential dynamics of Calabrian pine stands are discussed in the perspective of the sustainable management and conservation of this important mountain forest habitat.

Nicolaci A

2014-11-01

293

Modeling ecological niches and predicting geographic distributions: a test of six presence-only methods Modelado de nichos ecológicos y predicción de distribuciones geográficas: comparación de seis métodos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modeling ecological niches of species as a means to predict geographic distributions is a growing field that has been applied to numerous challenges of importance in ecology, systematics, and human well-being. The increasing availability and variety of such predictive algorithms requires testing their performance. In this study, we compare 6 such algorithms (Maxent, BioMapper, DOMAIN, FloraMap, the genetic algorithm GARP, and weights of evidence as regards their ability to predict the geographic distributions of 10 species of Mexican birds for which ample distributional data are available. The results of this study nevertheless led to reflections on how model quality should be evaluated.La predicción de las distribuciones geográficas de las especies obtenida mediante el modelado de sus nichos ecológicos, representa una línea de investigación en expansión, la cual ha sido aplicada en múltiples áreas de conocimiento tales como ecología, sistemática y salud pública. La creciente disponibilidad y variedad de tales métodos y algoritmos de predicción determina su evaluación como necesaria. En este estudio, comparamos 6 algoritmos (Maxent, BioMapper, Domain, FloraMap, GARP, Weights of Evidence con respecto a su habilidad para predecir las distribuciones geográficas de 10 especies de aves de México, para las cuales se cuenta con suficientes datos distribucionales. No obstante, los resultados de nuestro estudio sugieren la necesidad de elaborar nuevos criterios para la evaluación de modelos.

Miguel A. Ortega-Huerta

2008-06-01

294

Ecological distribution and fate of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past 21/2 yr a study was conducted on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a radioactive waste pond which has been receiving low-level Pu processing waste for about 30 yr. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization and studies of the ecological behavior of Pu and Am in an ultra-eutrophic aquatic environment. The purpose of this work is to explain Pu and Am concentrations at specific ecological sites, rates of accumulation at these sites, important export routes out of the pond, and potential pathways to man. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrator of transuranics in the pond system. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments that are the major sink for Pu and Am in this system, is also a major concentrator of transuranics. Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Thus, transuranics appear to be relatively immobile in this aquatic ecosystem

295

Administrative Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

2007-01-01

296

Taxonomy of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects and immediate concerns  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The taxonomy of the genus Campylobacter has changed dramatically since its inception in 1963. At that time the genus comprised just two species. At present, taxa that were once assigned to Campylobacter may belong to one of over 50 species distributed among six genera. Most of these taxa belong to a phylogenetically distinct group referred to as either ribosomal RNA (rRNA) superfamily VI or the epsilon division of the class Proteobacteria. The taxonomic diversity of the group is matched by the diverse habitats in which they may be found, and by the wide range of diseases that they are associated with. Recognition of their clinical and economic importance has resulted in intense interest in the group, and the application of increasingly sophisticated isolation, detection and chemotaxonomic methods continues to elucidate new aspects of their biodiversity. However, despite the advances in new bacterial systematics, there remain a number of important issues concerning the classification of various campylobacterial taxa that require careful consideration. Ultimately, these issues are relevant to many working in the field of applied microbiology, including clinicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists and taxonomists. The purpose of this article is briefly to review the major developments in the taxonomy of Campylobacter from its inception to the present day; summarize the most recent changes in the field; analyse current topical issues of special relevance to applied microbiologists, including identification of the bacteria; and speculate on future prospects for campylobacterial taxonomy.

On, Stephen L.W.

2001-01-01

297

On the Use of Taxonomies for Representing Case Features and Local Similarity Measures  

OpenAIRE

For defining attribute types to be used in the case representation, taxonomies occur quite often. The symbolic values at any node of the taxonomy tree are used as attribute values in a case or a query. A taxonomy type represents a relationship between the symbols through their position within the taxonomy-tree which expresses knowledge about the similarity between the symbols. This paper analyzes several situations in which taxonomies are used in different ways and proposes a systematic way o...

Bergmann, Ralph

1998-01-01

298

Ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri in systems science and systematics  

CERN Document Server

The originality of this book, which deals with such a new subject matter, lies in the application of methods and concepts never used before - such as ontologies and taxonomies, as well as thesauri - to the ordering of knowledge based on primary information. Chapters in the book also examine the study of ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri from the perspective of systematics and general systems theory. Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in Systems Science and Systematics will be extremely useful to those operating within the network of related fields, which includes documentation and informati

Currás, Emilia

2010-01-01

299

Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The new "Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms" was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers, comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man, and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. Methods The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1 each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2 each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3 each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4 the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language document. Results The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates "The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms," and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. Conclusions This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and assigns each tumor to a single class within the tumor hierarchy. The entire classification and taxonomy are available as open access files (in XML and flat-file formats with this article.

Berman Jules J

2004-11-01

300

Revisión cráneo-dentaria de Procyon (Carnivora: Procyonidae) en Colombia y Ecuador, con notas sobre su taxonomía y distribución / Cranio-dental revision of Procyon (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in Colombia and Ecuador, with remarks on its taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En América del Sur, dos especies del género Procyon han sido históricamente registradas, P. cancrivorus y P. lotor, sin embargo, el conocimiento relacionado con la morfología, la historia natural y su distribución en Colombia y Ecuador es limitado, razón por la cual se ha cuestionado la presencia de [...] P. lotor en esta parte del continente. Con el propósito de contribuir al conocimiento de Procyon en estos países, elaboramos una evaluación morfológica y morfométrica craneana; utilizamos 24 medidas que examinamos por medio de análisis multivariados y pruebas estadísticas estándar. Aclaramos dudas relacionadas con la presencia de P. lotor en Colombia y actualizamos la distribución de P. cancrivorus en ambos países. Nuestros resultados muestran que las dos especies se encuentran en Colombia y pueden diferenciarse por el ancho del P4 y por la relación longitud del paladar después del M2/longitud total del paladar. Caracteres morfológicos que diferencian las dos especies son: molariformes más masivos con cúspides anchas y redondeadas en P. cancri-vorus, mientras que en P. lotor son más agudas. Procyon lotor se encuentra restringida al norte de Colombia, mientras que P. cancrivorus está más ampliamente distribuida en varias regiones naturales hasta los 2350 msnm en los Andes. Los ejemplares de P. cancrivorus del noroccidente de Colombia presentan características dentarias que concuerdan con las propuestas para la subespecie P. c. proteus y sugerimos que este nombre debería aplicarse a estas poblaciones; sin embargo, el estatus subespecífico de las poblaciones colombianas de P. lotor y de las poblaciones ecuatorianas de P. cancrivorus es incierto. Abstract in english In South America, two species of Procyon have been historically recorded, P. cancrivorus and P. lotor. However, the knowledge related to the morphology, natural history and distribution in Colombia and Ecuador is limited, for this reason the presence of P. lotor in this part of the continent has bee [...] n questioned. In order to contribute to the knowledge of Procyon in these countries, we developed a cranial morphological and morphometric evaluation; we used twenty-four measures that were analyzed using multivariate analysis and standard statistical. We elucidated doubts regarding P. lotor's presence in Colombia and updated the distribution of P. cancrivorus in both countries. Our results show that both species are present in Colombia and can be distinguished by the P4 width and the palate length after M2/palate total length ratio. Morphological characters that differentiated the two species are massive molar teeth with broad and round cusps in P. cancrivorus, whereas in P. lotor, are sharper. Procyon lotor is restricted to northern Colombia, while P. cancrivorus is more widely distributed in different natural regions up to 2350 m in the Andes. Procyon cancrivorus specimens from northwestern Colombia have dental characteristics consistent with the proposals for the subspecies P. c. proteus and we suggest that this name should be applied to these populations. Nevertheless, the subspecific status of the colombian populations of P. lotor and ecuatorian populations of P. cancrivorus remain uncertain.

David, Marín; Héctor E, Ramírez-Chaves; Andrés Felipe, Suárez-Castro.

2012-12-01

301

When everything converges: integrative taxonomy with shell, DNA and venomic data reveals Conus conco, a new species of cone snails (Gastropoda: Conoidea).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cone snails have long been studied both by taxonomists for the diversity of their shells and by biochemists for the potential therapeutic applications of their toxins. Phylogenetic approaches have revealed that different lineages of Conus evolved divergent venoms, a property that is exploited to enhance the discovery of new conotoxins, but is rarely used in taxonomy. Specimens belonging to the Indo-West Pacific Conus lividus species complex were analyzed using phenetic and phylogenetic methods based on shell morphology, COI and 28S rRNA gene sequences and venom mRNA expression and protein composition. All methods converged to reveal a new species, C. conco n. sp. (described in Supplementary data), restricted to the Marquesas Islands, where it diverged recently (?3mya) from C. lividus. The geographical distribution of C. conco and C. lividus and their phylogenetic relationships suggest that the two species diverged in allopatry. Furthermore, the diversity of the transcript sequences and toxin molecular masses suggest that C. conco evolved unique toxins, presumably in response to new selective pressure, such as the availability of new preys and ecological niches. Furthermore, this new species evolved new transcripts giving rise to original toxin structures, probably each carrying specific biological activity. PMID:25132129

Puillandre, Nicolas; Stöcklin, Reto; Favreau, Philippe; Bianchi, Estelle; Perret, Frédéric; Rivasseau, Audrey; Limpalaër, Loïc; Monnier, Eric; Bouchet, Philippe

2014-11-01

302

Taxonomía y distribución de los anofelinos en el estado de Veracruz, México (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae) / Taxonomy and distribution of the anopheline mosquitoes in the state of Veracruz, Mexico (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad humana causada por protozoarios del género Plasmodium y es transmitida por hembras de mosquito de ciertas especies de Anopheles. Se estima que en México el 33.1% de la población vive en áreas donde puede ocurrir la transmisión de la malaria. Veracruz es un es [...] tado donde la enfermedad es endémica debido a diversos factores que lo hacen una zona de riesgo para la transmisión, entre ellos las condiciones climáticas y la migración humana. Por lo anterior, en este trabajo se presentan las bases para la reactivación de la vigilancia entomológica del paludismo en el estado de Veracruz, para lo cual se provee la diagnosis ilustrada de la larva, la pupa y los adultos de ambos sexos de las especies de anofelinos del estado, así como las claves taxonómicas que permiten su reconocimiento, con base en el examen de ejemplares recolectados o depositados en colecciones entomológicas de referencia. También se obtuvieron mapas de distribución conocida y potencial de las especies por medio de GARP. Se mencionan además algunos datos bionómicos y la importancia médica de cada especie. Se conocen en Veracruz 18 especies de anofelinos, agrupadas en dos géneros, Chagasia con una especie y Anopheles con 17 pertenecientes a los subgéneros An. (Anopheles), An. (Kerteszia) y An. (Nyssorhynchus). Se reconocen cuatro grupos de especies de acuerdo a su capacidad de transmisión de plasmodios y por su amplitud de distribución: el grupo de alto riesgo constituido por 2 especies; el grupo de riesgo moderado o regional, con 8 especies; el de escaso riesgo, con 3 especies y el de riesgo nulo con 5 especies. Prácticamente todo el estado posee vectores potenciales por lo que debe reestablecerse la vigilancia permanente de sus poblaciones. Este trabajo aporta elementos de juicio para que el estado pueda ser, en un futuro cercano, certificado como área libre de paludismo. Abstract in english Malaria is a human disease caused by four species of the protozoon genus Plasmodium which are transmitted by Anophelinae female mosquitoes of some species of the genus Anopheles. It has been estimated that in Mexico 33.1% of the human population lives in areas where the transmission of malaria is po [...] ssible. The risk area includes the State of Veracruz that has been a traditional endemic zone in the past. Factors as weather, human density and human migration elevate the potential transmission risk. In this study, basic information needed for the reactivation of the entomological surveillance in the Veracruz State is provided, presenting the check-list with the illustrated diagnosis of larva, pupa, adult male and female, and taxonomic keys for the identification of species based in all postembryonic developmental stages. The known and potential distribution maps were obtained using GARP. Some bionomic data and the medical importance of the species are also mentioned. There are 18 Anophelinae species in Veracruz, grouped in two genera, Chagasia with one species and Anopheles with 17, pertaining to three subgenera An. (Anopheles), An (Kerteszia) and An. (Nyssorhynchus). According to the plasmodium transmission capability and distribution range, four groups of species are recognized: the high risk group, with 2 species; the median risk or regional risk group, with 8 species; the low risk group, with 3 species and the no risk group with 5 species. Potential malaria vectors are present throughout almost the entire state, so permanent surveillance of the anopheline populations must be reestablished. This study contributes strong elements for the future certification of the Veracruz State as an area free from malaria.

Adriana, Beltrán-Aguilar; Sergio, Ibáñez-Bernal; Fredy, Mendoza-Palmero; César A., Sandoval-Ruiz; Ruth A., Hernández-Xoliot.

2011-12-01

303

Integration of ecological and morphological studies: Micro-distribution of Protaphorura-species (Collembola: Onychiurinae) around a beech stem.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

?eské Bud?jovice : ISB BC AS CR, 2007, s. 117-120. ISBN 978-80-86525-08-2. [Contributions to Soil Zoology in Central Europe II. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /8./. ?eské Bud?jovice (CZ), 20.04.2005-22.04.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6066702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : beech forest * acid stemflow * Collembola Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

Rusek, Josef

304

Campylomorphus homalisinus (Elateridae): a new species for Lombardy (Italy), with notes on its ecology, distribution and biogeography  

OpenAIRE

Campylomorphus homalisinus has been found on Mt. Lesima (Northern Apennines) and it is the first record for the Lombardy region. Campylomorphus homalisinus is a rare orophilous species: it has a discontinuous chorology that may have been caused by glaciers dynamics during the Pleistocene era. Little is known about the ecology of the species. This record and the expert-based investigation we performed determined that Campylomorphus homalisinus inhabits shrublands and grasslands, but m...

Biella, Paolo; Groppali, Riccardo

2014-01-01

305

A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.

Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

2004-12-23

306

PIGMENTATION AND TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS XANTHOMONAS  

Science.gov (United States)

Starr, Mortimer P. (University of California, Davis), and William L. Stephens. Pigmentation and taxonomy of the genus Xanthomonas. J. Bacteriol. 87:293–302. 1964.—The colonies formed by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas are typically yellow in color. This chromogenesis stems from the presence in all yellow xanthomonads of a particular carotenoid pigment. This unique “Xanthomonas-carotenoid,” which has not been found in any yellow nonxanthomonad, is characterized herein to the extent required for its recognition by relatively simple screening procedures. In general, the occurrence of a carotenoid “alcohol” with absorption maxima at 418, 437, and 463 m? (petroleum ether)—in a gram-negative, polarly-flagellated, oxidative, rod-shaped bacterium—would suggest placement of that microorganism in the genus Xanthomonas. PMID:14151047

Starr, Mortimer P.; Stephens, William L.

1964-01-01

307

Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%.

Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema

2006-01-01

308

Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is--that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identification on a common data set of complete genomes: (i) SpeciesFinder, which is based on the complete 16S rRNA gene; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species-specific functional protein domain profiles; and finally (v) KmerFinder, which examines the number of cooccurring k-mers (substrings of k nucleotides in DNA sequence data). The performances of the methods were subsequently evaluated on three data sets of short sequence reads or draft genomes from public databases. In total, the evaluation sets constituted sequence data from more than 11,000 isolates covering 159 genera and 243 species. Our results indicate that methods that sample only chromosomal, core genes have difficulties in distinguishing closely related species which only recently diverged. The KmerFinder method had the overall highest accuracy and correctly identified from 93% to 97% of the isolates in the evaluations sets.

Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore

2014-01-01

309

Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is--that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identification on a common data set of complete genomes: (i) SpeciesFinder, which is based on the complete 16S rRNA gene; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species-specific functional protein domain profiles; and finally (v) KmerFinder, which examines the number of cooccurring k-mers (substrings of k nucleotides in DNA sequence data). The performances of the methods were subsequently evaluated on three data sets of short sequence reads or draft genomes from public databases. In total, the evaluation sets constituted sequence data from more than 11,000 isolates covering 159 genera and 243 species. Our results indicate that methods that sample only chromosomal, core genes have difficulties in distinguishing closely related species which only recently diverged. The KmerFinder method had the overall highest accuracy and correctly identified from 93% to 97% of the isolates in the evaluations sets. PMID:24574292

Larsen, Mette V; Cosentino, Salvatore; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Hasman, Henrik; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Aarestrup, Frank M; Ussery, David W; Lund, Ole

2014-05-01

310

New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.  

OpenAIRE

This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We divide these environme...

Hugues, Olivier; Fuchs, Philippe; Nannipieri, Olivier

2011-01-01

311

Agile Browsing of a Document Collection with Dynamic Taxonomies  

OpenAIRE

Dynamic taxonomies and faceted search are increasingly used to organize and browse document collections. The main function of dynamic taxonomies is to start with the full collection, and zoom-in to a small enough subset of items for direct inspection. In this paper, we present other navigation modes than zoom-in for less directed and more exploratory browsing of a document collection. The presented navigation modes are zoom-out, shift, pivot, and querying by examples. These modes correspond t...

Ferre?, Se?bastien

2008-01-01

312

The Cambrian trilobites of Jordan : taxonomy, systematic and stratigraphic significance  

OpenAIRE

Elicki, O. and Geyer, G. 2013. The Cambrian trilobites of Jordan - taxonomy, systematic and stratigraphic significance. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (1), 1-56. Warszawa. Marine carbonates and siliciclastic rocks of the Burj Formation in Jordan include paucispecific trilobite associations of the (traditional) Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary interval. Comprehensive new material of these trilobites allows a review of their taxonomy and systematic positions as well as a refined morphological descri...

Elicki, Olaf; Geyer, Gerd

2013-01-01

313

Elearning: Coupling Course Management Systems and Dynamic Taxonomies  

OpenAIRE

In elearning environments, with large content bases, dynamic taxonomies are a powerful retrieval system for finding out, through one or more steps, what the user is asking for. But their use also plays an active role in suggesting orthogonal visits to available learning resources by exploiting associations the user would not have thought about. These two roles of dynamic taxonomies are important in finding out what can be of interest both for a teacher using the searching engine to retrieve...

Demo, Giuseppina; Angius, Alessio

2007-01-01

314

Predicting the distribution and ecological niche of unexploited snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) populations in Alaskan waters: a first open-access ensemble model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Populations of the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) are widely distributed on high-latitude continental shelves of the North Pacific and North Atlantic, and represent a valuable resource in both the United States and Canada. In US waters, snow crabs are found throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic seas surrounding Alaska, north of the Aleutian Islands, yet commercial harvest currently focuses on the more southerly population in the Bering Sea. Population dynamics are well-monitored in exploited areas, but few data exist for populations further north where climate trends in the Arctic appear to be affecting species' distributions and community structure on multiple trophic levels. Moreover, increased shipping traffic, as well as fisheries and petroleum resource development, may add additional pressures in northern portions of the range as seasonal ice cover continues to decline. In the face of these pressures, we examined the ecological niche and population distribution of snow crabs in Alaskan waters using a GIS-based spatial modeling approach. We present the first quantitative open-access model predictions of snow-crab distribution, abundance, and biomass in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Multi-variate analysis of environmental drivers of species' distribution and community structure commonly rely on multiple linear regression methods. The spatial modeling approach employed here improves upon linear regression methods in allowing for exploration of nonlinear relationships and interactions between variables. Three machine-learning algorithms were used to evaluate relationships between snow-crab distribution and environmental parameters, including TreeNet, Random Forests, and MARS. An ensemble model was then generated by combining output from these three models to generate consensus predictions for presence-absence, abundance, and biomass of snow crabs. Each algorithm identified a suite of variables most important in predicting snow-crab distribution, including nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations in overlying waters, temperature, salinity, and annual sea-ice cover; this information may be used to develop and test hypotheses regarding the ecology of this species. This is the first such quantitative model for snow crabs, and all GIS-data layers compiled for this project are freely available from the authors, upon request, for public use and improvement. PMID:21873643

Hardy, Sarah M; Lindgren, Michael; Konakanchi, Hanumantharao; Huettmann, Falk

2011-10-01

315

Adapted G-mode Clustering Method applied to Asteroid Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The original G-mode was a clustering method developed by A. I. Gavrishin in the late 60's for geochemical classification of rocks, but was also applied to asteroid photometry, cosmic rays, lunar sample and planetary science spectroscopy data. In this work, we used an adapted version to classify the asteroid photometry from SDSS Moving Objects Catalog. The method works by identifying normal distributions in a multidimensional space of variables. The identification starts by locating a set of points with smallest mutual distance in the sample, which is a problem when data is not planar. Here we present a modified version of the G-mode algorithm, which was previously written in FORTRAN 77, in Python 2.7 and using NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib packages. The NumPy was used for array and matrix manipulation and Matplotlib for plot control. The Scipy had a import role in speeding up G-mode, Scipy.spatial.distance.mahalanobis was chosen as distance estimator and Numpy.histogramdd was applied to find the initial seeds from which clusters are going to evolve. Scipy was also used to quickly produce dendrograms showing the distances among clusters. Finally, results for Asteroids Taxonomy and tests for different sample sizes and implementations are presented.

Hasselmann, Pedro H.; Carvano, Jorge M.; Lazzaro, D.

2013-11-01

316

Systematics and ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, kennel tick, or pan-tropical dog tick, is probably the most widespread ixodid tick, colonising both human and canine dwellings. It is of great significance in both human and veterinary medicine as a vector of several important pathogens and can also cause clinical illness in heavy infestations of dogs. However, there are still significant taxonomic uncertainties, and it is probable that some records of this tick refer to other species. Most past reviews have been broad-ranging or have focused on the pathogens that R. sanguineus transmits, and relatively few have considered its biology in detail or the issues around its true identity. The present review has paid most attention to the taxonomy of R. sanguineus and to the ecological factors that influence tick survival and distribution, particularly in a climate change context. It is evident that more research is required on the systematics of the R. sanguineus species complex, in order to elucidate the epidemiology and prevention of the diseases that it transmits, and to provide the relevant biological data required for development of predictive models of future tick distribution in a climate change scenario. PMID:23415851

Gray, Jeremy; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Levin, Michael

2013-04-01

317

Spatial distribution of trace elements and some aspects of ecological assessment of potential toxicity from Altai ore deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present report results of ecology-biogeochemical estimate of mineral industry areas are presented. Investigations were made in Altai. Test subjects are surface waters, soils and plants. Contaminants are present in waste waters from Altai mineral resource industry. They are divided into three main groups, of which the greatest environmental threat offer heavy metals and to a lesser degree, used chemical agents, oil products, phenols at al. The pollution of draining with macro components is insignificantly. The waste waters of studied enterprises are potential dangerous for environmental including biota

318

The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological factors (e.g. the plant growth) or the economical factors as a simple monetary calculation, but also their mutual influences. Finally, the ecological-economic model enables us to make a risk assessment or evaluate adaptation strategies.

Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

2014-05-01

319

Antibiotics in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ocean is an important sink of land-based pollutants. Previous studies showed that serious antibiotic pollution occurred in the coastal waters, but limited studies focused on their presence in offshore waters. In this study, eleven antibiotics in three different categories were investigated in offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China. The results indicated that three antibiotics dehydration erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim occurred throughout the offshore waters at concentrations of 0.10–16.6 ng L?1 and they decreased exponentially from the rivers to the coastal and offshore waters. The other antibiotics all presented very low detection rates (?1). Although the concentrations were very low, risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that sulfamethoxazole, dehydration erythromycin and clarithromycin at most of sampling sites posed medium or low ecological risks (0.01 ?1. ? Their concentrations decreased exponentially from the rivers to the offshore waters. ? Some antibiotics in the offshore water posed medium or low risks to some organisms. -- Some antibiotics were ubiquitous in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China and posed medium or low ecological risks to some sensitive organisms

320

[Distribution and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments and soils from Ddishui Lake and its water exchange areas].  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-three surface sediment samples were collected from Dishui Lake and its surroundings, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using GC-MS. The distribution characteristics, possible sources and ecological risk were investigated. The results show that the concentrations of total PAHs range between 11.49 ng x g(-1) and 157.09 ng x g(-1) with a mean value of 66.60 ng x g(-1) in sediments from Dishui Lake, which is lower than the mean value in the catchment area but higher than that in the drainage area. Median and high molecular weight PAHs (4 rings, 5-6 rings) are the dominant compounds compared to the low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 rings) in surface sediments and soils from the lake's surroundings, while in Dishui Lake low and high molecular weight PAHs are the dominator. Based on the PAHs molecule ratios, using principal component analysis and multiple line regression, a combustion source is diagnosed in the lake's surroundings, while the mix sources of leakage of petroleum and combustion are found in Dishui Lake. Ecological risk assessment result indicates that PAHs in the sediments and soils in Dishui Lake and its water exchange areas pose little biological adverse impact. PMID:25244853

Guo, Xue; Bi, Chun-Juan; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Wang, Xue-Ping

2014-07-01

321

The genus Scolymus Tourn. ex L. (Asteraceae: taxonomy and distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the genus Scolymus Tourn. ex L. is presented. Seven taxa are recognised, two of them new to science: Scolymus hispanicus subsp. occidentalis F.M. Vázquez, subsp. nov., and S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] i. decoloratus Fiori ex F.M. Vázquez,/ nov.; a new combination, S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] var. aggregatus (Ruch. F.M. Vázquez, comb. & stat. nov., is proposed. The type and full synonymy for each taxon are given. A selection of the specimens studied is presented in Appendix I. Some of the taxa are illustrated in figures.Se presenta una revisión taxonómica del género Scolymus Tourn. ex L., en la que se reconocen siete táxones, dos de ellos nuevos para la ciencia: Scolymus hispanicus subsp. occidentalis F.M. Vázquez, subspnov. ., y S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] f. decoloratus Fiori ex F.M. Vázquez,/ nov.; se propone una combinación a nivel de variedad: S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] var. aggregatus (Ruch. F.M. Vázquez, comb. & stat. nov. Se han revisado todos los sinónimos nomenclaturales y taxonómicos, y se incluye en el Apéndice I un listado de parte del material estudiado. Finalmente, se ilustra mediante figuras una parte de los táxones recogidos en el trabajo.

Vázquez, Francisco M.

2000-06-01

322

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms: Progress report for period 1 January 1987 to 31 December 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We quantified the constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. We completed studies on the thermoregulation of largemouth bass, on the bioenergetics of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, and on the role of temperature dependent sex determination in the extinction of dinosaurs. We also began research to develop the three dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles, to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field, to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and water flux rates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. 60 refs., 9 figs.

Spotila, J.R.; Standora, E.A.

1987-09-01

323

Distribution of uranium, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-21a in the ecological cycle in mountain regions of central Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distributions of U, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the ecological cycle: soil-hay-domestic animals-meat-cheese-milk were investigated. The levels of radioactivity in soil were found to be normal. The highest result found for U in hay was 100 ug/kg. The amount of 226Ra was highest in beef bones, where the contamination reached 190 pCi/kg. The amount of 210Pb in bones never exceeded 30 pCi/kg and in meat, 5 pCi/kg. In most samples 210Po was below the detection level, but one bone sample reached 90 pCi/kg. U, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in milk all vary from 0 - 2.45 pCi/l. Only 210Pb in cheese was as high as 60 pCi/kg, 226Ra, 210Po and U were hardly detectable. (H.K.)

324

Potential of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Mapping Distribution and Evaluating Ecological Characteristics of Tree Species at the Angkor Monument, Cambodia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large trees play several vital roles in the Angkor monuments landscape. They protect biodiversity, enhance the tourism experience, and provide various ecosystem services to local residents. A clear understanding of forest composition and distribution of individual species, as well as timely monitoring of changes, is necessary for conservation of these trees. using traditional field work, obtaining this sort of data is time-consuming and labour-intensive. This research investigates classification of very high resolution remote sensing data as a tool for efficient analyses. QuickBird satellite imagery was used to clarify the tree species community in and around Preah Khan temple, to elucidate differences in ecological traits among the three dominant species (Dipterocarpus alatus, Lagerstroemia calyculata and Tetrameles nudiflora, and to identify crowns of the dominant species.

Tomita Mizuki

2015-01-01

325

Feeding ecology, population structure and distribution of Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer, 1838) and Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) in a temperate estuary, Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

The feeding ecology, growth and spatial-temporal abundance and distribution of Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer, 1838) and Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) were studied between June 2003 and June 2004, based on beam trawl surveys and macrobenthic samples conducted in the Mondego estuary, Portugal. Polychaetes, molluscs and amphipods were the most important items in the diet of P. microps, while for P. minutus the dominant preys were polychaetes, mysids and decapods. Pomatoschistus microps' recruitment lasted for six months and was composed of three new cohorts per year. Pomatoschistus minutus had an uncommon long reproductive season, from April to November, and population segregation was found, corresponding to the two reproductive peaks. Populations of both species were composed mainly of 0-group individuals with sand gobies presenting a more extended life span. In the Mondego estuary, inter- and intra-specific spatial segregation occurred between the two species and between the 0+ and 1+ age groups of P. microps.

Leitão, R.; Martinho, F.; Neto, J. M.; Cabral, H.; Marques, J. C.; Pardal, M. A.

2006-01-01

326

Nuclear and original DNA application in Oryza taxonomy and phylogeny  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conventional taxonomy and phylogeny of germplasm are based on the tedious characterization of morphological variation. The ability to assay DNA variation that underlies morphological variation offers great promise as a convenient alternative for the genetic characterization of germplasm. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to survey DNA variation in 22 species of the genus Oryza. At the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) multigene family, 15 rDNA spacer length (sl) variants were identified using restriction enzyme Sst1 and wheatrDNA unit as probe. Particular sl variants predominated in certain isozyme groups of O. sativa, indicating a potential of sl ploymorphism in varietal classification. The distribution of sl variants supports the origin of O. sativa and O. nivara from O. rufipogon, and that O. spontanea arose from introgressions among O. sativa, O. nivara, and O. rufipogon. The distribution also suggests that the CCgenome, of all the genomes in the Officinalis complex, may be closest to the Sativa complex genomes, and it affirms the genetic position of the Officinalis complex intermediate between the Sativa and Ridleyi complexes. Variation at the Oryza organelle genomes was probed with a maize mitochondrial gene, atpA, a wheat chloroplast inverted repeat segment, p6. Results indicated that the complexes can be differentiated by their mitochondrial genome, but not their chloroplast genome when digested by Sst1 or BamH1. Therefore, the natural DNA variation mH1. Therefore, the natural DNA variation in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes has demonstrated great potential in complementing the conventional basis of taxa classification and phylogeny in the genus Oryza. (Author)

327

Isoprenoid emission in hygrophyte and xerophyte European woody flora: ecological and evolutionary implications.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 23, ?. 3 (2014), s. 334-345. ISSN 1466-822X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Adaptation * chemo- taxonomy * hygrophytes * isoprene * monoterpenes * phylogenies * salicaceae * xerophytes * water stress Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 7.242, year: 2013

Loreto, F.; Bagnoli, F.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Cafasso, D.; De Lillis, M.; Filibeck, G.; Finsechi, S.; Guidolotti, G.; Sramko, G.; Tökölyi, J.; Ricotta, C.

2014-01-01

328

Spatial ecological processes and local factors predict the distribution and abundance of spawning by steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) across a complex riverscape  

Science.gov (United States)

Processes that influence habitat selection in landscapes involve the interaction of habitat composition and configuration and are particularly important for species with complex life cycles. We assessed the relative influence of landscape spatial processes and local habitat characteristics on patterns in the distribution and abundance of spawning steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a threatened salmonid fish, across ~15,000 stream km in the John Day River basin, Oregon, USA. We used hurdle regression and a multi-model information theoretic approach to identify the relative importance of covariates representing key aspects of the steelhead life cycle (e.g., site access, spawning habitat quality, juvenile survival) at two spatial scales: within 2-km long survey reaches (local sites) and ecological neighborhoods (5 km) surrounding the local sites. Based on Akaike’s Information Criterion, models that included covariates describing ecological neighborhoods provided the best description of the distribution and abundance of steelhead spawning given the data. Among these covariates, our representation of offspring survival (growing-season-degree-days, °C) had the strongest effect size (7x) relative to other predictors. Predictive performances of model-averaged composite and neighborhood-only models were better than a site-only model based on both occurrence (percentage of sites correctly classified = 0.80±0.03 SD, 0.78±0.02 vs. 0.62±0.05, respectively) and counts (root mean square error = 3.37, 3.93 vs. 5.57, respectively). The importance of both temperature and stream flow for steelhead spawning suggest this species may be highly sensitive to impacts of land and water uses, and to projected climate impacts in the region and that landscape context, complementation, and connectivity will drive how this species responds to future environments.

Falke, Jeffrey A.; Dunham, Jason B.; Jordan, Christopher E.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Reeves, Gordon H.

2013-01-01

329

Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: the case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy).  

Science.gov (United States)

In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments (Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system. PMID:18234238

Magni, P; De Falco, G; Como, S; Casu, D; Floris, A; Petrov, A N; Castelli, A; Perilli, A

2008-03-01

330

[Vertical distribution pattern and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in a sediment core from Pumoyum Co, Tibet].  

Science.gov (United States)

The sediment core was collected in Pumoyum Co, a lake located in southern Tibetan Plateau, in July 2008. Samples were digested using microwave equipment and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), to determine the content of heavy metals in the sediments. The average concentrations for Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn and Fe were 26.4 ?g x g(-1), 6.64 ?g x g(-1), 16.2 ?g x g(-1), 26.2 ?g x g(-1), 50.2 ?g x g(-1), 0.363 ?g x g(-1), 16.8 ?g x g.(-1), 0.302 mg x g(-1) and 9.84 mg x g(-1) , respectively. The concentrations of analysed metals in Pumoyum Co were slightly higher than those in Antarctic, but lower than those from Dianchi in Yunnan, Daihai in Inner Mongolia, the Great lakes in North America and Taihu in China, which were obviously affected by anthropogenic activities. Overall, these metals in sediments from Pumoyum Co represented a low concentration level. Vertical profiles of heavy metals in the sediment core kept stable without large fluctuation and the concentrations in surface slices were relatively higher. Results of principle component analysis and cluster analysis indicated that organic matter and Mn were affected by surface runoff markedly while other metals were mainly correlated to natural diagenetic weathering and atmospheric deposition. Sediment quality guideline and potential ecological risk index were introduced to assess sediment quality and both of their results indicated that the Pumoyum Co as a whole can be ranked as low potential ecological risk. PMID:25639086

Xie, Ting; Luo, Dong-Xia; Yang, Rui-Qiang

2014-11-01

331

Taxonomy of intelligence software reliability model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The probability of failure free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment is called Reliability, it is one of the attributes of software quality and study about it come back to 1384. Exposition and spreading of new software systems and profound effect of it to human life emphasize the importance of software reliability analysis, until it poses formal definition at 1975. First race of reliability analysis methods that we called classic methods has stochastic process approach and in this way, attempt to predict the software behavior in future. Due to the ambiguity in fruitfulness of these solutions the challenge about reliability analysis continued till now. Great tendency in applying intelligence systems at variety of applications can be seen at 90 decade, and software reliability attracts some research direction to itself. Until now variety of methods in reliability analysis on the base of intelligence systems approach exhibited. In this survey the taxonomy of these methods represented with brief description of each one. Also comparison between these methods can be seen at the end of survey.

Saeed Ahmadluei

2015-02-01

332

Plant taxonomy: a historical perspective, current challenges, and perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxonomy is the science that explores, describes, names, and classifies all organisms. In this introductory chapter, we highlight the major historical steps in the elaboration of this science that provides baseline data for all fields of biology and plays a vital role for society but is also an independent, complex, and sound hypothesis-driven scientific discipline.In a first part, we underline that plant taxonomy is one of the earliest scientific disciplines that emerged thousands of years ago, even before the important contributions of Greeks and Romans (e.g., Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides). In the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, plant taxonomy benefited from the Great Navigations, the invention of the printing press, the creation of botanic gardens, and the use of the drying technique to preserve plant specimens. In parallel with the growing body of morpho-anatomical data, subsequent major steps in the history of plant taxonomy include the emergence of the concept of natural classification, the adoption of the binomial naming system (with the major role of Linnaeus) and other universal rules for the naming of plants, the formulation of the principle of subordination of characters, and the advent of the evolutionary thought. More recently, the cladistic theory (initiated by Hennig) and the rapid advances in DNA technologies allowed to infer phylogenies and to propose true natural, genealogy-based classifications.In a second part, we put the emphasis on the challenges that plant taxonomy faces nowadays. The still very incomplete taxonomic knowledge of the worldwide flora (the so-called taxonomic impediment) is seriously hampering conservation efforts that are especially crucial as biodiversity enters its sixth extinction crisis. It appears mainly due to insufficient funding, lack of taxonomic expertise, and lack of communication and coordination. We then review recent initiatives to overcome these limitations and to anticipate how taxonomy should and could evolve. In particular, the use of molecular data has been era-splitting for taxonomy and may allow an accelerated pace of species discovery. We examine both strengths and limitations of such techniques in comparison to morphology-based investigations, we give broad recommendations on the use of molecular tools for plant taxonomy, and we highlight the need for an integrative taxonomy based on evidence from multiple sources. PMID:24415467

Rouhan, Germinal; Gaudeul, Myriam

2014-01-01

333

The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

Marciulioniene, D.; Jefanova, O.; Mazeika, J. [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lietuva (Lithuania)

2014-07-01

334

The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 137Cs, 60Co, 54Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

335

Historical development and some emendations of dinoflagellate taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The historical development of dinoflagellate taxonomy in China and the world are reviewed, and the taxonomic status of some dinoflagellate groups in Chinese coastal seas are emended. It has been more than 200 years since the discovery of dinoflagellates, but following intensive study, increasing confusion and controversy in dinofalgellate taxonomy has become apparent. In this paper, a broad overview of the history of dinoflagellate taxonomy is presented, highlighting some major developments. Differences exist between the international and Chinese taxonomy system. When comparing the internationally accepted system (based on the information provided by the website algaeBASE with that used in China (based on the monograph Checklist of Marine Biota of China Seas, we found that they were very similar at the order level, but some differences existed at the family and genus levels. According to morphological and some physiological characteristics, a more reasonable taxonomy is presented. The main emendations are: (1 the three genera named Karenia, Karlodinium and Takayama, are separated from the family Gymnodiniaceae and classified as a new family Kareniaceae; (2 most species in the genus Ceratium are placed in Neoceratium; (3 the genus Alexandrium is separated from family Goniodomataceae, and placed in the family Gonyaulacaceae; (4 the family Heteraulacaceae is replaced by the family Goniodomataceae; and (5 two new orders, Oxyrrhinales and Pyrocystales, are established.

Xin Ma

2013-01-01

336

Statistical ecology comes of age.  

Science.gov (United States)

The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

2014-12-01

337

Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments (?8 ?m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were ies, impaired benthic assemblages were found at ?8 ?m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system

338

Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments ({<=}8 {mu}m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at {<=}8 {mu}m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system.

Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; De Falco, G. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Como, S. [International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Casu, D. [Dip. di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Floris, A. [Dip. di Zoologia e Genetica evoluzionistica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Petrov, A.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, 99011 Sevastopol (Ukraine); Castelli, A. [Dip. di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Perilli, A. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)

2008-03-15

339

Distribution and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from four lakes of Heilongjiang Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing concern for the lake environment because polluted sediments may cause ecotoxicological effects. In the current study, persistent organochlorine compounds (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and cyclodienes, were analyzed in core sediments taken from Huoshaohei Lake, Xihulu Lake, Wanghua Lake and Keqin Lake, Heilongjiang Province, China. The total OCPs concentrations ranged from 0.92 to 7.09, 0.15 to 9.95, 0.19 to 1.84 and 0.06 to 3.52 ng/g, respectively. The most dominant pollutants were the HCHs, high proportions of ?-HCH isomer indicating the recent input of lindane. The ratios of ?-HCH/?-HCH of four lakes are all lower than that in technical HCH mixtures indicating that there was input of lindane in the past several years, and the mean ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs are all <0.5, suggesting recent release of DDT compounds. Compared with the corresponding ecological environmental quality guidelines from Ingersoll and base on the model of risk based corrective action environmental health risk assessment, the sediments from the four lakes poses a lower potential hazard to human health and the environment but still should be taken into account. PMID:24420623

Hui, Hongkuan; Zang, Shuying

2014-05-01

340

Treatment taxonomy for rehabilitation: past, present, and prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The idea of constructing a taxonomy of rehabilitation interventions has been around for quite some time, but other than small and mostly ad hoc efforts, not much progress has been made, in spite of articulate pleas by some well-respected clinician scholars. In this article, treatment taxonomies used in health care, and in rehabilitation specifically, are selectively reviewed, with a focus on the need to base a rehabilitation treatment taxonomy (RTT) on the "active ingredients" of treatments and their link to patient/client deficits/problems that are targeted in therapy. This is followed by a description of what we see as a fruitful approach to the development of an RTT that crosses disciplines, settings, and patient diagnoses, and a discussion of the potential uses in and benefits of a well-developed RTT for clinical service, research, education, and service administration. PMID:24370326

Dijkers, Marcel P; Hart, Tessa; Tsaousides, Theodore; Whyte, John; Zanca, Jeanne M

2014-01-01

341

ExploitingWeb Service Semantics Taxonomies vs. Ontologies  

CERN Document Server

Comprehensive semantic descriptions of Web services are essential to exploit them in their full potential, that is, discovering them dynamically, and enabling automated service negotiation, composition and monitoring. The semantic mechanisms currently available in service registries which are based on taxonomies fail to provide the means to achieve this. Although the terms taxonomy and ontology are sometimes used interchangably there is a critical difference. A taxonomy indicates only class/subclass relationship whereas an ontology describes a domain completely. The essential mechanisms that ontology languages provide include their formal specification (which allows them to be queried) and their ability to define properties of classes. Through properties very accurate descriptions of services can be defined and services can be related to other services or resources. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of describing service semantics through ontology languages and describe how to relate the semantics defi...

Dogac, A; Kabak, Y; Cingil, I; Dogac, Asuman; Laleci, Gokce; Kabak, Yildiray; Cingil, Ibrahim

2002-01-01

342

A taxonomy of control in intensified processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Process Intensification (PI) is a revolutionary approach to design, development and implementation of process and plant. PI technology offers improved environment in a chemical process in terms of better products, and processes which are safer, cleaner, smaller - and cheaper. PI is a strategy of making dramatic reductions in the size of unit operations within chemical plants, in order to achieve given production objectives. However, PI technology would be handicapped if such system is not properly controlled. There are some foreseeable problems in order to control such processes for instance, dynamic interaction between components that make up a control loop, response time of the instrumentations, availability of proper sensor and etc. In some cases, in order to control these systems, advanced control solutions have been applied i.e. model predictive controllers (MPC) and its different algorithms such as quadratic generalized predictive control (QGPC) and self tuning quadratic generalized predictive control (STQGPC). Nevertheless in some cases simpler solutions could be applied to control such system for example proportional integral controller in the control of reactive distillation systems. As mentioned, conventional control systems like proportional-integral, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and their different structures can be used in PI systems but due to inherent nonlinearity and fast responsiveness of PI systems, digital controllers-regarding PI systems, digital controllers-regarding to their robustness-are mostly applied in order to control PI systems. Regarding to the fact that choosing the appropriate control strategy is the most essential part of making PI systems possible to be handle easily, taxonomy of the usage of various control structure in controlling PI systems is proposed. This paper offers an overview and discussion on identifying potential problems of instrumentation in PI technology and available control strategies

343

Market Ecology, Pareto Wealth Distribution and Leptokurtic Returns in Microscopic Simulation of the LLS Stock Market Model  

CERN Document Server

The LLS stock market model is a model of heterogeneous quasi-rational investors operating in a complex environment about which they have incomplete information. We review the main features of this model and several of its extensions. We study the effects of investor heterogeneity and show that predation, competition, or symbiosis may occur between different investor populations. The dynamics of the LLS model lead to the empirically observed Pareto wealth distribution. Many properties observed in actual markets appear as natural consequences of the LLS dynamics: truncated Levy distribution of short-term returns, excess volatility, a return autocorrelation "U-shape" pattern, and a positive correlation between volume and absolute returns.

Solomon, S; Solomon, Sorin; Levy, Moshe

2000-01-01

344

Taxonomy and biogeography of Stephanoxis Simon, 1897 (Aves: Trochilidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Após a descrição no século XIX de duas espécies de beija-flores atualmente alocados no gênero Stephanoxis, ambos os táxons foram considerados subespécies por Peters (1945), sem que o autor fornecesse qualquer justificativa para tal decisão taxonômica. Com base em um expressivo número de exemplares n [...] ós reavaliamos a taxonomia e o limite de espécies dos representantes deste gênero, e demonstramos que ambos são mais bem tratados como espécies plenas sob os Conceitos Biológico e Filogenético de Espécie devido aos bem definidos padrões de plumagem e de distribuição geográfica, assim como pela distinta reciprocidade monofilética. Ambos os táxons são separados por cerca de 160 quilômetros entre a Serra do Mar, a leste, e a Serra de Paranapiacaba, a oeste, dentro do Estado de São Paulo. A distribuição das duas espécies de Stephanoxis é congruente com as de outras espécies de aves montanas, o que sugere eventos vicariantes compartilhados durante períodos interglaciais pretéritos. Abstract in english After the description in the 19th century of two hummingbird species currently allocated to the genus Stephanoxis, Peters (1945) merged both taxa into a single species without providing any rationale. Here we re-evaluate the taxonomy and species limits of the representatives of this genus based on a [...] n extensive number of specimens. We demonstrate these taxa are better treated as full species under both the Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts due to their well-defined range and plumage patterns and reciprocally diagnosability. They have distinct, allopatric distributions segregated by a 160 km gap between the Serra do Mar, to the east, and Serra de Paranapiacaba, to the west, in the state of São Paulo. Stephanoxis species have ranges which are congruent with other montane bird species’ suggesting shared vicariance events during preterit interglacial periods.

Vagner, Cavarzere; Luís Fábio, Silveira; Marcelo Ferreira de, Vasconcelos; Rolf, Grantsau; Fernando Costa, Straube.

345

The migration patterns of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) at the southern limit of its distribution range: Ecological implications and fishery management  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to determine the diversity of migration patterns of the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)) present in the Minho estuary and in the adjacent coastal area (NW-Iberian Peninsula). Assessing the diversity of flounder migration patterns at the southern limit of its distribution allows the determination of characteristics of the species' ecology and provides useful information for fishery managers, since it is a regionally important estuarine fishery. An unexpected result of our study was that flounder appears to spawn in both estuarine and coastal areas and not just in coastal areas as was previously widely accepted. Our interpretation of otolith strontium distribution patterns from flounder specimens collected in the freshwater tidal area of the Minho estuary and in the lower estuary suggested that the flounders hatched in the estuary, while only 6.7% of those captured in the coastal area hatched in the coastal area. Ultimately, studies aimed at collecting larval stages and adult flounders must be made to confirm that flounders spawn in the estuary and to define new and better scientifically supported fishing policies, or simply to confirm the existing ones regarding temporal and spatial closures for each gear used in the Minho estuary.

Morais, Pedro; Dias, Ester; Babaluk, John; Antunes, Carlos

2011-02-01

346

Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu).  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs) was 14.46 ± 6.84 ng/L. PFOA was the predominant contaminant (8.62 ± 4.40 ng/L), followed by PFBA (2.04 ± 1.16 ng/L) and PFHxA (1.23 ± 1.50 ng/L). The TPFAAs concentrations peaked in August 2012 in each area, except for the western river. The opposite spatial trends were found for PFOA and PFOS in both the lake and river areas. Except for PFOS and PFUdA, the levels of TPFAAs and PFAAs were significantly related to the composition of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) but not related to total DOM expressed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The risk of PFOS determined by a species sensitivity distribution model was notably above that of PFOA. PMID:25686885

Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Xu, Fu-Liu

2015-05-01

347

Distribution of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the ecological cycle of the central Yugoslavia mountainous region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the animal production cycle was studied. Samples of ground, grass, beef and bones, milk and cheese, taken from the mountainous part of central Yugoslavia, were analysed. The discrimination factors and concentration factors of the examined radionuclides were calculated. (author)

348

Taxonomy, Ontology and Semantics at Johnson Space Center  

Science.gov (United States)

At NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Chief Knowledge Officer has been developing the JSC Taxonomy to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information environment of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seemless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

Berndt, Sarah Ann

2011-01-01

349

A Practitioner's Perspective on Taxonomy, Ontology and Findability  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the presenters perspective on developing a taxonomy for JSC to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday, while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seamless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

Berndt, Sarah

2011-01-01

350

[Distribution of trematodes of the family Prosthogonimidae in river and lake ecological systems in the south of the Western Siberia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of long-term investigations (1994-2003) of an infection rate of trematodes of the family Prosthogonimidae in the first intermediate hosts (snails of the family Bithyniidae) and in the final hosts (birds) from a basin of the Chany Lake (Western Siberia) are discussed. A total of 1824 specimens of Bithynia tentaculata (L., 1758) and 7166 specimens of Opisthorchophorus troscheli (Paasch, 1842) have been collected from eight rivers and two lakes in the south of the Western Siberia. Data of incomplete helminthological dissection of 225 young water-fowl of 18 species were analyzed. Birds were obtained in July, August and September, 1996-2003 from the Chany lake basin. Maritas of the trematode family Prosthogonimidae were revealed in bursa Fabricii (26.12%) of seven bird species of two orders (Anseriformes and Gruiformes): Grey Lag-Goose Anser anser (L.) (Infection rate-28.6% +/- 12.1), Mallard Anas platyrhynchos L. (27.5% +/- 6.2), Shoveler--A. clypeata L. (22.2% +/- 13.9), Pochard Aythya ferina (L.) (51.7% +/- 9.3), Coot Fulica atra L. (28.6% +/- 5.6), Tufted Duck A. fuligula (L.) (1 case), Wigeon A. penelope L. (1 case). Average intensity of invasion is 5.8 marita specimens per infected bird. The maximal number of parasites (37 maritas), and also the highest average intensity of invasion are recorded for the Coot. The 342 maritas of the family Prosthogonimidae belong to three species: Prosthogonimus ovatus (Rud., 1803) (49.7%), P. cuneatus (Rud., 1809) (32.8%) and Schistogonimus rarus (Braun, 1901) (14.6%); these trematode species have been recorded in 35, 12 and 8 bird species, respectively. Grey Lag-Goose, Shoveler, Pochard and Tufted Duck are new host records for P. cuneatus in for Western Siberia. Parthenitae of trematodes (Prosthogonimidae) were revealed from eight populations of bithyniid snails. The infection rate of the trematodes (parthenitae and cercariae) in population of bithyniid snails from lake ecological system varied 6.55-54.4%, and in river ecological systems in was 0.6-4.2 %. The infection rate of trematodes (parthenitae and cercariae) of the first intermediate hosts was 2.64% that is significantly lower than that of the final hosts from the Chany Lake basin. Both O. troscheli and B. tentaculata were noted as the first intermediate hosts of prosthogonimid trematodes of three species: P. ovatus, P. cuneatus and S. rarus. All three species of trematode were found in three water reservoirs: Ob River (B. tentaculata), Kargat River (O. troscheli) and Chany Lake (O. troscheli). Thus it is found out that 39 bird species can be the final hosts of prosthogonimid trematodes. About a quarter of nestlings is infected with these trematodes. The infection rate of parthenitae in snails from the lake ecosystems is significantly higher than in the river ecosystems. PMID:15810558

Serbina, E A

2005-01-01

351

The putative functional ecology and distribution of archaeal communities in sponges, sediment and seawater in a coral reef environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Archaea play crucial roles in a number of key ecological processes including nitrification and methanogenesis. Although several studies have been conducted on these organisms, the roles and dynamics of coral reef archaeal communities are still poorly understood, particularly in host and nonhost biotopes and in high (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. Here, archaeal communities detected in six distinct biotopes, namely, sediment, seawater and four different sponge species Stylissa carteri, Stylissa massa, Xestospongia testudinaria and Hyrtios erectus from the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia were investigated using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes (OTU cut-off 97%). Archaeal communities from sediment and sponges were dominated by Crenarchaeota, while the seawater community was dominated by Euryarchaeota. The biotope explained almost 75% of the variation in archaeal composition, with clear separation between microbial assemblages from sediment, X. testudinaria and H. erectus (HMA). In contrast, samples from seawater and both Stylissa species (LMA) showed considerable overlap in the ordination and, furthermore, shared most abundant OTUs with the exception of a single dominant OTU specifically enriched in both Stylissa species. Predicted functional gene content in archaeal assemblages also revealed significant differences among biotopes. Different ammonia assimilation strategies were exhibited by the archaeal communities: X. testudinaria, H. erectus and sediment archaeal communities were enriched for glutamate dehydrogenase with mixed specificity (NAD(P)(+) ) pathways, while archaeal planktonic communities were enriched for specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP(+) ) and glutamate synthase pathways. Archaeal communities in Stylissa had intermediate levels of enrichment. Our results indicate that archaeal communities in different biotopes have distinct ecophysiological roles. PMID:25438824

Polónia, Ana R M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Freitas, Rossana; de Voogd, Nicole J; Gomes, Newton C M

2015-01-01

352

Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge : using Bloom`s taxonomy to evalute non-professional users` understanding of GI  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reports on and ongoing study concerning non-professional users` understanding of GI. Online access to GI are offered by many public authorities, in order to make the public able to serve them selves online and gain insight in the physical planning and area administration. The aim of this project is to investigate how and how well non-professional users actually understand GI. For that purpose a taxonomy of GI knowledge is built, drawing on Bloom`s taxonomy. The elements of this taxonomy are described after a presentation of the main research question of the study, the applications chosen for the study and the definition of the non-professional user group. Finally considerations are made concerning the difference between this study and a traditional usability study as well as the further implications of the outcome of the study.

Arleth, Mette

2004-01-01

353

What controls the spatial distribution of the North Sea plaice spawning population? Confronting ecological hypotheses through a model selection framework  

OpenAIRE

The spatial dynamics of spawning fish are crucial because they influence the survival rates of eggs and larvae and ultimately impact the reproductive success of populations. The factors that control these dynamics are complex and potentially many, and they interact. A model-selection-based approach was developed to confront various hypotheses of control of the spatial distribution of spawning population of North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). For each hypothesis or combination thereof, s...

Loots, Christophe; Vaz, Sandrine; Planque, Benjamin; Koubbi, Philippe

2010-01-01

354

The geographic distribution and ecological preferences of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), in the U.S.A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Equine piroplasmosis (EP), caused by two parasitic organisms, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, is a tick-borne disease of recent concern in horses in the U.S.A. Outbreaks of EP have been detected in Florida, Missouri, Kansas and Texas. In 2009, EP transmission in Texas occurred through the adults of two tick species, Amblyomma mixtum [formerly known as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787)] Koch (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), the American dog tick (ADT). In this study, we developed a continent-scale map for the distribution of the EP vector species D.?variabilis, using a presence-only modelling approach to assess the habitat preferences of this tick. We used identification records from our tick geodatabase of locations in which the presence of the ADT had been noted. The potential distribution of the ADT in the U.S.A. was estimated from environmental factors using the maximum entropy approach based on localities in which there is a high probability of occurrence according to habitat suitability. Elevation and temperature were found to be biologically significant environmental variables influencing the presence of this tick species. Properly designed and constructed probability surfaces using maximum entropy offer one useful approach to the mapping of distribution ranges of tick species based on suitable habitat in the U.S.A. PMID:25684582

James, A M; Burdett, C; McCool, M J; Fox, A; Riggs, P

2015-06-01

355

Ecological and Geographical Analysis of the Distribution of the Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: Importance of Protected Areas in Future Scenarios of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17%) occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque’s potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48%) of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador. PMID:25798851

Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A.; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J.

2015-01-01

356

Ecological and Geographical Analysis of the Distribution of the Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: Importance of Protected Areas in Future Scenarios of Global Warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17%) occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque's potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48%) of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador. PMID:25798851

Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J

2015-01-01

357

Current and pending taxonomy of the Pasteurellaceae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the family Pasteurellaceae was established in 1981 the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant changes. 16S DNA sequencing showed in the early 1990-ties, that the three original genera were genetically heterogeneous. Presently, the family consists of 13 genetically coherent genera with 38 properly classified species. In addition, there are 24 misclassified species that have been excluded from the genera Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Heamophilus and which probably will be allocated to new genera in the future. At the moment 92 different taxa (named species and provisional taxa) have been described within the family. In the presentation different methods for species delineation will be presented and potential problems discussed in relation to selected examples. It is currently recommended that a new species should be separated from other species by at lest two phenotypic tests. Within genus Mannheimia the separation between M. haemolytica and M. glucosida was based on a polyphasic taxonomic investigation, but there is only one phenotypic character to separate the species and presently no genotypic test. A group of Mannheimia sp. is genetically distinct but lack common phenotypic characters and can consequently not be formally named. Such problems could be solved by establishing genomospecies. Histophilus somni represent a genotypically well defined species but show great phenotypic variability. Here a PCR test based on the rrn-operon was included in the formal species description. [Haemophilus] parasuis show marked variability in the rnn-operons and illustrates that analysis of 16S rDNA sequences can lead to incorrect conclusions in a non-clonal population. The separation between Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and A. lignieresii is not possible based on the rrn-operons alone but the existence of two separate species is evident based on AFLP-genotyping. Although 16S sequencing is a versatile tool for taxonomic investigations, its discriminative power for species delineation is in a number of cases limited. DNA-DNA hybridization is still regarded as a golden standard for separating species but the sequencing of housekeeping genes represents a promising alternative. Whole genome sequencing will probably accelerate as less labour intensive methods are developed and prices go down. Data from these genome sequencing projects will make a more detailed study of the genetic affiliation between strains and species feasible. At the same time the genotypic variation within a species and the description of the “pan-genomes” and “core-genomes” will represent a challenge to our conception of what a species is.

Angen, Øystein Technical University of Denmark,

358

Distribución geográfica y ecológica de 13 especies de hongos silvestres comestibles en Oaxaca / Geographic and ecological distribution of 13 species of wild edible mushrooms in Oaxaca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Oaxaca es uno de los estados más ricos de México, tanto por su diversidad cultural como biológica, por lo que es importante el estudio e inventario de su biota. Sus habitantes poseen una vasta tradición en la recolección y consumo de hongos silvestres; sin embargo, para incluirlos en los programas d [...] e manejo integral de los bosques es necesario conocer sus requerimientos ecológicos y sus características biológicas, así como sus áreas de distribución, lo que implica el mapeo y monitoreo de sus poblaciones silvestres. En este contexto, se planteó sistematizar el conocimiento sobre el hábitat y distribución geográfica de 13 especies de macromicetos comestibles de importancia biológica y socioeconómica asociados a los bosques templados de Oaxaca, mediante el uso de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG), con el fin de generar un mapa de la distribución espacial conocida para dichos taxa, elaborado a partir de información bibliográfica y de herbarios. Las especies recolectadas en una mayor diversidad de ambientes fueron Cantharellus cibarius y Lycoperdon perlatum. A pesar del sesgo generado por la distribución espacial de las recolectas consideradas, ya que estas se concentran en regiones específicas, los SIG son una herramienta útil para determinar la distribución actual de los recursos fúngicos. Abstract in english Oaxaca is one of the riches states in Mexico, both culturally and for its biodiversity, so it is important to study and make an inventory of its biota. Its people have a rich tradition in the collection and/or consumption of various wild mushrooms, but in order to include them in forest management p [...] lans, it is necessary to know their ecological requirements and their biological characteristics as well as its distribution areas, which implies mapping and monitoring their wild populations. Therefore, it is was planned to systematize the knowledge about their habitat, phenology and distribution of 13 species of edible macrofungi of biological and socio-economic importance associated to the temperate forests of Oaxaca, by using GIS to generate a map of known spatial distribution of these species, starting from the information in literature and that that belong to several herbaria. The taxa collected in a wider range of environments were Cantharellus cibarius and Lycoperdon perlatum. Despite the bias generated by the spatial distribution of the analyzed collections, since they are gathered at specific regions, SIGs are a useful tool to determine the present distribution of fungic resources.

Marisela Cristina, Zamora-Martínez; Antonio, González Hernández; Fabián, Islas Gutiérrez; Eunice Nayeli, Cortés Barrera; Luz Iris, López Valdez.

2014-02-01

359

Measuring the Impact of Haptic Feedback Using the SOLO Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of Biggs' and Collis' Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes taxonomy in the evaluation of student learning about cell membrane transport via a computer-based learning environment is described in this study. Pre-test-post-test comparisons of student outcome data (n = 80) were made across two groups of randomly assigned students:…

Minogue, James; Jones, Gail

2009-01-01

360

Memory read faults: taxonomy and automatic test generation  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an innovative algorithm for the automatic generation of March tests. The proposed approach is able to generate an optimal March test for an unconstrained set of memory faults in very low computation time. Moreover, we propose a new complete taxonomy for memory read faults, a class of faults never carefully addressed in the past

Di Carlo, Stefano; Di Natale, Giorgio; Benso, Alfredo; Prinetto, Paolo Ernesto

2001-01-01

361

Comment - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... n entry (The image is displayed in Simple Search.) License ... License ... of the image posted on the icon entry (Thi ... s License ... information is shown at "Image" column in Simple S ...

362

The New Bloom's Taxonomy: Implications for Music Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic programs use objective and standardized assessment criteria. Music education programs have avoided such objective assessments via the assertion of subjectivity and aesthetics in music learning. In this article, the author introduces the revised Bloom's taxonomy as a tool to translate music education outcomes into objective educational…

Hanna, Wendell

2007-01-01

363

The Use of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (TEO) (B. S. Bloom, 1956) in Turkey is reviewed, highlighting curriculum development, teaching and teacher education, and measurement and evaluation of learning. Developments in TEO use in the United States are followed in Turkey with a gap of 5 to 10 years. (SLD)

Oczelik, Durmus Ali; And Others

1993-01-01

364

Aspects of the taxonomy of Aloe arborescens Mill. (Asphodelaceae : Alooideae)  

OpenAIRE

Die taxonomischen Konzepte innerhalb der morphologisch variablen Aloe arborescens Mill. werden diskutiert. Frühere Versuche bezüglich der Taxonomie dieser Art variierten, und abweichendes Material wurde entweder unter Nutzung formeller taxonomischer Kategorien als neue Taxa beschrieben, oder ausgewählte Formen mit gärtnerisch erwünschten Merkmalen wurden als Cultivare behandelt. Wir schlagen vor, dass für diese Art gärtnerisch wichtige taxonomische Einheit...

Smith, G. F.; Klopper, Ronell Renett; Figueiredo, Estrela; Crouch, Neil R.

2012-01-01

365

Taxonomy and biology of proteocephalidean cestodes: current state and perspectives.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 40, ?. 2 (2003), s. 65-75. ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Proteocephalidea * taxonomy * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003

Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.

2003-01-01

366

An Empirical Foundation for a Taxonomy of Humor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reliability of a taxonomy of humor was tested in two studies. The first study involved rater identification of nine categories for humorous incidents excerpted from television comedy programs (wordplay, exaggeration/understatement, contrast, audience knowledge, aggression, emotion, taboo, pratfall/slapstick, and repetition). The second study,…

Froman, Richard L., Jr.

367

Presenile dementia syndromes: an update on taxonomy and diagnosis  

OpenAIRE

The four major degenerative dementias that often begin in presenescence: are reviewed. These are Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Their epidemiological, genetic, and clinical features are reviewed, and controversies in taxonomy arising from recent discoveries described. Particular attention is given to the pathological role of protein aggregation, which appears to be a factor in each disease.

Greicius, M.; Geschwind, M.; Miller, B.

2002-01-01

368

Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Teach Students about Plagiarism  

Science.gov (United States)

Melissa A. Vosen outlines a unit she has designed to help students comprehend the often unclear boundaries and issues surrounding plagiarism. Using Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain, students complete increasingly complex tasks, learning to construct a works cited page and assess scholarly opinions. They also research the consequences of…

Vosen, Melissa A.

2008-01-01

369

PGIS (Project Grant Information System) Taxonomy [Rough Draft].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Project Grant Information System (PGIS) is a computerized information indexing and retrieval system which supports the U.S. Office of Education. Its purpose is to provide OE officials with up-to-date information about the Office's discretionary grant programs and projects. The purpose of the Taxonomy is to provide: (1) those individuals who…

North American Rockwell Information Systems Co., Arlington, VA.

370

Taxonomies, Folksonomies, and Semantics: Establishing Functional Meaning in Navigational Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

This article argues for the establishment of a usability process that incorporates the study of "words" and "word phrases." It demonstrates how semantically mapping a navigational taxonomy can help the developers of digital environments establish a more focused sense of functional meaning for the users of their digital designs.

Bacha, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

371

Molecular phylogenetics reveals extreme morphological homoplasy in Brazilian worm lizards challenging current taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amphisbaenians are fossorial squamate reptiles distributed mainly in South America and Africa. Brazilian worm lizards belong to the family Amphisbaenidae, which has far more recognized species than any of the other five amphisbaenian families. Morphological datasets recovered Amphisbaenidae as paraphyletic, while previous molecular phylogenetic studies did not include enough taxa to solve the generic-level relationships within this family. We present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis based on a sample of 58 amphisbaenians, including representatives of six of the seven South American genera. Our molecular data include sequences from two mitochondrial genes (16S, ND2; 1,184 characters) and three nuclear genes (RAG-1, C-MOS, BDNF; 1,898 characters). Our phylogenetic hypothesis is not fully resolved, although it does not support the monophyly of most genera except Leposternon. Morphological characters currently used to diagnose genera of South American amphisbaenians are homoplastic, and the taxonomy based on them is not appropriate. We revise the taxonomy of this group and sink several South American genera of Amphisbaenidae (Cercolophia, Bronia, Aulura, Anops and Leposternon) into Amphisbaena. PMID:19405188

Mott, Tamí; Vieites, David R

2009-05-01

372

Asteroid taxonomy and the H,G_{12} magnitude system  

Science.gov (United States)

We review the asteroid magnitude systems. The conventionally used H,G system (approved by the IAU in 1985) was recently replaced by the H,G_{12} and H,G_1,G_2 systems (approved by the IAU in 2012). The new phase curves were already applied to a large quantity of photometric data (Oszkiewicz et al, 2011). In particular, absolute magnitudes and slope parameters were computed for about half a million asteroids and are publicly available through the Planetary Research Group (University of Helsinki) websites. Several correlations of the shape of the phase curves with asteroid physical parameters were also explored. In general, the steepness of a phase curve relates to the physical properties of an asteroid's surface such as for example composition, porosity, packing density, roughness, and grain size distribution. However, most of those cannot be studied with the currently available data. Some conclusions regarding links to albedo and taxonomy can still be made. First, the G_1 and G_2 parameters correlate with albedo. Generally, the higher the albedo the lower and higher are the G_1 and G_2 parameters, respectively. Second, the G_{12} parameter distributions for the different asteroid taxonomic complexes are statistically different. For example, the C-complex asteroids tend to have high G_{12}'s, S-complex asteroids low G_{12}'s, and objects from the X-complex lean towards average values (Oszkiewicz et al. 2012). Additionally, asteroid families with a few exceptions show homogeneity of the G_{12} parameter (Figure). This is yet another confirmation of homogeneity of asteroid families and therefore the overall tendency to retain the same physical properties across family members. We study the usability of the G_{12} parameter in topics such as breaking the X-complex degeneracy and taxonomical classification. In particular, we combine the G_{12}'s with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data (Oszkiewicz et al. 2014) to investigate the predictability of taxonomic complexes.

Oszkiewicz, D.; Bowell, E.; Wasserman, L.; Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.

2014-07-01

373

A philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one's moral knowledge about what one ought to do. We begin by unpacking the philosophical components of Andrew Jameton's original formulation from his landmark 1984 work and identify two key respects in which that formulation remains unclear: the origins of moral knowledge and impediments to acting on that moral knowledge. We then selectively review subsequent literature that shows that there is more than one concept of moral distress and that explores the origin of the values implicated in moral distress and impediments to acting on those values. This review sets the stage for identifying the elements of a philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress. The taxonomy uses these elements to create six categories of ethically significant moral distress: challenges to, threats to, and violations of professional integrity; and challenges to, threats to, and violations of individual integrity. We close with suggestions about how the proposed philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress sheds light on the concepts of moral residue and crescendo effect of moral distress and how the proposed taxonomy might usefully guide prevention of and future qualitative and quantitative empirical research on ethically significant moral distress. PMID:25503608

Thomas, Tessy A; McCullough, Laurence B

2015-02-01

374

Fish pathogens near the Arctic Circle: molecular, morphological and ecological evidence for unexpected diversity of Diplostomum (Digenea: diplostomidae) in Iceland.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 44, ?. 10 (2014), s. 703-715. ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP505/10/1562; GA ?R GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Integrative taxonomy * Fish pathogens * Diplostomum * coxl * ITS * Sub-Arctic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.404, year: 2013

Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Skirnisson, K.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

2014-01-01

375

Lyme disease ecology in Wisconsin: distribution and host preferences of Ixodes dammini, and prevalence of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lyme disease recently has been recognized in Wisconsin. Trapping studies were conducted at four geographically separate and ecologically distinct regions in Wisconsin to elucidate the distribution and host preferences of Ixodes dammini on small and medium sized mammals, and the occurrence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in these wild mammals. Peak I. dammini larval activity occurred from June-September. Nymphs were most active from May-August. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were important hosts for immature ticks. Mean numbers of I. dammini per mouse were highest in regions of high prevalence of Lyme disease. Antibody to B. burgdorferi was detected in sera of 60/371 (16%) white-footed mice, 5/104 (5%) chipmunks, 3/5 (60%) gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), 0/8 raccoons (procyon lotor), and 0/12 opossum (Didelphis virginiana); antibody prevalence correlated positively with I. dammini occurrence, and seropositive animals were not detected in areas where I. dammini were not found. Two of 15 recaptured P. leucopus had greater than or equal to 4-fold changes in antibody titer. B. burgdorferi was cultured from blood of a P. leucopus captured in west-central Wisconsin, and was observed by direct immunofluorescence in 9/23 (39%) I. dammini nymphs. In Wisconsin, I. dammini has increased in numbers and has significantly expanded its range since its first recognition in 1968. PMID:3605501

Godsey, M S; Amundson, T E; Burgess, E C; Schell, W; Davis, J P; Kaslow, R; Edelman, R

1987-07-01

376

Amphibians in Southern Apennine: distribution, ecology and conservation notes in the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (Southern Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.

Egidio Fulco

2012-12-01

377

Spatial-temporal distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of nonylphenol and octylphenol in riverine outlets of Pearl River Delta, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aquatic environments of the Pearl River Delta in Southern China are subjected to contamination with various industrial chemicals from local industries. In this paper, the occurrence, seasonal variation and spatial distribution of alkylphenol octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP) in river surface water and sediments in the runoff outlets of the Pearl River Delta were investigated. NP and OP were detected in all water and sediment samples and their mean concentrations in surface water during the dry season ranged from 810 to 3366 ng/L and 85.5 to 581 ng/L, respectively, and those in sediments ranged from 14.2 to 95.2 ng/g dw and 0.4 to 3.0 ng/g dw, respectively. In surface water, much higher concentrations were detected in the dry season than those in the wet season. In sediments, the concentrations in the dry season were also mostly higher. High concentrations of NP and OP were found in Humen outlet, likely due to high levels of domestic and industrial wastewater discharges. An ecological risk assessment with the use of hazard quotient (HQ) was also carried out and the HQ values ranged from 3.6×10(-5) to 35 and 64% of samples gave a HQ>1, indicating that the current levels of NP and OP pose a significant risk to the relevant aquatic organisms in the region. PMID:25458690

Chen, Ru; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Yu, Qiming; Hong, Aihua; Duan, Shunshan

2014-11-01

378

Larval stages of the deep-sea lobster Polycheles typhlops (Decapoda, Polychelida) identified by DNA analysis: morphology, systematic, distribution and ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 25 specimens of Eryoneicus larvae were collected near the Balearic Archipelago (Western Mediterranean Sea) in 2009 and 2010. Detailed morphological examination indicated that the smallest individual corresponded with the first zoea (ZI) stage of Polycheles typhlops hatched from a berried female by Guerao and Abelló (J Nat Hist 30(8):1179-1184, 1996). Only two species of deep-sea polychelid lobster, namely P. typhlops and Stereomastis sculpta, are known to occur in the Mediterranean. Genetic distance comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and Cox I genes of this early larva together with adults from several Polycheles and Stereomastis species allowed us to assign it to P. typhlops. This is the first wild-caught larval stage of a polychelid lobster being identified using molecular techniques. The remaining specimens were attributed to zoeal stages II-III and decapodid stage based on morphological comparison. The arrangement of spines along the anterior part of the middorsal line (R, 1, 1, 1, 2, C1), characteristic of the former species E. puritanii, discriminates these larvae from other Eryoneicus found in the Mediterranean. The clear presence of epipods on the third maxilliped and pereiopods of the decapodid stage gives further support to the identification of E. puritanii as the larval stages of P. typhlops. Additionally, information on the ecology of these larvae, their abundances during different seasons, as well as their bathymetric distribution is reported.

Torres, Asvin P.; Palero, Ferran; Dos Santos, Antonina; Abelló, Pere; Blanco, Edurne; Boné, Alexandra; Guerao, Guillermo

2014-09-01

379

Ecology of sepia offcinalis  

OpenAIRE

This article comprises an up-dated review of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the interactions between the species and the main variables of the environment in which it lives and its trophic, demographic and behavioural ecology.

Guerra, A?ngel

2006-01-01

380

Ecological economics  

OpenAIRE

Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

Marti?nez Alier, Joan

2001-01-01

381

Ecological distribution and bioavailability of uranium series radionuclides in terrestrial food chains: Key Lake uranium operations, northern Saskatchewan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine radionuclide uptake within the terrestrial ecosystem at uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan. The study site was the Key Lake mine, chosen because it has been an operational mine, mill, and surface tailings area for 15 years and will continue to be an active ore-milling and tailings disposal area for the next 40 years. The focus of the study was on the small mammal food chains in black spruce bogs nearest to the Key Lake facilities, since bog habitats tend to absorb and accumulate radionuclides. Three study sites were chosen on the basis of their proximity to sources of radioactive dust and the presence of bog habitats. Interconnected terrestrial ecosystem components were sampled at the same time at each site. Samples of needles, twigs, ground cover, litter, soils, small mammals, and birds were analyzed for the four radionuclides of greatest concern in the uranium decay series. Radiation doses were calculated to small mammals and birds, food chain transfer parameters were determined to enable future modelling of environmental pathways, and a variety of atmospheric dust collectors were pilot tested to examine the rates of radionuclide deposition from facility emissions to local environments. Four sets of conclusions are discussed regarding: radionuclide distribution within habitats and among sites; the radionuclides responsible for animal doses; the relative bioavailability of radionuclides among sites; and the mty of radionuclides among sites; and the measurement of atmospheric deposition rates

382

Distribution and ecology of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting livestock in Tunisia: an overview of eighth years field collections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks (Ixodidae) play a significant role as vectors of pathogens of domestic animals in Tunisia. The major losses caused by ticks are related to transmission of protozoan parasites. These include agents of tropical theileriosis and babesiosis in ruminants. Since 1991, we conducted research studies on tick population of livestock in Tunisia. This overview reports a synthesis on tick distribution, their biology and their role as vectors of pathogens in domestic animals, particularly cattle. During the whole period of the study about 15,000 tick specimens were collected from different zones of the country. A total of 14 species were identified. Hyalomma detritum detritum was the most abundant and important (vector of Theileria annulata) species infesting cattle. Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma impeltatum were collected on domestic ruminants in the arid and desertic zones. Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum were widespread and found on livestock hosts. Ixodes ricinus, vector of Babesia divergens and Borrelia burgdorferi sl, colonises mainly the humid zone. Boophilus annulatus and Rhipicephalus bursa infesting cattle, sheep and goats were found in the sub-humid and semi-arid zones. Haemaphysalis sulcata and Hae. punctata were collected in humid and sub-humid zones on cattle and sheep. Rhipicephalus turanicus were collected in different regions, on different animal species. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, tick of dogs, were often collected on livestock. Only few specimens of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Hyalomma franchinii were collected. PMID:11071534

Bouattour, A; Darghouth, M A; Daoud, A

1999-09-01

383

A Note on Extending Taylor's Power Law for Characterizing Human Microbial Communities: Inspiration from Comparative Studies on the Distribution Patterns of Insects and Galaxies, and as a Case Study for Medical Ecology  

OpenAIRE

Many natural patterns, such as the distributions of blood particles in a blood sample, proteins on cell surfaces, biological populations in their habitat, galaxies in the universe, the sequence of human genes, and the fitness in evolutionary computing, have been found to follow power law. Taylor's power law (Taylor 1961: Nature, 189:732-) is well recognized as one of the fundamental models in population ecology. A fundamental property of biological populations, which Taylor'...

Ma, Zhanshan Sam

2012-01-01

384

Where to nest? Ecological determinants of chimpanzee nest abundance and distribution at the habitat and tree species scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conversion of forests to anthropogenic land-uses increasingly subjects chimpanzee populations to habitat changes and concomitant alterations in the plant resources available to them for nesting and feeding. Based on nest count surveys conducted during the dry season, we investigated nest tree species selection and the effect of vegetation attributes on nest abundance of the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau, a forest-savannah mosaic widely disturbed by humans. Further, we assessed patterns of nest height distribution to determine support for the anti-predator hypothesis. A zero-altered generalized linear mixed model showed that nest abundance was negatively related to floristic diversity (exponential form of the Shannon index) and positively with the availability of smaller-sized trees, reflecting characteristics of dense-canopy forest. A positive correlation between nest abundance and floristic richness (number of plant species) and composition indicated that species-rich open habitats are also important in nest site selection. Restricting this analysis to feeding trees, nest abundance was again positively associated with the availability of smaller-sized trees, further supporting the preference for nesting in food tree species from dense forest. Nest tree species selection was non-random, and oil palms were used at a much lower proportion (10%) than previously reported from other study sites in forest-savannah mosaics. While this study suggests that human disturbance may underlie the exclusive arboreal nesting at LCNP, better quantitative data are needed to determine to what extent the construction of elevated nests is in fact a response to predators able to climb trees. Given the importance of LCNP as refuge for Pan t. verus our findings can improve conservation decisions for the management of this important umbrella species as well as its remaining suitable habitats. Am. J. Primatol. 77:186-199, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25224379

Carvalho, Joana S; Meyer, Christoph F J; Vicente, Luis; Marques, Tiago A

2015-02-01

385

Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk assessment of multiple classes of UV filters in surface waters from different countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic UV filters are common ingredients of personal care products (PCPs), but little is known about their distribution in and potential impacts to the marine environment. This study reports the occurrence and risk assessment of twelve widely used organic UV filters in surface water collected in eight cities in four countries (China, the United States, Japan, and Thailand) and the North American Arctic. The number of compounds detected, Hong Kong (12), Tokyo (9), Bangkok (9), New York (8), Los Angeles (8), Arctic (6), Shantou (5) and Chaozhou (5), generally increased with population density. Median concentrations of all detectable UV filters were <250 ng/L. The presence of these compounds in the Arctic is likely due to a combination of inadequate wastewater treatment and long-range oceanic transport. Principal component analysis (PCA) and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to explore spatiotemporal patterns and difference in organic UV filter levels in Hong Kong. In general, spatial patterns varied with sampling month and all compounds showed higher concentrations in the wet season except benzophenone-4 (BP-4). Probabilistic risk assessment showed that 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) posed greater risk to algae, while benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) were more likely to pose a risk to fishes and also posed high risk of bleaching in hard corals in aquatic recreational areas in Hong Kong. This study is the first to report the occurrence of organic UV filters in the Arctic and provides a wider assessment of their potential negative impacts in the marine environment. PMID:25261628

Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Wai, Tak-Cheung; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Liu, Wenhua; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

2014-12-15

386

Ecology of the ciguatera causing dinoflagellates from the Northern Great Barrier Reef: changes in community distribution and coastal eutrophication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is known to be caused by the ciguatoxins from the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus, however, there is the potential for other toxins such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins from the genus Prorocentrum, and palytoxin from the genus Ostreopsis, to contaminate seafood. These genera may also be indicators of ecosystem health and potentially impact on coral reef ecosystems and the role they may play in the succession of coral to macroalgae dominated reefs has not been researched. Sixteen GBR field sites spanning inshore, mid-lagoon and outer lagoon (offshore) regions were studied. Samples were collected from September 2006 to December 2007 and abundance of benthic dinoflagellates on different host macroalgae and concentration of nutrients present in the water column were determined. The maximum abundance of Prorocentrum, Ostreopsis and Gambierdiscus found was 112, 793 and 50 cells per gram wet weight of host macroalgae, respectively. The average level of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) in the water column across all sites (0.03 mg/L) was found to be more than double the threshold critical value (0.013 mg/L) for healthy coral reefs. Compared to a previous study 1984, there is evidence of a major shift in the distribution and abundance of these dinoflagellates. Inshore reefs have either of Prorocentrum (as at Green Island) or Ostreopsis (as at Magnetic Island) dominating the macroalgal surface niche which was once dominated by Gambierdiscus, whilst at offshore regions Gambierdiscus is still dominant. This succession may be linked to the ongoing eutrophication of the GBR lagoon and have consequences for the sources of toxins for ongoing cases of ciguatera. PMID:24210944

Skinner, Mark P; Lewis, Richard J; Morton, Steve

2013-12-15

387

Tetraploid wheat landraces in the Mediterranean basin: taxonomy, evolution and genetic diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The geographic distribution of genetic diversity and the population structure of tetraploid wheat landraces in the Mediterranean basin has received relatively little attention. This is complicated by the lack of consensus concerning the taxonomy of tetraploid wheats and by unresolved questions regarding the domestication and spread of naked wheats. These knowledge gaps hinder crop diversity conservation efforts and plant breeding programmes. We investigated genetic diversity and population structure in tetraploid wheats (wild emmer, emmer, rivet and durum) using nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeats, functional variations and insertion site-based polymorphisms. Emmer and wild emmer constitute a genetically distinct population from durum and rivet, the latter seeming to share a common gene pool. Our population structure and genetic diversity data suggest a dynamic history of introduction and extinction of genotypes in the Mediterranean fields. PMID:22615891

Oliveira, Hugo R; Campana, Michael G; Jones, Huw; Hunt, Harriet V; Leigh, Fiona; Redhouse, David I; Lister, Diane L; Jones, Martin K

2012-01-01

388

A Taxonomy of Object-Oriented Measures Modeling the Object-Oriented Space  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to control the quality of software and the software development process, it is important to understand the measurement of software. A first step toward a better comprehension of software measurement is the categorization of software measures by some meaningful taxonomy. The most worthwhile taxonomy would capture the fundamental nature of the object-oriented (O-O) space. The principal characteristics of object-oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. This paper introduces a taxonomy of measures based upon fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature. This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps or redundancies in the existing O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with measures taken from the literature.

Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

1997-01-01

389

A Taxonomy of Object-Oriented Measures Modeling the Object Oriented Space  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to control the quality of software and the software development process, it is important to understand the measurement of software. A first step toward a better comprehension of software measurement is the categorization of software measures by some meaningful taxonomy. The most worthwhile taxonomy would capture the fundamental nature of the object-oriented (O-O) space. The principal characteristics of object-oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. This paper introduces a taxonomy of measures based upon fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature. This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps or redundancies in the existing O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with measures taken from the literature.

Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

1997-01-01

390

Distribution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of toxic heavy metals and metalloid in surface water of lakes in Daqing Heilongjiang Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is necessary to estimate heavy metal concentrations and risk in surface water for understanding the heavy metal contaminations and for sustainable protection of ecosystems and human health. To investigate the anthropogenic contribution of heavy metal accumulation surrounding an industrial city in China, the concentrations of six heavy metals, including mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) were examined; from four different regions of Daqing in autumn 2011 and winter 2012. The results showed heavy metals distributed in the industrial area at concentrations relatively higher than those in other three areas, while concentrations in the farming area and the protected area were lower. The heavy metal concentrations of water bodies in all areas, except those for Hg and As, Cu, Pb and Cr were lower than the cutoff values for the Class I water quality that was set as the highest standard to protect the national nature reserves. While Hg and As of lakes in industry region had a higher level than those in the agriculture and landscape water, the lowest allowed. The concentrations of all the heavy metals in winter were higher than in the autumn. Cu had a higher ecological risks level to freshwater organisms. The discharge of urban sewage and industrial wastewater might be a major pollutant source, thus these sources should identified before remediation efforts. Efforts are needed to protect the lakes from pollution and also to reduce environmental health risks. This study and the valuable data will pave the way for future research on these Lakes in Daqing. PMID:24420619

Wang, Xiaodi; Zang, Shuying

2014-05-01

391

Evaluating the bases of supplier segmentation : A review and taxonomy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A taxonomy of segmentation bases is presented which builds a multi-disciplinary approach to the categorization of suppliers. Supplier segmentation, from a purchasing perspective, still appears to be in the early stages of providing a coherent strategic intent behind supplier assessment. Whilst fragmentary in nature, current portfolio models are grouped into two principal taxonomic constructs of power and dependence and relational factors. In particular, the prevalent use of transaction cost economics (TCE) in portfolio modelling provides a foundation for purchasers to appraise risks from supplier opportunism. We augment existing approaches with reference to inter-organisational theory and the resource-based view to show different modes of inter-firm value creation that act as constituents of a strategic intent for segmentation. Our resulting taxonomy draws together a holistic view of supplier segmentation covering supply market conditions, product/service characteristics, supplier characteristics, buyer characteristics, and buyer-supplier relational factors.

Day, Marc; Magnan, Gregory M.

2010-01-01

392

Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

JenniferMahony

2014-01-01

393

NASA Taxonomies for Searching Problem Reports and FMEAs  

Science.gov (United States)

Many types of hazard and risk analyses are used during the life cycle of complex systems, including Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis, Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Reliability Analysis and analysis of Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) databases. The success of these methods depends on the availability of input data and the analysts knowledge. Standard nomenclature can increase the reusability of hazard, risk and problem data. When nomenclature in the source texts is not standard, taxonomies with mapping words (sets of rough synonyms) can be combined with semantic search to identify items and tag them with metadata based on a rich standard nomenclature. Semantic search uses word meanings in the context of parsed phrases to find matches. The NASA taxonomies provide the word meanings. Spacecraft taxonomies and ontologies (generalization hierarchies with attributes and relationships, based on terms meanings) are being developed for types of subsystems, functions, entities, hazards and failures. The ontologies are broad and general, covering hardware, software and human systems. Semantic search of Space Station texts was used to validate and extend the taxonomies. The taxonomies have also been used to extract system connectivity (interaction) models and functions from requirements text. Now the Reconciler semantic search tool and the taxonomies are being applied to improve search in the Space Shuttle PRACA database, to discover recurring patterns of failure. Usual methods of string search and keyword search fall short because the entries are terse and have numerous shortcuts (irregular abbreviations, nonstandard acronyms, cryptic codes) and modifier words cannot be used in sentence context to refine the search. The limited and fixed FMEA categories associated with the entries do not make the fine distinctions needed in the search. The approach assigns PRACA report titles to problem classes in the taxonomy. Each ontology class includes mapping words - near-synonyms naming different manifestations of that problem class. The mapping words for Problems, Entities and Functions are converted to a canonical form plus any of a small set of modifier words (e.g. non-uniformity NOT + UNIFORM.) The report titles are parsed as sentences if possible, or treated as a flat sequence of word tokens if parsing fails. When canonical forms in the title match mapping words, the PRACA entry is associated with the corresponding Problem, Entity or Function in the ontology. The user can search for types of failures associated with types of equipment, clustering by type of problem (e.g., all bearings found with problems of being uneven: rough, irregular, gritty ). The results could also be used for tagging PRACA report entries with rich metadata. This approach could also be applied to searching and tagging failure modes, failure effects and mitigations in FMEAs. In the pilot work, parsing 52K+ truncated titles (the test cases that were available), has resulted in identification of both a type of equipment and type of problem in about 75% of the cases. The results are displayed in a manner analogous to Google search results. The effort has also led to the enrichment of the taxonomy, adding some new categories and many new mapping words. Further work would make enhancements that have been identified for improving the clustering and further reducing the false alarm rate. (In searching for recurring problems, good clustering is more important than reducing false alarms). Searching complete PRACA reports should lead to immediate improvement.

Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.

2006-01-01

394

Integrative Taxonomy and Molecular Phylogeny of Genus Aplysina (Demospongiae: Verongida) from Mexican Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrative taxonomy provides a major approximation to species delimitation based on integration of different perspectives (e.g. morphology, biochemistry and DNA sequences). The aim of this study was to assess the relationships and boundaries among Eastern Pacific Aplysina species using morphological, biochemical and molecular data. For this, a collection of sponges of the genus Aplysina from the Mexican Pacific was studied on the basis of their morphological, chemical (chitin composition), and molecular markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear ribosomal rDNA: ITS1-5.8-ITS2). Three morphological species were identified, two of which are new to science. A. clathrata sp. nov. is a yellow to yellow-reddish or -brownish sponge, characterized by external clathrate-like morphology; A. revillagigedi sp. nov. is a lemon yellow to green, cushion-shaped sometimes lobate sponge, characterized by conspicuous oscules, which are slightly elevated and usually linearly distributed on rims; and A. gerardogreeni a known species distributed along the Mexican Pacific coast. Chitin was identified as the main structural component within skeletons of the three species using FTIR, confirming that it is shared among Verongida sponges. Morphological differences were confirmed by DNA sequences from nuclear ITS1-5.8-ITS2. Mitochondrial COI sequences showed extremely low but diagnostic variability for Aplysina revillagigedi sp. nov., thus our results corroborate that COI has limited power for DNA-barcoding of sponges and should be complemented with other markers (e.g. rDNA). Phylogenetic analyses of Aplysina sequences from the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean, resolved two allopatric and reciprocally monophyletic groups for each region. Eastern Pacific species were grouped in general accordance with the taxonomic hypothesis based on morphological characters. An identification key of Eastern Pacific Aplysina species is presented. Our results constitute one of the first approximations to integrative taxonomy, phylogeny and evolutionary biogeography of Eastern Pacific marine sponges; an approach that will significantly contribute to our better understanding of their diversity and evolutionary history. PMID:22912682

Cruz-Barraza, José Antonio; Carballo, José Luis; Rocha-Olivares, Axayacatl; Ehrlich, Hermann; Hog, Martin

2012-01-01

395

Quality control for terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Ontologies and taxonomies are among the most important computational resources for molecular biology and bioinformatics. A series of recent papers has shown that the Gene Ontology (GO), the most prominent taxonomic resource in these fields, is marked by flaws of certain characteristic types, which flow from a failure to address basic ontological principles. As yet, no methods have been proposed which would allow ontology curators to pinpoint flawed terms or definitions in ...

Rüegg Alexander; Munn Katherine; Köhler Jacob; Skusa Andre; Smith Barry

2006-01-01

396

Aconitum in Central Europe: from Linnaean taxonomy to molecular markers  

OpenAIRE

A role of the Linnaean taxonomy in the arising of historical-biogeographical hypotheses is envisioned. The first example concerns the presumed hybrid origin of an Eastern-Sudetic endemic Aconium plicatum subsp. sudeticum. It was described on the basis of a unique character set including glandular hairiness of the indumentum. A PCR-RAPD+ISSR fingerpriting confirmed the supposition based on the morphological analysis. The second example is dealt with the marginal populations. They are of speci...

Józef Mitka

2012-01-01

397

Idiom Taxonomies and Idiom Comprehension: Implications for English Teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Idioms are an important part of a language, as they are used to express ideas in a more concise and effective way. Idioms have a considerable role in a foreign language as in the mother tongue. Therefore, their learning and teaching in L2 are worthy of attention and research. This paper intends to define idioms, introduce their different taxonomies, discuss L2 idiom processing and comprehension, and use the information to endow English teachers with some pedagogical implications.

Noorolhoda Saberian

2012-01-01

398

Learning Taxonomy for Text Segmentation by Formal Concept Analysis  

CERN Document Server

In this paper the problems of deriving a taxonomy from a text and concept-oriented text segmentation are approached. Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) method is applied to solve both of these linguistic problems. The proposed segmentation method offers a conceptual view for text segmentation, using a context-driven clustering of sentences. The Concept-oriented Clustering Segmentation algorithm (COCS) is based on k-means linear clustering of the sentences. Experimental results obtained using COCS algorithm are presented.

Lupea, Mihaiela; Marian, Zsuzsana

2010-01-01

399

Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) material culture: implications on taxonomy  

OpenAIRE

In this paper it is suggested a review of the current taxonomy of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Based on the material culture, and others factors, such as genetic information, it is argued the inclusion in the genus Homo. There are several references concerning the use of tools by chimpanzees, which all together show that, after man, they exhibit the biggest repertory of tools. The use of tools is not innate, it is learned and socially transmitted between generations. Not all chimpanze...

Campanacho, Vanessa

2008-01-01

400

A taxonomy of podcasts and its application to higher education  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we address the uses of podcasts in higher education. We propose a taxonomy of podcasts based on literature review and in our experience as creators and users of podcasts in our courses. We describe the results obtained within a study that is being conducted at University of Minho, in Portugal, focusing on the use of podcasts and their implications for learning in higher education. The project involves 6 lecturers from different scientific domains – Education, Humanities, Soci...

Carvalho, Ana Ame?lia Amorim; Aguiar, Cristina; Maciel, Romana

2009-01-01

401

Taxonomy and Antifungal Susceptibility of Clinically Important Rasamsonia Species  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, Geosmithia argillacea has been increasingly reported in humans and animals and can be considered an emerging pathogen. The taxonomy of Geosmithia was recently studied, and Geosmithia argillacea and related species were transferred to the new genus Rasamsonia. The diversity among a set of Rasamsonia argillacea strains, including 28 clinical strains, was studied, and antifungal susceptibility profiles were generated. Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogeneti...

Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.; Bertout, S.; Frisvad, J. C.; Meis, J. F.; Bouchara, J. P.; Samson, R. A.

2013-01-01

402

Research into the development of a knowledge acquisition taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of the research was on the development of a problem solving taxonomy that can support and direct the knowledge engineering process during the development of an intelligent tutoring system. The results of the research are necessarily general. Being only a small initial attempt at a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology, the process has had to be bootstrapped and the results can only provide pointers to further, more formal research designs.

Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy

1991-01-01

403

Strategies in taxonomy: research in a changing world. Report of an e-conference  

OpenAIRE

This EPBRS e-conference on “Strategies for Taxonomy: Research in a Changing World” focused on identifying the key research questions allowing taxonomy to address policy needs in a better way and, vice versa, allowing policy makers to get responses from taxonomists on specific subjects related to the use of taxonomic knowledge. Taxonomy, as a collectively assembled ‘Body of Knowledge’ formally started with the work of Linnaeus, is the most comprehensive and reliable sour...

2009-01-01

404

Puppets, robots, critics, and actors within a taxonomy of attention for developmental disorders  

OpenAIRE

This review proposes a new taxonomy of automatic and controlled attention. The taxonomy distinguishes among the role of the attendee (puppet and robot, critic and actor), the attention process (stimulus orienting vs. response control), and the attention operation (activation vs. inhibition vs. adjustment), and identifies cognitive phenotypes by which attention is overtly expressed. We apply the taxonomy to four childhood attention disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, spina bif...

Dennis, Maureen; Sinopoli, Katia J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Schachar, Russell

2008-01-01

405

Ecological distribution and niche segregation of sibling species: the case of bean beetles, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say and A. obvelatus Bridwell  

OpenAIRE

1. Molecular techniques have greatly added to the number of known sympatric cryptic species in insects. Ecological differences between these newly distinguished species are little explored, but niches often appear to overlap strongly. These cases are good models for exploring new ideas about species coexistence and community structure. 2. Acanthoscelides obtectus and A. obvelatus are two sister species of bean bruchids, which have been confused until the last decade. One important ecological...

Alvarez, Nadir; Mercier, Le?ny; Hossaert-mckey, Martine; Contreras-gardun?o, Jorge; Kunstler Georges; Aebi, Alexandre; Benrey, Betty

2007-01-01

406

TOWARDS A FACETED TAXONOMY TO STRUCTURE WEBGENRE CORPORA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of cyberjournalistic documents by proposing a taxonomy to structure web-genre corpora. It takes into account the peculiarities of this field, the new genres, their hybridization and complexness. In this sense, the taxonomy presented in this paper does not match a single theoretical framework, but it tries to gather the guidelines of various works intended to study online journalism and its genres. This theoretical flexibility is needed to set up a proposal good enough to suit the current needs of the area. The paper also describes the main axes of the taxonomy, defines its communication unit and remarks the values and limitations of such a work. Its result is a highly structured and document-oriented database, a tool that will enable users to understand the current trends, to create new hybrids, and to detect the changes that happen within this field that is widening the horizons of the usage of language.

Joseba Ezeiza Ramos

2011-10-01

407

A taxonomy for mechanical ventilation: 10 fundamental maxims.  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Association for Respiratory Care has declared a benchmark for competency in mechanical ventilation that includes the ability to "apply to practice all ventilation modes currently available on all invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilators." This level of competency presupposes the ability to identify, classify, compare, and contrast all modes of ventilation. Unfortunately, current educational paradigms do not supply the tools to achieve such goals. To fill this gap, we expand and refine a previously described taxonomy for classifying modes of ventilation and explain how it can be understood in terms of 10 fundamental constructs of ventilator technology: (1) defining a breath, (2) defining an assisted breath, (3) specifying the means of assisting breaths based on control variables specified by the equation of motion, (4) classifying breaths in terms of how inspiration is started and stopped, (5) identifying ventilator-initiated versus patient-initiated start and stop events, (6) defining spontaneous and mandatory breaths, (7) defining breath sequences (8), combining control variables and breath sequences into ventilatory patterns, (9) describing targeting schemes, and (10) constructing a formal taxonomy for modes of ventilation composed of control variable, breath sequence, and targeting schemes. Having established the theoretical basis of the taxonomy, we demonstrate a step-by-step procedure to classify any mode on any mechanical ventilator. PMID:25118309

Chatburn, Robert L; El-Khatib, Mohamad; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo

2014-11-01

408

Quality control for terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontologies and taxonomies are among the most important computational resources for molecular biology and bioinformatics. A series of recent papers has shown that the Gene Ontology (GO, the most prominent taxonomic resource in these fields, is marked by flaws of certain characteristic types, which flow from a failure to address basic ontological principles. As yet, no methods have been proposed which would allow ontology curators to pinpoint flawed terms or definitions in ontologies in a systematic way. Results We present computational methods that automatically identify terms and definitions which are defined in a circular or unintelligible way. We further demonstrate the potential of these methods by applying them to isolate a subset of 6001 problematic GO terms. By automatically aligning GO with other ontologies and taxonomies we were able to propose alternative synonyms and definitions for some of these problematic terms. This allows us to demonstrate that these other resources do not contain definitions superior to those supplied by GO. Conclusion Our methods provide reliable indications of the quality of terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies. Further, they are well suited to assist ontology curators in drawing their attention to those terms that are ill-defined. We have further shown the limitations of ontology mapping and alignment in assisting ontology curators in rectifying problems, thus pointing to the need for manual curation.

Rüegg Alexander

2006-04-01

409

A Taxonomy for a Constructive Approach to Software Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many software design and evaluation techniques, either the software evolution problem is not systematically elaborated, or only the impact of evolution is considered. Thus, most of the time software is changed by editing the components of the software system, i.e. breaking down the software system. The software engineering discipline provides many mechanisms that allow evolution without breaking down the system; however, the contexts where these mechanisms are applicable are not taken into account. Furthermore, the software design and evaluation techniques do not support identifying these contexts. In this paper, we provide a taxonomy of software evolution that can be used to identify the context of the evolution problem. The identified contexts are used to retrieve, from the software engineering discipline, the mechanisms, which can evolve the software software without breaking it down. To build such a taxonomy, we build a model for software evolution and use this model to identify the factors that effect the selection of software evolution mechanisms. Our approach is based on solution sets, however; the contents of these sets may vary at different stages of the software life-cycle. To address this problem, we introduce perspectives; that are filters to select relevant elements from a solution set. We apply our taxonomy to a parser tool to show how it coped with problematic evolution problems.

Selim Ciraci

2007-08-01

410

Thermophilic fungi in the new age of fungal taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophilic fungi are of wide interest due to their potential to produce heat-tolerant enzymes for biotechnological processes. However, the taxonomy of such organisms remains obscure, especially given new developments in the nomenclature of fungi. Here, we examine the taxonomy of the thermophilic fungi most commonly used in industry in light of the recent taxonomic changes following the adoption of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants and also based on the movement One Fungus = One Name. Despite the widespread use of these fungi in applied research, several thermotolerant fungi still remain classified as thermophiles. Furthermore, we found that while some thermophilic fungi have had their genomes sequenced, many taxa still do not have barcode sequences of reference strains available in public databases. This lack of basic information is a limiting factor for the species identification of thermophilic fungi and for metagenomic studies in this field. Based on next-generation sequencing, such studies generate large amounts of data, which may reveal new species of thermophilic fungi in different substrates (composting systems, geothermal areas, piles of plant material). As discussed in this study, there are intrinsic problems associated with this method, considering the actual state of the taxonomy of thermophilic fungi. To overcome such difficulties, the taxonomic classification of this group should move towards standardizing the commonly used species names in industry and to assess the possibility of including new systems for describing species based on environmental sequences. PMID:25399310

de Oliveira, Tássio Brito; Gomes, Eleni; Rodrigues, Andre

2015-01-01

411

A taxonomy of dignity: a grounded theory study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper has its origins in Jonathan Mann's insight that the experience of dignity may explain the reciprocal relationships between health and human rights. It follows his call for a taxonomy of dignity: "a coherent vocabulary and framework to characterize dignity." Methods Grounded theory procedures were use to analyze literature pertaining to dignity and to conduct and analyze 64 semi-structured interviews with persons marginalized by their health or social status, individuals who provide health or social services to these populations, and people working in the field of health and human rights. Results The taxonomy presented identifies two main forms of dignity–human dignity and social dignity–and describes several elements of these forms, including the social processes that violate or promote them, the conditions under which such violations and promotions occur, the objects of violation and promotion, and the consequences of dignity violation. Together, these forms and elements point to a theory of dignity as a quality of individuals and collectives that is constituted through interaction and interpretation and structured by conditions pertaining to actors, relationships, settings, and the broader social order. Conclusion The taxonomy has several implications for work in health and human rights. It suggests a map to possible points of intervention and provides a language in which to talk about dignity.

Jacobson Nora

2009-02-01

412

A New Similarity measure for taxonomy based on edge counting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces a new similarity measure based on edge counting in a taxonomy like WorldNet orOntology. Measurement of similarity between text segments or concepts is very useful for manyapplications like information retrieval, ontology matching, text mining, and question answering and so on.Several measures have been developed for measuring similarity between two concepts: out of these we seethat the measure given by Wu and Palmer [1] is simple, and gives good performance. Our measure isbased on their measure but strengthens it. Wu and Palmer [1] measure has a disadvantage that it does notconsider how far the concepts are semantically. In our measure we include the shortest path between theconcepts and the depth of whole taxonomy together with the distances used in Wu and Palmer [1]. Also themeasure has following disadvantage i.e. in some situations, the similarity of two elements of an IS-Aontology contained in the neighbourhood exceeds the similarity value of two elements contained in thesame hierarchy. Our measure introduces a penalization factor for this case based upon shortest lengthbetween the concepts and depth of whole taxonomy.

Manjula Shenoy.K

2012-11-01

413

Scientific teaching: defining a taxonomy of observable practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past several decades, numerous reports have been published advocating for changes to undergraduate science education. These national calls inspired the formation of the National Academies Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology (SI), a group of regional workshops to help faculty members learn and implement interactive teaching methods. The SI curriculum promotes a pedagogical framework called Scientific Teaching (ST), which aims to bring the vitality of modern research into the classroom by engaging students in the scientific discovery process and using student data to inform the ongoing development of teaching methods. With the spread of ST, the need emerges to systematically define its components in order to establish a common description for education researchers and practitioners. We describe the development of a taxonomy detailing ST's core elements and provide data from classroom observations and faculty surveys in support of its applicability within undergraduate science courses. The final taxonomy consists of 15 pedagogical goals and 37 supporting practices, specifying observable behaviors, artifacts, and features associated with ST. This taxonomy will support future educational efforts by providing a framework for researchers studying the processes and outcomes of ST-based course transformations as well as a concise guide for faculty members developing classes. PMID:25713097

Couch, Brian A; Brown, Tanya L; Schelpat, Tyler J; Graham, Mark J; Knight, Jennifer K

2015-03-01

414

Revealing the Autonomous System Taxonomy: The Machine Learning Approach  

CERN Document Server

Although the Internet AS-level topology has been extensively studied over the past few years, little is known about the details of the AS taxonomy. An AS "node" can represent a wide variety of organizations, e.g., large ISP, or small private business, university, with vastly different network characteristics, external connectivity patterns, network growth tendenc