WorldWideScience

Sample records for taxonomy distribution ecology

  1. Commiphora oddurensis Chiov. and C. suffruticosa Teshome (Burseraceae): : taxonomy, distribution, ecology and conservation status.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Friis, Ib

    2013-01-01

    On field trips to southeastern Ethiopia in 2012 the authors collected a semi-prostrate shrub of the genus Commiphora and matching the taxon named “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” in the Flora of Ethiopia (1989). In the Flora of Somalia (1999) “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” was considered a synonym of Commiphora oddurensis Chiov. However, in 2006 “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” was described as a distinct species endemic to southeastern Ethiopia and named Commiphora suffruticosa Teshome. Although validly published, that scientific name has not been included in international data bases. After field observations and examination of almost all existing material in herbaria, it is concluded that the two taxa are best treated as subspecies, with some overlap in certain characters and a population of specimens in Central Somalia intermediate in leaf morphology: Commiphora oddurensis subsp. oddurensis, widely distributed in northeastern Kenya and northeastern and central Somalia, and subsp. suffruticosa, restricted to southeastern Ethiopia and adjacent parts of Southern Somalia. Apart from discussions and formal taxonomy, the paper includes new information on habit and habitat, distribution maps and conservation status, as well as photographs of living plants of C. oddurensis subsp. suffruticosa.

  2. The Crotonia fauna of New Zealand revisited (Acari: Oribatida): taxonomy, phylogeny, ecological distribution and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    New Zealand contains 13 of the 69 species of Crotonia described globally and is the only place where all three genera of the Crotoniinae-Crotonia, Austronothrus and Holonothrus-have been recorded. Due to the pioneering work of Hammer (1966) and Luxton (1982) it also has the highest number of distribution records of Crotonia spp. anywhere. In the present study I build upon previous work to re-examine the Crotonia fauna of New Zealand in the light of recent taxonomic and biogeographical research. A new species is described, C. ramsayi sp. nov., a member of the Unguifera species group, and supplementary descriptions are provided for C. brachyrostrum (Hammer 1966), C. caudalis (Hammer, 1966), C. cophinaria (Michael, 1908), and C. unguifera (Michael 1908), as well as a key to species. Crotonia spp. from New Zealand occur predominantly in localities with relatively low mean annual temperature and high water balance, reflecting a requirement for cool, moist conditions. In New Zealand Crotonia spp. occur in an extremely wide variety of vegetation communities compared with other regions in its range (Australia, Africa and South America), and this is indicative that water balance requirements are met, regardless of vegetation type. Some elements of the New Zealand Crotonia fauna, notably the Cophinaria species group, are common to Australia, Africa and South America, indicating a shared evolutionary history pre-dating the separation of Africa from Gondwana 110 mya. The high proportion of species that occur west of the Alpine Fault is consistent with a relictual distribution of Gondwanan elements on the Australian Plate. However, it is unclear whether uplift of the Southern Alps formed a barrier to dispersal. A high representation of the morphologically closely-related Obtecta, Flagellata and Unguifera groups, shared only with South America (and, for Unguifera, with Oceania) represents a dramatically different faunal composition compared with other former Gondwanan landmasses and is consistent with submergence of most of New Zealand during the Oligocene (ca. 25 mya). All of these characteristics indicate a distinctive evolutionary pathway for the Crotonia fauna since New Zealand separated from the rest of Gondwana 80 mya. PMID:25947716

  3. Taxonomy and distribution of the ant Cataglyphissetipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachkoo, Aijaz Ahmad; Bharti, Himender

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomy and distribution of the ant species Cataglyphissetipes (Forel, 1894) is herewith detailed. C.setipes is redescribed, based on workers, queens, and males. Photomontage images of all castes are provided. Information on the distribution and ecology of this species is also given. A key to the Indian species of Cataglyphis is presented. PMID:25859129

  4. Modern Grid Initiative Distribution Taxonomy Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Chen, Yousu; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Engel, David W.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2008-11-01

    This is the final report for the development of a toxonomy of prototypical electrical distribution feeders. Two of the primary goals of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Modern Grid Initiative (MGI) are 'to accelerate the modernization of our nation's electricity grid' and to 'support demonstrations of systems of key technologies that can serve as the foundation for an integrated, modern power grid'. A key component to the realization of these goals is the effective implementation of new, as well as existing, 'smart grid technologies'. Possibly the largest barrier that has been identified in the deployment of smart grid technologies is the inability to evaluate how their deployment will affect the electricity infrastructure, both locally and on a regional scale. The inability to evaluate the impacts of these technologies is primarily due to the lack of detailed electrical distribution feeder information. While detailed distribution feeder information does reside with the various distribution utilities, there is no central repository of information that can be openly accessed. The role of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the MGI for FY08 was to collect distribution feeder models, in the SynerGEE{reg_sign} format, from electric utilities around the nation so that they could be analyzed to identify regional differences in feeder design and operation. Based on this analysis PNNL developed a taxonomy of 24 prototypical feeder models in the GridLAB-D simulations environment that contain the fundamental characteristics of non-urban core, radial distribution feeders from the various regions of the U.S. Weighting factors for these feeders are also presented so that they can be used to generate a representative sample for various regions within the United States. The final product presented in this report is a toolset that enables the evaluation of new smart grid technologies, with the ability to aggregate their effects to regional and national levels. The distribution feeder models presented in this report are based on actual utility models but do not contain any proprietary or system specific information. As a result, the models discussed in this report can be openly distributed to industry, academia, or any interested entity, in order to facilitate the ability to evaluate smart grid technologies.

  5. Morphology, taxonomy and ecology of Thraustochytrids and Labyrinthulids, the marine counterparts of zoosporic fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, S.

    1996-01-01

    papers (Moss, 1986; Jennings, 1983). The taxonomy of these protists is still in a highly fluid state, while much remains to be studied regarding their ecology and physiology. Thus, more than 20 years after Goldstein (1973) wrote his review on marine...

  6. The relationships between the isoelectric point and: length of proteins, taxonomy and ecology of organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolarczyk Kamila

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of isoelectric point (pI of proteins in a proteome is universal for all organisms. It is bimodal dividing the proteome into two sets of acidic and basic proteins. Different species however have different abundance of acidic and basic proteins that may be correlated with taxonomy, subcellular localization, ecological niche of organisms and proteome size. Results We have analysed 1784 proteomes encoded by chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, and also mitochondria, plastids, prokaryotic plasmids, phages and viruses. We have found significant correlation in more than 95% of proteomes between the protein length and pI in proteomes – positive for acidic proteins and negative for the basic ones. Plastids, viruses and plasmids encode more basic proteomes while chromosomes of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, mitochondria and phages more acidic ones. Mitochondrial proteomes of Viridiplantae, Protista and Fungi are more basic than Metazoa. It results from the presence of basic proteins in the former proteomes and their absence from the latter ones and is related with reduction of metazoan genomes. Significant correlation was found between the pI bias of proteomes encoded by prokaryotic chromosomes and proteomes encoded by plasmids but there is no correlation between eukaryotic nuclear-coded proteomes and proteomes encoded by organelles. Detailed analyses of prokaryotic proteomes showed significant relationships between pI distribution and habitat, relation to the host cell and salinity of the environment, but no significant correlation with oxygen and temperature requirements. The salinity is positively correlated with acidicity of proteomes. Host-associated organisms and especially intracellular species have more basic proteomes than free-living ones. The higher rate of mutations accumulation in the intracellular parasites and endosymbionts is responsible for the basicity of their tiny proteomes that explains the observed positive correlation between the decrease of genome size and the increase of basicity of proteomes. The results indicate that even conserved proteins subjected to strong selectional constraints follow the global trend in the pI distribution. Conclusion The distribution of pI of proteins in proteomes shows clear relationships with length of proteins, subcellular localization, taxonomy and ecology of organisms. The distribution is also strongly affected by mutational pressure especially in intracellular organisms.

  7. Towards a molecular taxonomy for protists: benefits, risks, and applications in plankton ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, David A

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of genetic information for the development of methods to study the diversity, distributions, and activities of protists in nature has spawned a new generation of powerful tools. For ecologists, one lure of these approaches lies in the potential for DNA sequences to provide the only immediately obvious means of normalizing the diverse criteria that presently exist for identifying and counting protists. A single, molecular taxonomy would allow studies of diversity across a broad range of species, as well as the detection and quantification of particular species of interest within complex, natural assemblages; goals that are not feasible using traditional methods. However, these advantages are not without their potential pitfalls and problems. Conflicts involving the species concept, disagreements over the true (physiological/ecological) meaning of genetic diversity, and a perceived threat by some that sequence information will displace knowledge regarding the morphologies, functions and physiologies of protistan taxa, have created debate and doubt regarding the efficacy and appropriateness of some genetic approaches. These concerns need continued discussion and eventual resolution as we move toward the irresistible attraction, and potentially enormous benefits, of the application of genetic approaches to protistan ecology. PMID:23672341

  8. Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución

    OpenAIRE

    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS; MAXIMILLIAN RÜTH

    2005-01-01

    Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S) and Tierra del Fuego (55° S). Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such...

  9. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the dog : taxonomy, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology and pathogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannoehr, Jeanette; Guardabassi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the species, including the latest research outcomes, with emphasis on taxonomy, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology and pathogenicity. Despite the important taxonomic changes that have occurred over the past few years, the risk of misidentification in canine specimens is low and does not have serious consequences for clinical practice. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage in the dog is more frequent and genetically heterogeneous compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus in man. It appears that these staphylococcal species have evolved separately through adaptation to their respective natural hosts and differ with regard to various aspects concerning ecology, population structure and evolution of antibiotic resistance.Further understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of S. pseudintermedius is hampered by the lack of a standard method for rapid and discriminatory typing and by the limited data available on longitudinal carriage and population structure of meticillin-susceptible strains. With regard to pathogenicity, it is only now that we are starting to explore the virulence potential of S. pseudintermedius based on genomic and proteomic approaches, and more research is needed to assess the importance of individual virulence factors and the possible existence of hypervirulent strains.

  10. Orobanche elatior and O. kochii (Orobanchaceae in Poland: distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and seed micromorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Orobanche (Orobanchaceae, parasitic on Centaurea in Central Europe, were previously considered to belong to the O. elatior group. At present, the taxon is differentiated into two species, O. elatior Sutton and O. kochii F.W. Schultz. The paper presents for the first time the distribution of O. elatior and O. kochii in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and the literature data, as well as the results of field studies conducted between 1999 and 2014. The majority of the species’ localities are in south Poland: Silesia-Cracow, Ma?opolska and the Lublin Uplands. The distribution of both species in Poland is mapped and chronologically organized, and is thus the most recent in Europe. The taxonomy, host preferences, and ecology are also discussed. Seeds of both species were also investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy, which resulted in the designation of diagnostic features. The new color form of O. kochii f. citrina is described and illustrated. An account of all revised herbarium specimens collected from Poland, deposited in Poland and neighboring countries, is presented.

  11. Soil Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    From Alfisols to Vertisols, this substantial resource (.pdf format only) from the US Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service provides an in-depth treatment of soil taxonomy around the world. Published in 1999 (Second Edition), this Soil Taxonomy text includes 23 chapters, covering the basics of soil classification through the world distribution of orders and suborders. Soil taxonomy maps are provided separately, highlighting dominant soils in the US, as well as global soil regions. In addition, an Errata sheet lists corrections for the printed text. This magnificent volume will prove useful to researchers, students, and educators, alike.

  12. The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae) in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ross D. MacCulloch; Amy Lathrop; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Raffael Ernst; Michelle Kalamandeen

    2009-01-01

    Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presented. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América do ...

  13. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species / Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W. M., Silva; T., Matsumura-Tundisi.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas coletas em 207 corpos de água, distribuídos em 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos (UHGRH) do estado de São Paulo no período de 1999 a 2002, abrangendo grandes e pequenos reservatórios, lagoas marginais e grandes rios. Nestas coletas foram analisadas as espécies do gên [...] ero Thermocyclops quanto à taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e freqüência de ocorrência. O gênero Thermocyclops ocorreu em corpos de água com zona limnética bem desenvolvida e com raras exceções em ambientes estritamente litorâneos. Foram registradas quatro espécies, sendo Thermcyclops iguapensis espécie nova, que ocorreu nos reservatórios das UHGRHs Ribeira do Iguape e Paraíba do Sul. A descrição da espécie nova e a distribuição das quatro espécies são apresentadas, mostrando que Thermocyclops decipiens foi a espécie mais freqüente, ocorrendo em 71% dos corpos de água com região limnética desenvolvida. Esta espécie é característica de ambientes eutróficos, onde ocorre em grande número, e a espécie Thermocyclops minutus é característica de ambientes oligotróficos. Thermocyclops inversus e Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. não são espécies freqüentes, mas podem co-ocorrer com a espécie Thermocyclops decipiens. Abstract in english The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits [...] mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.

  14. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species Taxonomia, ecologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies do gênero Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 no estado de São Paulo, com a descrição de uma espécie nova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.Foram realizadas coletas em 207 corpos de água, distribuídos em 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos (UHGRH do estado de São Paulo no período de 1999 a 2002, abrangendo grandes e pequenos reservatórios, lagoas marginais e grandes rios. Nestas coletas foram analisadas as espécies do gênero Thermocyclops quanto à taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e freqüência de ocorrência. O gênero Thermocyclops ocorreu em corpos de água com zona limnética bem desenvolvida e com raras exceções em ambientes estritamente litorâneos. Foram registradas quatro espécies, sendo Thermcyclops iguapensis espécie nova, que ocorreu nos reservatórios das UHGRHs Ribeira do Iguape e Paraíba do Sul. A descrição da espécie nova e a distribuição das quatro espécies são apresentadas, mostrando que Thermocyclops decipiens foi a espécie mais freqüente, ocorrendo em 71% dos corpos de água com região limnética desenvolvida. Esta espécie é característica de ambientes eutróficos, onde ocorre em grande número, e a espécie Thermocyclops minutus é característica de ambientes oligotróficos. Thermocyclops inversus e Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. não são espécies freqüentes, mas podem co-ocorrer com a espécie Thermocyclops decipiens.

  15. A new taxonomy for distributed computer systems based upon operating system structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics of the resource structure found in the operating system are considered as a mechanism for classifying distributed computer systems. Since the operating system resources, themselves, are too diversified to provide a consistent classification, the structure upon which resources are built and shared are examined. The location and control character of this indivisibility provides the taxonomy for separating uniprocessors, computer networks, network computers (fully distributed processing systems or decentralized computers) and algorithm and/or data control multiprocessors. The taxonomy is important because it divides machines into a classification that is relevant or important to the client and not the hardware architect. It also defines the character of the kernel O/S structure needed for future computer systems. What constitutes an operating system for a fully distributed processor is discussed in detail.

  16. Taxonomy and distribution pattern of the African rain forest butterfly genus Euphaedra Hübner sensu stricto with the description of three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and one of E. sarcoptera (Butler (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae, Adoliadini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pyrcz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Updated data on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and Euphaedra sarcoptera (Butler are presented. Three new subspecies of E. cyparissa and one of E. sarcoptera are described and their geographic distribution is presented. The monophyly of the genus Euphaedra sensu Hecq is assessed based on morphological, in particular male and female genitalia, and behavioural traits. Possible evolutionary reasons for the convergence of colour pattern between the sympatric subspecies of E. cyparissa and E. sarcoptera are discussed.

  17. A Taxonomy and Survey of Distributed Computing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadfazel Anjomshoa; Mazleena Salleh; Maryam Pouryazdanpanah Kermani

    2015-01-01

    Technology is the combination of knowledge and working hard. When users want to accomplish something using special technology, they do not want to know how it works. Technologies are coming to solve and ease our complex problems. It means that users only want to employ technology without any expert skills. Distributed computing is one of the technologies that is used to solve large and complex computational problems. It is based on distributed systems to ad...

  18. A Taxonomy and Survey of Distributed Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadfazel Anjomshoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology is the combination of knowledge and working hard. When users want to accomplish something using special technology, they do not want to know how it works. Technologies are coming to solve and ease our complex problems. It means that users only want to employ technology without any expert skills. Distributed computing is one of the technologies that is used to solve large and complex computational problems. It is based on distributed systems to address computational problems. In this study we are going to highlight the most well-known distributed computing paradigms and explain their technology building blocks. We provide a comprehensive explanation of cloud computing, volunteer computing and also volunteer cloud computing paradigm along with their advantages and also their open issues.

  19. Zemacrosaldula, a new genus of Saldidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from New Zealand: taxonomy, geographic distribution, and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Marie-Claude; Larochelle, André

    2015-01-01

    Zemacrosaldula, new genus, is described with Salda australis White, 1876, as type species, resulting in the following new combination Zemacrosaldula australis (White, 1876). Three new species are described: Zemacrosaldula kapekape new species, Z. whakarunga new species, Z. pangare new species. A revision of the taxonomy of all taxa is presented. Species are keyed. Morphological descriptions are provided together with illustrations emphasising the most significant diagnostic features of external morphology and male genitalia. Information is given on synonymy, type specimens, material examined, geographic distribution and biology. PMID:25947849

  20. The genus Oxyrhopus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae) in Guyana: morphology, distributions and comments on taxonomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ross D., MacCulloch; Amy, Lathrop; Philippe J. R., Kok; Raffael, Ernst; Michelle, Kalamandeen.

    Full Text Available Existe uma considerável confusão sobre a taxonomia e distribuições de Oxyrhopus no norte da América do Sul. Os espécimes e registros de Oxyrhopus da Guyana foram examinados. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis e O. petola ocorre na Guyana. Os dados de morfologia e coloração destas espécies são apr [...] esentados. As distribuições destas espécies e caracteres para distinguir essas espécies são discutidos. Abstract in english Considerable confusion exists regarding taxonomy and distributions of Oxyrhopus in northern South America. Specimens and records of Oxyrhopus from Guyana were examined. Oxyrhopus melanogenys, O. occipitalis and O. petola occur in Guyana. Data on morphology and colouration of these species are presen [...] ted. Species distributions and characters to distinguish among the species are discussed.

  1. A survey and taxonomy of distributed certificate authorities in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbehdari Sam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Certificate authorities (CAs are the main components of PKI that enable us for providing basic security services in wired networks and Internet. But, we cannot use centralized CAs, in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. So, many efforts have been made to adapt CA to the special characteristics of MANETs and new concepts such as distributed CAs (DCAs have been proposed that distribute the functionality of CA between MANET nodes. In this article, we study various proposed DCA schemes for MANET and then classify these schemes according to their internal structures and techniques. Finally, we propose the characteristics of an ideal DCA system that can be used to verify the completeness of any DCA scheme. This classification and taxonomy identify the weakness and constraints of each scheme, and are very important for designing more secure, scalable, and high performance DCA systems for MANETs and other networks.

  2. Contribution to the taxonomy and ecology of green cryosestic algae in the summer season 1995-96 at King George Island, S. Shetland Islands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, O.; Komárek, Ji?í

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 123, - (2001), s. 121-140. ISSN 1438-9134. [International conference: Algae and extreme environments. T?ebo?, 11.09.2000-16.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK6005114; GA AV ?R IAA6005002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cryoseston * green algae * cyanobacteria * ecology * seasonality * taxonomy * Antarctica Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2000

  3. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  4. Asteroid taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholen, David J.; Barucci, M. Antonietta

    1989-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of asteroid surfaces over the wavelength range of 0.3 to 1.1 micron can be used to classify these objects into several broad groups with similar spectral characteristics. The three most recently developed taxonomies group the asteroids into 9, 11, or 14 different clases, depending on the technique used to perform the analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic classes shows that darker and redder objects become more dominant at larger heliocentric distances, while the rare asteroid types are found more frequently among the small objects of the planet-crossing population.

  5. Asteroid taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral reflectivity of asteroid surfaces over the wavelength range of 0.3 to 1.1 ?m can be used to classify these objects onto several broad groups with similar spectral characteristics. The three most recently developed taxonomies group the asteroids into 9, 11 or 14 different classes, depending on the technique used to perform the analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic classes shows that darker and redder objects become more dominant at larger heliocentric distances, while the rare asteroid types are found more frequently among the small objects of the planet-crossing population

  6. Taxonomy and distribution of freshwater pearl mussels (Unionoida: Margaritiferidae) of the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Vikhrev, Ilya V; Aksenova, Olga V; Aspholm, Paul E; Gofarov, Mikhail Y; Klishko, Olga K; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V; Lyubas, Artyom A; Paltser, Inga S; Konopleva, Ekaterina S; Tumpeesuwan, Sakboworn; Bolotov, Nikita I; Voroshilova, Irina S

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater pearl mussel family Margaritiferidae includes 13 extant species, which are all listed by IUCN as endangered or vulnerable taxa. In this study, an extensive spatial sampling of Margaritifera spp. across the Russian Far East (Amur Basin, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kurile Archipelago and Sakhalin Island) was conducted for a revision of their taxonomy and distribution ranges. Based on their DNA sequences, shell and soft tissue morphology, three valid species were identified: Margaritifera dahurica (Middendorff, 1850), M. laevis (Haas, 1910) and M. middendorffi (Rosén, 1926). M. dahurica ranges across the Amur basin and some of the nearest river systems. M. laevis is distributed in Japan, Sakhalin Island and the Kurile Archipelago. M. middendorffi was previously considered an endemic species of the Kamchatka. However, it is widespread in the rivers of Kamchatka, Sakhalin Island, the Kurile Islands (across the Bussol Strait, which is the most significant biogeographical boundary within the archipelago), and, likely, in Japan. The Japanese species M. togakushiensis Kondo & Kobayashi, 2005 seems to be conspecific with M. middendorffi because of similar morphological patterns, small shell size (<100 mm long) and overlapped ranges, but it is in need of a separate revision. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that two NW Pacific margaritiferid species, M. laevis and M. middendorffi, formed a monophyletic 18S rDNA clade together with the North American species M. marrianae and M. falcata. The patterns that were found in these Margaritifera spp. are similar to those of freshwater fishes, indicating multiple colonizations of Eastern Asia by different mitochondrial lineages, including an ancient Beringian exchange between freshwater faunas across the Pacific. PMID:26011762

  7. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikjan Vermeulen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently. Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological research have provided so much data and insights, that among insects - and arguably most other terrestrial organisms - carabid beetles are one of the most worthwhile model groups for biological studies.

  8. On the Widespread Occurrence of the Inverse Square Distribution in Social Sciences and Taxonomy

    CERN Document Server

    Caldarelli, G; De Rios, P L; Servedio, V D P; Caldarelli, Guido; Cartozo, Cecile Caretta; Rios, Paolo De Los; Servedio, Vito D.P.

    2003-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of an inverse square relation in the hierarchical distribution of sub-communities within communities (or sub-species within species) has been recently invoked as a signature of hierarchical self-organization within social and ecological systems. Here we show that, whether such systems are self-organized or not, this behavior is the consequence of the tree-like classification method. Different tree-like classifications (both of real and truly random systems) display a similar statistical behaviour when considering the sizes of their sub-branches.

  9. Social Media Ecology in Distributed Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    In this position paper, we discuss about methods currently adopted for research- ing the use of social media in distributed workplace. We have extensively reviewed previ- ous empirical studies through an ongoing Systematic Mapping Study focused on the use of social media in distributed teams; from the review, we realized that research is mainly per- formed through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods and that each study usually fo- cuses on one specific kind social media at a time. We believe that the social media ecology should be researched as a whole and in relationship with the physical workplace, there- fore ethnographic methods can be adopted to investigate this area. We aim to motivate a debate providing some research questions, which might be addressed by researchers.

  10. Untangling the Ecology, Taxonomy, and Evolution of Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae) Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Ashleigh B; Forgrave, Kristin; Patti, Amanda; Hochberg, Rick; Litvaitis, Marian K

    2015-06-01

    Within Oligochaeta, Chaetogaster limnaei is unusual in exhibiting a parasitic relationship with freshwater pulmonate snails. Taxonomic confusion has been caused by differences in what have been considered 2 subspecies of this worm: Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei is an ectosymbiont and is present inside the mantle cavity of the snail, whereas Chaetogaster limnaei vaghini is parasitic and lives in the kidney of the snail. This study explored the distribution of these annelids in central New York and used mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the COI locus to examine the relationship, evolution, and species status of the ectosymbiotic and parasitic forms of C. limnaei. Snails ( Physa gyrina ) were collected from 6 streams and lakes in central New York, with additional specimens collected from a lake in Massachusetts for comparison. One hundred and forty snails were examined, and at least 1 form of Chaetogaster was present in 88 specimens, a prevalence of 62.9%. COI sequence data from New York and Massachusetts did not reveal separate ectosymbiotic and parasitic lineages. Instead, all parasitic forms were part of a mixed clade that included both ectosymbiotic and parasitic forms. This mixed clade was nested within clades of ectosymbiotic forms only, suggesting that a plastic lineage of C. limnaei, able to be both ectosymbionts and parasites, evolved from ectoparasitic ancestors. PMID:25634497

  11. Taxonomy and distribution of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Insecta from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Naranjo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Heteroptera is a worldwide distributed group of insects inhabiting both terrestrial and aquatic habitats and has an important ecological role. A survey of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera from Cuba is provided based on literature reports and field collections. General data on species geographical distribution are given, along with altitude and collection season. Representatives of 86 species and morphospecies of the infraorders Dipsocoromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha are listed, distributed in 35 genera and 16 families were found. Based on distributional data, a preference for habitats of stagnant water or slow current and lower altitudes is inferred. Fifteen species are distributed throughout the entire island. A higher species diversity was found in the Eastern sector, with 53 species (61.63%, 16 of which (18.60% are confined to this area. The strongest biological similarity was found between Eastern and Western sectors (25%, and the weakest between Western and Central sectors (14%. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 897-907. Epub 2010 September 01.Heteroptera es un grupo de insectos que se distribuyen en todo el mundo, viven en ambientes terrestres y acuáticos, en los que tienen un papel ecológico muy importante. Mediante la literatura y colecciones en el campo se estudiaron los Heterópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos de Cuba, junto con datos sobre la distribución geográfica de las especies, altitud y estaciones de colecta. Se enumeran representantes de 86 especies y morfospecies de los infraórdenes Dipsocoromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha, con un total de 35 géneros y 16 familias. Los datos de distribución muestran una preferencia por los ambientes de aguas lentas o estancadas y áreas de baja altitud. Quince especies se distribuyen en toda la isla; el sector Oriental es el mejor representado, con 53 especies (61.63%, 16 de ellas (18.60% confinadas a este sector. La similitud biológica más fuerte se encontró entre los sectores oriental y occidental (25% y la más débil entre los sectores occidental y central (14%.

  12. The reminiscence bump for public events: A review of its prevalence and taxonomy of alternative age distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examines the extant literature on the reminiscence bump for public events (the finding that public events are generally remembered best by those in adolescence or early adulthood at the time of their occurrence), with the aim of identifying (i) whether this bump in fact represents a legitimate effect, and (ii) the alternative age distributions that are otherwise seen in recall for public events. I conclude that, though the bump is frequently found, the legitimacy of the effect is contingent upon the strictness of the standard one employs. I also find significant exceptions to the bump, with a number of alternative age distributions seen in the literature. Therefore, I present a taxonomy of these alternative age distributions. Lastly, I discuss the implications of the existing literature regarding the mechanisms underlying the bump and offer suggestions for future research.

  13. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome coun...

  14. Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Our data set includes 38?008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

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  1. Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio D., Ríos Díaz; Fernando M. S., Dias; Mirna M., Casagrande; Olaf H. H., Mielke; Gerardo, Lamas.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini), including the first records in Paraguay. This paper provides comments on the subspecific taxonomy and geographic distribution of Sais rosalia (Cramer, 1779) (Lepidoptera, Nym [...] phalidae, Ithomiini), as well as an up-to-date distributional map, complemented with unpublished distributional data based on specimens deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus S. Moure, Curitiba, Brazil and the Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Peru. The following synonyms are proposed: Sais rosalia camariensis Haensch, 1905 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Papilio rosalia Cramer, 1779 and Sais rosalia brasiliensis Talbot, 1928 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Sais rosalia rosalinde Weymer, 1890. Additionally, the first country records of Sais rosalia in Paraguay, including the southernmost record of the species, are documented.

  2. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgae in different spatial scales using taxonomic and morphological groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antonio Krupek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two drainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State , Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins, shading regime (open and shaded stream segments, mesohabitats (riffles and pools, and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05m2. A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments, while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments.

  3. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgae in different spatial scales using taxonomic and morphological groups

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Antonio, Krupek; Ciro Cesar Zanini, Branco.

    Full Text Available We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types) with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two dr [...] ainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State , Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins), shading regime (open and shaded stream segments), mesohabitats (riffles and pools), and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05m2). A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups) were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments), while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments) were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments.

  4. TAXONOMÍA, DISTRIBUCIÓN Y ESTADO DE CONSERVACIÓN DE LOS FELINOS SURAMERICANOS: REVISIÓN MONOGRÁFICA / TAXONOMY, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSERVATION STATE OF SOUTH AMERICAN FELINES: MONOGRAPHIC REVISION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Clavijo; Ginés Fernando, Ramírez.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una síntesis sobre el estado de conocimiento de la taxonomía, distribución y estado de conservación de los felinos suramericanos, enfatizando en la importancia y necesidad de la protección de estas especies. [...] Abstract in english A synthesis on the state of knowledge is presented on the taxonomy, distribution and conservation state of South American felines, emphasizing the importance and necessity of protecting these species. [...

  5. Taxonomy, distribution, and ecology of crustacean zooplankton in trough waters of Ankara (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    BA?AK, Elif; Aygen, Cem; Külköylüo?lu, Okan

    2014-01-01

    Troughs are one of the main components of villages in Turkey. They are constructed by converting springs or underground waters. Until now, there has been no extensive study investigating the composition and diversity of trough zooplankton species. In order to contribute knowledge on the zooplanktons in troughs, 142 troughs were randomly sampled from 17 districts in Ankara Province between 22 June and 3 July 2011. A total of 18 zooplanktons including 11 Copepoda and 7 Cladocera species were de...

  6. Chaetognatha of the Namibian Upwelling Region: Taxonomy, Distribution and Trophic Position

    OpenAIRE

    Bohata, Karolina; Koppelmann, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    In October 2010, the vertical distribution, biodiversity and maturity stages of Chaetognatha species were investigated at four stations located off Walvis Bay, Namibia. Seventeen species were detected and classified as pelagic, shallow-mesopelagic, deep-mesopelagic and bathypelagic species based upon the weighted mean depth derived from their average vertical distribution. High abundances of Chaetognatha were found in the upper 100 m at all stations of the Walvis Bay transect with a maximum v...

  7. The distribution and taxonomy of Lissotriton newts in Turkey (Amphibia, Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielstra, Ben; Bozkurt, Emin; Olgun, Kurtulu?

    2015-01-01

    Two and perhaps three taxa of Lissotriton newt occur in Turkey. Their species status is controversial. The distribution of these taxa and the taxonomic status of each are reviewed and discussed. A database of 128 Turkish Lissotriton localities was compiled and species distribution models were constructed. We reiterate that the presence of Lissotriton (vulgaris) lantzi in Turkey is disputed and needs confirmation. The range of Lissotriton (vulgaris) kosswigi is restricted to north-western Anatolia - given the small global range of this Turkey endemic, a closer look at its conservation status is warranted. The distribution of Lissotritonvulgarisschmidtleri covers western Asiatic and European Turkey. The findings support an allopatric distribution of the Turkish Lissotriton species. We reflect on the biological significance of previously reported morphological intermediates between Lissotriton (vulgaris) kosswigi and Lissotritonvulgarisschmidtleri in the light of the recent proposal to recognize kosswigi at the species level. The available data are in line with species status for Lissotriton (vulgaris) lantzi and Lissotriton (vulgaris) kosswigi. Although Lissotritonvulgarisschmidtleri is a genetically diverged taxon as well, the extent of gene flow with parapatric European Lissotriton taxa is as yet unknown. PMID:25829839

  8. Taxonomy, Identification, Genetic Relationships and Distribution of Large Heracleum Species in Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahodová, Šárka; Fröberg, L.; Pyšek, Petr; Geltman, D.; Trybush, S.; Karp, A.

    Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 1-19 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Heracleum * genetic relationship * distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  9. Typha laxmannii Lepech. the new, expansive kenophyte in Poland: Distribution and taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Nikel; Edward Bró?; Andrzej Czylok; Agnieszka Michalewska; Janusz Bary?a; Marcin Nobis; Renata Piwowarczyk; Agnieszka Poloczek

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides data on a new antropophyte species - Typha laxmannii Lepech. which spreads throughout Poland as a hemiagriophyte. Its present distribution in Poland is given on a cartogramme map in a 10×10 km square grid and its geographic element, population numbers and notes on habitats are provided. An identification key to 5 species of the Typha genus, two native, one new which is the topic of this paper, and two which can be expected to be discovered in Poland.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum ... annuum Capsicum _annuum_L.png Capsicum _annuum_NL.png Capsicum _annuum_S.png ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum +annuum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ... con.cgi?i=Capsicum +annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

  11. Typha laxmannii Lepech. the new, expansive kenophyte in Poland: Distribution and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Nikel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides data on a new antropophyte species - Typha laxmannii Lepech. which spreads throughout Poland as a hemiagriophyte. Its present distribution in Poland is given on a cartogramme map in a 10×10 km square grid and its geographic element, population numbers and notes on habitats are provided. An identification key to 5 species of the Typha genus, two native, one new which is the topic of this paper, and two which can be expected to be discovered in Poland.

  12. [Helminths of birds and mammals from Israel. VI. The taxonomy and ecology of Trichostrongylid Nematodes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, G; Durette-Desset, M

    1975-01-01

    Thirteen species of trichostronglyloid nematodes have so far been recorded from wild birds and mammals in Israel and surrounding territories. Three species were found in birds: Amidostomum fulicae (Rudolphi, 1819) in Fulica atra L., 1758, A. acutum (Lundahl, 1848) in Anas crecca L., 1758 AND Amidostomum sp. in Ceryle rudis L., 1758. Ten species, 3 of which are new, were found in small mammals: Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Giles, 1892) in Hystrix indica Kerr, 1792; Tenorastrongylus josephi n. sp. in Mus musculus L., 1758; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Travassos, 1914) in Rattus norvegicus Berk, 1796 and Rattus rattus L., 1758; Nippostrongylus witenbergi Greenberg, 1972, in Nesokia indica Gray et Hardw., 1832; Heligmonina nevoi n. sp. in Spalax ehrenbergi, Nehring, 1898; Boreostrongylus seurati (Travassos et Darriba, 1929) in Gerbillus allenbyi Thomas, 1918, G. pyramidum Geoffrey, 1825, G. (Dipodillus) dasyurus, Meriones sacramenti Thomas, 1922 and M. tristrami Thomas, 1892; Boreostrongylus minutus (Dujardin, 1845) in Microtus guentheri Danford et Alsen, 1880; Heligmosomoides polygyrus polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) in Apodemus mystacinus Danf. et Alst., 1877 and A. sylvaticus L., 1758; Suncinema witenbergi n. sp. in Crocidura russula Herm., 1780. Ecologic and zoogeographic relationships are discussed. PMID:776059

  13. Metabolic profiles of countries and ecological distribution conflicts.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2004-01-01

    "Social metabolism" is a notion that links up the natural sciences and the social sciences, and also human history. Work has been done by some groups in Europe in order to operationalize the old idea of looking at the economy from the point of view of "social metabolism". This paper is an attempt to consider the links between each society’s characteristic metabolic profile and the ecological distribution conflicts, at different scales (international, national, regional).

  14. Taxonomy, distribution and nomenclature of three confused broad-leaved Potamogeton species occurring in Africa and on surrounding islands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplan, Zden?k; Symoens, J.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 148, - (2005), s. 329-357. ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/02/0773 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Potamogeton * taxonomy * Africa Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2005

  15. Biogeography and ecology of Cetraria aculeata, a widely distributed lichen with a bipolar distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Printzen; Stephanie Domaschke; Fernando Fernández-Mendoza; Sergi? Pérez-Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Ecological and historical biogeography of lichens have rarely been studied in a concerted effort, but both aspects have to be taken into consideration when explaining the distributional patterns of species. This review summarizes, partly preliminary, results from a series of studies on phylogeography, ecophysiology and symbiotic interactions of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. This species is not only widespread but also occupies a very wide ecological niche. Evidence suggests that Cetraria acul...

  16. The scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha of Tunisia: taxonomy, distribution and habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrine Akkari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides a review of the composition, distribution and habitat preferences of the scolopendromorph centipedes of Tunisia. Five (sub-genera and 8 (sub-species have hitherto been reported from the country, of which two are of uncertain status. After a study of significant amount of new material collected in the period 2003-2008, 6 species, namely Scolopendra canidens Newport, 1844, S. morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Cormocephalus gervaisianus (C.L. Koch, 1841, Otostigmus spinicaudus (Newport, 1844, Cryptops punicus Silvestri, 1896 and C. trisulcatus Brölemann, 1902, were found in the country. New illustrations and, where appropriate, brief descriptions of the species are given, along with an identification key for the Tunisian scolopendromorphs. Cryptops anomalans Newport 1844, Scolopendra oraniensis Lucas, 1846 and S. cingulata Latreille, 1829 are excluded from the country’s list since all previous records are most likely based on misidentifications. Cryptops trisulcatus and C. punicus are recorded for the first time from Tunisia and Libya, respectively. The taxonomic position of C. punicus is discussed and the species is transferred from the subgenus Trigonocryptops to Cryptops. Scolopendra morsitans scopoliana is synonymised under S. morsitans. S. canidens, O. spinicaudus and C. punicus are well adapted to arid and semidesert biotopes and have much wider ranges compared to the other three species which are restricted to the northern, more humid parts of the country. S. canidens is the only myriapod in Tunisia found in a pure sandy desert.

  17. Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta in Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil: Taxonomy and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the morphogical features of the centric diatom Skeletonema potamos (Weber Hasle from Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the abundance and dis- tribution of the species along the salinity gradient in the lagoon. Samples from the water surface were taken monthly at eight stations along the longitudinal axis of the lagoon, from December 1987 to December 1988. The species were counted by the Utermöhl method, and the density (cells.mL-1 was estimated based on live cells. The morphology of the specimens agrees with the type, from the Little Miami River, Ohio, U.S.A., except for the convexity and the pattern of granules on the valve face. Skeletonema potamos was found in the winter and spring, and was distributed in the limnetic, oligohaline and mesohaline zones of the lagoon. The cell con- centration appeared to be controlled by the salinity, with a significant negative correlation observed. Light and competition probably also influence the development of S. potamos populations in the Patos Lagoon.

  18. The Dusky Large Blue – Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) in the Transylvanian basin: New data on taxonomy and ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rákosy, Laszló; Tartally, András

    2010-01-01

    Maculinea nausithous (Bergsträsser, 1779) was recently discovered in two parts of the Transylvanian basin. External characters of these populations completely agree with the original description of Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) and show some small but constant differences against the Central European nominotypic populations. Since the habitats and host ant selection of these populations are also different from the Central European populations, we consider M. nausithous kijevensis stat. rev. as valid subspeciÀ c taxon. Specimens with the same external characters were also collected in northeastern Romania, in Kazakhstan and in the western part of the Altai Mts. Therefore we believe that this subspecies has a wider Euro-Siberian distribution.

  19. Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution / Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CLAUDIO, VALDOVINOS; MAXIMILLIAN, RÜTH.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos del extremo sur de Sudamérica son desde un punto de vista taxonómico moderadamente bien conocidos. Sin embargo, la literatura está dispersa, hay poca información sobre sus hábitat y son muy pocos los registros distribucionales, particularmente en el área de los fiordos comprendidos entr [...] e la Isla de Chiloé (42° S) y Tierra del Fuego (55° S). Aunque se sabe bastante acerca de la biología y ecología de algunas especies de Nacellidae, la taxonomía del grupo ha sido relativamente poco estudiada, particularmente en áreas remotas del planeta, como es el caso de los fiordos chilenos. El interés del presente estudio ha sido clarificar el estatus nomenclatural y describir las características morfológicas y distribuciones de los Nacellidae chilenos. En particular, se plantearon los siguientes objetivos: (i) clarificar la identidad de las especies descritas, (ii) descripción de detalles morfológicos, destacando los caracteres diagnósticos de cada especie, y (iii) delimitación y discusión de sus rangos geográficos. El análisis de los Nacellidae de los fiordos chilenos ha permitido el reconocimiento de una especie de Nacella (Nacella) y siete de N. (Patinigera), cuyas principales diferencias a nivel de especie radican en la concha (forma, espesor y color) y en la morfología de la dentición radular. El género Nacella y su subgénero Patinigera son habitantes exclusivos de aguas antárticas y subantárticas. Estos organismos son lapas de aguas frías fundamentalmente subantárticas, pero que también se extienden hacia la Antártica por el área del Arco de Escocia, y hacia el norte a lo largo de la costa chilena, hasta el área de Valparaíso a 33° S (N. (P.) clypeater). Aparentemente este género tiene su centro de distribución en la Provincia magallánica en el sur de Sudamérica, correspondiendo a un área de elevada diversidad de especies (N. (N.) mytilina, N. (P.) chiloensis, N. (P.) deaurata, N. (P.) delicatissima, N. (P.) flammea, N. (P.) magellanica, N. (P.) venosa), donde las especies tienden a dispersarse hacia el este, con un transporte larval probablemente facilitado por la corriente de deriva del oeste que opera fuertemente en la zona subantártica Abstract in english Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S) and Tierra del Fuego (55° [...] S). Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such as the Chilean fjords. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the nomenclatural status, and establish the morphological characteristics and distribution of the Chilean Nacellidae. Especially, the following three objectives are pursued: (i) to clarify the correct identity of existing species; (ii) to describe of morphological details, highlighting the clear diagnostic characters of each species, and (iii) to delimitate and discuss their geographical range in Chile. The examination of the Nacellidae of the Chilean fiords has resulted in the recognition of one species of Nacella (Nacella) and seven species of Nacella (Patinigera), wherein the principal specific differences are in the shell (shape, thickness and color) and in radular teeth morphology. The genus Nacella and its subgenus Patinigera are cold-water limpets, and are exclusively inhabitants of Subantarctic and Antarctic waters. The greater part of their range being subantarctic, but extending to the Antarctic by way of the Scotia Arc, and also ranging northward up the Chilean coast to at least Valparaiso at 33° S (only N. (P.) clypeater). They apparently have their centre of distribution in the Magellanic Province of southern South America, corresponding to an area with a high degree of diversification (N. (N.) mytilina, N. (P.) chiloensis,

  20. Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S and Tierra del Fuego (55° S. Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such as the Chilean fjords. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the nomenclatural status, and establish the morphological characteristics and distribution of the Chilean Nacellidae. Especially, the following three objectives are pursued: (i to clarify the correct identity of existing species; (ii to describe of morphological details, highlighting the clear diagnostic characters of each species, and (iii to delimitate and discuss their geographical range in Chile. The examination of the Nacellidae of the Chilean fiords has resulted in the recognition of one species of Nacella (Nacella and seven species of Nacella (Patinigera, wherein the principal specific differences are in the shell (shape, thickness and color and in radular teeth morphology. The genus Nacella and its subgenus Patinigera are cold-water limpets, and are exclusively inhabitants of Subantarctic and Antarctic waters. The greater part of their range being subantarctic, but extending to the Antarctic by way of the Scotia Arc, and also ranging northward up the Chilean coast to at least Valparaiso at 33° S (only N. (P. clypeater. They apparently have their centre of distribution in the Magellanic Province of southern South America, corresponding to an area with a high degree of diversification (N. (N. mytilina, N. (P. chiloensis, N. (P. deaurata, N. (P. delicatissima, N. (P. flammea, N. (P. magellanica, N. (P. venosa, wherefrom the species tends to spread eastward, with a larval transport probably assisted to a considerable extent by the prevailing West Wind Drift which strongly operates in the Subantarctic ZoneLos moluscos del extremo sur de Sudamérica son desde un punto de vista taxonómico moderadamente bien conocidos. Sin embargo, la literatura está dispersa, hay poca información sobre sus hábitat y son muy pocos los registros distribucionales, particularmente en el área de los fiordos comprendidos entre la Isla de Chiloé (42° S y Tierra del Fuego (55° S. Aunque se sabe bastante acerca de la biología y ecología de algunas especies de Nacellidae, la taxonomía del grupo ha sido relativamente poco estudiada, particularmente en áreas remotas del planeta, como es el caso de los fiordos chilenos. El interés del presente estudio ha sido clarificar el estatus nomenclatural y describir las características morfológicas y distribuciones de los Nacellidae chilenos. En particular, se plantearon los siguientes objetivos: (i clarificar la identidad de las especies descritas, (ii descripción de detalles morfológicos, destacando los caracteres diagnósticos de cada especie, y (iii delimitación y discusión de sus rangos geográficos. El análisis de los Nacellidae de los fiordos chilenos ha permitido el reconocimiento de una especie de Nacella (Nacella y siete de N. (Patinigera, cuyas principales diferencias a nivel de especie radican en la concha (forma, espesor y color y en la morfología de la dentición radular. El género Nacella y su subgénero Patinigera son habitantes exclusivos de aguas antárticas y subantárticas. Estos organismos son lapas de aguas frías fundamentalmente subantárticas, pero que también se extienden hacia la Antártica por el área del Arco de Escocia, y hacia el norte a lo largo de la costa chilena, hasta el área de Valparaíso a 33° S (N. (P. clypeater. Aparentemente este género tiene su centro de distribución en la Provincia magallánica en el sur de Sudamérica, correspondiendo a un área de elevada diversidad de especies (N. (N. mytilina, N. (P. chiloensis, N. (P. deaurata, N. (P. delicatissima, N. (P. flammea, N

  1. Uses and Requirements of Ecological Niche Models and Related Distributional Models

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend Peterson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract.—Modeling approaches that relate known occurrences of species to landscape features to discover ecological properties and predict geographic occurrences have seen extensive recent application in ecology, systematics, and conservation. A key component in this process is estimation or characterization of species’ distributions in ecological space, which can then be useful in understanding their potential distributions in geographic space. Hence, this process is often termed ecological ...

  2. Interpretation of Models of Fundamental Ecological Niches and Species’ Distributional Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Soberon; Townsend Peterson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling?that is, estimation of the dimensions of fundamental ecological niches of species?to predict their geographic distributions is increasingly being employed in systematics, ecology, conservation, public health, etc. This technique is often (of necessity) based on data comprising records of presences only. In recent years, many modeling approaches have been devised to estimate these interrelated expressions of a species’ ecology, distributional biology, and evolutionary...

  3. Ecology and Taxonomy of Water Canyon, Canadian County, Oklahoma, Master's Thesis, University of Oklahoma 1961 [Revised 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance E. Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous canyons have been cut into the Rush Springs Sandstone of Permian age in West Central Oklahoma and subsequently refilled. Some of these canyons have been partly exposed by erosion of the sediment fill. Fossils collected indicate the canyon fill is sub-Pleistocene to geologically recent. The microclimate of these canyons is more mesic compared to the dryer prairie uplands. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum persists there, far west of its other locations in very eastern Oklahoma. Beginning in 1932 several of these sediment-filled canyons began a process of rapid erosion, exposing the rock walls of the canyons. This study is a comparison of Water Canyon and two of its branches: Water Branch Canyon, a stable canyon wooded with mature vegetation including sugar maple and Activity Branch Canyon, a newly excavated canyon branch that began eroding after excessive rainfall in 1932. This study was completed in 1960. Six transects are used to show the distribution of the 233 plant species found in the Water Canyon complex. Herbaceous species generally were unique to each canyon type.

  4. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Buden, Donald W.; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagi...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum ... Solanum_tuberosum _L.png Solanum_tuberosum _NL.png Solanum_tuberosum _S.pn ... g Solanum_tuberosum _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon. ... cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Solanum+tuberosum &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Solanum+tuberosum &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild goat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wild goat Capra ... aegagrus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Capra _aegagru ... s_L.png Capra _aegagrus_NL.png Capra _aegagrus_S.png Capra _aegagru ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra +aegagrus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Capra +aegagrus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ... n/icon.cgi?i=Capra +aegagrus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

  7. Recent changes (2008) in cyanobacterial taxonomy based on a combination of molecular background with phenotype and ecological consequences (genus and species concept).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, Ji?í

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 639, ?. 1 (2010), s. 245-259. ISSN 0018-8158. [Workshop of the International Association of Phytoplankton Taxonomy /15./. Ramot, 23.11.2008-30.11.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600050704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacteria * taxonomic classification * molecular evaluation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2010

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Trypanosoma brucei [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma ... brucei Trypanosoma ... brucei Trypanosoma _brucei_L.png Trypanosoma _brucei_NL.png Trypanosoma ... soma_brucei_S.png Trypanosoma _brucei_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ... n/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma +brucei&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Peanut [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Peanut Arachis hypogaea Arachis_hypogaea_L.png Arachis_hypogaea_NL.png Arachis_hypogaea_S.png Ar ... achis_hypogaea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=NL http://biosc ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Grey heron [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Grey heron Ardea cinerea Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Ardea_cinerea_L.png Ardea_cinerea_NL.png Ardea ... S.png Ardea_cinerea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=L http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NL http://bioscien ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis Bacillus_subtilis_L.png Bacillus_subtilis_NL.png Bacillus_su ... g Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=L http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://bios ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_stephensi ... Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=L http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=NL http://bi ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: choanoflagellate [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis Monosiga_brevicollis_L.png Monosiga_brevicollis_NL.png Mon ... onosiga_brevicollis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=L http://bi ... osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=NL http://b ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: koji mold [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available koji mold Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus_oryzae_L.png Aspergillus_oryzae_NL.png Aspergillus_oryz ... Aspergillus_oryzae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=L http://bios ... ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=NL http://bio ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: cattle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cattle Bos taurus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Bos_taurus_L.png Bos ... us_S.png Bos_taurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=L http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NL http://bioscienced ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Diplazium hachijoense [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Diplazium hachijoense Diplazium hachijoense Diplazium_hachijoense_L.png Diplazium_hachijoense_NL ... plazium_hachijoense_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&t=L http://b ... iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&t=NL http:// ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: mallard [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guillardia theta [Taxonomy Icon

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    Full Text Available Guillardia theta Guillardia theta Guillardia_theta_L.png Guillardia_theta_NL.png Guillardia_thet ... ng Guillardia_theta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=NL http://biosc ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asian Swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asian Swallowtail Papilio xuthus Arthropoda Papilio_xuthus_L.png Papilio_xuthus_NL.png Papilio_x ... .png Papilio_xuthus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=NL http://bioscie ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Danio rerio [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Danio rerio Danio rerio Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Danio_rerio_L.png Danio_rerio_NL.png Dan ... o_S.png Danio_rerio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Danio+rerio&t=L http://bioscienced ... bc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Danio+rerio&t=NL http://bioscience ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Planaria [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Planaria Dugesia japonica Platyhelminthes Dugesia_japonica_L.png Dugesia_japonica_NL.png Dugesia ... ng Dugesia_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NL http://biosc ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Haliclona permollis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Haliclona permollis Haliclona permollis Porifera Haliclona_permollis_L.png Haliclona_permollis_N ... Haliclona_permollis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=L http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=NL http://bi ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ramazzottius [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ramazzottius Ramazzottius Tardigrada Ramazzottius_L.png Ramazzottius_NL.png Ramazzottius_S.png R ... amazzottius_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ramazzottius&t=L http://bioscience ... dbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ramazzottius&t=NL http://bioscienc ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Dictyostelium discoideum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium_discoideum_L.png Dictyostelium_d ... ostelium_discoideum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Dictyostelium+discoideum&t=L http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Dictyostelium+discoideum&t=NL http ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Comb jelly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Comb jelly Beroe cucumis Ctenophora Beroe_cucumis_L.png Beroe_cucumis_NL.png Beroe_cucumis_S.png ... Beroe_cucumis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=L http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=NL http://bioscien ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Common mormon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Common mormon Papilio polytes Arthropoda Papilio_polytes_L.png Papilio_polytes_NL.png Papilio_po ... png Papilio_polytes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=L http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=NL http://biosci ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Beetles [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Beetles Prosopocoilus inclinatus Arthropoda Prosopocoilus_inclinatus_L.png Prosopocoilus_inclina ... pocoilus_inclinatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Prosopocoilus+inclinatus&t=L http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Prosopocoilus+inclinatus&t=NL http ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Oryzias javanicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: slipper animalcule [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available slipper animalcule Paramecium tetraurelia Paramecium_tetraurelia_L.png Paramecium_tetraurelia_NL ... amecium_tetraurelia_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Paramecium+tetraurelia&t=L http:// ... biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Paramecium+tetraurelia&t=NL http:/ ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Magellanic penguin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Spheniscus_magellanicus_L.pn ... niscus_magellanicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Spheniscus+magellanicus&t=L http:/ ... /biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Spheniscus+magellanicus&t=NL http: ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Polysphondylium pallidum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium_pallidum_L.png Polysphondylium ... phondylium_pallidum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Polysphondylium+pallidum&t=L http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Polysphondylium+pallidum&t=NL http ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese medaka [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_latipes_L.png Oryzias_la ... png Oryzias_latipes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+latipes&t=L http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+latipes&t=NL http://biosci ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: water bears [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available water bears Echiniscus Tardigrada Echiniscus_L.png Echiniscus_NL.png Echiniscus_S.png Echiniscus ... _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=L http://biosciencedb ... c.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=NL http://bioscienced ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Cryptococcus neoformans [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans Filobasidiella neoformans Filobasidiella_neoformans_L.png Filobasidiella ... sidiella_neoformans_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=L http ... ://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=NL htt ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: fission yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_L.png Schizosaccharomyces_pomb ... saccharomyces_pombe_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=L http ... ://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=NL htt ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma_ ... g Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=L http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://bios ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum Schistosoma japonicum Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_japonicum_L.png Schistos ... histosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://b ... iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NL http:// ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Budding yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_L.png Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_N ... aromyces_cerevisiae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae&t=L http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae&t=NL http ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png ... Elaphe_climacophora_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=L http://bio ... sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=NL http://bi ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Acytostelium subglobosum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Acytostelium subglobosum Acytostelium subglobosum Acytostelium_subglobosum_L.png Acytostelium_su ... stelium_subglobosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Acytostelium+subglobosum&t=L http: ... //biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Acytostelium+subglobosum&t=NL http ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: thale cress [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thale cress Arabidopsis ... thaliana Arabidopsis _thaliana_L.png Arabidopsis _thaliana_NL.png Arabidopsis ... sis_thaliana_S.png Arabidopsis _thaliana_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i ... con/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis +thaliana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Eastern Gorilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Eastern Gorilla ... Gorilla ... beringei Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Gorilla _be ... ringei_L.png Gorilla _beringei_NL.png Gorilla _beringei_S.png Gorilla _ber ... g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla +beringei&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ...

  3. Uses and Requirements of Ecological Niche Models and Related Distributional Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Townsend Peterson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.—Modeling approaches that relate known occurrences of species to landscape features to discover ecological properties and predict geographic occurrences have seen extensive recent application in ecology, systematics, and conservation. A key component in this process is estimation or characterization of species’ distributions in ecological space, which can then be useful in understanding their potential distributions in geographic space. Hence, this process is often termed ecological niche modeling or (less boldly species distribution modeling. Applications of this approach vary widely in their aims, products, and requirements; this variety is reviewed herein, examples are provided, and differences in data needs and possible interpretations are discussed.

  4. Pectinaria chilensis NILSSON, 1928 (POLYCHAETA: PECTINARIIDAE): taxonomic characterization, new distributional records and ecological notes from the chilean coast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo A., Moreno,; Nicolás, Rozbaczylo; Roger D, Sepúlveda; Franklin D., Carrasco; Raúl, Soto.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Revisa-se Pectinaria chilensis da costa do Chile a partir de exemplares recolhidos em fundos brandos sub-litorais, entre 45 e 93m de profundidade, em quatro localidades ao norte do Chile. Estes espécimes foram comparados com exemplares recolhidos a 17m de profundidade em Coronel, Golfo de Arauco, Ch [...] ile, localidade padrão da espécie. Se inclui uma caracterização taxonômica, ilustrações, e novas localidades na distribuição geográfica da espécie. Se fornece informação do hábitat (batimetria, tipo de sedimento, conteúdo de matéria orgânica total e O2 dissolvido de fundo) e se inclui uma clave para diferenciar as duas espécies de Pectinariidae registradas no Chile. Abstract in spanish Se revisa Pectinaria chilensis de la costa de Chile a partir de ejemplares recolectados en fondos blandos sublitorales, entre 45 y 93m de profundidad, en cuatro localidades del norte de Chile. Estos especímenes fueron comparados con ejemplares recolectados a 17m de profundidad en Coronel, Golfo de A [...] rauco, Chile, localidad tipo de la especie. Se incluye una caracterización taxonómica, ilustraciones, y nuevas localidades en la distribución geográfica de la especie. Se provee información del hábitat (batimetría, tipo de sedimento, contenido de materia orgánica total y O2 disuelto de fondo) y se incluye una clave para diferenciar las dos especies de Pectinariidae registradas en Chile. Abstract in english The taxonomy, geographical distribution, and ecological aspects of Pectinaria chilensis are reviewed. Specimens were collected in sublittoral soft bottoms, between 45 and 93m depth, at four localities in northern Chile. These specimens are compared with individuals collected from 17m depth at Corone [...] l, Gulf of Arauco, Chile, the type locality of the species. A taxonomic characterization, illustrations and a list of new localities in the geographical distribution of this species are presented. Ecological information (bathymetry, sediment type, total organic matter content and dissolved O2 concentration of sea water above the bottom) is included, as well as a key for differentiating the two Pectinariidae species registered in Chile to date.

  5. Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Corrie SCHOEMAN, F. P. D. (Woody COTTERILL, Peter J. TAYLOR, Ara MONADJEM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales, variables associated with climate, energy, and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity. Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens. The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS, simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR, conditional autoregressive models (CAR, spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. To test the assumption of stationarity, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used. Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa, particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique. We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/ energy hypotheses, and as we expected, support varied among bat families and model selection. Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families. Altitude range was the only independent variable that was sig­nificant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness. Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models, while those of SEVM models differed. Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationa­rity was violated, the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models. Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges, and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3: 279–293, 2013].

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic salmon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon Salmo salar ... Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Salmo_salar _L.png Salmo_salar _NL.png ... Salmo_salar _S.png Salmo_salar _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t ... axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar &t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ... ?i=Salmo+salar &t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Salmo+salar &t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi ...

  7. Interpretation of Models of Fundamental Ecological Niches and Species’ Distributional Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soberon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling?that is, estimation of the dimensions of fundamental ecological niches of species?to predict their geographic distributions is increasingly being employed in systematics, ecology, conservation, public health, etc. This technique is often (of necessity based on data comprising records of presences only. In recent years, many modeling approaches have been devised to estimate these interrelated expressions of a species’ ecology, distributional biology, and evolutionary history?nevertheless, in many cases, a formal basis in ecological and evolutionary theory has been lacking. In this paper, we outline such a formal basis for the suite of techniques that can be termed ‘ecological niche modeling,’ analyze example situations that can be modeled using these techniques, and clarify the interpretation of results.

  8. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, Donald W; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis "Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842" (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies - Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of breadfruit (Artocarpus spp.) being a preferred food. Records of females with young (April, July) and pregnant females (July) suggest an extended breeding season. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus appears most threatened by the prospect of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies. PMID:24194666

  9. Hirnantia sagittifera (Brachiopoda and Mucronaspis mucronata s.l. (Trilobita in the Upper Ordovician of the East Baltic: taxonomy and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Hints

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The brachiopod Hirnantia sagittifera (M’Coy and trilobite morphs of the genus Mucronaspis from the topmost Ordovician Porkuni Stage of the central East Baltic are described and compared with those from the Hirnantian Stage of other regions. These important Hirnantian taxa occur in the Livonian Tongue of the Central Baltoscandian Facies Belt of the Baltic Basin, where the Porkuni Stage is represented by the non-graptolitic Kuldiga and Saldus formations. Hirnantia sagittifera appears in the lowermost part of the Porkuni Stage and is rather widely distributed in the basin in spite of its rare finds in each locality. Our study of trilobites of the genus Mucronaspis has enabled us to observe morphological changes in its exoskeleton in time and to identify a succession of five morphotypes (morphs. In some characteristics these morphs are similar to those of different alleged species of the genus Mucronaspis (M. olini, M. danai, M. ganabina, M. mucronata but they cannot be definitely assigned to any of these species due to some variances. However, here for the first time a stratigraphically ordered collection is presented, which deserves attention in revising the taxonomy of highly variable Mucronaspis. The described brachiopods and trilobites occur mainly in the strata correlated with the Normalograptus extraordinarius graptolite Biozone. However, the uppermost finds of both taxa come from strata correlated with the N. persculptus Biozone.

  10. Ecological distribution of four co-occurring Mediterranean heath species

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda Copete, Fernando; Arroyo Mari?n, Juan; Maran?o?n, Teodoro

    2000-01-01

    Erica australis, E. scoparia, E. arborea and Calluna vulgaris are the most abundant heath species on acid, sandstone-derived soils of the Strait of Gibraltar region (southern Spain and northern Morocco). Despite their apparently similar ecological requirements, these four species are somewhat ecologically segregated. Erica australis is abundant only on poor, shallow soils, with a high content in soluble aluminium, generally on mountain ridges and summits. Erica scoparia becomes dominant on de...

  11. Towards a taxonomy of accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Koornhof, Carolina

    1993-01-01

    The homological transfer research method was used to derive a tentative taxonomy of the discipline of Accounting from the Nolan and Wetherbe taxonomy of the related discipline Management Information Systems. First the Nolan and Wetherbe taxonomy was updated to reflect recent developments in MIS. Then its concepts were replaced by equivalent accounting concepts to yield a homologous taxonomy of Accounting. Finally the proposed taxonomy was validated empirically by classifying 151 articles from...

  12. Benefits from ecological study methods to taxonomy of enchytraeids in southern Mata Atlântica / Benefícios de métodos de estudos ecológicos para a taxonomia de enquitreídeos no sul da Mata Atlântica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rüdiger Maria, Schmelz; Rut Maria Collado de la, Peña; Jörg, Römbke.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar como a taxonomia beneficia-se de métodos quantitativos e de amostragem ecológicos nos estudos dos enquitreídeos. Enquitreídeos (pequenos parentes das minhocas) foram coletados em diferentes fases de regeneração da Mata Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. F [...] oram combinadas as pesquisas ecológica e taxonômica, pois os enquitreídeos são pouco estudados e difíceis de identificar, e muitas espécies novas eram esperadas. O grande número de espécimes coletados permitiu testar diagnoses de espécies por meio da investigação das amplitudes de variações de caracteres em uma série mais ampla de espécimes. Diagnoses de espécies simplificadas, adaptadas às condições locais do ambiente, foram desenvolvidas, o que permitiu a identificação de todos os exemplares, incluindo juvenis. Caracteres-chave e estados de caracteres foram formulados para três gêneros: Achaeta, Hemienchytraeus e Guaranidrilus. Entre várias espécies novas, uma espécie rara, possível remanescente da fauna autóctone da floresta, foi encontrada e descrita. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine how taxonomy benefited from the ecological quantitative and site-based sampling methods in enchytraeids studies. Enchytraeids (small relatives of earthworms) were sampled in different phases of rain forest regeneration in the southern Mata Atlântica in Par [...] aná, Brazil. The research combined ecological and taxonomic work, because enchytraeids are poorly studied and difficult to identify, and many new species were expected. The provision of large numbers of specimens enabled the test of species diagnoses by investigating the ranges of character variations in a larger series of specimens. Simplified species diagnoses adapted to the local conditions that allowed the identification of all specimens, juveniles included, were developed. Key characters and character states are presented for the three genera: Achaeta, Hemienchytraeus and Guaranidrilus. Among several new species, a rare species, possibly a remnant of the autochthonous forest fauna, was found and described.

  13. Ecological gradients driving the distribution of four Ericaceae in boreal Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiffault, Nelson; Grondin, Pierre; Noël, Jean; Poirier, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    Understory species play a significant role in forest ecosystem dynamics. As such, species of the Ericaceae family have a major effect on the regeneration of tree species in boreal ecosystems. It is thus imperative to understand the ecological gradients controlling their distribution and abundance, so that their impacts can be taken into account in sustainable forest management. Using innovative analytical techniques from landscape ecology, we aimed to position, along ecological gradients, four Ericaceae found in the boreal forest of Quebec (Canada) (Rhododendron groenlandicum, Kalmia angustifolia, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Vaccinium spp), to regionalize these species into landscape units relevant to forest management, and to estimate the relative importance of several ecological drivers (climate, disturbances, stand attributes, and physical environment) that control the species distribution and abundance. We conducted our study in boreal Quebec, over a study area covering 535,355 km(2). We used data from 15,339 ecological survey plots and forest maps to characterize 1422 ecological districts covering the study region. We evaluated the relative proportion of each ericaceous species and explanatory variables at the district level. Vegetation and explanatory variables matrices were used to conduct redundancy, cluster, and variation partitioning analyses. We observed that ericaceous species are mainly distributed in the western part of the study area and each species has a distinct latitudinal and longitudinal gradient distribution. On the basis of these gradients, we delimited 10 homogeneous landscape units distinct in terms of ericaceous species abundance and environmental drivers. The distribution of the ericaceous species along ecological gradients is closely related to the overlaps between the four sets of explanatory variables considered. We conclude that the studied Ericaceae occupy specific positions along ecological gradients and possess a specific abundance and distribution controlled by the integration of multiple explanatory variables. PMID:26140200

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. Natural history of the Chinchilla genus (Bennett 1829): Considerations of their ecology, taxonomy and conservation status / Historia natural del género Chinchilla (Bennett 1829): Consideraciones de su ecología, taxonomía y estado de conservación

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PABLO, VALLADARES FAÚNDEZ; ÁNGEL, SPOTORNO OYARZÚN; CARLOS, ZULETA RAMOS.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha generado nueva y valiosa información de las dos especies silvestres de chinchillas; sin embargo ésta sigue siendo insuficiente para una protección efectiva. En este trabajo hacemos una revisión de algunos aspectos fundamentales de su historia natural, sintetizando y entrega [...] ndo nuevos antecedentes de su ecología, taxonomía y estado de conservación, en base a la revisión de la literatura disponible, y toma de datos en el campo. En relación a su ecología, hemos identificado nuevas colonias de ambas especies, tanto por investigación científica como por reportes técnicos ambientales. Para la mayoría de esas colonias se ha identificado la vegetación a la que están asociadas, depredadores y otras especies de roedores simpátridos. La taxonomía de ambas especies ha sido controversial. Una propuesta fue sometida a la ICZN en el 2003 y las recomendaciones fueron describir un neotipo para el género y ambas especies; sin embargo, los especímenes originales descritos por Bennett (1829), Lichtenstein (1830) y Waterhouse (1844) existen en museos de Europa y deben ser considerados como los respectivos sintipos. Finalmente, el estado de conservación de estas especies ha sido catalogado como críticamente en peligro tanto por instituciones nacionales como internacionales, esto debido a que la mayoría de las colonias son pequeñas, fragmentadas y aisladas, sin embargo, ahora la mayor amenaza es la relación geográfica de las nuevas colonias con áreas de explotación minera. Se argumenta con esta información la necesidad de desarrollar un programa de conservación de ambas especies, que considere ámbitos fundamentales de la biología de la especie, tales como la ecología, genética y reproducción. Abstract in english Over the last years there has been new and valuable information in both wild chinchillas, however this is still insufficient for effective protection. In this paper we review some fundamental aspects of its natural history, synthesizing and delivering new information about their ecology, taxonomy an [...] d conservation status, based on the review of available literature, and field data collection. In relation to their ecology we have been identified new colonies of both species, for scientific research as well as environmental technical reports. For most of these colonies we identified vegetation to which they are associated, predators and other sympatric rodent species. The taxonomy of these species is controversial. A proposal was submitted to ICZN in 2003, and the recommendations were to describe a neotype for genus and species, but the original specimens described by Bennett (1829), Lichtenstein (1830) and Waterhouse (1844) are in museums from Europe and should be considered as syntypes. Conservation status of both species is critically endangered because most colonies are threatened by mining exploitation. Therefore, it is essential to explore new regions to identify new colonies and compare them with modern methods such as molecular markers. Finally, with this information we argue the need to develop a conservation programs for both species; it should consider critical areas of their biology, such as ecology, genetics and reproduction.

  16. EPA Web Taxonomy

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  17. A Taxonomy of Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J; Fricker, Mark D; Jones, Nick S

    2010-01-01

    The study of networks has grown into a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor across the natural, social, and information sciences. Yet there have been very few attempts to investigate the interrelatedness of the different classes of networks studied by different disciplines. Here, we introduced a framework to establish a taxonomy of networks from various origins. The provision of this family tree not only helps understand the kinship of networks, but also facilitates the transfer of empirical analysis, theoretical modeling, and conceptual developments across disciplinary boundaries. The framework is based on probing the mesoscopic properties of networks, an important source of heterogeneity for their structure and function. Using our method, we computed a taxonomy for 752 individual networks and a separate taxonomy for 12 network classes. We also computed three within-class taxonomies for political, fungal, and financial networks, and found them to be insightful in each case.

  18. Comment: 8 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 8.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Scien ... ce licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ?????????????????????? ... ????? ttamura 2008/11 /06 1 7:02:45 ...

  19. Comment: 7 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 7.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ??????????????? ttamura 2008/ 11 /06 1 6:11 :43 ...

  20. Comment: 2 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bottlenosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus Tursiops_truncatus_L.png 2.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database ... er for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ????????? ttamura 2008/1 0/29 11 :43: ...

  1. Comment: 237 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 237.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci ... ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ???? ?????????????????????????? ...

  2. Comment: 13 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Human ... Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 13.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science ... licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ?? ?????????????????? ttamura 2008/11 ...

  3. Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Florida lanc elet (amphioxus) Branc hiostoma floridae Branc hiostoma_floridae_L.png 61.png Taxonomy ... ic on (c ) Database C enter for Life Sc ienc e lic ensed un ... der CC ... Attribution2.1 Japan ????????????(?? ...

  4. Geographic Distributions and Ecology of Ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Prasit Chutichudet; Kriangsuk Boongtiang; Sutthira Khumkratok; Pairot Pramaul

    2012-01-01

    The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20x20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifol...

  5. Ecological Niche Model used to examine the distribution of an invasive, non-indigenous coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos-Júnior, L A; Barbosa, N P U; Moulton, T P; Creed, J C

    2015-02-01

    All organisms have a set of ecological conditions (or niche) which they depend on to survive and establish in a given habitat. The ecological niche of a species limits its geographical distribution. In the particular case of non-indigenous species (NIS), the ecological requirements of the species impose boundaries on the potential distribution of the organism in the new receptor regions. This is a theoretical assumption implicit when Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) are used to assess the potential distribution of NIS. This assumption has been questioned, given that in some cases niche shift may occur during the process of invasion. We used ENMs to investigate whether the model fit with data from the native range of the coral Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 successfully predicts its invasion in the Atlantic. We also identified which factors best explain the distribution of this NIS. The broad native distributional range of T. coccinea predicted the invaded sites well, especially along the Brazilian coast, the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The occurrence of T. coccinea was positively related to calcite levels and negatively to eutrophy, but was rather unaffected to other variables that often limit other marine organisms, suggesting that this NIS has wide ecological limits, a trait typical of invasive species. PMID:25465286

  6. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Chatzigeorgiou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979 and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided.

  7. Ecology Drives the Worldwide Distribution of Human Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Guernier Vanina; Hochberg Michael E; Guégan Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    Identifying the factors underlying the origin and maintenance of the latitudinal diversity gradient is a central problem in ecology, but no consensus has emerged on which processes might generate this broad pattern. Interestingly, the vast majority of studies exploring the gradient have focused on free-living organisms, ignoring parasitic and infectious disease (PID) species. Here, we address the influence of environmental factors on the biological diversity of human pathogens and their globa...

  8. Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae, taxonomia e distribuição geográfica no Brasil Chonecolea doellingeri (Chonecoleaceae, Hepaticae, taxonomy and geographical distribution in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees Grolle é uma espécie urbanizada que cresce, preferencialmente, sobre estipe de palmeira ou outras árvores. Sua distribuição geográfica foi ampliada para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e, também, para municípios de outros estados já referidos. Algumas associações da espécie com outras briófitas são apresentadas. Dados palinológicos, baseados em observações sob microscopia de luz (ML e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, também estão incluídos no trabalho.Chonecolea doellingeri (Nees Grolle is an urbanized species that grows preferentially on palm-tree trunks and other trees. Its geographical distribution was extended to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, also, to cities of other aforementioned states. Some associations of these species with other bryophytes are presented. Palynological data, based on observations under light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, are also included.

  9. COMMENT ON: APPLYING SPECIES-SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSUMPTION OF DISTRIBUTION TYPE AND SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman et al. (2000) addressed some important issues regarding the characterization of species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) used in ecological risk assessments. A common assumption is that SSDs are log-normal, and this allows data sets to be analyzed by standard parametric me...

  10. An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    We are pleased to see the letter by Schimel and Chadwick (Front Ecol Environ 2013; 11[8]: 405–06), highlighting the importance of soil characterization in ecological and biogeochemical research and explaining the value of soil taxonomy, and we agree with the authors that reporting soil

  11. Teaching Taxonomy: How Many Kingdoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Taxonomy, the identification, naming, and classification of living things, is an indispensable unit in any biology curriculum and indeed, an integral part of biological science. Taxonomy catalogues life's diversity and is an essential tool for communication. Textbook discussions of taxonomy range anywhere from three to eight domains of kingdoms.…

  12. Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Khumayni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecology is the study of interaction of living organisms in the environment. However the modern meaning of the concept of ecology has a wider meaning than in the early decades of the development of this science. Currently, most often under the mistaken environmental issues are understood, above all, the protection of the environment. In many ways, this shift is due to sense more tangible consequences of human impact on the environment. When you are citing the document, use the following lin...

  13. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  14. Warfare Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho; )

    2008-09-01

    Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

  15. The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, U. Thara; Carey, Susan P.; Hallstein, Eric; Higgins, Paul A. T.; Kerr, Amber C.; Koteen, Laura E.; Smith, Adam B.; Watson, Reg; Harte, John; Norgaard, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    As human impacts to the environment accelerate, disparities in the distribution of damages between rich and poor nations mount. Globally, environmental change is dramatically affecting the flow of ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecological damages and their driving forces has not been estimated. Here, we conservatively estimate the environmental costs of human activities over 1961–2000 in six major categories (climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, agricultural intensifi...

  16. Characteristics of plants distribution in botanical gardens outside the ecological optimum ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of the botanical gardens activity in the introduction and acclimatization of plants appearing: in the distribution of species beyond their natural ecological optimum, in the creation of collections of closely related species capable to spontaneous hybridization, in the formation of sources of invasive species. The role of botanic gardens as anthropogenic centers of evolution and distribution of plants is emphasized.? ?????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????????: ? ??????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????; ? ???????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????????????????? ????? ? ??????; ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????.

  17. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

  18. Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 21 9.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center ... for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ????:??? HNI-???????? bando 20 1 0/02/1 5 1 5:31 :07 201 0/02/1 6 09:53:27 ...

  19. Comment: 6 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 6.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science l ... icensed under CC Attribution2.1 ... Japan ???????????? ttamura 2008/11 /06 ... 1 6:1 0:21 ...

  20. Puebla: Distribution, taxonomy, and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Ram\\u00EDrez-Pulido

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 96 museum specimens belonging to 14 species of Carnivora from the Mexican State of Puebla. In addition, four species were documented based on literature records and by indirect evidence. The carnivorous mammals of Puebla belong to 5 families, 18 genera, 18 species and 23 subspecies. Eight of these 23 taxa are reported herein for the first time from the state of Puebla. Of the 18 species, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Lontra longicaudis, Taxidea taxus, and Galictis vittata are considered by Norma Oficial Mexicana as threatened species, Leopardus wiedii and Eira barbara in danger of extinction, and Potos flavus is under special protection. We found Lynx rufus, Canis latrans, Taxidea taxus, and Bassariscus astutus were found only in the Nearctic region of the State, whereas Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii, Lontra longicaudis, Galictis vittata, Eira barbara, Potos flavus, and Nasua narica were found only in the Neotropical region of the State. The remaining seven species (Puma concolor, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, Mustela frenata, Mephitis macroura, Spilogale putorius, Conepatus leuconotus, and Procyon lotor have been taken in both the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Localities in the Sierra Norte de Puebla had the greatest species richness and abundance of individuals. The carnivores confront serious conservation problems in the state because they are hunted indiscriminately as trophies and by the local residents as harmful species. Moreover they are hunted for economic benefit by the sale of theirs skins or as living pets. The carnivores in some areas are used as food items and for therapeutic proprieties of their fat, skin, or bones. Unfortunately at this time we can?t assess the full impact of these activities on the local populations.

  1. Nonlinear ecological processes driving the distribution of marine decapod larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M.; Carbonell, A.; Tor, A.; Alvarez-Berastegui, D.; Balbín, R.; dos Santos, A.; Alemany, F.

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of the natural processes lead to many nonlinear interacting factors that influence the distribution and survival of marine pelagic species, particularly in their larval phase. The management of these ecosystems requires techniques that unveil those interactions by studying the system globally, including all relevant variables and combining both community and environmental data in a single step. Specifically, we apply an unsupervised neural network, the Self-Organising Map (SOM), to a combined dataset of environmental and decapod larvae community data from the Balearic sea, obtained in two years with contrasting environmental scenarios, as an Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) technique that provides a global and more detailed view of both the environmental processes and their influence on the distribution of such planktonic community. We examine the parental influence on the initial larval distribution by aggregating data by adult habitat, which also increments the signal to noise ratio (mean data patterns over noise due to outliers or measurement errors), and consider the distribution of larvae by development stage (as a proxy of age and hence of potential dispersion). The joined study of parental effect, drifting or concentration events determined by dynamical processes in the whole water column, and lifespan, draws the possible paths followed by larvae, and highlights the more influencing variables in their distribution. Investigation of the different aspects of dynamic height (absolute values, gradients or edges and correlations) clarified the effect of the oceanographic processes on decapods' larvae.

  2. Octaviania asterosperma (hypogeous Basidiomycota. Recent data to ecology and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mleczko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses place Octaviania asterosperma in the Boletales, with Leccinum being the closest relative. Results of the structural investigation of O. asterosperma ectomycorrhiza with Fagus sylvatica confirm this systematic position. In Europe the species is an ectomycorrhizal partner of broad-leaved trees, such as Carpinus, Corylus, Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. This paper aims at presenting the new data to the distribution of O. asterosperma in Central Europe. The description of the basidiocarps discovered in Poland in the recent years is also given, together with evidence for the parasitic relationship of Sepedonium laevigatum with O. asterosperma. We also present the information concerning all known localities of the species in Poland and its distribution map. Data on the ecologz, distribution and status O. asterosperma in Europe, and some structural aspects of basidiocarps and spores, are also summarized.

  3. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T

    2008-01-01

    Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

  4. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulinck Hubert

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Kuroda 's sea hare Aplysia kuroda i Mollusca Aplysia_kuroda i_L.png Aplysia_kuroda i_NL.png Aplysia_ kuroda i_S.png Aplysia_kuroda i_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon ... .cgi?i=Aplysia+kuroda i&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ... i?i=Aplysia+kuroda i&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.c ... gi?i=Aplysia+kuroda i&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg ...

  6. Does bacteria spatial distribution at the micro-scale follow the same ecological laws as macro-organisms?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grundmann, G.L.; Kyselková, Martina; Michelland, R.

    Athens : University of Athens, 2011. s. 192. [BAGECO 2011. Microbial Genetics and Ecology . 29.05.2011-02.06.2011, Corfu] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : bacteria * distribution * micro-scale Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour

  7. Taxonomies of Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Fenn, Daniel J.; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

    2010-01-01

    The study of networks has grown into a substantial interdisciplinary endeavour that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: they can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process, empirical or synthetic, or they can represent enti...

  8. [Cryptosporidium: phylogeny and taxonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2007-03-01

    Members of the genus Cryptosporidium in the phylum Apicomplexa were long thought to be closely related to the coccidia. However, despite strong morphological similarities to these organisms, Cryptosporidium has notable differences with them and similarities with the gregarine protozoa. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of molecular data, some authors place Cryptosporidium at the basis of the phylum Apicomplexa, others consider species of this genus to be phylogenetically too distant from the coccidia and do not include them in this group of protozoa, and others think that Cryptosporidium is closely related to gregarines. The taxonomy of this genus and the naming of species are undergoing rapid change due to the new and increasing molecular information. Molecular characterization of oocysts using polymerase chain reaction based procedures has not only a major impact on resolving the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium at the species level but also on the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. Today, it is recognized that this genus is a phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous assemblage of largely morphologically identical species and genotypes. Fourteen Cryptosporidium species and 21 C. parvum genotypes are currently recognized. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that genetically related hosts often have related forms of Cryptosporidium. Application of molecular techniques to taxonomy and epidemiology is helping to characterize new and existing species and determine the sources of the parasites that will facilitate the identification of sources of water-borne cryptosporidiosis. PMID:17432539

  9. Distribution and ecology of pollen lodged within the Latin American Pollen Database

    OpenAIRE

    R. Marchant; Almeida, L.; Behling, H.; Berrío, J.C.; Bush, M; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; M. Kappelle; Oliveira, P.; Texeira de Oliviera-Filho, A.; Lozano-García, S.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2002-01-01

    The cornerstone of palaeoecological research, concerned with vegetation dynamics over the recent geological past, is a good understanding of the present-day ecology and distribution of the taxa. This is particularly necessary in areas of high floral diversity such as Latin America. Vegetation reconstructions, based on numerous pollen records, now exist with respect to all major vegetation associations from Latin America. With this ever-increasing number of sedimentary records becoming availab...

  10. Niche and neutral models predict asymptotically equivalent species abundance distributions in high-diversity ecological communities

    OpenAIRE

    Chisholm, Ryan A.; Pacala, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in ecology is to understand the mechanisms that govern patterns of relative species abundance. Previous numerical simulations have suggested that complex niche-structured models produce species abundance distributions (SADs) that are qualitatively similar to those of very simple neutral models that ignore differences between species. However, in the absence of an analytical treatment of niche models, one cannot tell whether the two classes of model produce the same pat...

  11. Ecological Niche Modeling to Estimate the Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Robin H.; Masuoka, Penny; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Somer, Todd; Grieco, John

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is transmitted predominately by the mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The primary reservoirs of the virus are wading birds, with swine serving as amplifying hosts. Despite the development of a JEV vaccine, people remain unvaccinated in endemic countries and are susceptible to JEV infection. The distribution of the JEV vector(s) provides essential information for preventive measures. This study used an ecological niche modeling program to predict the distribu...

  12. Particulate Organic Matter Distribution along the Lower Amazon River: Addressing Aquatic Ecology Concepts Using Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Rigal, François; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Bernardes, Marcelo; Abril, Gwenaël; Meziane, Tarik

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in understanding the Amazon basin functioning is to ascertain the role played by floodplains in the organic matter (OM) cycle, crucial for a large spectrum of ecological mechanisms. Fatty acids (FAs) were combined with environmental descriptors and analyzed through multivariate and spatial tools (asymmetric eigenvector maps, AEM and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM). This challenge allowed investigating the distribution of suspended particulate o...

  13. Geographic Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors in Brazil Based on Ecological Niche Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; Cléber Galvão; Jane Costa; Townsend Peterson, A.

    2012-01-01

    Although Brazil was declared free from Chagas disease transmission by the domestic vector Triatoma infestans, human acute cases are still being registered based on transmission by native triatomine species. For a better understanding of transmission risk, the geographic distribution of Brazilian triatomines was analyzed. Sixteen out of 62 Brazilian species that both occur in >20 municipalities and present synanthropic tendencies were modeled based on their ecological niches. Panstrongylus gen...

  14. Ecological characteristics of Triatoma patagonica at the Southern limit of its distribution (Chubut, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Wisnivesky-Colli Cristina; Vezzani Darío; Pietrokovsky Silvia M.; Scurti Hugo; Iriarte Jorge

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the ecological characteristics of Triatoma patagonica Del Ponte 1929 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and evaluating the epidemiological importance of this species at its southernmost distribution limit. We carried out two surveys in the Province of Chubut, in summer and in spring, 1998. In each survey, we interviewed local health care agents for triatomine recognition and reports of the bugs, followed by entomological searches in houses and peridomestic and silvatic bi...

  15. Improving ecological niche model transferability to predict the potential distribution of invasive exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengping Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling (ENM seeks to characterize the ecological requirements of species using their occurrence in association with environmental variables. The classic applications of ENM to biological invasions involve the calibration of niche modeling in the native range and the subsequent transfer of the calibrated models to other regions to predict areas of potential invasion. However, low niche model transferability has been reported in certain cases, resulting in artifactual conclusions in some studies (e.g., niche shift during a species’ invasion. Improving niche model transferability would allow precise predictions of the invasion potential of species, providing valuable information for invasion risk assessment. In this review, we address model input data (i.e., occurrence records and environmental variables, using the invasive Halyomorpha halys and Spartina alterniflora, to explore protocols for improving niche model transferability. We conclude that the knowledge of the biology, population equilibrium state, geographic distribution, and biogeographic history of the invasive species is crucial prior to niche modeling. In niche model calibration, the sufficient records should not only cover the geographic extent and the ecological dimension of the species’ distribution but also reduce the sample bias and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Selecting environmental variables should involve considerations of their biological importance in restricting the species’ distribution, the differences in occupied ecological space among geographic populations, and the dimensionality of the environmental space. Delimiting the geographic background for niche modeling should involve considerations of the species’ distributional range and population equilibrium state. We believe that, based on niche conservatism, niche model transferability can be guaranteed if niche models are built based on a reasonable approach. Caution is warranted in the case of interpretations of low niche model transferability in association with niche differentiation.

  16. A topographic feature taxonomy for a U.S. national topographic mapping ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2013-01-01

    Using legacy feature lists from the U.S. National Topographic Mapping Program of the twentieth century, a taxonomy of features is presented for purposes of developing a national topographic feature ontology for geographic mapping and analysis. After reviewing published taxonomic classifications, six basic classes are suggested; terrain, surface water, ecological regimes, built-up areas, divisions, and events. Aspects of ontology development are suggested as the taxonomy is described.

  17. Geographic Distributions and Ecology of Ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae in Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Chutichudet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20x20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp. forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand.

  18. Ecological distribution of protosteloid amoebae in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Zahn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period of March 2004 to December 2007, samples of aerial litter (dead but still attached plant parts and ground litter (dead plant material on the ground were collected from 81 study sites representing a wide range of latitudes (34°S to 50°S and a variety of different types of habitats throughout New Zealand (including Stewart Island and the Auckland Islands. The objective was to survey the assemblages of protosteloid amoebae present in this region of the world. Twenty-nine described species of protosteloid amoebae were recorded by making morphological identifications of protosteloid amoebae fruiting bodies on cultured substrates. Of the species observed, Protostelium mycophaga was by far the most abundant and was found in more than half of all samples. Most species were found in fewer than 10% of the samples collected. Seven abundant or common species were found to display significantly increased likelihood for detection in aerial litter or ground litter microhabitats. There was some evidence of a general correlation between environmental factors - annual precipitation, elevation, and distance from the equator (latitude - and the abundance and richness of protosteloid amoebae. An increase in each of these three factors correlated with a decrease in both abundance and richness. This study provides a thorough survey of the protosteloid amoebae present in New Zealand and adds to a growing body of evidence which suggests several correlations between their broad distributional patterns and environmental factors.

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png P ... ng Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NL http://biosc ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Western clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_tropicalis_L.png Xen ... Xenopus_tropicalis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=L http://bios ... ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=NL http://bio ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_japonica_ ... S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=L http://bioscienc ... edbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://bioscien ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Old world swallowtail Papilio machaon Arthropoda Papilio_machaon_L.png Papilio_machaon_NL.png Pa ... png Papilio_machaon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=L http://bioscie ... ncedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NL http://biosci ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: malaria parasite P. falciparum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available malaria parasite P. falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium_falciparum_L.png Plasmodium_falc ... asmodium_falciparum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium+falciparum&t=L http://b ... iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium+falciparum&t=NL http:// ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: common brandling worm [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available common brandling worm Eisenia fetida Annelida Eisenia_fetida_L.png Eisenia_fetida_NL.png Eisenia ... .png Eisenia_fetida_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=NL http://bioscie ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: African clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available African clawed frog Xenopus laevis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_laevis_L.png Xenopus_lae ... .png Xenopus_laevis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NL http://bioscie ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphon ... .png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=L http://bioscien ... cedbc.jp/taxonomy _icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie ...

  7. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and?18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (?25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  8. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polepeddi, S

    2004-12-08

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to system administrators, software developers and vulnerability researchers is not yet achieved, this work has resulted in the most exhaustive collection of vulnerability data to date.

  9. Micromamíferos (Didelphimorphia y Rodentia) del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina): Taxonomía y distribución / Small mammals (Didelphimorphia and Rodentia) from southwestern Buenos Aires province, Argentina: Taxonomy and distribution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ulyses F. J., Pardiñas; Agustín M., Abba; Mariano L., Merino.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Species of small mammals from southwestern Buenos Aires province range within a wide variety of habitats, herbaceous (Pampean District), shrubs (Monte District), steppes, and xerophytic woodlands (Espinal District). Their natural history is still poorly known. In this paper we make a synthesis of th [...] e taxonomy and distribution of the marsupials (Marmosinae) and rodents (Sigmodontinae) of southwestern Buenos Aires province. Distributional records and taxonomical information were obtained from field survey, analyses of raptor pellets, revision of specimens housed in collections in Argentina, and literature. Between Sierra de la Ventana (38º S) and the río Negro (41ºS) occur two species of marmosines and 14 of sigmodontine rodents. Some of these species show a restricted distribution (e.g., Phyllotis xanthopygus, endemic for Sierra de la Ventana), and others are widespread (e.g. Akodon azarae or Calomys musculinus) across different phytogeographic units. A cluster analysis at local scale shows an ordination of small mammal assemblages with the topology (Sierra de la Ventana + Southern AtlanticCoast) (Espinal + Monte). The zoogeographic unicity of the Monte in the study area is evidenced by two sigmodontines, Akodon iniscatus and Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. The micromammal assemblage of Sierra de la Ventana may be characterized as pampasic. The wide distribution of A. azarae and C. musculinus may reflect the anthropic activities developed during the last century. These activities on shrub steppe have certainly diluted the original zoogeographic boundaries and allowed the dispersion of opportunistic sigmodontine species.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Reeve's pond turtle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Reeve's ... pond turtle Chinemys ... reeves ii Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Chinemys _reeves ii_L.png C ... hinemys _reeves ii_NL.png Chinemys _reeves ii_S .png Chinemys _r ... eeves ii_NS .png http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico ... n.cgi?i=Chinemys +reeves ii&t=L http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon ... /icon.cgi?i=Chinemys +reeves ii&t=NL http://bios ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico ...

  11. TAXONOMY CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES – ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha R; Bandaru Rama krishna Rao

    2011-01-01

    For any information to be organized, taxonomy is essential. Taxonomy plays a very important role for information and content management. Also it helps in searching of content. The most common method forconstructing taxonomy was the manual construction. As the information available today is huge, constructing taxonomy for such information manually was time consuming and maintenance was difficult. This paperpresents an overview of various taxonomy construction techniques available for easier co...

  12. Distribution and ecology of Ostracodes from 34 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P.; Fürstenberg, S.; Frenzel, P.; Guo, Y.; Zhu, L.; Gifty-Akita, L.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Ostracodes (bivalved Crustaceans) inhabit nearly all aquatic environments from the marine realm to continental freshwater bodies and represent important bio-indicators since their calcific shells are readily preserved in the lake sediments in high numbers. Furthermore they record a plentifulness of information about palaeoenvironments. This data can be used for reconstructing climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. We obtained 112 surface sediment samples from 34 lakes on the plateau to investigate distribution and ecology of ostracodes for understanding the implications of aquatic environmental factors on the distribution of ostracodes. There were 12 species identified: Candona candida, Candona xizangensis, Fabaeformiscandona gyirongensis, Potamocypris villosa, Heterocypris sp. , Eucypris gyirongensis, Ilyocypris sp. , Cytherissa lacustris, Leucuocythere dorsotuberosa, Leucocytherella sinensis, and Limnocythere inopinata. Corresponding environmental factors including water depth, specific conductivity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored in various lakes. The range of specific conductivity was between 275 and 202000 ?S/cm. A Principle Component Analysis (PCA) depicted that ostracode diversity gained high relations with specific conductivity (r = -0.43) and dissolved oxygen (r = 0.43). This indicated that specific conductivity could be the main factor driving the distribution of ostracodes on the Tibetan Plateau. Keywords: Ostracodes, Tibetan Plateau, lacustrine sediment, ecology, diversity

  13. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  14. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

  15. NEWT, a new taxonomy portal

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Isabelle; Pilbout, Sandrine; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Bairoch, Amos Marc

    2003-01-01

    NEWT is a new taxonomy portal to the SWISS-PROT protein sequence knowledgebase. It contains taxonomy data, which is updated daily, for the complete set of species represented in SWISS-PROT, as well as those stored at the NCBI. Users can navigate through the taxonomy tree and access corresponding SWISS-PROT protein entries. In addition, a manually curated selection of external links allows access to specific information on selected species. NEWT is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/newt/.

  16. Distribution of uranium 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the ecological cycle in mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of uranium, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the uncultivated mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia was investigated. Samples of beef (meat and bones), milk, cheese, grass and podsolic soil were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of these radionuclides in this ecologically unpolluted environment was no different from cultivated regions in other parts of the world. (UK)

  17. Problems of the radiocaesium distribution in several components of forest ecological systems and bog ecological systems as well as in deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany the south-western part of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg was most heavily affected by the Chernobyl fallout of radiocaesium. The contamination of agricultural food was decreasing in a short time to a harmless level; on the other hand, in special regions there is high contamination of deer, of some species of fungi, of berries and of the browsing of deer up to now. Restrictions in shooting should be taken into account in the time interval of highest contamination. Increasing the supply with minerals, e. g. by mineral fertilizers, is a possible way to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium in natural ecological systems. To develop an efficient measuring management for agricultural foodstuff or for deer, mushrooms and other food from natural ecological systems or forest ecological systems it is necessary to distribute the measuring stations in the areas of the highest contamination and to evaluate the data by computer programs

  18. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. RESULTS: We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae andV. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.). A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. CONCLUSION: The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

  19. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ? 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding.

  20. Spatial correlations of population and ecological factors with distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Ghatee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis as a dynamic disease may be markedly influenced by demographic and ecological factors. A geospatial information system study was developed to determine the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases in relation to population, climatic and environmental factors in Fars province, southwest of Iran. Methods: The dwelling addresses of 217 VL patients were obtained from hospital files. A hazard map produced by unifying buffers (5 km around nomads travel routes (NTR was developed to survey the effect of close proximity to NTR on the distribution of VL. Mean annual rainfall (MAR, mean annual temperature (MAT, four months temperature mean (T4, elevation, slope and landcover were climatic and environmental factors that have been analysed. Finally, data of dwelling foci were extracted from maps and analysed using logistic regression models. Results: Close proximity to NTR was the most important factor influenced on the disease distribution. Climatic factors were in second rank. Among them, temperature especially T4 is the most effective variable and rainfall was also shown to be another effective climatic agent. Most cases of VL were reported from temperate and semiarid areas in western and central regions while arid condition was a confined factor. The environmental factor of landcovers including urban, dry farm and thin forest regions was revealed as the third rank effective factor. Altitude importance was only shown when its effect was studied independently from other factors. Interpretation & conclusion: These findings present the distribution of VL in Fars province is influenced by combination of ecological and nomads demographical variables although closeness to NTR and nomads role in distribution and continuance of kala-azar are the most important factors.

  1. Ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of phytoplankton in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit. Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Macias-Cuellar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton species are an important basis of the food web for various systems such as pelagic, coastal and lake. Due to their photosynthetic capacity, this community is sensitive to changes in light availability, temperature, nutrient concentrations, herbivores consumption, parasitism and competition. Therefore, they show a high spatial and temporal variability related to environmental changes both natural and anthropogenic. However, as any taxonomic group, phytoplankton species have environmental thresholds, ecological niches that define their distribution. This study was located in Aguamilpa Dam, an artificial aquatic reservoir which started operations in 1994 for electric energy production. In this system the potential distribution of the phytoplankton was evaluated, where the highest species richness and restricted distribution areas were identified. Potential distribution models based on ecological niche definition were generated using ArcMap 9.2® with Maxent (Maximun Entropy Method. The development of distribution maps was carried out using Digital Elevation Models in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha, based on nine physico-chemical and biological water parameters monitored in the reservoir. The highest species richness areas were found in the Huaynamota river tributary and at the station called La Confluencia, while the less abundance areas were found in the Santiago river tributary during warm and cold dry seasons with a great abundance of cyanophyta. During the rainfall season, the Huaynamota river tributary diversity areas were extended and the presence of some dominant species of cyanophyta were indentified. These species can be associated with trophic processes related to anthropogenic pollutants in the reservoir. This study illustrates the potential application of niche modeling approach in aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) based on ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel-Goncalves, Rodrigo; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba

    2009-07-01

    Rhodnius neglectus is frequently found in palm trees and bird nests in sylvatic environments. However, adult specimens infected by Trypanosoma cruzi have been invading houses in central Brazil. Analyzing and predicting the geographical distribution of this species may improve vector surveillance strategies for Chagas disease. Ecological niche modeling using the genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) was applied to predict the geographical distribution of R. neglectus from occurrence records and a set of 23 predictor variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation, altitude, and vegetation). Additionally, the geographical distribution of R. neglectus was compared with the geographical distribution of four species of palm trees and two species of birds from the study region. The models were able to predict, with high probability, the occurrence of R. neglectus as a regular (although nonendemic) species of the Cerrado biome in central Brazil. Caatinga, Amazonian savanna, Pantanal, and the Bolivian Chaco appear as areas with lower probabilities of potential occurrence for the species. A great overlap was observed between the distribution of R. neglectus, palm trees (Acrocomia aculeata and Syagrus oleracea), and birds (Phacellodomus ruber and Pseudoseisura cristata). By including new records for R. neglectus (from both sylvatic and domestic environments), our study showed a distribution increase toward the west and northeast areas of Brazil in the "diagonal of open/dry ecoregions of South America". These results should aid Chagas disease vector surveillance programs, given that household invasion by Rhodnius species maintains the risk of disease transmission and limits control strategies. PMID:19645302

  3. Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: bacterial taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohier, Danièle; Berthier, Françoise; Reitz, Joëlle

    2008-09-01

    Safety assessment requires uniform and reproducible nomenclature schemes for all the micro-organisms deliberately added in fermented food products. The QPS approach described by EFSA is based on the identity of an isolate at the highest taxonomic unit that is appropriate for the purpose for which the evaluation is intended. This depends upon the body of knowledge available for the micro-organism to be assessed and upon the nature of the micro-organism being assessed. Species identification is the fundamental unit of biological classification and is critical for describing, understanding and comparing biological diversities at different levels among ecological niches. Accurate taxonomic identification of a micro-organism is essential for assessing safety assessment, and this section describes current and advanced knowledge on bacterial taxonomy. PMID:17956763

  4. A taxonomy of inductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Jern, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that explain how people solve all of the problems in the taxonomy. PMID:23884687

  5. Taxonomy of Stock Market Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Giovanni; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate sets of financial non-redundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By properly selecting the time horizon of returns and by using a reference currency we find a meaningful taxonomy. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in a set of nonsynchronously recorded time series.

  6. A Taxonomy of Internet Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Bambury, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify terminology discussing the interface between commerce and the Internet. It is also an empirically derived classification system or taxonomy of existing Internet business models. This taxonomy has two main branches - transplanted real-world business models and native Internet business models. The latter part of the paper discusses the role of business, governments, regulation and ideology in the development of I-Commerce and makes some cautious speculations regar...

  7. Taxonomy and the Five Kingdoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad Williams

    2010-01-01

    This site begins by defining taxonomy and classification and gives a brief history of the two disciplines. It then shows the modern classification system and the kinds of evidence used in taxonomy. Next the rules and advantages of binomial nomenclature are described. Finally the kingdoms are described and enhanced with photos. This source describes the moneran kingdom as the fifth kingdom, containing the eubacteria and archaea. Other sources claim these two categories are domains in their own right, not kingdoms at all.

  8. Taxonomy Working Group Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Vickie S.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Barth, Timothy S.; Panontin, Tina L.; Wales, Roxana; Rackley, Michael W.; Milne, James S.; McPherson, John W.; Dutra, Jayne E.; Shaw, Larry C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Taxonomy Working Group was to develop a proposal for a common taxonomy to be used by all NASA projects in the classifying of nonconformances, anomalies, and problems. Specifically, the group developed a recommended list of data elements along with general suggestions for the development of a problem reporting system to better serve NASA's need for managing, reporting, and trending project aberrant events. The Group's recommendations are reported in this document.

  9. Diversity, distribution and ecology of the family Syllidae (Annelida) in the Portuguese coast (Western Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, R.; Magalhães, L.; Peter, A.; San Martín, G.; Rodrigues, A. M.; Quintino, V.

    2013-12-01

    The diversity, distribution and ecology of the family Syllidae along the Western Iberian coast was studied, based on 145 sediment samples covering the whole Portuguese coastal shelf and 30 Saccorhiza polyschides holdfasts sampled in the north of Portugal. A total of 55 species were identified in 2,306 specimens. A total of 33 species were recorded in the holdfasts and 36 in the shelf samples spanning a wide range of sediments, bathymetry and latitude. A total of 14 species were shared between both substrates. A total of 26 species were here firstly recorded, increasing to 80 the number of species known in Portugal, and new insights were added to the ecology and geographic distribution of several species. A multivariate analysis identified three assemblages, characterized by the species (a) Sphaerosyllis bulbosa and Syllis pontxioi in the western shelf coarse sediments, (b) Parapionosyllis brevicirra and Syllis mercedesae in the southern shelf muddy sands and (c) Brania pusilla and Myrianida brachycephala in the kelp holdfasts. The type of substrate (kelp holdfast vs. soft-bottom sediments) and the sediment grain size (coarser vs. finer) were the descriptors best related to the Syllid assemblages.

  10. Geographic distribution of chagas disease vectors in Brazil based on ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Galvão, Cléber; Costa, Jane; Peterson, A Townsend

    2012-01-01

    Although Brazil was declared free from Chagas disease transmission by the domestic vector Triatoma infestans, human acute cases are still being registered based on transmission by native triatomine species. For a better understanding of transmission risk, the geographic distribution of Brazilian triatomines was analyzed. Sixteen out of 62 Brazilian species that both occur in >20 municipalities and present synanthropic tendencies were modeled based on their ecological niches. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. megistus showed broad ecological ranges, but most of the species sort out by the biome in which they are distributed: Rhodnius pictipes and R. robustus in the Amazon; R. neglectus, Triatoma sordida, and T. costalimai in the Cerrado; R. nasutus, P. lutzi, T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. melanocephala, and T. petrocchiae in the Caatinga; T. rubrovaria in the southern pampas; T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps in the Atlantic Forest. Although most occurrences were recorded in open areas (Cerrado and Caatinga), our results show that all environmental conditions in the country are favorable to one or more of the species analyzed, such that almost nowhere is Chagas transmission risk negligible. PMID:22523500

  11. 78 FR 46889 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Candidate Removal for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...on taxonomy, life history, ecology, population distribution and...Habitat requirements for pollination, reproduction, and dispersal...on taxonomy, life history, ecology, population distribution and...on taxonomy, life history, ecology, population distribution...

  12. Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family crassulaceae in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family Crassul aceae have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 31 taxa, 15 are Irano-Turanian elements, 16 are Sino-Japanese elements and only one is Mediterranean element. Twenty nine taxa are classified as uniregional, while one is biregional element. Only one taxon is considered as pluriregional element. Rhodiola saxifragoides, Rosularia adenotricha subsp. chitralica and Hylotelephium pakistanicum are endemic taxa. While Rhodiola pachyclados and Rosularia sedoides are partim endemic. The former species is confined to (Kurrum valley) Pakistan and Afghanistan whereas the latter species distributed in Kashmir and N India. Rhodiola coccinea subsp. scabrida is subendemic to the peripheral belt of Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions. (author)

  13. Geographical ecology of the palms (Arecaceae): determinants of diversity and distributions across spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The palm family occurs in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Palms are of high ecological and economical importance, and display complex spatial patterns of species distributions and diversity. Scope This review summarizes empirical evidence for factors that determine palm species distributions, community composition and species richness such as the abiotic environment (climate, soil chemistry, hydrology and topography), the biotic environment (vegetation structure and species interactions) and dispersal. The importance of contemporary vs. historical impacts of these factors and the scale at which they function is discussed. Finally a hierarchical scale framework is developed to guide predictor selection for future studies. Conclusions Determinants of palm distributions, composition and richness vary with spatial scale. For species distributions, climate appears to be important at landscape and broader scales, soil, topography and vegetation at landscape and local scales, hydrology at local scales, and dispersal at all scales. For community composition, soil appears important at regional and finer scales, hydrology, topography and vegetation at landscape and local scales, and dispersal again at all scales. For species richness, climate and dispersal appear to be important at continental to global scales, soil at landscape and broader scales, and topography at landscape and finer scales. Some scale–predictor combinations have not been studied or deserve further attention, e.g. climate on regional to finer scales, and hydrology and topography on landscape and broader scales. The importance of biotic interactions – apart from general vegetation structure effects – for the geographic ecology of palms is generally underexplored. Future studies should target scale–predictor combinations and geographic domains not studied yet. To avoid biased inference, one should ideally include at least all predictors previously found important at the spatial scale of investigation.

  14. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Chatzigeorgiou; Galil, Bella S.; Sarah Faulwetter; Christos Arvanitidis

    2011-01-01

    The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and...

  15. Towards a taxonomy of spatial scale-dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven

    2015-01-01

    Spatial scale-dependence is a ubiquitous feature of ecological systems. This presents a challenge for ecologists who seek to discern general principles. A solution is to search for generalities in patterns of scale-dependence – that is, what kinds of things are scale-dependent, in what ways, and why? I argue that this is likely to be a productive way forward for ecology, but that progress in this direction is currently hindered by the conflation of a set of distinct concepts under the category of ‘scale-dependence’. Here, I propose a taxonomy of spatial scale-dependence that categorizes its major types in hopes of moving towards a more formal and unambiguous vocabulary. I argue that three major distinctions are necessary and sufficient for this goal: that between grain size and extent (the scale component), between data and models (the subject), and between true and perceived scale-dependence (the class). I illustrate the need for these distinctions with a set of examples demonstrating causes of different types of scale-dependence. I then describe how this taxonomy relates to an array of scale-related concepts from other fields. Finally, I discuss the generalization that biotic interactions are most important at small scales in light of this taxonomy.

  16. Taxonomy and distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in Venezuela: I. The Oswaldoi species group of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) Taxonomía y distribución geográfica de los flebótomos en Venezuela: I. El grupo oswaldoi del género Lutzomyia (Dipetera: Psichodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dora Feliciangeli

    1989-01-01

    Species of sandflies in the oswaldoi-group of the genus Lutzomyia occuring in Venezuela are reviewed. A new species, Lutzomyia saccai n. sp. is described. A distribution map and pictorial keys for males and females are provided with notes on biological and ecological data collected in Venezuela.Se hace una revisión de las especies de flebótomos del grupo oswaldoi del género Lutzomyia, has el momento registradas en Venezuela. Se describe una nueba especie, Lutzomyia saccai n. sp. Se proporc...

  17. Diversity, distribution and ecology of benthic molluscan communities on the Portuguese continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, R.; Sampaio, L.; Quintino, V.; Rodrigues, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The diversity, ecology and distribution patterns of the Portuguese continental shelf malacofauna and its relationship with abiotic factors were studied from samples covering the western and the southern coast. A total of 2544 specimens were identified corresponding to 169 taxa, mostly bivalves (62% of the total taxa). Abra alba was the most abundant and the most frequent species. The alpha diversity ranged from one species to 21 spp. 0.1 m- 2. The highest abundance and diversity were obtained in coarser sediments. Multivariate analysis based on the abundance data identified five major malacological groups: (a) Angulus pygmaeus and Thracia villosiuscula in the coarser sediments of the western inner and mid shelf; (b) Calyptraea chinensis and Leptochiton cancellatus in the heterogeneous and organically enriched sediments of the southern shelf; (c) Angulus fabula, Spisula subtruncata and Pharus legumen in the near shore exposed fine sands; (d) A. alba in muddy fine sands, mainly in the northwestern shelf and (e) Saccella commutata in the southwestern deeper shelf. The malacofauna could be used as a proxy for the major benthic communities known to occur in this area, except in muddy patches, where molluscs were absent or low abundant. Median grain-size, gravel content, depth and hydrodynamic regime were the environmental factors best related to the malacofauna spatial distribution patterns. This study sets the first record of Astarte borealis, Leptochiton asellus, Mercenaria mercenaria and Montacuta phascolionis in the Portuguese shelf and the most northern limit for Anadara polii, Glycymeris nummaria, and Leptochiton algesirensis along the northwestern shelf. This study also gives new ecological insights for several species, in terms of bathymetric range distribution, as well as habitat type and highlighted the transitional characteristics of the molluscan communities from this particular northeastern Atlantic area where boreal, temperate and subtropical faunas can coexist.

  18. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Zaldívar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata, capuchins (Cebus capucinus, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii. Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi, congo (Alouatta palliata, cara blanca (Cebus capucinus, y tití (Saimiri oerstedii. La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliográfica. Se estudió su diversidad genética utilizando electroforesis de isoenzimas. El riesgo de extinción se evaluó usando información bibliográfica. Se encontró que las cuatro especies presentaban variación en todos estos rasgos. Con estos datos, se realizó una correlación de Pearson entre el riesgo de extinción y las variables indicadoras de la distribución geográfica, los rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida y la diversidad genética, para aquellas especies con una amplia distribución geográfica. Se encontró una asociación entre el riesgo de extinción y la natalidad y la tasa de crecimiento poblacional; las especies con menor natalidad y menor tasa de crecimiento poblacional tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción; las especies con mayor diversidad genética tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se discute la importancia de estos rasgos para la conservación de estas especies.

  19. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María E, Zaldívar; Oscar, Rocha; Kenneth E, Glander; Gabriel, Aguilar; Ana S, Huertas; Ronald, Sánchez; Grace, Wong.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi), cong [...] o (Alouatta palliata), cara blanca (Cebus capucinus), y tití (Saimiri oerstedii). La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliográfica. Se estudió su diversidad genética utilizando electroforesis de isoenzimas. El riesgo de extinción se evaluó usando información bibliográfica. Se encontró que las cuatro especies presentaban variación en todos estos rasgos. Con estos datos, se realizó una correlación de Pearson entre el riesgo de extinción y las variables indicadoras de la distribución geográfica, los rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida y la diversidad genética, para aquellas especies con una amplia distribución geográfica. Se encontró una asociación entre el riesgo de extinción y la natalidad y la tasa de crecimiento poblacional; las especies con menor natalidad y menor tasa de crecimiento poblacional tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción; las especies con mayor diversidad genética tenían mayor riesgo de extinción. Se discute la importancia de estos rasgos para la conservación de estas especies. Abstract in english We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi [...] ), howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata), capuchins (Cebus capucinus), and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii). Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3): 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.

  20. The integrative future of taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vences Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an integrative taxonomy that directly bear on what species are, how they can be discovered, and how much diversity is on Earth. Conclusions We conclude that taxonomy needs to be pluralistic to improve species discovery and description, and to develop novel protocols to produce the much-needed inventory of life in a reasonable time. To cope with the large number of candidate species revealed by molecular studies of eukaryotes, we propose a classification scheme for those units that will facilitate the subsequent assembly of data sets for the formal description of new species under the Linnaean system, and will ultimately integrate the activities of taxonomists and molecular biologists.

  1. Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Chauhan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study of the microfungi occurring in the various forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India has been carried-out by the soil plate technique. Soil samples from 5 different forest communities viz., moist deciduous forest dominated by tree ferns, Diospyros forest, Terminalia forest, Shorea forest and scrub forest dominated by Acacia and Dalbergia sp. were collected during October, 1983. Some physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were analysed and their role in distribution of fungi in 5 soil types was studied and discussed. 43 fungal species were isolated, of which Asperigillus niger I and Penicillium janthinellum occurred in all the 5 soil types. Statistically, none of the edaphic factors showed positive significant correlation with the number of fungi.

  2. Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Vilaverde, Schmitt; Hélio Amante, Miot.

    1013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records [...] of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country.

  3. Methodological approaches for studying the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, Isabel; Boxall, Joby B; Deines, Peter; Sekar, Raju; Fish, Katherine E; Biggs, Catherine A

    2014-11-15

    The study of the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has traditionally been based on culturing organisms from bulk water samples. The development and application of molecular methods has supplied new tools for examining the microbial diversity and activity of environmental samples, yielding new insights into the microbial community and its diversity within these engineered ecosystems. In this review, the currently available methods and emerging approaches for characterising microbial communities, including both planktonic and biofilm ways of life, are critically evaluated. The study of biofilms is considered particularly important as it plays a critical role in the processes and interactions occurring at the pipe wall and bulk water interface. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of methods that can be used to detect and assess microbial abundance, community composition and function are discussed in a DWDS context. This review will assist hydraulic engineers and microbial ecologists in choosing the most appropriate tools to assess drinking water microbiology and related aspects. PMID:25105587

  4. Macrophyte distribution and ecological status of the Turiec River (Slovakia: Changes after seven years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrivnák R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of diversity, abundance, distribution, and ecological status of aquatic macrophytes were observed in 2000 and 2007 on a circa 4.5 km long section of the Turiec River using Kohler's method. In comparison to 2000, the total number of macrophytes in 2007 increased markedly (from 25 to 35, although only the numbers of amphi­phytes and helophytes were changed substantially. The number of hydrophytes increased from 11 to 12; an invasive, Elodea canadenis, was the only new species. The relative plant mass of hydrophytes represents the bulk of all recorded species (95 and 80% in 2000 and 2007, respectively, and it was changed for most hydrophytes. The most significant changes were detected for Myriophyllum spicatum (decrease, filamentous algae (decrease, and Potamogeton crispus (increase. In 2007, the mean mass total (MMT sum of hydrophytes decreased from 16.46 to 14.5. On the other hand, the MMTsum of amphiphytes and helophytes doubled in value (7.4 and 14.1 in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Within hydrophytes, Batrachium species (including B. aquatile and B. trichophyllum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous (distribution ratio d > 0.5 in 2000, whereas in 2007 only Batrachium species and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous. At all times, Batrachium species were the most frequent species in the study area, and their abundance was relatively high (MMT> 2.5. A poor ecological status (MMP = 0.378 and MMP = 0.333 in 2000 and 2007, respectively of the surveyed river section was found in both years, but a slight decline of quality as determined on the basis of aquatic plants was observed after 7 years.

  5. Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna Flora de Novaes, Pereira; Ivo Abraão Araújo da, Silva; Augusto César Pessôa, Santiago; Iva Carneiro Leão, Barros.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest), located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in th [...] e study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species) and Polypodiaceae (22 species). The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species) and Thelypteris (9 species). Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

  6. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources

  7. A taxonomy fuzzy filtering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrettos S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work proposes the use of topic taxonomies as part of a filtering language. Given a taxonomy, a classifier is trained for each one of its topics. The user is able to formulate logical rules combining the available topics, e.g. (Topic1 AND Topic2 OR Topic3, in order to filter related documents in a stream. Using the trained classifiers, every document in the stream is assigned a belief value of belonging to the topics of the filter. These belief values are then aggregated using logical operators to yield the belief to the filter. In our study, Support Vector Machines and Naïve Bayes classifiers were used to provide topic probabilities. Aggregation of topic probabilities based on fuzzy logic operators was found to improve filtering performance on the Renters text corpus, as compared to the use of their Boolean counterparts. Finally, we deployed a filtering system on the web using a sample taxonomy of the Open Directory Project.

  8. Ecology and distribution of the grey notothen, Lepidonotothen squamifrons, around South Georgia and Shag Rocks, Southern Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Susan; Brown, Judith; Belchier, Mark

    2014-01-01

    New information on the biology and ecology of an abundant ‘rockcod’ species, Lepidonotothen squamifrons (family: Nototheniidae), found at South Georgia is presented. Data collected from twenty demersal trawl surveys carried out at South Georgia and Shag Rocks (sub-Antarctic) from 1986–2012 were analysed to investigate distribution, size, maturity and diet. Distribution was patchy with large aggregations in consistent high-density ‘hotspots’ to the east of Shag Rocks and to the west ...

  9. Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, T.; Soleimani, M.; Afrakhteh, H.; Hataminejad, H.

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the view...

  10. Myrmekofilie, modrásci, fylogeneze, taxonomie.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fric, Zden?k; Pech, Pavel

    Brno : Mendelova zem?d?lská a lesnická univerzita, 2008 - (Lašt?vka, Z.; Šefrová, H.). s. 7-7 [Lepidopterologické kolokvium /3./. 24.01.2008-24.01.2008, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ?R GD206/03/H034; GA AV ?R KJB600070601; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : phylogeny Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet

    OpenAIRE

    Plávalová, E.

    2011-01-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extra-solar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extra-solar planets. I propose the following the extra-solar plane...

  12. Taxonomy of Stock Market Indices

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, G; Mantegna, R N; Bonanno, Giovanni; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate a set of time series of financial non-redundant time series. The set is composed by 29 stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. The correlation matrix is used to determine a distance matrix between the stock indices. By using the ultrametric matrix associated with the distance matrix we determine a meaningful taxonomy of the investigated stock indices. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in unpredictable non-redundant time series.

  13. Dynamic taxonomies and faceted search

    CERN Document Server

    Sacco, Giovanni Maria

    2009-01-01

    Current access paradigms for the Web, i.e., direct access via search engines or database queries and navigational access via static taxonomies, have recently been criticized because they are too rigid or simplistic to effectively cope with a large number of practical search applications. A third paradigm, dynamic taxonomies and faceted search, focuses on user-centered conceptual exploration, which is far more frequent in search tasks than retrieval using exact specification, and has rapidly become pervasive in modern Web data retrieval, especially in critical applications such as product selec

  14. Taxonomia e distribuição de Actinocythereis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Podocopida, Trachyleberididae na plataforma continental brasileira Taxonomy and distribution Actinocythereis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Podocopida, Trachyleberididae from the Brazilian continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia P. Machado

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species is described, Actinocythereis brasiliensis, from the southern Brazilian continental shelf. It is based on the analysis of 766 samples collected by oceanographical projects. The geographical distribution of this species has revealed its preference by the cold waters and terrigenous sediments and, has a bathymetric distribution between 22 and 164 m but, being concentrated in the shallower waters (< 60 m.

  15. [Ecological distribution and spatial niche of pheasants in the Karst mountains of southwest Guangxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen-Xing; Yang, Gang; Li, Dong; Zhou, Fang

    2011-10-01

    The Karst mountain area along the Sino-Vietnam border of southwest Guangxi has been designated a "Global Biodiversity Hotspot" since 2003. We conducted a survey of pheasant species in this area, with seven species recorded, namely Chinese Francolin (Francolinus pintadeanus), Bar-backed Partridge (Arborophila brunneopectus), Mountain Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola fytchii), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) and Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Analysis and comparison of the distribution and spatial niche of these seven pheasant species revealed that Red Junglefowl had the widest spatial niche, while Chinese Francolin had the narrowest. The spatial niche overlap index was high between Chinese Francolin and the Common Pheasant, Chinese Bamboo Partridge, and Red Junglefowl. With narrow distribution range, small population, and lower ecological adaptability, it is likely that the Bar-backed Partridge is the most vulnerable pheasant species in this area. The results suggest more research and conservation measures are required for pheasant habitat protection in the Karst areas of southwest Guangxi. PMID:22006809

  16. Ecological characteristics of Triatoma patagonica at the Southern limit of its distribution (Chubut, Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Wisnivesky-Colli; Darío, Vezzani; Silvia M, Pietrokovsky; Hugo, Scurti; Jorge, Iriarte.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the ecological characteristics of Triatoma patagonica Del Ponte 1929 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and evaluating the epidemiological importance of this species at its southernmost distribution limit. We carried out two surveys in the Province of Chubut, in summer and in sp [...] ring, 1998. In each survey, we interviewed local health care agents for triatomine recognition and reports of the bugs, followed by entomological searches in houses and peridomestic and silvatic biotopes. The presence of T. patagonica was confirmed in two of the five localities indicated by interview. In agreement with previous studies, all these positive localities were east of the 11°C isotherm, within the Monte phytogeographic province. Triatomine abundance and infestation levels (in peridomiciles and peridomestic biotopes) were higher in summer than in spring, possibly reflecting adverse environmental conditions such as flood and cold winter weather. In the silvatic environment, we found three adult bugs under rocks in summer. In peridomestic sites bugs were only found associated with chickens, which were also the only blood meal source identified. Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was not detected. We conclude that T. patagonica at its southernmost distribution limit does not represent a risk to public health due to its low abundance, lack of association with humans, and absence of T. cruzi infection.

  17. Ecological characteristics of Triatoma patagonica at the Southern limit of its distribution (Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Wisnivesky-Colli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the ecological characteristics of Triatoma patagonica Del Ponte 1929 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae and evaluating the epidemiological importance of this species at its southernmost distribution limit. We carried out two surveys in the Province of Chubut, in summer and in spring, 1998. In each survey, we interviewed local health care agents for triatomine recognition and reports of the bugs, followed by entomological searches in houses and peridomestic and silvatic biotopes. The presence of T. patagonica was confirmed in two of the five localities indicated by interview. In agreement with previous studies, all these positive localities were east of the 11°C isotherm, within the Monte phytogeographic province. Triatomine abundance and infestation levels (in peridomiciles and peridomestic biotopes were higher in summer than in spring, possibly reflecting adverse environmental conditions such as flood and cold winter weather. In the silvatic environment, we found three adult bugs under rocks in summer. In peridomestic sites bugs were only found associated with chickens, which were also the only blood meal source identified. Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was not detected. We conclude that T. patagonica at its southernmost distribution limit does not represent a risk to public health due to its low abundance, lack of association with humans, and absence of T. cruzi infection.

  18. Taxonomy and distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in Venezuela: I. The Oswaldoi species group of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) / Taxonomía y distribución geográfica de los flebótomos en Venezuela: I. El grupo oswaldoi del género Lutzomyia (Dipetera: Psichodidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Dora, Feliciangeli.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión de las especies de flebótomos del grupo oswaldoi del género Lutzomyia, has el momento registradas en Venezuela. Se describe una nueba especie, Lutzomyia saccai n. sp. Se proporcionan claves para la identificación de machos y hembras, datos biológicos y ecológicos y un mapa de di [...] stribución de estas especies en el País. Abstract in english Species of sandflies in the oswaldoi-group of the genus Lutzomyia occuring in Venezuela are reviewed. A new species, Lutzomyia saccai n. sp. is described. A distribution map and pictorial keys for males and females are provided with notes on biological and ecological data collected in Venezuela. [...

  19. Reflections on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Aly

    2006-01-01

    In the application of the "Original" Bloom's taxonomy since its publication in 1956, several weaknesses and practical limitations have been revealed. Besides, psychological and educational research has witnessed the introduction of several theories and approaches to learning which make students more knowledgeable of and responsible for their own…

  20. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Vane?c?ek, D.; Jirsa, J.

    2011-01-01

    The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT). This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  1. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van??ek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT. This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  2. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet

    CERN Document Server

    Plávalová, E

    2011-01-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun.We know its approximate mass, temperature, age and size. In our work with extrasolar planets database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification), for example, like the Harvard classification for stars. This new taxonomy has to be comprehensible and present the important information about extrasolar planets. The important information of extrasolar planets are their mass, radius, period, density, eccentricity, temperature, and their distance from the parent star. There are too many parameters, that is, taxonomy with six parameters would be complicated and difficult to apply. We propose following the extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with only four parameters. The first parameter is the information about the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of the units of the mass of other known planets, where M - Mercury, E - Earth, N - Neptune, and J - Jupiter. The second parameter is the distance from its pa...

  3. On the taxonomy and distribution of Crocidura cossyrensis and Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Soricidae) in Maghreb

    OpenAIRE

    Longino Contoli; Gaetano Aloise

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The paper examines the taxonomic status of North African Crocidura russula Auctorum. On the basis of morphological data, the taxon needs to be divided into at least two species: C. russula (Hermann, 1780) from western Europe, coastal Morocco and middle-western Algeria, up to about the Algiers area, and possibly even Sardinia and Ibiza, and another species, distributed in coastal middle-eastern Algeria, Tunisia, P...

  4. Phase distribution of ecologically controlled chemical elements in production of extraction phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Content of 16 ecologically controlled chemical element (among them Cd, Sr, Th, U, V, Y) in solid and liquid phases of extraction phosphorus acid (EPA) production is determined. These elements are recommended to control by Scientific research institute of human ecology and environment to establish their extraction coefficients to phosphogypsum and EPA and optimal variant of production of ecologically sate phosphorus fertilizers. X-ray fluorescent, atomic-absorption and polarographic methods are used for analysis these elements

  5. On the taxonomy and distribution of Crocidura cossyrensis and Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Soricidae in Maghreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper examines the taxonomic status of North African Crocidura russula Auctorum. On the basis of morphological data, the taxon needs to be divided into at least two species: C. russula (Hermann, 1780 from western Europe, coastal Morocco and middle-western Algeria, up to about the Algiers area, and possibly even Sardinia and Ibiza, and another species, distributed in coastal middle-eastern Algeria, Tunisia, Pantelleria and, possibly, La Galite archipelago. The first and only available name for the above, eastern taxon is Crocidura cossyrensis Contoli, 1989.

  6. Notes on the taxonomy and distribution of species of the Dryopteris dilatata complex in the Caucasus, Siberia and the Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pi?ko?-Mirkowa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dryopteris dilatata complex in the Caucasus, Siberia and the Far East was studied on the herbarium material from the Komarov Institute of Botany in Leningrad. The macromorphological characters of the sporophyte as well as the morphology and colour of spores were used. It has been found that Dryopteris extremiorientalis V. Vasil., regarded as an endemic taxon for the Far East, is conspecific with Dryopteris assimilis S. Walker, and Dryopteris Alexeenkoana Fom., regarded as a West Caucasian endemic species is identical with Dryopteris dilatata (Hoffm. A. Gray, em. S. Walker. In .the paper the distribution of D. assimilis in the Asiatic part of the USSR was given.

  7. Distribution and ecology of Carex secalina in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Eliáš jun.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current and historical occurrence as well as coenotic affinity and ecology of Carex secalina in the Czech Republic and Slovakia are presented. The study is based on revision of herbarium specimens from 25 herbaria, literature data excerption and a field survey carried out during 2004-2010. Altogether, 168 sites were documented in the Czech Republic divided to two separate areas. Stabile occurrence trend was found in last decades, because 45 localities were documented in period 1975-1999 (27% of sites and recent occurrence was confirmed at 42 localities (24% of sites. On the basis of our current knowledge the species was included into the IUCN threat category VU (vulnerable. In Slovakia, 19 localities of the species were recorded in total, but only 4 sites were confirmed recently (21% of sites recorded. However, only a small number of individuals was recorded there (less than 50 individuals in total and half of this sites is acutely threatened by destruction (ploughing, secondary succession. Therefore, the C. secalina status in the Slovak Red List was changed to the IUCN category "critically endangered" (CR. Results of the study are summarised in the maps of historical and current species distribution. C. secalina usually occurred in halophytic grassland communities, especially in association Agrostio stoloniferae-Juncetum ranarii Vicherek 1962. However, it may occur in many other communities which suggest that the species had not well-defined coenotic relationships. On the basis of our knowledge, we consider C. secalina as an obligate halophyte.

  8. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of sediments, attention has seldom been paid to the problem in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to find the distribution and ecological risk of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in surface sediment of Baiyangdian which is the biggest wetland in Northeast China. We apply three methodologies. The first is literature analysis comparing total concentrations of heavy metals with other water bodies around world. The second is Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (EQSS), National Environmental Protection Agency of China 1995, and the third is Soil and Aquatic Sediment Guidelines and Standards issued by New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The results show that compared to other water bodies around the world, the seven heavy metals are low. However, Cd was found in the most polluting level of EQSS near a village and was second grade some distance from it. The village was also the most polluted site of Zn,which was in the second grade. When assessed by NYSDEC, Cu, Cr, and As contaminated the sediment and with moderate impacts on benthic life while Pb, Hg, and Zn were found at tolerable levels throughout Baiyangdian. The centre of Cu and Cr contamination was also near the village. As is the most polluting heavy metals with a major occurrence in the middle of the wetland. There were no heavy metals creating severe disturbance to the benthic communities. Based on the assessment, this article proposes different options for more sustainable management.

  9. A Distributed Model of Oilseed Biorefining, via Integrated Industrial Ecology Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Jeremy C.

    As the demand for direct petroleum substitutes increases, biorefineries are poised to become centers for conversion of biomass into fuels, energy, and biomaterials. A distributed model offers reduced transportation, tailored process technology to available feedstock, and increased local resilience. Oilseeds are capable of producing a wide variety of useful products additive to food, feed, and fuel needs. Biodiesel manufacturing technology lends itself to smaller-scale distributed facilities able to process diverse feedstocks and meet demand of critical diesel fuel for basic municipal services, safety, sanitation, infrastructure repair, and food production. Integrating biodiesel refining facilities as tenants of eco-industrial parks presents a novel approach for synergistic energy and material exchanges whereby environmental and economic metrics can be significantly improved upon compared to stand alone models. This research is based on the Catawba County NC EcoComplex and the oilseed crushing and biodiesel processing facilities (capacity-433 tons biodiesel per year) located within. Technical and environmental analyses of the biorefinery components as well as agronomic and economic models are presented. The life cycle assessment for the two optimal biodiesel feedstocks, soybeans and used cooking oil, resulted in fossil energy ratios of 7.19 and 12.1 with carbon intensity values of 12.51 gCO2-eq/MJ and 7.93 gCO2-eq/MJ, respectively within the industrial ecology system. Economic modeling resulted in a biodiesel conversion cost of 1.43 per liter of fuel produced with used cooking oil, requiring a subsidy of 0.58 per liter to reach the break-even point. As subsidies continue significant fluctuation, metrics other than operating costs are required to justify small-scale biofuel projects.

  10. Ecology and the ratchet of events: Climate variability, niche dimensions, and species distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Stephen T; Betancourt, Julio L.; Booth, Robert K.; Gray, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change in the coming centuries will be characterized by interannual, decadal, and multidecadal fluctuations superimposed on anthropogenic trends. Predicting ecological and biogeographic responses to these changes constitutes an immense challenge for ecologists. Perspectives from climatic and ecological history indicate that responses will be laden with contingencies, resulting from episodic climatic events interacting with demographic and colonization events. This effect is compounded...

  11. Ecological and spatial modeling : mapping ecosystems, landscape changes, and plant species distribution in Llanos del Orinoco, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, E.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The transformation of Llanos del Orinoco, focused on the flooding savanna, is evaluated in terms of the change and replacement of the savanna ecosystem and the plant species distribution under a Landscape Ecological approach. This research is carried out at three spatial scales: sub-continental, regional and local. At sub-continental scale, monthly composites NOAA-AVHRR normalized vegetation index (NDVI) images were interpreted based on the phenology of savanna ecosystems in the Llanos del Or...

  12. Contribution of topographically based landslide hazard modelling to the analysis of the spatial distribution and ecology of kauri

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, L. F. G.; Verburg, P. H.; Schoorl, J. M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the use of topographical attributes for the analysis of the spatial distribution and ecological cycle of kauri (Agathis australis), a canopy emergent conifer tree from northern New Zealand, is studied. Several primary and secondary topographical attributes are derived from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for a study area in the Waitakere Ranges. The contribution of these variables in explaining presence or absence of mature kauri is assessed with logistic regression and Receiver...

  13. Taxonomía y distribución del género Leptoscelis en Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Leptoscelis in Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Brailovsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa el género Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini para Costa Rica y se describe una especie nueva, L. conspicuus. Se discuten sus relaciones con L. quadrisignatus (Distant y L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin es sinonimizada con L. quadrisignatus. Se cita por primera vez L. tricolor para Costa Rica. El trabajo incluye nuevos datos de distribución para el género, ilustraciones de las especies y de los parámeros y una clave para la identificación de las especies costarricenses.The genus Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini from Costa Rica is revised. One new species, L. conspicuus, is described and compared with L. quadrisignatus (Distant and L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin is synonymized with L. quadrisignatus. Leptoscelis tricolor is recorded for the first time from Costa Rica. New distribution records are presented. Habitus illustrations and drawings of parameres are provided. A key to the known Costarican species is presented.

  14. Taxonomía y distribución del género Leptoscelis en Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini) / Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Leptoscelis in Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Harry, Brailovsky; Ernesto, Barrera.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa el género Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini) para Costa Rica y se describe una especie nueva, L. conspicuus. Se discuten sus relaciones con L. quadrisignatus (Distant) y L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin es sinonimizada con L. quadrisignatus. Se cita por pri [...] mera vez L. tricolor para Costa Rica. El trabajo incluye nuevos datos de distribución para el género, ilustraciones de las especies y de los parámeros y una clave para la identificación de las especies costarricenses. Abstract in english The genus Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini) from Costa Rica is revised. One new species, L. conspicuus, is described and compared with L. quadrisignatus (Distant) and L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin is synonymized with L. quadrisignatus. Leptoscelis tricolor is rec [...] orded for the first time from Costa Rica. New distribution records are presented. Habitus illustrations and drawings of parameres are provided. A key to the known Costarican species is presented.

  15. Ecological Relationships of Meso-Scale Distribution in 25 Neotropical Vertebrate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species (deviance explained ranging from 21.0 to 54.5%). The group and species GLMs showed some novel ecological information from this relatively pristine area. We found no association between large cats and their potential prey. We also found that rodent and bird species were more often recorded closer to streams. As hunters gain access via rivers this finding suggests that there is currently little anthropogenic impact on the species. Our findings provide a standardized baseline for comparison with other sites and with which planned management and extractive activities can be evaluated. PMID:25938582

  16. A Taxonomy for Semi-Supervised Learning Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chapelle, O.; Schoelkopf, Bernhard; Zien, A.; Seeger, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    We propose a simple taxonomy of probabilistic graphical models for the semi-supervised learning problem. We give some broad classes of algorithms for each of the families and point to specific realizations in the literature. Finally, we shed more detailed light on the family of methods using input-dependent regularization (or conditional prior distributions) and show parallels to the Co-training paradigm.

  17. Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta) en la Laguna dos Patos, sur del Brasil: Taxonomía y distribución / Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta) in Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil: Taxonomy and distribution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lezilda, Carvalho Torgan; Vanessa, Becker; Cristiane, Bahi dos Santos.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo analizamos las características morfológicas de la diatomea céntrica Skeletonema potamos (Weber) Hasle de la Laguna dos Patos, sur del Brasil, usando microscopia de luz y electrónica de barrido. Discutimos la abundancia y la distribución de la población a lo largo del gradiente [...] de salinidad en la laguna. Las muestras de la superficie del agua fueron recogidas mensualmente en ocho estaciones a lo largo del eje longitudinal de la laguna, en el periodo de diciembre 1987 a diciembre 1988. Las muestras fueron contadas por el método de Utermöhl, y la densidad (cels.mL-1) estimada en base de las células vivas. La morfología de los individuos concuerda con la especie-tipo del río Little Miami, localizado en Ohio, USA, a excepción de la convexidad y del patrón de gránulos en la cara valvar. Skeletonema potamos fue encontrada en el invierno y primavera, y distribuida en las zonas limnéticas, oligohalina y mesohalina de la laguna. La densidad de la población presenta una correlación negativa significativa con la salinidad. La luz y la competencia probablemente también influencian el desarrollo de las poblaciones de la especie S. potamos en la Laguna dos Patos. Abstract in english We analyzed the morphogical features of the centric diatom Skeletonema potamos (Weber) Hasle from Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the abundance and distribution of the species along the salinity gradient in the lagoon. Samples from the water su [...] rface were taken monthly at eight stations along the longitudinal axis of the lagoon, from December 1987 to December 1988. The species were counted by the Utermöhl method, and the density (cells.mL-1) was estimated based on live cells. The morphology of the specimens agrees with the type, from the Little Miami River, Ohio, U.S.A., except for the convexity and the pattern of granules on the valve face. Skeletonema potamos was found in the winter and spring, and was distributed in the limnetic, oligohaline and mesohaline zones of the lagoon. The cell concentration appeared to be controlled by the salinity, with a significant negative correlation observed. Light and competition probably also influence the development of S. potamos populations in the Patos Lagoon.

  18. Current status of viroid taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

    2014-12-01

    Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids. PMID:25216773

  19. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  20. Taxonomia e distribuição de Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta) / Taxonomy and distribution of Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cid José Passos, Bastos.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans é uma espécie sul americana, ocorrendo nas Florestas Amazônica e Atlântica. Caracteriza-se, principalmente, pela presença do segundo e primeiro dentes do lóbulo contíguos um ao outro e ausência de inovações. Entre as espécies neotropicais, C. aneogyna é a ún [...] ica que pode apresentar ocelos, porém, a presença destes não é constante. Descrição, ilustração, comentários sobre a morfologia e distribuição geográfica são fornecidos e discutidos. Está sendo referida pela primeira vez para a Bolívia. Abstract in english Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce) A. Evans is a South American species found in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. It is characterized mainly by the presence of the first and second teeth of the lobule that are adjacent to each other and the lack of innovations. Among the neotropical species, C. aneogyn [...] a is the only one that has ocelli; however, their presence is not constant. A description, illustration, and comments on the morphology and geographic distribution are provided. This species is reported for the first time for Bolivia.

  1. Evaluating a medical error taxonomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Brixey, Juliana; Johnson, Todd R; Zhang, Jiajie

    2002-01-01

    Healthcare has been slow in using human factors principles to reduce medical errors. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) recognizes that a lack of attention to human factors during product development may lead to errors that have the potential for patient injury, or even death. In response to the need for reducing medication errors, the National Coordinating Council for Medication Errors Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) released the NCC MERP taxonomy that provides a stand...

  2. Geometric Representations of Language Taxonomies

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Ph.; Petroni, F.; Serva, M; D.Volchenkov

    2011-01-01

    A Markov chain analysis of a network generated by the matrix of lexical distances allows for representing complex relationships between different languages in a language family geometrically, in terms of distances and angles. The fully automated method for construction of language taxonomy is tested on a sample of fifty languages of the IndoEuropean language group and applied to a sample of fifty languages of the Austronesian language group. The Anatolian and Kurgan hypotheses of the Indo-Eur...

  3. ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² and Rajendra Yonzone³

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T. angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Tainia species in the regions.

  4. LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORAL TAXONOMIES IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Ahmed Mangi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended to recognize and replicate the Yukl’s (1989-2004 behavioral taxonomies in the university settings in Sindh. A comprehensive questionnaire based on the items in taxonomies was developed, face validity of the questionnaire was test and found suitable. A total of 90 university Deans and head of Departments were randomly selected from public and private universities of Sindh. Categorical reliability of the data was checked and found highly reliable. The majority of the respondents were male, post graduate, above 50 years of age, married and had more than 15 years of experience. The statistical analysis describes the typical Sindhi culture among the respondents. A large number of university leadership focused on the relation as compared to task and change at the universities. This research also supports partial replication of three dimensions i.e., Relation, Task and Change as Yukl’s behavioral taxonomies with first order factor analysis. Relation factor was replicated completely, while other two were replicated in two different facets each i.e., Change was replicated in two facets – Improvement and Process and Task was also replicated in two facets – Improvement and Process. Making a second order factor analysis assured these two factors were replicated completely.

  5. Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the viewpoint of green space function and a great part of the role of urban green space is undertaken by private green spaces. “What effect do private greeneries located in residential areas have on the quality of citizens’ life or what kind of reality is asserted by their development and distribution pattern in the urban life of today’s modern society” were issues of less attention. Thus, considering the interconnection of green space production and distribution pattern (public and private with the rest of natural, social, economic and fabric conditions, the present research benefits from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a dependent variable which has been influenced by ecological, social, fabric and economic variables and has analyzed them to identify effective factors in Tehran inequality urban green space. The present article theoretically makes use of urban political ecology approach and is considered a correlational research. The required data have been prepared and analyzed by some types of software such as ArcGIS, ArcView, IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine, and SPSS. In conducting this research some techniques have been used such as; “Average Distance to Nearest Neighbor”, “Square Analysis”, “Correlational Analysis and Factor Analysis”. 2-Theoretical basis The present study is theoretically based on an urban political ecology approach. Urban components including green space from urban political ecological perspective are considered a kind of social production whose imagination and change are influenced by political economy, dominant pattern of public and private ownership in society (Heynen, Perkins and Roy, 2006: 3. The aforementioned perspective clearly states that urban material conditions which includes urban environment too are controlled and manipulated by the elite and city experts to serve their interests. This issue is conducive to make some of the urban social groups marginalized and deprived from natural riches and urban environmental artifacts. As a result, the quality of urban environment (physically and socially increases in some neighborhoods and decreases in others (Heynen, Kaika and Swyngedouw, 2006: 1-15. Since unequal greenery distribution with creating imbalanced ecological conditions often plays its role in a feedback cycle on environment quality and intensification of inequalities within urban life environment, the present study uses pattern of canopy distribution located in areas of residential uses (private and public to reveal social, economic and spatial inequalities in Tehran. 3- DiscussionThe results of this research in relation to Tehran city confirm the determining position of urban political ecology in forming distribution pattern and density of trees canopy located in areas of Tehran. This is a subject which is confirmed by studies conducted on urban green space (including public and private in the cities such as San Diego, Toronto (by Perkins, Heynen and Wilson 2004, Scobedo and colleagues 2005, Heynen, Perkins and Roy 2006 and Conway, Shakeel and Atallah 2011. Also, so far many researchers on the urban issues of Tehran city (such as Madanipoor 2005, Horkad 2009 have emphasized the conformity of natural topography over social topography in Tehran. The result f this attempt, while confirming aforementioned perspectives, indicated that the distribution pattern of canopy density in residential areas(private urban green space has a greater capability to portray social classifications and environmental quality and as a result spatial inequalities in Tehran city du

  6. Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia : Anura : Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.

  7. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

  9. Particulate organic matter distribution along the lower Amazon River: addressing aquatic ecology concepts using fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Rigal, François; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Bernardes, Marcelo; Abril, Gwenaël; Meziane, Tarik

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in understanding the Amazon basin functioning is to ascertain the role played by floodplains in the organic matter (OM) cycle, crucial for a large spectrum of ecological mechanisms. Fatty acids (FAs) were combined with environmental descriptors and analyzed through multivariate and spatial tools (asymmetric eigenvector maps, AEM and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM). This challenge allowed investigating the distribution of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), in order to trace its seasonal origin and quality, along a 800 km section of the Amazon river-floodplain system. Statistical analysis confirmed that large amounts of saturated FAs (15:0, 18:0, 24:0, 25:0 and 26:0), an indication of refractory OM, were concomitantly recorded with high pCO(2) in rivers, during the high water season (HW). Contrastingly, FAs marker which may be attributed in this ecosystem to aquatic plants (18:2?6 and 18:3?3) and cyanobacteria (16:1?7), were correlated with higher O(2), chlorophyll a and pheopigments in floodplains, due to a high primary production during low waters (LW). Decreasing concentrations of unsaturated FAs, that characterize labile OM, were recorded during HW, from upstream to downstream. Furthermore, using PCNM and AEM spatial methods, FAs compositions of SPOM displayed an upstream-downstream gradient during HW, which was attributed to OM retention and the extent of flooded forest in floodplains. Discrimination of OM quality between the Amazon River and floodplains corroborate higher autotrophic production in the latter and transfer of OM to rivers at LW season. Together, these gradients demonstrate the validity of FAs as predictors of spatial and temporal changes in OM quality. These spatial and temporal trends are explained by 1) downstream change in landscape morphology as predicted by the River Continuum Concept; 2) enhanced primary production during LW when the water level decreased and its residence time increased as predicted by the Flood Pulse Concept. PMID:23029412

  10. TAXONOMÍA Y DISTRIBUCIÓN DE DIATOMEAS EPILÍTICAS REGISTRADAS POR PRIMERA VEZ EN COLOMBIA. I / Taxonomy and distribution of epilithic diatoms reported for the first time in Colombia. I

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SILVIA ESTELA, SALA; AMELIA ALEJANDRA, VOUILLOUD; YASMIN, PLATA-DÍAZ; EDNA, PEDRAZA; ASTRID, PIMIENTA.

    2015-06-30

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en el marco del proyecto para elaborar un índice de calidad biológica para ríos de zonas bajas y de piedemonte del país basado en comunidades biológicas acuáticas, desarrollado en el Laboratorio de Biotecnología del Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, cuyo objetivo [...] es evaluar la calidad ecológica de los ríos de tierras bajas y de piedemonte dentro del área de influencia de Ecopetrol, a través de la implementación de un índice de calidad biológica utilizando diatomeas. Las 165 muestras analizadas hasta el momento provienen de muestras de perifiton de 83 sistemas lóticos de distintas regiones del país, de donde también se obtuvo información sobre temperatura del agua, pH, conductividad y oxígeno disuelto. El material fue estudiado con microscopio óptico y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Aquí reunimos 11 taxones de los cuales Achnanthidium macrocephalum(Hustedt) Round & Bukhtiyarova, Cymbopleura zimmermannii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Chamaepinnularia brasiliana Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Ch. brasilianopsis Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Planothidium lagerheimii (Cleve) Wetzel & Ector, Eunotioforma curvula (Hustedt) Kociolek & Burliga, Gomphonema archaevibrio fo. cuneatum Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg, Nitzschia clausii Hantzsch y N. filiformis var. conferta (Richter) Lange-Bertalot se mencionan por primera vez para Colombia. Este es el primer registro del género Eunotioforma Kociolek & Burliga y por primera vez se describe e ilustra el género Chamaepinnularia Lange-Bertalot para el país. Además, analizamos la ultraestructura de Nitzschia dissipata(Kützing) Grunow, ya mencionada para el país pero solo analizada con MO. A pesar de ser esta especie considerada cosmopolita citada en las floras de diferentes regiones del mundo, ha sido frecuentemente mal identificada, por lo que este análisis nos permitió confirmar la identidad de los materiales colombianos. Abstract in english This work was carried under the project for developing a biological water quality index for rivers of lowland waters of Colombia based on aquatic biological communities. A total of 165 sites were sampled considering the hidrogeomorphological variability among the studied rivers. In all sites, periph [...] yton samples were collected by brushing rocks and then fixed with formalin 8%. The following information was also recorded: water temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Biological samples were analyzed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Here we discussed the following 11 taxa recorded for the first time to Colombia: Achnanthidium macrocephalum(Hustedt) Round & Bukhtiyarova, Cymbopleura zimmermannii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Chamaepinnularia brasiliana Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Ch. brasilianopsis Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Planothidium lagerheimii (Cleve) Wetzel & Ector, Eunotioforma curvula (Hustedt) Kociolek & Burliga, Gomphonema archaevibrio fo. cuneatum Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg, Nitzschia clausii Hantzsch and N. filiformis var. conferta (Richter) Lange-Bertalot. The genera Eunotioforma Kociolek & Burliga and Chamaepinnularia Lange-Bertalot are newly recorded for the country. We also analyzed the ultrastructure of Nitzschia dissipata (Kützing) Grunow already reported for the country but only studied with LM. Despite of being a species of cosmopolitan distribution, frequently cited in floras of different regions of the world, it is frequently misidentified so this analysis allowed us to confirm the identity of Colombian specimens.

  11. Ecology and the ratchet of events: Climate variability, niche dimensions, and species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S.T.; Betancourt, J.L.; Booth, R.K.; Gray, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change in the coming centuries will be characterized by interannual, decadal, and multidecadal fluctuations superimposed on anthropogenic trends. Predicting ecological and biogeographic responses to these changes constitutes an immense challenge for ecologists. Perspectives from climatic and ecological history indicate that responses will be laden with contingencies, resulting from episodic climatic events interacting with demographic and colonization events. This effect is compounded by the dependency of environmental sensitivity upon life-stage for many species. Climate variables often used in empirical niche models may become decoupled from the proximal variables that directly influence individuals and populations. Greater predictive capacity, and morefundamental ecological and biogeographic understanding, will come from integration of correlational niche modeling with mechanistic niche modeling, dynamic ecological modeling, targeted experiments, and systematic observations of past and present patterns and dynamics.

  12. Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta) do curso inferior do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil: taxonomia e distribuição temporal / Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta) from the lower course of Negro river (Amazon, Brazil): taxonomy and temporal distribution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andreia Cavalcante, Pereira; Lezilda Carvalho, Torgan; Sérgio, Melo.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relata a taxonomia e distribuição temporal do gênero Pinnularia ocorrente no curso inferior do rio Negro (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W) ao longo de um ciclo anual. O trabalho foi conduzido a partir da análise de amostras coletadas na coluna d'água, em escala mensal, entre os meses de outu [...] bro de 2002 a setembro de 2003. As espécies foram descritas e comentadas com base na sua morfologia e morfometria. Onze espécies e quatro variedades foram identificadas, ilustradas e incluídas em chave taxonômica. Dois táxons registrados neste estudo, P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot e P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer, constituem primeira citação de ocorrência para o rio Negro. Temporalmente, a maior riqueza de espécies ocorreu entre os meses de outubro a dezembro de 2002, período de águas baixas, quando houve provavelmente maior interação entre água e sedimento possibilitando aporte de indivíduos da região bentônica. Considerando a ocorrência dos táxons ao longo do estudo, somente P. confirma foi considerada frequente, estando presente em mais de 50% das amostras analisadas. Abstract in english This study reports the taxonomy and temporal distribution of the Pinnularia genus occurring in the lower course Negro river (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W) along an annual cycle. Samples were collected in the water column monthly, from October 2002 to September 2003. The species were described and com [...] mented based on their morphology and morphometry. Eleven species and four varieties are registered, illustrated and incorporated in a taxonomic key. P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot and P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer are the first references to Negro river. Temporally, the highest species richness occurred from October and December 2002, low water period, when happened more interaction between water and sediment, and the contribution of the benthos individuals. On base in taxa occurrence during this study, only P. confirma was frequently, with occurrence in more than 50% of sample analyzed.

  13. MURCIÉLAGOS DE UN BOSQUE EN LOS ANDES CENTRALES DE COLOMBIA CON NOTAS SOBRE SU TAXONOMÍA Y DISTRIBUCIÓN / Bats from a forest in the Central Andes of Colombia with notes on their taxonomy and distribution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MIGUEL E., RODRÍGUEZ-POSADA.

    2010-06-30

    Full Text Available Se presenta la diversidad de murciélagos registrados en un inventario rápido en tres estaciones entre los 2500 y los 3500 m de altitud, sobre la vertiente occidental de la cordillera Central de los Andes colombianos, en el departamento de Caldas. El gradiente de distribución de Anoura aequatoris es [...] ampliado hacia el norte y se sugiere su presencia en otras localidades más septentrionales de la cordillera Central y la Cordillera Oriental. Sturnira aratathomasi, S. erythromos y S. ludovici, fueron capturadas en simpatría mientras que Histiotus montanus e H. humboldti se registraron en estaciones diferentes. Myotis keaysi presentó el gradiente altitudinal más amplio, mientras Carollia brevicauda estuvo restringida a la estación de menor altitud. Los géneros Anoura, Sturnira e Histiotus presentan un patrón de sucesión o reemplazo altitudinal de especies. Considerando la confusión en la identificación de las especies registradas, se presentan comentarios sobre la diferenciación entre ellas y recomendaciones para estudios futuros sobre su taxonomía y distribución. La certeza taxonómica es importante para conocer el estado real de las poblaciones colombianas de murciélagos e identificar patrones básicos para interpretar procesos importantes dentro de los ecosistemas y su estado de conservación. Por el contrario, la información errada, puede implicar consecuencias inmensurables cuando es utilizada y los errores replicados. Abstract in english This paper reports the bat diversity found in a rapid assessment inventory in three stations between 2500 and 3500 masl, along the western slopes of the cordillera Central of Colombia (Departmento of Caldas). The distributional range of Anoura aequatoris is expanded northwards and its presence in mo [...] re western localities of the the cordillera Central and the Oriental is suggested. Sturnira aratathomasi, S. erythromos and S. ludovici were captured in sympatry while Histiotus montanus and H. humboldti were recorded in different stations. Myotis keaysi showed the broadest altitudinal range, while Carollia brevicauda was only found in the station at lowest elevation. The genera Anoura, Sturnira and Histiotus have a pattern of altitudinal succession or replacement of species. Considering the difficulty to identify the recorded species, comments on their taxonomy and recommendations for future studies are included. Taxonomic accuracy is important to know the real status of the Colombian populations of bats and to identify basic biological patterns that allow us to interpret processes within ecosystems and their conservation status; using wrong information and repeating mistakes might bring immeasurable consequences.

  14. Description of a new species of the genus Leporinus Spix (Characiformes: Anostomidae from the rio Araguaia, Brazil, with comments on the taxonomy and distribution of L. parae and L. lacustris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo A. Britski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Leporinus is described from the rio Araguaia, in Mato Grosso and Goiás states, Brazil. The new species has the dental formula 4/3, a unique feature within the genus; all other species of Leporinus have dental formulae 3/3, 3/4 or 4/4. In addition, the new species can also be distinguished by the following combination of characters: 36 to 37 scales in the lateral line, 4/4.5 or 4/5 series of scales in the transversal line, 16 circumpeduncular scale series, anal fin surpassing base of lower caudal-fin rays and three blotches along the lateral line. The new species shares with L. parae and L. lacustris a rather deep body, terminal mouth, long anal fin, three small dark blotches on the lateral line, the latter two, particularly the last one, usually fading, and preference for lentic habitats. Comments on the taxonomy and distribution of the species L. parae and L. lacustris are provided.Uma nova espécie do gênero Leporinus é descrita do rio Araguaia, nos estados do Mato Grosso e Goiás, Brasil. A característica mais notável da nova espécie é sua fórmula dental 4/3, única entre as espécies do gênero que possuem fórmula dental 3/3, 3/4 ou 4/4. A nova espécie também pode ser reconhecida pela combinação das seguintes características: 36 a 37 escamas na linha lateral, 4/4,5 ou 4/5 séries de escamas na linha transversal, 16 series de escamas circumpedunculares, nadadeira anal ultrapassando a base dos raios inferiores da nadadeira caudal e presença de três manchas escuras ao longo da linha lateral. A nova espécie compartilha com L. parae e L. lacustris corpo alto, boca terminal, nadadeira anal longa e escura, três manchas escuras na linha lateral pequenas, sendo as duas últimas, em especial a última, geralmente apagadas, e preferência por habitats lênticos. Além disso, são feitos comentários sobre a taxonomia e a distribuição de L. parae e L. lacustris.

  15. Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta do curso inferior do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil: taxonomia e distribuição temporal Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta from the lower course of Negro river (Amazon, Brazil: taxonomy and temporal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Cavalcante Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relata a taxonomia e distribuição temporal do gênero Pinnularia ocorrente no curso inferior do rio Negro (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W ao longo de um ciclo anual. O trabalho foi conduzido a partir da análise de amostras coletadas na coluna d'água, em escala mensal, entre os meses de outubro de 2002 a setembro de 2003. As espécies foram descritas e comentadas com base na sua morfologia e morfometria. Onze espécies e quatro variedades foram identificadas, ilustradas e incluídas em chave taxonômica. Dois táxons registrados neste estudo, P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot e P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer, constituem primeira citação de ocorrência para o rio Negro. Temporalmente, a maior riqueza de espécies ocorreu entre os meses de outubro a dezembro de 2002, período de águas baixas, quando houve provavelmente maior interação entre água e sedimento possibilitando aporte de indivíduos da região bentônica. Considerando a ocorrência dos táxons ao longo do estudo, somente P. confirma foi considerada frequente, estando presente em mais de 50% das amostras analisadas.This study reports the taxonomy and temporal distribution of the Pinnularia genus occurring in the lower course Negro river (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W along an annual cycle. Samples were collected in the water column monthly, from October 2002 to September 2003. The species were described and commented based on their morphology and morphometry. Eleven species and four varieties are registered, illustrated and incorporated in a taxonomic key. P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot and P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer are the first references to Negro river. Temporally, the highest species richness occurred from October and December 2002, low water period, when happened more interaction between water and sediment, and the contribution of the benthos individuals. On base in taxa occurrence during this study, only P. confirma was frequently, with occurrence in more than 50% of sample analyzed.

  16. A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

  17. [Taxonomy and typology: are they really synonymous?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgès Da Silva, Roxane

    2013-01-01

    Typology and taxonomy constructions are increasingly used as a method of analysis in health services and public health research. Although taxonomy and typology have different definitions in the dictionary, these terms are often used synonymously. The objective of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework derived from organizational theory in which the concepts of taxonomy and typology are clearly defined. The configurational approach emerged in the 1980s. It is designed to analyse the elements constituting an entity under study as a whole and not in isolation. In this approach, conceptually developed configurations are defined as typologies, while empirically derived configurations are defined as taxonomies. Based on this theoretical framework, taxonomies are used much more often than typologies in the scientific literature in the field of public health. Taxonomies can process large sets of multidimensional variables by generating relatively homogeneous groups that take into account interactions between variables. Taxonomies are usually built from classification methods or factor analyses combined with a classification. In conclusion, this paper proposes a theoretical framework to differentiate typologies from taxonomies to provide public health stakeholders with a common language in relation to classifications. This article provides the basis for discussion of theoretical frameworks underlying the definition of these concepts. PMID:24418426

  18. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  19. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  20. Testate Amoebae Examined by Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Implications for Taxonomy and Ecophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Burdi?kova?, Zuzana; C?apek, Martin; Ostas?ov, Pavel; Machac?, Jir?i?; Pelc, Radek; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Kubi?nova?, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Testate amoebae (TA) are a group of free-living protozoa, important in ecology and paleoecology. Testate amoebae taxonomy is mainly based on the morphological features of the shell, as examined by means of light microscopy or (environmental) scanning electron microscopy (SEM/ESEM). We explored the potential applications of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), two photon excitation microscopy (TPEM), phase contrast, differential interference contrast (DIC Nomarski), and polarization micr...

  1. Download - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search ... Image Search ... Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... descriptions of the data. # Data name File Simple search ... and download 1 README README_e.html - 2 Taxonomy I ... con Data taxonomy_icon_en.zip (14.1 KB) Simple search ... and download 3 Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) t ...

  2. Distribution and Occurrence of Mango Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz and Sacc in Humid Agro-ecology of Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayantu Tucho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is grown in different agro-ecologies of Ethiopia and its production and productivity is limited by several biotic and abiotic factors. Mango anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is considered as the most important mango disease in the country that contribute significantly to pre and post harvest fruit losses. However, the distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose both in the field and at market in mango producing areas of southwestern Ethiopia is not yet documented. In this study, distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose in three potential mango producing districts and one urban area in Jimma region, SW Ethiopia were assessed. At the same time knowledge and attitude of farmers against mango anthracnose was also assessed. The results showed that mango anthracnose was 100% prevalent in the study area. Anthracnose incidence and severity varied across farmer’s field and market places. The disease incidence under farmer’s fields ranged from 41-72.1% on leaf and from 36.2-74% on fruit. We found higher (95.3 vs. 82% and lower (70.7 vs. 64% incidence and severity in the market, respectively. The disease was more severe in the market place than in the farmer’s fields. It was confirmed that the identified fungus was C. gloeosporioides. So, for better understanding of the prevalence and distribution of this disease and to design appropriate management options, similar assessments across different mango growing agro-ecologies and along mango value chain is crucial.

  3. Distribution, source, and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the Hun River, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyang; He, Lixiong; Lu, Yingzhuan; Su, Jiao; Song, Han; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the occurrence and distribution of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), listed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), were investigated in surface sediment samples from the Hun River, northeast China. The data was then used to assess the potential ecological risk. The results indicated 15 PAHs were detected in these sediments, and the total concentrations of the 15 PAHs (not including naphthalene) ranged from 82.96 to 39,292.95 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), with an average value of 3705.54 ng g(-1) dw, and 4-ring PAHs were the dominant compounds at most sites. The diagnostic parameters such as anthracene/(anthracene?+?phenanthrene), fluoranthene/(fluoranthene?+?pyrene), and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene/(indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene?+?benzo[g,h,i]perylene) showed that they had been emitted from a number of different sources, especially the pyrolytic emissions. The results of the ecological risk assessment, which compared the PAH concentrations with the effect range low (ERL) and the effect range median (ERM) values, indicated that several individual PAH concentrations at four sites in the downstream section of the Hun River were higher than the ERM, suggesting that there was a potential ecological risk in these areas. PMID:25906922

  4. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. Final report, 1 September 1988--30 June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

  5. Investigations of some elements distribution in dental tissues by INAA as a function of ecological and some other parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of some elements (Hg, Zn, Sb, Co and Sc) in dental tissues (enamel, dentine, pulp) has been investiaated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Teeth samples were taken from patients living in different regions (mine and mineralized areas, plain), taking into account the following parameters: ecological conditions, age of patients, stomatological operations and use of local cosmetic preparations containig mercury. Samples of vegetation (beech, moss, pine) from two locations belonging to regions of mineralized areas also were analyzed. Results of our investigations are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Selenium Distribution and Speciation in the Hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus and Associated Ecological Partners1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Barillas, José R.; Quinn, Colin F.; Freeman, John L.; Lindblom, Stormy D.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilligan, Todd M.; Alford, Élan R.; Wangeline, Ami L.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate how plant selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation may affect ecological interactions and whether associated partners may affect Se hyperaccumulation. The Se hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus was collected in its natural seleniferous habitat, and x-ray fluorescence mapping and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy were used to characterize Se distribution and speciation in all organs as well as in encountered microbial symbionts and herbivores. Se was present at high levels (704–4,661 mg kg?1 dry weight) in all organs, mainly as organic C-Se-C compounds (i.e. Se bonded to two carbon atoms, e.g. methylselenocysteine). In nodule, root, and stem, up to 34% of Se was found as elemental Se, which was potentially due to microbial activity. In addition to a nitrogen-fixing symbiont, the plants harbored an endophytic fungus that produced elemental Se. Furthermore, two Se-resistant herbivorous moths were discovered on A. bisulcatus, one of which was parasitized by a wasp. Adult moths, larvae, and wasps all accumulated predominantly C-Se-C compounds. In conclusion, hyperaccumulators live in association with a variety of Se-resistant ecological partners. Among these partners, microbial endosymbionts may affect Se speciation in hyperaccumulators. Hyperaccumulators have been shown earlier to negatively affect Se-sensitive ecological partners while apparently offering a niche for Se-resistant partners. Through their positive and negative effects on different ecological partners, hyperaccumulators may influence species composition and Se cycling in seleniferous ecosystems. PMID:22645068

  7. Tephritid taxonomy into the 21st century - Research opportunities and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We write with the firm conviction that taxonomic research forms the essential foundation for all other areas of investigation within the field of biology. This has been well demonstrated in the Tephritidae and is a position at which we have arrived through many years' experience in fruit fly systematic research covering taxonomy, behaviour, biology, ecology and pest control. The importance of sound taxonomic research is highlighted at this time by the known presence of many sibling species complexes across the family. Within the Dacinae, for example, major pest species often occur within groups of closely related species, most of which are not pests. The dorsalis complex of Southeast Asia and the musae complex of Papua New Guinea are examples. Tephritid taxonomy has a long history (over two centuries) and rich heritage with some 4,500 species having been described since the mid-1700s. This research has been carried out in major research centres around the world and particularly in Australia, Europe, Hawaii, mainland USA and South Africa. In Mexico in February 1998, a significant meeting was held on the biology/behaviour and taxonomy of Tephritidae. Specialist researchers in this area presented valuable and interesting data on 'Phylogeny and Evolution of Behaviour' in fruit flies. In summarising current knowledge on the taxonomy and biology of the Tephritidae, the meeting highlighted the outstanding achievements of taxonomy in its contributions to both basic research aits contributions to both basic research and pest management programmes over many decades of tephritid studies world-wide. This presentation provides a link between the meetings in Mexico and Penang and enables us to present a summary of our current knowledge and genuine valuable applications of tephritid taxonomy to the overall fruit fly research and pest management effort. In doing this, this presentation also fits into the theme of this conference in Penang, 'Fruit Flies- current global scenario'

  8. Inventorying of the tree fern Genus Cibotium of Sumatra: Ecology, population size and distribution in North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITIEN NGATINEM PRAPTOSUWIRYO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Praptosuwiryo TNg, Pribadi DO, Puspitaningtyas DM, Hartini S (2011 Inventorying the tree fern Genus Cibotium of Sumatra: Ecology, population size and distribution in North Sumatra. Biodiversitas 12: 204-211. Cibotium is one tree fern belongs to the family Cibotiaceae which is easily differentiated from the other genus by the long slender golden yellowish-brown smooth hairs covered its rhizome and basal stipe with marginal sori at the ends of veins protected by two indusia forming a small cup round the receptacle of the sorus. It has been recognized as material for both traditional and modern medicines in China, Europe, Japan and Southeast Asia. Population of Cibotium species in several countries have decreased rapidly because of over exploitation and there is no artificial cultivation until now. The aims of this study were: (i To re-inventory the species of Cibotiun in North Sumatra, (ii to record the ecology and distribution of each species, and (iii to assess the population size of each species. Field study was carried out by using random search with belt transect. Two species were recorded, namely C. arachnoideum dan C. barometz. The geographical distribution of the two species in North Sumatra are presented. Cibotium is commonly growing terrestrially on opened or rather opened areas in secondary forets and primary forest at hills or lower mountains with a relatively high humidity at 30-90º slopes. C. arachnoideum has a strict distribution and only found at 1740-1770 m a.s.l. in primary forest, whereas C. barometz has a broad distribution in secondary forest at elevation range from 650-1200 m.

  9. Application of RAPD Technique in Insect Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Guang-jing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional insect taxonomy was the main way of insect classification, which classified the insects by morphology. However, morphological classification has significant limitations at lower taxonomic levels because it is diffeicult to confirm its taxonomy boundaries. The definition of the taxonomic boundaries at lower level relies on environmental and subjective factors. In recent years, the development in the technology of molecular biology and traditional taxonomy has provided broad prospect for insect taxonomy. This paper summarizes the basic technology of random amplification of polymorphic DNA(RAPD teachnology, analyzes the advantages of RAPD, simple and rapid, low cost, high sensitivity, not high demand for purity of template and fully reflect polymorphism of the template. Meanwhile, the shortages of this technology, such as poor stability and reproducibility, can not distinguish homozygote from heterozygote and has the problem of co-migrating and so on. Also in this paper, the applications of RAPD in classification and identification and phylogeny analysis of homoptera?blattariae?diptera?lepidoptera?orthoptera?coleoptera in recent years are expatiated. In addition, RAPD extends the application range of molecular biological techniques in the study of insect taxonomy. Moreover, RAPD are successfully applied to the study of insect taxonomy. All this signfificantly improves the study level of insect taxonomy, and will have more expansive application foreground with the increasing development of related technology means.

  10. Peruvian Children's Folk Taxonomy of Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pizarro-Neyra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free listing was used to obtain names of marine animals from 234 Peruvian children with families involved in fishing activities. They live in the fishing towns of Vila-vila, Morro Sama and Ilo, located in Southern Peru. Fishes, birds and the category “other marine animal” were used for the classification of marine fauna by children. The group of 6-8 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 19.7 names per child, while the group of 9-11 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 25.7 names per child. Folk species of fish is the most frequently recorded category with a predominance of coastal species and with a mean frequency of 7.56 and 11.51 names per child for the groups of 6-8 year-olds and 9-11 year-olds, respectively. In contrast, bird names are less frequently recorded in the lists. Some bird and mollusc names have lexical under-differentiation at a generic level and apparently have lower cultural significance than fish. Children’s classification in different levels of organization is evidence of a folk biology. The folk taxonomy of marine animals could be influenced by the lesser cognitive development of younger children and the ecological salience of some species. Some species with coastal habitat exhibit a high dominance index of folk names. Cultural transmission of knowledge about birds could be failing due to the recent occupancy of the study sites by migratory people and the sexual division of work in the children’s families.

  11. TAXONOMY DEVELOPMENT IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS: DEVELOPING A TAXONOMY OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nickerson, Robert; Muntermann, Jan; Varshney, Upkar; Isaac, Henri

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of the information systems field often lends itself to classification schemes, or taxonomies, which provide ways to understand the similarities and differences among objects under study. Developing a taxonomy, however, is a complex process that is often done in an ad hoc way. This research-in-progress paper uses the design science paradigm to develop a systematic method for taxonomy development in information systems. The method we propose uses an indicator or operational level...

  12. Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: An example for plants exposed to nickel in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the 'free' nickel (Ni2+) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account. - The use of bioavailability toxicity data can improve species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA)

  13. ASPECTOS ECOLÓGICOS Y DISTRIBUCION GEOGRÁFICA DE CARRANGENOPHYTAS / CARRAGENOPHYTAS ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARGARITA DEL R., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ; RAÚL A., SALAZAR SÁNCHEZ.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies carragenófitas están definidas como macroalgas miembro del Phylum Rodophyta, Clase Rodophyceae, Subclase Florideophycidae, Orden Gigartinales. Las especies de mayor importancia comercial a nivel internacional son de los géneros Betaphycus, Eucheuma y Kappaphycus; y a nivel nacional espe [...] cies de los géneros Gigartina, Mazzaella y Sarcothalia. Debido a su importancia comercial, el género Gigartina, ha sido objeto de investigaciones como: Ecología de las poblaciones de las costas estuarinas y abiertas de la especie del noreste del Atlántico; ha sido investigado por Mathieson y Tveter (1976) con relación a las cantidades y calidad de su carragenina. Estudios de las respuestas a fotoperíodos (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) han identificado "ventanas" reproductivas, sugiriendo que las explicaciones de multiplicación vegetativa son cada vez más exclusivas, a diferencia de la producción y gametangial o tetrasporangial, en las poblaciones de las altas latitudes de una especie europea generalizada. La determinación genética de los patrones de ramificación y límites de tolerancia a la temperatura se han establecido para varias especies de (Guiry et al., 1987.; Buschmann, 2001). La viabilidad del cultivo de especies en sustratos artificiales ha sido evaluada por Mumford y Waaland (1980), y demostró tener potencial comercial. Este género tiene distribución en todo el mundo en mares templados a fríos, sin embargo, muy pocas especies ocurren en las regiones subtropicales. Los centros de diversidad de especies particularmente rica son California, Japón, Nueva Zelanda, Chile y Sudáfrica (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011). Abstract in english The carragenophytas species are defined as macro-algae, members of the Phylum Rodophyta, Rodophyceae Class, Florideophycidae Subclass, Gigartinales Order. The most important commercial species at the international level are the Betaphycus, Eucheuma and Kappaphycus genera and at the national level th [...] e species belonging to the Gigartina, Mazzaella and Sarcothalia genera. Because of its commercial importance, the Gigartina genus has been the object of investigations such as: Ecology of populations in estuaries and open coast in the North-East Atlantic species; it has been studied by Mathieson and Tveter (1976) in relation with its carragenine quantity and quality. Studies about the response to photoperiods (Guiry, 1984; Guiry et al., 1984) have identified reproductive "windows" suggesting that the explanations for vegetative multiplication are more exclusive each time, different from gametangial or tetra-sporangial production in populations of high latitudes from a generalized European species. Genetic determination of ramification patterns and tolerance limits to temperature has been established for several species (Guiry et al., 1987; Buschmann, 2001). Species cultivation viability in artificial substrates has been evaluated by Mumford y Waaland (1980), and it showed commercial potential. This genus has distribution worldwide in warm and cold seas. However, very few species happen in subtropical regions. The particularly rich species biodiversity centers are California, Japan, New Zealand, Chile y South Africa (Guiry, M.D & Guiry, G.M. 2011).

  14. Evaluating a Bayesian approach to improve accuracy of individual photographic identification methods using ecological distribution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stafford

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Photographic identification of individual organisms can be possible from natural body markings. Data from photo-ID can be used to estimate important ecological and conservation metrics such as population sizes, home ranges or territories. However, poor quality photographs or less well-studied individuals can result in a non-unique ID, potentially confounding several similar looking individuals. Here we present a Bayesian approach that uses known data about previous sightings of individuals at specific sites as priors to help assess the problems of obtaining a non-unique ID. Using a simulation of individuals with different confidence of correct ID we evaluate the accuracy of Bayesian modified (posterior probabilities. However, in most cases, the accuracy of identification decreases. Although this technique is unsuccessful, it does demonstrate the importance of computer simulations in testing such hypotheses in ecology.

  15. The distribution of Wolbachia in fig wasps: correlations with host phylogeny, ecology and population structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, D DeWayne; Machado, Carlos A.; Molbo, Drude; Werren, John H; Windsor, Donald M.; Herre, Edward Allen

    2002-01-01

    We surveyed for the presence and identity of Wolbachia in 44 species of chalcid wasps associated with 18 species of Panamanian figs. We used existing detailed knowledge of the population structures of the host wasps, as well as the ecological and evolutionary relationships among them, to explore the relevance of each of these factors to Wolbachia prevalence and mode of transmission. Fifty-nine per cent of these wasp species have Wolbachia infections, the highest proportion reported for any gr...

  16. An appraisal of ecological distribution of herbaceous flora at changa manga park lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest ground flora plays a vital role in cycling of nutrients, habitat preservation and rejuvenation of shrubs. The vegetation consociated with the forest plays a vital role in the protection, function of the forest ecosystem. Effective management of forest vegetation serves the forest ecosystem in assaying the balance of harmful effects of vying vegetation. Relationship of ecology between environment and vegetation and their ordination techniques and classification methods has become vital means in the research field vegetation ecology. Classification depends on the abundances of ground vegetation species. Multivariate technique is an important technique in ecology and biology for the group prediction. Classification of different plant communities had been accomplished by carrying out TWINSPAN analysis using PC-ORD. The results were shown in a two-way cluster dendrogram. A dendrogram is a hierarchical representation of species in graphical form. The encompassing survey has been conducted in the Changa Manga Forest (CMF) which resulted in the identification of the 45 species belonging to 24 families from all over the forest area. The TWINSPAN results of CMF ascertained the following dominant species in all of the four zones, Cynadon dactylon, Malvestrum cormendalianum, Oxalis corniculata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Desmostachya bipinnata. (author)

  17. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdallah M., Samy; Lindsay P., Campbell; A. Townsend, Peterson.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinati [...] onal military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity) can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major), suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major) were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

  18. taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 M. Cei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaciones morfológicas previas sobre un gran número de especies permiten establecer una correspondencia entre la peculiaridad de los patrones sistemáticos de las escamas supraoculares de Squamata y la posición evolutiva de cada taxón considerado en los cladogramas propuestos por Estes et al. (1988. Aparte del significado biológico general de estos hallazgos, incluso para discutidas orientaciones taxonómicas, la lepidosis supraocular llega a refrendar una decisión sistemática con su evidencia. Así, en Iguania, la familia Leiosauridae, propuesta por Frost et al. (2001, aparece sostenida hasta en el detalle de su división en las subfamilias Leiosaurinae y Enyaliinae. Siempre en Iguania Pleurodonta se evidencian ejemplos como los inconfundibles patrones de escamas supraoculares de Opluridae, Leucocephalidae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae. A nivel específico la interdependencia en Iguanidae de los géneros Iguana, Cercosaura, Brachylophus, Conolophus, puede llevar a postular pretéritos acontecimientos paleogeográficos. También amerita énfasis la llamativa separación, según este criterio morfológico, entre Iguania y Scleroglossa, la uniforme lepidosis de centenares de Gekkota, o la excepcional fisonomía de Autarchoglossa, en sus ramas tan individualizadas de Scincomorpha (Lacertoidea; Teiioidea; Scincoidea o Anguimorpha.

  19. Unravelling the tangled taxonomies of health informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barrett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though informatics is a term used commonly in healthcare, it can be a confusing and disengaging one. Many definitions exist in the literature, and attempts have been made to develop a clear taxonomy. Despite this, informatics is still a term that lacks clarity in both its scope and the classification of sub-terms that it encompasses.This paper reviews the importance of an agreed taxonomy and explores the challenges of establishing exactly what is meant by health informatics (HI. It reviews what a taxonomy should do, summarises previous attempts at categorising and organising HI and suggests the elements to consider when seeking to develop a system of classification.The paper does not provide all the answers, but it does clarify the questions. By plotting a path towards a taxonomy of HI, it will be possible to enhance understanding and optimise the benefits of embracing technology in clinical practice.

  20. A taxonomy for interactive educational multimedia

    OpenAIRE

    Pahl, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Learning is more than knowledge acquisition; it often involves the active participation of the learner in a variety of knowledge- and skills-based learning and training activities. Interactive multimedia technology can support the variety of interaction channels and languages required to facilitate interactive learning and teaching. We will present a taxonomy for interactive educational multimedia that supports the classification, description and development of such systems. Such a taxonomy n...

  1. The ecology and distribution of alcyonaceans at Mandapam (Palk Bay, Gulf of Mannar), South India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    New distribution records for 27 species of Alcyonaceans are given. These include major genera Sinularia (12 spp.), Lobophytum (7 spp.), Sarcophyton (6 spp.), Dampia (1 sp.) and Nephthya (1 sp.). The factors that influence the distribution of corals...

  2. Past, present, and future of arenavirus taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Bào, Y?míng; Buchmeier, Michael J; Charrel, Rémi N; Clawson, Anna N; Clegg, Christopher S; DeRisi, Joseph L; Emonet, Sébastien; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Kuhn, Jens H; Lukashevich, Igor S; Peters, Clarence J; Romanowski, Victor; Salvato, Maria S; Stenglein, Mark D; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Until recently, members of the monogeneric family Arenaviridae (arenaviruses) have been known to infect only muroid rodents and, in one case, possibly phyllostomid bats. The paradigm of arenaviruses exclusively infecting small mammals shifted dramatically when several groups independently published the detection and isolation of a divergent group of arenaviruses in captive alethinophidian snakes. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses suggest that these reptilian arenaviruses constitute a sister clade to mammalian arenaviruses. Here, the members of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Arenaviridae Study Group, together with other experts, outline the taxonomic reorganization of the family Arenaviridae to accommodate reptilian arenaviruses and other recently discovered mammalian arenaviruses and to improve compliance with the Rules of the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). PAirwise Sequence Comparison (PASC) of arenavirus genomes and NP amino acid pairwise distances support the modification of the present classification. As a result, the current genus Arenavirus is replaced by two genera, Mammarenavirus and Reptarenavirus, which are established to accommodate mammalian and reptilian arenaviruses, respectively, in the same family. The current species landscape among mammalian arenaviruses is upheld, with two new species added for Lunk and Merino Walk viruses and minor corrections to the spelling of some names. The published snake arenaviruses are distributed among three new separate reptarenavirus species. Finally, a non-Latinized binomial species name scheme is adopted for all arenavirus species. In addition, the current virus abbreviations have been evaluated, and some changes are introduced to unequivocally identify each virus in electronic databases, manuscripts, and oral proceedings. PMID:25935216

  3. Development and validation of a taxonomy of adverse handover events in hospital settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Boje; Siemsen, Inger Margrete D.

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a taxonomy to classify and support the analysis of adverse events related to patient handovers in hospital settings. A taxonomy was established using descriptions of handover events extracted from incident reports, interviews and root cause analysis reports. The inter-rater reliability and distribution of types of handover failures and causal factors. The taxonomy contains five types of failures and seven types of main causal factors. The taxonomy was validated against 432 adverse handover event descriptions contained in incident reports (stratified random sample from the Danish Patient Safety Database, 200 events) and 47 interviews with staff conducted at a large hospital in the Capital Region (232 events). The most prevalent causes of adverse events are inadequate competence (30 %), inadequate infrastructure (22 %) and busy ward (18 %). Inter-rater reliability (kappa) was 0.76 and 0.87 for reports and interviews, respectively. Communication in clinical contexts has been widely recognized as giving rise to potentially hazardous events, and handover situations are particularly prone to failures of communication or unclear allocation of responsibility. The taxonomy provides a tool for analyzing adverse handover events to identify frequent causes among reported handover failures. In turn, this provides a basis for selecting safety measures including handover protocols and training programmes.

  4. The taxobook principles and practices of building taxonomies

    CERN Document Server

    Hlava, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    This book outlines the basic principles of creation and maintenance of taxonomies and thesauri. It also provides step by step instructions for building a taxonomy or thesaurus and discusses the various ways to get started on a taxonomy construction project.Often, the first step is to get management and budgetary approval, so I start this book with a discussion of reasons to embark on the taxonomy journey. From there I move on to a discussion of metadata and how taxonomies and metadata are related, and then consider how, where, and why taxonomies are used.Information architecture has its corner

  5. Assessing spatial distribution, sources, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Nansi Lake, Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is conducted to investigate the spatial distribution, sources and ecological risk of seven heavy metals in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, Eastern China. A total of 29 samples were collected in surface sediments of Nansi Lake, and were analyzed for three nutrients (TN, TOC and TP), two major metals (Al and Fe), as well as seven trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Fe and Al were 14.41, 0.22, 71.10, 30.1, 0.048, 29.14, 90.2, 30,816 and 70,653 mg kg-1, respectively, and the mean contents of these metals were higher than the background values with the exception of Cu and Fe. The spatial distribution indicated that the contents of all seven heavy metals were characterized by relatively higher contents in the upper lake than the lower lake. The hotspots with high values of As, Cd and Hg were associated with the river mouths, and the hotspots of Pb were mainly located around the dam in the central part, while no significant associations were displayed between spatial distribution of Cr, Cu, Zn and the river mouths. The mean enrichment factor (EF) values of As, Cd, Hg and Pb were 2.03, 2.93, 3.21 and 2.18, respectively, showing their moderate enrichment, while Cr, Cu and Zn with mean EF values of 1.19, 0.89 and 1.01 were deficiency to minimal enrichment. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses suggested that PC1 controlled by Cr, Cu and Zn was a lithogenic component, and come from parent rocks leaching. PC2 including Cd and partially Hg represented the factor from industrial wastewater discharge. PC3 showed elevated loadings of As and partially Cd, and could be attributed to the agricultural practices. While PC4 including Pb and partially Hg, was dominated by coal combustion. The results of potential ecological risk suggested that sediment environment of Nansi Lake suffered from high ecological risk. (author)

  6. Campylomorphushomalisinus (Elateridae): a new species for Lombardy (Italy), with notes on its ecology, distribution and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biella, Paolo; Groppali, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylomorphushomalisinus has been found on Mt. Lesima (Northern Apennines) and it is the first record for the Lombardy region. Campylomorphushomalisinus is a rare orophilous species: it has a discontinuous chorology that may have been caused by glaciers dynamics during the Pleistocene era. Little is known about the ecology of the species. This record and the expert-based investigation we performed determined that Campylomorphushomalisinus inhabits shrublands and grasslands, but may also occur in the forests. This survey includes the only record of Campylomorphushomalisinus foraging on flowers, a behavior that is not rare in the family Elateridae. We hypothesize that adults integrate their diet with flower resources according to a generalist strategy. PMID:24891828

  7. Distributed Self-regulation Induced by Negative Feedbacks in Ecological and Economic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gafiychuk, V V; Ulanowicz, R E; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    We consider an ecological system governed by Lotka-Volterra dynamics and an example of an economic system as a mesomarket with perfect competition. We propose a mechanism for cooperative self-regulation that enables the system under consideration to respond properly to changes in the environment. This mechanism is based on (1) active individual behavior of the system elements at each hierarchical level and (2) self-processing of information caused by the hierarchical organization. It is shown how the proposed mechanism suppresses nonlocal interaction of elements belonging to a particular level as mediated by higher levels.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search ... Image Search ... Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... on a website using URLs of the icons. In a simple search ... table, you can narrow down the icons using a taxon ... EST/taxonomy_icon_en.zip File size: 14.1 KB Simple search ... URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/tax ...

  9. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Chirima

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. Conservation implications: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

  10. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    George J., Chirima; Norman, Owen-Smith; Barend F.N., Erasmus.

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (á-LoCoH) method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate sp [...] ecies within the Kruger National Park (KNP) based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980-1993). We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of surface water within the park. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: The objectively recorded distribution patterns provide a foundation for assessing future changes in distribution that may take place in response to climatic shifts or other influences.

  11. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Chirima, George J.; Norman Owen-Smith; Erasmus, Barend F. N.

    2012-01-01

    Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH) method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP) based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993). We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-...

  12. Distribution, bioavailability, and potential ecological risk of Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil in a potential groundwater source area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yanguo; Feng, Dan; Wu, Jin; Zuo, Rui; Song, Liuting; Wang, Jinsheng

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we examined three horizontal and vertical soil profiles along a sewage drainage ditch in order to determine the spatial distribution of Cu, Pb, and Zn in soils and to assess the bioavailability and potential ecological risks associated with these metals in a potential groundwater source area. Results showed that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn were approximately at background level, suggesting that human activities (industrial and agricultural pollution) had a negligible influence on these metals in soil, and that the concentrations reflected the natural background levels in the study area. Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations were slightly higher in topsoil (0-20 cm) than deeper in the soil profile. Using a modified BCR sequential extraction method to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of metals showed that the potential bioavailability sequence of Cu, Pb, and Zn at three depths in the soil profile was in the order Cu???Pb?polluted by leaching from soil. PMID:25910722

  13. Taxonomy and origin of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer and caribou was probably the key species for the human immigration and colonization in the Arctic and sub-Arctic by the retreat of the ice in the last glacial period. The close connection between human and reindeer has contributed to great interest and variation in reindeer taxonomy and origin. Through the history several both species, subspecies and types of reindeer and caribou have been described. The early taxonomy of the species is marked by comparisons of individual specimen using traits as body size, skin colour or antler formations - characteristics known to be highly variable and subjected to environmental and nutritional level. During the mid 1900s the taxonomy was more based on variation of morphological traits among populations by analysing a large series of specimens representative of the various geographic populations and a consensus of classification of several subspecies, all belonging to the same species, evolved. During late 1900 the development of modern molecular techniques procured tools for revealing genetic structure of populations reflecting different origin and isolation rather than environmental influences. The genetic structure revealed a major genetic dichotomy between American woodland caribou on the one hand and all other types of reindeer and caribou on the other which gave evidence that the ancestors of present woodland caribou had survived and evolved in ice free refugium south to the glacier in North America and the ancestors of all other types of reindeer and caribou had evolved separated from these in refugium in Eurasia and Beringia. The ancestors of present reindeer in Scandinavia appear furthermore to have evolved from different populations separated during the last glaciation period and the colonization and origin of present wild and domestic reindeer will be discussed in this perspective.Taksonomi og opprinnelse til reinAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Rein og caribou har hatt stor betydning for det moderne menneskets utvikling og kolonisering av nordlige Eurasia og Amerika etter siste istid. Den nære sammenhengen mellom mennesker og rein har bidratt til stor interesse og variasjon i oppfatningen av reinens taksonomi og opprinnelse. Et utall av både arter, underarter og raser av rein er beskrevet opp gjennom historien. Tidlig taksonomi av rein bar preg av å være basert på enkeltobservasjoner og på morfologiske karakterer som kroppsstørrelse, pelsfarge og størrelse og form på gevir, karakterer som i stor grad påvirkes av miljø og næringsforhold. Først på midten av 1900 tallet ble taksonomien i større grad basert på ulike morfologiske trekk som viste variasjon mellom bestander av rein, og en fikk bl.a. en forståelse av at alle underarter og former av rein og caribou tilhørte samme art. Med utviklingen av den moderne molekylærbiologien på slutten av 1900-tallet fikk en tilgang til verktøy som avdekket genetiske strukturer som reflekterer ulik opprinnelse og utvikling mer enn miljømessig påvirkning. Den genetiske strukturen som ble avdekket, viste liten overensstemmelse med oppdelingen i underarter som var basert på morfologiske trekk. Molekylærgenetiske struktur viser et hovedskille mellom amerikansk woodland caribou på den ene siden og all annen rein og caribou på den andre siden, noe som reflekterer at forfedrene til woodland caribou levde og utviklet seg i isfrie områder sør for iskanten i Nord-Amerika, mens forfedrene til andre typer rein levde atskilt fra disse i isfrie områder i Eurasia og Beringia. Forfedrene til dagens rein i Fennoskandia syntes også å ha utviklet seg fra atskilte bestander av rein som kan føres tilbake til slutten av siste istid. Innvandring og opprinnelse til dagens vill- og tamrein i Fennoskandia vil bli belyst i dette perspektiv.

  14. Semisupervised Learning Taxonomy-Aware Catalog Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Umavathi M.Sc1 , R.Tamil selvi M.Sc., M.Phil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Data integration is the major important task for online commercial portals and commerce search engine based applications. The data integration task faced by online commercial portals and e-commerce search engines are the integration of products coming from multiple providers to their product catalogs. Categorization of products from the data provides into the master taxonomy and whereas make use of the data provider taxonomy information becomes major problem. Overcome this problem we classify the products based on their textual based classifier and taxonomy-aware step that adjusts the results of a textual based classifier to ensure that products that are close together in the provider taxonomy remain close in the master taxonomy. In taxonomy aware calibration step the base classifier derives the parameters value by tuning the values. Existing base classifier step, still it becomes major problem identify candidate products for labeling the products, to overcome these problem we proposed a Semi supervised learning techniques to incrementally retrain the base classifier with elements chosen during the taxonomy-aware calibration step. Proposed system it categorizes the product based on their parameters choosen from calibration. Semi supervised learning algorithm involves a large amount of unlabeled product data with only a small number of labeled product data. Semisupervised based active learning method identifies the candidate products for labeling. Proposed system finds the each candidate parameter ?? and then find the optimal parameter ? such that the improve the accuracy on the validation set is maximized. An experimental result shows that the Semi supervised learning algorithm that are efficient and thus applicable to the large data sets that are typical on the web.

  15. Predicting the potential geographic distribution of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis in India based on MAXENT ecological niche model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fand, Babasaheb B; Kumar, Mahesh; Kamble, Ankush L

    2014-09-01

    Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley has recently emerged as a serious insect pest of cotton in India. This study demonstrates the use of Maxent algorithm for modeling the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis in India with presence-only data. Predictions were made based on the analysis of the relationship between 111 occurrence records for P. solenopsis and the corresponding current and future climate data defined on the study area. The climate data from worldclim database for current (1950-2000) and future (SRES A2 emission scenario for 2050) conditions were used. DIVA-GIS, an open source software for conducting spatial analysis was used for mapping the predictions from Maxent. The algorithm provided reasonable estimates of the species range indicating better discrimination of suitable and unsuitable areas for its occurrence in India under both present and future climatic conditions. The fit for the model as measured by AUC was high, with value of 0.930 for the training data and 0.895 for the test data, indicating the high level of discriminatory power for the Maxent. A Jackknife test for variable importance indicated that mean temperature of coldest quarter with highest gain value was the most important environmental variable determining the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis. The approaches used for delineating the ecological niche and prediction of potential geographic distribution are described briefly. Possible applications and limitations of the present modeling approach in future research and as a decision making tool in integrated pest management are discussed. PMID:25204075

  16. Contributions to Distribution, Reproduction Biology and Ecology of Vormela peregusna (G?ldenstadt, 1770) (Mammalia: Carnivora) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Co kun Tez; Slam Gunduz; Lu, Haluk Kefel O.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, both captured and uncaptured Vormela peregusna were investigated for their distribution, reproduction biology, some ecological observations and morphological characteristics in our laboratory, and campus area at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey. It was observed that there is a cannibalism within population in Vormela peregusna. The morphological evaluations indicated that Turkish V. peregusna is the same to V. peregusna from Israel.

  17. Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn. ssp. laricio (Poiret) Maire) distribution in the Sila mountain range

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaci A; Travaglini D; Menguzzato G; Nocentini S; Veltri A; Iovino F

    2014-01-01

    The most well-known and vast Calabrian pine forests are in the Sila mountain range, southern Italy. In this paper, present-day distribution of Calabrian pine in the Sila district was analyzed and compared with forest maps dating back to 1935 in order to assess the changes in land use. Main ecological and anthropogenic factors affecting Calabrian pine forest distribution were investigated by logistic regression models to identify the most important predictors of Ca­labrian pine persistence, e...

  18. Revisiting the Panko-Halverson Taxonomy of Spreadsheet Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Panko, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to revisit the Panko-Halverson taxonomy of spreadsheet errors and suggest revisions. There are several reasons for doing so: First, the taxonomy has been widely used. Therefore, it should have scrutiny; Second, the taxonomy has not been widely available in its original form and most users refer to secondary sources. Consequently, they often equate the taxonomy with the simplified extracts used in particular experiments or field studies; Third, pe...

  19. Taxonomies of networks from community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Fenn, Daniel J.; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

    2012-09-01

    The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: They can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi.

  20. SCIRehab Project Series: The Psychology Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Catherine; Huston, Toby; Koval, Jill; Gordon, Samuel A; Schwebel, Andrea; Gassaway, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Context: The integration of psychologists as members of the rehabilitation team has occurred in conjunction with the evolution and adoption of interdisciplinary teams as the standard of care in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Although the value of psychological services during rehabilitation is endorsed widely, specific interventions and their association with patient outcomes have not been examined adequately. Objective: To address this shortcoming, psychologists from 6 SCI centers collaborated to develop a psychology intervention taxonomy and documentation framework. Methods: Utilizing an interactive process, the lead psychologists from 6 centers compiled an inclusive list of patient characteristics assessed and interventions delivered in routine psychological practice at the participating rehabilitation facilities. These were systematically grouped, defined, and compared. Results: The resulting taxonomy became the basis of a documentation framework utilized by psychologists for the study. The psychology taxonomy includes 4 major clinical categories (assessment, psychotherapeutic interventions, psychoeducational interventions, and consultation) with 5 to 10 specific activities in each category. Conclusions: Examination of psychological interventions and their potential association with positive outcomes for persons who sustain SCI requires the development of a taxonomy. Results of these efforts illustrate similarities and differences in psychological practice among SCI centers and offer the opportunity to blend research and clinical practice in an innovative approach to evidence-based practice improvement. The established taxonomy provides a basic framework for future studies on the effect of psychological interventions. PMID:19810633

  1. Taxonomies of networks from community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

    2014-01-01

    The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: they can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi. PMID:23030977

  2. Marten Ecology and Distribution on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Marten Martes americana were studied on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge from June 1986 through July 1988 to determine factors limiting their current distribution...

  3. Ecology and Distribution of Copepods from the Salt Pan Ecosystems of Mumbai, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; NaveenKumar, K.R.; Nair, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    and Mesochra sp. The species distribution showed pulses and peaks with harpacticoids dominating in extreme environmental conditions. The diversity and seasonal variations of species were considered in relation to environmental conditions. The study contemplates...

  4. Binary Keys for Classification and Taxonomy of Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Timo A.; Choi, Serene Hyun-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative behaviour analysis requires the classification of behaviour to produce the basic data. This can be challenging when the theoretical taxonomy does not match observational limitations, or if a theoretical taxonomy is unavailable. Binary keys allow qualitative observation to be used to modify a theoretical taxonomy to produce a practical…

  5. Use of ecological niche modeling as a tool for predicting the potential distribution of Microcystis sp (cyanobacteria in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Martinez-Meyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling is an important tool to evaluate the spatial distribution of terrestrial species, however, its applicability has been little explored in the aquatic environment. Microcystis sp., a species of cyanobacteria, is widely recognized for its ability to produce a group of toxins known as microcystins, which can cause death of animals as fish, birds and mammals depending on the amount of toxin absorbed. Like any taxonomic group, cyanobacteria has environmental thresholds, therefore, a suitable ecological niche will define their distribution. This study was conducted in Aguamilpa Hydroelectric Reservoir, an artificial ecosystem that started operations in 1994. In this system we evaluated the potential distribution of Microcystis sp., by generating a prediction model based on the concept of ecological niche MAXENT, using a Digital Elevation Model in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha spatial resolution and monitoring eleven physicochemical and biological variables and nutrients in water. The distribution maps were developed using ArcMap 9.2®. The results indicated that Microcystis sp., is distributed mainly in the upper tributary basin (Huaynamota basin during the dry season. There was less chance to find cyanobacteria in the entire system during the cold dry season, while during the warm dry season cyanobacteria was recognized at the confluence of two rivers. During the rainfall season there were no reports of cyanobacteria presence. This species is often associated with arising trophic processes of anthropogenic origin; therefore, attention is required in specific areas that have been identified in this work to improve Aguamilpa’s watershed management and restoration. It was also recognized the importance of phosphorus and nitrogen interaction, which determines the distribution of Microcystis sp., in the Aguamilpa Reservoir. The results of this study demonstrated that ecological niche modeling was a suitable tool to assess the spatial distribution of microalgae in freshwater environments.

  6. Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in the microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, E.; Cohan, F.

    2011-01-01

    Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-µm vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to O2, pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O2 concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes.

  7. The genus Weissella: taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Vincenzina; Quero, Grazia M.; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Meske, Diana; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria assigned to the genus Weissella are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-endospore forming cells with coccoid or rod-shaped morphology (Collins et al., 1993; Björkroth et al., 2009, 2014) and belong to the group of bacteria generally known as lactic acid bacteria. Phylogenetically, the Weissella belong to the Firmicutes, class Bacilli, order Lactobacillales and family Leuconostocaceae (Collins et al., 1993). They are obligately heterofermentative, producing CO2 from carbohydrate metabolism with either d(?)-, or a mixture of d(?)- and l(+)- lactic acid and acetic acid as major end products from sugar metabolism. To date, there are 19 validly described Weissella species known. Weissella spp. have been isolated from and occur in a wide range of habitats, e.g., on the skin and in the milk and feces of animals, from saliva, breast milk, feces and vagina of humans, from plants and vegetables, as well as from a variety of fermented foods such as European sourdoughs and Asian and African traditional fermented foods. Thus, apart from a perceived technical role of certain Weissella species involved in such traditional fermentations, specific Weissella strains are also receiving attention as potential probiotics, and strain development of particularly W. cibaria strains is receiving attention because of their high probiotic potential for controlling periodontal disease. Moreover, W. confusa and W. cibaria strains are known to produce copius amounts of novel, non-digestible oligosaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides, mainly dextran. These polymers are receiving increased attention for their potential application as prebiotics and for a wide range of industrial applications, predominantly for bakeries and for the production of cereal-based fermented functional beverages. On the detrimental side, strains of certain Weissella species, e.g., of W. viridescens, W. cibaria and W. confusa, are known as opportunistic pathogens involved in human infections while strains of W. ceti have been recently recongnized as etiological agent of “weissellosis,” which is a disease affecting farmed rainbow trouts. Bacteria belonging to this species thus are important both from a technological, as well as from a medical point of view, and both aspects should be taken into account in any envisaged biotechnological applications. PMID:25852652

  8. Dynamic creation and distribution of flexible climate indices for ecological modeling and climate change impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terando, A. J.; Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.; Suftin, I.; Sibley, D.; Lewein, S.

    2011-12-01

    Assessing the potential impacts of climate change on human-environment systems increasingly requires unique and non-standard derivative climate model products that are specific to the research or adaptation question being addressed. In addition, the analysis often requires data at a finer-scale than what is available from raw climate model output; necessitating some form of downscaling to address the information needs of the scientist or decision-maker. Finally, the use of climate model ensembles is becoming a standard practice in order to better quantify projection uncertainty and to take advantage of the proliferation of multi-model climate experiments. However, obtaining these data is a time-consuming and potentially difficult process if the user is unfamiliar with the data standards or lacks the computing resources to store or retrieve large amounts of raw climate model output. In response the U.S. Geological Survey has developed a data portal to provide pre-calculated and dynamically-derived indices of temperature and precipitation projections. The initial dataset consists of threshold summaries and temporal statistics for an ensemble of statistically downscaled climate models. This web visualization and data access portal is based on the Geo Data Portal Data Integration Framework leveraging numerous open standards and software implementations. As a result of standards adherence, very little to no customization is required to incorporate additional datasets into the portal; thus allowing for the inclusion of a wide variety of climatological or ecological data for assessment and planning purposes.

  9. Ecological distribution of Cyanophyceae in lotic ecosystems of São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANCO LUIS HENRIQUE Z.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A hundred seventy two stream reaches from six distinct natural regions (parts of biomes or geological areas in São Paulo State (Atlantic Rainforest, Cerrado, Hard Water regions, Northwest region, Subtropical Rainforest, and Tropical Rainforest were searched for the most representative macroscopic Cyanophyceae of phytobenthic communities. Selected ecological parameters were analyzed in each stream segment: conductance, current velocity, oxygen saturation, pH, turbidity, and water temperature. Algal abundance was evaluated as percentage cover. Thirthy four cyanophyte taxa were identified and Phormidium retzii was the most widespread species throughout the State, occurring in all studied regions, except in hard water areas, and was negatively correlated to conductance. The subtropical Rainforest region presented the highest mean species richness per site, whereas the tropical Rainforest region had the highest abundance (percentage cover of blue-green algae. Correlation tests revealed that conductance was significantly and negatively related to variations in abundance and richness of cyanophyte in streams of São Paulo State. This relationship probably reflects the ability of blue-green algae to grow at medium to low ion content and to take advantage under nutrient stress conditions.

  10. A Distributed Architecture for Sharing Ecological Data Sets with Access and Usage Control Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier

    In our information-age, the necessary scientic exploration is mainly driven by mining new insights from many diverse data sets. While there is a consensus that a collaborative data infrastructure is needed to allow researchers in dierent domains to collaborate on the same data sets in order to get new insights, there are signicant barriers to the realization of this vision. One of the key challenge is to allow scientists to share their data widely while retaining some form of control over who accesses this data (access control) and more importantly how it is used (usage control). Access and usage control is necessary to enforce existing open data policies. We have proposed the vision of trusted cells: A decentralized infrastructure, based on secure hardware running on devices equipped with trusted execution environments at the edges of the Internet. We originally described the utilization of trusted cells for the management of personal data. We describe our vision and report on our progress towards the implementation of trusted cells on off-the-shelf hardware components. We show how trusted cells deployed in the field and throughout the community could make it possible to share ecological data sets with access and usage control guarantees. We rely on examples from terrestrial research and monitoring in the arctic in the context of the INTERACT project.

  11. Distribution and Ecological Range of the Alien Plant Species Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis, Maja

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades Mikania micrantha Kunth, a climbing plant species originating from tropicalAmerica, has spread across Taiwan. It can now be found frequently in the lowlands and lower mountain areasup to 1,000 m a.s.l. in the centre and south of the island. Mikania micrantha is considered a problematic invasivealien plant species which is said to cause economical as well as environmental damage. This study investigatedthe ecological site characteristics of M. micrantha in Taiwan. 112 vegetation surveys were carried out in habitatswhere the alien plant was present. A comparison between sites with a high and a low abundance was carriedout in order to assess which factors especially influence the extensive spread of the plant. Furthermore, theinfluence of disturbances was examined. Results showed that Mikania micrantha grows very dense in habitatswhich are characterized by good light conditions combined with vertical structures, such as trees. Resultsrevealed that this invader occurs most frequently in agricultural fallows and wastelands, but it could hardly befound in the intensively managed plantations in the investigation area. Results provide great evidence that theplant is strongly influenced by disturbances, but only if impacts occur rarely.

  12. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  13. Ecological significance of assimilate distribution in Agropyron repens clones under influence of the copper smelter Legnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Brej

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The studies on couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. P. Beauv. populations growing in stress conditions in close vicinity of a copper smelter concern the integrity of clonal structure. The connections of tillers within a clone and the interclonal integrity was investigated by means of assimilate translocation, using 14C. It was found that heavy metal stress affects the phenotypic plasticity of couch grass in regard to clonal growth of the phalanx type. The phalanx type growth is supported by a considerable integration, which allows the redistribution of resources, through internal routes, from places rich in resources to such clone parts, which cover a surface poor in nutritive compounds. In an unpolluted (control couch grass population representing the guerilla type of growth, the translocation of assimilates concerns only the closest (sister ramets. The phalanx type of growth in couch grass subjected to contamination favours also the accumulation of organic matter and macronutrients (N, Ca in zones of occurrence of Agropyron repens clusters, which are in deficit in areas close to the smelter. The irregular accumulation of heavy metals and the deficit of macronutrients in soil, form near the smelter a patchy environment. In this patchy environment couch grass, as one of few plants, finds appropriate conditions for foraging. The whole of factors in the studied polluted area creates a unique dynamic system between couch grass clones and the local ecological conditions.

  14. Distribution, ecology and inhibition of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in relation to acid drainage from Witwatersrand gold mine dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in gold mine dumps and possible means for its inhibition were investigated. A literature survey of the micro-ecology of mine waste dumps in various parts of the world was undertaken. A linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), NANSA 80/S, and a cetyl pyridinium chloride, Ceepryn, were tested as possible inhibitors for mine dump application. The LAS was rejected because it is poorly soluble in water and required higher concentrations than SLS for the inhibition of T.ferrooxidans. Ceepryn was an efficient inhibitor, but its efficiency was dramatically impeded in the presence of mine dump sand making it unsuitable for application on dumps. The SLS and LAS were tested against a mixed population of T.ferrooxidans from gold mine dumps and these bacteria were shown to be marginally more resistant to the inhibitors than the pure T.ferrooxidans culture. Sampling from mine dumps on the Witwatersrand suggested that the major T.ferrooxidans populations occurred in the moist sand of the drainage areas at the base of dumps, with few viable iron-oxidising bacteria located on the surfaces or in the centre of dumps. Sites of low moisture in dumps contained few or no viable bacteria. In the laboratory the bacterial viability decreased rapidly with loss of moisture from the sand. Moisture was shown to be important to bacterial activity and should be considered with respect to acid drainage control. Experimental sand columns showed thntrol. Experimental sand columns showed that iron was leached with water from mine dump sand in the absence and presence of bacteria. In this study substrates, moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide availability, ph, temperature, microorganisms and metal pollutants of uranium waste dumps are also covered

  15. Distribution and ecology of deep-water benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poag, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Bathyal and abyssal foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico are distributed among thirteen generic predominance facies. Five predominance facies nearly encircle the Gulf basin along the slope and rise; a sixth predominance facies blankets the Sigsbee Plain, and a seventh is restricted to the Mississippi Fan. The remaining eight predominance facies have more restricted distributions. The areal patterns of these predominance facies can be related chiefly to water mass and substrate characteristics; modifications are brought about by calcite dissolution, upwelling, and sill depth. Analysis of ancient generic predominance facies is useful in predicting relative paleobathymetry and other paleoenvironmental properties. ?? 1984.

  16. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation.

  17. Distribution and ecology of the Trichodesmium spp. in the Arabian Sea: Ship and satellite studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.G.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Raman, M.; Dwivedi, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    thiebautii are noticed when water temperatures were low (26 degrees C). T. thiebautii was also found to be distributed throughout the water column. It was also observed in the coastal waters during March and in the Lakshadweep waters during April. The OCM...

  18. A plastid tree can bring order to the chaotic generic taxonomy of Rytidosperma Steud. s.l. (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Aelys M; Pirie, Michael D; Linder, H Peter

    2010-06-01

    Rytidosperma s.l., wallaby grasses and allies, is in dire need of a single, unanimously accepted generic taxonomy. Motivated by the desire to establish a generic classification that complies with phylogeny, we investigated how much phylogenetic signal is contained within a plastid (cpDNA) tree, given that the nrDNA tree (ITS) was uninformative and that a phylogenetic hypothesis based on a single genome may not be reliable. We find that the plastid tree is significantly different from a morphological cladogram and show that this is the result of homoplasy in the morphological dataset. Treated individually, several morphological characters fit the plastid tree very well. Similarly, we find a good fit of the plastid tree with ecological and distribution characters and with biogeographical patterns in the Southern Hemisphere. We conclude that a significant level of the species phylogeny is resolved by the plastid tree and are confident it can form a sound basis for a reconsideration of generic limits. None of the currently recognised seven genera in the Rytidosperma clade is monophyletic. Therefore, we propose combining the segregate genera in Australasia within a broadly construed Rytidosperma, including all the species from Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand and South America. PMID:20026411

  19. Seed ecology of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi, two invasive species with different distributions in Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Perglová, Irena; Gudžinskas, Z.

    Wallingford : CAB International, 2007 - (Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.), s. 157-169 ISBN 978-1-84593-206-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0323 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Seed Bank * germination * distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  20. Coloured nectar: distribution, ecology, and evolution of an enigmatic floral trait

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, D M; Olesen, J. M.; Mione, T; Johnson, S. D.; Müller, C B

    2007-01-01

    While coloured nectar has been known to science at least since 1785, it has only recently received focused scientific attention. However, information about this rare floral trait is scattered and hard to find. Here, we document coloured nectar in 67 taxa worldwide, with a wide taxonomical and geographical distribution. We summarise what is currently known about coloured nectar in each of the lineages where it occurs. The most common nectar colours are in the spectrum from yellow to red, but a...

  1. Distribution, Ecology and Conservation of the Common Otter (Lutra lutra in DPRK (North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jong Ryol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Red Data Book of DPRK says that the otter belongs to the category of vulnerable species (VU and suffers from a serious decrease in its numbers recently, although it was widely distributed in the middle and upper parts of rivers all over the country in the past. Therefore, the protection of the otter and its habitat is one of the important issues for species diversity conservation.

  2. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  3. Ecological Niche Modelling using satellite data for assessing distribution of threatened species Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Kulloli, R. N.; Tewari, J. C.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, A.

    2014-11-01

    Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. is a narrow endemic, tuberous twiner of Asclepiadaceae family. It is medicinally important: tubers are nutritive and edible, leaves are digestive and a cure for dysentery and diarrhea. Exploitation for its tubers and poor regeneration of this species has shrunk its distribution. In order to know its present status, we report here the results of its appraisal in Rajasthan, using remote sensing and ground truthing in the past five years (2009-14). A base map of C. bulbosa was prepared using Geographical Information System (GIS), open source software Quantum GIS, SAGA. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) +Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Satellite Data were used in this study. ASTER and GDEM Data was clipped with district boundary and provided color range to get elevation information. A digital elevation model of Rajasthan physiography was developed from ASTER GDEM of 30-m resolution. GIS layers of Area of occurrences for C. bulbosa plant and elevation were created. This map along with topographic sheets of 1:50000 were used for field traversing and ground truthing as per GPS location inferred from map. Its geographic distribution was assessed using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm that employed 12 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, and elevation data. Results of this modelling predicted occurrence of C. bulbosa in the districts of Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Pali, Ajmer, Jhalawar, Dungarpur, Banswara, Baran, Kota, Bundi and Chittorgarh. Ground validation in these districts revealed its presence only at four places in three districts confirming its rarity. Analysis of dominance at their sites of occurrence revealed their poor populations and sub dominant status (RIV = 20-32) and very low density (2-12 plants per tenth ha).

  4. Enabling knowledge discovery: taxonomy development for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, J.; Busch, J.

    2003-01-01

    This white paper provides the background for why it is important to take the next steps with the NASA taxonomy including test and validation, XML schema development, integration with the FirstGov federal search engine, the OneNASA portal and its supporting web content management system.

  5. Visualizing a Taxonomy for Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, however, the popularity, diversity, and application of virtual worlds have spread rapidly. As a result, existing taxonomies and topologies increasingly are becoming less effective at being able to classify and organize the growing diversification of content available in today's virtual worlds. This article presents the…

  6. Capacity building in taxonomy and systematics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G F; Figueiredo, Estrela

    2009-01-01

    Needs-driven capacity building is required as a matter of urgency to overcome the present lack of taxonomists and systematists who are skilled in natural history and collections. This must necessarily include the training of the next generation of taxonomists, appropriate leadership for natural history collections and the involvement of practicing taxonomists to change the perception of taxonomy by decision-makers.

  7. Ecological studies in the bay of Paranaguá: I. horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Brandini, Frederico P.

    1985-01-01

    Five stations were sampled monthly in the Bay of Paranaguá during one year cycle (1983-1984) to measure basic environmental parameters, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis with the purpose of understanding the principal factors that regulate the phytoplankton growth and distribution throughout the year. Surface temperature varied from 17 to 30ºC. The yearly average values for salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH ranged from 9.38 to 32.00‰, 5.17 to 5.53 ml/l and 7.46 to 8.18, respectivel...

  8. Phylogenetic and ecological factors influencing the number and distribution of electroreceptors in elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, R M; McCarthy, I D; Collin, S P

    2012-04-01

    Electroreception is found throughout the animal kingdom from invertebrates to mammals and has been shown to play an important role in prey detection, facilitating social behaviours, the detection of predators and orientation to the earth's magnetic field for navigation. Electroreceptors in elasmobranchs, the ampullae of Lorenzini, detect minute electric fields and independently process these stimuli, thereby providing spatial information to the central nervous system on the location of a source, often potential prey. The ampullae of Lorenzini are individually connected to a single somatic pore on the surface of the skin, with the spatial separation of each pore directly influencing how electrical stimuli are detected and processed. Pore abundance varies across taxonomic groups resulting in unique species-specific differences. The intricate distribution patterns created by the specific positioning of somatic pores on the head are, however, consistent within families, resulting in patterns that are identifiable at higher taxonomic levels. As elasmobranchs evolved, the electrosensory system became more complex and highly specialized, which is evident by a general trend of increasing pore abundance over time. The elasmobranch electrosensory system has evolved to operate efficiently under the environmental conditions of the particular habitat in which a species lives. For example, reduced pore abundance is evident in oceanic pelagic elasmobranchs, for whom visual cues are thought to be of great importance. Pore abundance and spatial distribution may be influenced by multiple factors including head morphology, phylogeny, feeding behaviour and habitat. PMID:22497416

  9. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  10. ECOLOGIA Y DISTRIBUCION DE HYDROCOTYLE CRYPTOCARPA SPEG. EN SUDAMERICA ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROCOTYLE CRYPTOCARPA SPEG. IN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocotyle cryptocarpa ha sido descubierto recientemente en diferentes localidades de Chile. Se expone brevemente el actual conocimiento sobre su distribución geográfica, ciclo de vida y autoecología. H. cryptocarpa posee inflorescencias unifloras y frutos monospermos y geocarpos, dichas características la ubican en una posición aislada dentro del género Hydrocotyle. Esta especie es anual y crece en ambientes acuáticos temporales. Adaptaciones especiales a este tipo de habitat son una forma de vida tenagófita (germinación bajo el agua, floración y fructificación durante la ecofase terrestre y representativa de un "amphibious fluctuation responder" (hojas largamente pecioladas durante la ecofase acuática, hojas de pecíolos breves en la ecofase terrestre. Su distribución es disyunta, con poblaciones halladas en Chile central (desde la Región de Coquimbo a la de La Araucanía y otras halladas en torno al límite entre Uruguay y Argentina.Hydrocotyle cryptocarpa has recently been discovered from different localities in Chile. Our current knowledge about its total distribution, life cycle and ecology are summarized. H. cryptocarpa is monanthous, monospermous and geocarpous. With these characters, it has an isolated position within the genus Hydrocotyle. The species is annual and occurs in seasonal wetlands. Special adaptations to this habitat are the life cycle as a tenagophyte (germination under water, flowering and fruiting after desiccation of the pool and as an amphibious fluctuation responder (long-stalked leaves in the aquatic ecophase, short-stalked leaves in the terrestrial ecophase. The distribution is highly disjunct, with populations recorded from central Chile (Region of Coquimbo to de La Araucanía, Uruguay and eastern Argentina.

  11. ECOLOGIA Y DISTRIBUCION DE HYDROCOTYLE CRYPTOCARPA SPEG. EN SUDAMERICA / ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROCOTYLE CRYPTOCARPA SPEG. IN SOUTH AMERICA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Alvarez; Carlos, Ramírez; Ulrich, Deil.

    Full Text Available Hydrocotyle cryptocarpa ha sido descubierto recientemente en diferentes localidades de Chile. Se expone brevemente el actual conocimiento sobre su distribución geográfica, ciclo de vida y autoecología. H. cryptocarpa posee inflorescencias unifloras y frutos monospermos y geocarpos, dichas caracterís [...] ticas la ubican en una posición aislada dentro del género Hydrocotyle. Esta especie es anual y crece en ambientes acuáticos temporales. Adaptaciones especiales a este tipo de habitat son una forma de vida tenagófita (germinación bajo el agua, floración y fructificación durante la ecofase terrestre) y representativa de un "amphibious fluctuation responder" (hojas largamente pecioladas durante la ecofase acuática, hojas de pecíolos breves en la ecofase terrestre). Su distribución es disyunta, con poblaciones halladas en Chile central (desde la Región de Coquimbo a la de La Araucanía) y otras halladas en torno al límite entre Uruguay y Argentina. Abstract in english Hydrocotyle cryptocarpa has recently been discovered from different localities in Chile. Our current knowledge about its total distribution, life cycle and ecology are summarized. H. cryptocarpa is monanthous, monospermous and geocarpous. With these characters, it has an isolated position within the [...] genus Hydrocotyle. The species is annual and occurs in seasonal wetlands. Special adaptations to this habitat are the life cycle as a tenagophyte (germination under water, flowering and fruiting after desiccation of the pool) and as an amphibious fluctuation responder (long-stalked leaves in the aquatic ecophase, short-stalked leaves in the terrestrial ecophase). The distribution is highly disjunct, with populations recorded from central Chile (Region of Coquimbo to de La Araucanía), Uruguay and eastern Argentina.

  12. Ecological distribution of pelagic copepods and species relationship to acidification, liming and natural recovery in a boreal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Birger WÆRVÅGEN

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and ecology of pelagic copepods were studied in a boreal area strongly affected by acidification in southern Norway. Differential regional composition of bedrock geology and Quaternary deposits combined with liming have produced aquatic sites with contrasting acidification and recovery histories. The omnivorous species Eudiaptomus gracilis showed a striking ability to tolerate both acidification and chemical recovery. The predominantly carnivorous species Heterocope saliens increased numerically during acidification, both because it is tolerant to acidic environments and because fish predation diminished or disappeared altogether. After chemical recovery, H. saliens, having an endogenous egg-bank, most readily produced viable populations with numerical abundance depending upon fish predation pressure. Thermocyclops oithonoides and Cyclops scutifer were negatively affected by strongly acidic environments, whereas Mesocyclops leuckarti tolerated acidic conditions better. All three cyclopoid species increased in abundance after chemical recovery, most probably from small residual populations. The hypolimnetic C. scutifer faced dispersal problems in re-establishing following liming. Deep lakes (>20 m harboured considerable residual populations of C. scutifer which recovered rapidly to pre-acidic conditions. Cyclops abyssorum inhabited the pelagial during early recovery of formerly chronically acidified lakes as a fugitive species, probably due to rapid dispersal capacities. Littoral cyclopoids, such as Acanthocyclops vernalis and Diacyclops nanus, were commonly distributed in the free waters of the most acidic lakes (pH = 4.5-4.8, but disappeared from the pelagial shortly after chemical recovery. The total community of pelagic copepods forms a promising tool to identify historical acidification and trajectories of recovery in the freshwater environment.

  13. Ecological factors related to the widespread distribution of sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grijalva Mario J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chagas disease transmission risk is a function of the presence of triatomines in domestic habitats. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is one of the main vectors implicated in transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Ecuador. This triatomine species is present in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats in the country. To determine the distribution of sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis and the factors related to this distribution, triatomine searches were conducted between 2005 and 2009 in southern Ecuador. Methods Manual triatomine searches were conducted by skilled bug collectors in 23 communities. Sylvatic searched sites were selected by a directed sampling, where microhabitats were selected by the searchers and b random sampling, where sampling points where randomly generated. Domiciliary triatomine searches were conducted using the one man-hour method. Natural trypanosome infection was determined by microscopic examination and PCR. Generalized linear models were used to test the effect of environmental factors on the presence of sylvatic triatomines. Results In total, 1,923 sylvatic individuals were collected representing a sampling effort of 751 man-hours. Collected sylvatic triatomines were associated with mammal and bird nests. The 1,219 sampled nests presented an infestation index of 11.9%, a crowding of 13 bugs per infested nest, and a colonization of 80% of the nests. Triatomine abundance was significantly higher in squirrel (Sciurus stramineus nests located above five meters from ground level and close to the houses. In addition, 8.5% of the 820 examined houses in the same localities were infested with triatomines. There was a significant correlation between R. ecuadoriensis infestation rates found in sylvatic and synanthropic environments within communities (p = 0.012. Parasitological analysis revealed that 64.7% and 15.7% of the sylvatic bugs examined (n = 300 were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli respectively, and 8% of the bugs presented mixed infections. Conclusions The wide distribution of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations may jeopardize the effectiveness of control campaigns conducted to eliminate domestic populations of this species. Also, the high T. cruzi infection rates found in sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador could constitute a risk for house re-infestation and persistent long-term Chagas disease transmission in the region.

  14. Hierarchical and Bayesian Scattered Data Taxonomy in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunar Arif Hussain

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available MANETS promise an unprecedented opportunity to monitor physical environments via inexpensive wireless embedded devices. Given the sheer amount of sensed data, efficient taxonomy of them becomes a critical task in many sensor network applications. The Bayesian classifier is a fundamental taxonomy technique. We introduce two classifiers: Naive Bayes and a classifier based on class decomposition using K-means clustering. We consider two complementary tasks: model computation and scoring a data set. We study several layouts for tables and several indexing alternatives.In this paper, we propose a novel decision-tree-based hierarchical scattered taxonomy approach, in which local classifiers are built by individual sensors and merged along the routing path forming a spanning tree. The classifiers are iteratively enhanced by combining strategically generated pseudo data and new local data, eventually converging to a global classifier for the whole network. We also introduce some control factors to facilitate the effectiveness of our approach. Through extensive analysis, we study the impact of the introduced control factors, and demonstrate that our approach maintains high taxonomy accuracy with very low storage and communication overhead. The approach also addresses a critical issue of heterogeneous data distribution among the sensors.

  15. Ecological Features of Oyster Beds Distribution in Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Al-Khayat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present investigation were to study the feature of biotic environment of oyster beds and to study quantitatively the biodiversity of fauna and flora living within these habitats. Eighteen selected oyster beds, within the Exclusive Economic Zone of Qatar were investigated by scuba diving. Most of the oyster beds were found in the area with sandy-rocky and Coral blocks bottom forms. Pearl oysters abundance varied widely between the different beds and within the same beds due to the variations in the bottom substrates. The associated biota was composed mainly of Algae (4%, Porifera (3%, Cnidaria (8%, Polychaeta (4%, Echinodermata (13%, Mollusca (55%, Chordate (2% and Crustacean (11%. The comparison of our findings on the occurrence and distribution of marine biota to previous studies has shown similarities between Qatar and other Gulf States particularly Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

  16. Feeding ecology, population structure and distribution of Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer, 1838) and Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) in a temperate estuary, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, R.; Martinho, F; Neto, J.M.; Cabral, H.; Marques, J. C.; Pardal, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The feeding ecology, growth and spatial-temporal abundance and distribution of Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer, 1838) and Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) were studied between June 2003 and June 2004, based on beam trawl surveys and macrobenthic samples conducted in the Mondego estuary, Portugal. Polychaetes, molluscs and amphipods were the most important items in the diet of P. microps, while for P. minutus the dominant preys were polychaetes, mysids and decapods. Pomatoschistus microps...

  17. THE INDO-PACIFIC GEMMULA SPECIES IN THE SUBFAMILY TURRINAE: ASPECTS OF FIELD DISTRIBUTION, MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY, RADULAR ANATOMY AND FEEDING ECOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Heralde, Francisco M.; Kantor, Yuri I.; Astilla, Mary Anne Q.; Lluisma, Arturo O.; Geronimo, Rollan; Alin?o, Porfirio M.; Watkins, Maren; Corneli, Patrice Showers; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Santos, Ameurfina D.; Concepcion, Gisela P.

    2010-01-01

    The biology, feeding ecology and phylogenetic relationships of marine snails in the family Turridae remain poorly understood. Here we report our study on four deep-water species in the genus Gemmula, a major group in this family. The four species G. speciosa (Reeve 1843), G. sogodensis (Olivera 2005), G. kieneri (Doumet 1940) and G. diomedea (Powell 1964) were collected at five different sites in the Philippines, and their pattern of distribution in the sites, their feeding behaviour as well ...

  18. Modelling dendritic ecological networks in space: anintegrated network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin E.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Isaak, Dan J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Jordon, Chris E.; McNyset, Kristina; Monestiez, Pascal; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Sengupta, Aritra; Som, Nicholas; Steel, E. Ashley; Theobald, David M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Wenger, Seth J.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic ecological networks (DENs) are a unique form of ecological networks that exhibit a dendritic network topology (e.g. stream and cave networks or plant architecture). DENs have a dual spatial representation; as points within the network and as points in geographical space. Consequently, some analytical methods used to quantify relationships in other types of ecological networks, or in 2-D space, may be inadequate for studying the influence of structure and connectivity on ecological processes within DENs. We propose a conceptual taxonomy of network analysis methods that account for DEN characteristics to varying degrees and provide a synthesis of the different approaches within

  19. The Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Tina Menor estuary (Cantabria, southern Bay of Biscay): Distribution and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Blanca; Pascual, Ana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, Julio; Martín-Rubio, Maite; Rofes, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Recent ostracods from the Tina Menor estuary (northern Spain, southern Bay of Biscay) have been analysed. Twenty-five species have been identified for the first time, 20 with living individuals during the sampling period. The most abundant species are Leptocythere castanea, Leptocythere porcellanea, Loxoconcha elliptica, Cytherois fischeri, and Hemicytherura hoskini, Leptocythere psammophila and Semicytherura aff. angulata. These species are grouped into four assemblages defining different environments: muddy inner estuary with euryhaline species (L. elliptica); middle estuary with silty sand flats and low marsh environments (L. castanea, L. porcellanea and C. fischeri); sandy outer estuary with marine characteristics (H. hoskini, S. aff. angulata, Leptocythere baltica and L. psammophila); and littoral to inner shelf environment (Caudites calceolatus, H. hoskini and Callistocythere murrayi). In the middle estuary, L. castanea also delimits sandy-silty low marshes, and L. porcellanea and C. fischeri the vegetated ecosystems. Multivariate analyses with the samples and species (cluster Q-type and detrended and canonical correspondence analysis) confirm that ostracod distribution in the Tina Menor estuary is controlled by sediment grain size and by the distance to the mouth of the estuary (associated to salinity). The geographical height in relation with mean tide levels (and therefore with emersion periods) also plays an important role in distribution. The results of this study confirm ostracod validity as tide-level markers due to the presence of C. fischeri below the MHWNT (mean high water neap tide), whereas L. castanea and L. porcellanea are present between the MHWNT and MHW (mean high water) levels. Ostracods can also indicate environmental changes due to human-influenced processes. Abundant individuals of L. elliptica in some areas of the middle estuary evidence discharges of lower-salinity water from a nearby fish farm. Ostracods from the marine shelf reach the inner estuary, but continental species are not provided by the rivers. The low river influence may be due to Nansa River flow regulation upstream, which hampers the transport of fluvial sediments, resulting in an increase in sand in the mudflat and low marshes, the latter fact confirmed by the numbers of L. castanea and L. porcellanea, much higher than in other estuaries in the southern Bay of Biscay.

  20. Redox gradients in distribution systems influence water quality, corrosion, and microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Sheldon; Wang, Hong; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Simulated distribution systems (SDSs) defined the interplay between disinfectant type (free chlorine and chloramines), water age (1-10.2 days), and pipe material (PVC, iron and cement surfaces) on water chemistry, redox zones and infrastructure degradation. Redox gradients developed as a function of water age and pipe material affected the quality of water consumers would receive. Free chlorine was most stable in the presence of PVC while chloramine was most stable in the presence of cement. At a 3.6 day water age the residual in the chlorinated PVC SDS was more than 3.5 times higher than in the chlorinated iron or cement systems. In contrast, the residual in the chloraminated cement SDS was more than 10 times greater than in the chloraminated iron or PVC systems. Near the point of entry to the SDSs where disinfectant residuals were present, free chlorine tended to cause as much as 4 times more iron corrosion when compared to chloramines. Facultative denitrifying bacteria were ubiquitous, and caused complete loss of nitrogen at distal points in systems with iron, and these bacteria co-occurred with very severe pitting attack (1.6-1.9 mm/year) at high water age. PMID:25462724

  1. Integrating evolution into geographical ecology: a phylogenetic perspective on palm distributions and community composition across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.

    Species distributions, assemblage composition, and species richness depend on both current environment and the diversification of lineages in past environments. On broad scales, processes that constrain diversifying lineages to certain regions or environments are particularly important. Through species pool effects, those processes also affect local community composition and richness. In addition, evolution directly affects local communities directly via niche-based assembly. We studied these effects with palms (Arecaceae) as a model group, using a) a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals in 430 transects in the Western Amazon, b) a set of range maps for all American palms (550 spp.), and c) global country-level presence/ absence data of all (>2400) palm species. These data were analysed with novel phylogenetic community structure and turnover methods. Globally, the phylogenetic structure of palm assemblages reflects several biogeographic and evolutionary processes. In the Americas, both dispersal limitation and a phylogenetically conserved temperature niche have constrained the evolution of palm species ranges. Broad-scale processes also influenced the local phylogenetic structure of Amazonian palm communities, which mainly reflects the evolution of habitat preferences.

  2. Distribution and ecology of Dormice (Myoxidae in Sicily: a preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Sarà

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three dormouse species are recorded in Sicily: Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius and Eliomys quercinus. Their distribution is mapped according to the 10 x 10 km squares of the UTM grid. Data were collected until May 1993, mostly coming from pellet analysis, and direct records (vocalization listening, museum specimens, field observations, literature, etc.. The Fat dormouse (5.3% of 10 x 10 km squares and the Hazel dormouse (2.1% are mainly localized within deciduous wooded areas like the beech forests and the hazel groves mixed with oaks and chestnuts of Nebrodi and Madonie. The Fat dormouse is also present in south-eastern Sicily (Monti Iblei and on in Eolian island (Salina. The Garden dormouse shows the widest distribution (21.2%, ranging from sea level to the beech forests (1600 m a.s.1.. Dormice are rarely preyed upon by Owls in Sicily, generally forming less than 1.5% of the total prey, with the exception the Fat dormouse (5.3%. Other occasional predators, so far recorded, are the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes and the Lanner (Falco biarmicus. Hibernation regularly occurs at high altitudes, but seems to be absent or curtailed in the warm habitats below 500 m a.s.1. Riassunto Distribuzione ed ecologia dei Mioxidi in Sicilia: dati preliminari - Tre specie di Mioxidi vivono in Sicilia (Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus. Storicamente (1850 essi erano presenti nelle principali aree boscate (Nebrodi, Madonie, Etna, solo nella metà di questo secolo, il Ghiro ed il Quercino furono scoperti alle isole Eolie (Salina e Lipari. Si riporta la carta di distribuzione di ogni specie (griglia UTM, 100 kmq ricavata dall'analisi della dieta di predatori, osservazioni dirette, trappolamenti ed esemplari citati in bibliografia o conservati nei musei. Il Ghiro (5,3% ed il Moscardino (2,1% sono localizzati nei boschi decidui di querce e faggio e, più in basso di noccioli, querce e castagni dei Nebrodi, Peloritani e Madonie. Il Ghiro è presente anche sull'Etna ed in un'area meridionale della Sicilia (Iblei. Il Quercino mostra la distribuzione più ampia (21,2% ed è presente in una gran varietà di habitat dal livello del mare fino alle faggete delle Madonie. I Mioxidi in Sicilia risultano predati finora occasionalmente dalla Volpe e dal Lanario e raramente dal Barbagianni e dall'Allocco. Solo il Ghiro risulta predato regolarmente (5% dall'Allocco e risulta la preda più importante in termini di biomassa (47% nei boschi dell'Etna e dei Nebrodi. Il periodo di letargo, desunto da osservazioni dirette e dalle borre, sembrerebbe normale (autunno inoltrato-primavera alle alte quote e assente o molto ridotto e discontinuo sotto i 400 m.

  3. Images on Comment ?PNG format) - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... : ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/taxonomy-icon/LATEST /taxonomy_icon_comment_png_en.zip File size: 15.8 M ...

  4. Update History of This Database - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... base Date Update contents 2013/06/19 Taxonomy Icon English ... archive site is opened. 2008/11 Taxonomy Icon (htt ...

  5. Systematics, distribution and ecology of commercially important paralichthyid flounders occurring in Argentinean-Uruguayan waters ( Paralichthys, Paralichthyidae): an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Astarloa, J. M. Díaz; Munroe, T. A.

    1998-03-01

    Species of Paralichthys Girard are the most important flatfishes to commercial fisheries in nearshore waters of Argentina and Uruguay. Recent commercial catches increased from 3000 tonnes (t) in 1984 to 11000 t in 1995, representing more than $65 million in export income for 1995. Although their commercial importance has long been recognized, paralichthyid flounders in this region are not well studied, either from a systematic or an ecological viewpoint. Six nominal species have been reported from Argentinean and Uruguayan waters: Paralichthys bicyclophorus, P. brasiliensis, P. isosceles, P. orbignyanus, P. patagonicus and P. simulans. However, species descriptions are often vague and incomplete, and reported distributions are dubious. Variations in scale morphology, meristic and morphometric characters were used to differentiate among the Paralichthys species co-occurring in this area. Of six species previously reported from this region, only three, P. isosceles, P. orbignyanus and P. patagonicus, are valid. P. bicyclophorus is regarded as a junior synonym of P. patagonicus; P. simulans is a junior synonym of P. orbignyanus; while P. brasiliensis, although reported from coastal waters of Argentina and Uruguay for many years, does not occur there. Paralichthys spp. were collected on the continental shelf and in estuaries in the south Atlantic between 34-55°S. P. orbignyanus and P. patagonicus inhabit marine and estuarine locations and extend as far south as 43°S. The former is a shallow-water, euryhaline species occurring to about 20 m. In contrast, P. patagonicus has higher densities between 36-40°S at 70-100 m depth. P. isosceles occurs mainly on the inner continental shelf between 43-45°S at 70-100 m depth, and reaches its southern limit at about 47°S.

  6. Hierarchical Taxonomy in Multi-Party System

    CERN Document Server

    Situngkir, H

    2004-01-01

    We propose the use of hierarchical taxonomy to analyze the legislative election results as a model of multi-party system to show the robustness in political system. As an example we use the result of Indonesian legislative election 2004 is analyzed with certain comparative with the previous one (1999). We construct the graph theoretical analysis by finding the Euclidean distances among political parties. The distances are then treated in ultrametric spaces by using the minimum spanning tree algorithm. By having the Indonesian hierarchical taxonomy model of political parties we show some patterns emerging the pattern agrees with the classical anthropological analysis of socio-political system in Indonesia. This fact accentuates a character of robustness in Indonesian political society as a self-organized system evolves to critical state. Some small perturbations i.e.: different voting process resulting the same pattern and occasions statistically, emerges from the social structure based upon political streams:...

  7. Conservation of biodiversity through taxonomy, data publication, and collaborative infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Vanhoorne, Bart; Appeltans, Ward

    2015-08-01

    Taxonomy is the foundation of biodiversity science because it furthers discovery of new species. Globally, there have never been so many people involved in naming species new to science. The number of new marine species described per decade has never been greater. Nevertheless, it is estimated that tens of thousands of marine species, and hundreds of thousands of terrestrial species, are yet to be discovered; many of which may already be in specimen collections. However, naming species is only a first step in documenting knowledge about their biology, biogeography, and ecology. Considering the threats to biodiversity, new knowledge of existing species and discovery of undescribed species and their subsequent study are urgently required. To accelerate this research, we recommend, and cite examples of, more and better communication: use of collaborative online databases; easier access to knowledge and specimens; production of taxonomic revisions and species identification guides; engagement of nonspecialists; and international collaboration. "Data-sharing" should be abandoned in favor of mandated data publication by the conservation science community. Such a step requires support from peer reviewers, editors, journals, and conservation organizations. Online data publication infrastructures (e.g., Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Ocean Biogeographic Information System) illustrate gaps in biodiversity sampling and may provide common ground for long-term international collaboration between scientists and conservation organizations. PMID:25858475

  8. Numerical ecology validates a biogeographical distribution and gender-based effect on mucosa-associated bacteria along the human colon

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Ca?rcer, Daniel; Cui?v, Pa?raic O?; Wang, Tingtin; Kang, Seungha; Worthley, Daniel; Whitehall, Vicki L. J.; Gordon, Iain; Mcsweeney, Christopher; Leggett, Barbara A.; Morrison, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We applied constrained ordination numerical ecology methods to data produced with a human intestinal tract-specific phylogenetic microarray (the Aus-HIT Chip) to examine the microbial diversity associated with matched biopsy tissue samples taken from the caecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 10 healthy patients. Consistent with previous studies, the profiles revealed a marked intersubject variability; however, the numerical ecology methods of analysis allowed the subtrac...

  9. A Taxonomy of Inference in Simulation Models:

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, T.; Werner, C.

    2007-01-01

    Simulation models have become increasingly popular in economics in the last two decades, because they can deal with a wide range of research questions. The set-up and analysis of simulation models can range from very specific to very general and can be underpinned by different combinations of theoretical considerations and empirical data. We offer a taxonomy of existing simulation approaches and show how their results can be used to explain observed economic features, examine economic systems...

  10. Hierarchical Taxonomy in Multi-Party System

    OpenAIRE

    Situngkir, Hokky

    2004-01-01

    We propose the use of hierarchical taxonomy to analyze the legislative election results as a model of multi-party system to show the robustness in political system. As an example we use the result of Indonesian legislative election 2004 is analyzed with certain comparative with the previous one (1999). We construct the graph theoretical analysis by finding the Euclidean distances among political parties. The distances are then treated in ultrametric spaces by using the minim...

  11. Horizontal policies in public procurement: a taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Arrowsmith, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Public procurement is widely used to promote objectives of an economic, environmental and social nature, such as the economic development of disadvantaged social groups. This article elaborates a detailed taxonomy of such “horizontal” policies. This study is valuable, first, to facilitate analysis of the practical phenomenon of horizontal policies and of the policy implications of different approaches and, second, to illuminate and develop the relevant regulatory frameworks under national...

  12. A revised taxonomy of assistance animals

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Parenti, MA, BCBA; Anne Foreman, PhD; B. Jean Meade, MD, DVM, MPH, PhD; Oliver Wirth, PhD

    2013-01-01

    The use of animals in various assistive, therapeutic, and emotional support roles has contributed to the uncoordinated expansion of labels used to distinguish these animals. To address the inconsistent vocabulary and confusion, this article proposes a concise taxonomy for classifying assistance animals. Several factors were identified to differentiate categories, including (1) whether the animal performs work or tasks related to an individual’s disability; (2) the typical level of skill req...

  13. A Taxonomy of Label Ranking Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Yangming Zhou; Yangguang Liu; Jiangang Yang; Xiaoqi He; Liangliang Liu

    2014-01-01

    The problem of learning label rankings is receiving increasing attention from machine learning and data mining community. Its goal is to learn a mapping from instances to rankings over a finite number of labels. In this paper, we devote to giving an overview of the state-of-the-art in the area of label ranking, and providing a basic taxonomy of the label ranking algorithms. Specifically, we classify these label ranking algorithms into four categories, namely decomposition methods, probabilist...

  14. Extreme levels of hidden diversity in microscopic animals (Rotifera) revealed by DNA taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaneto, Diego; Kaya, Murat; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2009-10-01

    Knowledge and estimates of species richness at all scales are biased both by our understanding of the evolutionary processes shaping diversity and by the methods used to delineate the basic units of diversity. DNA taxonomy shows that diversity may be underestimated by traditional taxonomy, especially for microscopic animals. The effects of such hidden diversity are usually overlooked in ecological studies. Here, we estimate hidden diversity in bdelloid rotifers, a group of microscopic animals. We analyse cryptic diversity using a coalescent approach to infer taxonomical units from phylogenetic trees. Cryptic diversity was measured for eight traditional species of bdelloid rotifers and the results compared to that of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis species complex, which is well studied and for which cross-mating experiments have been performed to explicitly define some of the species boundaries. A taxonomic inflation of up to 34 potential cryptic taxa was found in bdelloids. Cryptic taxa within each traditional species may be spatially isolated, but do not have narrower ecological niches. The species deemed as generalists exhibit the highest cryptic diversity. Cryptic diversity based on molecular characterization is commonly found in animals; nevertheless, the amount of cryptic diversity in bdelloids is much higher than in other groups analysed so far, maybe because of their peculiar parthenogenetic reproduction, other than microscopic size. We discuss this hypothesis in the light of the available empirical evidence from other groups of microscopic invertebrates, such as tardigrades and mites, which share size, habitat heterogeneity, potential for dispersal, and/or parthenogenetic reproduction. PMID:19398026

  15. A taxonomy for human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human interaction taxonomy (classification scheme) was developed to facilitate human reliability analysis in a probabilistic safety evaluation of a nuclear power plant, being performed at Ontario Hydro. A human interaction occurs, by definition, when operators or maintainers manipulate, or respond to indication from, a plant component or system. The taxonomy aids the fault tree analyst by acting as a heuristic device. It helps define the range and type of human errors to be identified in the construction of fault trees, while keeping the identification by different analysts consistent. It decreases the workload associated with preliminary quantification of the large number of identified interactions by including a category called 'simple interactions'. Fault tree analysts quantify these according to a procedure developed by a team of human reliability specialists. The interactions which do not fit into this category are called 'complex' and are quantified by the human reliability team. The taxonomy is currently being used in fault tree construction in a probabilistic safety evaluation. As far as can be determined at this early stage, the potential benefits of consistency and completeness in identifying human interactions and streamlining the initial quantification are being realized

  16. THE EFFECT OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES ON THE INCIDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF APHID VECTORS OF PEPPER VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS, ON CULTIVATED PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. FAJINMI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of aphid vectors of Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV was studied on cultivated pepper between 2003 and 2005 in the major pepper producing areas of the six agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. The aphids were isolated, identified and their transmission ability determined. Population of aphid vectors increased progressively in all the agro-ecological zones from March at the onset of raining season reaching a peak in August and then declining from September at the on set of the dry season. The Humid forest and Derived Savanna agro-ecological zones recorded highest mean population of aphids / leaf and types of aphid’s species compared with other agro-ecological zones. Six species of aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Aphis gossipii (Glover, Aphis craccivora (Koch, Aphis spiraecola (Patch, Aphis fabae (Blanchard, and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, were identified on the pepper fields surveyed in all the agro-ecological zones. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of M. persicae, A. gossipii, A. craccivora, and R. maidis while A. spiraecola and A. fabae that varied in occurrence in all the zones. Ability to transmit PVMV to a healthy pepper plants varied in all the identified aphid species but R. maidis was not able to transmit PVMV from infected to a healthy pepper plant. A more sustainable approach to controlling pepper viruses is by targeting the aphid vectors and preventing the vectors from reaching the crops because the aphid vectors which are virus specific are the major means of transmitting virus to healthy plant.

  17. Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (?6PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953 ?g L?1, with the average value of 4.042 ± 3.929 ?g L?1. The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the ?6PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of ?6PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens. - Highlights: • Monthly variation in PAEs was first investigated in a large Chinese shallow lake. • Ecological and health risks with uncertainty were determined. • PAEs with low and high level of carbon would be from different sources. • DnBP predominated within PAE congeners and posed a much greater ecological risks. • The studied PAE congeners posed little health risks to the nearby citizens

  18. Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta) na costa de Pernambuco e Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil / Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta) on the coast of Pernambuco State and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suellen, Brayner; Sonia Maria Barreto, Pereira; Maria Elizabeth, Bandeira-Pedrosa.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho identifica e fornece a distribuição do gênero Caulerpa na costa de Pernambuco (07º30' S e 09º00' W) e no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha (03º51' S e 32º25' W). As coletas foram realizadas em 32 praias da costa de Pernambuco no período entre abril/2004 a novembro/2005, na região entr [...] e-marés. Em Fernando de Noronha as coletas foram feitas em junho/2006, na região entre marés e no infralitoral (10, 15 e 21 m de profundidade), em oito praias. Foram, também, analisadas as exsicatas de Caulerpa depositadas no Herbário Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho (PEUFR) da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Os resultados mostram que o gênero Caulerpa está representado na costa de Pernambuco, por 19 táxons infragenéricos. Algumas espécies apresentaram distribuição restrita como C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh e C. serrulata (Forssk.) J. Agardh. Para o Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha foram registrados três táxons infragenéricos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa on the coast of Pernambuco (07º30'S; 09º00'W) and in the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (03º51'S; 32º25'W). Sampling was carried out on the coast of Pernambuco from April/2004 to November/2005, in the intertidal zone of 32 beac [...] hes. On Fernando de Noronha collections were made in June/2006 in the intertidal and infralittoral (10, 15 and 21m depth) regions of eight beaches. Exsiccata of Caulerpa from the Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho Herbarium (PEUFR) were also examined. The results showed that the genus Caulerpa is represented on the coast of Pernambuco state by 19 infrageneric taxa. Some species had restricted distributions such as C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh and C. serrulata (Forssk.) J. Agardh. Three infrageneric taxa were registered for the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago.

  19. Anthills in School Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, J. Marke

    1975-01-01

    Suggests experiments with field ants which can demonstrate the effect an organism has on its surroundings. The ecological aspects explored are plant distribution on the ant hills and the differences between ant hills and the undisturbed soil surrounding. (BR)

  20. Ecological distribution and population structure of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthoidea) on the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vivian, Fransozo; Thiago Elias da, Silva; Patrícia Bianca, Fumis; Giovana, Bertini; Paloma Aparecida de, Lima.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram analisar a distribuição ecológica e a estrutura populacional de A. schmitti no litoral sudeste brasileiro. Os caranguejos foram coletados, mensalmente, de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999 nas enseadas: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) e Mar Virado (MV), onde também f [...] oram obtidas amostras de água e sedimento para análise dos fatores ambientais. A maior abundância de A. schmitti foi verificada em UBM (224), seguida por UBA (154) e MV (23) e não apresentou associação com os fatores ambientais analisados. O motivo da baixa abundância desses caranguejos em MV pode ser a alta ação de ondas que movimenta o material biodetrítico acumulado no fundo e, frequentemente, remove pequenos caranguejos de seus abrigos entre fragmentos de conchas. Os indivíduos foram 269 machos e 132 fêmeas, das quais apenas 4 eram ovígeras. O recrutamento juvenil ocorreu o ano todo, sendo menos intenso na primavera. A maior abundância de indivíduos, bem como as fêmeas ovígeras, ocorreu em 1999, quando a entrada da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS) foi mais intensa do que no ano anterior. Esta influência ambiental pode ser o principal fator modulador para esta população. Abstract in english This investigation analyzed the ecological distribution and population structure of A. schmitti on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Crabs were sampled monthly from January 1998 to December 1999 at the following bays: Ubatumirim (UBM), Ubatuba (UBA) and Mar Virado (MV). Water and sediment samples we [...] re also collected from all sampling sites for an analysis of environmental factors. Acantholobus schmitti was most abundant at UBM (224), followed by UBA (154) and MV (23) but its abundance showed no association with the environmental factors analyzed. The low abundance of these crabs in MV may be due to the high wave action that moved biodetritic material accumulated on the bottom and frequently removed small crabs from their sheltered positions among the shell fragments. The individuals captured included 269 males and 132 females, of which only 4 specimens were brooding females. Juvenile recruitment occurred throughout the year, but was less intense in the spring. The major abundance of individuals as well as of ovigerous females occurred during 1999, when the entrance of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) was stronger than in previous year. This environmental influence could be the main factor modulating this population.

  1. Entropy-based disciplinarity indicator: role taxonomy of journals in scientific communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Manana-Rodriguez, J

    2013-01-01

    In this research, a new indicator of disciplinarity-multidisciplinarity is developed, discussed and applied. EBDI is based on the combination of the frequency distribution of subject categories of journals citing or cited by the analysis unit and the spread and diversity of the citations among subject categories measured with Shannon-Wiener entropy. Its reproducibility, robustness and consistence are discussed. Four of the combinations of its values when applied to the cited and citing dimensions lead to a suggested taxonomy of the role that the studied unit might have in terms of the transformation of knowledge from different disciplines in the scientific communication system and its position respect a hypothetical thematic core of the discipline in which it has been classified. The indicator is applied to the journals belonging to the first quartile of JCR-SSCI 2011 Library and Information Science and an indicator-based taxonomy is applied and discussed, pointing to differential thematic roles of the journa...

  2. Modeling ecological niches and predicting geographic distributions: a test of six presence-only methods Modelado de nichos ecológicos y predicción de distribuciones geográficas: comparación de seis métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Ortega-Huerta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling ecological niches of species as a means to predict geographic distributions is a growing field that has been applied to numerous challenges of importance in ecology, systematics, and human well-being. The increasing availability and variety of such predictive algorithms requires testing their performance. In this study, we compare 6 such algorithms (Maxent, BioMapper, DOMAIN, FloraMap, the genetic algorithm GARP, and weights of evidence as regards their ability to predict the geographic distributions of 10 species of Mexican birds for which ample distributional data are available. The results of this study nevertheless led to reflections on how model quality should be evaluated.La predicción de las distribuciones geográficas de las especies obtenida mediante el modelado de sus nichos ecológicos, representa una línea de investigación en expansión, la cual ha sido aplicada en múltiples áreas de conocimiento tales como ecología, sistemática y salud pública. La creciente disponibilidad y variedad de tales métodos y algoritmos de predicción determina su evaluación como necesaria. En este estudio, comparamos 6 algoritmos (Maxent, BioMapper, Domain, FloraMap, GARP, Weights of Evidence con respecto a su habilidad para predecir las distribuciones geográficas de 10 especies de aves de México, para las cuales se cuenta con suficientes datos distribucionales. No obstante, los resultados de nuestro estudio sugieren la necesidad de elaborar nuevos criterios para la evaluación de modelos.

  3. Modeling ecological niches and predicting geographic distributions: a test of six presence-only methods / Modelado de nichos ecológicos y predicción de distribuciones geográficas: comparación de seis métodos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel A., Ortega-Huerta; A, Townsend Peterson.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La predicción de las distribuciones geográficas de las especies obtenida mediante el modelado de sus nichos ecológicos, representa una línea de investigación en expansión, la cual ha sido aplicada en múltiples áreas de conocimiento tales como ecología, sistemática y salud pública. La creciente dispo [...] nibilidad y variedad de tales métodos y algoritmos de predicción determina su evaluación como necesaria. En este estudio, comparamos 6 algoritmos (Maxent, BioMapper, Domain, FloraMap, GARP, Weights of Evidence) con respecto a su habilidad para predecir las distribuciones geográficas de 10 especies de aves de México, para las cuales se cuenta con suficientes datos distribucionales. No obstante, los resultados de nuestro estudio sugieren la necesidad de elaborar nuevos criterios para la evaluación de modelos. Abstract in english Modeling ecological niches of species as a means to predict geographic distributions is a growing field that has been applied to numerous challenges of importance in ecology, systematics, and human well-being. The increasing availability and variety of such predictive algorithms requires testing the [...] ir performance. In this study, we compare 6 such algorithms (Maxent, BioMapper, DOMAIN, FloraMap, the genetic algorithm GARP, and weights of evidence) as regards their ability to predict the geographic distributions of 10 species of Mexican birds for which ample distributional data are available. The results of this study nevertheless led to reflections on how model quality should be evaluated.

  4. Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn. ssp. laricio (Poiret Maire distribution in the Sila mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaci A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The most well-known and vast Calabrian pine forests are in the Sila mountain range, southern Italy. In this paper, present-day distribution of Calabrian pine in the Sila district was analyzed and compared with forest maps dating back to 1935 in order to assess the changes in land use. Main ecological and anthropogenic factors affecting Calabrian pine forest distribution were investigated by logistic regression models to identify the most important predictors of Ca­labrian pine persistence, expansion, and transition over the period 1935-2006. In 2006, the area covered by Calabrian pine forests and mixed Calabrian pine-beech forests was 36 100 ha and 20 221 ha, respectively. Overall, pine forest area increased by 38% between 1935 and 2006. Logistic regression revealed that Calabrian pine distribution in the Sila district was affected by both ecolo­gical (bioclimate, soil, and elevation and anthropogenic factors (management, fire. Based on our results, four different potential dynamics of Calabrian pine stands are discussed in the perspective of the sustainable management and conservation of this important mountain forest habitat.

  5. The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

  6. The Evolution of Educational Objectives: Bloom's Taxonomy and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; LaMonaca, Frank H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial for teachers to communicate effectively about educational objectives to students, colleagues, and others in education. In 1956, Bloom developed a cognitive learning taxonomy to enhance communication between college examiners. The Bloom taxonomy consists of 6 hierarchical levels of learning (knowledge, comprehension, application,…

  7. Attack surfaces : A taxonomy for attacks on cloud services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants. © 2010 IEEE.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... ferent types of illustrations are provided; Large, Small , Large with No Background, Small ... with No Backgroun ... 880 files: 220 files for each type of icon (Large, Small , Large with No Background, Small ... with No Backgroun ...

  9. Eine Taxonomie von Fehlern in der englischen Wortstellung (A Taxonomy of Errors in English Word Order)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydatiss, Wolfgang

    1975-01-01

    Berlin gymnasium students were found to make errors in English word order traceable to German word order and to "hypercorrectness" in avoiding the latter. A suggested taxonomy of errors is presented. A functional language theory is needed to provide the learner with insight into sources of errors. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  11. Taxonomy for spatial domain LSB steganography techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James C.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2014-05-01

    The Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding technique is a well-known and broadly employed method in multimedia steganography, used mainly in applications involving single bit-plane manipulations in the spatial domain [1]. The key advantages of LSB procedures are they are simple to understand, easy to implement, have high embedding capacity, and can be resistant to steganalysis attacks. Additionally, the LSB approach has spawned numerous applications and can be used as the basis of more complex techniques for multimedia data embedding. In the last several decades, hundreds of new LSB or LSB variant methods have been developed in an effort to optimize capacity while minimizing detectability, taking advantage of the overall simplicity of this method. LSB-steganalysis research has also intensified in an effort to find new or improved ways to evaluate the performance of this widely used steganographic system. This paper reviews and categorizes some of these major techniques of LSB embedding, focusing specifically on the spatial domain. Some justification for establishing and identifying promising uses of a proposed SD-LSB centric taxonomy are discussed. Specifically, we define a new taxonomy for SD-LSB embedding techniques with the goal of aiding researchers in tool classification methodologies that can lead to advances in the state-of-the-art in steganography. With a common framework to work with, researchers can begin to more concretely identify core tools and common techniques to establish common standards of practice for steganography in general. Finally, we provide a summary on some of the most common LSB embedding techniques followed by a proposed taxonomy standard for steganalysis.

  12. Complex distribution patterns, ecology and coexistence of ploidy levels of Allium oleraceum (Alliaceae) in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duchoslav, M.; Šafá?ová, L.; Krahulec, František

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 105, ?. 5 (2010), s. 719-735. ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/07/0706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Allium oleraceum * ecological differentiation * cytotapes Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.388, year: 2010

  13. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

  14. Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS) and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 ?m long) and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 ?m diam). Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, ?-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C) than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C). Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus.

  15. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes : I. Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    High demand and consumption rates of ecological materials and services to satisfy societal needs and for the dissipation of emissions are quickly exceeding the capacity that nature can provide. To avoid a tipping point situation, where ecological services may no longer be availa...

  16. A revised taxonomy of assistance animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Parenti, MA, BCBA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of animals in various assistive, therapeutic, and emotional support roles has contributed to the uncoordinated expansion of labels used to distinguish these animals. To address the inconsistent vocabulary and confusion, this article proposes a concise taxonomy for classifying assistance animals. Several factors were identified to differentiate categories, including (1 whether the animal performs work or tasks related to an individual’s disability; (2 the typical level of skill required by the animal performing the work or task; (3 whether the animal is used by public service, military, or healthcare professionals; (4 whether training certifications or standards are available; and (5 the existence of legal public access protections for the animal and handler. Acknowledging that some category labels have already been widely accepted or codified, six functional categories were identified: (1 service animal; (2 public service animal; (3 therapy animal; (4 visitation ­animal; (5 sporting, recreational, or agricultural animal; and (6 support animal. This taxonomy provides a clear vocabulary for use by consumers, professionals working in the field, researchers, policy makers, and regulatory agencies.

  17. SSU rDNA divergence in planktonic foraminifera: molecular taxonomy and biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Aurore; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Morard, Raphaël; Ujiié, Yurika; Escarguel, Gilles; de Vargas, Colomban; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault; Douady, Christophe J

    2014-01-01

    The use of planktonic foraminifera in paleoceanography requires taxonomic consistency and precise assessment of the species biogeography. Yet, ribosomal small subunit (SSUr) DNA analyses have revealed that most of the modern morpho-species of planktonic foraminifera are composed of a complex of several distinct genetic types that may correspond to cryptic or pseudo-cryptic species. These genetic types are usually delimitated using partial sequences located at the 3'end of the SSUrDNA, but typically based on empirical delimitation. Here, we first use patristic genetic distances calculated within and among genetic types of the most common morpho-species to show that intra-type and inter-type genetic distances within morpho-species may significantly overlap, suggesting that genetic types have been sometimes inconsistently defined. We further apply two quantitative and independent methods, ABGD (Automatic Barcode Gap Detection) and GMYC (General Mixed Yule Coalescent) to a dataset of published and newly obtained partial SSU rDNA for a more objective assessment of the species status of these genetic types. Results of these complementary approaches are highly congruent and lead to a molecular taxonomy that ranks 49 genetic types of planktonic foraminifera as genuine (pseudo)cryptic species. Our results advocate for a standardized sequencing procedure allowing homogenous delimitations of (pseudo)cryptic species. On the ground of this revised taxonomic framework, we finally provide an integrative taxonomy synthesizing geographic, ecological and morphological differentiations that can occur among the genuine (pseudo)cryptic species. Due to molecular, environmental or morphological data scarcities, many aspects of our proposed integrative taxonomy are not yet fully resolved. On the other hand, our study opens up the potential for a correct interpretation of environmental sequence datasets. PMID:25119900

  18. Sine Systemate Chaos? A Versatile Tool for Earthworm Taxonomy: Non-Destructive Imaging of Freshly Fixed and Museum Specimens Using Micro-Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Kvist, Sebastian; Lenihan, Jennifer; Giribet, Gonzalo; Ziegler, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the high relevance of lumbricid earthworms (‘Oligochaeta’: Lumbricidae) for soil structure and functioning, the taxonomy of this group of terrestrial invertebrates remains in a quasi-chaotic state. Earthworm taxonomy traditionally relies on the interpretation of external and internal morphological characters, but the acquisition of these data is often hampered by tedious dissections or restricted access to valuable and rare museum specimens. The present state of affairs, in conjunction with the difficulty of establishing primary homologies for multiple morphological features, has led to an almost unrivaled instability in the taxonomy and systematics of certain earthworm groups, including Lumbricidae. As a potential remedy, we apply for the first time a non-destructive imaging technique to lumbricids and explore the future application of this approach to earthworm taxonomy. High-resolution micro-computed tomography (?CT) scanning of freshly fixed and museum specimens was carried out using two cosmopolitan species, Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. trapezoides. By combining two-dimensional and three-dimensional dataset visualization techniques, we demonstrate that the morphological features commonly used in earthworm taxonomy can now be analyzed without the need for dissection, whether freshly fixed or museum specimens collected more than 60 years ago are studied. Our analyses show that ?CT in combination with soft tissue staining can be successfully applied to lumbricid earthworms. An extension of the approach to other families is poised to strengthen earthworm taxonomy by providing a versatile tool to resolve the taxonomic chaos currently present in this ecologically important, but taxonomically neglected group of terrestrial invertebrates. PMID:24837238

  19. Taxonomy of the genus Leishmania: present and future trends and their implications

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Jeffrey J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of different taxonomic methods (Cladistic, Evolutionary Taxonomy and Numerical Taxonomy) to the taxonomy of the Genus Leishmania are reviewed. The major groupings of the most recent classifications obtained using the cladistical approach agree with the major divisions of previous classifications which used traditional taxonomy (Evolutionary Taxonomy). The advantage of the cladistical approach is that it produces cladograms whose branches indicate more accurately levels of rela...

  20. Integration of ecological and morphological studies: Micro-distribution of Protaphorura-species (Collembola: Onychiurinae) around a beech stem.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef

    ?eské Bud?jovice : ISB BC AS CR, 2007, s. 117-120. ISBN 978-80-86525-08-2. [Contributions to Soil Zoology in Central Europe II. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /8./. ?eské Bud?jovice (CZ), 20.04.2005-22.04.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6066702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : beech forest * acid stemflow * Collembola Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Campylomorphus homalisinus (Elateridae): a new species for Lombardy (Italy), with notes on its ecology, distribution and biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Biella, Paolo; Groppali, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylomorphus homalisinus has been found on Mt. Lesima (Northern Apennines) and it is the first record for the Lombardy region. Campylomorphus homalisinus is a rare orophilous species: it has a discontinuous chorology that may have been caused by glaciers dynamics during the Pleistocene era. Little is known about the ecology of the species. This record and the expert-based investigation we performed determined that Campylomorphus homalisinus inhabits shrublands and grasslands, but m...

  2. Ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri in systems science and systematics

    CERN Document Server

    Currás, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The originality of this book, which deals with such a new subject matter, lies in the application of methods and concepts never used before - such as ontologies and taxonomies, as well as thesauri - to the ordering of knowledge based on primary information. Chapters in the book also examine the study of ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri from the perspective of systematics and general systems theory. Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in Systems Science and Systematics will be extremely useful to those operating within the network of related fields, which includes documentation and informati

  3. Diversité floristique, ethnobotanique et taxonomie locale des mauvaises herbes de l'oignon au Nord-est du Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic Diversity, Ethno-botanic and Local Taxonomy of Onion's Weeds in the North East of Benin. A study has been conducted in order to document scientific names, local names and their significations, and also to apprehend onion's weed species nomenclature adopted by farmers in the North East of Benin. Thirty onion's households have been surveyed through semi-structured interviews and a floristic inventory was carried out in each of them. Weeds'species and their botanic families and also the criteria of their local names have been identified and have served to elaborate a local taxonomy typology. 71 species which belong to 26 botanic families and 17 species belonging to six families constitute respectively the general flora and the flora associated to onion in vegetation.Poaceae,Cyperaceae, Commelinaceae, Malvaceae, Fabaceae and Portulacaceae are the most important families according to their number of species. Ecology, morphology, resistance to hoe weeding and socio-cultural usages are the criteria that were used to develop the local denomination of 39 among 71 identified species, and have served to elaborate the typology of local taxonomy. The other 32 species without local names do not have any major agroecological, nor socio-cultural interest for farmers. The evaluation of the agronomic importance of the flora associated to onion's vegetation can contribute to a better control of the weeds of this crop.

  4. Revisión cráneo-dentaria de Procyon (Carnivora: Procyonidae) en Colombia y Ecuador, con notas sobre su taxonomía y distribución / Cranio-dental revision of Procyon (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in Colombia and Ecuador, with remarks on its taxonomy and distribution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Marín; Héctor E, Ramírez-Chaves; Andrés Felipe, Suárez-Castro.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En América del Sur, dos especies del género Procyon han sido históricamente registradas, P. cancrivorus y P. lotor, sin embargo, el conocimiento relacionado con la morfología, la historia natural y su distribución en Colombia y Ecuador es limitado, razón por la cual se ha cuestionado la presencia de [...] P. lotor en esta parte del continente. Con el propósito de contribuir al conocimiento de Procyon en estos países, elaboramos una evaluación morfológica y morfométrica craneana; utilizamos 24 medidas que examinamos por medio de análisis multivariados y pruebas estadísticas estándar. Aclaramos dudas relacionadas con la presencia de P. lotor en Colombia y actualizamos la distribución de P. cancrivorus en ambos países. Nuestros resultados muestran que las dos especies se encuentran en Colombia y pueden diferenciarse por el ancho del P4 y por la relación longitud del paladar después del M2/longitud total del paladar. Caracteres morfológicos que diferencian las dos especies son: molariformes más masivos con cúspides anchas y redondeadas en P. cancri-vorus, mientras que en P. lotor son más agudas. Procyon lotor se encuentra restringida al norte de Colombia, mientras que P. cancrivorus está más ampliamente distribuida en varias regiones naturales hasta los 2350 msnm en los Andes. Los ejemplares de P. cancrivorus del noroccidente de Colombia presentan características dentarias que concuerdan con las propuestas para la subespecie P. c. proteus y sugerimos que este nombre debería aplicarse a estas poblaciones; sin embargo, el estatus subespecífico de las poblaciones colombianas de P. lotor y de las poblaciones ecuatorianas de P. cancrivorus es incierto. Abstract in english In South America, two species of Procyon have been historically recorded, P. cancrivorus and P. lotor. However, the knowledge related to the morphology, natural history and distribution in Colombia and Ecuador is limited, for this reason the presence of P. lotor in this part of the continent has bee [...] n questioned. In order to contribute to the knowledge of Procyon in these countries, we developed a cranial morphological and morphometric evaluation; we used twenty-four measures that were analyzed using multivariate analysis and standard statistical. We elucidated doubts regarding P. lotor's presence in Colombia and updated the distribution of P. cancrivorus in both countries. Our results show that both species are present in Colombia and can be distinguished by the P4 width and the palate length after M2/palate total length ratio. Morphological characters that differentiated the two species are massive molar teeth with broad and round cusps in P. cancrivorus, whereas in P. lotor, are sharper. Procyon lotor is restricted to northern Colombia, while P. cancrivorus is more widely distributed in different natural regions up to 2350 m in the Andes. Procyon cancrivorus specimens from northwestern Colombia have dental characteristics consistent with the proposals for the subspecies P. c. proteus and we suggest that this name should be applied to these populations. Nevertheless, the subspecific status of the colombian populations of P. lotor and ecuatorian populations of P. cancrivorus remain uncertain.

  5. Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T; Hanser, Steven E; Preston, Kristine L

    2013-06-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km(2) region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D (2) model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species-habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D (2) (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered species listing. Our results identifying attributes important for delineating habitats or modeling connectivity will facilitate conservation and management of landscapes important for supporting current and future sage-grouse populations. PMID:23789066

  6. Taxonomía y distribución de los anofelinos en el estado de Veracruz, México (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae) / Taxonomy and distribution of the anopheline mosquitoes in the state of Veracruz, Mexico (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Beltrán-Aguilar; Sergio, Ibáñez-Bernal; Fredy, Mendoza-Palmero; César A., Sandoval-Ruiz; Ruth A., Hernández-Xoliot.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad humana causada por protozoarios del género Plasmodium y es transmitida por hembras de mosquito de ciertas especies de Anopheles. Se estima que en México el 33.1% de la población vive en áreas donde puede ocurrir la transmisión de la malaria. Veracruz es un es [...] tado donde la enfermedad es endémica debido a diversos factores que lo hacen una zona de riesgo para la transmisión, entre ellos las condiciones climáticas y la migración humana. Por lo anterior, en este trabajo se presentan las bases para la reactivación de la vigilancia entomológica del paludismo en el estado de Veracruz, para lo cual se provee la diagnosis ilustrada de la larva, la pupa y los adultos de ambos sexos de las especies de anofelinos del estado, así como las claves taxonómicas que permiten su reconocimiento, con base en el examen de ejemplares recolectados o depositados en colecciones entomológicas de referencia. También se obtuvieron mapas de distribución conocida y potencial de las especies por medio de GARP. Se mencionan además algunos datos bionómicos y la importancia médica de cada especie. Se conocen en Veracruz 18 especies de anofelinos, agrupadas en dos géneros, Chagasia con una especie y Anopheles con 17 pertenecientes a los subgéneros An. (Anopheles), An. (Kerteszia) y An. (Nyssorhynchus). Se reconocen cuatro grupos de especies de acuerdo a su capacidad de transmisión de plasmodios y por su amplitud de distribución: el grupo de alto riesgo constituido por 2 especies; el grupo de riesgo moderado o regional, con 8 especies; el de escaso riesgo, con 3 especies y el de riesgo nulo con 5 especies. Prácticamente todo el estado posee vectores potenciales por lo que debe reestablecerse la vigilancia permanente de sus poblaciones. Este trabajo aporta elementos de juicio para que el estado pueda ser, en un futuro cercano, certificado como área libre de paludismo. Abstract in english Malaria is a human disease caused by four species of the protozoon genus Plasmodium which are transmitted by Anophelinae female mosquitoes of some species of the genus Anopheles. It has been estimated that in Mexico 33.1% of the human population lives in areas where the transmission of malaria is po [...] ssible. The risk area includes the State of Veracruz that has been a traditional endemic zone in the past. Factors as weather, human density and human migration elevate the potential transmission risk. In this study, basic information needed for the reactivation of the entomological surveillance in the Veracruz State is provided, presenting the check-list with the illustrated diagnosis of larva, pupa, adult male and female, and taxonomic keys for the identification of species based in all postembryonic developmental stages. The known and potential distribution maps were obtained using GARP. Some bionomic data and the medical importance of the species are also mentioned. There are 18 Anophelinae species in Veracruz, grouped in two genera, Chagasia with one species and Anopheles with 17, pertaining to three subgenera An. (Anopheles), An (Kerteszia) and An. (Nyssorhynchus). According to the plasmodium transmission capability and distribution range, four groups of species are recognized: the high risk group, with 2 species; the median risk or regional risk group, with 8 species; the low risk group, with 3 species and the no risk group with 5 species. Potential malaria vectors are present throughout almost the entire state, so permanent surveillance of the anopheline populations must be reestablished. This study contributes strong elements for the future certification of the Veracruz State as an area free from malaria.

  7. The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological factors (e.g. the plant growth) or the economical factors as a simple monetary calculation, but also their mutual influences. Finally, the ecological-economic model enables us to make a risk assessment or evaluate adaptation strategies.

  8. Income distribution and mortality: cross sectional ecological study of the Robin Hood index in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, B. P.; Kawachi, I.; Prothrow-stith, D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the effect of income inequality as measured by the Robin Hood index and the Gini coefficient on all cause and cause specific mortality in the United States. DESIGN--Cross sectional ecological study. SETTING--Households in the United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Disease specific mortality, income, household size, poverty, and smoking rates for each state. RESULTS--The Robin Hood index was positively correlated with total mortality adjusted for age (r = 0.54; P < 0.05)...

  9. Phishing Detection Taxonomy for Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cik Feresa Mohd Foozy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the social engineering attacks and currently hit on mobile devices. Based on security report by Lookout, 30% of Lookout users clicking on an unsafe link per year by using mobile device. Few phishing detection techniques have been applied on mobile device. However, review on phishing detection technique on the detection technique redundant is still need. This paper addresses the current trend phishing detection for mobile device and identifies significant criterion to improve phishing detection techniques on mobile device. Thus, existing research on phishing detection technique for computer and mobile device will be compared and analysed. Hence, outcome of the analysis becomes a guideline in proposing generic phishing detection taxonomy for mobile device

  10. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%.

  11. A Taxonomy of Metrics for Hosted Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Shropshire

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The past three years has seen exponential growth in the number of organizations who have elected to entrust core information technology functions to application service providers. Of particular interest is the outsourcing of critical systems such as corporate databases. Major banks and financial service firms are contracting with third party organizations, sometimes overseas, for their database needs. These sophisticated contracts require careful supervision by both parties. Due to the complexities of web- based applications and the complicated nature of databases, an entire class of software suites has been developed to measure the quality of service the database is providing. This article investigates the performance metrics which have evolved to satisfy this need and describes a taxonomy of performance metrics for hosted databases.

  12. A Taxonomy of Label Ranking Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangming Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of learning label rankings is receiving increasing attention from machine learning and data mining community. Its goal is to learn a mapping from instances to rankings over a finite number of labels. In this paper, we devote to giving an overview of the state-of-the-art in the area of label ranking, and providing a basic taxonomy of the label ranking algorithms. Specifically, we classify these label ranking algorithms into four categories, namely decomposition methods, probabilistic methods, similarity-based methods, and other methods. We pay particular attention to the latest advances in each. Also, we discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight some interesting challenges that remain to be solved.

  13. The HCBS Taxonomy- A New Language for Classifying Home...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The home- and community-based services (HCBS) taxonomy provides a common language for describing and categorizing HCBS across Medicaid programs. Prior to the...

  14. License - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... ional Bioscience Database Center Japan Science and Technology ... Agency 5-3, Yonbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0081, ...

  15. Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    One of the first issues that emerges when a prokaryotic organism of interest is encountered is the question of what it is--that is, which species it is. The 16S rRNA gene formed the basis of the first method for sequence-based taxonomy and has had a tremendous impact on the field of microbiology. Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identification on a common data set of complete genomes: (i) SpeciesFinder, which is based on the complete 16S rRNA gene; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species-specific functional protein domain profiles; and finally (v) KmerFinder, which examines the number of cooccurring k-mers (substrings of k nucleotides in DNA sequence data). The performances of the methods were subsequently evaluated on three data sets of short sequence reads or draft genomes from public databases. In total, the evaluation sets constituted sequence data from more than 11,000 isolates covering 159 genera and 243 species. Our results indicate that methods that sample only chromosomal, core genes have difficulties in distinguishing closely related species which only recently diverged. The KmerFinder method had the overall highest accuracy and correctly identified from 93% to 97% of the isolates in the evaluations sets.

  16. Taxonomy, distribution and population structure of invasive Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) in the Suquía River basin, Córdoba, Argentina / Taxonomía, distribución y estructura poblacional de Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) invasores en la cuenca del Río Suquía, Córdoba, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola B., Reyna; Ariana G., Morán; Marcos, Tatián.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las especies invasoras son una de las causas más importantes de la pérdida de biodiversidad y de las alteraciones que se producen en los servicios ecosistémicos; en ello reside la importancia de la detección de estas especies y su estudio. Las almejas asiáticas (Corbiculidae) son organismos invasore [...] s que ingresaron accidentalmente en el Río de La Plata, Argentina, presuntamente en la década de los 1960'. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron identificar las especies de corbicúlidos y determinar su distribución en distintas localidades a lo largo de la cuenca del Río Suquía, un área extensa localizada en el centro de Argentina. Asimismo, la estructura poblacional fue evaluada mensualmente durante el periodo de un año, en un sitio de la ciudad de Córdoba caracterizado por una alta influencia humana. Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) y Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844) en la cuenca del Rio Suquía. La primera sólo se encontró en un ambiente léntico (embalse San Roque), mientras que la segunda especie también se encontró a lo largo de los afluentes y arroyos de la cuenca. Corbicula largillierti mostró una variación en la densidad media, considerando los diferentes sitios; asimismo en la biomasa y las clases de tamaño en un mismo sitio, durante el período de estudio. La composición relativa de los sedimentos, la fluctuación del caudal y la contaminación humana podrían ser las responsables de las diferencias observadas. Abstract in english Invasive species are one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services, which underlines the importance of their detection and their study. The Asian clams (Corbiculidae) are invasive organisms that accidentally entered the La Plata River, Argentina, presumabl [...] y in the 1960s. The objectives of the present study were to identify the corbiculid species and to determine their distribution at several locations along the Suquía River basin, an extended area in central Argentina. In addition, population structure was evaluated monthly during one year, at a site in the city of Córdoba that is characterized by high human influence. The presence of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) and Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844) in the Suquía River basin is reported for the first time. The former species was found only in a lentic environment (San Roque reservoir), while the latter was also found along the tributary rivers and brooks of the basin. Corbicula largillierti showed variations in average density between the different sites and also in biomass and size classes throughout the study period at the site at Córdoba city. The relative composition of the sediments, flow fluctuation and human pollution may be responsible for the observed differences.

  17. Biome specificity of distinct genetic lineages within the four-striped mouse Rhabdomys pumilio (Rodentia: Muridae) from southern Africa with implications for taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Nina; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A

    2012-10-01

    Within southern Africa, a link between past climatic changes and faunal diversification has been hypothesized for a diversity of taxa. To test the hypothesis that evolutionary divergences may be correlated to vegetation changes (induced by changes in climate), we selected the widely distributed four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys, as a model. Two species are currently recognized, the mesic-adapted R. dilectus and arid-adapted R. pumilio. However, the morphology-based taxonomy and the distribution boundaries of previously described subspecies remain poorly defined. The current study, which spans seven biomes, focuses on the spatial genetic structure of the arid-adapted R. pumilio (521 specimens from 31 localities), but also includes limited sampling of the mesic-adapted R. dilectus (33 specimens from 10 localities) to act as a reference for interspecific variation within the genus. The mitochondrial COI gene and four nuclear introns (Eef1a1, MGF, SPTBN1, Bfib7) were used for the construction of gene trees. Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that Rhabdomys consists of four reciprocally monophyletic, geographically structured clades, with three distinct lineages present within the arid-adapted R. pumilio. These monophyletic lineages differ by at least 7.9% (±0.3) and these results are partly confirmed by a multilocus network of the combined nuclear intron dataset. Ecological niche modeling in MaxEnt supports a strong correlation between regional biomes and the distribution of distinct evolutionary lineages of Rhabdomys. A Bayesian relaxed molecular clock suggests that the geographic clades diverged between 3.09 and 4.30Ma, supporting the hypothesis that the radiation within the genus coincides with paleoclimatic changes (and the establishment of the biomes) characterizing the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Marked genetic divergence at the mitochondrial DNA level, coupled with strong nuclear and mtDNA signals of non-monophyly of R. pumilio, support the notion that a taxonomic revision of the genus is needed. PMID:22728170

  18. Isoprenoid emission in hygrophyte and xerophyte European woody flora: ecological and evolutionary implications.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loreto, F.; Bagnoli, F.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Cafasso, D.; De Lillis, M.; Filibeck, G.; Finsechi, S.; Guidolotti, G.; Sramko, G.; Tökölyi, J.; Ricotta, C.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 23, ?. 3 (2014), s. 334-345. ISSN 1466-822X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Adaptation * chemo-taxonomy * hygrophytes * isoprene * monoterpenes * phylogenies * salicaceae * xerophytes * water stress Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 7.242, year: 2013

  19. A Taxonomy of Internet Commerce (originally published in October 1998)

    OpenAIRE

    Bambury, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper is included in the First Monday Special Issue: Commercial Applications of the Internet, published in July 2006. For author reflections on this paper, visit the Special Issue. This paper attempts to clarify terminology discussing the interface between commerce and the Internet. It is also an empirically derived classification system or taxonomy of existing Internet business models. This taxonomy has two main branches - transplanted real-world business models and native Internet ...

  20. The Cambrian trilobites of Jordan : taxonomy, systematic and stratigraphic significance

    OpenAIRE

    Elicki, Olaf; Geyer, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Elicki, O. and Geyer, G. 2013. The Cambrian trilobites of Jordan - taxonomy, systematic and stratigraphic significance. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (1), 1-56. Warszawa. Marine carbonates and siliciclastic rocks of the Burj Formation in Jordan include paucispecific trilobite associations of the (traditional) Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary interval. Comprehensive new material of these trilobites allows a review of their taxonomy and systematic positions as well as a refined morphological descri...

  1. Antibiotics in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ocean is an important sink of land-based pollutants. Previous studies showed that serious antibiotic pollution occurred in the coastal waters, but limited studies focused on their presence in offshore waters. In this study, eleven antibiotics in three different categories were investigated in offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China. The results indicated that three antibiotics dehydration erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim occurred throughout the offshore waters at concentrations of 0.10–16.6 ng L?1 and they decreased exponentially from the rivers to the coastal and offshore waters. The other antibiotics all presented very low detection rates (?1). Although the concentrations were very low, risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that sulfamethoxazole, dehydration erythromycin and clarithromycin at most of sampling sites posed medium or low ecological risks (0.01 ?1. ? Their concentrations decreased exponentially from the rivers to the offshore waters. ? Some antibiotics in the offshore water posed medium or low risks to some organisms. -- Some antibiotics were ubiquitous in the offshore waters of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China and posed medium or low ecological risks to some sensitive organisms

  2. Spatial distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface seawater from Yangpu Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Cao, Jia; Diao, Xiaoping; Wang, Baihua; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Zheng, Pengfei; Li, Yuhu

    2015-04-15

    The occurrence of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency was investigated in surface seawater of Yangpu Bay, China in November 2013 (winter) and May 2014 (summer). Seventy-two samples were collected from 12 sampling sites. The total concentrations of PAHs in Yangpu Bay showed obvious variations in different seasons, which varied from 582.8 to 2208.3ngL(-1) in winter and 952.4 to 1201.7ngL(-1) in summer, respectively. Two-ring PAHs accounted for more than 91.6% of total PAHs in winter, and three-ring PAHs were dominant with 81.6% of total PAHs in summer. Molecular indices analyses indicated that the main source of PAHs in Yangpu Bay could be petrogenic contamination. The ecological risk assessment by Risk quotients (RQNCs and RQMPCs) showed a potential ecological risk of PAHs in Yangpu Bay, indicating a close attention should be paid to pollution of PAHs in the coastal area of Yangpu. PMID:25726067

  3. Dynamics of market correlations: taxonomy and portfolio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, J-P; Chakraborti, A; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Kanto, A

    2003-11-01

    The time dependence of the recently introduced minimum spanning tree description of correlations between stocks, called the "asset tree" has been studied in order to reflect the financial market taxonomy. The nodes of the tree are identified with stocks and the distance between them is a unique function of the corresponding element of the correlation matrix. By using the concept of a central vertex, chosen as the most strongly connected node of the tree, an important characteristic is defined by the mean occupation layer. During crashes, due to the strong global correlation in the market, the tree shrinks topologically, and this is shown by a low value of the mean occupation layer. The tree seems to have a scale-free structure where the scaling exponent of the degree distribution is different for "business as usual" and "crash" periods. The basic structure of the tree topology is very robust with respect to time. We also point out that the diversification aspect of portfolio optimization results in the fact that the assets of the classic Markowitz portfolio are always located on the outer leaves of the tree. Technical aspects such as the window size dependence of the investigated quantities are also discussed. PMID:14682849

  4. Dynamics of market correlations Taxonomy and portfolio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Onnela, J P; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Kanto, A

    2003-01-01

    The time dependence of the recently introduced minimum spanning tree description of correlations between stocks, called the ``asset tree'' have been studied to reflect the economic taxonomy. The nodes of the tree are identified with stocks and the distance between them is a unique function of the corresponding element of the correlation matrix. By using the concept of a central vertex, chosen as the most strongly connected node of the tree, an important characteristic is defined by the mean occupation layer (MOL). During crashes the strong global correlation in the market manifests itself by a low value of MOL. The tree seems to have a scale free structure where the scaling exponent of the degree distribution is different for `business as usual' and `crash' periods. The basic structure of the tree topology is very robust with respect to time. We also point out that the diversification aspect of portfolio optimization results in the fact that the assets of the classic Markowitz portfolio are always located on ...

  5. The value of species distribution models as a tool for conservation and ecology in Egypt and Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about the distribution of species is limited, with extensive gaps in our knowledge, particularly in tropical areas and in arid environments. Species distribution models offer a potentially very powerful tool for filling these gaps in our knowledge. They relate a set of recorded occurrences of a species to environmental variables thought to be important in determining the distributions of species, in order to predict where species will be found throughout an area of interest. In this...

  6. Potential of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Mapping Distribution and Evaluating Ecological Characteristics of Tree Species at the Angkor Monument, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita Mizuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large trees play several vital roles in the Angkor monuments landscape. They protect biodiversity, enhance the tourism experience, and provide various ecosystem services to local residents. A clear understanding of forest composition and distribution of individual species, as well as timely monitoring of changes, is necessary for conservation of these trees. using traditional field work, obtaining this sort of data is time-consuming and labour-intensive. This research investigates classification of very high resolution remote sensing data as a tool for efficient analyses. QuickBird satellite imagery was used to clarify the tree species community in and around Preah Khan temple, to elucidate differences in ecological traits among the three dominant species (Dipterocarpus alatus, Lagerstroemia calyculata and Tetrameles nudiflora, and to identify crowns of the dominant species.

  7. The Gulf Coast tick: a review of the life history, ecology, distribution, and emergence as an arthropod of medical and veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, P D; Ketchum, H R; Mock, D E; Wright, R E; Strey, O F

    2010-09-01

    The Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), is a unique univoltine ectoparasite of seven vertebrate host classes in the Western Hemisphere that is increasingly recognized as a pest of livestock and wildlife, a vector of pathogens to humans and canines, and a putative vector of Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causal agent of heartwater, a fatal foreign animal disease of ruminants resident in the Caribbean. This review assembles current and historical literature encompassing the biology, ecology, and zoogeography of this tick and provides new assessments of changes in cyclical population distribution, habitat associations, host utilization, seasonal phenology, and life history. These assessments are pertinent to the emergence of A. maculatum as a vector of veterinary and medical importance, and its pest management on livestock and other animals. PMID:20939363

  8. Failure Modes Taxonomy for Reliability Assessment of Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems for Probabilistic Risk Analysis - Failure modes taxonomy for reliability assessment of digital I and C systems for PRAFailure Modes Taxonomy for Reliability Assessment of Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems for Probabilistic Risk Analysis - Failure modes taxonomy for reliability assessment of digital I and C systems for PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital protection and control systems appear as upgrades in older nuclear power plants (NPP), and are commonplace in new NPPs. To assess the risk of NPP operation and to determine the risk impact of digital systems, there is a need to quantitatively assess the reliability of the digital systems in a justifiable manner. Due to the many unique attributes of digital systems (e.g., functions are implemented by software, units of the system interact in a communication network, faults can be identified and handled online), a number of modelling and data collection challenges exist, and international consensus on the reliability modelling has not yet been reached. The objective of the task group called DIGREL has been to develop a taxonomy of failure modes of digital components for the purposes of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). An activity focused on the development of a common taxonomy of failure modes is seen as an important step towards standardised digital instrumentation and control (I and C) reliability assessment techniques for PRA. Needs from PRA has guided the work, meaning, e.g., that the I and C system and its failures are studied from the point of view of their functional significance point of view. The taxonomy will be the basis of future modelling and quantification efforts. It will also help to define a structure for data collection and to review PRA studies. The proposed failure modes taxonomy has been developed by first collecting examples of taxonomies provided by the task group organisations. This material showed some variety in the handling of I and C hardware failure modes, depending on the context where the failure modes have been defined. Regarding the software part of I and C, failure modes defined in NPP PRAs have been simple - typically a software CCF failing identical processing units. The DIGREL task group has defined a new failure modes taxonomy based on a hierarchical definition of five levels of abstraction: 1. system level (complete reactor protection system), 2. division level, 3. I and C unit level, 4. I and C unit modules level, 5. basic components level. This structure corresponds to a typical reactor protection system architecture, which is the scope of the DIGREL work. The taxonomy that was developed provides a framework to classify digital system failure modes. Failure propagation, which is essential for analysing failure modes and their effects, is described using a failure model. Four important elements of the failure model on which the taxonomy focuses stand out: 1. fault location, 2. failure mode, 3. uncovering situation, 4. failure effect and the end effect. These concepts are applied in particular at the I and C unit and module levels of abstraction. I and C unit level failure modes are associated with the end effects at the I and C unit module level, depending on the fault location and uncovering situation. The purpose of the taxonomy is to support PRAs and therefore focus is placed on high level functional aspects rather than low level structural aspects. This focus allows handling of the variability of failure modes and mechanisms of I and C components. It reduces the difficulties associated with the complex structural aspects of software in redundant distributed systems. At the level of system, division and I and C units, no significant distinction is made between hardware or software aspects. At the module and basic component levels, the taxonomy differentiates between hardware and software related failure modes. This report can be seen as a step towards more harmonised approach to analyse and model digital I and C in PRA. There is a number of areas where further studies are needed, and many of the recommendations given in the previous digital I and C expert report NEA/CSNI/R(2009)18 are still valid. For instance, the following actions could be considered: - Testing of the applicability of the taxonomy in modelling, including test with different I and C designs and modelling approaches. - Testing of the applicability of the taxonomy in data collection. After the termination

  9. Statistical ecology comes of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T.; Morgan, Byron J. T.; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M.; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M.; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1–4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

  10. Statistical ecology comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

  11. Segregated, structured, distributed models and their role in microbial ecology: A case study based on work done on the filter-feeding ciliateTetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, A G

    1991-12-01

    Microbial populations are composed of individual organisms each of which, if environmental circumstances are favorable, is undergoing change of its internal state through the operation of the set of processes that we call the cell cycle. The rate of progression through the cycle is subject to internal controls as well as external influences, and exhibits random as well as deterministic features. Microorganisms of the same species in different stages of the cell cycle have different internal states, and thus, the operation of the cell cycle is by itself sufficient to produce a distribution of states among the individual organisms of a population. In turn, the distribution of states produces distributions of the rates at which the cells of a population carry on their activities. Mathematical models of microbial growth that take the operation of the cell cycle and its consequences into account are more complicated than the kinds of models that are often used in microbial ecology. This paper gives some account of the nature, formulation, and uses of complex growth models. The account is illustrated by work done by the author and his collaborators H. M. Tsuchiya and more recently F. Srienc, as well as by others, on the filter-feeding ciliateTetrahymena pyriformis. PMID:24194333

  12. The Distribution, Biological and Ecological Features of Typha shuttleworthii (Typhaceae in the Vyatka-Kama Cis-Urals, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Kapitonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typha shuttleworthii is the semi-aquatic plant in the modern areal which embraces mainly the ocean districts of Europe. The eastern border of the area of this species is located in Eastern Europe on the territory of Vyatka-Kama Cis-Urals (VKCU. Almost everywhere species is considered rare and is included in the Red Data Books in many European countries. However, on the territory of Russia, T. shuttleworthii is not protected. The rarity of this species makes it necessary to study its natural populations for their protection. In the paper, we present the materials on some biological and ecological features of the Typha shuttleworthii, growing on the territory of Vyatka-Kama Cis-Urals, where the species is represented by its extreme eastern populations. This species is offered to the protection on the territory of the European part of Russia within the Republic of Tatarstan and Udmurtia.

  13. The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 137Cs, 60Co, 54Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

  14. Ecological Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Bruce H.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a summary of the research literature on students' ecological conceptions and the implications of misconceptions. Topics include food webs, ecological adaptation, carrying capacity, ecosystem, and niche. (Contains 35 references.) (MKR)

  15. Distribution of limnoterrestrial Tardigrada in Georgia and the Gulf Coast states of the United States of America with ecological remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Harry A.; Hinton, Juliana G.

    2007-01-01

    This report is an effort to improve understanding of the distribution of limnoterrestrial tardigrades in Georgia and the states along the Gulf Coast of the United States of America. We collected 14 species of tardigrades from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts) and leaf litter in a statewide survey of Louisiana and reviewed all publications and theses reporting tardigrade distributions in the Gulf Coast states. Statewide surveys have been also conducted in Alabama, Florida, and Texas...

  16. Ecological factors related to the widespread distribution of sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Grijalva Mario J; Suarez-Davalos Victoria; Villacis Anita G; Ocaña-Mayorga Sofia; Dangles Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chagas disease transmission risk is a function of the presence of triatomines in domestic habitats. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is one of the main vectors implicated in transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Ecuador. This triatomine species is present in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats in the country. To determine the distribution of sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis and the factors related to this distribution, triatomine searches were conducted between 2005 ...

  17. Taxonomy, distribution and germplasm collection needs of Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flowering plant family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) comprises 300–455 genera and some 3000– 3750 species. It is cosmopolitan, and most diverse in the northern hemisphere. Carrot is by far its most economically important member. The obvious distinctive characters of many of these plants, such as herbs...

  18. Nuclear and original DNA application in Oryza taxonomy and phylogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional taxonomy and phylogeny of germplasm are based on the tedious characterization of morphological variation. The ability to assay DNA variation that underlies morphological variation offers great promise as a convenient alternative for the genetic characterization of germplasm. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to survey DNA variation in 22 species of the genus Oryza. At the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) multigene family, 15 rDNA spacer length (sl) variants were identified using restriction enzyme Sst1 and wheatrDNA unit as probe. Particular sl variants predominated in certain isozyme groups of O. sativa, indicating a potential of sl ploymorphism in varietal classification. The distribution of sl variants supports the origin of O. sativa and O. nivara from O. rufipogon, and that O. spontanea arose from introgressions among O. sativa, O. nivara, and O. rufipogon. The distribution also suggests that the CCgenome, of all the genomes in the Officinalis complex, may be closest to the Sativa complex genomes, and it affirms the genetic position of the Officinalis complex intermediate between the Sativa and Ridleyi complexes. Variation at the Oryza organelle genomes was probed with a maize mitochondrial gene, atpA, a wheat chloroplast inverted repeat segment, p6. Results indicated that the complexes can be differentiated by their mitochondrial genome, but not their chloroplast genome when digested by Sst1 or BamH1. Therefore, the natural DNA variation mH1. Therefore, the natural DNA variation in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes has demonstrated great potential in complementing the conventional basis of taxa classification and phylogeny in the genus Oryza. (Author)

  19. Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; De Falco, G. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Como, S. [International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Casu, D. [Dip. di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Floris, A. [Dip. di Zoologia e Genetica evoluzionistica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Petrov, A.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, 99011 Sevastopol (Ukraine); Castelli, A. [Dip. di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Perilli, A. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments ({<=}8 {mu}m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at {<=}8 {mu}m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system.

  20. Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments (?8 ?m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were ies, impaired benthic assemblages were found at ?8 ?m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological quality of the system

  1. Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs) was 14.46 ± 6.84 ng/L. PFOA was the predominant contaminant (8.62 ± 4.40 ng/L), followed by PFBA (2.04 ± 1.16 ng/L) and PFHxA (1.23 ± 1.50 ng/L). The TPFAAs concentrations peaked in August 2012 in each area, except for the western river. The opposite spatial trends were found for PFOA and PFOS in both the lake and river areas. Except for PFOS and PFUdA, the levels of TPFAAs and PFAAs were significantly related to the composition of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) but not related to total DOM expressed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The risk of PFOS determined by a species sensitivity distribution model was notably above that of PFOA.

  2. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia – IV: Seventeen new endemic species, a new combination, and three lectotypifications; with comments on distribution, ecological and evolutionary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Neil; Callmander, Martin; Phillipson, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen new endemic species of the genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae) are proposed from Madagascar, including: Eugenia andapae N. Snow, Eugenia barriei N. Snow, Eugenia bemangidiensis N. Snow, Eugenia calciscopulorum N. Snow, Eugenia delicatissima N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson, Eugenia echinulata N. Snow, Eugenia gandhii N. Snow, Eugenia hazonjia N. Snow, Eugenia iantarensis N. Snow, Eugenia malcomberi N. Snow, Eugenia manomboensis N. Snow, Eugenia obovatifolia N. Snow, Eugenia ranomafana N. Snow & D. Turk, Eugenia ravelonarivoi N. Snow & Callm., Eugenia razakamalalae N. Snow & Callm., Eugenia tiampoka N. Snow & Callm., and Eugenia wilsoniana N. Snow, and one new combination, Eugenia richardii (Blume) N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson is provided. Detailed descriptions, information on distribution and ecology, distribution maps, vernacular names (where known), digital images of types, comparisons to morphologically similar species. Preliminary assessment of IUCN risk of extinction and conservation recommendations are provided, including Vulnerable (4 species), Endangered (2 species), and Critically Endangered (4 species). Lectotpyes are designated for Eugenia hovarum H. Perrier, Eugenia nompa H. Perrier, and Eugenia scottii H. Perrier respectively. PMID:25987885

  3. Correlative and dynamic species distribution modelling for ecological predictions in the Antarctic: a cross-disciplinary concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Saucède

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Developments of future scenarios of Antarctic ecosystems are still in their infancy, whilst predictions of the physical environment are recognized as being of global relevance and corresponding models are under continuous development. However, in the context of environmental change simulations of the future of the Antarctic biosphere are increasingly demanded by decision makers and the public, and are of fundamental scientific interest. This paper briefly reviews existing predictive models applied to Antarctic ecosystems before providing a conceptual framework for the further development of spatially and temporally explicit ecosystem models. The concept suggests how to improve approaches to relating species’ habitat description to the physical environment, for which a case study on sea urchins is presented. In addition, the concept integrates existing and new ideas to consider dynamic components, particularly information on the natural history of key species, from physiological experiments and biomolecular analyses. Thereby, we identify and critically discuss gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. These refer to process understanding of biological complexity, the need for high spatial resolution oceanographic data from the entire water column, and the use of data from biomolecular analyses in support of such ecological approaches. Our goal is to motivate the research community to contribute data and knowledge to a holistic, Antarctic-specific, macroecological framework. Such a framework will facilitate the integration of theoretical and empirical work in Antarctica, improving our mechanistic understanding of this globally influential ecoregion, and supporting actions to secure this biodiversity hotspot and its ecosystem services.

  4. Distribution and ecology of myxomycetes in the high-elevation oak forests of Cerro Bellavista, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Carlos; Stephenson, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Myxomycetes associated with a high-elevation (>3000 m) oak forest in the Talamanca Range of Costa Rica were studied for 7 mo. Field collections were supplemented with collections obtained from moist chamber cultures prepared with samples of bark and ground litter of Quercus costaricensis. Various microenvironmental parameters including pH, substrate moisture and diameter, height above the ground and canopy openness were recorded for each field collection, whereas macroenvironmental data for temperature and precipitation were obtained from a meteorological station near the study area. Niche breadth and niche overlap indices were calculated to assess possible resource partitioning by myxomycetes. Thirty-seven species were recorded, including 11 new records for Costa Rica, eight for Central America and one for the neotropics. Both PCA and NMS multivariate analyses indicated that pH and height above the ground explained most of the observed variation, although substrate diameter also seemed to be an important factor. Precipitation showed an inverse correlation with the number of fruitings, confirming its importance as a macroenvironmental factor. Niche overlap values were not higher for closely related species and values for niche breadths were similar for most of the more common species, suggesting that most members of the assemblage of myxomycetes present in the study site are ecological generalists. PMID:18065004

  5. Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk assessment of multiple classes of UV filters in marine sediments in Hong Kong and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Kwan, Billy K Y; Ng, Ka-Yan; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2015-07-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in various personal care products and their ubiquitous occurrence in the aquatic environment has been reported in recent years. However, data on their fate and potential impacts in marine sediments is limited. This study reports the occurrence and risk assessment of eleven widely used organic UV filters in marine sediment collected in Hong Kong and Tokyo Bay. Seven of the 11 target UV filters were detected in all sediment samples (median concentrations: ecological risk assessment showed that the likelihood of EHMC causing toxic effects on reproduction in snails was over 84% and 32% based on toxicity data for two species, respectively, suggesting potential risks of UV filters to benthic organisms and possible wider effects on the marine food web. However, more toxicity data for sediment organisms is necessary for better risk assessment of these compounds in benthic communities. PMID:25804793

  6. Taxonomy of intelligence software reliability model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmadluei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The probability of failure free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment is called Reliability, it is one of the attributes of software quality and study about it come back to 1384. Exposition and spreading of new software systems and profound effect of it to human life emphasize the importance of software reliability analysis, until it poses formal definition at 1975. First race of reliability analysis methods that we called classic methods has stochastic process approach and in this way, attempt to predict the software behavior in future. Due to the ambiguity in fruitfulness of these solutions the challenge about reliability analysis continued till now. Great tendency in applying intelligence systems at variety of applications can be seen at 90 decade, and software reliability attracts some research direction to itself. Until now variety of methods in reliability analysis on the base of intelligence systems approach exhibited. In this survey the taxonomy of these methods represented with brief description of each one. Also comparison between these methods can be seen at the end of survey.

  7. Plant taxonomy: a historical perspective, current challenges, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhan, Germinal; Gaudeul, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is the science that explores, describes, names, and classifies all organisms. In this introductory chapter, we highlight the major historical steps in the elaboration of this science that provides baseline data for all fields of biology and plays a vital role for society but is also an independent, complex, and sound hypothesis-driven scientific discipline.In a first part, we underline that plant taxonomy is one of the earliest scientific disciplines that emerged thousands of years ago, even before the important contributions of Greeks and Romans (e.g., Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides). In the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, plant taxonomy benefited from the Great Navigations, the invention of the printing press, the creation of botanic gardens, and the use of the drying technique to preserve plant specimens. In parallel with the growing body of morpho-anatomical data, subsequent major steps in the history of plant taxonomy include the emergence of the concept of natural classification, the adoption of the binomial naming system (with the major role of Linnaeus) and other universal rules for the naming of plants, the formulation of the principle of subordination of characters, and the advent of the evolutionary thought. More recently, the cladistic theory (initiated by Hennig) and the rapid advances in DNA technologies allowed to infer phylogenies and to propose true natural, genealogy-based classifications.In a second part, we put the emphasis on the challenges that plant taxonomy faces nowadays. The still very incomplete taxonomic knowledge of the worldwide flora (the so-called taxonomic impediment) is seriously hampering conservation efforts that are especially crucial as biodiversity enters its sixth extinction crisis. It appears mainly due to insufficient funding, lack of taxonomic expertise, and lack of communication and coordination. We then review recent initiatives to overcome these limitations and to anticipate how taxonomy should and could evolve. In particular, the use of molecular data has been era-splitting for taxonomy and may allow an accelerated pace of species discovery. We examine both strengths and limitations of such techniques in comparison to morphology-based investigations, we give broad recommendations on the use of molecular tools for plant taxonomy, and we highlight the need for an integrative taxonomy based on evidence from multiple sources. PMID:24415467

  8. Market Ecology, Pareto Wealth Distribution and Leptokurtic Returns in Microscopic Simulation of the LLS Stock Market Model

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, S; Solomon, Sorin; Levy, Moshe

    2000-01-01

    The LLS stock market model is a model of heterogeneous quasi-rational investors operating in a complex environment about which they have incomplete information. We review the main features of this model and several of its extensions. We study the effects of investor heterogeneity and show that predation, competition, or symbiosis may occur between different investor populations. The dynamics of the LLS model lead to the empirically observed Pareto wealth distribution. Many properties observed in actual markets appear as natural consequences of the LLS dynamics: truncated Levy distribution of short-term returns, excess volatility, a return autocorrelation "U-shape" pattern, and a positive correlation between volume and absolute returns.

  9. Biology and ecology of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Richardson, Anthony J; Winkel, Kenneth D; Fenner, Peter J; Lippmann, John; Hore, Russell; Avila-Soria, Griselda; Brewer, David; Kloser, Rudy J; Steven, Andy; Condie, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Irukandji stings are a leading occupational health and safety issue for marine industries in tropical Australia and an emerging problem elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Their mild initial sting frequently results in debilitating illness, involving signs of sympathetic excess including excruciating pain, sweating, nausea and vomiting, hypertension and a feeling of impending doom; some cases also experience acute heart failure and pulmonary oedema. These jellyfish are typically small and nearly invisible, and their infestations are generally mysterious, making them scary to the general public, irresistible to the media, and disastrous for tourism. Research into these fascinating species has been largely driven by the medical profession and focused on treatment. Biological and ecological information is surprisingly sparse, and is scattered through grey literature or buried in dispersed publications, hampering understanding. Given that long-term climate forecasts tend toward conditions favourable to jellyfish ecology, that long-term legal forecasts tend toward increasing duty-of-care obligations, and that bioprospecting opportunities exist in the powerful Irukandji toxins, there is a clear need for information to help inform global research and robust management solutions. We synthesise and contextualise available information on Irukandji taxonomy, phylogeny, reproduction, vision, behaviour, feeding, distribution, seasonality, toxins, and safety. Despite Australia dominating the research in this area, there are probably well over 25 species worldwide that cause the syndrome and it is an understudied problem in the developing world. Major gaps in knowledge are identified for future research: our lack of clarity on the socio-economic impacts, and our need for time series and spatial surveys of the species, make this field particularly enticing. PMID:24182899

  10. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria and the ability to operationalise and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMDs taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. The expanded TMDs taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalise and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria.

  11. Historical development and some emendations of dinoflagellate taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of dinoflagellate taxonomy in China and the world are reviewed, and the taxonomic status of some dinoflagellate groups in Chinese coastal seas are emended. It has been more than 200 years since the discovery of dinoflagellates, but following intensive study, increasing confusion and controversy in dinofalgellate taxonomy has become apparent. In this paper, a broad overview of the history of dinoflagellate taxonomy is presented, highlighting some major developments. Differences exist between the international and Chinese taxonomy system. When comparing the internationally accepted system (based on the information provided by the website algaeBASE with that used in China (based on the monograph Checklist of Marine Biota of China Seas, we found that they were very similar at the order level, but some differences existed at the family and genus levels. According to morphological and some physiological characteristics, a more reasonable taxonomy is presented. The main emendations are: (1 the three genera named Karenia, Karlodinium and Takayama, are separated from the family Gymnodiniaceae and classified as a new family Kareniaceae; (2 most species in the genus Ceratium are placed in Neoceratium; (3 the genus Alexandrium is separated from family Goniodomataceae, and placed in the family Gonyaulacaceae; (4 the family Heteraulacaceae is replaced by the family Goniodomataceae; and (5 two new orders, Oxyrrhinales and Pyrocystales, are established.

  12. A Taxonomy of Fallacies in System Safety Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Holloway, C. Michael; Pease, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Safety cases are gaining acceptance as assurance vehicles for safety-related systems. A safety case documents the evidence and argument that a system is safe to operate; however, logical fallacies in the underlying argument may undermine a system s safety claims. Removing these fallacies is essential to reduce the risk of safety-related system failure. We present a taxonomy of common fallacies in safety arguments that is intended to assist safety professionals in avoiding and detecting fallacious reasoning in the arguments they develop and review. The taxonomy derives from a survey of general argument fallacies and a separate survey of fallacies in real-world safety arguments. Our taxonomy is specific to safety argumentation, and it is targeted at professionals who work with safety arguments but may lack formal training in logic or argumentation. We discuss the rationale for the selection and categorization of fallacies in the taxonomy. In addition to its applications to the development and review of safety cases, our taxonomy could also support the analysis of system failures and promote the development of more robust safety case patterns.

  13. Distribution of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the ecological cycle of the central Yugoslavia mountainous region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the animal production cycle was studied. Samples of ground, grass, beef and bones, milk and cheese, taken from the mountainous part of central Yugoslavia, were analysed. The discrimination factors and concentration factors of the examined radionuclides were calculated. (author)

  14. Ecological and geographical analysis of the distribution of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: importance of protected areas in future scenarios of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17%) occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque's potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48%) of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador. PMID:25798851

  15. Sympatric Masticophis flagellum and Coluber constrictor select vertebrate prey at different levels of taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhip) and Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer) are widespread North American snakes with similar foraging modes and habits. Little is known about the selection of prey by either species, and despite their apparently similar foraging habits, comparative studies of the foraging ecology of sympatric M. flagellum and C. constrictor are lacking. We examined the foraging ecology and prey selection of these actively foraging snakes in xeric, open-canopied Florida scrub habitat by defining prey availability separately for each snake to elucidate mechanisms underlying geographic, temporal, and interspecific variation in predator diets. Nineteen percent of M. flagellum and 28% of C. constrictor contained stomach contents, and most snakes contained only one prey item. Mean relative prey mass for both species was less than 10%. Larger C. constrictor consumed larger prey than small individuals, but this relationship disappeared when prey size was scaled to snake size. Masticophis flagellum was selective at the prey category level, and positively selected lizards and mammals; however, within these categories it consumed prey species in proportion to their availability. In contrast, C. constrictor preyed upon prey categories opportunistically, but was selective with regard to species. Specifically, C. constrictor positively selected Hyla femoralis (Pine Woods Treefrog) and negatively selected Bufo querclcus (Oak Toad), B. terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrowmouth Toad). Thus, despite their similar foraging habits, M. flagellum and C. constrictor select different prey and are selective of prey at different levels of taxonomy. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  16. A knowledge network for a dynamic taxonomy of psychiatric disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ranga R.

    2015-01-01

    Current taxonomic approaches in medicine and psychiatry are limited in validity and utility. They do serve simple communication purposes for medical coding, teaching, and reimbursement, but they are not suited for the modern era with its rapid explosion of knowledge from the “omics” revolution. The National Academy of Sciences published a report entitled Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease. The authors advocate a new taxonomy that would integrate molecular data, clinical data, and health outcomes in a dynamic, iterative fashion, bringing together research, public health, and health-care delivery with the interlinked goals of advancing our understanding of disease pathogenesis and thereby improving health. As the need for an information hub and a knowledge network with a dynamic taxonomy based on integration of clinical and research data is vital, and timely, this proposal merits consideration.

  17. Improving ecological risk assesment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: an example for plants exposed to nickel in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Semenzin, E.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.; Marcomini, A.

    2007-01-01

    The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the `free¿ nickel (Ni2+) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstr...

  18. Contribution to the Knowledge on the Distribution of Malacostraca (Crustacea) Species of Central and Southern Anatolia, with Some Ecological Notes

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBEK, Murat; Balik, Süleyman; TOPKARA, Esat T.

    2009-01-01

    In order to contribute to the knowledge on the distribution of Malacostraca (Crustacea) species inhabiting freshwaters of central and southern parts of Anatolia, Turkey, sampling was performed at 69 stations between 29 May and 4 June 2006 and between 19 and 25 June 2006. Malacostraca specimens were found at 26 out of the 69 stations and were represented by 11 taxa (Gammarus agrarius, Gammarus argaeus, Gammarus anatoliensis, Gammarus balcanicus, Gammarus mladeni, Gammarus pseudosyriacus, Echin...

  19. The Distribution and Ecology of the Arctic Plant Iceland Purslane (Koenigia islandica) in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Qasair Rashid; Headley, A. D.; Comber, D. P. M.

    2003-01-01

    Koenigia islandica has a disjunct Arctic-sub Arctic circumpolar distribution extending southwards to several isolated mountain ranges of northern Europe, Asia and North America. The population of this plant on the Isle of Skye (at altitude 461-726 m) and Isle of Mull at (385-523 m) was the most Southerly in Europe and therefore the most vulnerable likely to exhibit the impact of climatic fluctuations on numbers and survivorship. Koenigia was also an annual, which made it particularly vulnerab...

  20. Distribution of limnoterrestrial Tardigrada in Georgia and the Gulf Coast states of the United States of America with ecological remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A. MEYER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This report is an effort to improve understanding of the distribution of limnoterrestrial tardigrades in Georgia and the states along the Gulf Coast of the United States of America. We collected 14 species of tardigrades from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts and leaf litter in a statewide survey of Louisiana and reviewed all publications and theses reporting tardigrade distributions in the Gulf Coast states. Statewide surveys have been also conducted in Alabama, Florida, and Texas, while sampling in Mississippi and Georgia has been more localized. Currently 51 species have been identified in the region: 19 in Texas, 16 in Louisiana, 10 in Mississippi, 33 in Alabama, 3 in Georgia, and 15 in Florida. These tardigrades have been collected from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts on trees and rocks, from soil and leaf litter, and from freshwater. Twenty species are widely distributed in the region (i.e., found in ? 2 non-contiguous states, while 27 have been found in only one state. Eighteen species are probably cosmopolitan. Seven species, widespread in the Gulf Coast states but unknown elsewhere in the Nearctic Region – Echiniscus kofordi, Echiniscus cavagnaroi, Parexapodibius pilatoi, Hexapodibius christenberryae, Biserovus bindae, Minibiotus fallax and a new Macrobiotus cf. hufelandi – may represent a distinctive regional fauna in cryptogams.

  1. The geographic distribution and ecological preferences of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A M; Burdett, C; McCool, M J; Fox, A; Riggs, P

    2015-06-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP), caused by two parasitic organisms, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, is a tick-borne disease of recent concern in horses in the U.S.A. Outbreaks of EP have been detected in Florida, Missouri, Kansas and Texas. In 2009, EP transmission in Texas occurred through the adults of two tick species, Amblyomma mixtum [formerly known as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787)] Koch (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), the American dog tick (ADT). In this study, we developed a continent-scale map for the distribution of the EP vector species D.?variabilis, using a presence-only modelling approach to assess the habitat preferences of this tick. We used identification records from our tick geodatabase of locations in which the presence of the ADT had been noted. The potential distribution of the ADT in the U.S.A. was estimated from environmental factors using the maximum entropy approach based on localities in which there is a high probability of occurrence according to habitat suitability. Elevation and temperature were found to be biologically significant environmental variables influencing the presence of this tick species. Properly designed and constructed probability surfaces using maximum entropy offer one useful approach to the mapping of distribution ranges of tick species based on suitable habitat in the U.S.A. PMID:25684582

  2. Taxonomy and biogeography of Stephanoxis Simon, 1897 (Aves: Trochilidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vagner, Cavarzere; Luís Fábio, Silveira; Marcelo Ferreira de, Vasconcelos; Rolf, Grantsau; Fernando Costa, Straube.

    Full Text Available Após a descrição no século XIX de duas espécies de beija-flores atualmente alocados no gênero Stephanoxis, ambos os táxons foram considerados subespécies por Peters (1945), sem que o autor fornecesse qualquer justificativa para tal decisão taxonômica. Com base em um expressivo número de exemplares n [...] ós reavaliamos a taxonomia e o limite de espécies dos representantes deste gênero, e demonstramos que ambos são mais bem tratados como espécies plenas sob os Conceitos Biológico e Filogenético de Espécie devido aos bem definidos padrões de plumagem e de distribuição geográfica, assim como pela distinta reciprocidade monofilética. Ambos os táxons são separados por cerca de 160 quilômetros entre a Serra do Mar, a leste, e a Serra de Paranapiacaba, a oeste, dentro do Estado de São Paulo. A distribuição das duas espécies de Stephanoxis é congruente com as de outras espécies de aves montanas, o que sugere eventos vicariantes compartilhados durante períodos interglaciais pretéritos. Abstract in english After the description in the 19th century of two hummingbird species currently allocated to the genus Stephanoxis, Peters (1945) merged both taxa into a single species without providing any rationale. Here we re-evaluate the taxonomy and species limits of the representatives of this genus based on a [...] n extensive number of specimens. We demonstrate these taxa are better treated as full species under both the Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts due to their well-defined range and plumage patterns and reciprocally diagnosability. They have distinct, allopatric distributions segregated by a 160 km gap between the Serra do Mar, to the east, and Serra de Paranapiacaba, to the west, in the state of São Paulo. Stephanoxis species have ranges which are congruent with other montane bird species’ suggesting shared vicariance events during preterit interglacial periods.

  3. Distribución geográfica y ecológica de 13 especies de hongos silvestres comestibles en Oaxaca / Geographic and ecological distribution of 13 species of wild edible mushrooms in Oaxaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marisela Cristina, Zamora-Martínez; Antonio, González Hernández; Fabián, Islas Gutiérrez; Eunice Nayeli, Cortés Barrera; Luz Iris, López Valdez.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oaxaca es uno de los estados más ricos de México, tanto por su diversidad cultural como biológica, por lo que es importante el estudio e inventario de su biota. Sus habitantes poseen una vasta tradición en la recolección y consumo de hongos silvestres; sin embargo, para incluirlos en los programas d [...] e manejo integral de los bosques es necesario conocer sus requerimientos ecológicos y sus características biológicas, así como sus áreas de distribución, lo que implica el mapeo y monitoreo de sus poblaciones silvestres. En este contexto, se planteó sistematizar el conocimiento sobre el hábitat y distribución geográfica de 13 especies de macromicetos comestibles de importancia biológica y socioeconómica asociados a los bosques templados de Oaxaca, mediante el uso de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG), con el fin de generar un mapa de la distribución espacial conocida para dichos taxa, elaborado a partir de información bibliográfica y de herbarios. Las especies recolectadas en una mayor diversidad de ambientes fueron Cantharellus cibarius y Lycoperdon perlatum. A pesar del sesgo generado por la distribución espacial de las recolectas consideradas, ya que estas se concentran en regiones específicas, los SIG son una herramienta útil para determinar la distribución actual de los recursos fúngicos. Abstract in english Oaxaca is one of the riches states in Mexico, both culturally and for its biodiversity, so it is important to study and make an inventory of its biota. Its people have a rich tradition in the collection and/or consumption of various wild mushrooms, but in order to include them in forest management p [...] lans, it is necessary to know their ecological requirements and their biological characteristics as well as its distribution areas, which implies mapping and monitoring their wild populations. Therefore, it is was planned to systematize the knowledge about their habitat, phenology and distribution of 13 species of edible macrofungi of biological and socio-economic importance associated to the temperate forests of Oaxaca, by using GIS to generate a map of known spatial distribution of these species, starting from the information in literature and that that belong to several herbaria. The taxa collected in a wider range of environments were Cantharellus cibarius and Lycoperdon perlatum. Despite the bias generated by the spatial distribution of the analyzed collections, since they are gathered at specific regions, SIGs are a useful tool to determine the present distribution of fungic resources.

  4. Ecology of sepia offcinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Ángel

    2006-01-01

    This article comprises an up-dated review of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the interactions between the species and the main variables of the environment in which it lives and its trophic, demographic and behavioural ecology.

  5. Fish pathogens near the Arctic Circle: molecular, morphological and ecological evidence for unexpected diversity of Diplostomum (Digenea: diplostomidae) in Iceland.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Skirnisson, K.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 44, ?. 10 (2014), s. 703-715. ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP505/10/1562; GA ?R GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Integrative taxonomy * Fish pathogens * Diplostomum * coxl * ITS * Sub-Arctic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.404, year: 2013

  6. A taxonomy of control in intensified processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process Intensification (PI) is a revolutionary approach to design, development and implementation of process and plant. PI technology offers improved environment in a chemical process in terms of better products, and processes which are safer, cleaner, smaller - and cheaper. PI is a strategy of making dramatic reductions in the size of unit operations within chemical plants, in order to achieve given production objectives. However, PI technology would be handicapped if such system is not properly controlled. There are some foreseeable problems in order to control such processes for instance, dynamic interaction between components that make up a control loop, response time of the instrumentations, availability of proper sensor and etc. In some cases, in order to control these systems, advanced control solutions have been applied i.e. model predictive controllers (MPC) and its different algorithms such as quadratic generalized predictive control (QGPC) and self tuning quadratic generalized predictive control (STQGPC). Nevertheless in some cases simpler solutions could be applied to control such system for example proportional integral controller in the control of reactive distillation systems. As mentioned, conventional control systems like proportional-integral, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and their different structures can be used in PI systems but due to inherent nonlinearity and fast responsiveness of PI systems, digital controllers-regarding PI systems, digital controllers-regarding to their robustness-are mostly applied in order to control PI systems. Regarding to the fact that choosing the appropriate control strategy is the most essential part of making PI systems possible to be handle easily, taxonomy of the usage of various control structure in controlling PI systems is proposed. This paper offers an overview and discussion on identifying potential problems of instrumentation in PI technology and available control strategies

  7. Towards A Taxonomy Of Attacks Against Energy Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Terry; Khurana, Himanshu; Welch, Von

    Control systems in the energy sector (e.g., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems) involve a hierarchy of sensing, monitoring and control devices connected to centralized control stations or centers. The incorporation of commercial off-the-shelf technologies in energy control systems makes them vulnerable to cyber attacks. A taxonomy of cyber attacks against control systems can assist the energy sector in managing the cyber threat. This paper takes the first step towards a taxonomy by presenting a comprehensive model of attacks, vulnerabilities and damage related to control systems. The model is populated based on a survey of the technical literature from industry, academia and national laboratories.

  8. A Practitioner's Perspective on Taxonomy, Ontology and Findability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the presenters perspective on developing a taxonomy for JSC to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday, while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seamless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

  9. Taxonomy, Ontology and Semantics at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah Ann

    2011-01-01

    At NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Chief Knowledge Officer has been developing the JSC Taxonomy to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information environment of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seemless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

  10. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin-H2O posed high risks to aquatic organisms. PMID:25913795

  11. Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge : using Bloom`s taxonomy to evalute non-professional users` understanding of GI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on and ongoing study concerning non-professional users` understanding of GI. Online access to GI are offered by many public authorities, in order to make the public able to serve them selves online and gain insight in the physical planning and area administration. The aim of this project is to investigate how and how well non-professional users actually understand GI. For that purpose a taxonomy of GI knowledge is built, drawing on Bloom`s taxonomy. The elements of this taxonomy are described after a presentation of the main research question of the study, the applications chosen for the study and the definition of the non-professional user group. Finally considerations are made concerning the difference between this study and a traditional usability study as well as the further implications of the outcome of the study.

  12. Application of Modern Experimental Technique to Solve Morphological Complexity in Plants Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURANTO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern taxonomy has two approaches, i.e. classical and experimental taxonomy. Classical taxonomy uses morphological characters, while experimental taxonomy uses broader methods including chemistry, physics and mathematics, in the form of laboratory data that are revealed together with the progress of optical technique (microscope, chemistry methods (chromatography, electrophoresis, etc. Modern taxonomy tends to use series of interrelated data. More data used would result in more validity and give better clarification of taxonomic status. A lot of modern taxonomic data such as palynology, cytotaxonomy (cytology, chemical constituent (chemotaxonomy, isozyme and DNA sequencing were used recently.

  13. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?nez Alier, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

  14. Diversity, distribution and ecology of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaridae) in high Alpine lakes (Central Alps, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, A; Boggero, A; Miccoli, F P; Cicolani, B

    2004-01-01

    Information on water mite assemblages from high elevation lentic biotopes is scant. A survey of 14 small Alpine lakes located between 1900 and 2400 m a.s.l. in Italy resulted in the discovery of 17 species of Hydrachnidia and a single species of freshwater Halacaridae. Arrenurus conicus and Lebertia tuberosa were the most widespread and abundant species; Lebertia sefvei, Lebertia rufipes, Oxus setosus, Panisus torrenticolus and Sperchon glandulosus were also widely distributed but relatively less abundant. Atractides fissus and Arrenurus conicus are recorded for the first time from Italy. In contrast to mid/low elevation lakes and ponds, water mite assemblages of alpine lakes are less diverse and are composed mainly of rheo- and crenobiontic taxa, most of which are cold-stenothermic. Typical standing water dwellers represented only a small fraction (23%) of the species sampled. A principal component analysis conducted on lake environmental variables resulted in a clear separation of the lakes mainly based on ionic contents, pH and temperature. Water mites seem to be less influenced by these factors than by temperature fluctuations and habitat stability and heterogeneity. We conclude with some considerations of the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the altitudinal and latitudinal distribution pattern of water mites. PMID:15597608

  15. Spatial-temporal distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of nonylphenol and octylphenol in riverine outlets of Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Yu, Qiming; Hong, Aihua; Duan, Shunshan

    2014-11-01

    The aquatic environments of the Pearl River Delta in Southern China are subjected to contamination with various industrial chemicals from local industries. In this paper, the occurrence, seasonal variation and spatial distribution of alkylphenol octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP) in river surface water and sediments in the runoff outlets of the Pearl River Delta were investigated. NP and OP were detected in all water and sediment samples and their mean concentrations in surface water during the dry season ranged from 810 to 3366 ng/L and 85.5 to 581 ng/L, respectively, and those in sediments ranged from 14.2 to 95.2 ng/g dw and 0.4 to 3.0 ng/g dw, respectively. In surface water, much higher concentrations were detected in the dry season than those in the wet season. In sediments, the concentrations in the dry season were also mostly higher. High concentrations of NP and OP were found in Humen outlet, likely due to high levels of domestic and industrial wastewater discharges. An ecological risk assessment with the use of hazard quotient (HQ) was also carried out and the HQ values ranged from 3.6×10(-5) to 35 and 64% of samples gave a HQ>1, indicating that the current levels of NP and OP pose a significant risk to the relevant aquatic organisms in the region. PMID:25458690

  16. Amphibians in Southern Apennine: distribution, ecology and conservation notes in the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Fulco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.

  17. Determinants of Anopheles seasonal distribution patterns across a forest to periurban gradient near Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold-Wasson, Drew D; Sardelis, Michael R; Jones, James W; Watts, Douglas M; Fernandez, Roberto; Carbajal, Faustino; Pecor, James E; Calampa, Carlos; Klein, Terry A; Turell, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    As part of a field ecology study of arbovirus and malaria activity in the Amazon Basin, Loreto Department, Peru, we collected mosquitoes landing on humans at a forest site and inside and outside of residences and military barracks at periurban, rural, and village sites. We collected 11 Anopheles spp. from these four sites. An. darlingi, the principal malaria vector in the region, accounted for 98.7% of all Anopheles spp. collected at Puerto Almendra. Peaks in landing activity occurred during the December and April collection periods. However, the percent of sporozoite-positive Anopheles spp. was highest 1-2 months later, when landing activity decreased to approximately 10% of the peak activity periods. At all sites, peak landing activity occurred about 2 hours after sunset. These data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, population density, and seasonal and habitat distribution of potential malaria vectors within the Amazon Basin region. PMID:22403317

  18. Detection and spatial distribution of multiple-contaminants in agro-ecological Mediterranean wetlands (Marjal de Pego-Oliva, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda; Masia, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Socio economic activities are more and more producing amounts (in quantity and quality) of non desirable chemical substances (contaminants) that can be found in open air environments. As many of these products persist and may also circulate among environmental compartments, the cumulative incidence of such multiple contaminants combination may be a cause of treat that should not exists taking only in consideration concentrations of each contaminant individually because the number and the type of compounds are not known, as well as their cumulative and interaction effects. Thus prior to any further work analyzing the environmental risk of multiple contaminants their identification and level of concentration is required. In this work the potential presence of multiple contaminants of anthropogenic origin in a protected agro-ecological Mediterranean wetland is studied: the Pego-Oliva Marsh Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain), which is characterized by a long history of human pressures, such as marsh transformation for agricultural uses. Two major groups of relevant pollutants have been targeted according o two distinct environmental matrices: seven heavy metals in soils (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and fourteen emerging contaminants /drugs of abuse in surface waters of the natural lagoon, rivers and artificial irrigation networks (6-ACMOR, AMP, BECG, COC, ECGME, HER, KET, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, MET, MOR, THC, THC-COOH). The wetland was divided in nine representative zones with different types of land cover and land use. For soils, 24 samples were collected and for waters 33 taking in consideration the spatial representativeness of the above mention nine environments. Spatial analysis applying Geographical Information Systems to determine areas with greater incidence of both types of contaminants were also performed. With regard to heavy metals, Zn showed values under the detection limits in all samples, the remainder metals appeared in concentrations surpassing the WHO and EU limits for drinking waters, and all except Pb exceed the limits established for irrigation waters. For drugs of abuse 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphe-tamine, ketamine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine,methadone, 6-acetylmorphine and nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydro-cannabinol were detected. The mean concentrations were 0.62, 21.33, 1.30, 1.92, 2.25, 0.32, 0.04 and 0.07 ng l, respectively. Almost all samples had at least one substance. In the natural park a spatial trend in the number of contaminants and concentrations can be identified. Such pattern is more evident when analyzing heavy metals in soils. The presence of multiple contaminants is greater in agriculture fields devoted to citrus farming with decreasing intensities for rice fields and natural areas. Connectivity between urban, agriculture and natural lands produced by water flows may be part of the processes that introduce contaminants in the marsh land. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through the project CONSOLIDER-INGENIO 2010 (CSD2009) and by the Ministry and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (projects CGL2011-29703-C02-00, CGL2011-29703-C02-01, CGL2011-29703-C02-02).

  19. Depth distribution and ecological preferences of periphytic algae in Kenyir Lake, the largest tropical reservoir of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouf, A. J. M. Abdur; Phang, Siew-Moi; Ambak, M. Azmi

    2010-07-01

    We studied the depth distribution of periphyton, growing on inundated dead trees in Kenyir Lake, Malaysia in June 1995. The algal floral composition and structure manifested changes down the depth gradient in terms of species richness, abundance, diversity and cell density. In regression analysis, all these algal attributes were negatively correlated with the depth gradients at Pdepths than the surface-depth in both the downstream and upstream sites, which showed that vertical productivity or biomass accumulation was greater in low light irradiance. The product-moment correlation analysis showed that conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, reactive phosphate and ammonium-nitrogen were highly correlated with the algal assemblage data. However, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) showed poor correlation with the community data. These observations have cast some light on the autoecological characteristics, habitat preferences and environmental responses of tropical periphytic communities.

  20. A cautionary tale: the characteristics of two-dimensional distributions and their effects on epidemiological studies employing an ecological design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, D Wayne; Cox, Louis Anthony; Popken, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many spatial epidemiological studies that use proximity of subjects to putative sources as a surrogate for exposure have been published and are increasingly cited as evidence of environmental problems requiring public health interventions. In these studies, the simple finding of a significant, positive association between proximity and disease incidence has been interpreted as evidence of causality. However, numerous authors have pointed out limitations to such interpretations. This, the first of two companion studies, examines the effects of analyzing (real and simulated) spatial data using logistic regression. Simulation is also employed to explore the statistical power of such analyses to detect true effects, quantify the probabilities of Type I and Type II errors, and to evaluate a proposed mechanism that explains the observed effects. Results indicate that, even when the odds ratios of cases and controls are regressed against random or nonsense sources, significant, positive associations are observed at frequencies substantially greater than chance. These frequencies increase when targets are highly non-uniformly distributed such that, for example, false-positive associations are more likely than not when odds ratios are regressed against the actual distribution of ultramafic rocks in California. The coefficients of true, causal associations are substantially attenuated under realistic conditions so that, absent corroborating analyses, there is no non-arbitrary means of distinguishing causal from spurious or real but non-causal associations. Factors affecting where people choose to live act as powerful confounders, creating spurious or real but non-causal associations between exposure and response variables (as well as between other pairs of variables). Consequently, future epidemiological studies that use proximity as a surrogate for exposure should be required to include adequate negative control analyses and/or other kinds of corroborating analyses before they are accepted for publication. PMID:23557010

  1. Science Review for the Scott Bar Salamander (Plethodon asupak) and the Siskiyou Mountains Salamander (P. stormi): Biology, Taxonomy, Habitat, and Detection Probabilities/Occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGross, Douglas J.; Bury, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The Plethodon elongatus Complex in the Klamath-Siskiyou Ecoregion of southern Oregon and northern California includes three species: the Del Norte salamander, Plethodon elongatus; the Siskiyou Mountains salamander, P. stormi; and the Scott Bar salamander, P. asupak. This review aims to summarize the current literature and information available on select topics for P. stormi and P. asupak. These are both terrestrial salamanders belonging to the Family Plethodontidae, which contains more species and has a wider geographic distribution than any other family of salamanders (Wake 1966, 2006; Pough 1989). The genera of this family have greatly diversified ecologically across North America, Central America, northern South America, Sardinia, southeastern France and northwestern Italy, and have recently been discovered on the Korean peninsula (Min et al. 2005). The genus Plethodon is found exclusively in North America and is split into three distinct clades, based upon morphology and phylogenetics (Highton and Larson 1979): eastern small Plethodon, eastern large Plethodon, and the western Plethodon. The western Plethodon are the greatest representation of Plethodontidae in the Pacific Northwest, with 8 species. The two species with the most restricted ranges of these regional congeners are the Siskiyou Mountains and Scott Bar salamanders. These salamanders occupy the interior of the Klamath-Siskiyou Ecoregion which straddles the California and Oregon state lines, between Siskiyou County (CA) and Jackson and Josephine Counties (OR). The relatively recent discovery of P. asupak (Mead et al. 2005) and the limited range of both species have created an environment of uncertain conservation status for these species. This review will focus on four central topics of concern for land and resource managers: Biology; Taxonomy; Habitat; and Detection Probabilities/Occupancy.

  2. A Note on Extending Taylor's Power Law for Characterizing Human Microbial Communities: Inspiration from Comparative Studies on the Distribution Patterns of Insects and Galaxies, and as a Case Study for Medical Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2012-01-01

    Many natural patterns, such as the distributions of blood particles in a blood sample, proteins on cell surfaces, biological populations in their habitat, galaxies in the universe, the sequence of human genes, and the fitness in evolutionary computing, have been found to follow power law. Taylor's power law (Taylor 1961: Nature, 189:732-) is well recognized as one of the fundamental models in population ecology. A fundamental property of biological populations, which Taylor'...

  3. An overview of the taxonomy of Attalea (Arecaceae) / Una visión general de la taxonomía de Attalea (Arecaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jean-Christophe, Pintaud.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Attalea (Arecaceae) es un género distribuido en toda la región Neotropical continental y en algunas islas Caribeñas. Las formas de vida de las especies de Attalea incluyen tanto pequeñas palmeras como plantas de gran tamaño, siempre con tallo solitario. El rango ecológico del género abarca prácticam [...] ente todos los ecosistemas neotropicales desde las dunas de arena costeras hasta el bosque sub-Andino (algunas especies llegan a 1600 m de altitud), pasando por todo tipo de bosque tropical, seco o húmedo, pantanos, sabanas, etc. La taxonomía del género ha sido poco entendida y conceptos conflictivos sobre géneros y especies existen desde hace décadas. Las dificultades taxonómicas resultan de la falta en los herbarios de material adecuado, en particular para las grandes especies, de la pérdida o destrucción de numerosos tipos y de la frecuente hibridación entre especies. En este artículo se analizan los trabajos taxonómicos más recientes sobre Attalea. El número de especies varía entre 29 y 67 según los autores, y un máximo estimado de 73 especies al combinar los diferentes trabajos; siendo 20 las especies en consenso entre autores. Las especies y grupos de especies más problemáticos se tratan detalladamente y se enfatiza el significado taxonómico de algunos caracteres como la inserción de las flores estaminadas en la raquilla, inserción de las pinas en el raquis, distribución de las fibras en el endocarpio, entre otros. Abstract in english The genus Attalea (Arecaceae) is distributed in continental habitats of the Neotropical region and in some Caribbean islands. Life forms of Attalea species vary from small acaulescent palms to tall and massive palms, always solitary. The ecological range of the genus encompasses most of the Neotropi [...] cal ecosystems, from coastal sand dunes to sub-Andean forests up to 1600 m in elevation, lowland wet to dry forests, savannas, swamps, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been poorly understood due to conflicting genus and species concepts that exist since the last decades. Taxonomical problems have been caused by the lack of adequate material, especially species of large size, loss of many types and difficulties in interpreting hybrids. In this article, I review the most recent taxonomic literature on Attalea. The number of species in Attalea varies from 29 to 67 depending on different authors, with a maximum estimate of 73 species when combining the revised publications. There is a consensus for the validity of 20 species among modern palm taxonomists. The most conflicting species or group of species are discussed in detail as well as the taxonomic significance of some characters such as the pattern of insertion of staminate flowers on rachillae, insertion of pinnae on rachis, and arrangement of fibrous strands in the endocarp.

  4. Current and pending taxonomy of the Pasteurellaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein Technical University of Denmark,

    Since the family Pasteurellaceae was established in 1981 the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant changes. 16S DNA sequencing showed in the early 1990-ties, that the three original genera were genetically heterogeneous. Presently, the family consists of 13 genetically coherent genera with 38 properly classified species. In addition, there are 24 misclassified species that have been excluded from the genera Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Heamophilus and which probably will be allocated to new genera in the future. At the moment 92 different taxa (named species and provisional taxa) have been described within the family. In the presentation different methods for species delineation will be presented and potential problems discussed in relation to selected examples. It is currently recommended that a new species should be separated from other species by at lest two phenotypic tests. Within genus Mannheimia the separation between M. haemolytica and M. glucosida was based on a polyphasic taxonomic investigation, but there is only one phenotypic character to separate the species and presently no genotypic test. A group of Mannheimia sp. is genetically distinct but lack common phenotypic characters and can consequently not be formally named. Such problems could be solved by establishing genomospecies. Histophilus somni represent a genotypically well defined species but show great phenotypic variability. Here a PCR test based on the rrn-operon was included in the formal species description. [Haemophilus] parasuis show marked variability in the rnn-operons and illustrates that analysis of 16S rDNA sequences can lead to incorrect conclusions in a non-clonal population. The separation between Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and A. lignieresii is not possible based on the rrn-operons alone but the existence of two separate species is evident based on AFLP-genotyping. Although 16S sequencing is a versatile tool for taxonomic investigations, its discriminative power for species delineation is in a number of cases limited. DNA-DNA hybridization is still regarded as a golden standard for separating species but the sequencing of housekeeping genes represents a promising alternative. Whole genome sequencing will probably accelerate as less labour intensive methods are developed and prices go down. Data from these genome sequencing projects will make a more detailed study of the genetic affiliation between strains and species feasible. At the same time the genotypic variation within a species and the description of the “pan-genomes” and “core-genomes” will represent a challenge to our conception of what a species is.

  5. Comment - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search ... Image Search ... Home About Archive Update History Contact us Taxonomy Icon ... onomy_icon_comment_en.zip File size: 5.7 KB Simple search ... URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/tax ... name of the icon (The icon is displayed in Simple Search .) Image File name of the image posted on the icon ...

  6. Toward a Taxonomy of Small Group Interaction-Coding Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Nick

    1986-01-01

    Presents an exploratory taxonomy of small group interaction-coding systems. Six dimensions that characterize interaction-coding schemes are presented in a hierarchical order ranging from abstract conceptual issues to specific methodological ones. These dimensions are: philosophical perspective, conceptual and operational focus, observer inference,…

  7. The Unfortunate Consequences of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The sequenced levels of thinking articulated in Bloom's original taxonomy (or in the multitude of subsequent variations) is the most widely known list in education. In addition to enduring popularity, it is arguably one of the most destructive theories in education. In this article, the author explains what makes it so damaging and how…

  8. Fail Better: Toward a Taxonomy of E-Learning Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priem, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The study of student error, important across many fields of educational research, has begun to attract interest in the field of e-learning, particularly in relation to usability. However, it remains unclear when errors should be avoided (as usability failures) or embraced (as learning opportunities). Many domains have benefited from taxonomies of…

  9. Was Bloom's Taxonomy Pointed in the Wrong Direction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineburg, Sam; Schneider, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Bloom's Taxonomy usually is depicted as a pyramid with knowledge at the lowest level and evaluation at the top. For the history classroom, however, that arrangement might be upside down. In history, evaluation is often necessary before new knowledge can be learned. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Merlin C. Wittrock and the Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krathwohl, David R.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2010-01-01

    Merl Wittrock, a cognitive psychologist who had proposed a generative model of learning, was an essential member of the group that over a period of 5 years revised the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," originally published in 1956. This article describes the development of that 2001 revision (Anderson and Krathwohl, Editors) and Merl's…

  11. A Taxonomy of Virtual Worlds Usage in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ishbel; Miller, Alan; Jiang, Shangyi

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are an important tool in modern education practices as well as providing socialisation, entertainment and a laboratory for collaborative work. This paper focuses on the uses of virtual worlds for education and synthesises over 100 published academic papers, reports and educational websites from around the world. A taxonomy is then…

  12. Taxonomy Development and Knowledge Representation of Nurses’ Personal Cognitive Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Mclane, Sharon; Turley, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Nurses prepare knowledge representations, or summaries of patient clinical data, each shift. These knowledge representations serve multiple purposes, including support of working memory, workload organization and prioritization, critical thinking, and reflection. This summary is integral to internal knowledge representations, working memory, and decision-making. Study of this nurse knowledge representation resulted in development of a taxonomy of knowledge representations necessary to nursing...

  13. Taxonomy of Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous aptychi from Bulgaria.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaší?ek, Zden?k; Motchurova; Dekova, N.; Ilcheva, A.; Metodiev, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 265, ?. 3 (2012), s. 249-274. ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Late Jurassic * Early Cretaceous * Bulgaria * aptychi * ammonites * parataxonomy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.923, year: 2012 http://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/njgpa/detail/265/78431/Taxonomy_of_Late_Jurassic_Early_Cretaceous_aptychi

  14. Taxonomy and biology of proteocephalidean cestodes: current state and perspectives.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 40, ?. 2 (2003), s. 65-75. ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Proteocephalidea * taxonomy * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003

  15. Aptychi and their significance for taxonomy of Lower Cretaceous ammonites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaší?ek, Zden?k

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 18, ?. 179 (2010), s. 183-188. ISSN 1802-6842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : anaptychi * aptychi * Neoammonoidea * taxonomy * Lower Cretaceous Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.nm.cz/publikace/archiv.php?id=1&kcislu=179/2010

  16. Applying a Knowledge Management Taxonomy to Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambi, Melinda; O'Toole, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of a corporate-based taxonomy of knowledge management to secondary schooling. Do the principles of knowledge management from the corporate world translate to the world of education; specifically, secondary schooling? This article examines categories of knowledge management articulated in…

  17. Where to nest? Ecological determinants of chimpanzee nest abundance and distribution at the habitat and tree species scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana S; Meyer, Christoph F J; Vicente, Luis; Marques, Tiago A

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of forests to anthropogenic land-uses increasingly subjects chimpanzee populations to habitat changes and concomitant alterations in the plant resources available to them for nesting and feeding. Based on nest count surveys conducted during the dry season, we investigated nest tree species selection and the effect of vegetation attributes on nest abundance of the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau, a forest-savannah mosaic widely disturbed by humans. Further, we assessed patterns of nest height distribution to determine support for the anti-predator hypothesis. A zero-altered generalized linear mixed model showed that nest abundance was negatively related to floristic diversity (exponential form of the Shannon index) and positively with the availability of smaller-sized trees, reflecting characteristics of dense-canopy forest. A positive correlation between nest abundance and floristic richness (number of plant species) and composition indicated that species-rich open habitats are also important in nest site selection. Restricting this analysis to feeding trees, nest abundance was again positively associated with the availability of smaller-sized trees, further supporting the preference for nesting in food tree species from dense forest. Nest tree species selection was non-random, and oil palms were used at a much lower proportion (10%) than previously reported from other study sites in forest-savannah mosaics. While this study suggests that human disturbance may underlie the exclusive arboreal nesting at LCNP, better quantitative data are needed to determine to what extent the construction of elevated nests is in fact a response to predators able to climb trees. Given the importance of LCNP as refuge for Pan t. verus our findings can improve conservation decisions for the management of this important umbrella species as well as its remaining suitable habitats. PMID:25224379

  18. Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk assessment of multiple classes of UV filters in surface waters from different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Wai, Tak-Cheung; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Liu, Wenhua; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-12-15

    Organic UV filters are common ingredients of personal care products (PCPs), but little is known about their distribution in and potential impacts to the marine environment. This study reports the occurrence and risk assessment of twelve widely used organic UV filters in surface water collected in eight cities in four countries (China, the United States, Japan, and Thailand) and the North American Arctic. The number of compounds detected, Hong Kong (12), Tokyo (9), Bangkok (9), New York (8), Los Angeles (8), Arctic (6), Shantou (5) and Chaozhou (5), generally increased with population density. Median concentrations of all detectable UV filters were <250 ng/L. The presence of these compounds in the Arctic is likely due to a combination of inadequate wastewater treatment and long-range oceanic transport. Principal component analysis (PCA) and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to explore spatiotemporal patterns and difference in organic UV filter levels in Hong Kong. In general, spatial patterns varied with sampling month and all compounds showed higher concentrations in the wet season except benzophenone-4 (BP-4). Probabilistic risk assessment showed that 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) posed greater risk to algae, while benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) were more likely to pose a risk to fishes and also posed high risk of bleaching in hard corals in aquatic recreational areas in Hong Kong. This study is the first to report the occurrence of organic UV filters in the Arctic and provides a wider assessment of their potential negative impacts in the marine environment. PMID:25261628

  19. New data on morphometrics, distribution and ecology of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1849 (Orthoptera, Acrididae in Spain: is maghrebi a well defined subespecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, J. M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied different populations of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1859 in Spain assigned to subspecies maghrebi by Fernandes (1968 and obtained some new records for the species. To see if maghrebi is a consistent taxon for the Iberian populations, we performed a morphometric analysis involving 53 individuals from different origins considering body size (front of the head to tip of the abdomen; the shape of pronotum and presence of a second anterior notch or sulcus; length of the antennae and epiphallum, according to the characters used to define subspecies maghrebi. If maghrebi is consistent, we would expect intermediate sizes between wagneri and rogenhoferi, the other two well separated subspecies considered for M.w. However, in our measurements we obtained that body size is not intermediate between M. w. wagneri and M. w. rogenhoferi contrary to expectations if assuming the existence of maghrebi. Body size is similar to wagneri and further, we recorded some of the smallest individuals described so far. Also, the pronotum varied widely across and within populations showing different phenotypes that formerly were used to separate maghrebi and wagneri. Taking into account body size, pronotum, length of antenna and epiphallum, we think that differences between the studied Spanish populations and wagneri form are not enough to assign the studied populations to maghrebi. In the studied area, M.w. shows a narrow ecological niche inhabiting shores or proximities of hipersaline lagoons wherever Suaeda vera (Forsskål 1791, Chenopodiacea is present, M.w. uses this plant as refuge and food. The species also inhabits bare saline low grounds with scattered S vera. It presents a markedly discontinuous and patchy distribution in Spain, showing up punctually, where the microhabitat is appropriate. We obtained a morphometric variability with a significant association between body size and locality, and between body size and the colour of posterior wings in males. Because of its wide range disjunction, its discontinuous regional distribution and morphological variability, we believe that M.w. is an interesting species to investigate possible substructuring of populations in which we probably may recognize ecological forms or varieties that deserve deeper and further study.Estudiamos distintas poblaciones de Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1859, considerado como M. w. maghrebi por Fernandes (1968 en España, con algunas nuevas citas para la especie. Para dilucidar si el taxón maghrebi es consistente en nuestras poblaciones, realizamos un análisis morfométrico de 53 ejemplares considerando los mismos caracteres utilizados para establecer dicha subespecie, a citar: tamaño del cuerpo, relieve y forma del pronoto, longitud de la antena y forma del epifalo. El tamaño de los individuos de nuestras poblaciones no es intermedio entre las formas conocidas de M. w. wagneri y M. w. rogenhoferi Saussuare, 1888, como cabría esperar asumiendo la existencia de maghrebi. Nuestras poblaciones no se apartan del tamaño de wagneri e incluso encontramos las menores tallas descritas para este taxón. El relieve del pronoto, y en particular la presencia de un segundo surco, el anterior, es muy variable abarcando en una misma población fenotipos dispares utilizados anteriormente para separar las formas maghrebi y wagneri. Las diferencias entre el tamaño del cuerpo, el pronoto, la longitud de la antena y la forma del epifalo no nos parecen suficientes para asignar como maghrebi al conjunto de las poblaciones estudiadas y separarlas de la subespecie nominada wagneri. M.w. es una especie de requerimientos ecológicos muy restringidos. La hemos encontrado a orillas de lagunas hipersalinas y siempre dependiendo de Suaeda vera (Forsskål, 1791 Chenopodiacea que utiliza como refugio y alimento, en particular en suelos desnudos y salitrosos donde predominan manchas de esa planta. Su distribución regional es marcadamente discontinua y muy puntual, presentándose allí donde el hábitat le es propicio. Aunque el análisis es preliminar, encontra

  20. A road map for synthesizing the scaling patterns in ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Cang

    2013-01-01

    Ecology studies biodiversity in its variety and complexity. It describes how species distribute and perform in response to environmental changes. Ecological processes and structures are highly complex and adaptive. In order to quantify emerging ecological patterns and investigate their hidden mechanisms, we need to rely on the simplicity of mathematical language. This becomes especially apparent when dealing with scaling patterns in ecology. Indeed, nearly all of ecological ...

  1. Paleobiogeography and taxonomy of the genus Concholepas (Lamarck, 1801: a review and new evidences Paleobiogeografía y taxonomía del género Concholepas (Lamarck, 1801: una revisión y nuevas evidencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEYLA CÁRDENAS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The muricid gastropod Concholepas concholepas, known in Chile as 'loco', is an important component of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities, and is one of the main invertebrates targeted by small-scale fishers (divers in Chile. Because of its ecological importance and economical value, numerous studies have been conducted to describe its life history, ecology and to understand population dynamics, fishery and management. However, little effort has been done to address the causal factor (s behind its current geographic distribution and moreover little is known about the past distribution of the different species in the genus. In this paper, first we review the paleobiogeography, historical relationships, taxonomy and geographical distribution of Concholepas species, so to contribute in the reconstruction on the past history of the genus. Second, we discuss the robustness of using shell traits when classifying specimens of the genus Concholepas. Third, we evaluate the taxonomic status of C. concholepas including samples from Peru, the continental coast of Chile and Juan Fernández Archipelago, using a molecular approach. Four main conclusions are reached: (1 the evolutionary history of the genus Concholepas has been characterized by successive phenotypically different forms where the fossils species appear to be distinguishable states in the same evolving lineage; (2 the historical biogeography of Concholepas was probably the result of a southward direction process of expansions and extinctions, with the ancestral species being located in south-central Peru; (3 C. concholepas corresponds to a single taxonomic unit along its continental geographical range of distribution; (4 the mtDNA variation present in C. concholepas does not support the existence of the subspecies C. concholepas fernandizianus in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. We suggest that these results should be considered in future ecological, fishery, management and conservation studies on C. concholepas along the Peruvian and Chilean coast and in the Juan Fernández Archipelago.El gastrópodo muricido Concholepas concholepas, conocido en Chile como 'loco', es un importante componente de comunidades marinas intermareales y submareales y es una de las principales especies de invertebrados en la pesquería artesanal chilena. Debido a su importancia y valor económico, se han realizado numerosos estudios para describir su historia de vida, ecología y entender las dinámicas poblacionales, pesquería y manejo. Sin embargo, menores esfuerzos han sido realizados para entender los factores causales detrás de su actual distribución geográfica y más aún poco es conocido acerca de la pasada distribución de las diferentes especies del género. En este trabajo, nosotros primero revisamos la paleobiogeografía, relaciones históricas y taxonomía, de las especies del género Concholepas para contribuir en la reconstrucción de la historia pasada del género. Segundo, discutimos la robustez de usar caracteres morfológicos en la taxonomía del género. Tercero, usando una aproximación molecular evaluamos el estatus taxonómico de C. concholepas incluyendo muestras desde Perú, la costa continental de Chile y del archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Se obtuvieron cuatro conclusiones principales: (1 la historia evolutiva del género Concholepas ha sido caracterizada por sucesivas formas fenotípicamente diferentes, donde las especies fósiles parecen ser estados morfológicos distinguibles de un único linaje evolutivo; (2 la biogeografía histórica de Concholepas parece ser resultado de un proceso continuo de expansión y extinción con dirección sur, con las especies ancestrales localizadas en el centro-sur de Perú; (3 C. concholepas corresponde a una sola unidad taxonómica a lo lago de su rango de distribución continental; (4 la variación en el ADNmt detectada en C. concholepas no apoya la existencia de la subespecie C. concholepas fernandizianus en el Archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Sugerimos que estos resultados deberán ser considera

  2. A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Moor Bart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has allowed to molecularly characterize many different cancer sites. This technology has the potential to individualize therapy and to discover new drug targets. However, due to technological differences and issues in standardized sample collection no study has evaluated the molecular profile of epithelial human cancer in a large number of samples and tissues. Additionally, it has not yet been extensively investigated whether metastases resemble their tissue of origin or tissue of destination. Methods We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The clustering profile was subsequently investigated and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Statistical enrichment of clinico-pathological annotations of groups of samples was investigated using Fisher exact test. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and DAVID functional enrichment analysis were used to investigate the molecular pathways. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were used to investigate prognostic significance of gene signatures. Results Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma clustered together with follicular differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which supports recent morphological descriptions of thyroid follicular carcinoma-like tumors in the kidney and suggests that they represent a subtype of chromophobe carcinoma. We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues. Next, a subset of ovarian tumors enriched with endometrioid histology clustered together with endometrium tumors, confirming that they share their etiopathogenesis, which strongly differs from serous ovarian tumors. In addition, the clustering of colon and breast tumors correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics. Moreover, a signature was developed based on our unsupervised clustering of breast tumors and this was predictive for disease-specific survival in three independent studies. Next, the metastases from ovarian, breast, lung and vulva cluster with their tissue of origin while metastases from colon showed a bimodal distribution. A significant part clusters with tissue of origin while the remaining tumors cluster with the tissue of destination. Conclusion Our molecular taxonomy of epithelial human cancer indicates surprising correlations over tissues. This may have a significant impact on the classification of many cancer sites and may guide pathologists, both in research and daily practice. Moreover, these results based on unsupervised analysis yielded a signature predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. Additionally, we hypothesize that metastases from gastrointestinal origin either remember their tissue of origin or adapt to the tissue of destination. More specifically, colon metastases in the liver show strong evidence for such a bimodal tissue specific profile.

  3. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  4. Urban Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    When people think about the concept and idea of ecology, they may not immediately picture a bustling urban street or a network of interconnected bike paths. Since 1975, a group of architects and activists have been thinking about exactly those things in terms of urban ecology (and a good deal more to boot), coupling it with a conviction that urban ecology can draw on ecology, public participation and urban planning "to help design and build healthier cities." Given these ideas, it seems logical that this organization has its roots in the Bay Area, and continues to offer up interesting plans and proposals, many of which can be found on the website. One such document is the Walkable Streets Toolkit, which is designed for use by communities that seek to make their streets more pedestrian friendly. Additionally, visitors will want to look at current and past editions of The Urban Ecologist, which is the group's quarterly newsletter.

  5. Campus Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation

    This website from the National Wildlife Federation showcases environmental conservation projects that have been successfully undertaken by various universities. The site features example projects and resources for doing your own campus project. Topics include building design, energy, environmental literacy, habitat restoration, water, transportation and waste reduction. Links to the online Campus Ecology Yearbook and the Campus Ecology Research Station and other resources are also included.

  6. The ecology of religious beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that the spatial prevalence of human societies that believe in moralizing high gods can be predicted with a high level of accuracy (91%) from historical, social, and ecological data. Using high-resolution datasets, we systematically estimate the relative effects of resource abundance, ecological risk, cultural diffusion, shared ancestry, and political complexity on the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods. The methods presented in this paper provide a blueprint ...

  7. Taxonomy of the Neotropical freshwater crab family Trichodactylidae: VI. the genera Avotrichodactylus and Rodriguezia (Decapoda: Brachyura: Trichodactylidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Célio, Magalhães; Michael, Türkay.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of two trichodactyline genera of the Neotropical freshwater crab family Trichodactylidae are revised. The genus Avotrichodactylus Pretzmann, 1968, includes two species, A. constrictus (Pearse, 1911) and A. oaxensis Rodríguez, 1992; the genus Rodriguezia Bott, 1969, also has two species, [...] R. mensabak Cottarelli and Argano, 1977, and R. villalobosi (Rodríguez and Manrique, 1967). The taxonomic statuses of all the species are discussed and a short diagnosis is provided for each. A complete list of the material examined and a map of geographic distribution of the species are furnished.

  8. Ecology of gelatious plankton : With emphasis on feeding interactions, distribution pattern and reproduction biology of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Comb jellies were a relatively obscure group of zooplankton, until Mnemiopsis leidyi invaded the Black Sea in the 1980’s with cascading effects on several ecosystem levels including commercial fisheries. This native to the east coasts of America triggered large public and scientific attention as a result of this invasion and its ecological and economic impacts. In 2005, when M. leidyi was sighted in Northern Europe for the first time, similar consequences were feared. The aim of my PhD project was to understand the potential impact of M. leidyi on the Baltic Sea ecosystem and constrains on its dispersal. Specifically, the project investigated (i) direct and indirect effects of M. leidyi on the Baltic cod population in its most important spawning ground, (ii) factors governing the spatial and temporal distribution of M. leidyi eggs, larvae and adults in the Baltic and, (iii) M. leidyi reproduction and its effect on population development. The approach involved 13 monthly monitoring cruises from high saline Skagerrak to low saline northern Baltic regions, in situ and laboratory controlled reproduction and feeding experiments, molecular analysis for species verification, and statistical modeling. The low feeding rates and passive negative selection of cod eggs in experiments demonstrate that M. leidyi does not pose a direct threat to the Baltic cod population at the environmental conditions characteristic for its spawning ground. Furthermore, the drastically reduced reproduction rates observed under low salinities suggest M. leidyi is not likely to compete with cod recruits prey. Spatial and temporal surveys show highest abundances during October, with a consistent absence of adult and larval M. leidyi in the northern Baltic. Abundances in the Kattegat were 60 times higher than in the central Baltic, suggesting that the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic is dependent on advection from high saline areas. This interpretation is consistent with the low reproduction rates measured and a low fraction of up-growing animals in the central Baltic. While adults were not observed from April to June in high saline areas, M. leidyi larvae were present throughout the year. It remains unclear where M. leidyi overwinters but high saline areas appear to be important in the annual establishment of the population. Laboratory and in situ reproduction experiments confirmed that fecundity is a major contributor to M. leidyi’s invasion success, although salinity is regulating, and possibly restricting, its range expansion in Northern Europe. Maximum reproduction rates are shown to be attained at low food concentrations, helping reconcile the high population densities observed in localized areas despite low food concentrations. An unexpected discovery was that the arctic relict ctenophore Mertensia ovum, thought to be restricted to the northern Baltic, also occurs in the high saline Kattegat/Skagerrak during winter and spring. Interestingly, in the northern Baltic the M. ovum population consists exclusively of larval-sized animals that are actively reproducing and maintaining a self-sustained population. Natural selection can favor early maturation at small size when mortality rates are high, and our results are consistent with this hypothesis. Currently, M. leidyi has established itself permanently in high and intermediate saline areas in Northern Europe. While the ecological impact of M. leidyi in the central Baltic appears to be limited concern, the environment in other European waters should be more favourable to their populations. In these areas, it is suggested that M. leidyi constitutes a potential threat to fisheries through resource competition with fishes

  9. Puppets, robots, critics, and actors within a taxonomy of attention for developmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Maureen; Sinopoli, Katia J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Schachar, Russell

    2008-01-01

    This review proposes a new taxonomy of automatic and controlled attention. The taxonomy distinguishes among the role of the attendee (puppet and robot, critic and actor), the attention process (stimulus orienting vs. response control), and the attention operation (activation vs. inhibition vs. adjustment), and identifies cognitive phenotypes by which attention is overtly expressed. We apply the taxonomy to four childhood attention disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, spina bif...

  10. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  11. In Search of a Taxonomy for Classifying Qualitative Spreadsheet Errors

    CERN Document Server

    Przasnyski, Zbigniew; Seal, Kala Chand

    2011-01-01

    Most organizations use large and complex spreadsheets that are embedded in their mission-critical processes and are used for decision-making purposes. Identification of the various types of errors that can be present in these spreadsheets is, therefore, an important control that organizations can use to govern their spreadsheets. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy for categorizing qualitative errors in spreadsheet models that offers a framework for evaluating the readiness of a spreadsheet model before it is released for use by others in the organization. The classification was developed based on types of qualitative errors identified in the literature and errors committed by end-users in developing a spreadsheet model for Panko's (1996) "Wall problem". Closer inspection of the errors reveals four logical groupings of the errors creating four categories of qualitative errors. The usability and limitations of the proposed taxonomy and areas for future extension are discussed.

  12. NASA Taxonomies for Searching Problem Reports and FMEAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Many types of hazard and risk analyses are used during the life cycle of complex systems, including Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis, Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Reliability Analysis and analysis of Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) databases. The success of these methods depends on the availability of input data and the analysts knowledge. Standard nomenclature can increase the reusability of hazard, risk and problem data. When nomenclature in the source texts is not standard, taxonomies with mapping words (sets of rough synonyms) can be combined with semantic search to identify items and tag them with metadata based on a rich standard nomenclature. Semantic search uses word meanings in the context of parsed phrases to find matches. The NASA taxonomies provide the word meanings. Spacecraft taxonomies and ontologies (generalization hierarchies with attributes and relationships, based on terms meanings) are being developed for types of subsystems, functions, entities, hazards and failures. The ontologies are broad and general, covering hardware, software and human systems. Semantic search of Space Station texts was used to validate and extend the taxonomies. The taxonomies have also been used to extract system connectivity (interaction) models and functions from requirements text. Now the Reconciler semantic search tool and the taxonomies are being applied to improve search in the Space Shuttle PRACA database, to discover recurring patterns of failure. Usual methods of string search and keyword search fall short because the entries are terse and have numerous shortcuts (irregular abbreviations, nonstandard acronyms, cryptic codes) and modifier words cannot be used in sentence context to refine the search. The limited and fixed FMEA categories associated with the entries do not make the fine distinctions needed in the search. The approach assigns PRACA report titles to problem classes in the taxonomy. Each ontology class includes mapping words - near-synonyms naming different manifestations of that problem class. The mapping words for Problems, Entities and Functions are converted to a canonical form plus any of a small set of modifier words (e.g. non-uniformity NOT + UNIFORM.) The report titles are parsed as sentences if possible, or treated as a flat sequence of word tokens if parsing fails. When canonical forms in the title match mapping words, the PRACA entry is associated with the corresponding Problem, Entity or Function in the ontology. The user can search for types of failures associated with types of equipment, clustering by type of problem (e.g., all bearings found with problems of being uneven: rough, irregular, gritty ). The results could also be used for tagging PRACA report entries with rich metadata. This approach could also be applied to searching and tagging failure modes, failure effects and mitigations in FMEAs. In the pilot work, parsing 52K+ truncated titles (the test cases that were available), has resulted in identification of both a type of equipment and type of problem in about 75% of the cases. The results are displayed in a manner analogous to Google search results. The effort has also led to the enrichment of the taxonomy, adding some new categories and many new mapping words. Further work would make enhancements that have been identified for improving the clustering and further reducing the false alarm rate. (In searching for recurring problems, good clustering is more important than reducing false alarms). Searching complete PRACA reports should lead to immediate improvement.

  13. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JenniferMahony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

  14. Evaluating the bases of supplier segmentation : A review and taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Marc; Magnan, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    A taxonomy of segmentation bases is presented which builds a multi-disciplinary approach to the categorization of suppliers. Supplier segmentation, from a purchasing perspective, still appears to be in the early stages of providing a coherent strategic intent behind supplier assessment. Whilst fragmentary in nature, current portfolio models are grouped into two principal taxonomic constructs of power and dependence and relational factors. In particular, the prevalent use of transaction cost economics (TCE) in portfolio modelling provides a foundation for purchasers to appraise risks from supplier opportunism. We augment existing approaches with reference to inter-organisational theory and the resource-based view to show different modes of inter-firm value creation that act as constituents of a strategic intent for segmentation. Our resulting taxonomy draws together a holistic view of supplier segmentation covering supply market conditions, product/service characteristics, supplier characteristics, buyer characteristics, and buyer-supplier relational factors.

  15. Ecological Distribution of Legionella pneumophila

    OpenAIRE

    Fliermans, C. B.; Cherry, W. B.; Orrison, L H; Smith, S.J.; Tison, D L; Pope, D H

    1981-01-01

    Bacteria were concentrated 500-fold from 20-liter water samples collected from 67 different lakes and rivers in the United States. The data suggest that Legionella pneumophila is part of the natural aquatic environment and that the bacterium is capable of surviving extreme ranges of environmental conditions. The data further demonstrate the effectiveness of the direct fluorescent-antibody technique for detecting L. pneumophila in natural aquatic systems. Smears of the concentrated samples wer...

  16. The past, the present and the future of eutardigrade taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Pilato

    2013-01-01

    The Author first recalls the past of eutardigrade taxonomy and indicates the main factors that for a long time restrained its progress. One consequence of a superficial analysis is that very wide individual variability has been erroneously attributed to many species, and this has become the main problem for tardigrade taxonomists. The situation began to change after 1969 because of the first attempts to eliminate the above mentioned problems. Novelties gave impetus to the revision of tardigra...

  17. Describing Papers and Reviewers' Competences by Taxonomy of Keywords

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmukov, Yordan

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the importance of the precise calculation of similarity factors between papers and reviewers for performing a fair and accurate automatic assignment of reviewers to papers. It suggests that papers and reviewers' competences should be described by taxonomy of keywords so that the implied hierarchical structure allows similarity measures to take into account not only the number of exactly matching keywords, but in case of non-matching ones to calculate ...

  18. A taxonomy of UAS separation maneuvers and their automated execution

    OpenAIRE

    Pe?rez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enric; Royo Chic, Pablo; Prats Mene?ndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxi?, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to create a taxonomy of separation conflicts between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and intruding aircrafts to facilitate its insertion in non-segregated airspace. The classification is created according to the relative speeds, angular geometry, initial intent, etc. A catalog of separation maneuvers that best fit each scenario is introduced and evaluated through a real-time simulation environment. This advisory mechanism will benefit both the UAS pilot and the ATCo in order...

  19. Learning Taxonomy for Text Segmentation by Formal Concept Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lupea, Mihaiela; Marian, Zsuzsana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the problems of deriving a taxonomy from a text and concept-oriented text segmentation are approached. Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) method is applied to solve both of these linguistic problems. The proposed segmentation method offers a conceptual view for text segmentation, using a context-driven clustering of sentences. The Concept-oriented Clustering Segmentation algorithm (COCS) is based on k-means linear clustering of the sentences. Experimental results obtained using COCS algorithm are presented.

  20. A New Similarity Measure for Taxonomy Based on Edge Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Shenoy.K; Dinesh Acharya, U.; Shet, K. C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new similarity measure based on edge counting in a taxonomy like WorldNet or Ontology. Measurement of similarity between text segments or concepts is very useful for many applications like information retrieval, ontology matching, text mining, and question answering and so on. Several measures have been developed for measuring similarity between two concepts: out of these we see that the measure given by Wu and Palmer [1] is simple, and gives good per...