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Taxonomy of the spring dwelling amphipod Synurella ambulans (Crustacea: Crangonyctidae in West Russia: with notes on its distribution and ecology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study deals with taxonomic problems of the semi-subterranean crangonyctid amphipod Synurella ambulans (F. Müller, 1846, well-known from various freshwater habitats in Europe. The taxonomy of the species S. ambulans and the generic diagnosis for the genus Synurella are revised. A new synonymy is proposed: Synurella ambulans (F. Müller, 1846 = Synurella ambulans meschtscherica Borutzky, 1929, syn. nov. The affinity with the related groups, distribution and ecology of the species are examined.

Dmitry Palatov

2012-09-01

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Commiphora oddurensis Chiov. and C. suffruticosa Teshome (Burseraceae): : taxonomy, distribution, ecology and conservation status.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On field trips to southeastern Ethiopia in 2012 the authors collected a semi-prostrate shrub of the genus Commiphora and matching the taxon named “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” in the Flora of Ethiopia (1989). In the Flora of Somalia (1999) “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” was considered a synonym of Commiphora oddurensis Chiov. However, in 2006 “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” was described as a distinct species endemic to southeastern Ethiopia and named Commiphora suffruticosa Teshome. Although validly published, that scientific name has not been included in international data bases. After field observations and examination of almost all existing material in herbaria, it is concluded that the two taxa are best treated as subspecies, with some overlap in certain characters and a population of specimens in Central Somalia intermediate in leaf morphology: Commiphora oddurensis subsp. oddurensis, widely distributed in northeastern Kenya and northeastern and central Somalia, and subsp. suffruticosa, restricted to southeastern Ethiopia and adjacent parts of Southern Somalia. Apart from discussions and formal taxonomy, the paper includes new information on habit and habitat, distribution maps and conservation status, as well as photographs of living plants of C. oddurensis subsp. suffruticosa.

Demissew, Sebsebe; Friis, Ib

2013-01-01

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Marine ecology service reuse through taxonomy-oriented SPL development  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, reusing software applications encourages researchers and industrials to collaborate in order to increase software quality and to reduce software development costs. However, effective reuse is not easy and only a limited portion of reusable models actually offers effective evidence regarding their appropriateness, usability and/or effectiveness. Focusing reuse on a particular domain, such as marine ecology, allows us to narrow the scope; and along with a systematic approach such as software product line development, helps us to potentially improving reuse. From our experiences developing a subdomain-oriented software product line (SPL for the marine ecology subdomain), in this paper we describe semantic resources created for assisting this development and thus promoting systematic software reuse. The main contributions of our work are focused on the definition of a standard conceptual model for marine ecology applications together with a set of services and guides which assist the process of product derivation. The services are structured in a service taxonomy (as a specialization of the ISO 19119 std) in which we create a new set of categories and services built over a conceptual model for marine ecology applications. We also define and exemplify a set of guides for composing the services of the taxonomy in order to fulfill different functionalities of particular systems in the subdomain.

Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Pol'la, Matias; Arias, Maximiliano; del Socorro Doldan, Maria; Morsan, Enrique

2014-12-01

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Modern Grid Initiative Distribution Taxonomy Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the final report for the development of a toxonomy of prototypical electrical distribution feeders. Two of the primary goals of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Modern Grid Initiative (MGI) are 'to accelerate the modernization of our nation's electricity grid' and to 'support demonstrations of systems of key technologies that can serve as the foundation for an integrated, modern power grid'. A key component to the realization of these goals is the effective implementation of new, as well as existing, 'smart grid technologies'. Possibly the largest barrier that has been identified in the deployment of smart grid technologies is the inability to evaluate how their deployment will affect the electricity infrastructure, both locally and on a regional scale. The inability to evaluate the impacts of these technologies is primarily due to the lack of detailed electrical distribution feeder information. While detailed distribution feeder information does reside with the various distribution utilities, there is no central repository of information that can be openly accessed. The role of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the MGI for FY08 was to collect distribution feeder models, in the SynerGEE{reg_sign} format, from electric utilities around the nation so that they could be analyzed to identify regional differences in feeder design and operation. Based on this analysis PNNL developed a taxonomy of 24 prototypical feeder models in the GridLAB-D simulations environment that contain the fundamental characteristics of non-urban core, radial distribution feeders from the various regions of the U.S. Weighting factors for these feeders are also presented so that they can be used to generate a representative sample for various regions within the United States. The final product presented in this report is a toolset that enables the evaluation of new smart grid technologies, with the ability to aggregate their effects to regional and national levels. The distribution feeder models presented in this report are based on actual utility models but do not contain any proprietary or system specific information. As a result, the models discussed in this report can be openly distributed to industry, academia, or any interested entity, in order to facilitate the ability to evaluate smart grid technologies.

Schneider, Kevin P.; Chen, Yousu; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Engel, David W.; Thompson, Sandra E.

2008-11-01

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Query processing in distributed, taxonomy-based information sources  

CERN Document Server

We address the problem of answering queries over a distributed information system, storing objects indexed by terms organized in a taxonomy. The taxonomy consists of subsumption relationships between negation-free DNF formulas on terms and negation-free conjunctions of terms. In the first part of the paper, we consider the centralized case, deriving a hypergraph-based algorithm that is efficient in data complexity. In the second part of the paper, we consider the distributed case, presenting alternative ways implementing the centralized algorithm. These ways descend from two basic criteria: direct vs. query re-writing evaluation, and centralized vs. distributed data or taxonomy allocation. Combinations of these criteria allow to cover a wide spectrum of architectures, ranging from client-server to peer-to-peer. We evaluate the performance of the various architectures by simulation on a network with O(10^4) nodes, and derive final results. An extensive review of the relevant literature is finally included.

Meghini, Carlo; Coltella, Veronica; Analyti, Anastasia

2011-01-01

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The relationships between the isoelectric point and: length of proteins, taxonomy and ecology of organisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of isoelectric point (pI of proteins in a proteome is universal for all organisms. It is bimodal dividing the proteome into two sets of acidic and basic proteins. Different species however have different abundance of acidic and basic proteins that may be correlated with taxonomy, subcellular localization, ecological niche of organisms and proteome size. Results We have analysed 1784 proteomes encoded by chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, and also mitochondria, plastids, prokaryotic plasmids, phages and viruses. We have found significant correlation in more than 95% of proteomes between the protein length and pI in proteomes – positive for acidic proteins and negative for the basic ones. Plastids, viruses and plasmids encode more basic proteomes while chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, mitochondria and phages more acidic ones. Mitochondrial proteomes of Viridiplantae, Protista and Fungi are more basic than Metazoa. It results from the presence of basic proteins in the former proteomes and their absence from the latter ones and is related with reduction of metazoan genomes. Significant correlation was found between the pI bias of proteomes encoded by prokaryotic chromosomes and proteomes encoded by plasmids but there is no correlation between eukaryotic nuclear-coded proteomes and proteomes encoded by organelles. Detailed analyses of prokaryotic proteomes showed significant relationships between pI distribution and habitat, relation to the host cell and salinity of the environment, but no significant correlation with oxygen and temperature requirements. The salinity is positively correlated with acidicity of proteomes. Host-associated organisms and especially intracellular species have more basic proteomes than free-living ones. The higher rate of mutations accumulation in the intracellular parasites and endosymbionts is responsible for the basicity of their tiny proteomes that explains the observed positive correlation between the decrease of genome size and the increase of basicity of proteomes. The results indicate that even conserved proteins subjected to strong selectional constraints follow the global trend in the pI distribution. Conclusion The distribution of pI of proteins in proteomes shows clear relationships with length of proteins, subcellular localization, taxonomy and ecology of organisms. The distribution is also strongly affected by mutational pressure especially in intracellular organisms.

Smolarczyk Kamila

2007-06-01

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Numerical taxonomy and ecology of petroleum-degrading bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 99 strains of petroleum-degrading bacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment were identified by using numerical taxonomy procedures. The isolates, together with 33 reference cultures, were examined for 48 biochemical, cultural, morphological, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by computer, using both the simple matching and the Jaccard coefficients. Clustering was achieved by the unweighted average linkage method. From the sorted similarity matrix and dendrogram, 14 phenetic groups, comprising 85 of the petroleum-degrading bacteria, were defined at the 80 to 85% similarity level. These groups were identified as actinomycetes (mycelial forms, four clusters), coryneforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella aerogenes, Micrococcus spp. (two clusters), Nocardia species (two clusters), Pseudomonas spp. (two clusters), and Sphaerotilus natans. It is concluded that the degradation of petroleum is accomplished by a diverse range of bacterial taxa, some of which were isolated only at given sampling stations and, more specifically, from sediment collected at a given station.

Austin, B.; Calomiris, J.J.; Walker, J.D.; Colwell, R.R.

1977-07-01

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A Taxonomy of Data Grids for Distributed Data Sharing, Management and Processing  

CERN Document Server

Data Grids have been adopted as the platform for scientific communities that need to share, access, transport, process and manage large data collections distributed worldwide. They combine high-end computing technologies with high-performance networking and wide-area storage management techniques. In this paper, we discuss the key concepts behind Data Grids and compare them with other data sharing and distribution paradigms such as content delivery networks, peer-to-peer networks and distributed databases. We then provide comprehensive taxonomies that cover various aspects of architecture, data transportation, data replication and resource allocation and scheduling. Finally, we map the proposed taxonomy to various Data Grid systems not only to validate the taxonomy but also to identify areas for future exploration. Through this taxonomy, we aim to categorise existing systems to better understand their goals and their methodology. This would help evaluate their applicability for solving similar problems. This ...

Venugopal, S; Ramamohanarao, K; Venugopal, Srikumar; Buyya, Rajkumar; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

2005-01-01

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Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the dog : taxonomy, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology and pathogenicity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the species, including the latest research outcomes, with emphasis on taxonomy, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology and pathogenicity. Despite the important taxonomic changes that have occurred over the past few years, the risk of misidentification in canine specimens is low and does not have serious consequences for clinical practice. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage in the dog is more frequent and genetically heterogeneous compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus in man. It appears that these staphylococcal species have evolved separately through adaptation to their respective natural hosts and differ with regard to various aspects concerning ecology, population structure and evolution of antibiotic resistance.Further understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of S. pseudintermedius is hampered by the lack of a standard method for rapid and discriminatory typing and by the limited data available on longitudinal carriage and population structure of meticillin-susceptible strains. With regard to pathogenicity, it is only now that we are starting to explore the virulence potential of S. pseudintermedius based on genomic and proteomic approaches, and more research is needed to assess the importance of individual virulence factors and the possible existence of hypervirulent strains.

Bannoehr, Jeanette; Guardabassi, Luca

2012-01-01

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[Distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in the Sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of a microgastropod identified as Potamopyrgus sp. was detected previously in the Maracaibo System; nevertheless, a detailed morphological analysis identified this snail in other genera. The objective of this work is to update the distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis in the Maracaibo System, Venezuela in samples obtained between 2001 and 2009. The presence of hundreds of individuals of P. platyrachis were observed in the estuary, indeed in the localities of the Gran Eneal lagoon (4 111 snails), Peonías lagoon (229 snails), Punta Capitán Chico (758 snails), San Francisco (2 517 snails), Curarire (240 snails), Apon River mouth (173 snails), Ojeda City (240 snails), Bachaquero (128 snails) and Tomoporo de Agua (385 snails). We performed a taxonomical analysis, and emphasized in ecological aspects, such as the distribution of the species and habitat features, as near vegetation and type of associated sediment. We found three morphotypes of the species, one smooth, another with spiral striations and the other with spines. Smooth morphotype was exclusive of the Gran Eneal lagoon, Peonías lagoon, Punta Capitan Chico and Apon River mouth localities, whereas the other two morphotypes were found together in the remaining localities. According to our detailed anatomical and taxonomical analysis we propose a synonymy between P. platyrachis and the other species described like Pyrgophorus parvulus and Pyrgophorus spinosus. PMID:22017122

Nava, Mario; Severeyn, Héctor; Machado, Nakary

2011-09-01

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Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species / Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram realizadas coletas em 207 corpos de água, distribuídos em 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos (UHGRH) do estado de São Paulo no período de 1999 a 2002, abrangendo grandes e pequenos reservatórios, lagoas marginais e grandes rios. Nestas coletas foram analisadas as espécies do gên [...] ero Thermocyclops quanto à taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e freqüência de ocorrência. O gênero Thermocyclops ocorreu em corpos de água com zona limnética bem desenvolvida e com raras exceções em ambientes estritamente litorâneos. Foram registradas quatro espécies, sendo Thermcyclops iguapensis espécie nova, que ocorreu nos reservatórios das UHGRHs Ribeira do Iguape e Paraíba do Sul. A descrição da espécie nova e a distribuição das quatro espécies são apresentadas, mostrando que Thermocyclops decipiens foi a espécie mais freqüente, ocorrendo em 71% dos corpos de água com região limnética desenvolvida. Esta espécie é característica de ambientes eutróficos, onde ocorre em grande número, e a espécie Thermocyclops minutus é característica de ambientes oligotróficos. Thermocyclops inversus e Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. não são espécies freqüentes, mas podem co-ocorrer com a espécie Thermocyclops decipiens. Abstract in english The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits [...] mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.

W. M., Silva; T., Matsumura-Tundisi.

2005-08-01

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A new taxonomy for distributed computer systems based upon operating system structure  

Science.gov (United States)

Characteristics of the resource structure found in the operating system are considered as a mechanism for classifying distributed computer systems. Since the operating system resources, themselves, are too diversified to provide a consistent classification, the structure upon which resources are built and shared are examined. The location and control character of this indivisibility provides the taxonomy for separating uniprocessors, computer networks, network computers (fully distributed processing systems or decentralized computers) and algorithm and/or data control multiprocessors. The taxonomy is important because it divides machines into a classification that is relevant or important to the client and not the hardware architect. It also defines the character of the kernel O/S structure needed for future computer systems. What constitutes an operating system for a fully distributed processor is discussed in detail.

Foudriat, E. C.

1985-01-01

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Taxonomy and distribution pattern of the African rain forest butterfly genus Euphaedra Hübner sensu stricto with the description of three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer) and one of E. sarcoptera (Butler) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae, Adoliadini).  

Science.gov (United States)

Updated data on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer) and Euphaedra sarcoptera (Butler) are presented. Three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa and one of Euphaedra sarcoptera are described and their geographic distribution is presented. The monophyly of the genus Euphaedra sensu Hecq is assessed based on morphological, in particular male and female genitalia, and behavioural traits. Possible evolutionary reasons for the convergence of colour pattern between the sympatric subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa and Euphaedra sarcoptera are discussed. PMID:23794883

Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Warren-Gash, Haydon; Lorenc-Brudecka, Jadwiga; Dieuwko Knoop; Oremans, Philippe; Sáfián, Szabolcs

2013-01-01

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Biogeochemical and craniometric investigation of dietary ecology, niche separation, and taxonomy of Plio-Pleistocene cercopithecoids from the Makapansgat Limeworks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three sympatric fossil cercopithecoid genera (Cercopithecoides, Parapapio, and Theropithecus) occur in Members 3 and 4 at the Makapansgat Limeworks hominin locality, South Africa, and their presence in a single ecosystem suggest a certain degree of ecological and/or dietary differentiation between taxa. Here, we explore the extent of dietary niche separation amongst these taxa using stable isotope (13C/12C, 18O/16O) and trace-element (Sr, Ba, Ca) analyses of fossil tooth enamel. In particular we searched for evidence of subtle niche separation between the more closely related, morphologically similar taxa of the genus Parapapio, as uncertainties exist around their taxonomy and taxonomic identification. Given these uncertainties, craniometric analyses were also performed to ground the dietary interpretations in a morphological context. The results found no clear taxonomic signal in the craniometric data for the Parapapio sample, and further indicate that this sample was no more variable morphologically than a single, geographically circumscribed, extant chacma baboon sample. In contrast, two overlapping dietary ecologies were found within this same Makapansgat Parapapio sample. Additionally, two widely differing dietary ecologies were found within the Cercopithecoides williamsi sample, while results for Theropithecus darti indicate a predominantly C4 diet. Hence, although biogeochemical dietary indicators point towards distinct dietary ecologies within and between fossil genera at Makapansgat, within the genus Parapapio disjunctions exist between the dietary categories and the taxonomic assignment of specimens. PMID:17941102

Fourie, Nicolaas H; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers

2008-02-01

15

[Research perspectives and achievements in taxonomy and distribution of bats in China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese chiropterologists have made significant improvements into research on bat taxonomy and distribution. Overall, scholars recorded 6 new species of bats, alongside 11 species recorded species in the Chinese Mainland and 4 new bat species of Murina in Taiwan. Chinese chiropterologists intensively cooperated with the international experts on bats, and adopted several new, multidisciplinary methods to carry out their studies. Likewise, in China, an increased awareness of bat conservation has been growing. While publications on Chiroptera are continuing to increase increased in China, the methodology of these studies remains to be further developed in hopes of revealing the new and cryptic bat species. Considering the vast territory of China and the migrational habit of bats, we expect that with more refined methodology, more new species of bats and their distributions may be uncovered in the near future. Concurrently, it is important to reexamine the known species by the new taxonomic methods and fauna analysis through which the distribution and subdivision of bats can be updated. Additionally, an international platform for exchanging information of bats needs to be established to enhance the academic cooperation for bat researches. It is highly possible that China will soon become an important research center on taxonomy, distribution, phylogenetics and diversity evolution of Chiroptera, especially as Chinese researchers continues create new knowledge for bats at the ?, ? and ? taxonomic levels. PMID:24415704

Liu, Zhi-Xiao; Zhang, You-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Biao

2013-12-01

16

A survey and taxonomy of distributed certificate authorities in mobile ad hoc networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Certificate authorities (CAs are the main components of PKI that enable us for providing basic security services in wired networks and Internet. But, we cannot use centralized CAs, in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. So, many efforts have been made to adapt CA to the special characteristics of MANETs and new concepts such as distributed CAs (DCAs have been proposed that distribute the functionality of CA between MANET nodes. In this article, we study various proposed DCA schemes for MANET and then classify these schemes according to their internal structures and techniques. Finally, we propose the characteristics of an ideal DCA system that can be used to verify the completeness of any DCA scheme. This classification and taxonomy identify the weakness and constraints of each scheme, and are very important for designing more secure, scalable, and high performance DCA systems for MANETs and other networks.

Jabbehdari Sam

2011-01-01

17

The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presented. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América do Sul. Os espécimes e registros de Oxyrhopus da Guyana foram examinados. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis e O. petola ocorre na Guyana. Os dados de morfologia e coloração destas espécies são apresentados. As distribuições destas espécies e caracteres para distinguir essas espécies são discutidos.

Ross D. MacCulloch

2009-01-01

18

The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae) in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América do Sul. Os espécimes e registros de Oxyrhopus da Guyana foram examinados. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis e O. petola ocorre na Guyana. Os dados de morfologia e coloração destas espécies são apr [...] esentados. As distribuições destas espécies e caracteres para distinguir essas espécies são discutidos. Abstract in english Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presen [...] ted. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.

Ross D., MacCulloch; Amy, Lathrop; Philippe J. R., Kok; Raffael, Ernst; Michelle, Kalamandeen.

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The necessity of DNA taxonomy to reveal cryptic diversity and spatial distribution of meiofauna, with a focus on Nemertea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meiofauna represent one of the most abundant and diverse communities in marine benthic ecosystems. However, an accurate assessment of diversity at the level of species has been and remains challenging for these microscopic organisms. Therefore, for many taxa, especially the soft body forms such as nemerteans, which often lack clear diagnostic morphological traits, DNA taxonomy is an effective means to assess species diversity. Morphological taxonomy of Nemertea is well documented as complicated by scarcity of unambiguous character states and compromised by diagnoses of a majority of species (and higher clades) being inadequate or based on ambiguous characters and character states. Therefore, recent studies have advocated for the primacy of molecular tools to solve the taxonomy of this group. DNA taxonomy uncovers possible hidden cryptic species, provides a coherent means to systematize taxa in definite clades, and also reveals possible biogeographic patterns. Here, we analyze diversity of nemertean species by considering the barcode region of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and different species delineation approaches in order to infer evolutionarily significant units. In the aim to uncover actual diversity of meiofaunal nemerteans across different sites in Central America, COI sequences were obtained for specimens assigned here to the genera Cephalothrix, Ototyphlonemertes, and Tetrastemma-like worms, each commonly encountered in our sampling. Additional genetic, taxonomic, and geographic data of other specimens belonging to these genera were added from GenBank. Results are consistent across different DNA taxonomy approaches, and revealed (i) the presence of several hidden cryptic species and (ii) numerous potential misidentifications due to traditional taxonomy. (iii) We additionally test a possible biogeographic pattern of taxonomic units revealed by this study, and, except for a few cases, the putative species seem not to be widely distributed, in contrast to what traditional taxonomy would suggest for the recognized morphotypes. PMID:25093815

Leasi, Francesca; Norenburg, Jon L

2014-01-01

20

Beetles (Coleoptera) of Curonian Spit National park: taxonomy, fauna and ecology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of faunistical and ecological research on beetles (Coleoptera) of Curonian Spit were presented in this work. A species composition of different habitats: Baltic sea coastal area and the foredune ridge,wooded dunes, humid dune slacks, white and grey dunes and Curonian lagoons was established on the basis of research. The greatest species diversity was established in humid dune slacks (234 species), the lowest species diversity was established eudominant, dominant, subdominant and a...

Ferenca, Romas

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

On the taxonomy of optimization problems under estimation of distribution algorithms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the relationship between a search algorithm and the space of problems is a fundamental issue in the optimization field. In this paper, we lay the foundations to elaborate taxonomies of problems under estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs). By using an infinite population model and assuming that the selection operator is based on the rank of the solutions, we group optimization problems according to the behavior of the EDA. Throughout the definition of an equivalence relation between functions it is possible to partition the space of problems in equivalence classes in which the algorithm has the same behavior. We show that only the probabilistic model is able to generate different partitions of the set of possible problems and hence, it predetermines the number of different behaviors that the algorithm can exhibit. As a natural consequence of our definitions, all the objective functions are in the same equivalence class when the algorithm does not impose restrictions to the probabilistic model. The taxonomy of problems, which is also valid for finite populations, is studied in depth for a simple EDA that considers independence among the variables of the problem. We provide the sufficient and necessary condition to decide the equivalence between functions and then we develop the operators to describe and count the members of a class. In addition, we show the intrinsic relation between univariate EDAs and the neighborhood system induced by the Hamming distance by proving that all the functions in the same class have the same number of local optima and that they are in the same ranking positions. Finally, we carry out numerical simulations in order to analyze the different behaviors that the algorithm can exhibit for the functions defined over the search space [Formula: see text]. PMID:23136917

Echegoyen, Carlos; Mendiburu, Alexander; Santana, Roberto; Lozano, Jose A

2013-01-01

22

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

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Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male and S. mucronata (both sexes. They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif

2009-01-01

23

Studies on the taxonomy and distribution of freshwater sponges in Lake Baikal.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the summers of 1993-2001, we carried out expeditions in order to collect sponges and to review their taxonomy and distribution in Lake Baikal. A total of 1,539 specimens were collected in our expeditions. Most specimens were classified into 2 families 7 genera, and 14 species, though some remained unclassified because of taxonomic confusion. Most sponges belonged to the family of Lubomirskiidae which were distributed widely in Lake Baikal. A few sponges with gemmules, which were confined to the "Little sea" near Olkhon Island and to an estuary in the North Basin, belonged to the Spongillidae. In qualitative survey of vertical distribution, B. intermedia showed the highest frequency among all species and found more often in shallow zones. L. baicalensis was second with regard to frequency and also found more often in shallow zones. Though S. papyracea had been believed to inhabit only deeper zones, it occurred in shallow zones as well. In this survey, the biomass of sponges at 10 m depth showed maximum value and showed the second largest at 20m depth. PMID:19198774

Masuda, Yoshiki

2009-01-01

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Social Media Ecology in Distributed Workplaces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this position paper, we discuss about methods currently adopted for research- ing the use of social media in distributed workplace. We have extensively reviewed previ- ous empirical studies through an ongoing Systematic Mapping Study focused on the use of social media in distributed teams; from the review, we realized that research is mainly per- formed through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods and that each study usually fo- cuses on one specific kind social media at a time. We believe that the social media ecology should be researched as a whole and in relationship with the physical workplace, there- fore ethnographic methods can be adopted to investigate this area. We aim to motivate a debate providing some research questions, which might be addressed by researchers.

Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

2011-01-01

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Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently. Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological research have provided so much data and insights, that among insects - and arguably most other terrestrial organisms - carabid beetles are one of the most worthwhile model groups for biological studies.

Rikjan Vermeulen

2011-05-01

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The Geomyces fungi: ecology and distribution  

Science.gov (United States)

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating disease affecting hibernating bats, first documented in winter 2006 in eastern North America. Over 5.5 million bats of several species may have died as a result of this disease. The fungus Geomyces destructans is now considered the causal agent of WNS, and this species may have been recently introduced into North American bat hibernation habitats. This overview summarizes the ecology and distribution of Geomyces fungi. Species in this genus are common in the soils of temperate and high-latitude ecosystems and are capable of withstanding and thriving in cold, low-nutrient polar environments. These species are dispersed by wind, groundwater, arthropods, birds, and mammals and are carried by humans, their clothing, and their equipment. These characteristics present significant challenges to biologists, managers, and others charged with controlling the spread of WNS and G. destructans in other parts of North America and the biosphere.

Hayes, Mark A.

2012-01-01

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Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Trichoplax ... adhaerens Placozoa Trichoplax _adhaerens_L.png Trichoplax _adhaerens_NL.png Trichoplax _ ... adhaerens_S.png Trichoplax _adhaerens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ ... icon/icon.cgi?i=Trichoplax +adhaerens&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ... n/icon.cgi?i=Trichoplax +adhaerens&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic ... on/icon.cgi?i=Trichoplax +adhaerens&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

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CARRAGENOPHYTAS ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The carragenophytas species are defined as macro-algae, members of the Phylum Rodophyta, Rodophyceae Class, Florideophycidae Subclass, Gigartinales Order. The most important commercial species at the international level are the Betaphycus, Eucheuma and Kappaphycus genera and at the national level the species belonging to the Gigartina, Mazzaella and Sarcothalia genera. Because of its commercial importance, the Gigartina genus has been the object of investigations such as: Ecology of populations in estuaries and open coast in the North-East Atlantic species; it has been studied by Mathieson and Tveter (1976 in relation with its carragenine quantity and quality. Studies about the response to photoperiods (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984 have identified reproductive “windows” suggesting that the explanations for vegetative multiplication are more exclusive each time, different from gametangial or tetra-sporangial production in populations of high latitudes from a generalized European species. Genetic determination of ramification patterns and tolerance limits to temperature has been established for several species (Guiry et al., 1987; Buschmann, 2001. Species cultivation viability in artificial substrates has been evaluated by Mumford y Waaland (1980, and it showed commercial potential. This genus has distribution worldwide in warm and cold seas. However, very few species happen in subtropical regions. The particularly rich species biodiversity centers are California, Japan, New Zealand, Chile y South Africa (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011.

MARGARITA DEL R. SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ

2012-12-01

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Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans Nematoda Caenorhabditis_elegans_L.png Caenorhabditis_elegans_NL.png Caeno ... is_elegans_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans&t=L http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans&t=NL http://bios ... ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans&t=S http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans&t=NS http://togo ...

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Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay. This paper provides comments on the subspecific taxonomy and geographic distribution of Sais rosalia (Cramer, 1779) (Lepidoptera, Nym [...] phalidae, Ithomiini), as well as an up-to-date distributional map, complemented with unpublished distributional data based on specimens deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus S. Moure, Curitiba, Brazil and the Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Peru. The following synonyms are proposed: Sais rosalia camariensis Haensch, 1905 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Papilio rosalia Cramer, 1779 and Sais rosalia brasiliensis Talbot, 1928 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Sais rosalia rosalinde Weymer, 1890. Additionally, the first country records of Sais rosalia in Paraguay, including the southernmost record of the species, are documented.

Sergio D., Ríos Díaz; Fernando M. S., Dias; Mirna M., Casagrande; Olaf H. H., Mielke; Gerardo, Lamas.

2014-03-01

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Chaetognatha of the Namibian upwelling region: taxonomy, distribution and trophic position.  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2010, the vertical distribution, biodiversity and maturity stages of Chaetognatha species were investigated at four stations located off Walvis Bay, Namibia. Seventeen species were detected and classified as pelagic, shallow-mesopelagic, deep-mesopelagic and bathypelagic species based upon the weighted mean depth derived from their average vertical distribution. High abundances of Chaetognatha were found in the upper 100 m at all stations of the Walvis Bay transect with a maximum value of 20837 ind. 1000 m(-3) at the outer shelf station near the surface. The community was dominated by species of the Serratodentata group. Furthermore, the distribution of Chaetognatha did not seem to be influenced by low oxygen concentrations. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in Chaetognatha were determined for seven different areas located off northern Namibia. The values of ?(15)N ranged from 6.05 ‰ to 11.39 ‰, while the ?(13)C values varied between -23.89 ‰ and -17.03 ‰. The highest values for ?(15)N were observed at the Walvis Bay shelf break station. The lowest ?(13)C values were found at the Rocky Point offshore station, which was statistically different from all other areas. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were determined for four taxa (Sagitta minima, Planctonis group, Sagitta enflata, Sagitta decipiens). In this case, the ?(15)N values ranged from 6.17 ‰ to 10.38 ‰, whereas the ?(13)C values varied from -22.70 ‰ to -21.56 ‰. The lowest ?(15)N values were found for S. minima. The C- and N-content revealed maximum C-values for S. decipiens and maximum N-values for the Planctonis group. The C:N ratio of Chaetognatha ranged between 5.25 and 6.20. Overall, Chaetognatha are a diverse group in the pelagic food web of the Benguela Upwelling System and act as competitors of fish larvae and jelly fish by preying on copepods. PMID:23342016

Bohata, Karolina; Koppelmann, Rolf

2013-01-01

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The Dusky Large Blue – Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) in the Transylvanian basin: New data on taxonomy and ecology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maculinea nausithous (Bergsträsser, 1779) was recently discovered in two parts of the Transylvanian basin. External characters of these populations completely agree with the original description of Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) and show some small but constant differences against the Central European nominotypic populations. Since the habitats and host ant selection of these populations are also different from the Central European populations, we consider M. nausithous kijevensis stat. rev. as valid subspeciÀ c taxon. Specimens with the same external characters were also collected in northeastern Romania, in Kazakhstan and in the western part of the Altai Mts. Therefore we believe that this subspecies has a wider Euro-Siberian distribution.

Rákosy, Laszló; Tartally, András

2010-01-01

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Taxonomy Icon Data: tuatara [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Magellanic penguin [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Sugarcane [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Polysphondylium pallidum [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: water bears [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: coelacanth [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Cryptococcus neoformans [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans Filobasidiella neoformans Filobasidiella_neoformans_L.png Filobasidiella ... neoformans_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=L http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=NL http://b ... iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=S http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=NS http://t ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: soybean [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: peach [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy Icon Data: onion [Taxonomy Icon  

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Taxonomy and distribution of the South American toad Bufo poeppigii Tschudi, 1845 (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The taxonomic status of the Andean toad Bufo poeppigii has been controversial since its description by Tschudi in the 19th Century, because of the similar appearance of the species with respect to Bufo marinus, and the fact that both species may occur together in some localities at the foot of the Andes. Bufo poeppigii is a valid species occurring on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes, at least from central Bolivia to northern Peru. It differs from B. marinus mainly by a less marked sexual dimorphism in size, smaller size, rugose skin always present in males, distribution of nuptial excrescences, and some features of the parotoid glands. The variability of B. marinus encompasses that of B. poeppigii; thus, in some cases it is difficult to identify some specimens.La posición taxonómica del sapo andino Bufo poeppigii ha sido objeto de controversia desde su descripción por Tschudi en el siglo XIX. Ello se ha debido a su parecido con Bufo marinus y a que ambas especies pueden encontrarse juntas en algunas localidades del piedemonte andino. No obstante, Bufo poeppigii es una especie válida que habita en las laderas amazónicas andinas, al menos desde el centro de Bolivia hasta el norte de Perú. Difiere de B. marinus por tener dimorfismo sexual en tamaño menos marcado, menor talla, piel siempre rugosa en los machos, la distribución de las callosidades nupciales y algunos rasgos de las glándulas parotoides. La variabilidad de B. marinus abarca la de B. poeppigii, de modo que a veces es difícil identificar ciertos ejemplares.

De la Riva, Ignacio

2002-06-01

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Infra-specific folk taxonomy in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in Ethiopia: folk nomenclature, classification, and criteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations. Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.

Mekbib Firew

2007-12-01

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Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución  

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Full Text Available Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S and Tierra del Fuego (55° S. Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such as the Chilean fjords. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the nomenclatural status, and establish the morphological characteristics and distribution of the Chilean Nacellidae. Especially, the following three objectives are pursued: (i to clarify the correct identity of existing species; (ii to describe of morphological details, highlighting the clear diagnostic characters of each species, and (iii to delimitate and discuss their geographical range in Chile. The examination of the Nacellidae of the Chilean fiords has resulted in the recognition of one species of Nacella (Nacella and seven species of Nacella (Patinigera, wherein the principal specific differences are in the shell (shape, thickness and color and in radular teeth morphology. The genus Nacella and its subgenus Patinigera are cold-water limpets, and are exclusively inhabitants of Subantarctic and Antarctic waters. The greater part of their range being subantarctic, but extending to the Antarctic by way of the Scotia Arc, and also ranging northward up the Chilean coast to at least Valparaiso at 33° S (only N. (P. clypeater. They apparently have their centre of distribution in the Magellanic Province of southern South America, corresponding to an area with a high degree of diversification (N. (N. mytilina, N. (P. chiloensis, N. (P. deaurata, N. (P. delicatissima, N. (P. flammea, N. (P. magellanica, N. (P. venosa, wherefrom the species tends to spread eastward, with a larval transport probably assisted to a considerable extent by the prevailing West Wind Drift which strongly operates in the Subantarctic ZoneLos moluscos del extremo sur de Sudamérica son desde un punto de vista taxonómico moderadamente bien conocidos. Sin embargo, la literatura está dispersa, hay poca información sobre sus hábitat y son muy pocos los registros distribucionales, particularmente en el área de los fiordos comprendidos entre la Isla de Chiloé (42° S y Tierra del Fuego (55° S. Aunque se sabe bastante acerca de la biología y ecología de algunas especies de Nacellidae, la taxonomía del grupo ha sido relativamente poco estudiada, particularmente en áreas remotas del planeta, como es el caso de los fiordos chilenos. El interés del presente estudio ha sido clarificar el estatus nomenclatural y describir las características morfológicas y distribuciones de los Nacellidae chilenos. En particular, se plantearon los siguientes objetivos: (i clarificar la identidad de las especies descritas, (ii descripción de detalles morfológicos, destacando los caracteres diagnósticos de cada especie, y (iii delimitación y discusión de sus rangos geográficos. El análisis de los Nacellidae de los fiordos chilenos ha permitido el reconocimiento de una especie de Nacella (Nacella y siete de N. (Patinigera, cuyas principales diferencias a nivel de especie radican en la concha (forma, espesor y color y en la morfología de la dentición radular. El género Nacella y su subgénero Patinigera son habitantes exclusivos de aguas antárticas y subantárticas. Estos organismos son lapas de aguas frías fundamentalmente subantárticas, pero que también se extienden hacia la Antártica por el área del Arco de Escocia, y hacia el norte a lo largo de la costa chilena, hasta el área de Valparaíso a 33° S (N. (P. clypeater. Aparentemente este género tiene su centro de distribución en la Provincia magallánica en el sur de Sudamérica, correspondiendo a un área de elevada diversidad de especies (N. (N. mytilina, N. (P. chiloensis, N. (P. deaurata, N. (P. delicatissima, N. (P. flammea, N

CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

2005-09-01

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Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution / Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los moluscos del extremo sur de Sudamérica son desde un punto de vista taxonómico moderadamente bien conocidos. Sin embargo, la literatura está dispersa, hay poca información sobre sus hábitat y son muy pocos los registros distribucionales, particularmente en el área de los fiordos comprendidos entr [...] e la Isla de Chiloé (42° S) y Tierra del Fuego (55° S). Aunque se sabe bastante acerca de la biología y ecología de algunas especies de Nacellidae, la taxonomía del grupo ha sido relativamente poco estudiada, particularmente en áreas remotas del planeta, como es el caso de los fiordos chilenos. El interés del presente estudio ha sido clarificar el estatus nomenclatural y describir las características morfológicas y distribuciones de los Nacellidae chilenos. En particular, se plantearon los siguientes objetivos: (i) clarificar la identidad de las especies descritas, (ii) descripción de detalles morfológicos, destacando los caracteres diagnósticos de cada especie, y (iii) delimitación y discusión de sus rangos geográficos. El análisis de los Nacellidae de los fiordos chilenos ha permitido el reconocimiento de una especie de Nacella (Nacella) y siete de N. (Patinigera), cuyas principales diferencias a nivel de especie radican en la concha (forma, espesor y color) y en la morfología de la dentición radular. El género Nacella y su subgénero Patinigera son habitantes exclusivos de aguas antárticas y subantárticas. Estos organismos son lapas de aguas frías fundamentalmente subantárticas, pero que también se extienden hacia la Antártica por el área del Arco de Escocia, y hacia el norte a lo largo de la costa chilena, hasta el área de Valparaíso a 33° S (N. (P.) clypeater). Aparentemente este género tiene su centro de distribución en la Provincia magallánica en el sur de Sudamérica, correspondiendo a un área de elevada diversidad de especies (N. (N.) mytilina, N. (P.) chiloensis, N. (P.) deaurata, N. (P.) delicatissima, N. (P.) flammea, N. (P.) magellanica, N. (P.) venosa), donde las especies tienden a dispersarse hacia el este, con un transporte larval probablemente facilitado por la corriente de deriva del oeste que opera fuertemente en la zona subantártica Abstract in english Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S) and Tierra del Fuego (55° [...] S). Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such as the Chilean fjords. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the nomenclatural status, and establish the morphological characteristics and distribution of the Chilean Nacellidae. Especially, the following three objectives are pursued: (i) to clarify the correct identity of existing species; (ii) to describe of morphological details, highlighting the clear diagnostic characters of each species, and (iii) to delimitate and discuss their geographical range in Chile. The examination of the Nacellidae of the Chilean fiords has resulted in the recognition of one species of Nacella (Nacella) and seven species of Nacella (Patinigera), wherein the principal specific differences are in the shell (shape, thickness and color) and in radular teeth morphology. The genus Nacella and its subgenus Patinigera are cold-water limpets, and are exclusively inhabitants of Subantarctic and Antarctic waters. The greater part of their range being subantarctic, but extending to the Antarctic by way of the Scotia Arc, and also ranging northward up the Chilean coast to at least Valparaiso at 33° S (only N. (P.) clypeater). They apparently have their centre of distribution in the Magellanic Province of southern South America, corresponding to an area with a high degree of di

CLAUDIO, VALDOVINOS; MAXIMILLIAN, RÜTH.

2005-09-01

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Full Text Available koji mold Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus_oryzae_L.png Aspergillus_oryzae_NL.png Aspergillus_oryz ... lus_oryzae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=L http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=NL http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=S http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=NS http://togodb.b ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese hare [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Japanese hare Lepus brachyurus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Lepus_brachyuru ... brachyurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=L http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=NL http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=S http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=NS http://togodb.bio ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Diplazium hachijoense [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Diplazium hachijoense Diplazium hachijoense Diplazium_hachijoense_L.png Diplazium_hachijoense_NL ... achijoense_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&t=NL http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&t=S http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&t=NS http://togod ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Dictyostelium discoideum [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium_discoideum_L.png Dictyostelium_d ... discoideum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Dictyostelium+discoideum&t=L http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Dictyostelium+discoideum&t=NL http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Dictyostelium+discoideum&t=S http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Dictyostelium+discoideum&t=NS http://to ...

88

Taxonomy Icon Data: Sitka spruce [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Picea_sitchensis_L.png Picea_sitchensis_NL.png Picea_sitchensis_S. ... sitchensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=L http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NL http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=S http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NS ...

89

Taxonomy Icon Data: Acytostelium subglobosum [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Acytostelium subglobosum Acytostelium subglobosum Acytostelium_subglobosum_L.png Acytostelium_su ... ubglobosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Acytostelium+subglobosum&t=L http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Acytostelium+subglobosum&t=NL http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Acytostelium+subglobosum&t=S http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Acytostelium+subglobosum&t=NS http://to ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Beetles [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Beetles Prosopocoilus inclinatus Arthropoda Prosopocoilus_inclinatus_L.png Prosopocoilus_inclina ... inclinatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Prosopocoilus+inclinatus&t=L http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Prosopocoilus+inclinatus&t=NL http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Prosopocoilus+inclinatus&t=S http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Prosopocoilus+inclinatus&t=NS http://to ...

91

Taxonomy Icon Data: Peanut [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Peanut Arachis hypogaea Arachis_hypogaea_L.png Arachis_hypogaea_NL.png Arachis_hypogaea_S.png Ar ... s_hypogaea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=L http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=NL http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=S http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=NS http://togodb.bio ...

92

Taxonomy Icon Data: valencia orange [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available valencia orange Citrus sinensis Citrus_sinensis_L.png Citrus_sinensis_NL.png Citrus_sinensis_S.p ... s_sinensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=L http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NL http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=S http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NS ...

93

Taxonomy Icon Data: Guillardia theta [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Guillardia theta Guillardia theta Guillardia_theta_L.png Guillardia_theta_NL.png Guillardia_thet ... rdia_theta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=L http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=NL http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=S http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=NS http://togodb.bio ...

94

Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png ... imacophora_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=NL http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=S http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=NS http://togodb. ...

95

Taxonomy Icon Data: Planaria [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Planaria Dugesia japonica Platyhelminthes Dugesia_japonica_L.png Dugesia_japonica_NL.png Dugesia ... a_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=L http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NL http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=S http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NS http://togodb.bio ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: fission yeast [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_L.png Schizosaccharomyces_pomb ... yces_pombe_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=L http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=NL http://b ... iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=S http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=NS http://t ...

97

Taxonomy Icon Data: chinese pangolin [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available chinese pangolin Manis pentadactyla Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Manis_pent ... ntadactyla_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=L http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=NL http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=S http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=NS http://togodb.b ...

98

Taxonomy Icon Data: Haliclona permollis [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Haliclona permollis Haliclona permollis Porifera Haliclona_permollis_L.png Haliclona_permollis_N ... _permollis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=NL http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=S http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=NS http://togodb. ...

99

Taxonomy Icon Data: rice [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available rice Oryza sativa Oryza_sativa_L.png Oryza_sativa_NL.png Oryza_sativa_S.png Oryza_sativa_NS.png ... http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.j ... p/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc. ... jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.j ... p/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=NS ...

100

Taxonomy Icon Data: Grey heron [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Grey heron Ardea cinerea Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Ardea_cinerea_L.png Ardea_cinerea_NL.png Ardea ... ea_cinerea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=L http://biosciencedbc. ... jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc ... .jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=S http://biosciencedbc. ... jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NS http://togodb.biosci ...

 
 
 
 
101

Taxonomy Icon Data: Common mormon [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Common mormon Papilio polytes Arthropoda Papilio_polytes_L.png Papilio_polytes_NL.png Papilio_po ... io_polytes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=L http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=NL http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=S http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=NS http://togodb.bios ...

102

Taxonomy Icon Data: mallard [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available mallard Anas platyrhynchos Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Anas_platyrhynchos_L.png Anas_platyrhynchos_ ... tyrhynchos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Anas+platyrhynchos&t=L http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Anas+platyrhynchos&t=NL http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Anas+platyrhynchos&t=S http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Anas+platyrhynchos&t=NS http://togodb.b ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Oryzias javanicus [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Oryzias javanicus Oryzias javanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_javanicus_L.png Oryz ... _javanicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=L http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=NL http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=S http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=NS http://togodb.bi ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: hamadryas baboon [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available hamadryas baboon Papio hamadryas Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_hama ... _hamadryas_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=L http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=NL http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=S http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=NS http://togodb.bios ...

105

Taxonomy Icon Data: Clementine [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Clementine Citrus clementina Citrus_clementina_L.png Citrus_clementina_NL.png Citrus_clementina_ ... clementina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=L http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=NL http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=S http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=NS ...

106

Taxonomy Icon Data: white spruce [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available white spruce Picea glauca Picea_glauca_L.png Picea_glauca_NL.png Picea_glauca_S.png Picea_glauca ... _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=L http://biosciencedbc.j ... p/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=NL http://biosciencedbc. ... jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.j ... p/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=NS ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: pea aphid [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Arthropoda Acyrthosiphon_pisum_L.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NL.png Ac ... phon_pisum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NL http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=S http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NS ...

108

Taxonomy Icon Data: domestic silkworm [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available domestic silkworm Bombyx mori Arthropoda Bombyx_mori_L.png Bombyx_mori_NL.png Bombyx_mori_S.png ... ombyx_mori_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Bombyx+mori&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp ... /taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Bombyx+mori&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j ... p/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Bombyx+mori&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp ... /taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Bombyx+mori&t=NS ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Asian Swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Asian Swallowtail Papilio xuthus Arthropoda Papilio_xuthus_L.png Papilio_xuthus_NL.png Papilio_x ... lio_xuthus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=L http://biosciencedbc ... .jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=NL http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=S http://biosciencedbc ... .jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=NS http://togodb.biosc ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: choanoflagellate [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis Monosiga_brevicollis_L.png Monosiga_brevicollis_NL.png Mon ... revicollis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=L http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=NL http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=S http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=NS http://togodb ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: quaking aspen [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available quaking aspen Populus tremuloides Populus_tremuloides_L.png Populus_tremuloides_NL.png Populus_t ... remuloides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NL http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=S http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NS ...

112

Taxonomy Icon Data: mandrill [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available mandrill Mandrillus sphinx ... Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Mandrillus_sphinx ... x_L.png Mandrillus_sphinx _NL.png Mandrillus_sphinx _S.png Mandrillus_sphinx _N ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Mandrillus+sphinx &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Mandrillus+sphinx &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

113

Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

Eman Ghanem Nayef

2013-09-01

114

Projecting date palm distribution in Iran under climate change using topography, physicochemical soil properties, soil taxonomy, land use, and climate data  

Science.gov (United States)

This study set out to model potential date palm distribution under current and future climate scenarios using an emission scenario, in conjunction with two different global climate models (GCMs): CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS), and MIROC-H (MR), and to refine results based on suitability under four nonclimatic parameters. Areas containing suitable physicochemical soil properties and suitable soil taxonomy, together with land slopes of less than 10° and suitable land uses for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) were selected as appropriate refining tools to ensure the CLIMEX results were accurate and robust. Results showed that large regions of Iran are projected as likely to become climatically suitable for date palm cultivation based on the projected scenarios for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2100. The study also showed CLIMEX outputs merit refinement by nonclimatic parameters and that the incremental introduction of each additional parameter decreased the disagreement between GCMs. Furthermore, the study indicated that the least amount of disagreement in terms of areas conducive to date palm cultivation resulted from CS and MR GCMs when the locations of suitable physicochemical soil properties and soil taxonomy were used as refinement tools.

Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit; Taylor, Subhashni

2014-01-01

115

Taxonomy Icon Data: rabbit [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus ... Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Oryctolagus_cuniculus ... ulus_L.png Oryctolagus_cuniculus _NL.png Oryctolagus_cuniculus _S.png Oryctolagus_cun ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

116

Taxonomy Icon Data: Escherichia coli [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Escherichia ... coli Escherichia ... coli Escherichia _coli_L.png Escherichia _coli_NL.png Escherichia _col ... i_S.png Escherichia _coli_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ... icon.cgi?i=Escherichia +coli&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico ...

117

Taxonomy Icon Data: slipper animalcule [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available slipper animalcule Paramecium ... tetraurelia Paramecium _tetraurelia_L.png Paramecium _tetraurelia_NL ... .png Paramecium _tetraurelia_S.png Paramecium _tetraurelia_NS.png ht ... tp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paramecium +tetraurelia&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i ...

118

Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Bacillus ... subtilis Bacillus ... subtilis Bacillus _subtilis_L.png Bacillus _subtilis_NL.png Bacillus _su ... btilis_S.png Bacillus _subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i ... con/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus +subtilis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

119

Distribution and ecology of Bulinus truncatus in Khuzestan, Iran*  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a 5-year study on the distribution and ecology of Bulinus truncatus in Khuzestan, south-western Iran, are described. Live snails were found in 4 foci, namely, the main focus, the upper Karun River, the lower Karkheh River, and the Bala Rud watershed; in addition, dead snails were found in 3 other foci. The patchy distribution of snails was related to the presence of surface waters and to their chemical composition. Monthly observations on the population dynamics of the snails and on the role of the snails in the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium and S. bovis were carried out in 14 ponds, 9 canals, 5 swamps, 2 field drains, 1 spring and 1 stream-pool. In standing waters, the peak of snail population could potentially occur in 2 seasons—May—July and November—January—but the main seasons for the transmission of mammalian schistosome cercariae were April—May and October—November. In flowing waters, a higher number of snails might be found in summer in some canals and in winter in another group of canals. Canals were found to be more important sites of transmission of human schistosomes than were village ponds. Transmission took place mainly in hot months when man—water contacts were greatest. Village ponds accessible to livestock were found to be important in the transmission of bovine schistosomiasis. As new irrigation systems have been expanding in this area of Khuzestan, more attention should be paid to flowing waters than to standing waters in future schistosomiasis control programmes. PMID:5304436

Chu, K. Y.; Massoud, J.; Arfaa, F.

1968-01-01

120

Distribution and ecology of Bulinus truncatus in Khuzestan, Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a 5-year study on the distribution and ecology of Bulinus truncatus in Khuzestan, south-western Iran, are described. Live snails were found in 4 foci, namely, the main focus, the upper Karun River, the lower Karkheh River, and the Bala Rud watershed; in addition, dead snails were found in 3 other foci. The patchy distribution of snails was related to the presence of surface waters and to their chemical composition.Monthly observations on the population dynamics of the snails and on the role of the snails in the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium and S. bovis were carried out in 14 ponds, 9 canals, 5 swamps, 2 field drains, 1 spring and 1 stream-pool. In standing waters, the peak of snail population could potentially occur in 2 seasons-May-July and November-January-but the main seasons for the transmission of mammalian schistosome cercariae were April-May and October-November. In flowing waters, a higher number of snails might be found in summer in some canals and in winter in another group of canals. Canals were found to be more important sites of transmission of human schistosomes than were village ponds. Transmission took place mainly in hot months when man-water contacts were greatest. Village ponds accessible to livestock were found to be important in the transmission of bovine schistosomiasis. As new irrigation systems have been expanding in this area of Khuzestan, more attention should be paid to flowing waters than to standing waters in future schistosomiasis control programmes. PMID:5304436

Chu, K Y; Massoud, J; Arfaa, F

1968-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Interpretation of Models of Fundamental Ecological Niches and Species’ Distributional Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling?that is, estimation of the dimensions of fundamental ecological niches of species?to predict their geographic distributions is increasingly being employed in systematics, ecology, conservation, public health, etc. This technique is often (of necessity based on data comprising records of presences only. In recent years, many modeling approaches have been devised to estimate these interrelated expressions of a species’ ecology, distributional biology, and evolutionary history?nevertheless, in many cases, a formal basis in ecological and evolutionary theory has been lacking. In this paper, we outline such a formal basis for the suite of techniques that can be termed ‘ecological niche modeling,’ analyze example situations that can be modeled using these techniques, and clarify the interpretation of results.

Jorge Soberon

2005-01-01

122

Biogeography and ecology of Cetraria aculeata, a widely distributed lichen with a bipolar distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological and historical biogeography of lichens have rarely been studied in a concerted effort, but both aspects have to be taken into consideration when explaining the distributional patterns of species. This review summarizes, partly preliminary, results from a series of studies on phylogeography, ecophysiology and symbiotic interactions of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. This species is not only widespread but also occupies a very wide ecological niche. Evidence suggests that Cetraria aculeata has evolved and diversified in the Northern Hemisphere and colonised the Southern Hemisphere from there. Genetic isolation of populations indicates the absence of ongoing long range dispersal and genetic exchange between geographically isolated populations. We observe a hitherto unrecognized genetic diversity that may indicate ecotypic differentiation and speciation processes. Mediterranean and Polar populations differ not only genetically, but also in ecophysiological properties. Ongoing common garden experiments will have to show whether genetically fixed adaptation or acclimation is responsible for these differences. The genetic structure of the photobiont is best explained by climatic differences between localities, but co-dispersal with the mycobiont plays an important role as well. Taken together, these results indicate that a photobiont switch in the past enabled C. aculeata to widen its ecological niche, with subsequent genetic isolation of populations. Photobiont switches may play a crucial role in speciation processes of lichens. A combination of ecophysiological and phylogeographic studies with experimental approaches is necessary to better understand the reaction of lichens to changing environmental conditions.

Christian Printzen

2013-04-01

123

Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata), capuchins (Cebus capucinus), and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii). Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecolog...

Zaldi?var, Mari?a E.; Oscar Rocha; Glander, Kenneth E.; Gabriel Aguilar; Huertas, Ana S.; Ronald Sánchez; Grace Wong

2004-01-01

124

Distribution, Hosts, Ecology and Biotic Potentials of Coccinellids of Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Coccinellids are the important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealy bugs, mites etc. They had been used in classical biological control in the past. Recently they are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management. In Pakistan, 71 species of these predators are found in different ecologies associated with different pests. They have the potential to be used in oilseed crops, orchard and forest ecologies for the control of aphids and scale insects. In other habitats of their host pests these coccinelids have also some role to play. All these species have been documented along with their hosts, biology, ecology and biotic potential. Their use in different habitats has also been discussed in the prevalent Pakistani conditions.

Mohammad Irshad

2001-01-01

125

Predicting geographic and ecological distributions of triatomine species in the southern Mexican state of Puebla using ecological niche modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the geographic distribution using ecological niche modeling of three species of triatomines distributed in the Mexican state of Puebla. Punctual records were gathered for a period of 5 yr of fieldwork sampling. We used the genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) to achieve the potential distribution of the ecological niche of triatomines. The models showed that Triatoma barberi and Meccus pallidipennis are sympatric and widely distributed in the central-southern part of the state, whereas T. dimidata is restricted to the northern mountains of the state with no overlapping among other species, M. bassolsae was not modeled because of the scarce number of locality records. We highlighted the warm and dry conditions in southern Puebla as important potential areas for triatomine presence. Finally, we correlated the species potential presence with the human population at risk of acquiring Chagas disease by vector-borne transmission; it is showed that M. pallidipennis presents the highest values of both ecological and poverty risk scenarios representing the main potential vector in the state. PMID:18533450

Sandoval-Ruiz, C A; Zumaquero-Rios, J L; Rojas-Soto, O R

2008-05-01

126

Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies — Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most Pteropus phaeocephalus pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp.) being a preferred food. Records of females with young (April, July) and pregnant females (July) suggest an extended breeding season. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus appears most threatened by the prospect of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies. PMID:24194666

Buden, Donald W.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Wiles, Gary J.

2013-01-01

127

Benefits from ecological study methods to taxonomy of enchytraeids in southern Mata Atlântica / Benefícios de métodos de estudos ecológicos para a taxonomia de enquitreídeos no sul da Mata Atlântica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar como a taxonomia beneficia-se de métodos quantitativos e de amostragem ecológicos nos estudos dos enquitreídeos. Enquitreídeos (pequenos parentes das minhocas) foram coletados em diferentes fases de regeneração da Mata Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. F [...] oram combinadas as pesquisas ecológica e taxonômica, pois os enquitreídeos são pouco estudados e difíceis de identificar, e muitas espécies novas eram esperadas. O grande número de espécimes coletados permitiu testar diagnoses de espécies por meio da investigação das amplitudes de variações de caracteres em uma série mais ampla de espécimes. Diagnoses de espécies simplificadas, adaptadas às condições locais do ambiente, foram desenvolvidas, o que permitiu a identificação de todos os exemplares, incluindo juvenis. Caracteres-chave e estados de caracteres foram formulados para três gêneros: Achaeta, Hemienchytraeus e Guaranidrilus. Entre várias espécies novas, uma espécie rara, possível remanescente da fauna autóctone da floresta, foi encontrada e descrita. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine how taxonomy benefited from the ecological quantitative and site-based sampling methods in enchytraeids studies. Enchytraeids (small relatives of earthworms) were sampled in different phases of rain forest regeneration in the southern Mata Atlântica in Par [...] aná, Brazil. The research combined ecological and taxonomic work, because enchytraeids are poorly studied and difficult to identify, and many new species were expected. The provision of large numbers of specimens enabled the test of species diagnoses by investigating the ranges of character variations in a larger series of specimens. Simplified species diagnoses adapted to the local conditions that allowed the identification of all specimens, juveniles included, were developed. Key characters and character states are presented for the three genera: Achaeta, Hemienchytraeus and Guaranidrilus. Among several new species, a rare species, possibly a remnant of the autochthonous forest fauna, was found and described.

Rüdiger Maria, Schmelz; Rut Maria Collado de la, Peña; Jörg, Römbke.

128

Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available dog Canis lupus ... familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus _fa ... miliaris_L.png Canis_lupus _familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus _familiaris_S.png Can ... is_lupus _familiaris_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ...

129

Towards a taxonomy of accounting  

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The homological transfer research method was used to derive a tentative taxonomy of the discipline of Accounting from the Nolan and Wetherbe taxonomy of the related discipline Management Information Systems. First the Nolan and Wetherbe taxonomy was updated to reflect recent developments in MIS. Then its concepts were replaced by equivalent accounting concepts to yield a homologous taxonomy of Accounting. Finally the proposed taxonomy was validated empirically by classifying 151 articles from...

Koornhof, Carolina

1993-01-01

130

Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

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Comment: 237 [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 237.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci ... ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ???? ?????????????????????????? ...

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Comment: 2 [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available bottlenosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus Tursiops_truncatus_L.png 2 .png Taxonomy icon (c) Database ... nter for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2 .1 Japan ????????? ttamura 2 008/10/2 9 11:4 ...

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Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Florida lanc elet (amphioxus) Branc hiostoma floridae Branc hiostoma_floridae_L.png 61.png Taxonomy ... ic on (c ) Database C enter for Life Sc ienc e lic ensed un ... der CC ... Attribution2.1 Japan ????????????(?? ...

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Comment: 7 [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 7.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ??????????????? ttamura 2008/ 11 /06 1 6:11 :43 ...

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Comment: 8 [Taxonomy Icon  

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136

[Concepts of rational taxonomy].  

Science.gov (United States)

The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the standpoint of inductive and hypothetico-deductive argumentation schemes and such fundamental criteria of classifications naturalness as their prognostic capabilities; foundation of a theory of "general taxonomy" as a "general logic", including elements of the axiomatic method. The latter concept constitutes a core of the program of general classiology; it is inconsistent due to absence of anything like "general logic". It is asserted that elaboration of a theory of taxonomy as a biological discipline based on the formal principles of epistemological rationality is not feasible. Instead, it is to be elaborated as ontologically rational one based on biologically sound metatheories about biological diversity causes. PMID:21469346

Pavlinov, I Ia

2011-01-01

137

When is an ecological network complex? Connectance drives degree distribution and emerging network properties  

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Full Text Available Connectance and degree distributions are important components of the structure of ecological networks. In this contribution, we use a statistical argument and simple network generating models to show that properties of the degree distribution are driven by network connectance. We discuss the consequences of this finding for (1 the generation of random networks in null-model analyses, and (2 the interpretation of network structure and ecosystem properties in relationship with degree distribution.

Timothée Poisot

2014-02-01

138

(crozon brest douarmenez lanveoc "le fret" roscanvel) (ecolog* ecosystem* environm* "trophic chain" "food chain" distribution abundance biomass* habitat* interspecif* relationship*)  

Science.gov (United States)

Search instead for (crozon brest douarmenez lanveoc "le fret" roscanvel) (ecolog* ecosystem* environm* "trophic chain" "food chain" distribution abundance biomass* habitat* interspecif* relationship*) ?

139

COMMENT ON: APPLYING SPECIES-SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSUMPTION OF DISTRIBUTION TYPE AND SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF SPECIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Newman et al. (2000) addressed some important issues regarding the characterization of species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) used in ecological risk assessments. A common assumption is that SSDs are log-normal, and this allows data sets to be analyzed by standard parametric me...

140

Review: Ecological distribution of Dipterocarpaceae species in Indonesia  

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Full Text Available Dipterocarpaceae is one of the biggest family with >500 species in the world, and most of dipterocarps population are grown in Indonesia which have high economical value of wood. One of the most important value from dipterocarps species is high on endemicities; there are up to 128 species (53.78% from 238 dipterocarps species in Indonesia. Distribution of dipterocarps species would be affected by some factors especially edaphic, climate, and altitude. In Indonesia the dipterocarps species distribution could be shown from islands groups, number of species and forest types. Based on the observation of herbarium collection in Herbarium Bogoriense the distribution of the most dipterocarps species was in the altitude of 0-500 m and 500-1000 m on the dipterocarps forest type. Kalimantan and Sumatra were the two bigger islands with have the dipterocarps species distributed relatively high on population and species.

PURWANINGSIH

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae, taxonomia e distribuição geográfica no Brasil Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae, taxonomy and geographical distribution in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees Grolle é uma espécie urbanizada que cresce, preferencialmente, sobre estipe de palmeira ou outras árvores. Sua distribuição geográfica foi ampliada para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e, também, para municípios de outros estados já referidos. Algumas associações da espécie com outras briófitas são apresentadas. Dados palinológicos, baseados em observações sob microscopia de luz (ML e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, também estão incluídos no trabalho.Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees Grolle is an urbanized species that grows preferentially on palm-tree trunks and other trees. Its geographical distribution was extended to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, also, to cities of other aforementioned states. Some associations of these species with other bryophytes are presented. Palynological data, based on observations under light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, are also included.

Olga Yano

2006-12-01

142

TAXONOMÍA Y DISTRIBUCIÓN DE HILDENBRANDIA ANGOLENSIS (HILDENBRANDIALES: RHODOPHYTA) EN COLOMBIA / Taxonomy and distribution of Hildenbrandia angolensis (Hildenbrandiales: Rhodophyta) in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio es el primer registro para Colombia del género Hildenbrandia, representando el primer hallazgo de Rhodophyta dulceacuícola. Se incluye la descripción detallada de los caracteres morfométricos, así como la distribución ambiental de las poblaciones recolectadas en tres localidades del dep [...] artamento de Santander. Se concluye que la especie corresponde a la circunscripción de Hildenbrandia angolensis; caracterizada por su diámetro celular pequeño (?= 4.8 ?m) y de distribución tropical a subtropical. Se documentaron propágulos vegetativos en una sola población. H. angolensis se presentó en ríos cercanos a zonas de cascada, con temperatura de 16- 18 ºC, pH de neutral a ligeramente alcalino (6.9-7.6), alto contenido de iones (272-1174 ?S cm-1), velocidad de corriente muy alta ( 140 cm s-1) y sitios sombreados con poca profundidad ( Abstract in english This study is the first report for Colombia of the genus Hildenbrandia, representing the first record of a freshwater Rhodophyta. It is includes the detailed description of the morfometrics characters, as well as the environmental distribution of the populations collected from three localities of th [...] e department of Santander. It is concluded that the species fit within Hildenbrandia angolensis circumscription; it is characterized by it is small cell diameter (?= 4.8 ?m) and of tropical or subtropical distribution. Vegetatives propagules were reported in one single population. H. angolensis occurred in rivers near to cascade zones, with temperature of 16- 18 ºC, pH circumneutral to slightly alkaline (6.9-7.6), high ion content (272-1174 ?S cm-1), high current velocity ( 140 cm s-1) and shallow waters (

EDGAR J., RINCÓN-B.; LUIS E., PINZÓN-Q.; HELBER, BERMÚDEZ-A.; HUMBERTO E., GARCÍA-P..

2006-12-30

143

Octaviania asterosperma (hypogeous Basidiomycota. Recent data to ecology and distribution  

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Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses place Octaviania asterosperma in the Boletales, with Leccinum being the closest relative. Results of the structural investigation of O. asterosperma ectomycorrhiza with Fagus sylvatica confirm this systematic position. In Europe the species is an ectomycorrhizal partner of broad-leaved trees, such as Carpinus, Corylus, Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. This paper aims at presenting the new data to the distribution of O. asterosperma in Central Europe. The description of the basidiocarps discovered in Poland in the recent years is also given, together with evidence for the parasitic relationship of Sepedonium laevigatum with O. asterosperma. We also present the information concerning all known localities of the species in Poland and its distribution map. Data on the ecologz, distribution and status O. asterosperma in Europe, and some structural aspects of basidiocarps and spores, are also summarized.

Piotr Mleczko

2010-12-01

144

Reconstructing ecological niches and geographic distributions of caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus) during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of approaches have been used to reconstruct glacial distributions of species, identify their environmental characteristics, and understand their influence on subsequent population expansions. Traditional methods, however, provide only rough estimates of past distributions, and are often unable to identify the ecological and geographic processes that shaped them. Recently, ecological niche modeling (ENM) methodologies have been applied to these questions in an effort to overcome such limitations. We apply ENM to the European faunal record of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to reconstruct ecological niches and potential ranges for caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus), and evaluate whether their LGM distributions resulted from tracking the geographic footprint of their ecological niches (niche conservatism) or if ecological niche shifts between the LGM and present might be implicated. Results indicate that the LGM geographic ranges of both species represent distributions characterized by niche conservatism, expressed through geographic contraction of the geographic footprints of their respective ecological niches.

Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Colombeau, Guillaume

2008-12-01

145

Taxonomy Icon Data: Florida lancelet (amphioxus) [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Florida lancelet (amphioxus) Branchiostoma floridae Chordata/Urochordata,Cephalochordata Branchi ... a_floridae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Branchiostoma+floridae&t=L http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Branchiostoma+floridae&t=NL http://bios ... ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Branchiostoma+floridae&t=S http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Branchiostoma+floridae&t=NS http://togo ...

146

Taxonomy Icon Data: Formosan subterranean termite [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Arthropoda Coptotermes_formosanus_L.png Cop ... formosanus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=L http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=NL http://bios ... ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=S http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=NS ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: aye-aye [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Dauben ... scariensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascariensis&t=L http:/ ... /biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascariensis&t=NL http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascariensis&t=S http:/ ... /biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascariensis&t=NS http: ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: Striped bark scorpion [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Striped bark scorpion Centruroides vittatus Arthropoda Centruroides_vittatus_L.png Centruroides_ ... s_vittatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Centruroides+vittatus&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Centruroides+vittatus&t=NL http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Centruroides+vittatus&t=S http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Centruroides+vittatus&t=NS ...

149

Characteristics of plants distribution in botanical gardens outside the ecological optimum ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the results of the botanical gardens activity in the introduction and acclimatization of plants appearing: in the distribution of species beyond their natural ecological optimum, in the creation of collections of closely related species capable to spontaneous hybridization, in the formation of sources of invasive species. The role of botanic gardens as anthropogenic centers of evolution and distribution of plants is emphasized.? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????????: ? ??????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????; ? ???????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????????????????? ????? ? ??????; ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? :0: ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????.

Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

2012-11-01

150

Spatial paradigms of lotic diatom distribution: A landscape ecology perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial distributional patterns of benthic diatoms and their relation to current velocity were investigated in an unshaded cobble-bottom reach of White Creek (Washington County, NY). On 27 August 1999, diatoms were sampled and current velocity and depth were measured on a regular square sampling grid with a grain size of 0.01 m2, interval of 0.5 m, and extent of 16 m2. The relative abundance of the 18 common diatom species enumerated in the 81 samples was subjected to detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). The first axis (DCA1) explained 51% of the variance in diatom data and separated the samples according to current regimes. The spatial autocorrelation of DCA1 sample scores in deposition and erosion regions of White Creek was determined by Moran's I statistic to indicate patch size. In White Creek the patch length of all diatom communities was more than 3.1 m, whereas the patch width was 1 m in the deposition region and 0.5 m in the erosion region. There were 5 dominant diatom taxa, Achnanthes minutissima Ku??tz. et vars, Fragilaria capucina Dezmazie??res et vars, F. crotonensis Kitt., Diatoma vulgaris Bory, and Synedra ulna (Nitz.) Ehr. et vars. The patch length of the dominant species varied from 1 to more than 4.1 m, whereas the patch width, if defined, was 0.5 m. Achnanthes minutissima and F. capucina, the two diatom species with the highest relative abundance, displayed spatially structured patches of low abundance and comparatively random patches of high abundance, suggesting broad scale abiotic control of species performance in low abundance regions and finer scale biotic control of high abundance areas. Another objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher current velocities, which generally impede immigration, would increase randomness and complexity (i.e. homogeneity of diatom distributional patterns). The spatial complexity in low versus high velocity transects was determined by calculating the respective fractal dimension (D) of DCA1 scores. D of DCA1 was higher in the higher current velocity transects, suggesting that spatial complexity and homogeneity of diatom communities increased in faster currents. Partial canonical correspondence analysis was conducted on diatom, environmental, and spatial data to assess how much of the variance in species distribution could be attributed to environmental (current velocity and depth) versus spatial factors. The variance of species data, explained by the environment (exclusively current velocity), was 38%; whereas space alone contributed only 10%, indicating that 1) current velocity was the major factor that controlled diatom distribution in streams and 2) there were other spatially dependent variables, most likely biotic, but their role in shaping diatom communities was minor.

Passy, S. I.

2001-01-01

151

Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T

2008-01-01

152

Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

Gulinck Hubert

2008-10-01

153

An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

We are pleased to see the letter by Schimel and Chadwick (Front Ecol Environ 2013; 11[8]: 405–06), highlighting the importance of soil characterization in ecological and biogeochemical research and explaining the value of soil taxonomy, and we agree with the authors that reporting soil

Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon

2013-01-01

154

Ecological distribution of protosteloid amoebae in New Zealand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the period of March 2004 to December 2007, samples of aerial litter (dead but still attached plant parts and ground litter (dead plant material on the ground were collected from 81 study sites representing a wide range of latitudes (34°S to 50°S and a variety of different types of habitats throughout New Zealand (including Stewart Island and the Auckland Islands. The objective was to survey the assemblages of protosteloid amoebae present in this region of the world. Twenty-nine described species of protosteloid amoebae were recorded by making morphological identifications of protosteloid amoebae fruiting bodies on cultured substrates. Of the species observed, Protostelium mycophaga was by far the most abundant and was found in more than half of all samples. Most species were found in fewer than 10% of the samples collected. Seven abundant or common species were found to display significantly increased likelihood for detection in aerial litter or ground litter microhabitats. There was some evidence of a general correlation between environmental factors - annual precipitation, elevation, and distance from the equator (latitude - and the abundance and richness of protosteloid amoebae. An increase in each of these three factors correlated with a decrease in both abundance and richness. This study provides a thorough survey of the protosteloid amoebae present in New Zealand and adds to a growing body of evidence which suggests several correlations between their broad distributional patterns and environmental factors.

Geoffrey Zahn

2014-03-01

155

Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 219.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center ... under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ????:??? HNI-??? ????? bando 2010/02/15 15:31:07 2010/02/16 09:5 ...

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Comment: 13 [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 1 3.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science ... licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ???????????????????? tta ... mura 2008/11 /06 1 7:1 4:44 ...

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Comment: 6 [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 6.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ???????????? ttamura 2008/11 /06 ... 1 6:1 0:21 ...

158

NCBI Taxonomy Browser  

Science.gov (United States)

The NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Taxonomy Browser, enables users to search for taxonomic information using the name of superspecific taxa (e.g., Porifera) or the name of a particular organism (e.g., Thalarctos maritimus or polar bear). Returns provide, in addition to taxonomic information, genetic information, nucleotide/protein sequence information, and references.

1995-01-01

159

Distribution of natural uranium in Jiuquan ecological environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of natural uranium in soil, forage grass, ox, sheep and camel at Jiuquan area was determined, and the data were analyzed. Its natural distribution under equilibrium and the transfer from the soil to the forage grass then to the animal body were studied. The results show that the uranium concentration in soil was decreasing from 3.09mg/kg to 2.36 mg/kg (corresponding to the surface to 30 cm), then increasing to 2.82mg/kg (corresponding to 100 cm), so the lowest was at the depth of 30 cm. The descending order of concentration in eight kind of forage grasess is Chenopodium album L., Triticum Sativum Lam, Agropyron cristatum(L.) Gaertu, Hordeum vulgare var nudum (Ard.) Hook, Avenasativa L., Sphaerophysa salsula(Pall.) DC, Medicago sativa L. and Phragmites communis Trin, i.e. from the highest 1.48 x 10-3mg/kg to the lowest 0.051 x 10-3mg/kg. The U concentration in mutton was (0.48 ? 1.86) x 10-6mg/kg and the average was 0.89 x 10-6mg/kg, in sheep bone was (3.60 ? 16.20) x 10-6mg/kg and the average was 9.9 x 10-6mg/kg. The concentration of uranium in the mixed sample of beef and ox bone was 7.54 x 10-6mg/kg, and in the camel meat and bone was 3.35 x 10-6mg/kg. The uptake of uranium from soil by the forage grass varies with the amount of U in the soil, the type of soil and grass species. The transfer coefficients CT1 of uranium from soil surface layer, i. e. O to 30 cm, to forage grass were 2.98 x 10-4 for Chenopodium album L., 2.79 x 10-4 for Triticum sativum Lam and 2.67 x 10-5 for Phragmites communis Trin respectively. The coefficients CT2 of U from the forage grass to ox, sheep and camel body were 7.29 x 10-3 ? 1.44 x 10-1 for sheep bone, 5.10 x 10-3 ? 1.25 x 10-1 for the mixed sample of beef and ox bone, 2.26 x 10-3 ? 5.5 x 10-2 for the mixed sample of camel meat and bone and 2.45 x 10-5 ? 2.41 x 10-4 for mutton respectively. The same results were obtained for eight kind of forage grasses

160

Ecological Factors Affecting the Distribution of Woody Vegetation Near the Arkansas River, Tulsa County  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological factors affecting plant distribution were studied over different rock strata and slope exposures above the Arkansas River, Tulsa County. Here the Wann sandstone caprock is underlain by the Iola limestone formation. The vegetation was analyzed taxonomically by a complete collection throughout one growing season. Belt transects crossing rock strata on all slope exposures permitted computation of parameters summarized by an Importance Percentage for each woody species. Differences in species populations and degree of mesophytism exist on the slope exposures. Sandstone upland dominants are post and blackjack oaks. Smoke-tree, rare in Oklahoma, and chinquapin oak are closely associated in limestone microhabitats, where each occupies a separate niche. The smoke-tree, of disjunct distribution, appears to be a relict of widespread occurrence in past geologic periods. Its survival with limited ecological amplitude is due to the continuance of the microhabitats to which it is so well adapted.

Anne Wanamnaker Long

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

[Aquatic ecological risk assessment of microcystins and nitrogen pollution based on species sensitivity distribution].  

Science.gov (United States)

Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) methods in both forward and reverse modes were used to evaluate the ecological risk and determine the contaminant concentration threshold for the protection of aquatic species and ecological quality. In this study, the existing toxicity data of freshwater organisms were fitted to SSD functions to estimate the hazardous concentrations for 5% of the species (HC5) for microcystins, ammonia and nitrite, and the ecological risk of their mixtures. The potentially affected fractions (PAFs) of various concentrations of microcystins, ammonia and nitrite were also calculated. Results showed that microcystins exhibited a higher ecological risk than ammonia and nitrite. The HC5 value for microcystins exposure was 19.22 microg x L(-1) whereas the HC5 values for ammonia and nitrite exposure were 6583.94 microg x L(-1) and 334.33 microg x L(-1), respectively. The sensitivity of freshwater organisms varied with exposed concentrations of microcystins, ammonia and nitrite. Crustaceans were more sensitive than fishes to microcystins, and less sensitive than fishes to nitrite when the concentrations of microcystins and nitrite were below 125.04 microg x L(-1) and 2989.40 microg x L(-1), respectively, and vice versa when exposed to higher concentrations of microcystins and nitrite. No significant difference was observed for the sensitivities of fishes and crustaceans exposed to ammonia. In studies with selected lakes in China, our results showed that the ecological risk in both Tai and Hongfeng lakes exceeded the permissible HC5 threshold, and the multiple substance potentially affected fractions (msPAFs) of microcystins, ammonia and nitrite were 2.6%-5.6%, indicating that the ecological risk of their mixtures was more threatening than each individual contaminant being investigated. PMID:25011315

Chen, Jin; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Ying

2014-04-01

162

The effect of ecological parameters on the distribution of snail vectors of schistosomiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The infestation of the water courses showed 32.5% for Biomphalaria alexandrina and 8.75% for Bulinus truncatus. Ecological parameters, showed non significant variations in the water courses harbouring snail vectors and those free from snails except for conductivity in the habitats harbouring B. truncatus. This variation was more highly significant (ptruncatus and Physa acuta snails. Snail vectors were distributed with different degrees with aquatic plants reflecting the degree of species preference plants for snails' life. PMID:12557938

Kader, A A

2001-04-01

163

The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

As human impacts to the environment accelerate, disparities in the distribution of damages between rich and poor nations mount. Globally, environmental change is dramatically affecting the flow of ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecological damages and their driving forces has not been estimated. Here, we conservatively estimate the environmental costs of human activities over 1961-2000 in six major categories (climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, agricultural intensification and expansion, deforestation, overfishing, and mangrove conversion), quantitatively connecting costs borne by poor, middle-income, and rich nations to specific activities by each of these groups. Adjusting impact valuations for different standards of living across the groups as commonly practiced, we find striking imbalances. Climate change and ozone depletion impacts predicted for low-income nations have been overwhelmingly driven by emissions from the other two groups, a pattern also observed for overfishing damages indirectly driven by the consumption of fishery products. Indeed, through disproportionate emissions of greenhouse gases alone, the rich group may have imposed climate damages on the poor group greater than the latter's current foreign debt. Our analysis provides prima facie evidence for an uneven distribution pattern of damages across income groups. Moreover, our estimates of each group's share in various damaging activities are independent from controversies in environmental valuation methods. In a world increasingly connected ecologically and economically, our analysis is thus an early step toward reframing issues of environmental responsibility, development, and globalization in accordance with ecological costs. PMID:18212119

Srinivasan, U Thara; Carey, Susan P; Hallstein, Eric; Higgins, Paul A T; Kerr, Amber C; Koteen, Laura E; Smith, Adam B; Watson, Reg; Harte, John; Norgaard, Richard B

2008-02-01

164

Geographic distributions and ecology of ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20 x 20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota) were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp.) forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand. PMID:24159689

Khumkratok, Sutthira; Boongtiang, Kriangsuk; Chutichudet, Prasit; Pramaul, Pairot

2012-10-01

165

Geographic Distributions and Ecology of Ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae in Northeastern Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20x20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp. forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand.

Prasit Chutichudet

2012-01-01

166

Taxonomy Icon Data: gray slender loris [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available gray slender loris ... Loris ... lydekkerianus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Loris ... s_lydekkerianus_L.png Loris _lydekkerianus_NL.png Loris _lydekkerianus_S.png Lor ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris +lydekkerianus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ... _icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris +lydekkerianus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom ... y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris +lydekkerianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ...

167

Taxonomy Icon Data: African malaria mosquito [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Arthropoda Anopheles_gambiae_L.png Anopheles_gambiae_ ... es_gambiae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=L http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=NL http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=S http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=NS ...

168

Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphon ... ia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=L http://biosciencedbc ... .jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc ... .jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosc ...

169

Taxonomy Icon Data: black-headed gull [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available black-headed gull Larus ridibundus Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Larus_ridibundus_L.png Larus_ridibun ... ridibundus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Larus+ridibundus&t=L http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Larus+ridibundus&t=NL http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Larus+ridibundus&t=S http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Larus+ridibundus&t=NS http://togodb.bio ...

170

Taxonomy Icon Data: Western clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_tropicalis_L.png Xen ... tropicalis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=L http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=NL http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=S http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=NS http://togodb.b ...

171

Taxonomy Icon Data: Aeropyrum pernix strain K1 [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Aeropyrum pernix strain K1 Aeropyrum pernix K1 Aeropyrum_pernix_K1_L.png Aeropyrum_pernix_K1_NL. ... _pernix_K1_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=NL http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=S http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=NS http://togodb. ...

172

Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png P ... dera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NL http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.bio ...

173

Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Kuroda's sea hare Aplysia kurodai Mollusca Aplysia_kurodai_L.png Aplysia_kurodai_NL.png Aplysia_ ... ia_kurodai_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=L http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NL http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=S http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NS http://togodb.bios ...

174

Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Old world swallowtail Papilio machaon Arthropoda Papilio_machaon_L.png Papilio_machaon_NL.png Pa ... io_machaon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=L http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NL http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=S http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NS http://togodb.bios ...

175

Taxonomy Icon Data: common brandling worm [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available common brandling worm Eisenia fetida Annelida Eisenia_fetida_L.png Eisenia_fetida_NL.png Eisenia ... nia_fetida_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=L http://biosciencedbc ... .jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=NL http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=S http://biosciencedbc ... .jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=NS http://togodb.biosc ...

176

Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_L.png Synechocysti ... p_PCC_6803_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http:// ... biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http:/ ... /biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http:// ... biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NS http:/ ...

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Taxonomy Icon Data: malaria parasite P. falciparum [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available malaria parasite P. falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium_falciparum_L.png Plasmodium_falc ... falciparum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Plasmodium+falciparum&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Plasmodium+falciparum&t=NL http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Plasmodium+falciparum&t=S http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Plasmodium+falciparum&t=NS http://togod ...

178

Taxonomy Icon Data: African clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available African clawed frog Xenopus laevis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_laevis_L.png Xenopus_lae ... pus_laevis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=L http://biosciencedbc ... .jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NL http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=S http://biosciencedbc ... .jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NS http://togodb.biosc ...

179

Taxonomy Icon Data: Halocynthia roretzi (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Halocynthia roretzi (Sea squirt) Halocynthia roretzi Chordata/Urochordata,Cephalochordata Halocy ... ia_roretzi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=NL http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=S http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=NS http://togodb. ...

180

Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_japonica_ ... a_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=L http://biosciencedbc. ... jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc ... .jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc. ... jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NS http://togodb.biosci ...

 
 
 
 
181

Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Arthropoda Tribolium_castaneum_L.png Tribolium_castaneum_NL ... _castaneum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=NL http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=S http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=NS ...

182

[Identification and taxonomy of Enterococci].  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterococci belong to lactic acid bacteria group. Wide distribution and a variety of their properties are of interest for researchers for a long time. Genus Enterococcus is a group of bacteria heterogeneous by their phenotypic characteristics. The review presented the current status of question concerning enterococci taxonomy that has undergone significant changes during the last decades. Microbiologic methods of identification are considered and analyzed. Special attention was given to the problems that may occur during genus identification of enterococci and during differentiation of closely related species. The use of molecular-genetic methods of identification let to overcome disadvantages of phenotypic identification of bacteria genus Enterococcus. The need of the use of molecular methods of identification was shown, basic approaches were listed, their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. PMID:21117297

Garmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

2010-01-01

183

Psychomotor Domain Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Pennsylvania State University's "Teaching and Learning with Technology" program presents an overview of Bloom's Psychomotor Domain Taxonomy, which is characterized by progressive levels of behaviors from observation to mastery of a physical skill. Definitions and examples are given of the four levels, along with behavioral verbs appropriate for the psychomotor domain. The site also features an extensive directory of links to ideas that will assist in the development of high-quality instruction.

University, Pennsylvania S.

184

Taxonomy and environmental policy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1992, with the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro and the subsequent Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the world changed for the science of taxonomy. Many taxonomists appear not to have noticed this change, but it has significantly altered the political climate in which taxonomic research is undertaken. By the late 1990s it was clear that effective implementation of the CBD needed the participation of and funding for the taxonomic community. ...

Samper, Cristia?n

2004-01-01

185

Potential ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats in Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis, an often-fatal tick-borne apicomplexan that infects domestic cats, has not been evaluated or identified despite its continued emergence. Infection of C. felis is characterized by lethargy, icterus, fever, anorexia, anemia, and death. The natural vertebrate reservoir of C. felis is the bobcat (Lynx rufus). To determine the possible distribution of C. felis in three states where infection is common (Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas), two separate approaches to ecological niche modeling were implemented. First, a model relating several different climatic layers to geographic locations where cases of C. felis infection were confirmed in domestic cats was developed to predict the possible distribution of the parasite. The second model incorporated occurrences of bobcats with environmental layers and land cover suitable for tick vectors to identify areas of overlap where C. felis transmission was likely. Results of both models indicated a high probability of C. felis from central Oklahoma to south-central Missouri. However, other predicted areas of C. felis occurrence varied between the two modeling approaches. Modeling the vertebrate reservoir and the tick vector predicted a broader possible distribution compared to modeling cases of C. felis infection in domestic cats. Our results suggest that C. felis is likely to extend beyond areas predicted by case modeling due to the presence of both the vector and reservoir. PMID:23131576

Mueller, Elisha K; Baum, Kristen A; Pape?, Monica; Cohn, Leah A; Cowell, Annette K; Reichard, Mason V

2013-02-18

186

Distribution, habitat use and ecology of deepwater Anemones (Actiniaria) in the Gulf of Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of deepwater Actiniaria is poorly known. Rarely are these organisms identified to family, as this requires both well-preserved specimens and taxonomic expertise. Ecological information is similarly lacking. From the results of a comprehensive surveying program in the deep Gulf of Mexico, we report the occurrence of nine species of Actiniaria. For the most abundant four of these, we plot distributions and discuss habitat use, morphological variation, and feeding strategies. Actiniaria in the Gulf appear to have broad, basin-wide distributions with little depth preference. Faunal biomass is highest in the NE Gulf within submarine canyons or at the base of slope escarpments. Attachment mode is mostly opportunistic on various types of hard substrata, including trash. Sediment-dwelling forms are very abundant at an organically rich site within a large submarine canyon.

Ammons, Archie W.; Daly, Marymegan

2008-12-01

187

Past, present and future distributions of an Iberian Endemic, Lepus granatensis: ecological and evolutionary clues from species distribution models.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of species distribution models (SDMs) in ecology and conservation biology is increasing and assuming an important role, mainly because they can be used to hindcast past and predict current and future species distributions. However, the accuracy of SDMs depends on the quality of the data and on appropriate theoretical frameworks. In this study, comprehensive data on the current distribution of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) were used to i) determine the species' ecogeographical constraints, ii) hindcast a climatic model for the last glacial maximum (LGM), relating it to inferences derived from molecular studies, and iii) calibrate a model to assess the species future distribution trends (up to 2080). Our results showed that the climatic factor (in its pure effect and when it is combined with the land-cover factor) is the most important descriptor of the current distribution of the Iberian hare. In addition, the model's output was a reliable index of the local probability of species occurrence, which is a valuable tool to guide species management decisions and conservation planning. Climatic potential obtained for the LGM was combined with molecular data and the results suggest that several glacial refugia may have existed for the species within the major Iberian refugium. Finally, a high probability of occurrence of the Iberian hare in the current species range and a northward expansion were predicted for future. Given its current environmental envelope and evolutionary history, we discuss the macroecology of the Iberian hare and its sensitivity to climate change. PMID:23272115

Acevedo, Pelayo; Melo-Ferreira, José; Real, Raimundo; Alves, Paulo Célio

2012-01-01

188

Ocean distribution, feeding ecology, and return of Pacific salmon in the 1997 El Nino event year  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the 1997 El Nino event on the offshore distribution, migration and feeding ecology of Pacific salmon in the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea, and on the return pattern of Japanese chum salmon, was studied. The run pattern of adult chum salmon showed extreme fluctuation by area and run timing. The 1997 abundance and return rate of early runs was significantly increased in the Okhotsk and Nemuro regions compared to the previous five-year means but the abundance and return rate of Japan Sea populations and some of the late runs was decreased. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Kaeriyama, M. [Hokkaido Tokai Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Urawa, S.; Fukuwaka, M. [National Salmon Resources Centre, Nakanoshima, Sapporo (Japan); Myers, K.W.; Davis, N.D. [Washington Univ., Fisheries Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Takagi, S.; Ueda, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Faculty of Fisheries, Hakodate, Hokkaido (Japan); Nagasawa, K.; Ishida, Y. [National Research Inst. of Far Seas Fisheries, Shimizu, Shizuoka (Japan)

1998-12-31

189

Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

Beatley, J.C.

1976-01-01

190

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

Spotila, J.R.

1992-11-01

191

A topographic feature taxonomy for a U.S. national topographic mapping ontology  

Science.gov (United States)

Using legacy feature lists from the U.S. National Topographic Mapping Program of the twentieth century, a taxonomy of features is presented for purposes of developing a national topographic feature ontology for geographic mapping and analysis. After reviewing published taxonomic classifications, six basic classes are suggested; terrain, surface water, ecological regimes, built-up areas, divisions, and events. Aspects of ontology development are suggested as the taxonomy is described.

Varanka, Dalia E.

2013-01-01

192

Ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of phytoplankton in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit. Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytoplankton species are an important basis of the food web for various systems such as pelagic, coastal and lake. Due to their photosynthetic capacity, this community is sensitive to changes in light availability, temperature, nutrient concentrations, herbivores consumption, parasitism and competition. Therefore, they show a high spatial and temporal variability related to environmental changes both natural and anthropogenic. However, as any taxonomic group, phytoplankton species have environmental thresholds, ecological niches that define their distribution. This study was located in Aguamilpa Dam, an artificial aquatic reservoir which started operations in 1994 for electric energy production. In this system the potential distribution of the phytoplankton was evaluated, where the highest species richness and restricted distribution areas were identified. Potential distribution models based on ecological niche definition were generated using ArcMap 9.2® with Maxent (Maximun Entropy Method. The development of distribution maps was carried out using Digital Elevation Models in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha, based on nine physico-chemical and biological water parameters monitored in the reservoir. The highest species richness areas were found in the Huaynamota river tributary and at the station called La Confluencia, while the less abundance areas were found in the Santiago river tributary during warm and cold dry seasons with a great abundance of cyanophyta. During the rainfall season, the Huaynamota river tributary diversity areas were extended and the presence of some dominant species of cyanophyta were indentified. These species can be associated with trophic processes related to anthropogenic pollutants in the reservoir. This study illustrates the potential application of niche modeling approach in aquatic ecosystems.

Humberto Macias-Cuellar

2010-12-01

193

The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Siqueira, Marinez Ferreira de; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

2014-01-01

194

Predicting the potential geographical distribution of Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) based on ecological niche modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhodnius neglectus is frequently found in palm trees and bird nests in sylvatic environments. However, adult specimens infected by Trypanosoma cruzi have been invading houses in central Brazil. Analyzing and predicting the geographical distribution of this species may improve vector surveillance strategies for Chagas disease. Ecological niche modeling using the genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) was applied to predict the geographical distribution of R. neglectus from occurrence records and a set of 23 predictor variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation, altitude, and vegetation). Additionally, the geographical distribution of R. neglectus was compared with the geographical distribution of four species of palm trees and two species of birds from the study region. The models were able to predict, with high probability, the occurrence of R. neglectus as a regular (although nonendemic) species of the Cerrado biome in central Brazil. Caatinga, Amazonian savanna, Pantanal, and the Bolivian Chaco appear as areas with lower probabilities of potential occurrence for the species. A great overlap was observed between the distribution of R. neglectus, palm trees (Acrocomia aculeata and Syagrus oleracea), and birds (Phacellodomus ruber and Pseudoseisura cristata). By including new records for R. neglectus (from both sylvatic and domestic environments), our study showed a distribution increase toward the west and northeast areas of Brazil in the "diagonal of open/dry ecoregions of South America". These results should aid Chagas disease vector surveillance programs, given that household invasion by Rhodnius species maintains the risk of disease transmission and limits control strategies. PMID:19645302

Gurgel-Goncalves, Rodrigo; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba

2009-07-01

195

Taxonomy Icon Data: Reeve's pond turtle [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Reeve's ... pond turtle Chinemys ... reeves ii Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Chinemys _reeves ii_L.png C ... hinemys _reeves ii_NL.png Chinemys _reeves ii_S .png Chinemys _r ... eeves ii_NS .png http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico ... n.cgi?i=Chinemys +reeves ii&t=L http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Chinemys +reeves ii&t=NL http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

196

The ecological distribution of reproductive mode in oribatid mites, as related to biological complexity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high incidence of asexuality in oribatid mites presents an unusual opportunity for examining hypotheses for the maintenance of sex. There is a presumed range in age of asexual species: many oribatid species are phylogenetically clustered, occurring in speciose early-derivative families or genera without sexual species, while others are phylogenetically isolated from other asexual species, occurring in later derivative taxa with sexual congeners. We examined the distribution of oribatid mite reproductive mode in soil of corn fields, grassy and shrub fields, and forests in central New York State (three replicate plots of each type, with 25 samples per plot), to test three ecological predictions from current theory. (1) If overall biotic uncertainty, as generated by competitors and predators, mediates the ecological distribution of oribatid mites, then the proportion of asexual oribatid mites should be negatively correlated with biological diversity; we examine this prediction using literature data as well. (2) If Muller's Ratchet (the stochastic loss of best genotypes, which is independent of environment), mediates the success of asexuality, then no ecological pattern should exist. (3) If general purpose genotypes are characteristic of asexual oribatid mites, their habitat distribution should be broader than that of sexual species. For each plot the level of asexuality was compared to indices of overall biotic diversity, as calculated from the pooled oribatid mite (competitors) and mesostigmatid mite (predator) communities. We found no negative correlation in this relationship in our own data or in the literature analysis of 290 faunal surveys from 50 literature sources, so we reject biotic uncertainty as an important determinant of reproductive mode distribution. When only data on phylogenetically clustered asexuals are considered, there is instead a positive correlation between asexuality and diversity that is not explained. Because of the latter pattern we tentatively reject Muller's Ratchet as the primary factor maintaining reproductive mode in these mites, but cannot reject it for isolated asexual species. Niche breadth in sexual and asexual oribatid mites provides no support for widespread general purpose genotypes but broad patterns in the literature suggest that the idea needs further investigation. Possible complicating or unknown factors that are discussed include historical disturbance in the study area, the relationship between parasitism and general biotic diversity, and the level and source of genetic diversity in asexual oribatid mites. PMID:16900312

Cianciolo, Jennifer M; Norton, Roy A

2006-01-01

197

Genomic taxonomy of vibrios  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. RESULTS: We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae andV. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.). A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. CONCLUSION: The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.

2009-01-01

198

Genomic taxonomy of vibrios  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ? 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

Iida Tetsuya

2009-10-01

199

Diversity, distribution and ecology of benthic molluscan communities on the Portuguese continental shelf  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity, ecology and distribution patterns of the Portuguese continental shelf malacofauna and its relationship with abiotic factors were studied from samples covering the western and the southern coast. A total of 2544 specimens were identified corresponding to 169 taxa, mostly bivalves (62% of the total taxa). Abra alba was the most abundant and the most frequent species. The alpha diversity ranged from one species to 21 spp. 0.1 m- 2. The highest abundance and diversity were obtained in coarser sediments. Multivariate analysis based on the abundance data identified five major malacological groups: (a) Angulus pygmaeus and Thracia villosiuscula in the coarser sediments of the western inner and mid shelf; (b) Calyptraea chinensis and Leptochiton cancellatus in the heterogeneous and organically enriched sediments of the southern shelf; (c) Angulus fabula, Spisula subtruncata and Pharus legumen in the near shore exposed fine sands; (d) A. alba in muddy fine sands, mainly in the northwestern shelf and (e) Saccella commutata in the southwestern deeper shelf. The malacofauna could be used as a proxy for the major benthic communities known to occur in this area, except in muddy patches, where molluscs were absent or low abundant. Median grain-size, gravel content, depth and hydrodynamic regime were the environmental factors best related to the malacofauna spatial distribution patterns. This study sets the first record of Astarte borealis, Leptochiton asellus, Mercenaria mercenaria and Montacuta phascolionis in the Portuguese shelf and the most northern limit for Anadara polii, Glycymeris nummaria, and Leptochiton algesirensis along the northwestern shelf. This study also gives new ecological insights for several species, in terms of bathymetric range distribution, as well as habitat type and highlighted the transitional characteristics of the molluscan communities from this particular northeastern Atlantic area where boreal, temperate and subtropical faunas can coexist.

Martins, R.; Sampaio, L.; Quintino, V.; Rodrigues, A. M.

2014-10-01

200

Potential distribution of Mexican primates: modeling the ecological niche with the maximum entropy algorithm.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a potential distribution model for the tropical rain forest species of primates of southern Mexico: the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra), the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata), and the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). To do so, we applied the maximum entropy algorithm from the ecological niche modeling program MaxEnt. For each species, we used occurrence records from scientific collections, and published and unpublished sources, and we also used the 19 environmental coverage variables related to precipitation and temperature from WorldClim to develop the models. The predicted distribution of A. pigra was strongly associated with the mean temperature of the warmest quarter (23.6%), whereas the potential distributions of A. palliata and A. geoffroyi were strongly associated with precipitation during the coldest quarter (52.2 and 34.3% respectively). The potential distribution of A. geoffroyi is broader than that of the Alouatta spp. The areas with the greatest probability of presence of A. pigra and A. palliata are strongly associated with riparian vegetation, whereas the presence of A. geoffroyi is more strongly associated with the presence of rain forest. Our most significant contribution is the identification of areas with a high probability of the presence of these primate species, which is information that can be applied to planning future studies and then establishing criteria for the creation of areas to primate conservation in Mexico. PMID:21404094

Vidal-García, Francisca; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata, capuchins (Cebus capucinus, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii. Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi, congo (Alouatta palliata, cara blanca (Cebus capucinus, y tití (Saimiri oerstedii. La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliográfica. Se estudió su diversidad genética utilizando electroforesis de isoenzimas. El riesgo de extinción se evaluó usando información bibliográfica. Se encontró que las cuatro especies presentaban variación en todos estos rasgos. Con estos datos, se realizó una correlación de Pearson entre el riesgo de extinción y las variables indicadoras de la distribución geográfica, los rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida y la diversidad genética, para aquellas especies con una amplia distribución geográfica. Se encontró una asociación entre el riesgo de extinción y la natalidad y la tasa de crecimiento poblacional; las especies con menor natalidad y menor tasa de crecimiento poblacional tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción; las especies con mayor diversidad genética tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se discute la importancia de estos rasgos para la conservación de estas especies.

María E Zaldívar

2004-09-01

202

Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran. Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN. Vegetation was classified into different groups. The topographic conditions were recorded in quadrate locations. Soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. Soil acidity, bulk density, saturation moisture, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchangeable capacity, available phosphorous, soil texture, lime, biomass of earthworms, litter carbon and litter nitrogen were measured. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patters were mainly related to soil characteristics such as pH, bulk density, texture, phosphorous, organic carbon, nitrogen and CEC. Totally, considering the habitat conditions and ecological needs, each plant species has a significant relation with soil properties.

Y. Kooch

2007-01-01

203

Methodological approaches for studying the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has traditionally been based on culturing organisms from bulk water samples. The development and application of molecular methods has supplied new tools for examining the microbial diversity and activity of environmental samples, yielding new insights into the microbial community and its diversity within these engineered ecosystems. In this review, the currently available methods and emerging approaches for characterising microbial communities, including both planktonic and biofilm ways of life, are critically evaluated. The study of biofilms is considered particularly important as it plays a critical role in the processes and interactions occurring at the pipe wall and bulk water interface. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of methods that can be used to detect and assess microbial abundance, community composition and function are discussed in a DWDS context. This review will assist hydraulic engineers and microbial ecologists in choosing the most appropriate tools to assess drinking water microbiology and related aspects. PMID:25105587

Douterelo, Isabel; Boxall, Joby B; Deines, Peter; Sekar, Raju; Fish, Katherine E; Biggs, Catherine A

2014-11-15

204

Ecological Distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray-A New Exotic Weed in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Ecological distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray was studied in six states of the southwestern Nigeria using three locations in each of the States. The presence of T. diversifolia was recorded in all the States and locations surveyed in varying numbers with associated weeds. Survey data were analysed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA. The first two ordination axes of the DCA accounted for 67.2% (Axis 1, 40.6%; Axis 2, 26.6% of variance on the site and species components. The DCA separated Ogun State locations from others. T. diversifolia was found to be closely associated with Boerhavia coccinea, Fleurya ovaliflora, Indigofera subulata, Merremia dissecta, Mimosa pudica, Momordica foetida, Phyllanthus mimosoides, other species of Phyllanthus, Physalis angulata, Schrankia leptocarpa and Sesbania parchycarpa in Ekiti, Lagos, Ondo, Osun and Oyo States while these species were absent in Ogun State.

K.S. Chukwuka

2007-01-01

205

Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study*  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country. PMID:25387516

Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Miot, Helio Amante

2014-01-01

206

Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records [...] of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country.

Juliano Vilaverde, Schmitt; Hélio Amante, Miot.

1013-10-01

207

Taxonomy Working Group Final Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the Taxonomy Working Group was to develop a proposal for a common taxonomy to be used by all NASA projects in the classifying of nonconformances, anomalies, and problems. Specifically, the group developed a recommended list of data elements along with general suggestions for the development of a problem reporting system to better serve NASA's need for managing, reporting, and trending project aberrant events. The Group's recommendations are reported in this document.

Parsons, Vickie S.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Barth, Timothy S.; Panontin, Tina L.; Wales, Roxana; Rackley, Michael W.; Milne, James S.; McPherson, John W.; Dutra, Jayne E.; Shaw, Larry C.

2009-01-01

208

Macrophyte distribution and ecological status of the Turiec River (Slovakia: Changes after seven years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characteristics of diversity, abundance, distribution, and ecological status of aquatic macrophytes were observed in 2000 and 2007 on a circa 4.5 km long section of the Turiec River using Kohler's method. In comparison to 2000, the total number of macrophytes in 2007 increased markedly (from 25 to 35, although only the numbers of amphi­phytes and helophytes were changed substantially. The number of hydrophytes increased from 11 to 12; an invasive, Elodea canadenis, was the only new species. The relative plant mass of hydrophytes represents the bulk of all recorded species (95 and 80% in 2000 and 2007, respectively, and it was changed for most hydrophytes. The most significant changes were detected for Myriophyllum spicatum (decrease, filamentous algae (decrease, and Potamogeton crispus (increase. In 2007, the mean mass total (MMT sum of hydrophytes decreased from 16.46 to 14.5. On the other hand, the MMTsum of amphiphytes and helophytes doubled in value (7.4 and 14.1 in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Within hydrophytes, Batrachium species (including B. aquatile and B. trichophyllum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous (distribution ratio d > 0.5 in 2000, whereas in 2007 only Batrachium species and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous. At all times, Batrachium species were the most frequent species in the study area, and their abundance was relatively high (MMT> 2.5. A poor ecological status (MMP = 0.378 and MMP = 0.333 in 2000 and 2007, respectively of the surveyed river section was found in both years, but a slight decline of quality as determined on the basis of aquatic plants was observed after 7 years.

Hrivnák R.

2009-01-01

209

[Regional distribution and ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in surface sediments from coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta].  

Science.gov (United States)

Characteristics of heavy metal distributions in surface sediments of different areas in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland are analyzed, and the influences of sediment environment on heavy metal distributions are discussed. Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risk in surface sediments of the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland are estimated by using Hakanson potential ecological risk (PER) factors method. The analyzed results indicate that the average contents of Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr are 0.034, 18.733, 19.393, 65.317, 0.235 and 62.940 microg x g(-1), respectively. The heavy metal distributions vary with regional environment changes. The accumulating index of heavy metals in the current outfall area is the highest of the three regions assigned by author,the second is that of the ancient Yellow River Delta in the north of Shandong province, and the lowest is that of the abandoned delta. Heavy metal distributions in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland are affected significantly by hydrodynamic system. In addition, the content of clay in surface sediments plays an important role in the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals. The results also suggest that the heavy metal pollution in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland is in a low pollution level, with a comprehensive pollution index varying from 0.10 to 4.14. And element Cr is the major pollution factor and its average of single pollution index is 0.63. The order of pollution extents of six typical pollutants is Cr > Cu > Zn > Cd > Pb > Hg. The comprehensive potential ecological risk index is between 0.46 and 51.88, indicating a low potential ecological risk. The order of potential ecological risk parameter is Cd > Hg > Cu > Cr > Pb > Zn. Element Cd is also the major factor of potential ecological risks in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland. PMID:22720563

Liu, Zhi-Jie; Li, Pei-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Li, Ping; Zhu, Long-Hai

2012-04-01

210

Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest), located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in th [...] e study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species) and Polypodiaceae (22 species). The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species) and Thelypteris (9 species). Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

Anna Flora de Novaes, Pereira; Ivo Abraão Araújo da, Silva; Augusto César Pessôa, Santiago; Iva Carneiro Leão, Barros.

211

Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest), located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in th [...] e study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species) and Polypodiaceae (22 species). The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species) and Thelypteris (9 species). Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

Anna Flora de Novaes, Pereira; Ivo Abraão Araújo da, Silva; Augusto César Pessôa, Santiago; Iva Carneiro Leão, Barros.

2013-12-01

212

Micromamíferos (Didelphimorphia y Rodentia) del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina): Taxonomía y distribución / Small mammals (Didelphimorphia and Rodentia) from southwestern Buenos Aires province, Argentina: Taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Species of small mammals from southwestern Buenos Aires province range within a wide variety of habitats, herbaceous (Pampean District), shrubs (Monte District), steppes, and xerophytic woodlands (Espinal District). Their natural history is still poorly known. In this paper we make a synthesis of th [...] e taxonomy and distribution of the marsupials (Marmosinae) and rodents (Sigmodontinae) of southwestern Buenos Aires province. Distributional records and taxonomical information were obtained from field survey, analyses of raptor pellets, revision of specimens housed in collections in Argentina, and literature. Between Sierra de la Ventana (38º S) and the río Negro (41ºS) occur two species of marmosines and 14 of sigmodontine rodents. Some of these species show a restricted distribution (e.g., Phyllotis xanthopygus, endemic for Sierra de la Ventana), and others are widespread (e.g. Akodon azarae or Calomys musculinus) across different phytogeographic units. A cluster analysis at local scale shows an ordination of small mammal assemblages with the topology (Sierra de la Ventana + Southern AtlanticCoast) (Espinal + Monte). The zoogeographic unicity of the Monte in the study area is evidenced by two sigmodontines, Akodon iniscatus and Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. The micromammal assemblage of Sierra de la Ventana may be characterized as pampasic. The wide distribution of A. azarae and C. musculinus may reflect the anthropic activities developed during the last century. These activities on shrub steppe have certainly diluted the original zoogeographic boundaries and allowed the dispersion of opportunistic sigmodontine species.

Ulyses F. J., Pardiñas; Agustín M., Abba; Mariano L., Merino.

213

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

Science.gov (United States)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

2013-11-01

214

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources

Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael

2013-01-01

215

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

A. P. Palacz

2013-05-01

216

Distribution and feeding ecology of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) in Greenland waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenland sharks are widely distributed and most likely a highly abundant predator in arctic waters. Greenland sharks have previously been considered scavengers, but recent studies suggest that Greenland sharks also predate on live prey. In this study, distribution and feeding ecology in Greenland waters were investigated. Based on data from 25 years of surveys, Greenland sharks were usually caught at 400–700 m but were found at all depths between 100 and 1,200 m. Based on examination of stomachs from 30 Greenland sharks (total length of 258–460 cm), the most important prey items were Atlantic cod (65.6 % IRI), harp seal (9.9 % IRI), skates (5.2 % IRI) and wolffish (4.4 % IRI), but large geographical variations were observed. Prey composition and qualitative observations support the hypothesis of active predation. Consistent with other studies, the results of this work support the notion that the Greenland shark is an apex predator with the potential to influence trophic dynamics in the Arctic.

Steffensen, John Fleng

2014-01-01

217

[Ecological distribution and spatial niche of pheasants in the Karst mountains of southwest Guangxi Province, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Karst mountain area along the Sino-Vietnam border of southwest Guangxi has been designated a "Global Biodiversity Hotspot" since 2003. We conducted a survey of pheasant species in this area, with seven species recorded, namely Chinese Francolin (Francolinus pintadeanus), Bar-backed Partridge (Arborophila brunneopectus), Mountain Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola fytchii), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) and Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Analysis and comparison of the distribution and spatial niche of these seven pheasant species revealed that Red Junglefowl had the widest spatial niche, while Chinese Francolin had the narrowest. The spatial niche overlap index was high between Chinese Francolin and the Common Pheasant, Chinese Bamboo Partridge, and Red Junglefowl. With narrow distribution range, small population, and lower ecological adaptability, it is likely that the Bar-backed Partridge is the most vulnerable pheasant species in this area. The results suggest more research and conservation measures are required for pheasant habitat protection in the Karst areas of southwest Guangxi. PMID:22006809

Yu, Chen-Xing; Yang, Gang; Li, Dong; Zhou, Fang

2011-10-01

218

Ecology Drives the Distribution of Specialized Tyrosine Metabolism Modules in Fungi  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene clusters encoding accessory or environmentally specialized metabolic pathways likely play a significant role in the evolution of fungal genomes. Two such gene clusters encoding enzymes associated with the tyrosine metabolism pathway (KEGG #00350) have been identified in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The l-tyrosine degradation (TD) gene cluster encodes a functional module that facilitates breakdown of the phenolic amino acid, l-tyrosine through a homogentisate intermediate, but is also involved in the production of pyomelanin, a fungal pathogenicity factor. The gentisate catabolism (GC) gene cluster encodes a functional module likely involved in phenolic compound degradation, which may enable metabolism of biphenolic stilbenes in multiple lineages. Our investigation of the evolution of the TD and GC gene clusters in 214 fungal genomes revealed spotty distributions partially shaped by gene cluster loss and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Specifically, a TD gene cluster shows evidence of HGT between the extremophilic, melanized fungi Exophiala dermatitidis and Baudoinia compniacensis, and a GC gene cluster shows evidence of HGT between Sordariomycete and Dothideomycete grass pathogens. These results suggest that the distribution of specialized tyrosine metabolism modules is influenced by both the ecology and phylogeny of fungal species. PMID:24391152

Greene, George H.; McGary, Kriston L.; Rokas, Antonis; Slot, Jason C.

2014-01-01

219

Ecological variables governing habitat suitability and the distribution of the endangered Juliana’s golden mole  

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Full Text Available Juliana’s golden mole (Neamblysomus julianae occurs in three isolated populations in the northeastern parts of South Africa. This cryptic species is not evenly distributed throughout its restricted range and appears to have very specific habitat requirements. Its endangered status reflects the necessity for a conservation management programme, which to date has not been comprehensive. A primary hindrance to such initiatives has been the lack of information pertaining to its habitat requirements.We assessed various soil and vegetation parameters, at each population site, in areas where the animals were found to be present or absent. A multiple logistic regression model highlighted the importance of soil hardness (governed by soil particle size distribution, in combination with the cover provided by trees, as the two ecological factors that best explained habitat suitability for Juliana’s golden mole at the three localities. An IndVal analysis failed to identify any plant species that could reliably act as an indicator of habitat suitability for this fossorial mammal. These results have important implications for the conservation of the species.

Nigel C. Bennett

2011-10-01

220

Predicted distribution of major malaria vectors belonging to the Anopheles dirus complex in Asia: ecological niche and environmental influences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods derived from ecological niche modeling allow to define species distribution based on presence-only data. This is particularly useful to develop models from literature records such as available for the Anopheles dirus complex, a major group of malaria mosquito vectors in Asia. This research defines an innovative modeling design based on presence-only model and hierarchical framework to define the distribution of the complex and attempt to delineate sibling species distribution and environmental preferences. At coarse resolution, the potential distribution was defined using slow changing abiotic factors such as topography and climate representative for the timescale covered by literature records of the species. The distribution area was then refined in a second step using a mask of current suitable land cover. Distribution area and ecological niche were compared between species and environmental factors tested for relevance. Alternatively, extreme values at occurrence points were used to delimit environmental envelopes. The spatial distribution for the complex was broadly consistent with its known distribution and influencing factors included temperature and rainfall. If maps developed from environmental envelopes gave similar results to modeling when the number of sites was high, the results were less similar for species with low number of recorded presences. Using presence-only models and hierarchical framework this study not only predicts the distribution of a major malaria vector, but also improved ecological modeling analysis design and proposed final products better adapted to malaria control decision makers. The resulting maps can help prioritizing areas which need further investigation and help simulate distribution under changing conditions such as climate change or reforestation. The hierarchical framework results in two products one abiotic based model describes the potential maximal distribution and remains valid for decades and the other including a biotic mask easy to update with frequently available information gives current species distribution. PMID:23226292

Obsomer, Valerie; Defourny, Pierre; Coosemans, Marc

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predom...

Trenkel, Verena; Huse, G.; Mackenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Gon?i, N.; Gre?goire, F.; Ha?tu?n, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, Patrizio; Melvin, G. D.

2014-01-01

222

Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the view...

Karami, T.; Soleimani, M.; Afrakhteh, H.; Hataminejad, H.

2012-01-01

223

Imaging performance taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant challenge in the adoption of today's digital imaging standards is a clear connection to how they relate to today's vernacular digital imaging vocabulary. Commonly used terms like resolution, dynamic range, delta E, white balance, exposure, or depth of focus are mistakenly considered measurements in their own right and are frequently depicted as a disconnected shopping list of individual metrics with little common foundation. In fact many of these are simple summary measures derived from more fundamental imaging science/engineering metrics, adopted in existing standard protocols. Four important underlying imaging performance metrics are; Spatial Frequency Response (SFR), Opto-Electronic Conversion Function (OECF), Noise Power Spectrum (NPS), and Spatial Distortion. We propose an imaging performance taxonomy. With a primary focus on image capture performance, our objective is to indicate connections between related imaging characteristics, and provides context for the array of commonly used terms. Starting with the concepts of Signal and Noise, the above imaging performance metrics are related to several simple measures that are compatible with testing for design verification, manufacturing quality assurance, and technology selection evaluation.

Williams, Don; Burns, Peter D.; Scarff, Larry

2009-01-01

224

Design Thinking Taxonomy: Providing Clarity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main aim of this paper is to present a taxonomy for design thinking, its central themes and how they are related. Previous research has successfully pointed out that design thinking is vaguely and diversely defined, presenting eight different discourses (Johansson-Sko?ldberg et al. 2013). Although design thinking has been viewed from different perspectives with diverse results, much current research use the terms of design thinking without clarification of the relation to one another. This creates confusion of what the term actually covers. The lack of a well-defined taxonomy makes it difficult to clearly establish which variables (aspects of design thinking) are causing the observed effect. Thereby the vague theoretical systems of design thinking are transferred into adjacent fields, decreasing the theoretical explicitness and quality of the conducted research. The focus of this paper is to identify the core topics from key literature and collect them in taxonomy. Firstly a literature review is carriedout to clarify the main topics and contributions of the design thinking field. Subsequently the taxonomy is developed and discussed. This paper contributes with an explicitness of the concept, a precise and clear taxonomy of the concept of design thinking.

Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

2014-01-01

225

Fine-Scale Distribution Patterns of Synechococcus Ecological Diversity in Microbial Mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-tim vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to °2' pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O2 concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes.

Becraft, Eric D.; Cohan, Frederick M.

2011-01-01

226

Fine-Scale Distribution Patterns of Synechococcus Ecological Diversity in Microbial Mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-tim vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to °2' pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O2 concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes.

Becraft, Eric D.; Cohan, Frederick M.

2011-01-01

227

Distribution and ecology of Dreissena polymorpha (pallas) and Dreissena bugensis (andrusov) in the upper Volga basin  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents data on contemporary distribution patterns of two species of Dreissenidae, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the Quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis), and their role in ecosystem processes in the Ivan'kovo, Uglich, Rybinsk, and Gorky Reservoirs of the Upper Volga River basin. The role of zebra mussel was also studied in experimental mesocosms of 15 m3. Maximum abundance and species diversity of macroinvertebrates, especially of leeches, polychaetes, crustaceans, and heterotopic insects, were attained in the portions of reservoirs where Dreissenidae were present and in experimental mesocosms where zebra mussel biomass was the highest. In the mesocosm studies, the presence of zebra mussel druses (colonies) provided shelter for macroinvertebrates, reducing their vulnerability to predation by perch (Perca fluviatills) larvae and yearlings, thereby increasing macroinvertebrate species diversity. It was shown that in addition to its role in aquatic biocenosis (ecological community) formation and water purification, Dreissenidae are important food objects for benthophagous fishes, especially roach (Rutilus rutilus). Examination of intestines of benthophagous fishes showed that the length of Dreissenidae ranged from 5 to 20 mm in roach; from 4 to 14 mm in silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna), and from 2 to 10 mm in bream (Abramis brama). The largest mussels consumed were Quagga mussels up to 30 mm, noted in the predatory cyprinid, ide (Leuciscus idus). Copyright ?? 2006 by ASTM International.

Shcherbina, G. Kh.; Buckler, D. R.

2006-01-01

228

Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of sediments, attention has seldom been paid to the problem in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to find the distribution and ecological risk of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in surface sediment of Baiyangdian which is the biggest wetland in Northeast China. We apply three methodologies. The first is literature analysis comparing total concentrations of heavy metals with other water bodies around world. The second is Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (EQSS), National Environmental Protection Agency of China 1995, and the third is Soil and Aquatic Sediment Guidelines and Standards issued by New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The results show that compared to other water bodies around the world, the seven heavy metals are low. However, Cd was found in the most polluting level of EQSS near a village and was second grade some distance from it. The village was also the most polluted site of Zn,which was in the second grade. When assessed by NYSDEC, Cu, Cr, and As contaminated the sediment and with moderate impacts on benthic life while Pb, Hg, and Zn were found at tolerable levels throughout Baiyangdian. The centre of Cu and Cr contamination was also near the village. As is the most polluting heavy metals with a major occurrence in the middle of the wetland. There were no heavy metals creating severe disturbance to the benthic communities. Based on the assessment, this article proposes different options for more sustainable management.

Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling

2011-01-01

229

Dynamic taxonomies and faceted search  

CERN Document Server

Current access paradigms for the Web, i.e., direct access via search engines or database queries and navigational access via static taxonomies, have recently been criticized because they are too rigid or simplistic to effectively cope with a large number of practical search applications. A third paradigm, dynamic taxonomies and faceted search, focuses on user-centered conceptual exploration, which is far more frequent in search tasks than retrieval using exact specification, and has rapidly become pervasive in modern Web data retrieval, especially in critical applications such as product selec

Sacco, Giovanni Maria

2009-01-01

230

A Distributed Model of Oilseed Biorefining, via Integrated Industrial Ecology Exchanges  

Science.gov (United States)

As the demand for direct petroleum substitutes increases, biorefineries are poised to become centers for conversion of biomass into fuels, energy, and biomaterials. A distributed model offers reduced transportation, tailored process technology to available feedstock, and increased local resilience. Oilseeds are capable of producing a wide variety of useful products additive to food, feed, and fuel needs. Biodiesel manufacturing technology lends itself to smaller-scale distributed facilities able to process diverse feedstocks and meet demand of critical diesel fuel for basic municipal services, safety, sanitation, infrastructure repair, and food production. Integrating biodiesel refining facilities as tenants of eco-industrial parks presents a novel approach for synergistic energy and material exchanges whereby environmental and economic metrics can be significantly improved upon compared to stand alone models. This research is based on the Catawba County NC EcoComplex and the oilseed crushing and biodiesel processing facilities (capacity-433 tons biodiesel per year) located within. Technical and environmental analyses of the biorefinery components as well as agronomic and economic models are presented. The life cycle assessment for the two optimal biodiesel feedstocks, soybeans and used cooking oil, resulted in fossil energy ratios of 7.19 and 12.1 with carbon intensity values of 12.51 gCO2-eq/MJ and 7.93 gCO2-eq/MJ, respectively within the industrial ecology system. Economic modeling resulted in a biodiesel conversion cost of 1.43 per liter of fuel produced with used cooking oil, requiring a subsidy of 0.58 per liter to reach the break-even point. As subsidies continue significant fluctuation, metrics other than operating costs are required to justify small-scale biofuel projects.

Ferrell, Jeremy C.

231

General Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This tutorial explains how environmental conditions and organism interactions determine animal and tree distribution and abundance. There are definitions of important ecological terms such as ecology, interactions, and abundance; descriptions of the environmental conditions needed for rainforests and how they provide habitat for many species; and an explanation of the spawning process. The tutorial also introduces food chain concepts and the unique ecology of riparian habitats. A quiz is also available.

232

Applied Ecology Seminar. Training Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is material on planning, administering, collecting, evaluating, interpreting, and reporting biological data related to water quality studies in both fresh and marine waters. Topics include aquatic ecology, water pollution, taxonomy, bacteriology, bioassays, water quality enhancement, and administration of water quality standards. Each of…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

233

A Taxonomy of Technical Animation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT. This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

D. Van??ek

2011-01-01

234

Taxonomy for Information Privacy Metrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive privacy framework is essential for the progress of the information privacy field. Some practical implications of a comprehensive framework are laying foundation for building information privacy metrics and having fruitful discussions. Taxonomy is an essential step in building a framework. This research study attempts to build taxonomy for the information privacy domain based on empirical data. The classical grounded theory approach introduced by Glaser was applied and incidents reported by the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP are used for building the taxonomy. These incidents include privacy related current research works, data breaches, personal views, interviews, and technological innovations. TAMZAnalyzer, an open source qualitative data analysis tool, was used in coding, keeping memos, sorting, and creating categories. The taxonomy is presented in seven themes and several categories including legal, technical, and ethical aspects. The findings of this study helps practitioners understand and discuss the subjects and academia work toward building a comprehensive framework and metrics for the information privacy domain.

Rasika Dayarathna

2011-09-01

235

Taxonomy for Information Privacy Metrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive privacy framework is essential for the progress of the information privacy field. Some practical implications of a comprehensive framework are laying foundation for building information privacy metrics and having fruitful discussions. Taxonomy is an essential step in building a framework. This research study attempts to build taxonomy for the information privacy domain based on empirical data. The classical grounded theory approach introduced by Glaser was applied and incidents reported by the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP are used for building the taxonomy. These incidents include privacy related current research works, data breaches, personal views, interviews, and technological innovations. TAMZAnalyzer, an open source qualitative data analysis tool, was used in coding, keeping memos, sorting, and creating categories. The taxonomy is presented in seven themes and several categories including legal, technical, and ethical aspects. The findings of this study helps practitioners understand and discuss the subjects and academia work toward building a comprehensive framework and metrics for the information privacy domain

Rasika Dayarathna

2011-10-01

236

Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hernawan E. 2012. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae. Biodiversitas 13: 118-123. A taxonomic study was conducted on the giant clam’s specimens deposited in Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB, Cibinong Indonesia. Taxonomic overviews of the examined specimens are given with diagnostic characters, remarks, habitat and distribution. Discussion is focused on specific characters distinguishing each species. From seven species known to distribute in Indonesian waters, there are six species, Tridacna squamosa Lamarck, 1819; T. gigas Linnaeus, 1758; T. derasa Roding, 1798; T. crocea Lamarck, 1819; T. maxima Roding,1798; and Hippopus hippopus Linnaeus, 1758. This study suggests the need for collecting specimen of H. porcellanus Rosewater, 1982. Important characters to distinguish species among Tridacninae are interlocking teeth on byssal orifice, life habits, presence of scales and inhalant siphon tentacles.

UDHI EKO HERNAWAN

2012-07-01

237

Ecological Distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl). A. Gray-A New Exotic Weed in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl). A. Gray was studied in six states of the southwestern Nigeria using three locations in each of the States. The presence of T. diversifolia was recorded in all the States and locations surveyed in varying numbers with associated weeds. Survey data were analysed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). The first two ordination axes of the DCA accounted for 67.2% (Axis 1, 40.6%; Axis 2, 26.6%) of variance on the site a...

Chukwuka, K. S.; Ogunyemi, S.; Fawole, I.

2007-01-01

238

Fine-Scale Distribution Patterns of Synechococcus Ecological Diversity in Microbial Mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park?†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-?m vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic l...

Becraft, Eric D.; Cohan, Frederick M.; Ku?hl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I.; Ward, David M.

2011-01-01

239

Ecological and spatial modeling : mapping ecosystems, landscape changes, and plant species distribution in Llanos del Orinoco, Venezuela  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The transformation of Llanos del Orinoco, focused on the flooding savanna, is evaluated in terms of the change and replacement of the savanna ecosystem and the plant species distribution under a Landscape Ecological approach. This research is carried out at three spatial scales: sub-continental, regional and local. At sub-continental scale, monthly composites NOAA-AVHRR normalized vegetation index (NDVI) images were interpreted based on the phenology of savanna ecosystems in the Llanos del Or...

Moreno, E. J. C.

2007-01-01

240

Particulate organic matter distribution along the lower Amazon River: addressing aquatic ecology concepts using fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the greatest challenges in understanding the Amazon basin functioning is to ascertain the role played by floodplains in the organic matter (OM) cycle, crucial for a large spectrum of ecological mechanisms. Fatty acids (FAs) were combined with environmental descriptors and analyzed through multivariate and spatial tools (asymmetric eigenvector maps, AEM and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM). This challenge allowed investigating the distribution of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), in order to trace its seasonal origin and quality, along a 800 km section of the Amazon river-floodplain system. Statistical analysis confirmed that large amounts of saturated FAs (15:0, 18:0, 24:0, 25:0 and 26:0), an indication of refractory OM, were concomitantly recorded with high pCO(2) in rivers, during the high water season (HW). Contrastingly, FAs marker which may be attributed in this ecosystem to aquatic plants (18:2?6 and 18:3?3) and cyanobacteria (16:1?7), were correlated with higher O(2), chlorophyll a and pheopigments in floodplains, due to a high primary production during low waters (LW). Decreasing concentrations of unsaturated FAs, that characterize labile OM, were recorded during HW, from upstream to downstream. Furthermore, using PCNM and AEM spatial methods, FAs compositions of SPOM displayed an upstream-downstream gradient during HW, which was attributed to OM retention and the extent of flooded forest in floodplains. Discrimination of OM quality between the Amazon River and floodplains corroborate higher autotrophic production in the latter and transfer of OM to rivers at LW season. Together, these gradients demonstrate the validity of FAs as predictors of spatial and temporal changes in OM quality. These spatial and temporal trends are explained by 1) downstream change in landscape morphology as predicted by the River Continuum Concept; 2) enhanced primary production during LW when the water level decreased and its residence time increased as predicted by the Flood Pulse Concept. PMID:23029412

Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Rigal, François; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Bernardes, Marcelo; Abril, Gwenaël; Meziane, Tarik

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

On the taxonomy and distribution of Crocidura cossyrensis and Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Soricidae in Maghreb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The paper examines the taxonomic status of North African Crocidura russula Auctorum. On the basis of morphological data, the taxon needs to be divided into at least two species: C. russula (Hermann, 1780 from western Europe, coastal Morocco and middle-western Algeria, up to about the Algiers area, and possibly even Sardinia and Ibiza, and another species, distributed in coastal middle-eastern Algeria, Tunisia, Pantelleria and, possibly, La Galite archipelago. The first and only available name for the above, eastern taxon is Crocidura cossyrensis Contoli, 1989.

Longino Contoli

2001-09-01

242

Query Evaluation in P2P Systems of Taxonomy-based Sources: Algorithms, Complexity, and Optimizations  

CERN Document Server

In this study, we address the problem of answering queries over a peer-to-peer system of taxonomy-based sources. A taxonomy states subsumption relationships between negation-free DNF formulas on terms and negation-free conjunctions of terms. To the end of laying the foundations of our study, we first consider the centralized case, deriving the complexity of the decision problem and of query evaluation. We conclude by presenting an algorithm that is efficient in data complexity and is based on hypergraphs. More expressive forms of taxonomies are also investigated, which however lead to intractability. We then move to the distributed case, and introduce a logical model of a network of taxonomy-based sources. On such network, a distributed version of the centralized algorithm is then presented, based on a message passing paradigm, and its correctness is proved. We finally discuss optimization issues, and relate our work to the literature.

Meghini, Carlo; Analyti, Anastasia

2007-01-01

243

Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the viewpoint of green space function and a great part of the role of urban green space is undertaken by private green spaces. “What effect do private greeneries located in residential areas have on the quality of citizens’ life or what kind of reality is asserted by their development and distribution pattern in the urban life of today’s modern society” were issues of less attention. Thus, considering the interconnection of green space production and distribution pattern (public and private with the rest of natural, social, economic and fabric conditions, the present research benefits from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a dependent variable which has been influenced by ecological, social, fabric and economic variables and has analyzed them to identify effective factors in Tehran inequality urban green space. The present article theoretically makes use of urban political ecology approach and is considered a correlational research. The required data have been prepared and analyzed by some types of software such as ArcGIS, ArcView, IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine, and SPSS. In conducting this research some techniques have been used such as; “Average Distance to Nearest Neighbor”, “Square Analysis”, “Correlational Analysis and Factor Analysis”. 2-Theoretical basis The present study is theoretically based on an urban political ecology approach. Urban components including green space from urban political ecological perspective are considered a kind of social production whose imagination and change are influenced by political economy, dominant pattern of public and private ownership in society (Heynen, Perkins and Roy, 2006: 3. The aforementioned perspective clearly states that urban material conditions which includes urban environment too are controlled and manipulated by the elite and city experts to serve their interests. This issue is conducive to make some of the urban social groups marginalized and deprived from natural riches and urban environmental artifacts. As a result, the quality of urban environment (physically and socially increases in some neighborhoods and decreases in others (Heynen, Kaika and Swyngedouw, 2006: 1-15. Since unequal greenery distribution with creating imbalanced ecological conditions often plays its role in a feedback cycle on environment quality and intensification of inequalities within urban life environment, the present study uses pattern of canopy distribution located in areas of residential uses (private and public to reveal social, economic and spatial inequalities in Tehran. 3- DiscussionThe results of this research in relation to Tehran city confirm the determining position of urban political ecology in forming distribution pattern and density of trees canopy located in areas of Tehran. This is a subject which is confirmed by studies conducted on urban green space (including public and private in the cities such as San Diego, Toronto (by Perkins, Heynen and Wilson 2004, Scobedo and colleagues 2005, Heynen, Perkins and Roy 2006 and Conway, Shakeel and Atallah 2011. Also, so far many researchers on the urban issues of Tehran city (such as Madanipoor 2005, Horkad 2009 have emphasized the conformity of natural topography over social topography in Tehran. The result f this attempt, while confirming aforementioned perspectives, indicated that the distribution pattern of canopy density in residential areas(private urban green space has a greater capability to portray social classifications and environmental quality and as a result spatial inequalities in Tehran city du

T. Karami

2012-01-01

244

Comparative ecology of widely-distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address

Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.

2014-01-01

245

(ecolog* ecosystem* environ* "trophic chain*" distribution abundance biomass* habitat* interspecief* relationship*) (*benth* population* *fauna organism* communit* "flat fish*" raya mollusc* shellfish* crustac* mytil* crassostrea* oyster* pecten echinoderm*)  

Science.gov (United States)

Search instead for (ecolog* ecosystem* environ* "trophic chain*" distribution abundance biomass* habitat* interspecief* relationship*) (*benth* population* *fauna organism* communit* "flat fish*" raya mollusc* shellfish* crustac* mytil* crassostrea* oyster* pecten echinoderm*) ?

246

Distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments along southeast coast of the Caspian Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to evaluate heavy metal concentrations of Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn), their spatial distribution, enrichment factor index (EF), the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk (PER) in two different seasons of the year (winter and summer) in surface sediments along southeast coast of the Caspian Sea. The results indicated that there were significant differences between concentrations of As, Ni and Pb in two different seasons. Considering PER, sediments from southeast Caspian coast had low ecological risk. According to PLI, sediment from the southeast coast had no pollution. Risk assessment showed that As threshold concentrations to occasionally be exceeded in the study area. PMID:24606766

Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Bagheri, Hossein; Kheirabadi, Vahid; Zaferani, Ghasem Ghorbanzadeh; Teymori, Mohammad Bagher; Hamzehpoor, Ali; Soltani, Farzaneh; Haghparast, Sarah; Harami, Sayyed Reza Moussavi; Ghorghani, Nasrin Farzaneh; Ganji, Sahar

2014-04-15

247

Current status of viroid taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids. PMID:25216773

Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

2014-12-01

248

Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial...

Austin Brian

2011-01-01

249

Dynamic taxonomies and guided searches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new search paradigm, in which the primary user activity is the exploration of a complex information space rather than the retrieval of items on the basis of precise specifications, is proposed. We claim that this paradigm is the norm in most practical applications, and that solutions based on traditional search methods are useless in this context. We present a solution based on dynamic taxonomies, a knowledge management model, which effectively guides the user to reach his goal while givin...

Sacco, Giovanni

2006-01-01

250

Application of RAPD Technique in Insect Taxonomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional insect taxonomy was the main way of insect classification, which classified the insects by morphology. However, morphological classification has significant limitations at lower taxonomic levels because it is diffeicult to confirm its taxonomy boundaries. The definition of the taxonomic boundaries at lower level relies on environmental and subjective factors. In recent years, the development in the technology of molecular biology and traditional taxonomy has provided broad prospec...

Li, Guang-jing; Jiang, Shi-hong; Chen, Xiao-qin; Meng, Zi-yi

2009-01-01

251

MURCIÉLAGOS DE UN BOSQUE EN LOS ANDES CENTRALES DE COLOMBIA CON NOTAS SOBRE SU TAXONOMÍA Y DISTRIBUCIÓN / Bats from a forest in the Central Andes of Colombia with notes on their taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la diversidad de murciélagos registrados en un inventario rápido en tres estaciones entre los 2500 y los 3500 m de altitud, sobre la vertiente occidental de la cordillera Central de los Andes colombianos, en el departamento de Caldas. El gradiente de distribución de Anoura aequatoris es [...] ampliado hacia el norte y se sugiere su presencia en otras localidades más septentrionales de la cordillera Central y la Cordillera Oriental. Sturnira aratathomasi, S. erythromos y S. ludovici, fueron capturadas en simpatría mientras que Histiotus montanus e H. humboldti se registraron en estaciones diferentes. Myotis keaysi presentó el gradiente altitudinal más amplio, mientras Carollia brevicauda estuvo restringida a la estación de menor altitud. Los géneros Anoura, Sturnira e Histiotus presentan un patrón de sucesión o reemplazo altitudinal de especies. Considerando la confusión en la identificación de las especies registradas, se presentan comentarios sobre la diferenciación entre ellas y recomendaciones para estudios futuros sobre su taxonomía y distribución. La certeza taxonómica es importante para conocer el estado real de las poblaciones colombianas de murciélagos e identificar patrones básicos para interpretar procesos importantes dentro de los ecosistemas y su estado de conservación. Por el contrario, la información errada, puede implicar consecuencias inmensurables cuando es utilizada y los errores replicados. Abstract in english This paper reports the bat diversity found in a rapid assessment inventory in three stations between 2500 and 3500 masl, along the western slopes of the cordillera Central of Colombia (Departmento of Caldas). The distributional range of Anoura aequatoris is expanded northwards and its presence in mo [...] re western localities of the the cordillera Central and the Oriental is suggested. Sturnira aratathomasi, S. erythromos and S. ludovici were captured in sympatry while Histiotus montanus and H. humboldti were recorded in different stations. Myotis keaysi showed the broadest altitudinal range, while Carollia brevicauda was only found in the station at lowest elevation. The genera Anoura, Sturnira and Histiotus have a pattern of altitudinal succession or replacement of species. Considering the difficulty to identify the recorded species, comments on their taxonomy and recommendations for future studies are included. Taxonomic accuracy is important to know the real status of the Colombian populations of bats and to identify basic biological patterns that allow us to interpret processes within ecosystems and their conservation status; using wrong information and repeating mistakes might bring immeasurable consequences.

MIGUEL E., RODRÍGUEZ-POSADA.

2010-06-30

252

Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta) do curso inferior do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil: taxonomia e distribuição temporal / Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta) from the lower course of Negro river (Amazon, Brazil): taxonomy and temporal distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo relata a taxonomia e distribuição temporal do gênero Pinnularia ocorrente no curso inferior do rio Negro (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W) ao longo de um ciclo anual. O trabalho foi conduzido a partir da análise de amostras coletadas na coluna d'água, em escala mensal, entre os meses de outu [...] bro de 2002 a setembro de 2003. As espécies foram descritas e comentadas com base na sua morfologia e morfometria. Onze espécies e quatro variedades foram identificadas, ilustradas e incluídas em chave taxonômica. Dois táxons registrados neste estudo, P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot e P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer, constituem primeira citação de ocorrência para o rio Negro. Temporalmente, a maior riqueza de espécies ocorreu entre os meses de outubro a dezembro de 2002, período de águas baixas, quando houve provavelmente maior interação entre água e sedimento possibilitando aporte de indivíduos da região bentônica. Considerando a ocorrência dos táxons ao longo do estudo, somente P. confirma foi considerada frequente, estando presente em mais de 50% das amostras analisadas. Abstract in english This study reports the taxonomy and temporal distribution of the Pinnularia genus occurring in the lower course Negro river (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W) along an annual cycle. Samples were collected in the water column monthly, from October 2002 to September 2003. The species were described and com [...] mented based on their morphology and morphometry. Eleven species and four varieties are registered, illustrated and incorporated in a taxonomic key. P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot and P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer are the first references to Negro river. Temporally, the highest species richness occurred from October and December 2002, low water period, when happened more interaction between water and sediment, and the contribution of the benthos individuals. On base in taxa occurrence during this study, only P. confirma was frequently, with occurrence in more than 50% of sample analyzed.

Andreia Cavalcante, Pereira; Lezilda Carvalho, Torgan; Sérgio, Melo.

253

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. Final report, 1 September 1988--30 June 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

Spotila, J.R.

1992-11-01

254

Investigations of some elements distribution in dental tissues by INAA as a function of ecological and some other parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution of some elements (Hg, Zn, Sb, Co and Sc) in dental tissues (enamel, dentine, pulp) has been investiaated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Teeth samples were taken from patients living in different regions (mine and mineralized areas, plain), taking into account the following parameters: ecological conditions, age of patients, stomatological operations and use of local cosmetic preparations containig mercury. Samples of vegetation (beech, moss, pine) from two locations belonging to regions of mineralized areas also were analyzed. Results of our investigations are presented and discussed. (author)

255

ASPECTOS ECOLÓGICOS Y DISTRIBUCION GEOGRÁFICA DE CARRANGENOPHYTAS / CARRAGENOPHYTAS ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las especies carragenófitas están definidas como macroalgas miembro del Phylum Rodophyta, Clase Rodophyceae, Subclase Florideophycidae, Orden Gigartinales. Las especies de mayor importancia comercial a nivel internacional son de los géneros Betaphycus, Eucheuma y Kappaphycus; y a nivel nacional espe [...] cies de los géneros Gigartina, Mazzaella y Sarcothalia. Debido a su importancia comercial, el género Gigartina, ha sido objeto de investigaciones como: Ecología de las poblaciones de las costas estuarinas y abiertas de la especie del noreste del Atlántico; ha sido investigado por Mathieson y Tveter (1976) con relación a las cantidades y calidad de su carragenina. Estudios de las respuestas a fotoperíodos (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) han identificado "ventanas" reproductivas, sugiriendo que las explicaciones de multiplicación vegetativa son cada vez más exclusivas, a diferencia de la producción y gametangial o tetrasporangial, en las poblaciones de las altas latitudes de una especie europea generalizada. La determinación genética de los patrones de ramificación y límites de tolerancia a la temperatura se han establecido para varias especies de (Guiry et al., 1987.; Buschmann, 2001). La viabilidad del cultivo de especies en sustratos artificiales ha sido evaluada por Mumford y Waaland (1980), y demostró tener potencial comercial. Este género tiene distribución en todo el mundo en mares templados a fríos, sin embargo, muy pocas especies ocurren en las regiones subtropicales. Los centros de diversidad de especies particularmente rica son California, Japón, Nueva Zelanda, Chile y Sudáfrica (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011). Abstract in english The carragenophytas species are defined as macro-algae, members of the Phylum Rodophyta, Rodophyceae Class, Florideophycidae Subclass, Gigartinales Order. The most important commercial species at the international level are the Betaphycus, Eucheuma and Kappaphycus genera and at the national level th [...] e species belonging to the Gigartina, Mazzaella and Sarcothalia genera. Because of its commercial importance, the Gigartina genus has been the object of investigations such as: Ecology of populations in estuaries and open coast in the North-East Atlantic species; it has been studied by Mathieson and Tveter (1976) in relation with its carragenine quantity and quality. Studies about the response to photoperiods (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) have identified reproductive "windows" suggesting that the explanations for vegetative multiplication are more exclusive each time, different from gametangial or tetra-sporangial production in populations of high latitudes from a generalized European species. Genetic determination of ramification patterns and tolerance limits to temperature has been established for several species (Guiry et al., 1987; Buschmann, 2001). Species cultivation viability in artificial substrates has been evaluated by Mumford y Waaland (1980), and it showed commercial potential. This genus has distribution worldwide in warm and cold seas. However, very few species happen in subtropical regions. The particularly rich species biodiversity centers are California, Japan, New Zealand, Chile y South Africa (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011).

MARGARITA DEL R., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ; RAÚL A., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ.

2012-12-01

256

ASPECTOS ECOLÓGICOS Y DISTRIBUCION GEOGRÁFICA DE CARRANGENOPHYTAS / CARRAGENOPHYTAS ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las especies carragenófitas están definidas como macroalgas miembro del Phylum Rodophyta, Clase Rodophyceae, Subclase Florideophycidae, Orden Gigartinales. Las especies de mayor importancia comercial a nivel internacional son de los géneros Betaphycus, Eucheuma y Kappaphycus; y a nivel nacional espe [...] cies de los géneros Gigartina, Mazzaella y Sarcothalia. Debido a su importancia comercial, el género Gigartina, ha sido objeto de investigaciones como: Ecología de las poblaciones de las costas estuarinas y abiertas de la especie del noreste del Atlántico; ha sido investigado por Mathieson y Tveter (1976) con relación a las cantidades y calidad de su carragenina. Estudios de las respuestas a fotoperíodos (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) han identificado "ventanas" reproductivas, sugiriendo que las explicaciones de multiplicación vegetativa son cada vez más exclusivas, a diferencia de la producción y gametangial o tetrasporangial, en las poblaciones de las altas latitudes de una especie europea generalizada. La determinación genética de los patrones de ramificación y límites de tolerancia a la temperatura se han establecido para varias especies de (Guiry et al., 1987.; Buschmann, 2001). La viabilidad del cultivo de especies en sustratos artificiales ha sido evaluada por Mumford y Waaland (1980), y demostró tener potencial comercial. Este género tiene distribución en todo el mundo en mares templados a fríos, sin embargo, muy pocas especies ocurren en las regiones subtropicales. Los centros de diversidad de especies particularmente rica son California, Japón, Nueva Zelanda, Chile y Sudáfrica (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011). Abstract in english The carragenophytas species are defined as macro-algae, members of the Phylum Rodophyta, Rodophyceae Class, Florideophycidae Subclass, Gigartinales Order. The most important commercial species at the international level are the Betaphycus, Eucheuma and Kappaphycus genera and at the national level th [...] e species belonging to the Gigartina, Mazzaella and Sarcothalia genera. Because of its commercial importance, the Gigartina genus has been the object of investigations such as: Ecology of populations in estuaries and open coast in the North-East Atlantic species; it has been studied by Mathieson and Tveter (1976) in relation with its carragenine quantity and quality. Studies about the response to photoperiods (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) have identified reproductive "windows" suggesting that the explanations for vegetative multiplication are more exclusive each time, different from gametangial or tetra-sporangial production in populations of high latitudes from a generalized European species. Genetic determination of ramification patterns and tolerance limits to temperature has been established for several species (Guiry et al., 1987; Buschmann, 2001). Species cultivation viability in artificial substrates has been evaluated by Mumford y Waaland (1980), and it showed commercial potential. This genus has distribution worldwide in warm and cold seas. However, very few species happen in subtropical regions. The particularly rich species biodiversity centers are California, Japan, New Zealand, Chile y South Africa (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011).

MARGARITA DEL R., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ; RAÚL A., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ.

257

Taxonomy of Bacteria Nodulating Legumes  

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Full Text Available Over the years, the term “rhizobia” has come to be used for all the bacteria that are capable of nodulation and nitrogen fixation in association with legumes but the taxonomy of rhizobia has changed considerably over the last 30 year. Recently, several non- rhizobial species belonging to alpha and beta subgroup of Proteobacteria have been identified as nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts. Here we provide an overview of the history of the rhizobia and the widespread phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts.

Raúl Rivas

2009-09-01

258

Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: An example for plants exposed to nickel in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the 'free' nickel (Ni2+) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account. - The use of bioavailability toxicity data can improve species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA)

259

A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

260

Distribution and ecology of the lichen Fellhanera gyrophorica in the Pojezierze Olszty?skie Lakeland and its status in Poland  

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Full Text Available The study presents recent data on the distribution of Fellhanera gyrophorica (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycota in Poland, a rare lichen with a crustose, usually sterile thallus. Both previous and new localities of the species are presented with data on its eco­logy and general distribution. Furthermore, this paper provides detailed results on floristic investigations of the species in the forest areas of the Pojezierze Olszty?skie Lakeland (Northern Poland. Fertile specimens of F. gyrophorica have been observed in Poland for the second time and in the world – for the third time. Also, a new substrate for this species has been found: Acer platanoides. In addition, Carpinus betulus and Populus tremula were also found to be the species' substrates in Poland. Based on this study and previous reports, F. gyrophorica seems to be a relatively common species in north-eastern Poland.

Dariusz Kubiak

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinati [...] onal military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity) can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major), suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major) were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

Abdallah M., Samy; Lindsay P., Campbell; A. Townsend, Peterson.

2014-01-01

262

Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinati [...] onal military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity) can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major), suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major) were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

Abdallah M., Samy; Lindsay P., Campbell; A. Townsend, Peterson.

263

Application of RAPD Technique in Insect Taxonomy  

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Full Text Available Traditional insect taxonomy was the main way of insect classification, which classified the insects by morphology. However, morphological classification has significant limitations at lower taxonomic levels because it is diffeicult to confirm its taxonomy boundaries. The definition of the taxonomic boundaries at lower level relies on environmental and subjective factors. In recent years, the development in the technology of molecular biology and traditional taxonomy has provided broad prospect for insect taxonomy. This paper summarizes the basic technology of random amplification of polymorphic DNA(RAPD teachnology, analyzes the advantages of RAPD, simple and rapid, low cost, high sensitivity, not high demand for purity of template and fully reflect polymorphism of the template. Meanwhile, the shortages of this technology, such as poor stability and reproducibility, can not distinguish homozygote from heterozygote and has the problem of co-migrating and so on. Also in this paper, the applications of RAPD in classification and identification and phylogeny analysis of homoptera?blattariae?diptera?lepidoptera?orthoptera?coleoptera in recent years are expatiated. In addition, RAPD extends the application range of molecular biological techniques in the study of insect taxonomy. Moreover, RAPD are successfully applied to the study of insect taxonomy. All this signfificantly improves the study level of insect taxonomy, and will have more expansive application foreground with the increasing development of related technology means.

LI Guang-jing

2009-04-01

264

Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change?  

Science.gov (United States)

Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska have changed in size and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis and/or B. hutchinsii) are stable with little indication of distributional shifts. The lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) population is proportionally small, but increasing rapidly. Coastline erosion of the Beaufort Sea has altered tundra habitats by allowing saltwater intrusion, which has resulted in shifts in composition of forage plant species. We propose two alternative hypotheses for the observed shift in black brant distribution. Ecological change may have altered optimal foraging habitats for molting birds, or alternatively, interspecific competition between black brant and greater white-fronted geese may be excluding black brant from preferred habitats. Regardless of the causative mechanism, the observed shifts in species distributions are an important consideration for future resource planning. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

Flint, P. L.; Mallek, E. J.; King, R. J.; Schmutz, J. A.; Bollinger, K. S.; Derksen, D. V.

2008-01-01

265

Taxonomy of energy taxes. [By states  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides the US DOE with a taxonomy of the direct Federal, state, and local taxes that differentially affect energy markets, including features of general taxes that affect energy differentially; and describes some of the important analytical questions associated with the taxes included in the taxonomy. First, the report discusses energy taxation within the broad context of energy production and use. The second part includes the formal taxonomy and a detailed breakdown of energy taxes by taxing authority and suggests the important issues that are likely to arise in an analysis of energy taxation.

1979-09-01

266

Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (á-LoCoH) method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate sp [...] ecies within the Kruger National Park (KNP) based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980-1993). We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

George J., Chirima; Norman, Owen-Smith; Barend F.N., Erasmus.

267

Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha-1). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha-1). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

268

Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Chile / Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado) en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten [...] los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina). Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile), Islas Juan Fernández y en regiones costeras al sur de los 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica y M. tenuis son más frecuentes en las zonas más australes de Chile; también se han encontrado en hábitats de altura y bajas latitudes. Se incluyen, además, M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens y M. wandae. Varias especies sorediosas crecen como pioneras en sustratos jóvenes. Los patrones de distribución a lo largo de gradientes de humedad y de luz son variables. Se presentan mapas de distribución y clave de las especies. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ec [...] ology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina). Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile) and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.

JARLE W, BJERKE; ARVE, ELVEBAKK; WANDA, QUILHOT.

269

Distribution and ecology of Biatoridium monasteriense J. Lahm ex Körb in Poland  

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Full Text Available A new site of Biatoridium monasteriense was discovered during a lichenological investigation in Bia?owie?a National Park. The paper presents information on the distribution of this species in Poland.

Anna ?ubek

2012-03-01

270

Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0-3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120-200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system.

Gao, Mengxu; Li, Qun; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Juanle

2014-03-01

271

Unravelling the tangled taxonomies of health informatics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Even though informatics is a term used commonly in healthcare, it can be a confusing and disengaging one. Many definitions exist in the literature, and attempts have been made to develop a clear taxonomy. Despite this, informatics is still a term that lacks clarity in both its scope and the classification of sub-terms that it encompasses. This paper reviews the importance of an agreed taxonomy and explores the challenges of establishing exactly what is meant by health informatics (HI). It reviews what a taxonomy should do, summarises previous attempts at categorising and organising HI and suggests the elements to consider when seeking to develop a system of classification. The paper does not provide all the answers, but it does clarify the questions. By plotting a path towards a taxonomy of HI, it will be possible to enhance understanding and optimise the benefits of embracing technology in clinical practice. PMID:25207619

Barrett, David; Liaw, S T; de Lusignan, Simon

2014-01-01

272

Unravelling the tangled taxonomies of health informatics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Even though informatics is a term used commonly in healthcare, it can be a confusing and disengaging one. Many definitions exist in the literature, and attempts have been made to develop a clear taxonomy. Despite this, informatics is still a term that lacks clarity in both its scope and the classification of sub-terms that it encompasses.This paper reviews the importance of an agreed taxonomy and explores the challenges of establishing exactly what is meant by health informatics (HI. It reviews what a taxonomy should do, summarises previous attempts at categorising and organising HI and suggests the elements to consider when seeking to develop a system of classification.The paper does not provide all the answers, but it does clarify the questions. By plotting a path towards a taxonomy of HI, it will be possible to enhance understanding and optimise the benefits of embracing technology in clinical practice.

David Barrett

2014-08-01

273

Ecological significance of assimilate distribution in Agropyron repens clones under influence of the copper smelter Legnica  

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Full Text Available The studies on couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. P. Beauv. populations growing in stress conditions in close vicinity of a copper smelter concern the integrity of clonal structure. The connections of tillers within a clone and the interclonal integrity was investigated by means of assimilate translocation, using 14C. It was found that heavy metal stress affects the phenotypic plasticity of couch grass in regard to clonal growth of the phalanx type. The phalanx type growth is supported by a considerable integration, which allows the redistribution of resources, through internal routes, from places rich in resources to such clone parts, which cover a surface poor in nutritive compounds. In an unpolluted (control couch grass population representing the guerilla type of growth, the translocation of assimilates concerns only the closest (sister ramets. The phalanx type of growth in couch grass subjected to contamination favours also the accumulation of organic matter and macronutrients (N, Ca in zones of occurrence of Agropyron repens clusters, which are in deficit in areas close to the smelter. The irregular accumulation of heavy metals and the deficit of macronutrients in soil, form near the smelter a patchy environment. In this patchy environment couch grass, as one of few plants, finds appropriate conditions for foraging. The whole of factors in the studied polluted area creates a unique dynamic system between couch grass clones and the local ecological conditions.

Teresa Brej

2001-06-01

274

A Distributed Architecture for Sharing Ecological Data Sets with Access and Usage Control Guarantees  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In our information-age, the necessary scientic exploration is mainly driven by mining new insights from many diverse data sets. While there is a consensus that a collaborative data infrastructure is needed to allow researchers in dierent domains to collaborate on the same data sets in order to get new insights, there are signicant barriers to the realization of this vision. One of the key challenge is to allow scientists to share their data widely while retaining some form of control over who accesses this data (access control) and more importantly how it is used (usage control). Access and usage control is necessary to enforce existing open data policies. We have proposed the vision of trusted cells: A decentralized infrastructure, based on secure hardware running on devices equipped with trusted execution environments at the edges of the Internet. We originally described the utilization of trusted cells for the management of personal data. We describe our vision and report on our progress towards the implementation of trusted cells on off-the-shelf hardware components. We show how trusted cells deployed in the field and throughout the community could make it possible to share ecological data sets with access and usage control guarantees. We rely on examples from terrestrial research and monitoring in the arctic in the context of the INTERACT project.

Bonnet, Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier

275

Ecological distribution of Cyanophyceae in lotic ecosystems of São Paulo State  

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Full Text Available A hundred seventy two stream reaches from six distinct natural regions (parts of biomes or geological areas in São Paulo State (Atlantic Rainforest, Cerrado, Hard Water regions, Northwest region, Subtropical Rainforest, and Tropical Rainforest were searched for the most representative macroscopic Cyanophyceae of phytobenthic communities. Selected ecological parameters were analyzed in each stream segment: conductance, current velocity, oxygen saturation, pH, turbidity, and water temperature. Algal abundance was evaluated as percentage cover. Thirthy four cyanophyte taxa were identified and Phormidium retzii was the most widespread species throughout the State, occurring in all studied regions, except in hard water areas, and was negatively correlated to conductance. The subtropical Rainforest region presented the highest mean species richness per site, whereas the tropical Rainforest region had the highest abundance (percentage cover of blue-green algae. Correlation tests revealed that conductance was significantly and negatively related to variations in abundance and richness of cyanophyte in streams of São Paulo State. This relationship probably reflects the ability of blue-green algae to grow at medium to low ion content and to take advantage under nutrient stress conditions.

BRANCO LUIS HENRIQUE Z.

2001-01-01

276

Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

2008-10-01

277

Distribution and Ecological Range of the Alien Plant Species Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae in Taiwan  

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Full Text Available In the past two decades Mikania micrantha Kunth, a climbing plant species originating from tropicalAmerica, has spread across Taiwan. It can now be found frequently in the lowlands and lower mountain areasup to 1,000 m a.s.l. in the centre and south of the island. Mikania micrantha is considered a problematic invasivealien plant species which is said to cause economical as well as environmental damage. This study investigatedthe ecological site characteristics of M. micrantha in Taiwan. 112 vegetation surveys were carried out in habitatswhere the alien plant was present. A comparison between sites with a high and a low abundance was carriedout in order to assess which factors especially influence the extensive spread of the plant. Furthermore, theinfluence of disturbances was examined. Results showed that Mikania micrantha grows very dense in habitatswhich are characterized by good light conditions combined with vertical structures, such as trees. Resultsrevealed that this invader occurs most frequently in agricultural fallows and wastelands, but it could hardly befound in the intensively managed plantations in the investigation area. Results provide great evidence that theplant is strongly influenced by disturbances, but only if impacts occur rarely.

Willis, Maja

2008-11-01

278

Ecology and distribution of an invasive species Aster­lanceolatus willd. on wet habitats in Belgrade  

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Full Text Available The species Aster lanceolatus occupies a significant position in the world and European lists of invasive species. Its spreading potential is a hazardous factor to the biodiversity in many countries. There are no relevant data on the wider proportion of this species in the area of Belgrade. The sites of Aster lanceolatus are annual or pioneer communities along the water courses, abandoned and neglected areas, forest margins, moist meadows. The study areas are located near a choice of water courses in Belgrade. The aim of the study was to assess the species ecology and population density, synecological interrelationships among the coenobionts of the communities in which it occurs, and also to map its the habitats. The study of population density was performed on the supplemented and partially modified 'CPS SKEW' form, applied in West European countries, by the principle of squares. The species was determined by standard floristic method, and the species location by GPS system. It was concluded that Aster lanceolatus was dominant and wild at all study sites. The individuals and populations are especially numerous on the river islands Ada Ciganlija and Veliko Ratno Ostrvo, along the stream Kumodršaki Potok and the Danube left bank, where the number of individuals per squares is above 1300 and the degree of coverage is 100%. Its spreading potential is conditioned by the species biology, and the expansiveness by climate changes, anthropogenic impacts and the competitive interrelationships.

Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica

2009-01-01

279

Distribution-Based Clustering: Using Ecology To Refine the Operational Taxonomic Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

16S rRNA sequencing, commonly used to survey microbial communities, begins by grouping individual reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). There are two major challenges in calling OTUs: identifying bacterial population boundaries and differentiating true diversity from sequencing errors. Current approaches to identifying taxonomic groups or eliminating sequencing errors rely on sequence data alone, but both of these activities could be informed by the distribution of sequences across samples. Here, we show that using the distribution of sequences across samples can help identify population boundaries even in noisy sequence data. The logic underlying our approach is that bacteria in different populations will often be highly correlated in their abundance across different samples. Conversely, 16S rRNA sequences derived from the same population, whether slightly different copies in the same organism, variation of the 16S rRNA gene within a population, or sequences generated randomly in error, will have the same underlying distribution across sampled environments. We present a simple OTU-calling algorithm (distribution-based clustering) that uses both genetic distance and the distribution of sequences across samples and demonstrate that it is more accurate than other methods at grouping reads into OTUs in a mock community. Distribution-based clustering also performs well on environmental samples: it is sensitive enough to differentiate between OTUs that differ by a single base pair yet predicts fewer overall OTUs than most other methods. The program can decrease the total number of OTUs with redundant information and improve the power of many downstream analyses to describe biologically relevant trends. PMID:23974136

Perrotta, Allison R.; Martin-Platero, Antonio M.; Gupta, Anika

2013-01-01

280

New ecological mechanism of formation of spatial distribution of radionuclides in river ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioecological expeditions on the Yenissei river revealed 'spotty' distribution of radioisotopes in bottom sediments and along the coastline of the river. This work presents results of theoretical analysis of the formation mechanism of stable spatial non-uniformities of river ecosystem components by population interactions of 'predator-prey' type between the phytoplukton and zooplankton. 'Patchiness contrast' (i.e. the amplitude of the radionuclide spatial propagation wave in the water) for the large oscillations control by increasing or decreasing current velocity depends both on the boundary concentrations of phytoplankton and zooplankton and on the established nature of their interpopulation interactions (or coefficients of interactions). Variation of the below given interaction parameters within the 'phytoplanbon-zooplankton' system makes increase the amplitude of spatial distribution wave: decrease of algal growth rate; increase of algal death rate; decrease of zooplankton death rate; increase of interaction coefficients. It was shown for small oscillations that the period of component distribution waves is in proportion to the current velocity and the amplitude of 'small' waves does not depend on the water current velocity. Theoretically it has been also found that with deep limitation of phytoplankton growth by biogenous elements the 'standing wave' is observed to deteriorate and monotonous distribution of radionuclide concentration fields is found to form. (a concentration fields is found to form. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

Incorporating color into integrative taxonomy: analysis of the varied tit (Sittiparus varius) complex in East Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species designations are critically important scientific hypotheses that serve as the foundational units in a wide range of biological subdisciplines. A growing realization that some classes of data fail to delimit species under certain conditions has led to increasingly more integrative taxonomies, whereby species discovery and hypothesis testing are based on multiple kinds of data (e.g., morphological, molecular, behavioral, ecological, etc.). However, although most taxonomic descriptions have been based on morphology, some key morphological features, such as color, are rarely quantified and incorporated into integrative taxonomic studies. In this article, we applied a new method of ultraviolet digital photography to measure plumage variation in a color-variable avian species complex, the varied tit (Sittiparus varius). Plumage measurements corroborated species limits defined by morphometric, mitochondrial DNA, and nuclear DNA disjunctions and provided the only evidence for distinguishing two recently evolved species. Importantly, color quantification also provided a justification for lumping putative taxa with no evidence of evolutionary independence. Our revised taxonomy thus refines conservation units for listing and management and clarifies the primary units for evolutionary studies. Species tree analyses, which applied the newly delimited species as operational taxonomic units, revealed a robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the group that establishes a foundation for future biogeographic analyses. This study demonstrates how digital photography can be used to incorporate color character variation into integrative taxonomies, which should lead to more informed, more rigorous, and more accurate assessments of biodiversity. [Color, digital photography, integrative taxonomy, Sittiparus varius, species delimitation, varied tit.]. PMID:24603127

McKay, Bailey D; Mays, Herman L; Yao, Cheng-Te; Wan, Dongmei; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Nishiumi, Isao

2014-07-01

282

Distribution and ecological risk of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organochlorine contamination in the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt was assessed based on 26 surface sediments samples collected from several locations on the Egyptian coast, including harbors, coastal lakes, bays, and estuaries. The distribution and potential ecological risk of contaminants is described. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were widely distributed in the coastal environment of Egypt. Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and chloropyrifos ranged from 0.29 to 377ngg(-1) dw, 0.07 to 81.5ngg(-1) dw, and below the detection limit (DL) to 288ngg(-1) dw, respectively. Other organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) studied were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower. OCP and PCBs had higher concentrations at Burullus Lake, Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria Eastern Harbor, and El Max Bay compared to other sites. OCP and PCB contamination is higher in the vicinity of possible input sources such as shipping, industrial activities and urban areas. PCB congener profiles indicated they were derived from more than one commercially available mixture. The ratios of commercial chlordane and heptachlor metabolites indicate historical usage; however, DDT and HCHs inputs at several locations appear to be from recent usage. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs are similar to those observed in sediments from coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Ecotoxicological risk from DDTs and PCBs is greatest in Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria Harbor, and El-Max Bay. PMID:23880242

Barakat, Assem O; Mostafa, Alaa; Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; El Sayed, Nadia B

2013-09-01

283

Allopatric distribution, ecology and conservation status of the Pilosella alpicola group (Asteraceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Pilosella alpicola group comprises four morphologically distinct and geographically vicariant alpine taxa. We performed a thorough herbarium revision and literature survey to infer their distributional pattern(s). Pilosella alpicola s.s. occurs in the Alps in two disjunct areas: the Swiss Valais Alps and the Italian Dolomites. Historical records come also from the Austrian Alps (Gurktaler Alps and Hohe Tauern) and from one site from the Alpes Maritimes (Col de Larche), but the localities ...

S?ingliarova?, Barbora; S?uvada, Ro?bert; Mra?z, Patrik

2013-01-01

284

Distribution, ecology and inhibition of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in relation to acid drainage from Witwatersrand gold mine dumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution and ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in gold mine dumps and possible means for its inhibition were investigated. A literature survey of the micro-ecology of mine waste dumps in various parts of the world was undertaken. A linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), NANSA 80/S, and a cetyl pyridinium chloride, Ceepryn, were tested as possible inhibitors for mine dump application. The LAS was rejected because it is poorly soluble in water and required higher concentrations than SLS for the inhibition of T.ferrooxidans. Ceepryn was an efficient inhibitor, but its efficiency was dramatically impeded in the presence of mine dump sand making it unsuitable for application on dumps. The SLS and LAS were tested against a mixed population of T.ferrooxidans from gold mine dumps and these bacteria were shown to be marginally more resistant to the inhibitors than the pure T.ferrooxidans culture. Sampling from mine dumps on the Witwatersrand suggested that the major T.ferrooxidans populations occurred in the moist sand of the drainage areas at the base of dumps, with few viable iron-oxidising bacteria located on the surfaces or in the centre of dumps. Sites of low moisture in dumps contained few or no viable bacteria. In the laboratory the bacterial viability decreased rapidly with loss of moisture from the sand. Moisture was shown to be important to bacterial activity and should be considered with respect to acid drainage control. Experimental sand columns showed thntrol. Experimental sand columns showed that iron was leached with water from mine dump sand in the absence and presence of bacteria. In this study substrates, moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide availability, ph, temperature, microorganisms and metal pollutants of uranium waste dumps are also covered

285

Development and validation of a taxonomy of adverse handover events in hospital settings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To develop and validate a taxonomy to classify and support the analysis of adverse events related to patient handovers in hospital settings. A taxonomy was established using descriptions of handover events extracted from incident reports, interviews and root cause analysis reports. The inter-rater reliability and distribution of types of handover failures and causal factors. The taxonomy contains five types of failures and seven types of main causal factors. The taxonomy was validated against 432 adverse handover event descriptions contained in incident reports (stratified random sample from the Danish Patient Safety Database, 200 events) and 47 interviews with staff conducted at a large hospital in the Capital Region (232 events). The most prevalent causes of adverse events are inadequate competence (30 %), inadequate infrastructure (22 %) and busy ward (18 %). Inter-rater reliability (kappa) was 0.76 and 0.87 for reports and interviews, respectively. Communication in clinical contexts has been widely recognized as giving rise to potentially hazardous events, and handover situations are particularly prone to failures of communication or unclear allocation of responsibility. The taxonomy provides a tool for analyzing adverse handover events to identify frequent causes among reported handover failures. In turn, this provides a basis for selecting safety measures including handover protocols and training programmes.

Andersen, Henning Boje; Siemsen, Inger Margrete D.

2014-01-01

286

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

2008-12-01

287

Deep-sea surface-dwelling enteropneusts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Their ecology, distribution and mode of life  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecology, distribution and mode of life of three species of surface-dwelling enteropneusts is described, based on ROV observations and samples on the flanks of the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) at comparative stations north and south of the Sub-Polar Front. Tergivelum cinnabarinum was most abundant in the north (mean=4.56 ind. 1000 m-2±3.50 s.d.) and occurred at low densities in the south (mean=1.19±1.68 s.d.). Yoda purpurata was dominant in the south (mean=17.00 ind. 1000 m-2±12.32 s.d.) but only one individual was found in the north. The within-station distribution of all enteropneust species encountered was generally random. T. cinnabarinum was larger (mean total length 142 mm) than Y. purpurata (mean total length 70 mm). Size distributions suggested smaller individuals of both species on the western side of the MAR. Size and density of enteropneusts were generally higher in areas with higher carbon flux to the seafloor. A single individual of Allapasus isidis was observed drifting and settling to the seafloor at the SW site. Traces on the seafloor made by T. cinnabarinum covered a much higher percentage of the total seabed area surveyed (mean=0.323%±0.155 s.d.) than those of Y. purpurata (mean=0.034%±0.037 s.d.). Stable isotope values for T. cinnabarinum suggested that it was a typical surficial deposit feeder. Enteropneusts appear to be abundant and an important bioturbator on the sedimented seafloor of the MAR at around 2500 m depth.

Jones, Daniel O. B.; Alt, Claudia H. S.; Priede, Imants G.; Reid, William D. K.; Wigham, Benjamin D.; Billett, David S. M.; Gebruk, Andrey V.; Rogacheva, Antonina; Gooday, Andrew J.

2013-12-01

288

Use of ecological niche modeling as a tool for predicting the potential distribution of Microcystis sp (cyanobacteria in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling is an important tool to evaluate the spatial distribution of terrestrial species, however, its applicability has been little explored in the aquatic environment. Microcystis sp., a species of cyanobacteria, is widely recognized for its ability to produce a group of toxins known as microcystins, which can cause death of animals as fish, birds and mammals depending on the amount of toxin absorbed. Like any taxonomic group, cyanobacteria has environmental thresholds, therefore, a suitable ecological niche will define their distribution. This study was conducted in Aguamilpa Hydroelectric Reservoir, an artificial ecosystem that started operations in 1994. In this system we evaluated the potential distribution of Microcystis sp., by generating a prediction model based on the concept of ecological niche MAXENT, using a Digital Elevation Model in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha spatial resolution and monitoring eleven physicochemical and biological variables and nutrients in water. The distribution maps were developed using ArcMap 9.2®. The results indicated that Microcystis sp., is distributed mainly in the upper tributary basin (Huaynamota basin during the dry season. There was less chance to find cyanobacteria in the entire system during the cold dry season, while during the warm dry season cyanobacteria was recognized at the confluence of two rivers. During the rainfall season there were no reports of cyanobacteria presence. This species is often associated with arising trophic processes of anthropogenic origin; therefore, attention is required in specific areas that have been identified in this work to improve Aguamilpa’s watershed management and restoration. It was also recognized the importance of phosphorus and nitrogen interaction, which determines the distribution of Microcystis sp., in the Aguamilpa Reservoir. The results of this study demonstrated that ecological niche modeling was a suitable tool to assess the spatial distribution of microalgae in freshwater environments.

Enrique Martinez-Meyer

2012-04-01

289

Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in the microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-µm vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to O2, pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O2 concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes.

Becraft, E.; Cohan, F.

2011-01-01

290

Allium olivieri Boiss. (Alliaceae, a new taxon to Turkey, with contributions to its taxonomy  

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Full Text Available Allium olivieri Boiss. (Alliaceae is reported as a new record for Turkish flora. It was identified using the collected specimens and Flora orientalis, Flora of Iraq and Flora Iranica. The detailed description, illustrations, geographical distribution, habitat, status of IUCN extinction risk and some comments and discussions on the taxonomy of the species are given.

?smail Eker

2011-09-01

291

The Distribution and Ecology of the Arctic Plant Iceland Purslane (Koenigia islandica in Scotland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Koenigia islandica has a disjunct Arctic-sub Arctic circumpolar distribution extending southwards to several isolated mountain ranges of northern Europe, Asia and North America. The population of this plant on the Isle of Skye (at altitude 461-726 m and Isle of Mull at (385-523 m was the most Southerly in Europe and therefore the most vulnerable likely to exhibit the impact of climatic fluctuations on numbers and survivorship. Koenigia was also an annual, which made it particularly vulnerable to adverse conditions and exhibited large fluctuations in number and survivorship between years. Mapping the precise position of colonies of Koenigia on island of Mull and Skye was done by geographical positioning systems (GPS.

Qasair Rashid

2003-01-01

292

Distribution and ecological preferences of diatoms and dinoflagellates in the west Iberian Coastal zone (North Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

he distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates was studied from August 2002 to October 2003 in the northwest coastal zone of Portugal. Three sampling stations, perpendicular to the coast, were sampled monthly full moon, at high and low tide, near the shore, but before the surf zone. A total of 239 species were identified and quantified during the study period: 218 diatoms and 21 dinoflagellates. Although the phytoplankton community was dominated by marine diatoms, a proliferation of dinoflagellates was observed in late summer. Actinoptychus senarius, Grammatophora marina, Pseudo-nitzschia cf. seriata and Thalassionema nitzschioides were the most common diatoms at the three sampling stations. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to identify the environmental variables governing the composition and structure of the phytoplankton assemblages and showed that the temporal variation in the species data was mainly determined by the temperature temporal gradient.

Resende, Paula; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Mário Jorge

2007-09-01

293

Ecological Features of Oyster Beds Distribution in Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf  

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Full Text Available The aims of the present investigation were to study the feature of biotic environment of oyster beds and to study quantitatively the biodiversity of fauna and flora living within these habitats. Eighteen selected oyster beds, within the Exclusive Economic Zone of Qatar were investigated by scuba diving. Most of the oyster beds were found in the area with sandy-rocky and Coral blocks bottom forms. Pearl oysters abundance varied widely between the different beds and within the same beds due to the variations in the bottom substrates. The associated biota was composed mainly of Algae (4%, Porifera (3%, Cnidaria (8%, Polychaeta (4%, Echinodermata (13%, Mollusca (55%, Chordate (2% and Crustacean (11%. The comparison of our findings on the occurrence and distribution of marine biota to previous studies has shown similarities between Qatar and other Gulf States particularly Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

J.A. Al-Khayat

2008-01-01

294

Atmospheric phosphorus deposition at a montane site: Size distribution, effects of wildfire, and ecological implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The dry deposition of atmospheric particulate matter can be a significant source of phosphorus (P) to oligotrophic aquatic ecosystems, including high-elevation lakes. In this study, measurements of the mass concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles and associated particulate P are reported for the southern Sierra Nevada, California, for the period July-October, 2008. Coarse and fine particle samples were collected with Stacked Filter Units and analyzed for Total P (TP) and inorganic P (IP) using a digestion-extraction procedure, with organic P (OP) calculated by difference. Particle size-resolved mass and TP distributions were determined concurrently using a MOUDI cascade impactor. Aerosol mass concentrations were significantly elevated at the study site, primarily due to transport from offsite and emissions from local and regional wildfires. Atmospheric TP concentrations ranged from 11 to 75 ng m -3 (mean = 37 ± 16 ng m -3), and were typically dominated by IP. Phosphorus was concentrated in the coarse (>1 ?m diameter) particle fraction and was particularly enriched in the 1.0-3.2 ?m size range, which accounted for 30-60% of the atmospheric TP load. Wildfire emissions varied widely in P content, and may be related to fire intensity. The estimated dry depositional flux of TP for each daily sampling period ranged between 7 and 118 ?g m -2 d -1, with a mean value of 40 ± 27 ?g m -2 d -1. Relative rates of dry deposition of N and P in the Sierra Nevada are consistent with increasing incidence of N limitation of phytoplankton growth and previously observed long-term eutrophication of lakes.

Vicars, William C.; Sickman, James O.; Ziemann, Paul J.

2010-08-01

295

Elevational Distribution and Ecology of Small Mammals on Africa's Highest Mountain  

Science.gov (United States)

Mt Kilimanjaro is Africa’s highest mountain, and an icon for a country famous for its mammalian fauna. The distribution and abundance of small mammals on the mountain are poorly known. Here we document the distribution of shrews and rodents along an elevational gradient on the southeastern versant of Kilimanjaro. Five sites were sampled with elevational center points of 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500 and 4000 m, using a systematic methodology of standard traps and pitfall lines, to inventory the shrews and rodents of the slope. Sixteen species of mammal were recorded, including 6 shrew and 10 rodent species, and the greatest diversity of both was found at 3000 m, the elevational midpoint of the transect. No species previously unrecorded on Kilimanjaro were observed. Two genera of rodents that occur in nearby mountains (Hylomyscus and Beamys) were not recorded. Myosorex zinki, the only mammal endemic to Mt. Kilimanjaro, which previously was known by only a few specimens collected in the ericaceous or moorland habitat, was found in all but one (the lowest) of the sites sampled, and was one of the most widespread species of small mammal along the gradient. Two shrews (Crocidura allex and Sylvisorex granti) and one rodent (Dendromus insignis) were found throughout the entire transect, with Dendromus being observed at our highest trap point (4240 m). As in similar faunal surveys on other mountains of Tanzania, rainfall influenced the sample success of shrews, but not rodents. Trap success for rodents at 3500 m was notably low. This study contributes further justification for the conservation of the forest habitat of Mt. Kilimanjaro. PMID:25372387

Stanley, William T.; Rogers, Mary Anne; Kihaule, Philip M.; Munissi, Maiko J.

2014-01-01

296

Taxonomies of networks from community structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: they can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi. PMID:23030977

Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

2014-01-01

297

Taxonomies of networks from community structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: They can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi.

Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Fenn, Daniel J.; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

2012-09-01

298

Integrating evolution into geographical ecology: a phylogenetic perspective on palm distributions and community composition across scales  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Species distributions, assemblage composition, and species richness depend on both current environment and the diversification of lineages in past environments. On broad scales, processes that constrain diversifying lineages to certain regions or environments are particularly important. Through species pool effects, those processes also affect local community composition and richness. In addition, evolution directly affects local communities directly via niche-based assembly. We studied these effects with palms (Arecaceae) as a model group, using a) a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals in 430 transects in the Western Amazon, b) a set of range maps for all American palms (550 spp.), and c) global country-level presence/ absence data of all (>2400) palm species. These data were analysed with novel phylogenetic community structure and turnover methods. Globally, the phylogenetic structure of palm assemblages reflects several biogeographic and evolutionary processes. In the Americas, both dispersal limitation and a phylogenetically conserved temperature niche have constrained the evolution of palm species ranges. Broad-scale processes also influenced the local phylogenetic structure of Amazonian palm communities, which mainly reflects the evolution of habitat preferences.

Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.

299

Distribution and ecology of pest fruit fly species in Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fruit flies belong to the very diverse family Tephritidae, which consists of over 4,500 species distributed in most temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries. In Asia and the Pacific regions, most of the major pest species belong to two genera. Bactrocera and Dacus. Representatives of Ceratitis occur in southwest Western Australia and the Indian Ocean islands and Carpomya occur in the Indian sub-continent and in Mauritius and Reunion. In the Asian region, 180 species of Bactrocera and 30 species of Dacus have been recorded and in the Australasian and Oceanic region, there are 270 species of Bactrocera and 27 species of Dacus. The diversity of species progressively decreases as the plant/host diversity decreases from west in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea to east in the Polynesian Island countries. The major pest species in the Asian region belong to the dorsalis complex (B. carambolae, B. dorsalis, B. occipitalis, B. philippinensis, B. papayae and B. pyrifoliae) and include other species such as B. cucurbitae, B. zonata, B. latifrons, and others. In the Pacific region, Australia has 100 species of fruit flies. Many Pacific Island countries each have endemic species, several of which are major pests. The factors that impact on populations of fruit flies include host ranges, life cycles, mating and oviposition behavior, dispersal capacity, nutritional, moisture, temperature and light requirements, and competition within and

300

Progress of soil radionuclide distribution studies for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil samples from NS-201 were separated into fractions greater than or less than 10 mesh (2-mm dia.) for ease of analysis. Most of the 241Am was concentrated in the smaller fraction. Based on that observation, the larger material can be removed from the samples without seriously biasing resultant inventory estimates. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in NS-201 soils indicated that in many cases substantial amounts of radioactivity were located below the 0-5 cm depth. Inventory calculations should take this observation into account for more precise estimates. Comparison of analytical results from four laboratories and calibration of 241Am to /sup 239-240/Pu ratios revealed a strong bias of one laboratory. Using data from that laboratory could have biased inventory calculations and could have introduced an error of as much as a factor of 1.7. In anticipation of studies of cleanup and decontamination techniques, a proposal for evaluation of an old decontamination site at area 13 was made. The long-term effectiveness of the decontamination and the degree of environmental healing are factors that must be evaluated before large scale cleanup operations. 11 references, 14 figures, 13 tables

 
 
 
 
301

Distribution, ecology and molecular identification of Thioploca from Danish brackish water sediments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of Thioploca populations was investigated in Danish fjords, brackish lakes and coastal waters. Thioploca was found in three geographically distinct populations, where biomasses reached 33.8+/-14.3 g wet weight m(-2) (mean+/-SD). Mats or lawns were not formed at the sediment surfaces and Thioploca biomasses peaked 4-7 cm into the sediment and extended down to 18 cm depth. Morphology and 16S rRNA gene sequences classified all populations as Thioploca ingrica. A sequence divergence of 1.7-2.2% indicated that T. ingrica comprise at least two genotypes. Physiological analysis showed that T. ingrica accumulate nitrate in concentrations of approximately 3 mM and that bicarbonate and acetate are used as a carbon source. The presence of oxygen promoted carbon incorporation, but T. ingrica could survive up to 3 months without an external supply of nitrate or oxygen. Thioploca ingrica populations were exclusively found close to river outlets in a bioturbated sediment with separate sulphidic spots and worm burrow walls containing nitrate and oxygen. It is hypothesized that the subsurface T. ingrica have a special advantage in this heterogeneous environment using their sheath surrounding the bacterial trichomes when navigating between electron donor and acceptor. PMID:20455936

Høgslund, Signe; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Lars Peter

2010-07-01

302

Download - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Full Text Available [ Credits ] Search across metadata and databases: Home About Archive Update History Contact us T ... imple search and download 1 README README_e.html - 2 ... Taxonomy Icon Data taxonomy_icon_en.zip (14.1 KB) ... MB) - Please note that the following data #4 and #5 ... are not included in the Taxonomy Icon archive, and ... d download 4 Comment taxonomy_icon_comment_en.zip (5 .7 KB) Simple search and download 5 ... Images on Comme ...

303

Distribution, diversity and ecology of modern freshwater ostracodes (Crustacea, and hydrochemical characteristics of Lago Petén Itzá, Guatemala  

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Full Text Available We analyzed modern ostracode species assemblages and water column physico-chemical characteristics in Lago Péten Itzá, Guatemala. Lake waters are dominated by sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium and magnesium and display a total ion concentration of ~11 meq L-1. Eleven extant ostracode species were identified. We found higher abundances of living ostracodes, as well as relatively higher species richness (eight species and biodiversity (H of 1.6 between the littoral zone and a water depth of 20 m. At water depths >40 m, these variables all decreased. The thermocline is located at a water depth of ~20-40 m. Cluster analysis revealed three water depth ranges in the lake of importance to ostracode distribution: 1 littoral zone (0.1-3 m, 2 water depths from the base of the littoral zone to the base of the thermocline (3-40 m, and 3 water depths below the thermocline (40-160 m. The assemblage "Darwinula-Heterocypris-Pseudocandona-Strandesia" is characteristic of waters 40 m. Ostracode taxa from Lago Petén Itzá show specific ecological preferences related to water depth and associated physico-chemical characteristics, thus illustrating the potential of ostracodes as indicators of lake level changes and hydrodynamics.

Burkhard SCHARF

2010-02-01

304

Distribution and ecology of seagrass communities in the Western Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Nine seagrasses were identified and their distributions on coral reef islands and the African coastline studied. 2. Transects were worked to show the vertical zonation of the seagrasses. The more important communities encountered in order from low water spring tide level to the infralittoral were a Halodule uninervis community, a halodule - Thalassi or Thalassia - Cymodocea serrulata community, a Thalassia - Syringodium community, a Thalassia hemprichii community, and finally a Cymodocea ciliata community. 3. Halodule was the main pioneer species. 4. Thalassia and Cymodocea ciliata formed beds which in thelatter seagrass grew at depths of up to 40m. 5. Cymodecea ciliata grew on exposed or semi-exposed shores and formed mats 30-40cm thick. 6. The main environmental factors influencing the zonation of these seagrasses are substrate type, water depth, exposure to waves and current, and tidal range. They grow where water temperatures ranges between 26-30°C, but in littoral pools they may have to withstand temperatures as high as 38°C for short periods. 7. The substrates in which these seagrasses grow range from fine sand and silt to coarse sand mixed with coral debris. Thalassia was the only species which tolerated anoxic sediments and its roots can ramify through black sediments smelling of hydrogen sulphide. Halodule and Syringodium tolerates some lowering of sediment oxygen content. 8. Average standing stock of the main communities expressed as g Fresh Weight per square metre were ss follows: Halodule uninervis, 2430; Halophila ovalis, 465; Thalassia-Halodule, 4250; Thalassia-Cymodecea serrulata, 2907; Thalassia hemprichii, 4125; Cymodocea ciliata, 6050. There was evidence that seagrass biomass increased from LWS down into the infralittoral. The same communities were also analysed for the standing crops of assocated algae and macrofauna.

Aleem, A. A.

305

Ecological distribution of pelagic copepods and species relationship to acidification, liming and natural recovery in a boreal area  

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Full Text Available Distribution and ecology of pelagic copepods were studied in a boreal area strongly affected by acidification in southern Norway. Differential regional composition of bedrock geology and Quaternary deposits combined with liming have produced aquatic sites with contrasting acidification and recovery histories. The omnivorous species Eudiaptomus gracilis showed a striking ability to tolerate both acidification and chemical recovery. The predominantly carnivorous species Heterocope saliens increased numerically during acidification, both because it is tolerant to acidic environments and because fish predation diminished or disappeared altogether. After chemical recovery, H. saliens, having an endogenous egg-bank, most readily produced viable populations with numerical abundance depending upon fish predation pressure. Thermocyclops oithonoides and Cyclops scutifer were negatively affected by strongly acidic environments, whereas Mesocyclops leuckarti tolerated acidic conditions better. All three cyclopoid species increased in abundance after chemical recovery, most probably from small residual populations. The hypolimnetic C. scutifer faced dispersal problems in re-establishing following liming. Deep lakes (>20 m harboured considerable residual populations of C. scutifer which recovered rapidly to pre-acidic conditions. Cyclops abyssorum inhabited the pelagial during early recovery of formerly chronically acidified lakes as a fugitive species, probably due to rapid dispersal capacities. Littoral cyclopoids, such as Acanthocyclops vernalis and Diacyclops nanus, were commonly distributed in the free waters of the most acidic lakes (pH = 4.5-4.8, but disappeared from the pelagial shortly after chemical recovery. The total community of pelagic copepods forms a promising tool to identify historical acidification and trajectories of recovery in the freshwater environment.

Svein Birger WÆRVÅGEN

2003-02-01

306

Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy: implications and continuations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In relation to the conceptual framework for a rehabilitation treatment taxonomy (RTT), which has been proposed in other articles in this supplement, this article discusses a number of issues relevant to its further development, including creating distinctions within the major target classes; the nature and quantity of allowable targets of treatment; and bracketing as a way of specifying (1) the skill or knowledge taught; (2) the nature of compensation afforded by changes in the environment, assistive technology, and orthotics/prosthetics; and (3) the ingredients in homework a clinician assigns. Clarification is provided regarding the role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, focusing a taxonomy on ingredients versus other observable aspects of treatment, and regarding our lack of knowledge and its impact on taxonomy development. Finally, this article discusses the immediate implications of the work to date and presents the need for rehabilitation stakeholders of all disciplines to be involved in further RTT development. PMID:24370324

P Dijkers, Marcel; Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; M Zanca, Jeanne; Packel, Andrew; Tsaousides, Theodore

2014-01-01

307

Taxonomy as an eScience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet has the potential to provide wider access to biological taxonomy, the knowledge base of which is currently fragmented across a large number of ink-on-paper publications dating from the middle of the eighteenth century. A system (the CATE project) is proposed in which consensus or consolidated taxonomies are presented in the form of Web-based revisions. The workflow is designed to allow the community to offer, online, additions and taxonomic changes ('proposals') to the consolidated taxonomies (e.g. new species and synonymies). A means of quality control in the form of online peer review as part of the editorial process is also included in the workflow. The CATE system rests on taxonomic expertise and judgement, rather than using aggregation technology to accumulate taxonomic information from across the Web. The CATE application and its system and architecture are described in the context of the wider aims and purpose of the project. PMID:19087937

Clark, Benjamin R; Godfray, H Charles J; Kitching, Ian J; Mayo, Simon J; Scoble, Malcolm J

2009-03-13

308

Infant mortality in South Africa - distribution, associations and policy implications, 2007: an ecological spatial analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many sub-Saharan countries are confronted with persistently high levels of infant mortality because of the impact of a range of biological and social determinants. In particular, infant mortality has increased in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The geographic distribution of health problems and their relationship to potential risk factors can be invaluable for cost effective intervention planning. The objective of this paper is to determine and map the spatial nature of infant mortality in South Africa at a sub district level in order to inform policy intervention. In particular, the paper identifies and maps high risk clusters of infant mortality, as well as examines the impact of a range of determinants on infant mortality. A Bayesian approach is used to quantify the spatial risk of infant mortality, as well as significant associations (given spatial correlation between neighbouring areas between infant mortality and a range of determinants. The most attributable determinants in each sub-district are calculated based on a combination of prevalence and model risk factor coefficient estimates. This integrated small area approach can be adapted and applied in other high burden settings to assist intervention planning and targeting. Results Infant mortality remains high in South Africa with seemingly little reduction since previous estimates in the early 2000's. Results showed marked geographical differences in infant mortality risk between provinces as well as within provinces as well as significantly higher risk in specific sub-districts and provinces. A number of determinants were found to have a significant adverse influence on infant mortality at the sub-district level. Following multivariable adjustment increasing maternal mortality, antenatal HIV prevalence, previous sibling mortality and male infant gender remained significantly associated with increased infant mortality risk. Of these antenatal HIV sero-prevalence, previous sibling mortality and maternal mortality were found to be the most attributable respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of advanced spatial analysis to both quantify excess infant mortality risk at the lowest administrative unit, as well as the use of Bayesian modelling to quantify determinant significance given spatial correlation. The "novel" integration of determinant prevalence at the sub-district and coefficient estimates to estimate attributable fractions further elucidates the "high impact" factors in particular areas and has considerable potential to be applied in other locations. The usefulness of the paper, therefore, not only suggests where to intervene geographically, but also what specific interventions policy makers should prioritize in order to reduce the infant mortality burden in specific administration areas.

Sartorius Benn KD

2011-11-01

309

A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation.

Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara

2011-01-01

310

Marine ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

311

New ecological and taxonomical data on some Ptenoglossa (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda from the Gulf of Catania (Ionian Sea  

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Full Text Available Ptenoglossans, well known as parasites of marine invertebrates, are one of the less common and less studiedgroups of caenogastropods. Most of the ?-taxonomy of their Mediterranean representatives is still source ofdebate and very few data are known on their ecology. A considerable amount of fresh and living material ofseveral ptenoglossan from the Gulf of Catania was available for study. Based on this material we here provideinformation on the distribution and ecology (e.g. habitat and host preference of some relevant ptenoglossanspecies. In particular the distribution of Similiphora similior (Bouchet & Guillemot, 1978, Pogonodonpseudocanarica (Bouchet, 1985, Cerithiopsis ladae Prkic & Buzzurro, 2007, Epitonium pseudonanum Bouchet& Warén, 1986, Melanella lubrica Monterosato, 1890, and Pelseneeria minor Koehler & Vaney, 1908 wereextended to the Ionian Sea and the host is reported for: two triphorids, one cerithiopsid, one epitoniid, threeMelanella Bowdich, 1822 and other two eulimids. The particularly good conditions of the material studied alsoallowed some novel and important observations on the morphology to be made and provided the opportunity todiscuss the taxonomy of some groups. Descriptions of the head-foot colour pattern were provided for onetriphorid, three species of Cerithiopsis Forbes & Hanley, 1851, one epitoniid and three eulimids.

Danilo Scuderi

2011-03-01

312

(ecolog* biome* distribution* interaction* environment relationship* interspec* abundance habitat "food chain" "ecological impact" "Benthic population*" "benthic species" brest) (*benth* ecosytem* biomass organism* "material flow" crustacean* bivalv* annelid* worm* mollusc* "flat fish*" gastropod* oyster*) (brest brittany "bay of brest" elorn auln lanveoc crozon roscanvel "le fret" "moulin blanc" "iroise sea" "mer d'iroise" iroise)  

Science.gov (United States)

Search instead for (ecolog* biome* distribution* interaction* environment relationship* interspec* abundance habitat "food chain" "ecological impact" "Benthic population*" "benthic species" brest) (*benth* ecosytem* biomass organism* "material flow" crustacean* bivalv* annelid* worm* mollusc* "flat fish*" gastropod* oyster*) (brest brittany "bay of brest" elorn auln lanveoc crozon roscanvel "le fret" "moulin blanc" "iroise sea" "mer d'iroise" iroise) ?

313

Taxonomy and systematic position of tremellaceous fungi  

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Full Text Available The taxonomy of fungi from the orders Tremellales, Auriculariales. Septobasidiales and related groups (Tulasnellales, Dacrymycetales, Exobasidiales, Sporobolomycetaceae and the taxonomic position of these fungi within class Basidiomycetes is discussed. The author also presents ideas on the origin, evolution and age of tremellaceous fungi.

W?adys?aw Wojewoda

1980-12-01

314

Visualizing a Taxonomy for Virtual Worlds  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the mid-1990s, however, the popularity, diversity, and application of virtual worlds have spread rapidly. As a result, existing taxonomies and topologies increasingly are becoming less effective at being able to classify and organize the growing diversification of content available in today's virtual worlds. This article presents the…

Downey, Steve

2012-01-01

315

Numerical ecology validates a biogeographical distribution and gender-based effect on mucosa-associated bacteria along the human colon  

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We applied constrained ordination numerical ecology methods to data produced with a human intestinal tract-specific phylogenetic microarray (the Aus-HIT Chip) to examine the microbial diversity associated with matched biopsy tissue samples taken from the caecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 10 healthy patients. Consistent with previous studies, the profiles revealed a marked intersubject variability; however, the numerical ecology methods of analysis allowed the subtrac...

Aguirre Ca?rcer, Daniel; Cui?v, Pa?raic O?; Wang, Tingtin; Kang, Seungha; Worthley, Daniel; Whitehall, Vicki L. J.; Gordon, Iain; Mcsweeney, Christopher; Leggett, Barbara A.; Morrison, Mark

2014-01-01

316

Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

317

(brest crozon dournenez lanveoc "le fret" roscanvel) (*benth* "flat fish*" raya mollusc* bivalv* shellfish* custac* mytil* crassostrea* oyster* pecten anneli* invertebrat* echinoderm*) (ecology* ecosystem* environm* "trophic chain*" "food chain*" distribut* abundance biomass* habitat* "interspecif* relationship*" biocenosis)  

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Search instead for (brest crozon dournenez lanveoc "le fret" roscanvel) (*benth* "flat fish*" raya mollusc* bivalv* shellfish* custac* mytil* crassostrea* oyster* pecten anneli* invertebrat* echinoderm*) (ecology* ecosystem* environm* "trophic chain*" "food chain*" distribut* abundance biomass* habitat* "interspecif* relationship*" biocenosis) ?

318

An Extended and Granular Classification of Cloud’s Taxonomy and Services  

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Full Text Available In the recent time cloud computing has come forwarded as one of the most admired computing model in knowledge domain that concerns about the distributed information systems to support the whole world as a cloud community. Distributed, virtualization and service-oriented nature have given ascendancy to cloud computing to distinguish from its core descendants like grid computing, geographical information systems, and distributed system. Although cloud computing dominants the e-society, but it is still in under research, progress. The architecture of cloud’s taxonomy and its services are very significant issues for cloudifications because every day some new advancements and developments are adjoined under its umbrella. In this paper we proposed an extended and granular classification of taxonomy for cloud computing and specified services that is a detailed ontology of cloud, which will be helpful for researchers and stakeholders in better understanding, developing, and implementing cloud technology and services to their lives.

Shah Murtaza Rashid Al Masud

2012-05-01

319

THE EFFECT OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES ON THE INCIDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF APHID VECTORS OF PEPPER VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS, ON CULTIVATED PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The distribution of aphid vectors of Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV was studied on cultivated pepper between 2003 and 2005 in the major pepper producing areas of the six agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. The aphids were isolated, identified and their transmission ability determined. Population of aphid vectors increased progressively in all the agro-ecological zones from March at the onset of raining season reaching a peak in August and then declining from September at the on set of the dry season. The Humid forest and Derived Savanna agro-ecological zones recorded highest mean population of aphids / leaf and types of aphid’s species compared with other agro-ecological zones. Six species of aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Aphis gossipii (Glover, Aphis craccivora (Koch, Aphis spiraecola (Patch, Aphis fabae (Blanchard, and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, were identified on the pepper fields surveyed in all the agro-ecological zones. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of M. persicae, A. gossipii, A. craccivora, and R. maidis while A. spiraecola and A. fabae that varied in occurrence in all the zones. Ability to transmit PVMV to a healthy pepper plants varied in all the identified aphid species but R. maidis was not able to transmit PVMV from infected to a healthy pepper plant. A more sustainable approach to controlling pepper viruses is by targeting the aphid vectors and preventing the vectors from reaching the crops because the aphid vectors which are virus specific are the major means of transmitting virus to healthy plant.

A.A. FAJINMI

2011-11-01

320

Towards an Understanding of Driver Inattention: Taxonomy and Theory  

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There is little agreement in the scientific literature about what the terms “driver distraction” and “driver inattention” mean, and what the relationship is between them. In 2011, Regan, Hallett and Gordon proposed a taxonomy of driver inattention in which driver distraction is conceptualized as just one of several processes that give rise to driver inattention. Since publication of that paper, two other papers have emerged that bear on the taxonomy. In one, the Regan et al taxonomy was used, for the first time, to classify data from an in-depth crash investigation in Australia. In the other, another taxonomy of driver inattention was proposed and described. In this paper we revisit the original taxonomy proposed by Regan et al. in light of these developments, and make recommendations for how the original taxonomy might be improved to make it more useful as a tool for classifying and coding crash and critical incident data. In addition, we attempt to characterize, theoretically, the processes within each category of the original taxonomy that are assumed to give rise to driver inattention. Recommendations are made for several lines of research: to further validate the original taxonomy; to understand the impact of each category of inattention in the taxonomy on driving performance, crash type and crash risk; and to revise and align with the original taxonomy existing crash and incident investigation protocols, so that they provide more comprehensive, reliable and consistent information regarding the contribution of inattention to crashes of all types. PMID:24776222

Regan, Michael. A.; Strayer, David. L.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The vertebrate taxonomy ontology: a framework for reasoning across model organism and species phenotypes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A hierarchical taxonomy of organisms is a prerequisite for semantic integration of biodiversity data. Ideally, there would be a single, expansive, authoritative taxonomy that includes extinct and extant taxa, information on synonyms and common names, and monophyletic supraspecific taxa that reflect our current understanding of phylogenetic relationships. Description As a step towards development of such a resource, and to enable large-scale integration of phenotypic data across vertebrates, we created the Vertebrate Taxonomy Ontology (VTO), a semantically defined taxonomic resource derived from the integration of existing taxonomic compilations, and freely distributed under a Creative Commons Zero (CC0) public domain waiver. The VTO includes both extant and extinct vertebrates and currently contains 106,947 taxonomic terms, 22 taxonomic ranks, 104,736 synonyms, and 162,400 cross-references to other taxonomic resources. Key challenges in constructing the VTO included (1) extracting and merging names, synonyms, and identifiers from heterogeneous sources; (2) structuring hierarchies of terms based on evolutionary relationships and the principle of monophyly; and (3) automating this process as much as possible to accommodate updates in source taxonomies. Conclusions The VTO is the primary source of taxonomic information used by the Phenoscape Knowledgebase (http://phenoscape.org/), which integrates genetic and evolutionary phenotype data across both model and non-model vertebrates. The VTO is useful for inferring phenotypic changes on the vertebrate tree of life, which enables queries for candidate genes for various episodes in vertebrate evolution. PMID:24267744

2013-01-01

322

Ecological distribution and population structure of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthoidea) on the southeastern Brazilian coast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste estudo foram analisar a distribuição ecológica e a estrutura populacional de A. schmitti no litoral sudeste brasileiro. Os caranguejos foram coletados, mensalmente, de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999 nas enseadas: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) e Mar Virado (MV), onde também f [...] oram obtidas amostras de água e sedimento para análise dos fatores ambientais. A maior abundância de A. schmitti foi verificada em UBM (224), seguida por UBA (154) e MV (23) e não apresentou associação com os fatores ambientais analisados. O motivo da baixa abundância desses caranguejos em MV pode ser a alta ação de ondas que movimenta o material biodetrítico acumulado no fundo e, frequentemente, remove pequenos caranguejos de seus abrigos entre fragmentos de conchas. Os indivíduos foram 269 machos e 132 fêmeas, das quais apenas 4 eram ovígeras. O recrutamento juvenil ocorreu o ano todo, sendo menos intenso na primavera. A maior abundância de indivíduos, bem como as fêmeas ovígeras, ocorreu em 1999, quando a entrada da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS) foi mais intensa do que no ano anterior. Esta influência ambiental pode ser o principal fator modulador para esta população. Abstract in english This investigation analyzed the ecological distribution and population structure of A. schmitti on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Crabs were sampled monthly from January 1998 to December 1999 at the following bays: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) and Mar Virado (MV). Water and sediment samples we [...] re also collected from all sampling sites for an analysis of environmental factors. Acantholobus schmitti was most abundant at UBM (224), followed by UBA (154) and MV (23) but its abundance showed no association with the environmental factors analyzed. The low abundance of these crabs in MV may be due to the high wave action that moved biodetritic material accumulated on the bottom and frequently removed small crabs from their sheltered positions among the shell fragments. The individuals captured included 269 males and 132 females, of which only 4 specimens were brooding females. Juvenile recruitment occurred throughout the year, but was less intense in the spring. The major abundance of individuals as well as of ovigerous females occurred during 1999, when the entrance of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) was stronger than in previous year. This environmental influence could be the main factor modulating this population.

Vivian, Fransozo; Thiago Elias da, Silva; Patrícia Bianca, Fumis; Giovana, Bertini; Paloma Aparecida de, Lima.

323

Ecological distribution and population structure of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthoidea) on the southeastern Brazilian coast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste estudo foram analisar a distribuição ecológica e a estrutura populacional de A. schmitti no litoral sudeste brasileiro. Os caranguejos foram coletados, mensalmente, de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999 nas enseadas: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) e Mar Virado (MV), onde também f [...] oram obtidas amostras de água e sedimento para análise dos fatores ambientais. A maior abundância de A. schmitti foi verificada em UBM (224), seguida por UBA (154) e MV (23) e não apresentou associação com os fatores ambientais analisados. O motivo da baixa abundância desses caranguejos em MV pode ser a alta ação de ondas que movimenta o material biodetrítico acumulado no fundo e, frequentemente, remove pequenos caranguejos de seus abrigos entre fragmentos de conchas. Os indivíduos foram 269 machos e 132 fêmeas, das quais apenas 4 eram ovígeras. O recrutamento juvenil ocorreu o ano todo, sendo menos intenso na primavera. A maior abundância de indivíduos, bem como as fêmeas ovígeras, ocorreu em 1999, quando a entrada da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS) foi mais intensa do que no ano anterior. Esta influência ambiental pode ser o principal fator modulador para esta população. Abstract in english This investigation analyzed the ecological distribution and population structure of A. schmitti on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Crabs were sampled monthly from January 1998 to December 1999 at the following bays: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) and Mar Virado (MV). Water and sediment samples we [...] re also collected from all sampling sites for an analysis of environmental factors. Acantholobus schmitti was most abundant at UBM (224), followed by UBA (154) and MV (23) but its abundance showed no association with the environmental factors analyzed. The low abundance of these crabs in MV may be due to the high wave action that moved biodetritic material accumulated on the bottom and frequently removed small crabs from their sheltered positions among the shell fragments. The individuals captured included 269 males and 132 females, of which only 4 specimens were brooding females. Juvenile recruitment occurred throughout the year, but was less intense in the spring. The major abundance of individuals as well as of ovigerous females occurred during 1999, when the entrance of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) was stronger than in previous year. This environmental influence could be the main factor modulating this population.

Vivian, Fransozo; Thiago Elias da, Silva; Patrícia Bianca, Fumis; Giovana, Bertini; Paloma Aparecida de, Lima.

2013-12-01

324

Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (?6PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953 ?g L?1, with the average value of 4.042 ± 3.929 ?g L?1. The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the ?6PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of ?6PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens. - Highlights: • Monthly variation in PAEs was first investigated in a large Chinese shallow lake. • Ecological and health risks with uncertainty were determined. • PAEs with low and high level of carbon would be from different sources. • DnBP predominated within PAE congeners and posed a much greater ecological risks. • The studied PAE congeners posed little health risks to the nearby citizens

325

Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (?{sub 6}PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953 ?g L{sup ?1}, with the average value of 4.042 ± 3.929 ?g L{sup ?1}. The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the ?{sub 6}PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of ?{sub 6}PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens. - Highlights: • Monthly variation in PAEs was first investigated in a large Chinese shallow lake. • Ecological and health risks with uncertainty were determined. • PAEs with low and high level of carbon would be from different sources. • DnBP predominated within PAE congeners and posed a much greater ecological risks. • The studied PAE congeners posed little health risks to the nearby citizens.

He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiangzhen; Liu, Wenxiu; He, Qishuang; Ouyang, Huiling; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yujiao; Wang, Qingmei; Yang, Bin; Xu, Fuliu, E-mail: xufl@urban.pku.edu.cn

2013-09-01

326

Administrative Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

2007-01-01

327

Situation of classical swine fever and the epidemiologic and ecologic aspects affecting its distribution in the American continent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral transboundary animal disease that is highly contagious among domestic and wild pigs, such as boars and peccaries. Today, far from being what was classically described historically, the disease is characterized as having a varied clinical picture, and its diagnosis depends on resorting to proper sample collection and prompt dispatch to a laboratory that can employ several techniques to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Laboratory findings should be complemented with a field analysis of the occurrence of disease to have a better understanding of its epidemiology. The disease is still present in various regions and countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, thus hindering production, trade, and the livestock economy in the region. Consequently, it is among the diseases included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Currently, there are epidemiologic and ecologic aspects that characterize its geographical distribution in the region such as: continued trends in the demand for pork and pork products; an increase in swine investment with low production costs which are able to compete advantageously in international markets; the convention of associating CSF in the syndrome of "swine hemorrhagic diseases" owing to the historical description of its acute presentation and not to the new and more frequent subacute presentations or the diseases with which it may be confused (notably, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and porcine dermopathic nephropathy syndrome, among others); dissemination of the virus through asymptomatic hosts such as piglets infected in utero; frequent lack of quality control and registration of vaccines and vaccinations; feeding of swine with contaminated food waste (swill); the common practice of smuggling animals and by-products across borders; the backyard family production system or extensive open field methods of swine rearing with minimal input in care and feeding; poor understanding of the epidemiologic role that boars and peccaries could have in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the Americas; and new procedures in animal welfare that some countries are adopting for the production, transport, and slaughter of domestic animals. Consequently, many countries (i.e., Canada, USA, Chile, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, and Mexico, where 13 of 32 States are disease free) have given priority to the control and progressive eradication of CSF. In other parts of the Americas, the disease appears under control, as is the case of the five countries of the Andean Region and the 12 northern States of Brazil. In South America, Chile, Uruguay and 13 States in Brazil are disease free. Argentina has mounted a national campaign and is in the process of eradicating the disease. No recent information on its presence or distribution in Paraguay is available. With no master strategy to harmoniously progress in the control and eradication of the disease, 17 countries of the region, jointly led by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, developed the Continental Plan for the Eradication of CSF whose objective is expected to be reached by 2020. PMID:15604470

Vargas Terán, Moisés; Calcagno Ferrat, Nelson; Lubroth, Juan

2004-10-01

328

Ecological distribution and fate of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past 21/2 yr a study was conducted on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a radioactive waste pond which has been receiving low-level Pu processing waste for about 30 yr. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization and studies of the ecological behavior of Pu and Am in an ultra-eutrophic aquatic environment. The purpose of this work is to explain Pu and Am concentrations at specific ecological sites, rates of accumulation at these sites, important export routes out of the pond, and potential pathways to man. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrator of transuranics in the pond system. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments that are the major sink for Pu and Am in this system, is also a major concentrator of transuranics. Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Thus, transuranics appear to be relatively immobile in this aquatic ecosystem

329

A data mining approach to computational taxonomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates an approach of knowledge discovery and data mining in insufficient databases. An application of Computational Taxonomy analysis demonstrates that the approach is effective in such a data mining process. The approach is characterized by the use ot both the second type of domain knowledge and visualization. This type of knowledge is newly defined in this study and deduced from supposition about background situations of the domain. The supposition is triggered by strong i...

Perichinsky, Gregorio; Garci?a Marti?nez, Ramo?n

2000-01-01

330

A taxonomy for human reliability analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A human interaction taxonomy (classification scheme) was developed to facilitate human reliability analysis in a probabilistic safety evaluation of a nuclear power plant, being performed at Ontario Hydro. A human interaction occurs, by definition, when operators or maintainers manipulate, or respond to indication from, a plant component or system. The taxonomy aids the fault tree analyst by acting as a heuristic device. It helps define the range and type of human errors to be identified in the construction of fault trees, while keeping the identification by different analysts consistent. It decreases the workload associated with preliminary quantification of the large number of identified interactions by including a category called 'simple interactions'. Fault tree analysts quantify these according to a procedure developed by a team of human reliability specialists. The interactions which do not fit into this category are called 'complex' and are quantified by the human reliability team. The taxonomy is currently being used in fault tree construction in a probabilistic safety evaluation. As far as can be determined at this early stage, the potential benefits of consistency and completeness in identifying human interactions and streamlining the initial quantification are being realized

331

Modeling ecological niches and predicting geographic distributions: a test of six presence-only methods / Modelado de nichos ecológicos y predicción de distribuciones geográficas: comparación de seis métodos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La predicción de las distribuciones geográficas de las especies obtenida mediante el modelado de sus nichos ecológicos, representa una línea de investigación en expansión, la cual ha sido aplicada en múltiples áreas de conocimiento tales como ecología, sistemática y salud pública. La creciente dispo [...] nibilidad y variedad de tales métodos y algoritmos de predicción determina su evaluación como necesaria. En este estudio, comparamos 6 algoritmos (Maxent, BioMapper, Domain, FloraMap, GARP, Weights of Evidence) con respecto a su habilidad para predecir las distribuciones geográficas de 10 especies de aves de México, para las cuales se cuenta con suficientes datos distribucionales. No obstante, los resultados de nuestro estudio sugieren la necesidad de elaborar nuevos criterios para la evaluación de modelos. Abstract in english Modeling ecological niches of species as a means to predict geographic distributions is a growing field that has been applied to numerous challenges of importance in ecology, systematics, and human well-being. The increasing availability and variety of such predictive algorithms requires testing the [...] ir performance. In this study, we compare 6 such algorithms (Maxent, BioMapper, DOMAIN, FloraMap, the genetic algorithm GARP, and weights of evidence) as regards their ability to predict the geographic distributions of 10 species of Mexican birds for which ample distributional data are available. The results of this study nevertheless led to reflections on how model quality should be evaluated.

Miguel A., Ortega-Huerta; A, Townsend Peterson.

2008-06-01

332

Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn. ssp. laricio (Poiret Maire distribution in the Sila mountain range  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most well-known and vast Calabrian pine forests are in the Sila mountain range, southern Italy. In this paper, present-day distribution of Calabrian pine in the Sila district was analyzed and compared with forest maps dating back to 1935 in order to assess the changes in land use. Main ecological and anthropogenic factors affecting Calabrian pine forest distribution were investigated by logistic regression models to identify the most important predictors of Ca­labrian pine persistence, expansion, and transition over the period 1935-2006. In 2006, the area covered by Calabrian pine forests and mixed Calabrian pine-beech forests was 36 100 ha and 20 221 ha, respectively. Overall, pine forest area increased by 38% between 1935 and 2006. Logistic regression revealed that Calabrian pine distribution in the Sila district was affected by both ecolo­gical (bioclimate, soil, and elevation and anthropogenic factors (management, fire. Based on our results, four different potential dynamics of Calabrian pine stands are discussed in the perspective of the sustainable management and conservation of this important mountain forest habitat.

Nicolaci A

2014-11-01

333

Diversity and Taxonomy of Endophytic Xylariaceous Fungi from Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrob...

Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-chun; Xing, Yong-mei; Wang, Yun-qiang; Xing, Xiao-ke; Zhang, Da-wei; Liang, Han-qiao; Guo, Shun-xing

2013-01-01

334

Taxonomy Icon Data - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata  

Full Text Available [ Credits ] Search across metadata and databases: Home About Archive Update History Contact us T ... me Taxonomy Icon Data Description of data contents Illustrations ... (icons) of biological species. Four different type ... s of illustrations ... are provided; Large, Small, Large with No Backgrou ... all with No Background. You can use image files of illustrations ... and also place icons on a website using URLs of th ... godb/view/taxonomy_icon_en Data acquisition method Illustrations ... (icons) are created based on picture books and oth ...

335

[Pollution distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from the different eastern dredging regions of Lake Taihu].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the distribution characteristics of nutrients and heavy metals in sediments from different eastern dredging regions of Lake Taihu, the surface and core sediment samples at 5 sites (in East Taihu Lake and Xukou Bay) were collected in 2012. Contents of nutrients (TOC, TN and TP) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediments were measured and the pollution degrees of heavy metals were evaluated with the potential ecological risk method. The results showed that the heavy metal contents in Xukou Bay were generally higher than those in East Taihu Lake, whereas the nutrients contents showed the reverse trend. There were significant differences between the phytoplankton-dominated and culture lake regions. The concentrations of both nutrients and heavy metals decreased with increasing profile depth. Moreover, the contents of nutrients and heavy metals in the sediments of all dredged areas were lower than those in the un-dredged areas, suggesting that dredging may be a useful approach for decreasing nutrients and heavy metals loading in sediments, but its effectiveness decreased with time. Significant positive correlations were found among different heavy metals and nutrients, indicating that they were from the same pollution source. The Hakanson potential ecological risk index was applied for assessing the status of sediment heavy metal enrichment and the result indicated that sediment dredging could reduce the extent of potential ecological risk. The risk index in different sites followed the order: X1 > D1 > D3 > X2 > D2, while the risk index in site X1 of Xukou Bay was higher than that in site D1 of East Taihu Lake. And the comprehensive ecological risk grades in sites X1 and D1 were in the moderate range, while the sites D2, D3 and X2 were low. PMID:24720203

Mao, Zhi-Gang; Gu, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Zeng, Qing-Fei; Gu, Xian-Kun; Li, Xu-Guang

2014-01-01

336

Spatial distribution and temporal variation of ecological capital and their relation to climate change and the changes of land use and land cover on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountain, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological capital of an ecosystem is the total value of the direct biological products in the system and the value of ecological service. The assessment of ecological capital is a new research area emerged from the challenge in the interdisciplinary research of ecology and social development. It is fundamental to establish a green national economy accounting system. Scientific evaluation of ecological capital is helpful for considering ecological cost in making the decision for economic development, and it is demanded for sustainable development. In this study, a quantitative assessment model of ecological property has been developed based on the analysis of per unit yield in the conventional ecology together with the utilization of remote sensing data from the Landsat TM, CBERS, MODIS, and NOAA database, land use and land cover data, and field measurements. The study area covers Changji Autonomous District, Xinjiang, China on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountain that is located in a typical arid area. Dynamic monitoring of ecological capital was performed using remote sensing techniques. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of ecological properties were characterized. The effects of land cover and land use as well as climate change on those variation and distribution were analyzed. The results show a significant increase in the ecological capital during 1990-2003. The spatial distribution of ecological properties is characterized by a negative gradient from higher altitudes to lower altitudes (plains) and from oases to deserts, which is consistent with the zonal distribution of vegetation in arid areas. Due to global warming, the climate in Xinjiang has been changed into a warmer and wetter environment during the last 50 years, which improves the plant growing conditions in the alpine regions, piedmont hilly regions, and the oases. On the other hand, the natural environment in the arid and semiarid regions in northwest China becomes more severe, and the stress to the natural ecosystems becomes more and more serious. Human activities affect the quality and the area of ecosystems and change the service functions of ecosystems. Consequently the fluctuation of ecological capital occurs.

Zhang, Qing; Chen, Xiuwan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Xianfeng; Zhou, Kefa; Wang, Xinli

2007-09-01

337

Ecological distribution and fate of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

U Pond, located on the Hanford Reservation, has received low-level quantities of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) longer than any other aquatic environment in the world. Its ecological complexity and content of transuranics make it an ideal resource for information concerning the movement of these actinides within and out of an aquatic ecosystem. U Pond has been intensively inventoried for Pu concentrations in the ecological compartments and characterized limnologically in terms of its physicochemial parameters, biological productivity, and community structure. This work provides a basis for evaluating the pond's performance in retaining waste transuranics. The quantitative estimation of export routes developed by this study is important in determining how effectively such ponds act as retainers for transuranic wastes

338

Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta na costa de Pernambuco e Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta on the coast of Pernambuco State and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho identifica e fornece a distribuição do gênero Caulerpa na costa de Pernambuco (07º30' S e 09º00' W e no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha (03º51' S e 32º25' W. As coletas foram realizadas em 32 praias da costa de Pernambuco no período entre abril/2004 a novembro/2005, na região entre-marés. Em Fernando de Noronha as coletas foram feitas em junho/2006, na região entre marés e no infralitoral (10, 15 e 21 m de profundidade, em oito praias. Foram, também, analisadas as exsicatas de Caulerpa depositadas no Herbário Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho (PEUFR da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Os resultados mostram que o gênero Caulerpa está representado na costa de Pernambuco, por 19 táxons infragenéricos. Algumas espécies apresentaram distribuição restrita como C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh e C. serrulata (Forssk. J. Agardh. Para o Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha foram registrados três táxons infragenéricos.This paper analyzes the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa on the coast of Pernambuco (07º30'S; 09º00'W and in the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (03º51'S; 32º25'W. Sampling was carried out on the coast of Pernambuco from April/2004 to November/2005, in the intertidal zone of 32 beaches. On Fernando de Noronha collections were made in June/2006 in the intertidal and infralittoral (10, 15 and 21m depth regions of eight beaches. Exsiccata of Caulerpa from the Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho Herbarium (PEUFR were also examined. The results showed that the genus Caulerpa is represented on the coast of Pernambuco state by 19 infrageneric taxa. Some species had restricted distributions such as C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh and C. serrulata (Forssk. J. Agardh. Three infrageneric taxa were registered for the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago.

Suellen Brayner

2008-12-01

339

A taxonomy and discussion of software attack technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Software is a complex thing. It is not an engineering artifact that springs forth from a design by simply following software coding rules; creativity and the human element are at the heart of the process. Software development is part science, part art, and part craft. Design, architecture, and coding are equally important activities and in each of these activities, errors may be introduced that lead to security vulnerabilities. Therefore, inevitably, errors enter into the code. Some of these errors are discovered during testing; however, some are not. The best way to find security errors, whether they are introduced as part of the architecture development effort or coding effort, is to automate the security testing process to the maximum extent possible and add this class of tools to the tools available, which aids in the compilation process, testing, test analysis, and software distribution. Recent technological advances, improvements in computer-generated forces (CGFs), and results in research in information assurance and software protection indicate that we can build a semi-intelligent software security testing tool. However, before we can undertake the security testing automation effort, we must understand the scope of the required testing, the security failures that need to be uncovered during testing, and the characteristics of the failures. Therefore, we undertook the research reported in the paper, which is the development of a taxonomy and a discussion of software attacks generated from the point of view of the security tester with the goal of using the taxonomy to guide the development of the knowledge base for the automated security testing tool. The representation for attacks and threat cases yielded by this research captures the strategies, tactics, and other considerations that come into play during the planning and execution of attacks upon application software. The paper is organized as follows. Section one contains an introduction to our research and a discussion of the motivation for our work. Section two contains a presents our taxonomy of software attacks and a discussion of the strategies employed and general weaknesses exploited for each attack. Section three contains a summary and suggestions for further research.

Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

2005-03-01

340

Taxonomy of Mechanitis (f.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from the west Colombian Andes: an integrative approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species identification in the butterfly genus Mechanitis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) becomes difficult when it is based only on wing color patterns, a common practice in butterfly taxonomy. Difficulties in Mechanitis taxonomy are related to the widespread mimicry and polymorphism among species belonging to this genus. Species recognition and inventories of Mechanitis genus in geographic areas as the Andean region of Colombia are of particular interest and the use of more than one character for taxonomic identification is desirable. In this study, we included morphological, ecological, and mitochondrial DNA data to identify the occurring species in this region. Species of Mechanitis were studied from ecological, morphological, and molecular perspectives considering host plant identification, oviposition behavior, and life cycles under laboratory conditions. Immature morphology, patterns of wing color, and genital structures of adults were also studied. The genetic barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene was sequenced and used to verify the limits between species previously defined by the other characters and to validate its usefulness for species delimitation in this particular genus. The integrative approach combining independent datasets successfully allowed species identification as compared to the approach based on a single dataset. Three well-differentiated species were found in the studied region, Mechanitis menapis (Hewitson), Mechanitis polymnia (Linnaeus), and Mechanitis lysimnia (Fabricius). New valuable characters that could improve taxonomic identification in this genus are considered. PMID:23949672

Giraldo, C E; Uribe, S I

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Extreme levels of hidden diversity in microscopic animals (Rotifera) revealed by DNA taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge and estimates of species richness at all scales are biased both by our understanding of the evolutionary processes shaping diversity and by the methods used to delineate the basic units of diversity. DNA taxonomy shows that diversity may be underestimated by traditional taxonomy, especially for microscopic animals. The effects of such hidden diversity are usually overlooked in ecological studies. Here, we estimate hidden diversity in bdelloid rotifers, a group of microscopic animals. We analyse cryptic diversity using a coalescent approach to infer taxonomical units from phylogenetic trees. Cryptic diversity was measured for eight traditional species of bdelloid rotifers and the results compared to that of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis species complex, which is well studied and for which cross-mating experiments have been performed to explicitly define some of the species boundaries. A taxonomic inflation of up to 34 potential cryptic taxa was found in bdelloids. Cryptic taxa within each traditional species may be spatially isolated, but do not have narrower ecological niches. The species deemed as generalists exhibit the highest cryptic diversity. Cryptic diversity based on molecular characterization is commonly found in animals; nevertheless, the amount of cryptic diversity in bdelloids is much higher than in other groups analysed so far, maybe because of their peculiar parthenogenetic reproduction, other than microscopic size. We discuss this hypothesis in the light of the available empirical evidence from other groups of microscopic invertebrates, such as tardigrades and mites, which share size, habitat heterogeneity, potential for dispersal, and/or parthenogenetic reproduction. PMID:19398026

Fontaneto, Diego; Kaya, Murat; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Barraclough, Timothy G

2009-10-01

342

Ecologically oriented distribution of drainage water in the surrounding areas of opencast mines in Lower Lusatia; Oekologisch orientierte Verteilung von Suempfungswasser im Umfeld von Tagebauen in der Niederlausitz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Taking Welzow-South opencast mine as an example, the authors explain the possible means of achieving an ecologically oriented water distribution in Lower Lusatia. The location of the Welzow coal field on the surface-watershed between the rivers Spree and Schwarze Elster, the hydrological effects of the abandoned workings and the development of Welzow-South opencast mine have resulted in a differential water distribution. Ecological investigations confirm the great importance of marshes fed by drainage water in marginal areas of mines and in recultivation areas. Aspects of the legal licensing procedure are explained and discussed. When planning the areas to be recultivated after cessation of mining operations, re-connection to existing run-off systems is taken into account in an early stage and a main outfall is thus created accordingly. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel des Tagebaues Welzow-Sued werden Moeglichkeiten einer oekologisch orientierten Wasserverteilung in der Niederlausitz aufgezeigt. Die Lage auf der oberirdischen Wasserscheide zwischen der Spree und der Schwarzen Elster, die hydrologischen Auswirkungen des Altbergbaues und die Entwicklung von Welzow-Sued haben zu einer differenzierten Wasserverteilung gefuehrt. Oekologische Untersuchungen belegen die hohe Bedeutung von mit Suempfungswasser gestuetzten Feuchtgebieten in Randbereichen und auf den Rekultivierungsflaechen. Genehmigungsrechtliche Aspekte werden beschrieben und diskutiert. Bei der Planung der Bergbaufolgelandschaft wird rechtzeitig die Wiederanbindung an bestehende Abflusssysteme beruecksichtigt und somit eine entsprechende Vorflut gestaltet. (orig.)

Jahn, A.; Bergholz, U.; Kuhlmann, K. [LAUBAG/HV, Senftenberg (Germany)

1998-01-01

343

The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

Adams, Katherine

2002-01-01

344

Attack surfaces : A taxonomy for attacks on cloud services  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants. © 2010 IEEE.

Jensen, Meiko

2010-01-01

345

Taxonomy for spatial domain LSB steganography techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding technique is a well-known and broadly employed method in multimedia steganography, used mainly in applications involving single bit-plane manipulations in the spatial domain [1]. The key advantages of LSB procedures are they are simple to understand, easy to implement, have high embedding capacity, and can be resistant to steganalysis attacks. Additionally, the LSB approach has spawned numerous applications and can be used as the basis of more complex techniques for multimedia data embedding. In the last several decades, hundreds of new LSB or LSB variant methods have been developed in an effort to optimize capacity while minimizing detectability, taking advantage of the overall simplicity of this method. LSB-steganalysis research has also intensified in an effort to find new or improved ways to evaluate the performance of this widely used steganographic system. This paper reviews and categorizes some of these major techniques of LSB embedding, focusing specifically on the spatial domain. Some justification for establishing and identifying promising uses of a proposed SD-LSB centric taxonomy are discussed. Specifically, we define a new taxonomy for SD-LSB embedding techniques with the goal of aiding researchers in tool classification methodologies that can lead to advances in the state-of-the-art in steganography. With a common framework to work with, researchers can begin to more concretely identify core tools and common techniques to establish common standards of practice for steganography in general. Finally, we provide a summary on some of the most common LSB embedding techniques followed by a proposed taxonomy standard for steganalysis.

Collins, James C.; Agaian, Sos S.

2014-05-01

346

Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

347

TAXONOMY OF STREPTOMYCES SP. STRAIN 3B  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strain Streptomyces sp. 3B produces high activity extracellular proteolytic complex, in which serine- and metalloproteases are identified. The general and some other significant properties for the taxonomy of the strain were studied by the methods of the International Streptomycetes Project. The results of the investigation of Streptomyces sp. 3B and the comparative references about Streptomyces species with similar taxonomic characteristics identified it as Streptomyces albovinaceus . The antibiotic activity and sensitivity was also tested. Strain 3B was resistant to the group of the penicillin antibiotics

Stefka Antonova-Nikolova, Nikoleta Tzekova and Ljubomira Yocheva

348

Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 ?m long and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 ?m diam. Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C. Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus.

R.A. Samson

2011-11-01

349

Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS) and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 ?m long) and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 ?m diam). Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C) than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C). Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus.

Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian

2011-01-01

350

Antibiotics in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ocean is an important sink of land-based pollutants. Previous studies showed that serious antibiotic pollution occurred in the coastal waters, but limited studies focused on their presence in offshore waters. In this study, eleven antibiotics in three different categories were investigated in offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China. The results indicated that three antibiotics dehydration erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim occurred throughout the offshore waters at concentrations of 0.10–16.6 ng L?1 and they decreased exponentially from the rivers to the coastal and offshore waters. The other antibiotics all presented very low detection rates (?1). Although the concentrations were very low, risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that sulfamethoxazole, dehydration erythromycin and clarithromycin at most of sampling sites posed medium or low ecological risks (0.01 ?1. ? Their concentrations decreased exponentially from the rivers to the offshore waters. ? Some antibiotics in the offshore water posed medium or low risks to some organisms. -- Some antibiotics were ubiquitous in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China and posed medium or low ecological risks to some sensitive organisms

351

A novel application of ecological analyses to assess transposable element distributions in the genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transposable elements (TEs) are among the most abundant components of many eukaryotic genomes. Efforts to explain TE abundance, as well as TE diversity among genomes, have led some researchers to draw an analogy between genomic and ecological processes. Adopting this perspective, we conducted an analysis of the cow (Bos taurus) genome using techniques developed by community ecologists to determine whether environmental factors influence community composition. Specifically, each chromosome within the Bos taurus genome was treated as a "linear transect", and a multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify large-scale spatial patterns in TE communities associated with 10 TE families. The position of each TE community on the chromosome accounted for ?50% of the variation along the chromosome "transect". Multivariate analysis further revealed an effect of gene density on TE communities that is influenced by several other factors in the (genomic) environment, including chromosome length and TE density. The results of this analysis demonstrate that ecological methods can be applied successfully to help answer genomic questions. PMID:24168673

Saylor, Brent; Elliott, Tyler A; Linquist, Stefan; Kremer, Stefan C; Gregory, T Ryan; Cottenie, Karl

2013-09-01

352

Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k{sub 0}-standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

Palmieri, Helena E.L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: help@cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio A. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br; Friese, Kurt [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research- UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany). Dept. of Lake Research], E-mail: kurt.friese@ufz.de

2007-07-01

353

Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k0-standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

354

A revised taxonomy of assistance animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of animals in various assistive, therapeutic, and emotional support roles has contributed to the uncoordinated expansion of labels used to distinguish these animals. To address the inconsistent vocabulary and confusion, this article proposes a concise taxonomy for classifying assistance animals. Several factors were identified to differentiate categories, including (1 whether the animal performs work or tasks related to an individual’s disability; (2 the typical level of skill required by the animal performing the work or task; (3 whether the animal is used by public service, military, or healthcare professionals; (4 whether training certifications or standards are available; and (5 the existence of legal public access protections for the animal and handler. Acknowledging that some category labels have already been widely accepted or codified, six functional categories were identified: (1 service animal; (2 public service animal; (3 therapy animal; (4 visitation ­animal; (5 sporting, recreational, or agricultural animal; and (6 support animal. This taxonomy provides a clear vocabulary for use by consumers, professionals working in the field, researchers, policy makers, and regulatory agencies.

Lindsay Parenti, MA, BCBA

2013-08-01

355

Levels, distribution pattern and ecological risk assessment of organochlorines pesticides (OCPs) in water and sediments from two tributaries of the Chenab River, Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residue levels, distribution patterns and ecological risk assessment of OCPs in water and sediment samples collected from two upstream feeding tributaries of the River Chenab, Pakistan were monitored. ?OCPs levels in water and sediment ranged between 8 and 76 ng L(-1) and 17 and 224 ng g(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of ?HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) was 3.3 ± 3.2 ng L(-1) and 8.4 ± 9 ng g(-1) for water and sediment samples, respectively, while ?DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) exhibited the average concentration of 9.07 ± 6.15 ng L(-1) and 40.3 ± 26.2 ng g(-1) for water and sediment samples, respectively. The concentration of DDT and HCHs in both water and sediment samples were about 80 % of total OCPs and DDTs were the predominant organochlorines in the investigated matrix. DDTs and HCHs in sediment samples posed higher ecotoxicological risk and results were significant when compared with the quality guidelines. Results of the present study should be taken seriously by higher authorities as there is a serious threat to ecological integrities by OCPs exposure. PMID:25204814

Mahmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

2014-11-01

356

Revisión cráneo-dentaria de Procyon (Carnivora: Procyonidae) en Colombia y Ecuador, con notas sobre su taxonomía y distribución / Cranio-dental revision of Procyon (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in Colombia and Ecuador, with remarks on its taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En América del Sur, dos especies del género Procyon han sido históricamente registradas, P. cancrivorus y P. lotor, sin embargo, el conocimiento relacionado con la morfología, la historia natural y su distribución en Colombia y Ecuador es limitado, razón por la cual se ha cuestionado la presencia de [...] P. lotor en esta parte del continente. Con el propósito de contribuir al conocimiento de Procyon en estos países, elaboramos una evaluación morfológica y morfométrica craneana; utilizamos 24 medidas que examinamos por medio de análisis multivariados y pruebas estadísticas estándar. Aclaramos dudas relacionadas con la presencia de P. lotor en Colombia y actualizamos la distribución de P. cancrivorus en ambos países. Nuestros resultados muestran que las dos especies se encuentran en Colombia y pueden diferenciarse por el ancho del P4 y por la relación longitud del paladar después del M2/longitud total del paladar. Caracteres morfológicos que diferencian las dos especies son: molariformes más masivos con cúspides anchas y redondeadas en P. cancri-vorus, mientras que en P. lotor son más agudas. Procyon lotor se encuentra restringida al norte de Colombia, mientras que P. cancrivorus está más ampliamente distribuida en varias regiones naturales hasta los 2350 msnm en los Andes. Los ejemplares de P. cancrivorus del noroccidente de Colombia presentan características dentarias que concuerdan con las propuestas para la subespecie P. c. proteus y sugerimos que este nombre debería aplicarse a estas poblaciones; sin embargo, el estatus subespecífico de las poblaciones colombianas de P. lotor y de las poblaciones ecuatorianas de P. cancrivorus es incierto. Abstract in english In South America, two species of Procyon have been historically recorded, P. cancrivorus and P. lotor. However, the knowledge related to the morphology, natural history and distribution in Colombia and Ecuador is limited, for this reason the presence of P. lotor in this part of the continent has bee [...] n questioned. In order to contribute to the knowledge of Procyon in these countries, we developed a cranial morphological and morphometric evaluation; we used twenty-four measures that were analyzed using multivariate analysis and standard statistical. We elucidated doubts regarding P. lotor's presence in Colombia and updated the distribution of P. cancrivorus in both countries. Our results show that both species are present in Colombia and can be distinguished by the P4 width and the palate length after M2/palate total length ratio. Morphological characters that differentiated the two species are massive molar teeth with broad and round cusps in P. cancrivorus, whereas in P. lotor, are sharper. Procyon lotor is restricted to northern Colombia, while P. cancrivorus is more widely distributed in different natural regions up to 2350 m in the Andes. Procyon cancrivorus specimens from northwestern Colombia have dental characteristics consistent with the proposals for the subspecies P. c. proteus and we suggest that this name should be applied to these populations. Nevertheless, the subspecific status of the colombian populations of P. lotor and ecuatorian populations of P. cancrivorus remain uncertain.

David, Marín; Héctor E, Ramírez-Chaves; Andrés Felipe, Suárez-Castro.

2012-12-01

357

Revisión cráneo-dentaria de Procyon (Carnivora: Procyonidae) en Colombia y Ecuador, con notas sobre su taxonomía y distribución / Cranio-dental revision of Procyon (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in Colombia and Ecuador, with remarks on its taxonomy and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En América del Sur, dos especies del género Procyon han sido históricamente registradas, P. cancrivorus y P. lotor, sin embargo, el conocimiento relacionado con la morfología, la historia natural y su distribución en Colombia y Ecuador es limitado, razón por la cual se ha cuestionado la presencia de [...] P. lotor en esta parte del continente. Con el propósito de contribuir al conocimiento de Procyon en estos países, elaboramos una evaluación morfológica y morfométrica craneana; utilizamos 24 medidas que examinamos por medio de análisis multivariados y pruebas estadísticas estándar. Aclaramos dudas relacionadas con la presencia de P. lotor en Colombia y actualizamos la distribución de P. cancrivorus en ambos países. Nuestros resultados muestran que las dos especies se encuentran en Colombia y pueden diferenciarse por el ancho del P4 y por la relación longitud del paladar después del M2/longitud total del paladar. Caracteres morfológicos que diferencian las dos especies son: molariformes más masivos con cúspides anchas y redondeadas en P. cancri-vorus, mientras que en P. lotor son más agudas. Procyon lotor se encuentra restringida al norte de Colombia, mientras que P. cancrivorus está más ampliamente distribuida en varias regiones naturales hasta los 2350 msnm en los Andes. Los ejemplares de P. cancrivorus del noroccidente de Colombia presentan características dentarias que concuerdan con las propuestas para la subespecie P. c. proteus y sugerimos que este nombre debería aplicarse a estas poblaciones; sin embargo, el estatus subespecífico de las poblaciones colombianas de P. lotor y de las poblaciones ecuatorianas de P. cancrivorus es incierto. Abstract in english In South America, two species of Procyon have been historically recorded, P. cancrivorus and P. lotor. However, the knowledge related to the morphology, natural history and distribution in Colombia and Ecuador is limited, for this reason the presence of P. lotor in this part of the continent has bee [...] n questioned. In order to contribute to the knowledge of Procyon in these countries, we developed a cranial morphological and morphometric evaluation; we used twenty-four measures that were analyzed using multivariate analysis and standard statistical. We elucidated doubts regarding P. lotor's presence in Colombia and updated the distribution of P. cancrivorus in both countries. Our results show that both species are present in Colombia and can be distinguished by the P4 width and the palate length after M2/palate total length ratio. Morphological characters that differentiated the two species are massive molar teeth with broad and round cusps in P. cancrivorus, whereas in P. lotor, are sharper. Procyon lotor is restricted to northern Colombia, while P. cancrivorus is more widely distributed in different natural regions up to 2350 m in the Andes. Procyon cancrivorus specimens from northwestern Colombia have dental characteristics consistent with the proposals for the subspecies P. c. proteus and we suggest that this name should be applied to these populations. Nevertheless, the subspecific status of the colombian populations of P. lotor and ecuatorian populations of P. cancrivorus remain uncertain.

David, Marín; Héctor E, Ramírez-Chaves; Andrés Felipe, Suárez-Castro.

358

Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms: Progress report for period 1 January 1987 to 31 December 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We quantified the constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. We completed studies on the thermoregulation of largemouth bass, on the bioenergetics of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, and on the role of temperature dependent sex determination in the extinction of dinosaurs. We also began research to develop the three dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles, to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field, to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and water flux rates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. 60 refs., 9 figs.

Spotila, J.R.; Standora, E.A.

1987-09-01

359

Spatial ecological processes and local factors predict the distribution and abundance of spawning by steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) across a complex riverscape  

Science.gov (United States)

Processes that influence habitat selection in landscapes involve the interaction of habitat composition and configuration and are particularly important for species with complex life cycles. We assessed the relative influence of landscape spatial processes and local habitat characteristics on patterns in the distribution and abundance of spawning steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a threatened salmonid fish, across ~15,000 stream km in the John Day River basin, Oregon, USA. We used hurdle regression and a multi-model information theoretic approach to identify the relative importance of covariates representing key aspects of the steelhead life cycle (e.g., site access, spawning habitat quality, juvenile survival) at two spatial scales: within 2-km long survey reaches (local sites) and ecological neighborhoods (5 km) surrounding the local sites. Based on Akaike’s Information Criterion, models that included covariates describing ecological neighborhoods provided the best description of the distribution and abundance of steelhead spawning given the data. Among these covariates, our representation of offspring survival (growing-season-degree-days, °C) had the strongest effect size (7x) relative to other predictors. Predictive performances of model-averaged composite and neighborhood-only models were better than a site-only model based on both occurrence (percentage of sites correctly classified = 0.80±0.03 SD, 0.78±0.02 vs. 0.62±0.05, respectively) and counts (root mean square error = 3.37, 3.93 vs. 5.57, respectively). The importance of both temperature and stream flow for steelhead spawning suggest this species may be highly sensitive to impacts of land and water uses, and to projected climate impacts in the region and that landscape context, complementation, and connectivity will drive how this species responds to future environments.

Falke, Jeffrey A.; Dunham, Jason B.; Jordan, Christopher E.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Reeves, Gordon H.

2013-01-01

360

Taxonomía y distribución de los anofelinos en el estado de Veracruz, México (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae) / Taxonomy and distribution of the anopheline mosquitoes in the state of Veracruz, Mexico (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad humana causada por protozoarios del género Plasmodium y es transmitida por hembras de mosquito de ciertas especies de Anopheles. Se estima que en México el 33.1% de la población vive en áreas donde puede ocurrir la transmisión de la malaria. Veracruz es un es [...] tado donde la enfermedad es endémica debido a diversos factores que lo hacen una zona de riesgo para la transmisión, entre ellos las condiciones climáticas y la migración humana. Por lo anterior, en este trabajo se presentan las bases para la reactivación de la vigilancia entomológica del paludismo en el estado de Veracruz, para lo cual se provee la diagnosis ilustrada de la larva, la pupa y los adultos de ambos sexos de las especies de anofelinos del estado, así como las claves taxonómicas que permiten su reconocimiento, con base en el examen de ejemplares recolectados o depositados en colecciones entomológicas de referencia. También se obtuvieron mapas de distribución conocida y potencial de las especies por medio de GARP. Se mencionan además algunos datos bionómicos y la importancia médica de cada especie. Se conocen en Veracruz 18 especies de anofelinos, agrupadas en dos géneros, Chagasia con una especie y Anopheles con 17 pertenecientes a los subgéneros An. (Anopheles), An. (Kerteszia) y An. (Nyssorhynchus). Se reconocen cuatro grupos de especies de acuerdo a su capacidad de transmisión de plasmodios y por su amplitud de distribución: el grupo de alto riesgo constituido por 2 especies; el grupo de riesgo moderado o regional, con 8 especies; el de escaso riesgo, con 3 especies y el de riesgo nulo con 5 especies. Prácticamente todo el estado posee vectores potenciales por lo que debe reestablecerse la vigilancia permanente de sus poblaciones. Este trabajo aporta elementos de juicio para que el estado pueda ser, en un futuro cercano, certificado como área libre de paludismo. Abstract in english Malaria is a human disease caused by four species of the protozoon genus Plasmodium which are transmitted by Anophelinae female mosquitoes of some species of the genus Anopheles. It has been estimated that in Mexico 33.1% of the human population lives in areas where the transmission of malaria is po [...] ssible. The risk area includes the State of Veracruz that has been a traditional endemic zone in the past. Factors as weather, human density and human migration elevate the potential transmission risk. In this study, basic information needed for the reactivation of the entomological surveillance in the Veracruz State is provided, presenting the check-list with the illustrated diagnosis of larva, pupa, adult male and female, and taxonomic keys for the identification of species based in all postembryonic developmental stages. The known and potential distribution maps were obtained using GARP. Some bionomic data and the medical importance of the species are also mentioned. There are 18 Anophelinae species in Veracruz, grouped in two genera, Chagasia with one species and Anopheles with 17, pertaining to three subgenera An. (Anopheles), An (Kerteszia) and An. (Nyssorhynchus). According to the plasmodium transmission capability and distribution range, four groups of species are recognized: the high risk group, with 2 species; the median risk or regional risk group, with 8 species; the low risk group, with 3 species and the no risk group with 5 species. Potential malaria vectors are present throughout almost the entire state, so permanent surveillance of the anopheline populations must be reestablished. This study contributes strong elements for the future certification of the Veracruz State as an area free from malaria.

Adriana, Beltrán-Aguilar; Sergio, Ibáñez-Bernal; Fredy, Mendoza-Palmero; César A., Sandoval-Ruiz; Ruth A., Hernández-Xoliot.

 
 
 
 
361

Peruvian Children’s Folk Taxonomy of Marine Animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Free listing was used to obtain names of marine animals from 234 Peruvian children with families involved in fishing activities. They live in the fishing towns of Vila-vila, Morro Sama and Ilo, located in Southern Peru. Fishes, birds and the category “other marine animal” were used for the classification of marine fauna by children. The group of 6-8 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 19.7 names per child, while the group of 9-11 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 25.7 names per child. Folk species of fish is the most frequently recorded category with a predominance of coastal species and with a mean frequency of 7.56 and 11.51 names per child for the groups of 6-8 year-olds and 9-11 year-olds, respectively. In contrast, bird names are less frequently recorded in the lists. Some bird and mollusc names have lexical under-differentiation at a generic level and apparently have lower cultural significance than fish. Children’s classification in different levels of organization is evidence of a folk biology. The folk taxonomy of marine animals could be influenced by the lesser cognitive development of younger children and the ecological salience of some species. Some species with coastal habitat exhibit a high dominance index of folk names. Cultural transmission of knowledge about birds could be failing due to the recent occupancy of the study sites by migratory people and the sexual division of work in the children’s families.

José Pizarro-Neyra

2011-01-01

362

Ecological Footprint  

Science.gov (United States)

Students explore their own Ecological Footprint in the context of how many Earths it would take if everyone used the same amount of resources they did. They compare this to the Ecological Footprint of individuals in other parts of the world and to the Ecological footprint of a family member when they were the student's age.

Education, Connecticut E.

363

Taxonomy of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects and immediate concerns  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The taxonomy of the genus Campylobacter has changed dramatically since its inception in 1963. At that time the genus comprised just two species. At present, taxa that were once assigned to Campylobacter may belong to one of over 50 species distributed among six genera. Most of these taxa belong to a phylogenetically distinct group referred to as either ribosomal RNA (rRNA) superfamily VI or the epsilon division of the class Proteobacteria. The taxonomic diversity of the group is matched by the diverse habitats in which they may be found, and by the wide range of diseases that they are associated with. Recognition of their clinical and economic importance has resulted in intense interest in the group, and the application of increasingly sophisticated isolation, detection and chemotaxonomic methods continues to elucidate new aspects of their biodiversity. However, despite the advances in new bacterial systematics, there remain a number of important issues concerning the classification of various campylobacterial taxa that require careful consideration. Ultimately, these issues are relevant to many working in the field of applied microbiology, including clinicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists and taxonomists. The purpose of this article is briefly to review the major developments in the taxonomy of Campylobacter from its inception to the present day; summarize the most recent changes in the field; analyse current topical issues of special relevance to applied microbiologists, including identification of the bacteria; and speculate on future prospects for campylobacterial taxonomy.

2001-01-01

364

Ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri in systems science and systematics  

CERN Document Server

The originality of this book, which deals with such a new subject matter, lies in the application of methods and concepts never used before - such as ontologies and taxonomies, as well as thesauri - to the ordering of knowledge based on primary information. Chapters in the book also examine the study of ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri from the perspective of systematics and general systems theory. Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in Systems Science and Systematics will be extremely useful to those operating within the network of related fields, which includes documentation and informati

Currás, Emilia

2010-01-01

365

Taxonomy, distribution and population structure of invasive Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) in the Suquía River basin, Córdoba, Argentina / Taxonomía, distribución y estructura poblacional de Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) invasores en la cuenca del Río Suquía, Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las especies invasoras son una de las causas más importantes de la pérdida de biodiversidad y de las alteraciones que se producen en los servicios ecosistémicos; en ello reside la importancia de la detección de estas especies y su estudio. Las almejas asiáticas (Corbiculidae) son organismos invasore [...] s que ingresaron accidentalmente en el Río de La Plata, Argentina, presuntamente en la década de los 1960'. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron identificar las especies de corbicúlidos y determinar su distribución en distintas localidades a lo largo de la cuenca del Río Suquía, un área extensa localizada en el centro de Argentina. Asimismo, la estructura poblacional fue evaluada mensualmente durante el periodo de un año, en un sitio de la ciudad de Córdoba caracterizado por una alta influencia humana. Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) y Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844) en la cuenca del Rio Suquía. La primera sólo se encontró en un ambiente léntico (embalse San Roque), mientras que la segunda especie también se encontró a lo largo de los afluentes y arroyos de la cuenca. Corbicula largillierti mostró una variación en la densidad media, considerando los diferentes sitios; asimismo en la biomasa y las clases de tamaño en un mismo sitio, durante el período de estudio. La composición relativa de los sedimentos, la fluctuación del caudal y la contaminación humana podrían ser las responsables de las diferencias observadas. Abstract in english Invasive species are one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services, which underlines the importance of their detection and their study. The Asian clams (Corbiculidae) are invasive organisms that accidentally entered the La Plata River, Argentina, presumabl [...] y in the 1960s. The objectives of the present study were to identify the corbiculid species and to determine their distribution at several locations along the Suquía River basin, an extended area in central Argentina. In addition, population structure was evaluated monthly during one year, at a site in the city of Córdoba that is characterized by high human influence. The presence of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) and Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844) in the Suquía River basin is reported for the first time. The former species was found only in a lentic environment (San Roque reservoir), while the latter was also found along the tributary rivers and brooks of the basin. Corbicula largillierti showed variations in average density between the different sites and also in biomass and size classes throughout the study period at the site at Córdoba city. The relative composition of the sediments, flow fluctuation and human pollution may be responsible for the observed differences.

Paola B., Reyna; Ariana G., Morán; Marcos, Tatián.

366

Taxonomy, distribution and population structure of invasive Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) in the Suquía River basin, Córdoba, Argentina / Taxonomía, distribución y estructura poblacional de Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) invasores en la cuenca del Río Suquía, Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las especies invasoras son una de las causas más importantes de la pérdida de biodiversidad y de las alteraciones que se producen en los servicios ecosistémicos; en ello reside la importancia de la detección de estas especies y su estudio. Las almejas asiáticas (Corbiculidae) son organismos invasore [...] s que ingresaron accidentalmente en el Río de La Plata, Argentina, presuntamente en la década de los 1960'. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron identificar las especies de corbicúlidos y determinar su distribución en distintas localidades a lo largo de la cuenca del Río Suquía, un área extensa localizada en el centro de Argentina. Asimismo, la estructura poblacional fue evaluada mensualmente durante el periodo de un año, en un sitio de la ciudad de Córdoba caracterizado por una alta influencia humana. Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) y Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844) en la cuenca del Rio Suquía. La primera sólo se encontró en un ambiente léntico (embalse San Roque), mientras que la segunda especie también se encontró a lo largo de los afluentes y arroyos de la cuenca. Corbicula largillierti mostró una variación en la densidad media, considerando los diferentes sitios; asimismo en la biomasa y las clases de tamaño en un mismo sitio, durante el período de estudio. La composición relativa de los sedimentos, la fluctuación del caudal y la contaminación humana podrían ser las responsables de las diferencias observadas. Abstract in english Invasive species are one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services, which underlines the importance of their detection and their study. The Asian clams (Corbiculidae) are invasive organisms that accidentally entered the La Plata River, Argentina, presumabl [...] y in the 1960s. The objectives of the present study were to identify the corbiculid species and to determine their distribution at several locations along the Suquía River basin, an extended area in central Argentina. In addition, population structure was evaluated monthly during one year, at a site in the city of Córdoba that is characterized by high human influence. The presence of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) and Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844) in the Suquía River basin is reported for the first time. The former species was found only in a lentic environment (San Roque reservoir), while the latter was also found along the tributary rivers and brooks of the basin. Corbicula largillierti showed variations in average density between the different sites and also in biomass and size classes throughout the study period at the site at Córdoba city. The relative composition of the sediments, flow fluctuation and human pollution may be responsible for the observed differences.

Paola B., Reyna; Ariana G., Morán; Marcos, Tatián.

2013-06-01

367

Artificial dam lakes as suitable habitats for exotic invertebrates: Ostracoda ecology and distribution in reservoirs of the Eastern Iberian Peninsula  

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Full Text Available Reservoirs are the most common deep lakes in Spain, as a consequence of water needs and dry climate. Although these aquatic systems can play an important ecological role in such an area with few large natural lakes, they can also provide new habitats for exotic species, which can colonize ecosystems that native species have not explored yet. Here we present our results for a biannual survey of the ostracod fauna from 24 reservoirs in Xúquer River basin. We check which variables affect ostracod presence, test for differences between winter and summer assemblages, and compare our data with previous available ostracod records from the same river drainage network. Our results reveal that ostracod presence is positively related to high diversity of the invertebrate community and reservoir volume, and negatively with phosphorus concentration. Among the 22 species found, it is noteworthy the first Iberian record of Ilyocypris getica and the second European record of Candonocypris novaezelandiae. Ostracod assemblages significantly vary between summer and winter, and strong differences are found between ostracod communities of reservoirs and those from their connected rivers. Remarkably higher frequency of exotic species in the reservoirs confirms previous findings about the facilitation that artificial ecosystems confer to aquatic invasions.

Escrivà A.

2014-01-01

368

Ecological niche modeling of coastal dune plants and future potential distribution in response to climate change and sea level rise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change (CC) and sea level rise (SLR) are phenomena that could have severe impacts on the distribution of coastal dune vegetation. To explore this we modeled the climatic niches of six coastal dunes plant species that grow along the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula, and projected climatic niches to future potential distributions based on two CC scenarios and SLR projections. Our analyses suggest that distribution of coastal plants will be severely limited, and more so in the case of local endemics (Chamaecrista chamaecristoides, Palafoxia lindenii, Cakile edentula). The possibilities of inland migration to the potential 'new shoreline' will be limited by human infrastructure and ecosystem alteration that will lead to a 'coastal squeeze' of the coastal habitats. Finally, we identified areas as future potential refuges for the six species in central Gulf of Mexico, and northern Yucatán Peninsula especially under CC and SLR scenarios. PMID:23625760

Mendoza-González, Gabriela; Martínez, M Luisa; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Vázquez, Gabriela; Gallego-Fernández, Juan B

2013-08-01

369

When everything converges: Integrative taxonomy with shell, DNA and venomic data reveals Conus conco, a new species of cone snails (Gastropoda: Conoidea).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cone snails have long been studied both by taxonomists for the diversity of their shells and by biochemists for the potential therapeutic applications of their toxins. Phylogenetic approaches have revealed that different lineages of Conus evolved divergent venoms, a property that is exploited to enhance the discovery of new conotoxins, but is rarely used in taxonomy. Specimens belonging to the Indo-West Pacific Conus lividus species complex were analyzed using phenetic and phylogenetic methods based on shell morphology, COI and 28S rRNA gene sequences and venom mRNA expression and protein composition. All methods converged to reveal a new species, C. conco n. sp. (described in Supplementary data), restricted to the Marquesas Islands, where it diverged recently (?3mya) from C. lividus. The geographical distribution of C. conco and C. lividus and their phylogenetic relationships suggest that the two species diverged in allopatry. Furthermore, the diversity of the transcript sequences and toxin molecular masses suggest that C. conco evolved unique toxins, presumably in response to new selective pressure, such as the availability of new preys and ecological niches. Furthermore, this new species evolved new transcripts giving rise to original toxin structures, probably each carrying specific biological activity. PMID:25132129

Puillandre, Nicolas; Stöcklin, Reto; Favreau, Philippe; Bianchi, Estelle; Perret, Frédéric; Rivasseau, Audrey; Limpalaër, Loïc; Monnier, Eric; Bouchet, Philippe

2014-11-01

370

Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%.

Ahmed, Saeema

2006-01-01

371

Phishing Detection Taxonomy for Mobile Device  

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Full Text Available Phishing is one of the social engineering attacks and currently hit on mobile devices. Based on security report by Lookout, 30% of Lookout users clicking on an unsafe link per year by using mobile device. Few phishing detection techniques have been applied on mobile device. However, review on phishing detection technique on the detection technique redundant is still need. This paper addresses the current trend phishing detection for mobile device and identifies significant criterion to improve phishing detection techniques on mobile device. Thus, existing research on phishing detection technique for computer and mobile device will be compared and analysed. Hence, outcome of the analysis becomes a guideline in proposing generic phishing detection taxonomy for mobile device

Cik Feresa Mohd Foozy

2013-01-01

372

A Taxonomy of Metrics for Hosted Databases  

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Full Text Available The past three years has seen exponential growth in the number of organizations who have elected to entrust core information technology functions to application service providers. Of particular interest is the outsourcing of critical systems such as corporate databases. Major banks and financial service firms are contracting with third party organizations, sometimes overseas, for their database needs. These sophisticated contracts require careful supervision by both parties. Due to the complexities of web- based applications and the complicated nature of databases, an entire class of software suites has been developed to measure the quality of service the database is providing. This article investigates the performance metrics which have evolved to satisfy this need and describes a taxonomy of performance metrics for hosted databases.

Jordan Shropshire

2006-04-01

373

A Taxonomy of Label Ranking Algorithms  

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Full Text Available The problem of learning label rankings is receiving increasing attention from machine learning and data mining community. Its goal is to learn a mapping from instances to rankings over a finite number of labels. In this paper, we devote to giving an overview of the state-of-the-art in the area of label ranking, and providing a basic taxonomy of the label ranking algorithms. Specifically, we classify these label ranking algorithms into four categories, namely decomposition methods, probabilistic methods, similarity-based methods, and other methods. We pay particular attention to the latest advances in each. Also, we discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight some interesting challenges that remain to be solved.

Yangming Zhou

2014-03-01

374

A hierarchical taxonomy of top managers' goals.  

Science.gov (United States)

To embed goal theories more deeply in the domain of top-level leadership behavior and to provide a vehicle to facilitate future research, the authors developed a taxonomy of managerial goals. Interviews with 75 company leaders-founders and presidents-from 3 countries generated 2,182 articulated goals. Content analysis supported 2 taxonomic dimensions: goal content and hierarchical level. The goal content dimension specified 10 categories of substantive goal targets, and the second dimension captured the hierarchical structure of the top leaders' goal sets, with lower-level goals being instrumental toward achieving superordinate goals. The hierarchy comprised 5 goal levels: ultimate, enterprise, strategic, project, and process. Chi-square analyses revealed relationships between goal content and hierarchical level as well as differences between the national subsamples. PMID:12558219

Bateman, Thomas S; O'Neill, Hugh; Kenworthy-U'Ren, Amy

2002-12-01

375

Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is--that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identification on a common data set of complete genomes: (i) SpeciesFinder, which is based on the complete 16S rRNA gene; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species-specific functional protein domain profiles; and finally (v) KmerFinder, which examines the number of cooccurring k-mers (substrings of k nucleotides in DNA sequence data). The performances of the methods were subsequently evaluated on three data sets of short sequence reads or draft genomes from public databases. In total, the evaluation sets constituted sequence data from more than 11,000 isolates covering 159 genera and 243 species. Our results indicate that methods that sample only chromosomal, core genes have difficulties in distinguishing closely related species which only recently diverged. The KmerFinder method had the overall highest accuracy and correctly identified from 93% to 97% of the isolates in the evaluations sets.

Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore

2014-01-01

376

THE APPLICATION OF PIMKAT TAXONOMY IN CAREER TRAINING / Aplikace taxonomie PIMKAT v profesní príprav?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary pedagogical approaches to the career training of new police officers require a change in attitude of educators shifting the focus from traditional towards activating teaching methods. For this purpose there are nowadays in use, among others, model situations that make the process of education much more effective. The key issue remains to be the determination of real competences and the evaluation of students' performance. The performance evaluation of police trainees is a difficult and responsible endeavour as well as a significant element of the career training process. Many experienced educators often face difficulties in the course of their work that lead to questions - "What, when and based on what criteria should they evaluate?" Primarily, it is the determination of those criteria and their formulation with focus on their unambiguousness that optimizes use of practical "manuals" - taxonomies. In order to define objectives in the psychomotor domain so called PIMKAT taxonomy was developed at the Department of Pedagogy of the Philosophical Faculty of Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, whose practical application in career training is what the author deals with in the given contribution. The application of PIMKAT taxonomy gives subjects of the evaluation a groundwork for the formulation of conclusions based on the comparison between the achieved and intended state (the objective of education.Moderní pedagogické prístupy v profesní príprave nových policistu vyžadují zmenu dosavadního prístupu pedagogo od klasických metod výuky k aktivi-za?ním metodám. V sou?asné dobe jsou k tomuto ú?elu využívaný mimo jiné modelové situace, které významne zefektiv?ují eduka?ní proces. Zásadní otázkou zustává zjištení reálných kompetencí a hodnocení výkonu stu-dujících.Hodnocení výkonu policejních adeptu je složitou, zodpovednou ?inností a významnou složkou procesu edukace profesní prípravy. Rada méne zkušených pedagogu nará-ží ?asto ve své práci na problémy „Co, kdy a podle jakých kritérií hodnotit?". Zejména stanovení kritérií hodnocení a jejich formulace s p?ihlédnutím k jejich jednozna?nosti optimalizuje užití praktických „návodu" - taxonomií.Pro stanovení cílu výuky v psychomotorické oblasti byla formulována na katedre pedagogiky FF UPJŠ taxonomie PIMKAT, jejíž praktickou aplikací v profesní príprave se autor zabývá ve svém p?íspévku.Využití taxonomie PIMKAT prináší subjektum hodnocení podklad pro formulaci závéru na základé srovnání dosaženého stavu se stavem plánovaným (cílem výuky.

Zlámal Ji?í

2010-11-01

377

Distribution and Ecology of the Recent Benthic Foraminifera from the sediments of Adyar River, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.  

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Full Text Available Micropalaeontological investigation has been carried out, for the first time to study the systematic of recent Benthic Foraminifera from the Adyar River, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, Totally 20 sediment samples were collocted during March 2010. 46 benthic foraminiferal species belonging to 22 genus, 5 families and 3 sub orders are identified. Off which Miliolina (52% occupies the dominant place followed by Rotallina (33% Textularina (15%. From station no. 1 to 6 the foraminifeal species distribution shows decrease in order. The higher species are observed in the rivermouth area particularly in the sample no1. (254 species. The following species are abundantly distributed in this region namely Ammonia beccarii, Elpidiumcripsum, Spiroloculina communis and Textularia agglutinans followed by Ammobaculites exigus, Triloculina trigonula. In general the distribution of foraminifera is very low. The abundance of species in the river mount may be due to the mixing of marine and nearshore environment. All the species are illustrated with Scanning Electron Microscope Photographs. From the Zoogeographical distribution of the fa

M.Suresh Gandhi

2013-10-01

378

Diversité floristique, ethnobotanique et taxonomie locale des mauvaises herbes de l'oignon au Nord-est du Bénin  

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Full Text Available Floristic Diversity, Ethno-botanic and Local Taxonomy of Onion's Weeds in the North East of Benin. A study has been conducted in order to document scientific names, local names and their significations, and also to apprehend onion's weed species nomenclature adopted by farmers in the North East of Benin. Thirty onion's households have been surveyed through semi-structured interviews and a floristic inventory was carried out in each of them. Weeds'species and their botanic families and also the criteria of their local names have been identified and have served to elaborate a local taxonomy typology. 71 species which belong to 26 botanic families and 17 species belonging to six families constitute respectively the general flora and the flora associated to onion in vegetation.Poaceae,Cyperaceae, Commelinaceae, Malvaceae, Fabaceae and Portulacaceae are the most important families according to their number of species. Ecology, morphology, resistance to hoe weeding and socio-cultural usages are the criteria that were used to develop the local denomination of 39 among 71 identified species, and have served to elaborate the typology of local taxonomy. The other 32 species without local names do not have any major agroecological, nor socio-cultural interest for farmers. The evaluation of the agronomic importance of the flora associated to onion's vegetation can contribute to a better control of the weeds of this crop.

Bello, S.

2013-01-01

379

Spatial distribution and potential ecologic risk assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of the Nansi Lake in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contamination levels and ecological risks of heavy metals in the sediments of the Nansi Lake were investigated. The contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Co in the surface sediments collected at 20 sites ranged from 0.08 to 1.12, 58.92 to 135.62, 38.09 to 78.65, 24.51 to 53.95, 110.51 to 235.36, 11.30 to 65.40, and 4.12 to 20.14 mg/kg, respectively. The results of partitioning analysis revealed that the proportions of soluble and exchangeable fraction were less than 1 %, the proportions of carbonate, amorphous oxides, organic matter, and crystalline oxides fraction were less than 10 %, and 10.52 % of Cd was associated with carbonate. The average proportions in the residual fraction ranged from 48.62 % for Cu to 73.76 % for Ni, indicating low mobility and bioavailability. The geoaccumulation index (I geo), relative enrichment factor (REF), sediment pollution index (SPI), and potential effect concentration quotient (PECQ) values of the heavy metals in the sediments were not in agreement with each another. The average REF values of Cd and Zn were higher than those of other metals. However, the average PECQ values were higher for Cr and Ni than those of other metals, indicating that these two metals would cause higher adverse biological effects. Therefore, it is suggested that future management and pollution control might focus on Cd, Zn, Cr, and Ni in the sediments of the Nansi Lake. PMID:25240496

Cao, Xuezhi; Shao, Yan; Deng, Wenjing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Shiliang

2014-12-01

380

Geographic distribution of need and access to health care in rural population: an ecological study in Iran  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equity in access to and utilization of health services is a common goal of policy-makers in most countries. The current study aimed to evaluate the distribution of need and access to health care services among Iran's rural population between 2006 and 2009. Methods Census data on population's characteristics in each province were obtained from the Statistical Centre of Iran and National Organization for civil registration. Data about the Rural Health Houses (RHHs were obtained from the Ministry of Health. The Health Houses-to-rural population ratio (RHP, crude birth rate (CBR and crude mortality rate (CMR in rural population were calculated in order to compare their distribution among the provinces. Lorenz curves of RHHs, CMR and CBR were plotted and their decile ratio, Gini Index and Index of Dissimilarity were calculated. Moreover, Spearman rank-order correlation was used to examine the relation between RHHs and CMR and CBR. Results There were substantial differences in RHHs, CMR and CBR across the provinces. CMR and CBR experienced changes toward more equal distributions between 2006 and 2009, while inverse trend was seen for RHHs. Excluding three provinces with markedly changes in data between 2006 and 2009 as outliers, did not change observed trends. Moreover; there was a significant positive relationship between CMR and RHP in 2009 and a significant negative association between CBR and RHP in 2006 and 2009. When three provinces with outliers were excluded, these significant associations were disappeared. Conclusion Results showed that there were significant variations in the distribution of RHHs, CMR and CBR across the country. Moreover, the distribution of RHHs did not reflect the needs for health care in terms of CMR and CBR in the study period.

Najafi Behzad

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

...The Priority 2 data fields include elements such as Electric Utility, Electric Rate Structure, and Electricity Summer Peak Power...requesting comment as to (a) The overall taxonomy schema i.e. the entities and their...

2011-11-30

382

Towards a taxonomy of parallel branch and bound algorithms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present a classification of parallel branch and bound algorithms, and elaborate on the consequences of particular parameter settings. The taxonomy is based upon how the algorithms handle the knowledge about the problem instance to be solved, generated during execution. The starting point of the taxonomy is the generally accepted description of the sequential branch and bound algorithm, as presented in, for example, [Mitten 1970] and [Ibaraki 1976a, 1976b, 1977a...

Trienekens, H. W. J. M.; Bruin, A.

1992-01-01

383

Phylogeny and taxonomy of Calonectria and its Cylindrocladium anamorphs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Species in the genus Calonectria (anamorph: Cylindrocladium) are euascomycetes in the order Hypocreales and are important pathogens of a wide range of plant hosts globally. At the outset, this thesis considers the literature pertaining to species of Calonectria and especially the importance of the biological, morphological and phylogenetic species concepts on the taxonomy of this group. It is clear that DNA sequence comparisons have revolutionised the taxonomy of Calonectria and literature al...

Lombard, Lorenzo

2010-01-01

384

Metabolic ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

2014-01-01

385

Dynamics of market correlations: taxonomy and portfolio analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The time dependence of the recently introduced minimum spanning tree description of correlations between stocks, called the "asset tree" has been studied in order to reflect the financial market taxonomy. The nodes of the tree are identified with stocks and the distance between them is a unique function of the corresponding element of the correlation matrix. By using the concept of a central vertex, chosen as the most strongly connected node of the tree, an important characteristic is defined by the mean occupation layer. During crashes, due to the strong global correlation in the market, the tree shrinks topologically, and this is shown by a low value of the mean occupation layer. The tree seems to have a scale-free structure where the scaling exponent of the degree distribution is different for "business as usual" and "crash" periods. The basic structure of the tree topology is very robust with respect to time. We also point out that the diversification aspect of portfolio optimization results in the fact that the assets of the classic Markowitz portfolio are always located on the outer leaves of the tree. Technical aspects such as the window size dependence of the investigated quantities are also discussed. PMID:14682849

Onnela, J-P; Chakraborti, A; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Kanto, A

2003-11-01

386

Dynamics of market correlations: Taxonomy and portfolio analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The time dependence of the recently introduced minimum spanning tree description of correlations between stocks, called the “asset tree” has been studied in order to reflect the financial market taxonomy. The nodes of the tree are identified with stocks and the distance between them is a unique function of the corresponding element of the correlation matrix. By using the concept of a central vertex, chosen as the most strongly connected node of the tree, an important characteristic is defined by the mean occupation layer. During crashes, due to the strong global correlation in the market, the tree shrinks topologically, and this is shown by a low value of the mean occupation layer. The tree seems to have a scale-free structure where the scaling exponent of the degree distribution is different for “business as usual” and “crash” periods. The basic structure of the tree topology is very robust with respect to time. We also point out that the diversification aspect of portfolio optimization results in the fact that the assets of the classic Markowitz portfolio are always located on the outer leaves of the tree. Technical aspects such as the window size dependence of the investigated quantities are also discussed.

Onnela, J.-P.; Chakraborti, A.; Kaski, K.; Kertész, J.; Kanto, A.

2003-11-01

387

Dynamics of market correlations Taxonomy and portfolio analysis  

CERN Document Server

The time dependence of the recently introduced minimum spanning tree description of correlations between stocks, called the ``asset tree'' have been studied to reflect the economic taxonomy. The nodes of the tree are identified with stocks and the distance between them is a unique function of the corresponding element of the correlation matrix. By using the concept of a central vertex, chosen as the most strongly connected node of the tree, an important characteristic is defined by the mean occupation layer (MOL). During crashes the strong global correlation in the market manifests itself by a low value of MOL. The tree seems to have a scale free structure where the scaling exponent of the degree distribution is different for `business as usual' and `crash' periods. The basic structure of the tree topology is very robust with respect to time. We also point out that the diversification aspect of portfolio optimization results in the fact that the assets of the classic Markowitz portfolio are always located on ...

Onnela, J P; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Kanto, A

2003-01-01

388

Harold Kirby's symbionts of termites: karyomastigont reproduction and calonymphid taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Harold Kirby's brilliant principle of mastigont multiplicity is published here posthumously more than 40 years after it was written. He applies this principle to large multinucleate protist symbionts of termites in establishing the taxonomy of Calonymphids (Family Calonymphidae in Phylum Zoomastigina, Kingdom Protoctista). The nuclei and kinetosomes in these heterotrophic cells are organized into trichomonad-style mastigont units which reproduce independently of cytokinesis to generate nine new Calonympha and nineteen new Stephanonympha species. The total of six genera (Calonympha, Coronympha, Diplonympha, Metacoronympha, Snyderella and Stephanonympha, all symbionts of dry-wood-eating termites, Kalotermitidae) are recognized. With the aid of Michael Yamin, the distribution of all twenty-eight of Kirby's Calonympha and Stephanonympha species are tabulated. In italic type I have annotated this paper to be comprehensible to a wide readership of cell biologists, protistologists and those interested in insect symbionts. Although this extremely original and careful work was not finished when Kirby died suddenly in 1952, I deemed it important and complete enough to finally publish it so that it would not be lost to scientific posterity.

Kirby, H.; Margulis, L.

1994-01-01

389

The genus Scolymus Tourn. ex L. (Asteraceae: taxonomy and distribution  

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Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the genus Scolymus Tourn. ex L. is presented. Seven taxa are recognised, two of them new to science: Scolymus hispanicus subsp. occidentalis F.M. Vázquez, subsp. nov., and S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] i. decoloratus Fiori ex F.M. Vázquez,/ nov.; a new combination, S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] var. aggregatus (Ruch. F.M. Vázquez, comb. & stat. nov., is proposed. The type and full synonymy for each taxon are given. A selection of the specimens studied is presented in Appendix I. Some of the taxa are illustrated in figures.Se presenta una revisión taxonómica del género Scolymus Tourn. ex L., en la que se reconocen siete táxones, dos de ellos nuevos para la ciencia: Scolymus hispanicus subsp. occidentalis F.M. Vázquez, subspnov. ., y S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] f. decoloratus Fiori ex F.M. Vázquez,/ nov.; se propone una combinación a nivel de variedad: S. hispanicus [subsp. hispanicus] var. aggregatus (Ruch. F.M. Vázquez, comb. & stat. nov. Se han revisado todos los sinónimos nomenclaturales y taxonómicos, y se incluye en el Apéndice I un listado de parte del material estudiado. Finalmente, se ilustra mediante figuras una parte de los táxones recogidos en el trabajo.

Vázquez, Francisco M.

2000-06-01

390

Ecological economics  

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Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

Marti?nez Alier, Joan

2001-01-01

391

Distribution and feeding ecology of dolphins along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores  

Science.gov (United States)

During Leg 1 of the MAR-ECO expedition on the R.V. G.O. Sars in June 2004 four main species of dolphins were observed along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores: pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) ( n=326), short-beaked common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) ( n=273), white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) ( n=103), and striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba) ( n=86). Pilot whales and white-sided dolphins were found in cold (5-16 °C) and less-saline (34.6-35.8‰) water masses in the northern part of the study area, whereas common and striped dolphins inhabited warmer (12-22 °C) and more-saline (34.8-36.7‰) waters in the south. Dolphins tended to aggregate in areas of steep slopes, but actual bottom depth appeared to be less important. Based on spatial correlations between dolphin occurrence and candidate prey organisms recorded acoustically and by midwater trawling, mesopelagic fishes and squids were assumed to be important prey items, with Benthosema glaciale probably being the most important prey for pilot whales and white-sided dolphins, while Lampanyctus macdonaldi, Stomias boa ferox and Chauliodus sloani were probably of particular importance for common dolphins. Cephalopods, especially Gonatus sp. and Teuthowenia megalops were the most likely prey species of pilot whales and striped dolphins, respectively. The difference in physical habitat north and south of the Sub-polar Frontal Zone seemed to have important effects on prey distribution, in turn influencing dolphin distribution.

Doksæter, L.; Olsen, E.; Nøttestad, L.; Fernö, A.

2008-01-01

392

Depth distribution and ecological preferences of periphytic algae in Kenyir Lake, the largest tropical reservoir of Malaysia  

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We studied the depth distribution of periphyton, growing on inundated dead trees in Kenyir Lake, Malaysia in June 1995. The algal floral composition and structure manifested changes down the depth gradient in terms of species richness, abundance, diversity and cell density. In regression analysis, all these algal attributes were negatively correlated with the depth gradients at Pbiomass accumulation was greater in low light irradiance. The product-moment correlation analysis showed that conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, reactive phosphate and ammonium-nitrogen were highly correlated with the algal assemblage data. However, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) showed poor correlation with the community data. These observations have cast some light on the autoecological characteristics, habitat preferences and environmental responses of tropical periphytic communities.

Rouf, A. J. M. Abdur; Phang, Siew-Moi; Ambak, M. Azmi

2010-07-01

393

Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Soan River, Pakistan: insights into distribution, composition, sources and ecological risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Present study investigates the occurrence, distribution and sources of ?17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface water of Soan River, Pakistan. The concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 61 to 207 ng/l. Low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs were recorded higher in concentrations (64.7 percent) as compared to high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (35.6 percent). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed domestic and industrial wastewater discharge, vehicular exhaust, petroleum residues and biomass combustion as the main sources for PAHs contamination. Using the USEPA toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach: Benzo(a)Pyrene and Dibenzo(a,h)Anthracene contributed highly carcinogenic exposure equivalent. The surface water of the Soan River is found to be slightly polluted with PAHs thereby posing health risks to aquatic bodies. PMID:25241944

Aziz, Faiqa; Syed, Jabir Husain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

2014-11-01

394

Using Multiple Choice Questions Written at Various Bloom’s Taxonomy Levels to Evaluate Student Performance across a Therapeutics Sequence  

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Objective: To evaluate the results of a prospectively developed plan for using multiple choice questions (MCQs) developed at defined Bloom’s levels to assess student performance across a Therapeutics sequence.Methods: Faculty were prospectively instructed to prepare a specific number of MCQs for exams in a Therapeutics sequence. Questions were distributed into one of three cognitive levels based on a modified Bloom’s taxonomy, including recall, application, and analysis. Student performan...

Amy M Tiemeier, Pharm D.; Zachary A Stacy, Pharm D.; John M Burke, Pharm D.

2011-01-01

395

Ecological Consultancy  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first of a new regular feature on careers, designed to provide those who teach biology with some inspiration when advising their students. In this issue, two consultant ecologists explain how their career paths developed. It is a misconception that there are few jobs in ecology. Over the past 20 or 30 years ecological consultancy has…

Wilson, Scott McG.; Tattersfield, Peter

2004-01-01

396

Ecological distribution and bioavailability of uranium series radionuclides in terrestrial food chains: Key Lake uranium operations, northern Saskatchewan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine radionuclide uptake within the terrestrial ecosystem at uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan. The study site was the Key Lake mine, chosen because it has been an operational mine, mill, and surface tailings area for 15 years and will continue to be an active ore-milling and tailings disposal area for the next 40 years. The focus of the study was on the small mammal food chains in black spruce bogs nearest to the Key Lake facilities, since bog habitats tend to absorb and accumulate radionuclides. Three study sites were chosen on the basis of their proximity to sources of radioactive dust and the presence of bog habitats. Interconnected terrestrial ecosystem components were sampled at the same time at each site. Samples of needles, twigs, ground cover, litter, soils, small mammals, and birds were analyzed for the four radionuclides of greatest concern in the uranium decay series. Radiation doses were calculated to small mammals and birds, food chain transfer parameters were determined to enable future modelling of environmental pathways, and a variety of atmospheric dust collectors were pilot tested to examine the rates of radionuclide deposition from facility emissions to local environments. Four sets of conclusions are discussed regarding: radionuclide distribution within habitats and among sites; the radionuclides responsible for animal doses; the relative bioavailability of radionuclides among sites; and the mty of radionuclides among sites; and the measurement of atmospheric deposition rates

397

The ecological impact of tidal pond channelization on the distribution of tilapia species (Perciformes: Cichlidae on Buguma creek, Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study of the tilapia species (Perciformes: Cichlidae of a tidal creek in the Southeast of theNiger Delta, Nigeria was conducted to assess the ecological impact of tidal pond channelization. Therewas no significant difference (p>0.05 in the values of the physical and chemical parameters, except fortransparency, water level and salinity (pSarotherodon melanotheron and Tilapia guineensis were recorded during the studies, with S. melanotheron being the dominant species.Orthogonal comparison using Duncan’s Multiple Range test showed that S. melanotheron was the causeof the observed difference in the tilapia population. Although there was positive correlation betweensalinity and the tilapia species at all stations, there was no significant correlation between tilapia speciesand the environmental variables. The findings of this study showed that channelized water bodies havelower qualify fish assemblage when compared to natural water bodies due to a loss of heterogeneoushabitat. Although channelization is inevitable in the development of brackishwater fish ponds,amelioration measures of its adverse effects deserve high priority. However since no significantdifference (p>0.05 existed in the distribution of T. guineensis, this study indicated that not all speciesare impacted by tidal pond channelization.

Blessing Julius Oribhabor

2011-12-01

398

Larval stages of the deep-sea lobster Polycheles typhlops (Decapoda, Polychelida) identified by DNA analysis: morphology, systematic, distribution and ecology  

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A total of 25 specimens of Eryoneicus larvae were collected near the Balearic Archipelago (Western Mediterranean Sea) in 2009 and 2010. Detailed morphological examination indicated that the smallest individual corresponded with the first zoea (ZI) stage of Polycheles typhlops hatched from a berried female by Guerao and Abelló (J Nat Hist 30(8):1179-1184, 1996). Only two species of deep-sea polychelid lobster, namely P. typhlops and Stereomastis sculpta, are known to occur in the Mediterranean. Genetic distance comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and Cox I genes of this early larva together with adults from several Polycheles and Stereomastis species allowed us to assign it to P. typhlops. This is the first wild-caught larval stage of a polychelid lobster being identified using molecular techniques. The remaining specimens were attributed to zoeal stages II-III and decapodid stage based on morphological comparison. The arrangement of spines along the anterior part of the middorsal line (R, 1, 1, 1, 2, C1), characteristic of the former species E. puritanii, discriminates these larvae from other Eryoneicus found in the Mediterranean. The clear presence of epipods on the third maxilliped and pereiopods of the decapodid stage gives further support to the identification of E. puritanii as the larval stages of P. typhlops. Additionally, information on the ecology of these larvae, their abundances during different seasons, as well as their bathymetric distribution is reported.

Torres, Asvin P.; Palero, Ferran; Dos Santos, Antonina; Abelló, Pere; Blanco, Edurne; Boné, Alexandra; Guerao, Guillermo

2014-09-01

399

Ecology of the ciguatera causing dinoflagellates from the Northern Great Barrier Reef: changes in community distribution and coastal eutrophication.  

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Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is known to be caused by the ciguatoxins from the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus, however, there is the potential for other toxins such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins from the genus Prorocentrum, and palytoxin from the genus Ostreopsis, to contaminate seafood. These genera may also be indicators of ecosystem health and potentially impact on coral reef ecosystems and the role they may play in the succession of coral to macroalgae dominated reefs has not been researched. Sixteen GBR field sites spanning inshore, mid-lagoon and outer lagoon (offshore) regions were studied. Samples were collected from September 2006 to December 2007 and abundance of benthic dinoflagellates on different host macroalgae and concentration of nutrients present in the water column were determined. The maximum abundance of Prorocentrum, Ostreopsis and Gambierdiscus found was 112, 793 and 50 cells per gram wet weight of host macroalgae, respectively. The average level of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) in the water column across all sites (0.03 mg/L) was found to be more than double the threshold critical value (0.013 mg/L) for healthy coral reefs. Compared to a previous study 1984, there is evidence of a major shift in the distribution and abundance of these dinoflagellates. Inshore reefs have either of Prorocentrum (as at Green Island) or Ostreopsis (as at Magnetic Island) dominating the macroalgal surface niche which was once dominated by Gambierdiscus, whilst at offshore regions Gambierdiscus is still dominant. This succession may be linked to the ongoing eutrophication of the GBR lagoon and have consequences for the sources of toxins for ongoing cases of ciguatera. PMID:24210944

Skinner, Mark P; Lewis, Richard J; Morton, Steve

2013-12-15

400

Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the distribution and ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ardebil Province of northwestern Iran, with special reference to the known dirofilariasis focus in Meshkinshahr County, was carried out in July-August 2005 and April-October 2006. In total, 17,533 adult mosquitoes and 3090 third- and fourth-instar larvae were collected on 14 occasions and identified using morphological characters and DNA sequence data. Twenty species belonging to seven genera were found: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. hyrcanus (Pallas), An. maculipennis Meigen, An. pseudopictus Grassi*, An. sacharovi Favre, An. superpictus Grassi, Aedes vexans (Meigen)*, Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi)*, Culex hortensis Ficalbi, Cx. modestus Ficalbi, Cx. pipiens Linnaeus, Cx. theileri Theobald, Cx. torrentium Martini*, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart), Cs. annulata (Schrank)*, Cs. subochrea (Edwards), Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas) s.l.* (= Aedes caspius sensu auctorum), Oc. geniculatus (Olivier)* (= Aedes geniculatus sensu auctorum) and Uranotaenia unguiculata Edwards (asterisks indicate new occurrence records for the province). The most prevalent species in adult catches were An. maculipennis (52%), Cx. theileri (45%) and Cx. hortensis (1%); the most prevalent species caught as larvae were Cx. theileri (27%), Cx. hortensis (21%) and An. maculipennis (19%). Anopheles maculipennis, Cx. pipiens and Cx. theileri were most widely distributed in the province. The occurrence of Cx. torrentium in Iran is verified based on differential characters of fourth-instar larvae. Anopheles maculipennis and An. sacharovi of the Maculipennis Group were identified from their diagnostic ITS2 sequences. For the first time, cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences were obtained from Iranian specimens of An. hyrcanus, An. pseudopictus, Cx. theileri and Oc. caspiuss.l. Culex theileri and An. maculipennis were found naturally infected with third-stage (infective) larvae of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) and Setaria labiatopapillosa (Alessandrini) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), respectively, for the first time in Iran. PMID:19493192

Azari-Hamidian, S; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Javadian, E; Abai, M R; Mobedi, I; Linton, Y-M; Harbach, R E

2009-06-01

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